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**Reference: Mary L. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences
**

Chapter 2 & 14

George Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists

Chapter 6

The real numbers (denoted R) are incomplete (not closed) in the sense that standard op-

erations applied to some real numbers do not yield a real number result (e.g., square root:

√

−1). It is surprisingly easy to enlarge the set of real numbers producing a set of numbers

that is closed under standard operations: one simply needs to include

√

−1 (and linear

combinations of it). This enlarged ﬁeld of numbers, called the complex numbers (denoted

C), consists of numbers of the form: z = a +b

√

−1 where a and b are real numbers. There

are lots of notations for theses numbers. In mathematics,

√

−1 is called i (so z = a + bi),

whereas in electrical engineering i is frequently used for current, so

√

−1 is called j (so

z = a + bj). In Mathematica complex numbers are constructed using I for i. Since com-

plex numbers require two real numbers to specify them they can also be represented as an

ordered pair: z = (a, b). In any case a is called the real part of z: a = Re(z) and b is

called the imaginary part of z: b = Im(z). Note that the imaginary part of any complex

number is real and the imaginary part of any real number is zero. Finally there is a polar

notation which reports the radius (a.k.a. absolute value or magnitude) and angle (a.k.a.

phase or argument) of the complex number in the form: r∠θ. The polar notation can

be converted to an algebraic expression because of a surprising relationship between the

exponential function and the trigonometric functions:

e

jθ

= cos θ + j sin θ (1)

Thus there is a simple formula for the complex number z

1

in terms of its magnitude and

angle:

|z

1

| ≡

_

a

2

+ b

2

= r (2)

a = r cos θ = |z

1

| cos θ (3)

b = r sinθ = |z

1

| sin θ (4)

z

1

= a + bj = |z

1

|(cos θ + j sinθ) = |z

1

|e

jθ

(5)

For example, we have the following notations for the complex number 1 + i:

1 + i = 1 + j = 1 + I = (1, 1) =

√

2∠45

◦

=

√

2e

jπ/4

(6)

Note that Equation 1 can be used to express the usual trigonometric functions in terms of

complex exponentials:

cos θ = Re(e

jθ

) =

e

jθ

+ e

−jθ

2

sin θ = Im(e

jθ

) =

e

jθ

−e

−jθ

2j

(7)

Since complex numbers are closed under the standard operations, we can deﬁne things which

previously made no sense: log(−1), arccos(2), (−1)

π

, sin(i), . . . . The complex numbers are

large enough to deﬁne every function value you might want. Note that addition, subtraction,

Re

Im z

1

b

a

Re

Im

θ

b

a

r

z

1

√

a

2

+b

2

= r

Figure 1: Complex numbers can be displayed on the complex plane. A complex number

z

1

= a + bi may be displayed as an ordered pair: (a, b), with the “real axis” the usual x-

axis and the “imaginary axis” the usual y-axis. Complex numbers are also often displayed

as vectors pointing from the origin to (a, b). The angle θ can be found from the usual

trigonometric functions; |z

1

| = r is the length of the vector.

multiplication, and division of complex numbers proceeds as usual, just using the symbol

for

√

−1 (let’s use j):

z

1

= a + bj z

2

= c + dj (8)

z

1

+ z

2

= (a + bj) + (c + dj) = (a + c) + (b + d)j

z

1

−z

2

= (a + bj) −(c + dj) = (a −c) + (b −d)j

z

1

×z

2

= (a + bj) ×(c + dj) = ac + adj + bcj + bdj

2

= (ac −bd) + (ad + bc)j

1

z

1

=

1

a + bj

=

1

a + bj

×

a −bj

a −bj

=

a −bj

a

2

+ b

2

=

a

a

2

+ b

2

+

−b

a

2

+ b

2

j

Note in calculating 1/z

1

we made use of the complex number a − bj; a − bj is called the

complex conjugate of z

1

and it is denoted by z

∗

1

or sometimes z

1

. See that zz

∗

= |z|

2

.

