French
Language Course
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Contents

004 - Lessons
• • • •

005 - Introductory lessons 039 - Level one lessons 081 - Level two lessons 129 - Level three lessons

• • •

170 - Grammar 209 - Appendices 244 - About this Wikibooks
• •

245 - Authors 246 - GNU Free Documentation License

Third Edition
Published: May 05, 2006

PDF created by Hagindaz

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The current version of this book can be found at

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LESSONS

Vue de Paris depuis la terrasse de la Samaritaine

French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! . .Introductory French Logo officiel du gouvernement français Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world*! * The views and opinions expressed do not necessarily state or reflect those of Wikibooks as a whole or any of its affiliates.

07 Leçon 07 : Ça va? Asking How One Is Doing 021 Lesson 07 : How are you? 0.06 Leçon 06 : Le discours formel Vous vs. Book Organization 009 Lesson 02 : Learning French Advice on Studying French 0. Asking For One's Name 019 Lesson 06 : Formal Speech 0. tu.05 Leçon 05 : Les salutations Greetings Good-byes.10 Leçon 10 : L'heure Numbers 30-60. Seasons Days of the week.04 Leçon 04 : Les accents Acute Accent.09 Leçon 09 : Les dates Numbers 01-31. Months of the Year 027 Lesson 09 : Dates 0. Courtesy Titles. Names 017 Lesson 05 : Greetings 0.02 Leçon 02 : Apprendre le français Reasons To Learn French.Introductory Level Contents 0. France .01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction History of the French Language Extent of the French Language 007 Lesson 01 : Introduction 0.08 Leçon 08 : Les numéros Cardinal Numbers Ordinal Numbers 024 Lesson 08 : Numbers 0. Times of Day Asking for the time 029 Lesson 10 : Telling Time Aiguilles d'Arves.03 Leçon 03 : L'alphabet Letters Punctuation 011 Lesson 03 : The Alphabet 0. Stress 015 Lesson 04 : Accents 0. Grave Accent Tonic Accent.

administration. descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. and Romanian. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. culture. . it was often the language used in diplomacy. French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past. Spanish.01 • Introduction Introduction See also: French language French is a Romance language. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. For this reason. although English is a Germanic language. Italian. It is the native tongue of over 87 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time. most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question History Further information: History of the French language In medieval times and until the 19th century.

and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. Burkina Faso. Mauritius. Switzerland. Allons-y! Bonne chance! congratulations on completing Lesson 0. being an official language of the United Nations. which is the only bilingual province. Mali. Rwanda. and the European Union. Niger. the Seychelles. It is the official language of 29 countries and is spoken in France. Gabon. Togo.01 • Introduction live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Senegal. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). Belgium. Djibouti. Madagascar. Luxemburg. Main article: La Francophonie Main article: French colonial empires In modern terms. but it is also used in other parts of the country notably New Brunswick. Burundi. Morocco. it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. Chad. Tunisia. Cameroon. where it is the primary language. the Olympic Games.Extent of the Language French is spoken all around the world. Haiti. Algeria. the Ivory Coast. the Congo.

TV. Rent or buy French-language movies. Remember that you are learning a new skill. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Advice on Studying French Main article: How to learn a language French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. most of us are unwilling to take that step. Because much can be lost in translation. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. an excellent source is Google's news page. While this course can teach you to read and write in French. . and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. In addition to societal reasons. Learning any new language requires some commitment. This allows you to start with a clean slate. the best way to go about reading these works is in the native language. Remember that. at least make it regular.02 • Learning French Reasons To Learn French As mentioned earlier. as babies do. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. French is significantly used as a diplomatic language. generally long-term. which links to French-language news stories. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. The next best thing is immersion. Read French newspapers and magazines. Again. For listening and speaking. And if you do not practice your French regularly. In fact. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. If you are serious about learning French. like any skill. and they will reinforce one another. French is a complete language. Try to make it a part of your schedule. the French language can be learned in only ten months. there exist dozens of famous French novels and nonfiction works in a variety of subjects. and practice. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. You are bound to find speakers almost everywhere in the world.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. speak. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. it requires a certain amount of effort. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. which will enrich your vocabulary. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency. However. or the Internet. Listen. Pay attention to pronunciation. You must train all of these skills. even if it's not daily.

The fourth level (still in development). and several irregularly-conjugated verbs. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. the most common past tense. the page of which you are reading now. most common present tense. For more on course structure. see the lessons planning page. you will learn basic grammar. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. congratulations on completing Lesson 0. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. along with many other irregular verbs. is given. the passé composé. will be conducted in French and will focus on French literature and prose writing. In the first level. In the second level.02 • Learning French live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . In the third level. the present indicative. and information on how you can help improve this book. including pronouns.Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons.

ù. ü.03 • Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash Characters Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Pronunciation zhee kah el emm enn oh pay ku Characters Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz Pronunciation ess tay oo vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ii ee Rr air In addition.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. ë. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. These are: à. î. è. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ. ê. ï. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. . û. ô. ö. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e.

Vv like v in violin /ve/ Depending on the derivation of the Ww word. or w in water either /ks/ in socks. o. Xx /iks/ or /gz/ in exit Yy like ea in leak /igrək/ . or u: like c in cat Dd like d in dog /de/ Ee approx. or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* Hh /aʃ/ non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** Ii like ea in team /i/ Jj like s in measure /ʒi/ Kk like k in kite /ka/ Ll like l in lemon /ɛl/ Mm like m in minute /ɛm/ Nn like n in note /ɛn/ closed: approx. o. /dubləve/ like v as in violin. like u in burp** /ə/ Ff like f in fog /ɛf/ before e and i: like s in measure Gg /ʒe/ before a. like u in nut Oo /o/ open: like o in nose Pp like p in pen* /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' Qq like k in kite for details force air through the back of your throat Rr /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining Ss of word or with two s's /ɛs/ or like z in amazing if only one s Tt like t in top /te/ Say the English letter e.Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français name in French letter pronunciation (in IPA transcription) Aa like a in father /a/ Bb like b in baby* /be/ before e and i: like c in center Cc /se/ before a. Uu /y/ but make your lips say "oo".

in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. The letters p (as in 'coup'). the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French). What do these terms mean? • Ex. are never pronounced at the end of a word.: the word héros. because when the definite article le is placed before it. If the paper didn't move. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. (hero) has an aspirated h. d (as in 'marchand). congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation. or not aspirated. Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. Now. . certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. If you're a native speaker. (h non aspiré). In short. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). Therefore. b and p Unlike English. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]. 2. the words must be memorized. pronounced like the English 'bell.Zz like z in zebra /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French. 4. Exercise 1. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. the result is le héros. s (as in 'héros'). 3. (h aspiré). when you put the definite artcle in front of it. (the French equivalent of "Dad"). However. the feminine form of héros. Say the words baby. the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below. In terms of phonetics. and papa. it becomes l'héroïne. héroïne is a non-aspirated h.'). your pronunciation is slightly off. Fortunately. little to no air should be expended from your mouth. Concentrate. and x (as in 'paresseux'). non-aspirated h In French. and puppy like you normally would in English. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face. t (as in 'chat'). but only in specific environments. say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. and is pronounced as one word. when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. depending on which language the word was borrowed from. the letter h can be aspirated. and try it again. • • If the paper moved. and both words must be pronounced separately. without making the piece of paper move. The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary.

.Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. to hate (je hais or j'haïs. to live (j'habite. a @ ' apostrophe commercial. and find at least ten aspirated h words. Punctuation French Vocabulary • Alphabet • audio (info •608 kb • help) Punctuation • La ponctuation esperluette. et . hero (le héros) haïr. Look at it every day and memorize the columns. arobe $ dollar . 3.03 • Alphabet live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Grab an English-French-English dictionary.) harmonie. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. heroine (l'héroïne) habiter. virgule { } accolades ~ tilde & commercial = égal % pourcent arobase.. point virgule congratulations on completing Lesson 0. harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1. and ten nonaspirated h words 2. tiret _ soulignement : deux points ( ) parenthèses / barre oblique . point * astérisque point + plus ! « » guillemets d'exclamation # dièse barre oblique > supérieur à point \ ? inverse < inférieur à d'interrogation [ ] crochets moins...) huit.

Accent aigu The acute accent (French. Acute Accent . ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. î. aigüe: acute(fem)* français: French examples live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question circumflex â. ambiguous). both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. most old town names : L'Haÿ-Les-Roses (Paris surburb). loved regarder. to love past participle aimé. (accent circonflexe) ô. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. là. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. cigüe and not ciguë. à. there où: where gâteau: cake. être: to be. maïs: corn. ü.04 • Accents Introduction There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. ê. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. to watch regardé. Pronounced like ï. île: island. ï. watched . ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è. infinitive aimer. ÿ** ç only Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. conium. chômage: unemployment. it happened to me!) Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. û diaeresis (tréma) cedilla (cédille) ë.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas.

04 • Accents live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . you stress certain syllables more than others. Speech: Tonic Accent . and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all. è is not used to distinguish words from one another. at.Accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word.Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French. to. However in French. Grave Accent . congratulations on completing Lesson 0. et al. or an approximation thereof: • Ex. the grave accent (Fr. and the word begins with é. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. you pronounce each syllable evenly. without accent grave a (3rd pers. here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet. to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction. The è used for pronunciation.) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. In careful speech. sing of avoir. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another.: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu.L’accent tonique In English. accent grave). or) • è with accent grave à (preposition.

Bonjour. so. Ah. Salut. me V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi. Tu t'appelles comment ? Luc. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grand-chose. Jacques. Marie. no big-thing) . Marie./Bye.05 • Greetings D: Greetings French Dialogue • Greetings Greetings • Les salutations Jacques et Marie Bonsoir. à bientôt. Alors. Olivier et Luc Salut. Jacques ? Pas grand-chose. oui. Et toi ?[3] Je suis Olivier.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. Alors[2]. then 3. oui. À la prochaine. au revoir. Olivier. Luc ! 2. Quoi de neuf. Euh ? Tu t'appelles comment ? Moi[1]. Not much. je m'appelle Jacques. (lit. And you ? (informal) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Jacques Marie Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier Luc Olivier 1. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. à demain. Ah.

it should only be used among friends. Salut! is used as a greeting. Bonne nuit. See you tomorrow.05 • Greetings live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . à Bye. You want to introduce yourself to him. You respond to this with Je m'appelle [name]. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day./Bye. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. Good-bye. tomorrow. is used to say Good evening. or À tout à l'heure.Formal Lesson . Bonjour. Again. also means bye. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name. tell him your name. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. V: Names Tu t'appelles comment ? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. chow (Italian) Formal Lesson . If you will be meeting someone again soon. À bientôt. See you soon. and ask "What's up?" congratulations on completing Lesson 0. and doesn't speak a word of English. Hi. À tout à l'heure. It's English equivalents would be hi and hey.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children. Bonsoir. Tomorrow) Au revoir. should be used for anyone else. is used to say Good night. (informal) Au revoir. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. À demain. is used. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. In the next lesson. Another informal greeting is ciao. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. before going to bed. literally meaning good day. V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. an Italian word commonly used in France. Salut. see you demain.

Lambert above as an example of this use. use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. or someone you are unfamiliar with. If it is used when speaking to a stranger. 1. English doesn't have a singular and plural. je[1] suis Marc Bernard. "you guys". Enchanté. "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French.06 • Formal speech live version discussion D: A Formal Conversation exercises French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info •65 kb • help) edit lesson A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle comment Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first report an error time: ask a question Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. Bernard and M. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". Et vous ? Monsieur Bernard Moi. beginning a sentence)) 2. tu This is an important difference between French and English. Note the conversation between M. "Vous" is a plural form of "you". to be polite or to be neutral. Conversely. This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". "youse". Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. enchanted) G: Vous vs. otherwise use "vous".Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. Comment vous appelez-vous ? Monsieur Lambert Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. of course. someone who is older than you are. I (I is not capitalized in French (unless. Nice to meet you (lit. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal (arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". "all of you". and also used between children or when addressing a child. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. This is known as w:Tutoiement. As a rule of thumb. it signals disrespect. . In French.

Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyeu Mr. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone. Pronunciation English. M.. madame. mehsyeu Gentlemen. Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). without the last name of the person.Titles The titles monsieur. Ma'am. Plural Messieurs. Je t'en prie. De rien. problem. or generally someone older than you. employer. Young lady Mlle mehdmwahzell Young ladies Plural Mesdemoiselles Formal Lesson . shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. (Lit: Of nothing.) (No Pas de quoi.) Please S'il vous plaît. or mademoiselle. madame. (Lit: If you please. (formal).) (Lit: Not of what. .V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. Singular Madame mahdamn Mrs. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle mahdmwahzell Miss. it is polite to say monsieur.. Sir. When beginning to speak to a professor.) You're welcome.