Note that, in terms of the ordered pair representation of C, complex number addition and

subtraction looks just like component-by-component vector addition:

(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + b, c + d) (9)

Re

Im z

1

z

1

*

Re

Im z

1

+ z

2

z

1

z

2

Figure 2: The complex conjugate is obtained by reﬂecting the vector in the real axis.

Complex number addition works just like vector addition.

Thus there is a tendency to denote complex numbers as vectors rather than points in the

complex plane.

Superposition of Oscillation

While the closure property of the complex numbers is dear to the hearts of mathematicians,

the main use of complex numbers in science is to represent sinusoidally varying quantities

in a simple way—allowing them to be combined with relative ease. (Remember that the

superposition of sinusoidal quantities is itself sinusoidal, but with a new amplitude and

phase.) For example, in a series RC circuit the voltage across the resistor might be given

by V

R

(t) = Acos ωt whereas the voltage across the capacitor might be given by V

C

(t) =

B sinωt, and the voltage across the combination (according to Kirchhoﬀ) is the sum:

V

R

(t) + V

C

(t) = Acos ωt + B sin ωt where: A, B ∈ R

=

_

A

2

+ B

2

_

A

√

A

2

+ B

2

cos ωt +

B

√

A

2

+ B

2

sin ωt

_

=

_

A

2

+ B

2

(cos δ cos ωt + sin δ sin ωt) where: cos δ =

A

√

A

2

+ B

2

=

_

A

2

+ B

2

cos(ωt −δ)

Yuck! That’s a lot of work just to add two sinusoidal functions; we seek a simpler method

(which might not seem overly simple at ﬁrst glance). Note that V

R

can be written as

Re(Ae

jωt

) and V

C

can be written as Re(−jBe

jωt

) so:

V

R

(t) + V

C

(t) = Re

_

(A −jB)e

jωt

_

(10)

Now using the polar form of the complex number A−jB:

A −jB =

_

A

2

+ B

2

e

−jφ

where: tan φ = B/A (11)

we have:

V

R

(t) + V

C

(t) = Re

_

(A −jB)e

jωt

_

= Re

_

_

A

2

+ B

2

e

−jφ

e

jωt

_

=

_

A

2

+ B

2

Re

_

e

j(ωt−φ)

_

=

_

A

2

+ B

2

cos(ωt −φ)

If we have more sinusoidal waves to add up, the problem is not much more diﬃcult. Consider

the case of adding four waves, which for ease of notation we assume have unit amplitude

and constant phase diﬀerence (δ). [I’m also going to switch to

√

−1 = i; you should get

used to both notations.]

f(t) = cos(ωt) + cos(ωt + δ) + cos(ωt + 2δ) + cos(ωt + 3δ) (12)

We can write this as the real part of a complex expression:

f(t) = Re

__

1 + e

iδ

+ e

i2δ

+ e

i3δ

_

e

iωt

_

(13)

1 2 3 4

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

Figure 3: Consider the problem of adding four sinusoidal functions with the same frequency

and amplitude, but with diﬀerent oﬀsets (see left). The result (right) is a sinusoidal function

with the same frequency — we seek to easily determine the resulting amplitude and oﬀset.

We’ll use some tricks below to add these four complex numbers, but for now the main point

is that they add to some complex number which can be expressed in polar form:

_

1 + e

iδ

+ e

i2δ

+ e

i3δ

_

= A e

iφ

(14)

so

f(t) = Re

_

A e

i(ωt+φ)

_

= Acos(ωt + φ) (15)

Thus adding sinusoidal waves is as simple as adding the corresponding (complex) ampli-

tudes.