V: Asking For One's Name
French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (info •403 kb • help) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelezHow do you call yourself? vous? (formal) Quel est votre nom? What is your name? What is your name? (informal) Tu t'appelles comment? (lit: You call yourself how?) Je m'appelle... My name is... (lit. I call myself...) Je suis... I am... congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.06 • Formal speech
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (info •311 kb • help) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal) Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (info •266 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques Au revoir bien. Ça va très bien! Et Désolé. vous? À demain. Allez-vous bien? Solution: First Second Third Je ne vais pas très Bonjour, Jacques. Comment ça va? bien. Ça va très bien! Et Salut, Michel! vous? Désolé. Allez-vous bien?

Fourth Comment ça va? Salut, Michel!

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Fourth Au revoir. À demain.

1. Michel 2. Jacques

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaning very well, and vraiment bien, meaning really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaning Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.07 • How are you?
live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question

Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
V: Cardinal Numbers
Main article: French/Appendices/Dates, time, and numbers#Les numéros live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question

French Vocabulary • Numbers • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux - neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60

soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze - dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux - neuf] quatre-vingt-dix quatre-vingt-[onze - dixneuf] cent [deux - neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard

70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 91-99 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1.000 un millier (one thousand) 1.000.000 1.000.000.000

Things of note about numbers:
• • • •

For 70-79, it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21,31,41,51,etc) have "et un"; but past this it is simply both words consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, etc) For 100-199, it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to 1000 and onward. Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the other numbers. For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante".

V: Mathematics Exercices
• • • • • • • • • •

huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze)

D: In School
Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école. Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto, un jour je vous en raconterai une ! Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them! - L'instituteur : Bonjour, les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi, nous allons réviser la table d'addition. Combien font huit plus six ? - Toto : Treize, monsieur ! - L'instituteur : Non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? - Clément : Quatorze ! - L'instituteur : Très bien Clément. congratulations on finishing

Lesson 0.08 • Numbers
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Introductory Lessons

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun Notes:
• • • •

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What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

1a 1b 2a 2b

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •320 kb • help) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour Aujourd'hui on est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor jour ? Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour ? Duhman on ay kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •164 kb • help) Relative Days • Les jours relatifs avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujourd'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow le lendemain the day after tomorrow

V: The Months of the Year
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 décembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French. • For phrases relating to the months of the year, see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •99 kb • help) Asking For The Date • Demander la date Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (d'aujourd'hui) ? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. say leuh...

V: Seasons
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter congratulations on completing

Lesson 0.09 • Dates
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Il est midi. it is OK to say. it is actually.10 • Time V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. Il est quatre heures quarante. quart Il est quatre heures quinze. It is one o’clock. It is four forty. It is a quarter past four. Il est quatre heures et quart. In English. It is four thirty. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? 4b Quelle heure il est ? kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). Il est trois heures. Date. Il est quatre heures et demie. “il est” is used to express the time. It is four fifteen. It is twenty to five. Unlike in English. It is ten o’clock. eelay [nombre] er live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Time In French. It is [number] hours. It is three o’clock. It is noon. in this case. . Il est minuit. It is half past four. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. Il est quatre heures cinq. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il"). It is midnight. Il est dix heures. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It is five past four. Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. “It’s nine. Il est quatre heures moins le It is a quarter till 4.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. Il est quatre heures trente.Introductory Lessons Lesson 0. though it would literally translate as “he is”.

du matin A. in the evening .... le matin morning .M. lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon. midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening.V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info •618 kb • help) Times of Day • L'heure relatif daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun...M. lit: of the evening la nuit night congratulations on completing Lesson 0.du soir P.10 • Time live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

à demain. salut hello (formal). ô. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. Comment vas-tu? (informal). ë. see you tomorrow . comme ça so-so Désolé(e) I'm sorry. ü.Introductory Lessons Introductory Level • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info •101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee zhee kah el Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy dubleePronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay eeks vay grehk live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Mm em Zz zedh In addition. î. It's going (very) well) merci thank you et toi ? et vous ? and you? (informal) and you? (formal) pas mal not bad bien well pas si bien/pas très bien not so well comme ci. French uses several accents which are worth understanding. ï. with reseeing. quoi de neuf ? what's up (about you)? (lit. These are: à. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien I'm doing (very) well (lit. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. Bye. ê. ù. akin to German auf au revoir Wiedersehen) à demain see you tomorrow (lit. at tomorrow) Au revoir. è. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. ö. what's new) pas grand-chose not much (lit. û. no big-thing) bye (lit.

dix91-99 neuf] .neuf] 22-29 trente 30 trente et un 31 trente [deux .neuf] 32-39 quarante 40 cinquante 50 soixante 60 soixante-dix 70 soixante-et-onze 71 soixante-[douze .V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un 1 une unité (a unity) deux 2 trois 3 quatre 4 cinq 5 six 6 sept 7 huit 8 neuf 9 dix 10 une dizaine (one ten) onze 11 douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen) treize 13 quatorze 14 quinze 15 seize 16 dix-sept 17 dix-huit 18 dix-neuf 19 vingt 20 vingt et un 21 vingt [deux .neuf] 82-89 quatre-vingt-dix 90 quatre-vingt-[onze .dix-neuf] 72-79 quatre-vingts 80 quatre-vingt-un 81 quatre-vingt-[deux .

Asking for the date. It is [number] hours.31. etc) For 100-199. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). Time • Demander le jour.41. Tomorrow is [day].000 un millier (one thousand) 1. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21.000.000. Date. Asking for the time.etc) have "et un". la date. eelay [nombre] er 1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5 . It's [month] [#]. V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. this continues up to 1000 and onward. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million (un) milliard 100 une centaine (one hundred) 200-900 201 901 1. le temps Asking for the day. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number.51. trente-trois. Today is [day].000.cent [deux .000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six.000 1. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour].

it is OK to say. Il est midi. It is four forty. Il est dix heures. Il est trois heures. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Il est quatre heures et demie.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is three o’clock. in this case. Il est quatre heures et quart. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). Il est quatre heures quinze. It is ten o’clock.V: Time In French. French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? Il est une heure. . it is actually. It is twenty to five. It is half past four. It is four thirty. It is noon. Il est minuit. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures quarante. It is one o’clock. It is midnight. “It’s nine. In English. Unlike in English. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. It is a quarter past four. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. “il est” is used to express the time. It is five past four. Il est quatre heures cinq. Il est quatre heures trente.

or On est. (last two are less formal). English 01 janvier jzahnveeyay January 02 février fayvreeyay February 03 mars mahrse March 04 avril ahvrill April 05 mai maye May 06 juin jzwan Juin 07 juillet jzooeeyay July 08 août oot/oo August 09 septembre septahmbruh September 10 octobre oktuhbruh October 11 novembre novahmbruh November 12 decembre daysahmbruh December . is not used with hier. aujourd’hui.. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes. • Les jours de la semaine. • For phrases relating to the day of the week.. Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?... Nous sommes. V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •561 kb • help) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •420 kb • help) The Days of the Week..V: The days of the week... C'est. see the phrasebook. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly... or demain. # French Pronunciation English Origin 1 lundi luhndee Monday Moon 2 mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars 3 mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury 4 jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus 6 samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

.V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day daybreak le lever du jour lit:the rise of the day sunrise le lever du soleil lit: the rise of the sun le soleil levant rising sun.du matin A.M.du soir P.... le matin morning . lit: of the mornng hier matin yesterday morning le midi noon. in the evening . midday l'après-midi (m) afternoon le soir evening.M. lit: of the evening la nuit night Relative Days avant hier the day before yesterday hier yesterday aujord'hui today ce soir tonight demain tomorrow lendemain the day after tomorrow V: Seasons French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info •142 kb • help) Seasons • Les Saisons la saison season le printemps Spring l'été (m) Summer l'automne (m) Autumn l'hiver (m) Winter ..

. Chez moi is used to say at my place. thank you. is a preposition meaning at the house of.. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. So long. good day. meaning I go. C'est quand ? Hervé When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h. 1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. On va danser toute la nuit. 3 chez. which uses the linking verb am.1 thank you. Hervé. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne). uses an action verb. Et toi ça va ? Hervé I'm good. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. We4 are going to dance all night. other than signifying that a question follows. Daniel Until tomorrow.. It goes well.. Daniel March 3rd at 08:00 PM. Hervé It's very nice to invite me. Instead of You want it?. A demain..D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Bonjour Hervé. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. And you. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. I'm good... Since je vais. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. merci. entendu.. the adjective bien is used. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête.. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. merci. In English. has no real meaning. C'est très gentil de m'inviter.. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd. 4 on can mean we or one. and is often used to start questions. agreed. it's at my place. 2 Est-ce que. Comment vas-tu ? Daniel Hello. bonne journée.. literally means Is is that. Daniel Yes. which means good.. A bientôt. one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que. it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien.

how are you? Je vais bien. Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. le temps de tout nettoyer. monsieur le directeur. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser une fête pour mon anniversaire. Are you well? Je vais bien merci. We would need it until 04:00 PM. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday. And you. Mr. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. the time of cleaning everything. Et vous. On en aurait besoin jusqu'à 16 h. congratulations on completing Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Introductory Level • Review live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .D: The Principal French Dialogue • Review • audio (info •505 kb • help) The Principal • Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door: knock knock knock) Entrez ! Enter! Bonjour. Director. Est-ce que vous allez bien ? Hello. I'm well. thank you. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup ! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir ! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci ! Good-bye and thanks again. comment allez-vous ? I am well. In the large conference room on the second floor. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h.

Once that's done. you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons.French Level One Lessons Allons! . go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course.Basic French If you haven't done so already. Neouvielle and lac d' aumar . you can move on to the next level. Finally.

Directions G: -re Verbs.09 074 1. Numbers G: Avoir. and les V: Family G: -er Verbs. Contractions. Nouveau. Furniture G: Negation.03 051 1. Music. Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels. Sports. and vous V: Household. Housework.02 047 1. la. Playing G: Faire. Adjectives V: Colors. Subject Pronouns V: People G: Conjugation. nous. Plays G: Prendre V: Elements.07 067 1.05 057 1. Articles. lui and leur V: Games.06 062 1.04 054 1.08 072 1.10 078 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar Leçon 02 : Être Lesson 02 : To Be Leçon 03 : La description Lesson 03 : Description Leçon 04 : La famille Lesson 04 : Family Leçon 05 : Récréation Lesson 05 : Recreation Leçon 06 : La maison Lesson 06 : The House Leçon 07 : Le temps Lesson 07 : Weather Leçon 08 : Les voyages Lesson 08 : Travel Leçon 09 : L'art Lesson 09 : Art Leçon 10 : La science Lesson 10 : Science G: Gender. me. Beau. te. Être V: G: Conjugation.Level One Contents 1. le. Aller V: Weather G: -ir Verbs. Places.01 041 1. and Vieux V: Museums. Être. Astronomy .

the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). and the word for teacher. the word for person. all nouns have a grammatical gender. For example.01 • Basic grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. that is. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form..Level One Lessons Lesson 1. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. This form can be masculine or feminine. for example. personne.g. for example. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. professeur. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . The nouns that express entities without gender (e. is always feminine. even if the person is male. is always masculine even if the teacher is female[1].

(le prof . If the definate article is l due to elision. la foi is feminine and means a belief. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. the definate article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. (m) will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and (f) will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender. prof can be either masculine or feminine. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult.the (female) teacher) '2. whereas le foie means liver. In this book.Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval[2] the horse -age the cheese le professeur[1] le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian 1. for example. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. is always masculine. . and vice versa. Unfortunately. While the long form. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned.the (male) teacher) (la prof . un livre (m) means a book. Professeur can be shortened to prof. There are even words that are spelled the same. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. Then there are some that just don't make sense. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. professeur. even when referring to female teachers.

In French. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. 3. Pronunciation. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the final consonant is almost always not pronounced unless followed by an -e (or another vowel). However. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). Unlike English. there is no change in the plural form. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular [3] masculine le le fils the son singular. It is similar to english. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s. Fils (pronounced feece) is also an exception to this rule. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. Fils is one exception. The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. the definite article is always “the”. Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. le fils les fils un fils des fils the son the sons a son (some) sons le cours les cours un cours des cours the course the courses a course (some) courses Secondly. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural. "La" is used for feminine nouns. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. and Exceptions The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s.G: Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. the -s ending is not pronounced. . "Le" is used for masculine nouns. Plurality 3. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Plurality. Gender 2.

French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une oon une fille a daughter singular masculine un uh un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des day des fils1 some sons 1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" (when pronounced like "fill") Liaison Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel.l'ami . the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced.the (male) friend (la) amie .lahmee . This is a process called liaison. you will see liaison denoted with n or z between two words. • The Indefinite Article In English.l'élève .unnami (uhnahmee) .deszamie (dayzahmee) .the student (la) heure . • • (des) ami . . When a vowel goes directly after un.leur . When pronounced. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an".” also occurs before a silent h.deszami (dayzahmee) . Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound.(some) (male) friends (des) amie . indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality.unnélève (uhnay lev) .l'heure .lahmee the (female) friend (le) élève . • • (un) ami . Again. called “elision.lay lev .a student un garçon (uh gairsoh) Compare the pronunciation to words without liaiison: • Une is unaffected by liaison.(some) (female) friends In this book.Elision The definite articles le and la are shortened to l’ when they come before a noun that begins with a vowel. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. • • • (le) ami . Liaison also occurs with des.the hour/the time This process.a (male) friend (un) élève .l'amie . the vowel sound is dropped. the consonant often becomes pronounced.