Now for the trick that applies to this particular problem. Recall the formula for the sum of

the geometric series:

1 + r + r

2

+· · · + r

N−1

=

1 −r

N

1 −r

(16)

(The proof of this result is easy: just multiply both sides by (1 − r), and notice that the

rhs terms telescope down to 1 −r

N

.) Here:

r = e

iδ

(17)

So the sum is:

A e

iφ

=

1 −e

i4δ

1 −e

iδ

=

e

i2δ

e

iδ/2

e

i2δ

−e

−i2δ

e

iδ/2

−e

−iδ/2

= e

i3δ/2

sin(2δ)

sin(δ/2)

(18)

Re

Im

2δ

δ

3δ

Figure 4: Finding the sum of four cosines amounts to adding four complex amplitudes:

_

1 + e

iδ

+ e

i2δ

+ e

i3δ

_

1 2 3 4

5

10

15

Figure 5: A

2

is plotted as a function of δ. Note that if δ = 0, 2π, 4π, . . ., the four waves

are in phase so the amplitude is 4 (so A

2

= 16). The ﬁrst zero of A

2

occurs when the four

amplitude vectors form a (closed) square for δ = π/2.

and hence:

A =

sin(2δ)

sin(δ/2)

φ = 3δ/2 (19)

In physics we are usually most interested in the value of A

2

which is plotted in Figure 5 as

function of δ.

In a more general case we might need to add N cosines with possibly diﬀerent real amplitudes

a

k

and oﬀsets δ

k

:

h(t) = a

1

cos(ωt + δ

1

) + a

2

cos(ωt + δ

2

) +· · · + a

N

cos(ωt + δ

N

) (20)

=

N

k=1

a

k

cos(ωt + δ

k

) (21)

= Re

__

a

1

e

iδ

1

+ a

2

e

iδ

1

+· · · + a

N

e

iδ

N

_

e

iωt

_

(22)

= Re

__

N

k=1

a

k

e

iδ

k

_

e

iωt

_

(23)

Once again all that is required is to express the sum of the complex amplitudes in polar

fashion:

_

N

k=1

a

k

e

iδ

k

_

= Ae

iφ

(24)

then

h(t) = Acos(ωt + φ) (25)

Diﬀerential Equations and e

iωt

Complex exponentials provide a fast and easy solution for many diﬀerential equations.

Consider the damped harmonic oscillator:

F

net

= −kx −bv = ma (26)

or:

0 =

d

2

x

dt

2

+

b

m

dx

dt

+

k

m

x (27)

Seeking a more compact notation, we redeﬁne the constants in this expression:

b

m

≡ 2β

k

m

≡ ω

2

0

(28)

So:

d

2

x

dt

2

+ 2β

dx

dt

+ ω

2

0

x = 0 (29)

If we guess a solution of the form: x = Ae

rt

, we ﬁnd:

_

r

2

+ 2β r + ω

2

0

¸

Ae

rt

= 0 (30)

Since e

rt

is never zero, r must be a root of the quadratic equation in square brackets.

r =

−2β ±

_

4β

2

−4ω

2

0

2

= β ±i

_

ω

2

0

−β

2

(31)

where we have assumed ω

0

> β. Deﬁning the free oscillation frequency ω

′

=

_

ω

2

0

−β

2

, we

have a solution:

x = Re

_

A e

−βt

e

iω

′

t

_

= |A| e

−βt

cos(ω

′

t + φ) (32)

In the driven, damped harmonic oscillator, we have a driving force: F

0

cos ωt in addition to

the other forces:

F

net

= F

0

cos ωt −kx −bv = ma (33)

Deﬁning A

0

= F

0

/m yields the diﬀerential equation:

d

2

x

dt

2

+ 2β

dx

dt

+ ω

2

0

x = A

0

cos(ωt) (34)

If we seek a solution that oscillates at the driving frequency: x = Re

_

Ae

iωt

¸

, our diﬀerential

equation becomes:

_

−ω

2

+ 2βiω + ω

2

0

¸

Ae

iωt

= A

0

e

iωt

(35)

So:

A =

A

0

(ω

2

0

−ω

2

) + 2βiω

(36)

From which we can extract the amplitude and phase of the oscillation, for example:

|A| =

A

0

_

(ω

2

0

−ω

2

)

2

+ 4β

2

ω

2

(37)

One can show that the amplitude is largest for

ω =

_

ω

2

0

−2β

2

(38)

Finally it is customary to describe driven oscillators in terms of a dimensionless quality

factor, Q,

Q =

ω

0

2β

(39)

If we then let x be the dimensionless frequency ratio ω/ω

0

, we can write the oscillation

amplitude in a particularly simple form:

|A| =

A

0

/ω

2

0

_

(1 −x

2

)

2

+ x

2

/Q

2

(40)

Notice that the case of small damping (small β) corresponds to large Q.