Qu’est-ce que c’est? translates to What is it that it is? You will be using Qu'est-ce que.. C'est un chien.? often to say What. "Je regarde photographies.It's a dog. C'est une chemise.") V: People French Vocabulary • Basic grammar People • Les personnes la personne person pehr son Gender and Age l'homme (m) man ohm la femme woman fehm le garçon boy gehrsoh la fille girl fee la fillette little girl fee let Friends l'ami (m) ahmee male friend le copain co pahn l'amie (f) ahmee female friend la copine co peen V: Expressions Qu’est-ce que c’est? To say What is it? or What is that? in French." ("I am looking at the photographs. you say C’est un(e) [nom]... looking at nothing in particular.It's a book." In French. • • C'est un livre.. . we would say "I am looking at photographs. you would say "Je regarde les photographies. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. meaning It is a [noun]. "Je regarde des photographies. • Qu’est-ce que c’est? . To respond to this question. . • . If you were looking at a set of specific pictures.") If you were just flipping through the album.What is it? Literally. Qu’est-ce que c’est? (pronounced kehss keuh say) is used. you cannot say. Remember that the indefinate article (un or une) must agree with the noun it modifies. you would say. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English."Some" Note that des." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article.It's a shirt." ("I am looking at some photographs. .? at the beginning of sentences. In English..

and that y is a pronoun meaning there. Similarly. Unlike in English (is => are). Like in English. voici and voilà are used.Il y a. Voici et Voilà Voici. il y a does not change form. translates to here is.... It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have.. The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is.There are (some) apples. They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences. il y a. The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns.. Il y a (pronounced eel ee ah) is used to say there is (or there's) and there are.. when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same. You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir.. literally translates to he has there. is not often used to point out an object in front of you.. . then. • Il y a une pomme. To say that. voilà means there is and there are. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses. In spoken French. and here are. The phrase il y a. . the article (and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun) is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions. the verb meaing to have. • Il y a des pommes. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.There is an apple.01 • Basic grammar live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Level One Lessons Lesson 1. she. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. elle. Au revoir. Quentin Merci. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. Quentin. elle est d’où? Elle est de Marseille. elles they (feminine) . tu es français? Léon Oui. French Grammar • To be • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il.02 • To Be D: Where are you from? French Dialogue • To be • audio (info •226 kb • help) Where are you from? • Tu es d’où? Quentin Bonjour. Léon. Tu es d’où? Léon Je suis de Paris. Dis donc. Léon aussi. Quentin Et Marie. Elle est française. on he. and 3rd person plural. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. Léon. exactement. 2nd. Quentin Alors. 2nd.

“vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. However. In the next section. they are. each of which express a unique feeling. Il replaces all masculine nouns. they see). we see. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. and aller translates to to go. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. the infinitive form is to ___. For example. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. Infinitives In this book. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state.” (formal). which indicate the time when an action takes place. Also. finir translates to to finish. if a group of people consists of both males and females. In English. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods. The only exception is the verb "to be" (I am. he/she is. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. when pronounced. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. While in English. that is the third person singular (I see. “on” is used. to express “we”. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. In everyday language. the infinitive is one word. For example. . more commonly called the present indicative. are irregular. Each mood has a varying number of tenses. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. When referring to a single person.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. as discussed earlier. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. The most common verbs. English verbs only have one conjugation. The French third person "on" has several meanings. For more. the male form is used. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". you are. parler translates to to speak. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures.). The pronoun it does not exist in French. instead of “nous”. even those that are not human. “vous” must be used. see the Wikipedia entry. In French. Conjugation French verbs conjugate. which means that they conjugate in the same way. he/she sees. you see. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". (thou art).” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. however. Also. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". Most verbs are regular. which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. see notes in the introductory lessons. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. we are.

eel ay boh Try to learn all these conjugations. one would say Okay. jzeuh swee ah voh cah You are at the Tu es à la banque. or simply D'accord? is used informally to ask whether someone agrees with you. or mized) third person elle est ell ay she is on est ohn ay one is elles sont ellsohn they are (fem.To Be Être translates as to be in English.) Examples French Grammar • To be • audio (info •87 kb • help) To Be Examples • Exemples d'Être Je suis avocat. He is handsome. Tu es d’accord? (lit: You are of agreement?). Idioms • • • Ça y est! . I am (a) lawyer.I get it! Vous y êtes? . Il est beau. or simply D'accord. is used in French.I've done it! Finished! J'y suis! .Are you ready? Expressing Agreement Tu es d’accord ou pas?. je suis d'accord. . To respond poitevely. In English. when D'accord. Formation French Verb • To be • audio (info •103 kb • help) être • to be Singular Plural first person je suis jeuh swee I am nous sommes noo sum we are second person tu es too ay you are vous êtes voozett you are il est eel ay he is they are ils sont eelsohn (masc. you say Oui. They will become very useful in forming tenses.G: Être . and is not conjugated like any other verb. too ay ah lah bahnk bank. It is an irregular verb.

Elle est Australienne. you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. • Je suis Australien(ne). .She is Australian.for males and females respectively. This is an exception to the normal rule. When stating your nationality or job. Then say what nationality some of your friends are. Marie est italienne. • Il est de Paris. you use the preposition de. it is not necessary to include the article. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality .G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from. For example.I am Australian.He is Australian. congratulations on completing Lesson 1. . Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. .02 • To Be live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Elle est de Rome. In the next lesson. and what city they are from. • • Il est Australien. Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are.

such as gros. it does not change in the masculine plural form. When an adjective. Most adjectives. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. .Les adjectifs Main article: French/Grammar/Adjectives Just like articles. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. amusan. amusant. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. lent With plural adjectives. are affected by this rule. such as those above.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.03 • Description G: Adjectives . See French/Grammar/Adjectives for more. ends in -s. the -s ending is not pronounced. so the adjective will sound exactly the same as the singular form. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender.

Il est brun. Ils sont petits. Il est amusant. intelligents'. attitude and personality Ils sont Il est intelligent. Elle est grosse. Elle est intéressante. Elles sont brunes. Elles sont grandes. Il est moyen. Il est grand. Il est gros. Ils sont moyens. Elle est amusante. Ils sont bruns. Ils sont grands. Elle est moyenne. Elles sont blondes.V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (info •1636 kb • help) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural size and weight Il est petit. Elle est grande. hair color Il est blond. Ils sont intéressants. Ils sont amusants. Elle est intelligente. Elles sont amusantes. Ils sont gros. V: Common Adjectives French Vocabulary • Description Common Adjectives • Les adjectifs communs Attitude and Personality Size and Weight sympa(thique)(s) nice gros(se)(ses) fat amusant(e)(s) funny petit(e)(s) small intelligent(e)(s) intelligent moyen(ne)(s) average intéressant(e)(s) interesting grand(e)(s) big patient(e)(s) patient sociable(s) sociable Actions timide(s) timid bon(ne(s) good mauvais(e)(s dynamique(s) outgoing bad ) gentil(le)(s) nice. Il est intéressant. Ils sont blonds. gentle Difficulty strict(e)(s) strict facile(s) easy fort(e)(s) strong difficile(s) difficult . Elle est petite. Elles sont grosses. Elle est blonde. Elles sont petites. Elles sont intéressantes. Elle est brune. Elles sont moyennes. Elles sont intelligentes.

dark haired) rose rose pink safran safranne saffron G: Adverbs Expressing Degree • • • assez . ^ Often when a vowel sound comes after a consonant. . will will show that the sound is connected usung z.He is rather intelligent.03 • Description live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . très .V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info •160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine Feminine English blanc blanche white gris grise gray noir noire black rouge rouge red orange orange orange jaune jaune yellow vert verte green bleu bleue blue violet violette violet marron marron brown (everything but hair) brun brune brown (hair . In this book.He is very intelligent. z vraiment . the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. This process is called liaison. enough • Il est assez intelligent. .He is really intelligent. . really • Il est vraiment intelligent.rather.truly. congratulations on finishing Lesson 1.very [1] • Il est très intelligent. Trèszin is pronounced trayzahn.

. Il a une idée.There are books. I have two pens. Tu as trois frères.There is a book.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. . Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age.How old are you? [lit: You have what age?] J'ai trente ans. [lit: I have thirty years] There is/are . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular Plural first person j'ai zjay I have nouszavons noozahvohn we have second person tu as too ah you have il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has onna ohnah one has vouszavez voozahvay you have ilszont eelzohnt they have (masc. You have three brothers.) elleszont ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. Il y a des livres.04 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". or mized) they have (fem. . • • Tu as quel âge? . He has an idea.I'm thirty (years old). .Il y a The expression il y a means there is or there are. • • Il y a un livre.

V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info •1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family Extended Family ma famille ma famille my family my extended family éloignée les parents parents les grand-parents grandparents la mère mother le grand-père grandfather le père father la grand-mère grandmother la femme wife les petits-enfants grandchildren le mari husband le petit-fils grandson la soeur sister la petite-fille granddaughter le frère brother l'oncle."le cousin de ma grandmère". tonton uncle child (m or l'enfant la tante. tati aunt f) les enfants children le neveu nephew la fille daughter la nièce niece le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) Step Family la belle-mère stepmother la demi-soeur half sister le beau-père stepfather le demi-frère half brother To speak about more complex family relations. you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . such as "my grandmother's cousin". .

you guessed it. . and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object.He throws it. la.04 • Family live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . because they are pronouns that are. .. such as "la boule".replaces plural direct objects.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . Lesson 1. la. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. direct objects.replaces a masculine singular direct object la .. tu. and les are called direct object pronouns. • Il jette la boule. . A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. can be replaced by pronouns.). congratulations on completing The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . • • Le.G: Direct Object Pronouns le. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. Il les jette. and les le. • • • • le .He throws them.He throws the ball. la. Similary. used as direct objects.

. To conjugate. ne changes to n'. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". Example: J'attends.to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (info •184 kb • help) -er Verb Formation • Formation de verbes en -er pronoun ending verb je -e joue tu -es joues il/elle -e joue nous -ons jouons vous -ez jouez ils/elles -ent jouent Elision and Liaison In all conjugations. normally unpronounced.05 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Formation Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel. as in J'habite. the s at the end of each subject pronoun. In all plural forms... Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question jouer . Also. If a phrase is negative. as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel. .

which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject.I don't like to speak. Pierre : Je vais au parc. remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. • • J'aime parler.Common -er Verbs French Grammar • Recreation Formation of Common -er Verbs • Formation des verbes communs en -er Infinitive Stem Present Indicative Conjuagtion First Person Second Person Thrid Person parler parl Je parle Tu parles Il parle Singular to speak Nous parlons Vous parlez Ils parlent Plural habiter habit J'habite Tu habite Il habite Singular to live Nous habitons Vous habitez Ils habitent Plural écouter écout J'écoute Tu écoutes Il écoute Singular to listen Nous écoutons Vous écoutez Ils écoutent Plural S'amuser Main article: French/Grammar/Verbs/Pronominal The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English. Literally translated. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. • D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities. Formation Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Like in English. .I like to speak. Je n'aime pas parler. . Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. It is a type of pronominal verb (a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it) called a reflexive verb. some verbs can be followed by infinitives. . When negating a sentence. Christophe : Je viens du stade. The most common -er verbs used in this manner are aimer and détester. Michel : J'attends mon ami. Nous détestons travailler.We hate working. the verb means I amuse myself. .