0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

5

10

15

20

Figure 6: Resonance: the amplitude factor:

1

√

(1−x

2

)

2

+x

2

/Q

2

is plotted as a function of the

dimensionless frequency ratio: x = ω/ω

0

for the case Q = 20. Clearly the largest amplitude

occurs when x ≈ 1, i.e., ω ≈ ω

0

Homework

1. Prove that when you multiply complex numbers z

1

and z

2

, the magnitude of the result

is the product of the magnitudes of z

1

and z

2

, and the phase of the product is the

sum of the phases of z

1

and z

2

.

Re

Im

θ

1

z

1

r

1

z

2

r

2

θ

2

z

3

z

3

= z

1

z

2

θ

3

= θ

1

+ θ

2

r

3

= r

1

r

2

2. Express the following in the r∠θ format (I bet your calculator can do this automati-

cally):

(a)

1

1 + i

(b)

3 + i

1 + 3i

(c) 25e

2i

(d) (1/(1 + i))

∗

(e)

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

(1 + i)

¸

¸

¸

¸

3. Find the following in (a, b) format (I bet your calculator can do this automatically):

(a)

3i −7

i + 4

(b) (.64 + .77i)

4

(c)

√

3 + 4i (d) 25e

2i

(e) ln(−1)

4. Three cosine functions with amplitudes and oﬀsets: a

1

= 1.32, δ

1

= .253 rad; a

2

=

3.21, δ

2

= .532 rad; and a

3

= 2.13, δ

3

= .325 rad are to be added together. Find the

result.

5. Find the formula for the amplitude A that results from adding 5 unit-amplitude cosine

waves with constant phase diﬀerence:

g(t) = cos(ωt) + cos(ωt + δ) + cos(ωt + 2δ) + cos(ωt + 3δ) + cos(ωt + 4δ)

= Acos(ωt + φ)

Use your favorite graphing program to make a hardcopy plot of A

2

vs. δ for δ ∈ (0, 4π).

6. Consider a driven RC circuit (see below left). According to Kirchhoﬀ’s law the voltage

drop across the resistor (IR, for current I) plus the voltage drop across the capacitor

(Q/C, for charge Q) must equal the voltage applied by the a.c. generator (V

0

cos(ωt))

(where the generator is operating at an angular frequency ω). Thus:

Q

C

+ R I = V

0

cos(ωt) (41)

Since the the current ﬂowing must accumulate as charge on the capacitor we have:

I =

dQ

dt

(42)

Thus we have the diﬀerential equation:

Q

C

+ R

dQ

dt

= V

0

cos(ωt) (43)

Using complex variable methods and guessing a solution of the form:

Q = Q

0

e

iωt

(44)

Determine the amplitude and phase of Q

0

so you can express your ﬁnal answer in real

form:

Q = Acos(ωt + φ) (45)

Q

V

o

c

o

s

(

ω

t

)

I

V

o

c

o

s

(

ω

t

)

I

7. Consider a driven RL circuit (see above right). According to Kirchhoﬀ’s law the

voltage drop across the resistor (IR, for current I) plus the voltage drop across the

inductor (L dI/dt) must equal the voltage applied by the a.c. generator (V

0

cos(ωt))

(where the generator is operating at an angular frequency ω). Thus:

L

dI

dt

+ R I = V

0

cos(ωt) (46)

Using complex variable methods and guessing a solution of the form:

I = I

0

e

iωt

(47)