^ Tu rigoles! means You’re joking! or You don’t mean it! V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop.V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer to play finir[1] to finish attendre[1] to wait (for) aimer to like détester to hate rigoler to joke around[2] (mon/ma) ami(e) (my) friend ^ Finir and attendre are not regular -er verbs. salle de concert concert hall . You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.

which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. Note that while le.He throws the ball to her. and les. Il jette la boule à Marie.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. la. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. Il leur jette la boule. . "He throws him the ball" is also said. • Il la lui jette. la.He throws the ball to them. Also note that unlike le and la.He throws the ball to Mary. lui is never shortened . .He throws it to him. . An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. . . • • lui . Il lui jette la boule.He throws the ball to Jack. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. When used with the direct object pronouns le. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule.G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. lui and leur come after those pronouns. In English. and means the same thing. . Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .He throws the ball to him.

football de la guitare guitar American football du violon violin au baseball au basket au football au football américain au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs golf de la batterie drums tennis (singular in French) volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess congratulations on completing Lesson 1.. French Vocabulary • Recreation Play • Jouer jouer à.05 • Recreation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .. jouer de. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. When referring to sports. use jouer à. baseball de la clarinette clarinet basketball du piano piano soccer..V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play.. As always. but when referring to instruments. jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. use jouer de...

le premier étage second floor (Habitations à low income housing le deuxième étage third floor Loyer Modéré) le troisième étage fourth floor Cities and Neigborhoods le quartier neigborhood le centre ville downtown l'arrondissement (m) district la ville city la banlieue the suburb le village town Rooms Parts of a Room la pièce room le plafond ceiling la chambre la salle de séjour family room le sol ground la cave basement la fenêtre window le grenier attic le toit roof la cuisine kitchen Entering and Exiting . home habiter en ville to live downtown la maisonnette small house habiter en banlieue to live in the suburb le pavillon individual house l’immeuble (appartment) building Floors l'appartement (m) flat/apartment l'étage (m) level le studio studio le rez-de-chaussée lobby.M.Level One Lessons Lesson 1.06 • The house V: The House live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • The house The House • La maison General Actions la rue[1] street arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) la (belle) vue (beautiful) sight.L. ground floor H. view rentrer (à la maison) to go back home quitter (la (tout) près (de) (very) close (to) to leave (home) maison)[2] (pas) (tout) loin (de) (not) (very) far (from) to leave (a room) quitter (une salle) at the house of donner sur la rue to overlook the street chez [person] [person] donner sur la cour to overlook the courtyard at [person]'s house Houses habiter to live (somewhere) la maison house.

you say habiter rue ____ • • la salle à manger dining room la salle de bains bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom le garage Garage les toilettes water-closet. .I live on Lecourbe Street. ^ Quitter must be followed by a direct object.He lives on Rennes Street. . usually a room or building.. Il habite Rue de Rennes. . You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. Partir is used in other phrases.le mur wall l'escalier (m) stairs monter à pied to walk up stairs l'ascenseur (m) elevator monter en ascenseur to go up by elevator prendre l'ascenseur to take the elevator monter à pied to go up by foot la porte door l'entrée (f) entry(way) Furniture le rideau curtain la chaise chair la table table l'armoire (f) cupboard le lit bed le tapis carpet le fauteuil armchair ^ To express to live on ____ street. restroom (f) (no singular) (only toliet. no bath) le bureau office Outside a House la voiture car la terrase patio le balcon balcony le jardin garden la fleur flower l'arbre (m) tree la cour courtyard le (la) voisin(e) neigbor J'habite Rue Lecourbe.

to remake Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention .to pay attention faire connaissance .to demolish malfaire . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative • audio (432 kb • help) faire • to do.to wait in line s'en faire . or mized) they do (fem. Related Words • • • défaire .to worry . to make Singular Plural first person je fais jzeuh fay I do nous faisons noo fezohn we do second person tu fais too fay il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait oh fay you do vous faites voo feht he does ils font eel fohnt she does one does elles font ell fohnt you do they do (masc.to do badly refaire .) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive .to get acquainted faire la morale . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb).G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. .to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.I make/have the stove repaired.to scold faire la queue .

. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. nous. Il te voit. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • me . Il vous voit. informal) nous . to you (singular. .you.I want to see you.I see you. If a perfect tense is used.you.He sees you.He sees you. . . • Je veux te voir. . . formal) Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. . • Je t'ai vu. te..us.me. to you (plural.He sees me.V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (info •524 kb • help) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine to do the cooking faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry faire le jardin to do the gardening faire le lit to make the bed faire le ménage to do the housework faire la vaiselle to do the dishes faire les carreaux to do the windows faire les courses to do the shopping/errands faire le repassage to do the ironing G: me. Il nous voit.I saw you. to us vous . Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit.He sees us. . to me te .

next to ^ y (ee) . Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises. Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant. La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils. . La cuisine est toute petite et nous y[6] mangeons[7] le soir. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs[4] : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté. Il vous le jette. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary.He calls to me.He throws it to us.to like to watch computer ^ manger .He throws it to you. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. Il te le jette.there ^ l'ordinateur (m) ^ aimer regarder .He throws it to you. .Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit.to eat congratulations on completing Lesson 1. La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage. à coté de[3] Lyon en France. Il nous le jette. il y a un petit salon. .06 • The house live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Nous aimons regarder[5] la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil. Don't forget prepositions. . ^ à coté de .at the side of.

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation and Rules • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne. not the participle.. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. I play the piano. The ne is placed before the verb.pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. In a perfect tense. the ne ... . Nous faisons nos devoirs. Vous vendez votre voiture. Il n'est pas avocat. • Je ne le vole pas. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. Examples French Grammar • Weather • audio (info •262 kb • help) Negation Formation Examples • Exemples de formation de négation Il est avocat. We are not doing our homework. I do not play the piano..I do not want to steal. . ne. He is not [a] lawyer. ne. We are doing our homework.07 • Weather G: Standard Negation In order to say that one did not do something.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. • Je veux ne pas voler. while the pas is placed after.I want to not steal. He is [a] lawyer. pas construction must be used. . . You sell your car.pas wraps around the auxillary verb. . Je joue du piano. . Je ne joue pas du piano.pas around the verb. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning.I did not steal it...I have not stolen. • Je ne veux pas voler. • Je ne vole pas...I do not steal. You do not sell your car. • Je n'ai pas volé.

. une. Je ne mange pas de cerise. He is not Belgian.Negation of Indefinate Articles The indefinite articles un. He is Belgian. We do not read a book. J'ai des livres. Examples Il est belge. • • • • J'ai un livre. . I do not eat a cherry. Nous ne lisons pas de livre.I have some books.I have a book. and des change to de (or d’) when negating a sentence. Je mange une cerise.I don't have any books. I eat a cherry.. Je n'ai pas de livre. . . Je n'ai pas de livres. . Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Il n'est pas belge.I don't have any book.

It's raining. Le vent souffle. Le ciel est dégagé. tempest lit: The weather is . clouds. It's cold. The sun is shining. Le ciel se dégage. . break (in clouds) Il fait beau It's nice. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. It rained. le soleil sun Il y a des nuages. grêle. The skiy is clearing up. la grêle hail Il tombe de la la bruine drizzle It's hailing.Le temps[1] French Vocabulary • Weather Weather • Le temps General Cloudy Weather cloud le nuage It's cloudy.V: Weather . rainy. l'éclair (m) flash (of lightening) il a plu. lit: It falls of the hail. le ciel sky nuageux(-euse) cloudy couvert(e)(s) overcast. It's going to rain. large black clouds agité(e)(s) stormy. agitated l'averse (f) downpour le tonnerre thunder ^ Le temps means both the weather and the time. Le soleil brille. Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. The skiy is clear. une goutte de pluie a drop of rain Extreme weather un orage a storm la pluie rain orageux(-euse) stormy La pluie tombe. la rafale gust of wind Rainy Weather Snowy Weather la brume fog. haze. It's snowing. Il fait du vent. l'éclairage (m) lightening Il va pleuvoir. lit: There are some . le vent wind lit: The sky is freed. The rain falls. The wind blows. It's warm. It's windy. mist l'hiver (m) winter la neige snow le brouillard fog Il neige. rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. Le temps est pluvieux. la tempête storm. Il fait froid. lit: covered Warm Weather l'éclaircie (f) clearing. de gros nuages noirs. .

Il va faire froid. Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. . • Instead of a preposition and place. Y comes before the verb. at.G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going. • • Il va pleuvoir demain.I'm going to the stage.You're going to school. aller is conjugated as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (info •327 kb • help) aller • to go Singular Plural nouszallons nouzah lohn we go first person je vais jeuh vay I go second person tu vas too vah you go vouszallez vouzah lay you go they go (masc. Remember that aller must be used with a place (there or a name) when indicating that you are going somewhere.It's going to be cold. • . . Je vais au stade. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. followed by the place. The preposition à. . . Tu y vas. or mized) they go (fem. . or to. • • • J'y vais. meaning there. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain.I'm going there. Nous y allons. .) il va eel vah he goes ils vont eel vohn third person elle va ell vah she goes on va ohn vah one goes elles vont ell vohn Usage There is no present progressive tense in French.It's going to rain tomorrow. • Tu vas a l'école? . Futur Proche The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future.We're going there. meaing in. Remember that à le contracts to au and à les contracts to aux. even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English.It's not going to rain tomorrow. you can use the pronoun y. . is used. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb).You're going there. Formation In the present indicative.

. the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous.ons or .Let's get going! On y va? . since allons and allez begins with vowels. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound. vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah.. nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay..ahlonzee .Let's go! (impératif) Ça va? .ez. congratulations on completing Lesson 1.. (This process is called liaison.) However. two liaisons should not go connsecultively. allez à is pronounced ahlayzah.Should we go? Liaison Usually. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?".07 • Weather live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . whenever a vowel sound comes after .How are you? (lit: It goes?) On y va! .Idioms • • • • Allons-y . • • In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?.

sa. Plural notre. ta. mes my ton. To conjugate. notre.to finish ask a question French Grammar • Travel -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun ending verb je -is finis tu -is finis il/elle -it finit nous -issons finissons vous -issez finissez ils/elles -issent finissent G: Possessive Adjectives Formation French Grammar • Travel Possessive Adjectives • Les adjectifs possessifs First Person Second Person Third Person Singular mon. vos your their leurs .Level One Lessons Lesson 1. tes your son. her leur. ma. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. ses his. leur. votre. nos our votre.08 • Travel live version discussion G: Regular -ir Verbs exercises The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. drop the -ir edit lesson to find the "stem" or "root". comment report an error finir .

• • Mon.She reads her book. Il est tonnami. .Usage As you can probably tell from their name. Elision (to m'. Elle est monnamie.They are our friends. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon.They are my friends. . Ils sont mesz . Ils sont nosz . and son are followed by a vowel. • C'est mon livre.She is my friend. . Il est sonnami. or s') does not occur. In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject (his sister. sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context. since they all end in s. possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. ton.He is your friend. . • Elle lit son livre. and son are used before a feminine singular noun. • • • Il est monnami. French Grammar • Travel Possesive Adjective Usage • Utilisation des adjectifs possesive Masculine Noun Feminine Noun le livre la voiture le livre de Marc son livre la voiture de Marc sa voiture the book of Marc his book the car of Marc his car les livres de Marc ses livres les voitures de Marc ses voitures the books of Marc his books the cars of Marc his cars le livre de Marie son livre la voiture de Marie sa voiture the book of Marie her book the car of Marie her car les livres de Marie ses livres les voitures de Marie ses voitures the books of Marie her books the cars of Marie her cars Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son.08 • Travel live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .He is his/her friend.It's my book. But in French. . ton. congratulations on completing Liaison also occurs with all plural forms. • Lesson 1. possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. t'. . her brother).He is my friend.

To conjugate. drop the edit lesson -re to find the "stem" or "root".09 • Art live version discussion G: Regular -re Verbs exercises The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. as demonstrated below for the present tense. . or mized) they sell (fem. report an error ask a question Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun ending verb je (j') -s attends tu -s attends il/elle attend nous -ons attendons vous -ez attendez ils/elles -ent attendent Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Present Indicative vendre • to sell Singular Plural je vends jzeuh vahn I sell nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell too vahn eel vahn ell vahn oh vahn you sell vous vendez voo vahn day' he sells ils vendent eel vahnde she sells one sells elles vendent ell vahnde you sell they sell (masc.Level One Lessons Lesson 1. Add endings to the root based on the subject and comment tense. -re verbs are not very common. You will however see the following verbs fairly often.) first person second person tu vends il vend third person elle vend on vend Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs.

and Opera Houses The Louvre The Louvre Pyramid . Theaters.V: Going to a Museum la portraitiste portraitist V: Music French Vocabulary • Art • audio (info •287 kb • help) Music • La musique écouter la musique to listen to music des paroles lurics (le parole = word) Composing le musicien musician le compositeur composer l’auteur (des paroles) (lyrics) writer Instruments l'instrument (m) instruement la clarinette clarient le violon violin la harpe harp la guitare guitar le piano piano V: French Museums.

a pretty car de jolies voitures . New.pretty cars However. most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French.intelligent men une jolie voiture . including beau. • Des is replaced with de when an adjective comes before the noun. nouveau. Consonant Masc. some common French adjectives. • Note that in informal speech. Vowel Fem. and Vieux Formation French Grammar • Art The Adjectives Beautiful. (all) Singular un beau garçon un bel individu une belle fillette Beau de beauxzindividus de belles fillettes Plural de beaux garçons Singular un nouveau camion Nouveau de nouveaux Plural camions Singular un vieux camion Vieux Plural de vieux camions un nouvel ordre une nouvelle idée de nouveauxzordres de nouvelles idées un vieil ordre de vieuxzordres une vieille idée de vieilles idées Sentences Placement As you have already learned. Sing.an intelligent man des hommes intelligents .G: Beau. and vieux come before the noun. and Vieux Masc. and Old • Beau. des in very often used in place of de. Nouveau. • • un homme intelligent . Nouveau. .