Determine the amplitude and phase of I

0

so you can express your ﬁnal answer in real

form:

I = Acos(ωt + φ) (48)

a − bj is called the ∗ complex conjugate of z1 and it is denoted by z1 or sometimes z1 . multiplication. in terms of the ordered pair representation of C. and division of complex numbers proceeds as usual. just using the symbol √ for −1 (let’s use j): z1 = a + bj z2 = c + dj (8) z1 + z2 = (a + bj) + (c + dj) = (a + c) + (b + d)j z1 − z2 = (a + bj) − (c + dj) = (a − c) + (b − d)j z1 × z2 = (a + bj) × (c + dj) = ac + adj + bcj + bdj 2 = (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)j 1 a − bj a − bj 1 a −b 1 = × = 2 = = 2 + 2 j 2 2 z1 a + bj a + bj a − bj a +b a +b a + b2 Note in calculating 1/z1 we made use of the complex number a − bj. The angle θ can be found from the usual trigonometric functions.Im b Re z1 Im z1 r b θ a Re √ a2+b2 = r Figure 1: Complex numbers can be displayed on the complex plane. Complex number addition works just like vector addition. See that zz ∗ = |z|2 . a (9) Re Re z1* . with the “real axis” the usual xaxis and the “imaginary axis” the usual y-axis. A complex number z1 = a + bi may be displayed as an ordered pair: (a. d) = (a + b. b). Note that. b). Complex numbers are also often displayed as vectors pointing from the origin to (a. c + d) Im z1 Im z2 z1 z1 + z2 Figure 2: The complex conjugate is obtained by reﬂecting the vector in the real axis. b) + (c. complex number addition and subtraction looks just like component-by-component vector addition: (a. |z1 | = r is the length of the vector.

) For example. the problem is not much more diﬃcult. Note that VR can be written as Re(Aejωt ) and VC can be written as Re(−jBejωt ) so: VR (t) + VC (t) = Re (A − jB)ejωt Now using the polar form of the complex number A − jB: A − jB = we have: VR (t) + VC (t) = Re (A − jB)ejωt = Re = = A2 + B 2 e−jφ where: tan φ = B/A (11) (10) A2 + B 2 e−jφ ejωt A2 + B 2 Re ej(ωt−φ) A2 + B 2 cos(ωt − φ) If we have more sinusoidal waves to add up. (Remember that the superposition of sinusoidal quantities is itself sinusoidal. Consider the case of adding four waves.Thus there is a tendency to denote complex numbers as vectors rather than points in the complex plane. and the voltage across the combination (according to Kirchhoﬀ) is the sum: VR (t) + VC (t) = A cos ωt + B sin ωt where: A. we seek a simpler method (which might not seem overly simple at ﬁrst glance). in a series RC circuit the voltage across the resistor might be given by VR (t) = A cos ωt whereas the voltage across the capacitor might be given by VC (t) = B sin ωt.] f (t) = cos(ωt) + cos(ωt + δ) + cos(ωt + 2δ) + cos(ωt + 3δ) We can write this as the real part of a complex expression: f (t) = Re 1 + eiδ + ei2δ + ei3δ eiωt (13) (12) . [I’m also going to switch to −1 = i. Superposition of Oscillation While the closure property of the complex numbers is dear to the hearts of mathematicians. B ∈ R A B A2 + B 2 √ = cos ωt + √ sin ωt 2 + B2 2 + B2 A A = = A2 + B 2 (cos δ cos ωt + sin δ sin ωt) A2 + B 2 cos(ωt − δ) where: cos δ = √ A A2 + B 2 Yuck! That’s a lot of work just to add two sinusoidal functions. the main use of complex numbers in science is to represent sinusoidally varying quantities in a simple way—allowing them to be combined with relative ease. you should get used to both notations. but with a new amplitude and phase. which for ease of notation we assume have unit amplitude √ and constant phase diﬀerence (δ).

but for now the main point is that they add to some complex number which can be expressed in polar form: 1 + eiδ + ei2δ + ei3δ = A eiφ so f (t) = Re A ei(ωt+φ) = A cos(ωt + φ) (15) Thus adding sinusoidal waves is as simple as adding the corresponding (complex) amplitudes. Now for the trick that applies to this particular problem. but with diﬀerent oﬀsets (see left).) Here: r = eiδ (17) So the sum is: A eiφ = sin(2δ) 1 − ei4δ ei2δ ei2δ − e−i2δ = ei3δ/2 = iδ/2 iδ/2 iδ −iδ/2 1−e sin(δ/2) e e −e Im 3δ 2δ (14) (18) δ Re Figure 4: Finding the sum of four cosines amounts to adding four complex amplitudes: 1 + eiδ + ei2δ + ei3δ . and notice that the rhs terms telescope down to 1 − r N . We’ll use some tricks below to add these four complex numbers.3 2 1 1 -1 -2 -3 2 3 4 Figure 3: Consider the problem of adding four sinusoidal functions with the same frequency and amplitude. The result (right) is a sinusoidal function with the same frequency — we seek to easily determine the resulting amplitude and oﬀset. Recall the formula for the sum of the geometric series: 1 − rN (16) 1 + r + r 2 + · · · + r N −1 = 1−r (The proof of this result is easy: just multiply both sides by (1 − r).

. 4π. and hence: A= sin(2δ) sin(δ/2) φ = 3δ/2 (19) In physics we are usually most interested in the value of A2 which is plotted in Figure 5 as function of δ.15 10 5 1 2 3 4 Figure 5: A2 is plotted as a function of δ. Note that if δ = 0. . . . The ﬁrst zero of A2 occurs when the four amplitude vectors form a (closed) square for δ = π/2. 2π. Consider the damped harmonic oscillator: Fnet = −kx − bv = ma (26) . In a more general case we might need to add N cosines with possibly diﬀerent real amplitudes ak and oﬀsets δk : h(t) = a1 cos(ωt + δ1 ) + a2 cos(ωt + δ2 ) + · · · + aN cos(ωt + δN ) N (20) (21) = k=1 ak cos(ωt + δk ) a1 eiδ1 + a2 eiδ1 + · · · + aN eiδN N = Re = Re eiωt (22) (23) ak eiδk k=1 eiωt Once again all that is required is to express the sum of the complex amplitudes in polar fashion: N ak eiδk k=1 = Aeiφ (24) then h(t) = A cos(ωt + φ) (25) Diﬀerential Equations and eiωt Complex exponentials provide a fast and easy solution for many diﬀerential equations. the four waves are in phase so the amplitude is 4 (so A2 = 16).

we ﬁnd: 0= 2 r 2 + 2β r + ω0 Aert = 0 (27) (28) (29) (30) Since ert is never zero. ω0 Q= (39) 2β If we then let x be the dimensionless frequency ratio ω/ω0 . . we redeﬁne the constants in this expression: b k 2 ≡ 2β ≡ ω0 m m So: dx d2 x 2 + 2β + ω0 x = 0 2 dt dt If we guess a solution of the form: x = Aert . we where we have assumed ω0 > β. Deﬁning the free oscillation frequency ω ′ = have a solution: ′ x = Re A e−βt eiω t = |A| e−βt cos(ω ′ t + φ) (32) In the driven.or: d2 x b dx k + + x dt2 m dt m Seeking a more compact notation. damped harmonic oscillator. for example: A0 |A| = 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4β 2 ω 2 (ω0 A= ω= 2 ω0 − 2β 2 So: (36) (37) One can show that the amplitude is largest for (38) Finally it is customary to describe driven oscillators in terms of a dimensionless quality factor. r must be a root of the quadratic equation in square brackets. r= −2β ± 2 4β 2 − 4ω0 2 = β ± i ω0 − β 2 2 (31) 2 ω0 − β 2 . we have a driving force: F0 cos ωt in addition to the other forces: Fnet = F0 cos ωt − kx − bv = ma (33) Deﬁning A0 = F0 /m yields the diﬀerential equation: d2 x dx 2 + ω0 x = A0 cos(ωt) (34) + 2β dt2 dt If we seek a solution that oscillates at the driving frequency: x = Re Aeiωt . our diﬀerential equation becomes: 2 −ω 2 + 2βiω + ω0 Aeiωt = A0 eiωt (35) A0 2 (ω0 − ω 2 ) + 2βiω From which we can extract the amplitude and phase of the oscillation. Q. we can write the oscillation amplitude in a particularly simple form: |A| = 2 A0 /ω0 (1 − x2 )2 + x2 /Q2 (40) Notice that the case of small damping (small β) corresponds to large Q.