V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art Plays • Les pièces At the Theater Play Genres le théâtre theater le ballet ballet (theatrical) play la pièce (de théâtre) lit: (theatrical) la comédie comedy piece l'acte (f) act la comédie la scène scene musical comedy musicale l'entracte (m) intermission chanter to sing le (la) chanteur le drame drama singer (-euse) danser to dance la tragédie tragedy le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour Gilbert Becaud Jacques Brel Robert Charlebois Joe Dassin Raymond Devos Celine Dion Garou Juliette Greco Edith Piaf congratulations on completing Lesson 1.09 • Art live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

or mized) they take (fem.to comprehend/understand méprendre .10 • Science G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb. and is conjuagted differntly.to take apprendre .to mistake .) third person ils prennent eel prehn elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .Level One Lessons Lesson 1.to learn comprendre . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation first person second person French Verb • Present Indicative prendre • to take Singular Plural noo prenn je jzeuh nous I take prends prahn prennons ohn tu too prahn prends eel il prend prahnn elle ell prend prahnn on oh prend prahnn you take he takes she takes one takes vous prenez voo prennay we take you take they take (masc.

La chimie la cellule a cell des microbes germs la chimie l’étude des éléments des bactéries baceria chemistry the study of elements des virus viri le chimiste chemist le microscope microscope .to make an appointment V: The Sciences .La physique anatomy the study of the human body l’étude de la matière et de la physique la zoologie l’étude des animaux l’énergie physics zoology the study of animals the study of matter and energy le physicien physicist le biologiste biologist Chemistry .to gain weight prendre part (à) . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .to change trains prendre une décision .to take.La biologie le savant une personne qui expérimente la bio(logie) l’étude des organismes vivants scientist a person who experiments biology the study of living organisms observer to observe la botanique l’étude des plantes analyser to analyse botany the study of plants l’anatomie (f) l’étude du corps humain Physics .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance .to start talking prendre le pas sur .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous .Les Sciences French Vocabulary • Science The Sciences and Scientists • Les sciences et les savants General Biology .to take part (in) prendre la parole .to make a decision prendre des kilos .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner .

V: Astronomy French Vocabulary • Science Astronomy The Planets Mercure Mercury Venus Mercury La (planete) terre Earth Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturne Saturn Uranus Uranus Neptune Neptune Pluton Pluto Other Obejcts Le soleil sun La lune moon congratulations on completing Lesson 1.10 • Science live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

After you have completed this level. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. Inside. and each lesson now gives much more information. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. you can move on to the next level. la Catedral de Notre Dame en París .Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative. and review the grammar you have already learned. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. you will learn the passé composé. the most common French past tense.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? .

Farm Animals G: Manger. Drinks. Object Pronoun Review. Croire & Voir V: Life. Calling Others. School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Places to go. Y. Mettre V: Meat. Holidays. -enir Verbs (Venir). En. Servir. Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire.03 Leçon 03 : Faire des courses 092 Lesson 03 : Shopping 2. -éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities.05 Leçon 05 : Le transport 103 Lesson 05 : Transportation 2. -aître Verbs. Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire).01 Leçon 01 : L'école 083 Lesson 01 : School 2. Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Desserts G: -cer Verbs. Partitive Article.06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien 108 Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 2. Christmas. Sleep G: Suivre. Directions. Envoyer. Naître. Driving to Work. How to Get to Places. Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. Clothing.Level Two Contents 2. Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Religions.07 111 2. Connaître & Savoir. Methods of transportation G: Devoir. Preparing for work. Celebrations (Birthdays.08 114 2. Boire. Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment.04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 098 Lesson 04 : Going Out 2. Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets. Silverware.02 Leçon 02 : La culture 089 Lesson 02 : Culture 2. Écire V: School. -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Dairy Products. Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping.09 120 2. Computers . Recevoir V: Mail. Waking up. -yer Verbs (Payer). Falloir. Lire.10 124 Leçon 07 : La vie rurale Lesson 07 : Rural Life Leçon 08 : La nourriture Lesson 08 : Food and Drink Leçon 09 : Dîner Lesson 09 : Dining Leçon 10 : La communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Passé Composé of Regular Verbs. Vivre.

The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in edit lesson it. continue on to the school comment section.01 • School live version discussion G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses exercises The next section is optional. . report an error ask a question Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Composed • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.I have finished. for example.replace -er with é -ir verbs . Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. read it.replace -re with u irregular verbs .must be memorized .replace -ir with i -re verbs . • J'ai fini. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . but if you would like a preview. and if not. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé.

. Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses. However.I have finished the games. 5.I have finished the game. 6.I have finished the tasks. 3. Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. the auxillary verb is avoir. • The verb is reflexive. the subject of the verb is also its object. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. • the direct object is feminine plural .I have finished it. • J'ai fini les jeux. • Je l'ai fini. .add an s to the past participle.Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.I have finished them.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. 2. These are: 1. . • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. • the direct object is masculine plural .I have finished them. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French.add an es to the past participle. • the direct object is masculine singular . • Je l'ai finies. . . Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. the passé composé is introduced. 7. . . the auxillary verb is être. 4.I have finished the task. In the next lesson. . • That is. • Je les ai finis. • Je l'ai finie.I have finished it. .no change • J'ai fini le jeu. • the direct object is feminine singular . under certain situations. • J'ai fini les tâches. the auxillary verb becomes avoir.

V: School French Vocabulary • School School • L'école General Classes / Grades[1] teacher 12th Grade Classe Terminale scholarship 11th Grade 1ère (la première classe) le professeur[2] la bourse le diplôme diploma 10th Grade 2ème (la deuxième classe) (professionnel) le bac(calauréat) high school exit exam 9th Grade 3ème (la troisième classe) la bibliothèque library 8th Grade 4ème (la quatrième classe) les notes grades (as on a test) 7th Grade 5ème (la cinquième classe) les cours classes or courses 6th Grade 6ème (la sixième classe) la classe grade (e... high school regarder to watch (classes 3-terminale) (grades 6-9) jr. not bright higher education l'enseignement supérieur strict(e) strict graduate school ..During Classes 3rd Grade CE2 (CE=cours élémentaire) le tableau chalkboard 2nd Grade CE1 la craie chalk 1st Grade CP1 (CP = cours préparatoire) le pupitre desk Verbs passer l'examen (m) test to take a test un examen les devoirs homework étudier to study la classe class écrire[3] to write la cantine cafeteria lever (la main)[4] to raise (your hand) déjeuner to (eat) lunch la récré(ation) recess poser to ask (a question) la cour courtyard (une question) Schools and Students parler to speak l'école (f) school écouter to listen (to)[5] l'étudiant student (m) entendre to hear (of)[5] l'étudiante student (f) le collège jr. 6th Grade) 5th Grade CM2 (CM = cours moyen) en cours de [.] class 4th Grade CM1 Pendant les cours . high school le collégien déjeuner to (have) lunch student le lycée high school (classes 6-4) (grades 10-12) le lycéen high school student Describing Teachers and Students intelligent(e) intelligent l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) nul(le) not good.] in [..g.

The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof". they descend in France. ^ In French. or mized) elles écrivent ell aycreeve they write (fem. Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year. you would say my hand or your hand.Des fournitures scolaires .) . even if the teacher is female. While in English. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. • • • la main . meaning to respond (to).my arm ^ To and of are built into the verbs écouter and entendre respectively. ^ Écrire is an irregular verb. the definate article is always used in French. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section.my hand la jambe . or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur". such as répondre {à). Other verbs. you do not "own" body parts. G: Écire & Lire French Verb • School écrire • to write past participle: écrit first person j' écris second person tu écris il écrit third person elle écrit on écrit Singular jay cree too aycree eel aycree ell aycree ohn aycree I write you write he writes she writes one writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay you write they write ils écrivent eel aycreeve (masc.School Supllies la craie chalk cray le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay le tableau the board tahbloh sheet of paper papier le stylo(pen steeloh (bee) le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut bille) le classeur three-ring binder le crayon pencil krayoh le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la calculatrice calculator la gomme eraser gum le livre book leevr le bouquin le règle ruler rehgluh le cahier notebook kie ay le feutre marker feuhtr ^ The word professeur is considered masculine at all times. ^ The way that grades are numbered in France is opposite the way they are in the US. are almost always followed by a preposition.my leg le bras .

and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle. With most verbs.first person je lis second person tu lis il lit third person elle lit on lit French Verb • School lire • to read past participle: lu Singular jeuh lee I read nous lisons too lee you read vous lisez eel dee he reads ils lisent ell lee she reads ohn dee one reads elles lisent Plural noo leezohn we read voo leezay you read they read eel leez (masc. or mized) ell leez they read (fem.) V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les mathématiques les langues languages mathematics les maths l'anglais English l'algèbre (f) algebra le français French le calcul calculus l'espagnol Spanish la géométrie geometry les sciences social l'allemand German sociales sciences le russe Russian l'économie economics l'italien Italian la géo(graphie) geography l'histoire (f) history les sciences natural d'autres other subjects naturelles sciences matières la biologie biology le dessin drawing la bio la chimie chemistry l'informatique (f) computer science la technologie engineering la littérature literature la physique physics la musique music G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Present perfect The passé composé is a perfect tense. that auxililary verb is avoir. .

replace -ir with i -re verbs . j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have Past Participle • • • -er verbs . Tu as joué. the helping verb. usually avoir. Auxiliary Verb . Ils ont joué.replace -er with é -ir verbs . but also means spoke. We have played. While there is a simple past tense in French. it is only used in formal writing. • For example.01 • School live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. the passé composé form of parler (to speak). so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. literally mean has/have spoken. He has played. verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed. Vous avez joué. You have played. I have played Nous avons joué. Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé. [avoir] parlé. Il a joué. You have played. congratulations on completing Lesson 2.Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. They have played.Meaning In English. is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added.

.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. Formation French Grammar • Culture Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs parl. try and discussion reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture.02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are ask a question simply irregular..to wait (for) | répondre . Also.to answer Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre . reflecting live version regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. fin.. Ending Example Ending Verb Ending Example -e parle -is finis -s vends -es parle -is finis -s vends -e parle -it finit vend -ons parlons -issons finissons -ons vendons -ez parlez -issez finissez -ez vendez -e parlent -issent finissent -ent vendent Stem: Subject Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils Irregular Verbs Ending in -er aller Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir Common -re Verbs attendre . vend... exercises edit lesson comment G: General Verbs Review report an error Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. The culture of France is diverse..

) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m. and is conjugated irregularly. French Verb • Present Indicative croire • to believe (past participle . or mized) they believe (fem.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day .vu) Singular Plural jzeuh vwah I see nous voyons noo vwahyoh too vwah you see vous voyez voo vwah ay eel vwah he sees ils voient eel vwah ell vwah she sees oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah first person je vois second person tu vois il voit third person elle voit on voit we see you see they see (masc. or mized) they see (fem.G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb. and is conjugated irregularly.cru) Singular Plural jzeuh crah I believe nous croyons noo croy oh too crah you believe vous croyez voo croy ay eel crah he believes ils croient eel crah ell crah she believes oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah first person je crois second person tu crois il croit third person elle croit on croit we believe you believe they believe (masc. French Verb • Present Indicative voir • to see (past participle .) Voir is not a regular -ir verb.

J'ai ____ ans.02 • Culture live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . Yule le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon Noel congratulations on completing Lesson 2. [lit: I have ___ years. Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve Christmas .] le gâteau cake le cadeau gift la bougie candle la fête party inviter to invite donner une fête to throw a party V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day .V: Birthday Birthdays l'anniversaire (m) birthday Tu as quel âge? How old are you? I am ____ years old.

to ask for the price payer to pay cash register la caisse payer à la caisse to pay at the counter checkout counter vendre to sell coûter to cost How much is it? acheter to buy C’est combien? [lit: It's how much?] Ça coûte combien? [lit:It costs how much?] How much does [noun] cost? Combien coûte [nom]? [lit: How much costs [noun]?] General Goods Stores Foods Stores le magasin shop. to carry en solde on sale demander to ask (for) le prix price demander le prix . chemist outdoor market la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop. big supermarket commercial le grand magasin department store la boucherie butcher shop 1 le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché department small store pharmacy. fishmonger grocery 4 . pâtisserie seafood store.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.03 • Shopping V: Shopping live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question French Vocabulary • Shopping Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping Buying Goods faire des courses le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson to go shopping faire du shopping le(la) cassier(-ière) cashier faire le marché to go grocery shopping (plus/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive faire du lècheto go window la vitrine display window vitrine shopping porter to wear. store le supermarché supermarket le centre mall. shopping centre le hypermarché hypermarket.