4 Figure 6: Resonance: the amplitude factor: √ 1 (1−x2 )2 +x2 /Q2 is plotted as a function of the dimensionless frequency ratio: x = ω/ω0 for the case Q = 20. the magnitude of the result is the product of the magnitudes of z1 and z2 . and a3 = 2. Express the following in the r∠θ format (I bet your calculator can do this automatically): 3+i 1 1 (b) (c) 25e2i (d) (1/(1 + i))∗ (e) (a) 1+i 1 + 3i (1 + i) 3. δ1 = . δ for δ ∈ (0.8 1 1.77i)4 (c) 3 + 4i (a) (d) 25e2i (e) ln(−1) i+4 4.325 rad are to be added together.2 1. ω ≈ ω0 Homework 1. Clearly the largest amplitude occurs when x ≈ 1. Three cosine functions with amplitudes and oﬀsets: a1 = 1.21. b) format (I bet your calculator can do this automatically): √ 3i − 7 (b) (. Im z1 r1 z2 r2 θ2 θ1 Re z3 = z1z2 θ3 = θ1 + θ2 z3 r3 = r1r2 2.32. δ2 = .. Find the following in (a. 4π). 5. Find the formula for the amplitude A that results from adding 5 unit-amplitude cosine waves with constant phase diﬀerence: g(t) = cos(ωt) + cos(ωt + δ) + cos(ωt + 2δ) + cos(ωt + 3δ) + cos(ωt + 4δ) = A cos(ωt + φ) Use your favorite graphing program to make a hardcopy plot of A2 vs.e. a2 = 3.64 + . Prove that when you multiply complex numbers z1 and z2 .6 0. i. δ3 = . .253 rad. Find the result. and the phase of the product is the sum of the phases of z1 and z2 .532 rad.20 15 10 5 0.13.

c.6. generator (V0 cos(ωt)) (where the generator is operating at an angular frequency ω).c. generator (V0 cos(ωt)) (where the generator is operating at an angular frequency ω). for current I) plus the voltage drop across the capacitor (Q/C. for charge Q) must equal the voltage applied by the a. for current I) plus the voltage drop across the inductor (L dI/dt) must equal the voltage applied by the a. Thus: L dI + R I = V0 cos(ωt) dt (46) Using complex variable methods and guessing a solution of the form: I = I0 eiωt (47) Determine the amplitude and phase of I0 so you can express your ﬁnal answer in real form: I = A cos(ωt + φ) (48) Vo cos(ωt ) . Thus: Q + R I = V0 cos(ωt) C (41) Since the the current ﬂowing must accumulate as charge on the capacitor we have: I= Thus we have the diﬀerential equation: Q dQ +R = V0 cos(ωt) C dt Using complex variable methods and guessing a solution of the form: Q = Q0 eiωt (44) (43) dQ dt (42) Determine the amplitude and phase of Q0 so you can express your ﬁnal answer in real form: (45) Q = A cos(ωt + φ) I I Vo cos(ωt ) Q 7. According to Kirchhoﬀ’s law the voltage drop across the resistor (IR. Consider a driven RL circuit (see above right). According to Kirchhoﬀ’s law the voltage drop across the resistor (IR. Consider a driven RC circuit (see below left).

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