? or From whom. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. l' him. For example. 3. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. Pierre. m' te. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. French butchers do not sell pork. 2. Pierre sees him. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. quiches and pizzas.. Pierre sees the burglar. and to you respectively. Pierre le vois. salami. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them . The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. salads.g. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. bakeries only sell fresh bread. a tense that uses a past participle. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. or I had them. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. the bread is baked on site. m' te. te. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur.?. to us. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). In France. in te phrase Je les ai eus. For these products.. pork products. les. G: Object Pronouns Review Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb).. Il lui donne du pain. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. 4. l' nous vous les her. to you. including pâte. was referring to a masculine object..1. nor horsemeat. nous. go to a charcuterie. t' le. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. it us1 you1 them 1 me. He gives bread to him. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: French me. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. e. cold meats.

us. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. nous. and you respectively. you. but also are stem changing. te. The bread is given by the man (direct).) first person second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys ilszachètent eelzahshet elle achète ell ahshet she buys third person onnachète ohnahshet one buys elleszachètent ellzahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser .to take along amener . The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. When me. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. te.acheté) Singular Plural nouszachetons noozashtoh we buy j'achète jzah shet I buy vouszachetez voozahshtay you buy they buy (masc. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. Formation French Verb • Present Indicative acheter • to buy (past participle . and vous are used in a perfect tense. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. nous.to weigh mener .• • • • 1 me. G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect).to overwork lever . and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me.to carry out emmener .to raise . The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem.to bring surmener . or mized) they buy (fem.to raise soulever . This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed.

In the present indicative of -yer verbs. payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: .casual les chaussures . when y is part of the last syllable. Formation In the present indicative. this affects all forms except nous and vous.dress les vêtements sport .shoes clothes clothes la chemise button down shirt la casquestte cap les chaussures shoes la paire de la cravate tie le tee-shirt t-shirt pair of shoes chaussures basketball le pantalon pants le polo polo shirt les baskets shoes trainers le complet suit le pull(over) a sweater les tennis tennis shoes le costume le manteau coat le sweat-shirt sweatshirt les sandales sandals le blouson le tailleur women's suit jacket la veste la robe dress le jean jeans le chemisier blouse les chaussettes socks la jupe skirt G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. However. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. Payer The verb payer translates to to pay.V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés .

to clean tutoyer .to try essuyer . je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien . s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup .ça fait deux euros.) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer . to call someone informally G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles.fait voir .payé) Singular Plural jzeuh pay I pay nous payons noo pay oh too pay you pay vous payez voo pay yay eel pay he pays ils paient eel ell pay she pays ou payent elles paient oh pay one pays ell ou payent we pay you pay they pay (masc.cru être . • • • • • avoir .eu croire . or mized) they pay (fem.été faire . s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non.vu D: Practice Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.to wipe nettoyer .to support employer .to employ essayer . À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette.to address as tu.first person je paie second person tu paies il paie elle paie third person on paie French Verb • Present Indicative payer • to pay (past participle .

s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien.. je voudrais trois kilos. 2. . Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez.. . monsieur.One must/You need to Remember your verbs . "C'est tout ?" .vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay). Same for "C'est tout ?".Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" .. congratulations on completing Lesson 2. Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien. we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?). Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt...What do you have? "Un grand choix" . pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros. Alors.." . s'il vous plaît. elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon.That'll be two euros Remember your verb .I would like .What would you like? "Je voudrais.A large range "Des cerises" .They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" .acheter (to buy). We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?". Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui.03 • Shopping live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . ?" .Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" .

the de and le combine into du. a location. contents. The preposition de can indicate an origin. and several other things which will be covered later. When le follows de. a characteristic. Similarly. a point in time. à and les combine into aux. purpose. de and les combine into des. possession. cause. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.04 • Going out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination. the à and le combine into au. When le follows à. Similarly. measurement. and several other things which will be covered later. manner.

to distribute . or mized) they leave (fem. or mized) ell sore she goes out oh sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort they go out (fem.G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Present Indicative partir • to leave (past participle . to take out (past participle .) first person je sors second person tu sors il sort third person elle sort on sort French Verb • Present Indicative sortir • to go out.) Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems.sorti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh sore I go out nous sortons noo sortoh we go out too sore you go out vous sortez voo sortay you go out eel sore he goes out they go out ils sortent eel sort (masc. • • repartir .to set out again répartir .parti(e)(s)) Singular Plural jzeuh pahr I leave nous partons noo partoh too pahr you leave vous partez voo pahrtay eel pahr he leaves ils partent eel part ell pahr she leaves oh pahr one leaves elles partent ell part first person je pars second person tu pars il part third person elle part on part we leave you leave they leave (masc.

Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? .Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent. • Prenez la place! . où l'employé(e) vous les vend. (Version unaltered vidéo) video) originale) sub-titles le film (étranger) (en DVD) (foreign) movie (on DVD) les sous-titres l'acteur (m) actor la vidéo video l'actrice (f) actrice le DVD DVD louer to rent The Movie Theater Film Genres le cinéma the (movie) theater le dessin animé cartoon theater showing room la salle du cinéma le documentaire documentary lit: room of the the theater la séance showing le film d’amour love story le guichet ticket window le film d’aventures adventure movie seat/place to sit la place le film d’horreur horror film le fauteuil chair1 coûter to cost le film policier police film le film de sciencejouer to play sci-fi film fiction 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Going out Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en (domestic) movie (on V. On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film.O. One would normally use "une place" • whenever "a seat" is used in English. On achète les places au guichet.

**Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework). to return devenir .to hold • • • • • • • . You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. to detain retenir .to belong contenir . Formation In the present indicative.to support tenir .G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs). venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Present Indicative venir • to come (past participle .) Other -enir Verbs • • revenir . venir is used with the preposition de. or mized) ell vee ehn they come (fem. When it means to come from. The verb venir is translated to to come. Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir.to become appartenir .to come back.to contain détenir .venu(e)(s)) Singular jzeuh vee ehn I come nous venons too vee ehn you come vous venez eel vee ehn he comes ils viennent ell vee ehn she comes oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent first person je viens second person tu viens il vient third person elle vient on vient Plural noo venn oh we come voo vennay you come they come eel vee ehn (masc.to keep. • Nous venons du stade.to remember soutenir .to retain se souvenir .

to prefer sécher .to accelerate célébrer .to obliterate préférer .to dry congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to celebrate espérer . Formation French Verb • Present Indicative suggérer • to suggest (past participle .to hope oblitérer .) Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .G: -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs.04 • Going out live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . but are also stem changing.suggéré) Singular Plural jzeuh soo nous noo soo first person je suggère I suggest zjair suggérons zjairoh second voo soo tu suggères too soo zjair you suggest vous suggérez person zjairay il suggère eel soo zjair he suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair she elle suggère ell soo zjair third person suggests one on suggère oh soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair suggests we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc. or mized) they suggest (fem.

Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation French Verb • Present Indicative conduire • to drive (past participle .) Other -uire Verbs • produire .conduit) Singular Plural jzeuh I drive nous noo cohndwee conduisons cohndweezoh too you vous voo cohndwee drive conduisez cohndweezay eel he ils eel cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent ell she cohndwee drives oh one elles ell cohndweez cohndwee drives conduisent first person second person third person je conduis tu conduis il conduit elle conduit on conduit we drive you drive they drive (masc. or mized) they drive (fem.to produce V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close .05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.

to offer souffrir .to cover découvrir .to suffer -rir Verb Exceptions Courir .to discover offrir . Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form.To Die • • • • • • • je meurs tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 .To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru Mourir . following the -er conjugation scheme. A common -rir verb is ouvrir.G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly. -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs. • • • • couvrir .

rester Je suis resté à la maison. naître Je suis né en octobre. I fell into the pool. The train has arrived. house. I went to the cinema. mourir Il est mort en 1917. tomber Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I stayed home. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. rentre Il est rentré tôt de l'école.1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense). . He came back early from school. Je suis entré dans ma entrer I entered my room. arriver Le train est arrivé. He died in 1917.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. He got out of the train. I was born in october. Acquérir . He returned to the restaurant. I went out with my friends. monter Je suis monté au sommet. List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb Example aller Je suis allé au cinéma. It happened in front of the passer Il est passé devant la maison. chambre. descendre Il est descendu du train. I climbed to the top. partir Elle est partie travailler. She left to go to work. venir Je suis venu en france. I came to France. sortir Je suis sorti avec mes amies.

Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. J suis allé(e). • • Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. Vous êtes allé(e)(s).The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. an -e is added to the past participle. . Nous sommes allé(e)s. If the subject is masculine plural. If the subject is masculine singular. Ils sont allés. Il est allé. • • • • If the subject is masculine singular. an -s is added to the past participle. Tu es allé(e). Elles sont allées. Elle est allés. an -es is added to the past participle. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport. there is no change in the past participle. If the subject is feminine singular.

Replacement of Places . to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.to it. . and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Note that lui and leur.I get it! congratulations on completing Lesson 2. • • Les hommes vont en France.Les hommes y vont. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.J' y réponds.It's Done! J'y suis! . I respond to the questions.05 • Transportation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . • • Je réponds à les questions.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). The men go to France . and not y.G: The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun .I respond to them. .The men go there. Note that en. . Idioms • • Ça y est! .

06 • Everyday life G: Dormir French Verb • Present Indicative dormir • to sleep (past participle . the verbs are reflexive.dormi) Singular Plural first person je dors jzeuh I sleep nous noo door dormons doormoh second tu dors too door you vous voo person sleep dormez doormay third il dort eel door he sleeps ils dorment eel dorm person elle ell door she dort sleeps on oh door one elles ell dorm dort sleeps dorment live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we sleep you sleep they sleep (masc.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. or mized) they sleep (fem. the verb is no longer reflexive. Je t'habille: I get you dressed.) V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready • • • • • • • • se lever: to get up se laver: to wash (oneself) se raser : to shave se doucher: to shower se baigner: to bathe (oneself) se brosser les cheveux/les dents: to brush one's hair/teeth se peigner les cheveux: to comb one's hair s'habiller: to dress (oneself) If the subject is performing the action on him or herself. instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. . • • Je m'habille: I get (myself) dressed. However. if the subject were to act on someone else.

and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. vous vous avez levés assez tard. put simply. • Nous nous aimons. Jean et Paul. Lisette et Rose se sont habillées. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Georges et Martin se sont habillés. Je vais me laver. depending on the verb that they modify. se. and naturally pronominal verbs. . nous.They wash themselves. reciprocal verbs. • • • • • • • Pierre s'est habillé. et je me suis levée à six heures.In the passé composé. . people perform actions to each other.We wash ourselves. Ils se lavent.I'm going to not wash myself. . te. G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. Je vais ne pas me laver. .We like each other. . Marc et Claire se sont habillés. . Je m'appelle Lucie.I wash myself. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. These pronouns are me. Tu te souviens? . Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Alice s'est habillée. Nous nous lavons. • • • Je me lave.I'm going to wash myself. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.You remember? V: At Work travailler: to work travailler pour: to work for (somebody) . include pronouns. the participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. • • Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.

duty. such as "To live. Falloir expresses general necessities. whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. "I need to study for my test.it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait . to owe past participle: dû Singular Plural jeuh dwah I have to nous devons noo dehvohn too dwah you have to vous devez voo dehvay eel dwah he has to ils doivent eel dwahve ell dwah she has to ohn dwah one has to elles doivent ell dwahve first person je dois second person tu dois il doit third person elle doit on doit we have to you have to they have to (masc. one must conjugate verbs correctly. so I must study verb conjugations." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do. or mized) they have to (fem.it is necessary il a fallu ." Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need. "I want to pass my French test. owe). Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular. it's tomorrow".it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra .G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life devoir • to have to.to be necessary il faut . one must eat" or "To speak French well. congratulations on completing Lesson 2.06 • Everyday life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must.it will be necessary il faudrait .) G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir .

07 • Rural life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular Plural jeuh nous noo first person je suis I follow swee suivons sweevohn second too you voo tu suis vous suivez person swee follow sweevay il suit eel dee he follows ils suivent eel sweeve elle she third ell swee suit follows person ohn one elles on suit ell sweeve swee follows suivent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question we follow you follow they follow (masc. or mized) they live (fem. or mized) they follow (fem.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.) .) G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular Plural jeuh vee I live nous vivons noo veevohn too vee you live vous vivez voo veevay eel vee he lives ils vivent eel veeve ell vee she lives ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve first person je vis second person tu vis il vit third person elle vit on vit we live you live they live (masc.

G: Naître French Verb • Rural life naître • to be born past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular Plural first person je nais jeuh nay I am born nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay you are born il naît eel nay he is born they are born ils naissent eel nesse (masc. or mized) third person elle naît ell nay she is born on naît ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse they are born (fem.) 1 Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses). .

Nous nous sommes parlé. Otherwise. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? .We washed our hands.The dog lies down. . congratulations on completing Lesson 2.07 • Rural life live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . does not change in the masculine plural form. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains.G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. Le chien se couche. . in gender and plurality. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses.They called to one another. .She was herself. Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs. Elle s'est souvenue.She washed her hands. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. Elle s'est lavé les mains. . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. être is used as the auxiliary verb. . Note that assis(e)(es). . the past participle agrees with the subject. but not the indirect object pronoun. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. . . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.She remembered. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.We spoke to each other. Elles se sont téléphoné.We wash ourselves. . Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.We liked each other.

to relieve voyager . Formation French Verb • Food and drink manger • to eat past participle .to change exiger .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to travel .mangé Singular Plural jeuh mahnge I eat nous mangeons noo vmahnge ohn too mahnge you eat vous mangez voo mahngay eel mahnge he eats ils mangent eel mahnge ell mahnge she eats ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge first person je mange second person tu manges il mange third person elle mange on mange we eat you eat they eat (masc.08 • Food and drink live version discussion G: -ger Verbs exercises -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing. In this case. or mized) they eat (fem.) Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer .to swim soulager . This only applies in the nous form. the stem change is comment adding an e after the g.to require nager . The most common -ger edit lesson verb is manger. the change report an error is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be ask a question present if the e were not included. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs.

seafood La coquille Saint-Jacques l'agneau (m) lamb scallop (f) la dinde turkey le crabe crab le jambon ham le porc pork le poisson .vegetables la banane banana la carotte carrot la cerise cherry les épinards (m pl) spinach le citron lemon l'oignon (m) onion la fraise strawberry les petits pois (m pl) peas l'orange (f) orange la pomme de terre potato la pomme apple la tomate tomato le raisin grape les asperges (f pl) asparagus le pamplemousse grapefruit les haricots (m pl) beans la viande .dessert la moutarde mustard le bonbon candy le pain bread le chocolat chocolate le beurre butter le gâteau cake la tartine de pain beurré slice of buttered bread la glace ice cream le poivre pepper la mousse mousse le riz rice la tarte (aux (apple) pie le sel salt pommes) (chocolate) ice la glace (au chocolat) le sucre sugar cream la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream la confiture jam .fish le poulet chicken les anchois (m pl) anchovies le boeuf beef le saumon salmon la saucisse sausage l'anguille (f) eel les produits laitiers .dairy products Other Foods le beurre butter le croissant crescent roll le fromage cheese les frites (f pl) "French fries" le lait milk la crêpe crepe le yaourt/le yoghurt yogurt la mayonnaise mayonnaise le dessert .meat les fruits de mer (m pl) .V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink Food • La nourriture les fruits .fruits les légumes .shellfish.

It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink boire • to drink past participle .) V: Drinks les boissons drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine .G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink. or mized) they drink (fem.bu Singular Plural jeuh bwah I drink nous buvons noo boovohn too bwah you drink vous buvez voo boovay eel bwah he drinks ils boivent eel bwahve ell bwah she drinks ohn bwah one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve first person je bois second person tu bois il boit third person elle boit on boit we drink you drink they drink (masc.

Part. As learnt earlier. art.. We ate some pie. When speaking about eating or drinking an item. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. When speaking about food. When speaking about preferences. un or une changes to de (meaning. art. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) . Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. Nous avons mangé une tarte. in this context. In the negative construction. J'ai mangé la tarte. among other things. une) in yet another set of situations. du. I like ice cream. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food (I would like a (whole) pie). the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le. Ind. I ate a pie. art. We ate a pie. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. As one has learnt in a previous lesson. and the indefinite article (un. les) is used at other times. la. any) in a negative construction. J'ai mangé de la tarte. We prefer steak. the word some. there are specific situations for the use of each article. or des change to de in negative constructions. In general "de" refers to a part of food (a piece of pie) whereas the definite article (le) refers to a food in general (I like pie (in general)). as de and les contract into des. certain rules apply. Nous préférons le steak. Also. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. Similarly. de la.. instead of du or de la. de and le contract (combine) into du. Def. de l' is used in front of vowels. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie.G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte. I ate some pie.

Tu joue du piano? Non. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. to turn on.) Related Words • • • • • • • mettre .to recover from an illness se remettre en route . Did you order some water? Yes.to get back on the road . instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. de la or des when there is nothing after it.mis Singular Plural jeuh may I put nous mettons noo mettohn too may you put vous mettez voo mettay eel may he puts ils mettent eel met ell may she puts ohn may one puts elles mettent ell met first person je mets second person tu mets il met third person elle met on met we put you put they put (masc.G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. j'en prends. G: Mettre Formation French Verb • Food and drink mettre • to put past participle .to put back remettre en place .to put on. we ordered some. or mized) they put (fem.to allow remettre . For more detailed information. we use the pronoun 'en'. I'm having some. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. Are you having fish? Yes. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. if the idea of money has already been raised. As well. This is because what en does is replace du.to submit se remettre . to place permettre . Like with 'me'. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No. nous en avons commandé.to set back into place soumettre . For instance. I don't play it. 'te' and other pronouns.

to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .to put money aside mettre fin à .to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .to get in shape congratulations on completing Lesson 2.to set the table se mettre à table .to start the car mettre le couvert .08 • Food and drink live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .to pitch in mettre le contact .to agree se mettre en forme .

go to a charcuterie. 1. . Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. 5. salads. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). salami. French butchers do not sell pork. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper. bakeries only sell fresh bread. Do not confuse with le livre (book).09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining Dining • Diner Places Actions and Feelings kitchen avoir faim to be hungry dining room avoir soif to be thirsty live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question la cuisine la salle à manger le restaurant restaurant Meals le repas the meal le petit-déjeuner breakfast le déjeuner lunch le dîner dinner le goûter snack Food Stores la boucherie butcher shop 1 la boulangerie 2 manger to eat boire to drink prendre to take vouloir to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal Quantity gram le gramme le kilo(gramme) kilogran bakery a place that sells bread le dépôt de pain 2 le litre liter la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) delicatessen 3 la bouteille la boîte la livre le paquet le pot grocery 4 la crémerie dairy store la poissonnerie seafood store le marché outdoor market la pâtisserie pastry shop bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. pork products. For these products. quiches and pizzas. including pâte.Level Two Lessons Lesson 2. cold meats. 3. -eille is pronounced ay 6. 4. In France. 2. nor horsemeat. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products.

) Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining pouvoir • to be able to past participle . or mized) ell veuhl they want (fem. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining vouloir • to want past participle . or mized) they can/are able to (fem.G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want.pu first person je peux second person tu peux Singular jeuh nous I can/am able to peuh pouvons you can/are able too peuh vous pouvez to eel peuh he can/is able to ils peuvent she can/is able ell peuh to one can/is able ohn peuh elles peuvent to Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to voo poovay you can/are able to eel peuhve ell peuhve they can/are able to (masc.voulu Singular jeuh veuh I want nous voulons too veuh you want vous voulez eel veuh he wants ils veulent ell veuh she wants ohn veuh one wants elles veulent first person je veux second person tu veux il veut third person elle veut on veut Plural noo voolohn we want voo voolay you want they want eel veuhl (masc.) il peut elle third person peut on peut .

.) G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs. or mized) ell sairve they serve (fem. G: Servir French Verb • Dining servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular jeuh sair I serve nous servons too sair you serve vous servez eel sair he serves ils servent ell sair she serves ohn sair one serves elles servent first person je sers second person tu sers il sert third person elle sert on sert Plural noo sairvohn we serve voo sairvay you serve they serve eel sairve (masc. but are also stem changing. The most common -cer verb is commencer... . to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like.V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le pourboire laisser je voudrais.

or mized) they begin (fem.commencé Singular Plural jeuh coe nous noo coe first person je commence I begin mahnce commençons mahnsohn second tu too coe you voo coe vous commencez person commences mahnce begin mahnsay eel coe il commence he begins mahnce ils commencent eel coe mahnce third elle ell coe she person commence mahnce begins ohn coe one elles on commence ell coe mahnce mahnce begins commencent we begin you begin they begin (masc. Etc.) Other -cer Verbs • effacer .09 • Dining live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .to erase V: Silverware. le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass congratulations on completing l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork Lesson 2.Formation French Verb • Dining commencer • to begin past participle .

or mized) they know (fem.to disappear naître .) third person Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .Level Two Lessons Lesson 2.to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses.10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs Formation French Verb • Communication connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular Plural je jeuh nous noo I know connais cohnay connaissons cohnehssohn tu too you vous voo connais cohnay know connaissez cohnehssay eel he il connaît cohnay knows ils eel cohnesse connaissent elle ell she connaît cohnay knows on ohn one elles ell cohnesse connaît cohnay knows connaissent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question first person second person we know you know they know (masc.to know disparaître . 1Naître .to appear connaître .

In French. . literally means I call myself.G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally. but in English you would say My name is.) V: Calling Others Téléphoner (à) is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. or mized) they call (fem... Savoir is used to say that you know someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information.. but. you call to someone. so the verb is used with indirect.) . In the present indicative..I'm calling Jacques. G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. and not direct. Je m'appelle. or mized) they know (fem. as you may have noticed.. Appeler is a regular -er verb. • Je téléphone à Jacques. French Verb • Communication savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular Plural jeuh say I know nous savons noo sahvohn too say you know vous savez voo sahvay eel say he knows ils savent eel sahve ell say she knows ohn say one knows elles savent ell sahve first person je sais second person tu sais il sait third person elle sait on sait we know you know they know (masc. it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular Plural first person j' appelle jahhpell I call nous appelons newzahh pell ohn second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call vous appelez voozahh pellay il appelle eel ahhpell he calls ils appellent eel ahhpell third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell we call you call they call (masc. is also stem changing.. objects.

) V: Mail • • • • • • le poste le courier le lettre le boîte des lettres envoyer recevoir .G: Dire French Verb • Communication dire • to say past participle: dit Singular Plural jeuh dee I say nous disons noo deezohn too dee you say vous dites voo deet eel dee he says ils disent eel deez ell dee she says ohn dee one says elles disent ell deez first person je dis second person tu dis il dit third person elle dit on dit we say you say they say (masc. or mized) they say (fem.

) .G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular Plural nous j' envoie jahnvwah I send newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyons voozahnvwahyay you send il envoie eel aycree third person elle envoie ell aycree on envoie ohn ahnvwah he sends she sends one sends ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles envoient ellzahnvwah they send (masc. or mized) they receive (fem. or mized) they send (fem.) first person second person French Verb • Communication recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular Plural jeuh nous newzay first person je reçois I receive rehswah recevons rehsevohn second tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay person il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elle she ell rehswah third person reçoit receives one elles on reçoit ohn rehswah ell rehswahve receives reçoivent we receive you receive they receive (masc.

carry exécuter l'e-mail (m) e-mail out naviguer (sur stocker (des données) to store (data) to navigate (the Internet) Internet) cliquer to click télécharger to download allumer to turn on transmettre to transmit to turn off éteindre (to extinguish) French fact: the name of the company Logitech comes from the French term logiciel technolgie.10 • Communication live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . congratulations on completing Lesson 2.V: Computers & the Internet French Vocabulary • Communication Technology • La technologie la technologie technology Computer Hardware Computer Software le hardware hardware le software software l'ordinateur (m) computer l’information information l'écran (m) monitor le logiciel software (program) le programme program le clavier keyboard programmation programming (adj) le document document la souris mouse le fichier file l'imprimante (f) printer le CD-ROM CD-ROM The Internet la disquette floppy disk aller sur Internet to go on the Internet Computer Use le modem modem utiliser to use la connexion connection connecter to connect taper (un texte) to type (a text) être connecté to be connected sauvegarder (un to save (a file) le site site fichier) to run.

you can graduate to the third level. Drapeau de la France . This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! .Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables. go to the lessons planning page. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles. After you have completed this level. you can move on to the next level.

The Reformation Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs. Lesson 08 : Revolution! Post-Napoleon France. Asking Questions Review Lesson 09 : Modern France V: The 20th Century. Perfect Tenses Introduction.05 153 3. Present Conditional.Level Three Contents 3. Going to a Bank Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. Leçon 09 : La France moderne G: Past Conditional. Possesive Pronouns.07 160 3. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys.02 141 3. Industrial Rev.. French Rev. Noble Life. Dont) V: Enlightenment. Lesson 10 : Current Events Social Problems. Office Supplies Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs. European Union. Faire Causitif) V: Companies. The Lesson 07 : Ancient History Rennaissance.08 162 3. White-collar. Government. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Modern War Leçon 10 : L'actualité G: Future Perfect. Que. Napoleonic Era. Passé Composé. French Children's Poems. Stating If. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Democracy. Lesson 02 : Work The Office. France's Role in Global Politics. Payment. Mass Media. V: News. The King. Relative Pronouns (Qui. Medecine. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor.03 143 3. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money. Lesson 05 : Life as a Child and Stories Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs.06 157 3. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Plus-Que-Parfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. Comparative & Superlative. Emergencies. Handling Money. Pronominal Verbs Review. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire Antique G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Government.09 165 3.01 Leçon 01 : Les vacances 131 3. Nationalities Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. Interrogative Pronouns V: Farming and Peasant Life.. Lesson 03 : Health Healthcare Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review. Adverbs. Blue-collar..04 149 3. Service. Demonstrative Pronouns. Politics .10 166 G: Geography Prepositions. the Dentist. Songs. International Travelling.

there are l’aéroport (m. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de...) airport l’autobus (m. underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus. airplane) le métro subway.01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker General il y a there is.) aircraft.. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train.) bus l’avion (m.. (d') I am from.

. to • Je vais à Paris.I'm going to Paris de is used to say from. • le Caire .Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans.Je reviens du Havre. .V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest G: Geography Prepositions Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. • le Havre . . . at.I return from Paris.Je reviens du Caire. • Je reviens de Paris. cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine. . • la Nouvelle-Orléans .Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans.Je vais au Caire.Je vais au Havre. .

Countries. • Je vais au Texas. . en is used to say in. Every continent is feminine. with one or two exceptions.I'm going to Portugal.I go to France.I'm going to the United States. . .I return from the United States. to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. • Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux.Je reviens du Québec. .Feminine Regions. that ends in -e is feminine. • Je vais en Espagne. provinces.I return from Limousin. and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area. provinces. at. de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin. at. at. to. is used to say in. .I return from France.I return from Portugal.I'm going to Limousin. a contraction of à + les. a contraction of de + les. If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state. as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis. (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des.Je reviens d' Espagne • • • Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in. is used to say from for most regions. . .Je reviens du Texas. Audio : French native speaker • • • Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a silent e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in. . is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis. . and states • Je reviens du Limousin. . a contraction of de + le. • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal. . au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. du. to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal. . to for most masculine regions.

d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël. to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël. . .Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in. (body) la compagnie (aérienne) a(n airline) company l'appareil (m) system le billet (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller to take off (d'avion/simple/aller-retour) ticket le décollage take-off la classe tourisme coach le vol flight (also theft) la première classe first class passer à la douane to go through customs le pilote pilot le contrôleur security officer l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le contrôle de sécurité security check la porte gate (also door) le passager passenger atterrir to land embarquer to board l'atterrissage (m) landing .. Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? . machine.I return from Israel. at..I'm going to Israel.the province of Quebec? V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport Baggage airport (pronounced l'aéroport (m) les bagages (f pl) baggage ahehrohpor) le passeport passport les bagages à main carry-on bagage la livraison des un chariot a (shopping/baggage) cart baggage claim bagages enregistrer (ses to check in (one's les arrivées (f pl) arrivals bagages) baggage) les départs (m pl) departures arriver (en avance/en to arrive (early/late) retard) The Terminal The Airplane l'aérogare terminal l'avion (m) plane plane.

Caen Bourgogne .V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker European Countries la France France * Paris * Paris la Belgique Belgium * Bruxelles * Bruxelles le Portugal Portugal * Lisbonne * Lisbon l'Espagne Spain * Madrid * Madrid l'Italie Italy * Rome * Rome la Grande-Bretagne Great Britain * Londres * London l'Irlande Ireland * Dublin * Dublin .Paris Basse-Normandie .Dijon Bretagne .

le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie * Tallinn la Finlande * Helsinki la Suède * Stockholm la Norvège * Oslo la Russie Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia * Finland * Helsinki Sweden * Stockholm Norway * Oslo Russia .

V: Nationalities French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two • Three (v2 300kb) (250 + 234 +186 kb • help) Nationalities • Les nationalités Masculine Feminine English allemand allemande German américain américaine American anglais anglaise English australien australienne Australian belge belge Belgian birman birmane Burmese cambodgien cambodgienne Cambodian canadien canadienne Canadian chinois chinoise Chinese coréen coréenne Korean espagnol espagnole Spanish français française French indien indienne Indian indonésien indonésienne Indonesian italien italienne Italian japonais japonaise Japanese malaisien malaisienne Malaysian mauricien mauricienne Mauritian néerlandais néerlandaise Dutch philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese .* Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here.

.no change • J'ai fini le jeu.I have finished them. If you are referring to a person. • Je l'ai fini.must be memorized Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.I have finished the task. • the direct object is feminine singular . • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . . . If the nationality is used as an adjective.I have finished the games. . the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. .I have finished the tasks. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.I have finished it.I have finished. as in an Arab person or a Chinese person.I have finished them. Review the grammar behind them.I have finished it. This time. • the direct object is masculine plural .replace -er with é -ir verbs .replace -re with u irregular verbs .add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche.Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. for example. make sure you know all the rules. . • J'ai fini les tâches. . • the direct object is feminine plural .add an es to the past participle. G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. • J'ai fini les jeux. it is normally left uncapitalized. • the direct object is masculine singular . . the French would not capitalize: l'arabe.replace -ir with i -re verbs .I have finished the game. the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. un tapis arabe. if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language. • J'ai fini. • Je l'ai finie. . • Je les ai finies. le chinois. . • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.add an s to the past participle. However. • Je les ai finis. un livre chinois. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.

However. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. 5. 3. 6. • That is. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. the subject of the verb is also its object. 7. e. the auxillary verb becomes avoir. and the futur antérieur(future perfect). elle va réussir (she will pass. 2. The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive. These are: 1. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. under certain situations. List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont Réussiront Subject . Le pssé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive) G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French.Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances.g. • The verb is reflexive. the auxillary verb is être. the futur simple the futur composé. 4. the auxillary verb is avoir.

Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils.Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. Vivement les vacances ! congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. L'après-midi. nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer.01 • Vacations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions.

to make) falloir .pu (to be able to) pleuvoir .dit (to say) devoir .cru (to believe) dire .plu (to rain) prendre .couru (to run) croire .ri (to laugh) savoir .pris (to take) recevoir .su (to know (as a fact)) sourire .voulu (to want) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .fallu (to be necessary) lire .eu (to have) boire .vécu (to live) voir .02 • Work G: Irregular Past Participles Review Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • avoir .connu (to know (personally)) courir .fait (to do.dû (to have to.reçu (to receive) rire .souri (to smile) suivre .Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître .mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir .lu (to read) mettre . to owe) être .suivi (to follow) vivre .été (to be) faire .ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir .bu (to drink) conduire .vu (to see) vouloir .

. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence • Je vais le voir.. J'aime ne pas marcher. Futur Proche The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive • Je vais aller.I like to not run. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. • Je le fais fixer. each meaning slightly different things.. • • Je n'aime pas marcher. . . Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature.I'm going to go. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. j'obtiendrais le travail. .I have it fixed. . Avec un peu de chance. Mais aujourd'hui.I don't like to run. Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse.02 • Work live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .I'm going to see it. j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche. Negation Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated. Le chomage Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. Pronouns Pronouns come before the verb they modify.G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review Faire Causitif Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive.

ache. to avoir mal à....03 • Health live version discussion V: Illness exercises French Vocabulary • Health • audio (115 kb • help) edit lesson Illness • La maladie comment To ache report an error to have a .l'impératif • • The nous form commands are used to say "Let's. to have an earache l'oreille cœur nauseaus avoir mal aux to have a toothache Actions dents Sickness and Pain éternuer to sneeze être malade to be sick s'évanouir to faint avoir la grippe to have the flu saigner to bleed avoir de la fièvre to have a fever tousser to cough être enrhumé to have a cold vomir to throw up G: Issuing Commands in French . The subject is not used when giving a command. French Grammar • Health • audio (info •104 kb • help) The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs -ir Verbs -re Verbs Subject Ending Verb Ending Verb Ending Verb Tu -e Parle! -is Finis! -s Vends! Nous -ons Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Vendons! Vous -ez Parlez! -issez Finissez! -ez Vendez! ... avoir mal au ventre to have a bellyache ask a question hurt avoir mal à la to have a headache avoir mal partout to ache all over tête avoir mal â avoir des maux de to feel sick.". Formation Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3..

as in English. other adverbs. For example. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. like their English counterparts. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. Formation In French. In most cases. however.G: Adverbs French adverbs. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. nor any characteristics of what they modify. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. As in English. similarly. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. as in English. They do not display any inflection. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . that is. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses.

Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. (I have a headache). (I cough) Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine. Je vomis. Le docteur • • • • • • • . or before the clause: • Note that. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). J'ai mal à la tête. Je tousse. such as pas ("not"). this is true even of negative adverbs: • D: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. unlike in English.Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. J'ai de la fièvre. Il faut vous opérer. midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. plus ("not any more"). Je vais vous prescrire un médicament. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. (I am ill). and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb.

Ahhhhhhhhhh ! D: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital. Je dois procéder à une extraction. . il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112. (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire. J'ai eu un accident de voiture. SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave.D: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. Je vais utiliser la roulette. Vous avez une carie. C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences.

V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : (Audio : One (Native French Speaker) Two French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. belly button . les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus (m) Womb Le nombril Navel.

03 1 .".. When you're sick. E: 3. congratulations on completing Lesson 3.V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'.Body Parts . you say "J'ai mal à [body part] . J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt). (I have a headache). tu es malade.03 • Health live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore.Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur. Example: J'ai mal à la tete..

Pierre sees him. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. it us1 you1 them 1 me. and to you respectively. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. nous. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. t' le. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. l' him. Pierre sees the burglar. or I had them. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. l' nous vous les her. was referring to a masculine object. te. to you. to us. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. Pierre le vois. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. . in te phrase Je les ai eus. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. For example. a tense that uses a past participle.04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review Main article: French personal pronouns live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). m' te. les. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense.

It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à Pierre.?. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. When me. The Pronoun Y Indirect Object Pronoun . . Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). Replacement of Places . and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. nous.. you. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. Idioms • • Ça y est! . The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. The bread is given by the man (direct).I respond to them. and not y.. and vous are used in a perfect tense. Note that lui and leur.J' y réponds. and you respectively. The men go to France .. Il lui donne du pain. The man gives some bread to Pierre. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.The men go there. • • Les hommes vont en France. m' te.It's Done! J'y suis! .I get it! . . This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. te.? or From whom.Les hommes y vont. • • Je réponds à les questions.to it. nous. . te.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.. He gives bread to him. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. us. Note that en. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. I respond to the questions.Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons.

Tu joues du piano? Non. As well. Like with 'me'. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. Do you play piano? No. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'.Give me the videos. I don't play it. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. This is because what en does is replace du. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. . j'en prends. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. . Did you order some water? Yes. if the idea of money has already been raised. de la or des when there is nothing after it. and les precede all other object pronouns. 'te' and other pronouns.Give it to me. For instance. I'm having some. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. G: Commands with Pronouns . . • Retrouve-la. • Donnez-le-moi. nous en avons commandé.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. . je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui.Find it. Are you having fish? Yes. we ordered some. Le. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. la. Me and Te become moi and toi.L'impératif When expressing positive commands. we use the pronoun 'en'.

as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient Subject congratulations on completing Lesson 3. one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait.G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional.04 • Money live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

The imperfect ending are added to ét___.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. In French. . the above example would be: "Nous report an error chantions quand papa est rentré. and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (info •181 kb • help) The Imperfect • L'imparfait jouer finir attendre subject ending (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) je -ais jouais finissais attendais tu -ais jouais finissais attendais il/elle/on -ait jouait finissait attendait nous -ions jouions finissions attendions vous -iez jouiez finissiez attendiez ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer .05 • Youth live version discussion G: Imperfect . Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root.Imparfait exercises The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation.to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem. An example in English edit lesson being: "We were singing when Dad came home." ask a question In order to conjugate the imperfect." It tells what was going on when a comment particular action or event occured.

French Grammar • Youth • audio: One • Two (238 + 232 kb • help) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre le leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre la leur mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends their friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres les leurs mine yours his/hers ours yours theirs • Vous avez votre voiture? . nous avons la nôtre. This usually occurs in sentences with être.G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.Is that your car? Oui. .Yes.Yes.You have your car? • Oui. it is mine. À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence. elle est à moi. . . we have ours. • • Elle est ta voiture? .

However. une gameboy. the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ). this affects all forms except nous and vous. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs. Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. when y is part of the last syllable. but also are stem changing. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous.G: Stem Changing Verbs Review -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. le cluedo. la bonne paye des "transformers" . V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo. -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs.

.. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. Songs.V: French Children's Poems. and Stories Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi .05 • Youth live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

She washed her hands. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. but not the indirect object pronoun. se.06 • Adolescence live version discussion G: Pronominal Verbs Review exercises Pronominal verbs are verbs that. These pronouns are edit lesson me. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. Ils se lavent. être is used as the auxiliary verb. . • In perfect tenses. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. include pronouns.I wash myself. Je ne vais pas me laver. nous. Nous nous lavons. . put simply. comment depending on the verb that they modify. te. . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. • • • Je me lave.We wash ourselves.We washed our hands. . in gender and plurality. . When proniminal verbs are conjugated in report an error perfect tenses.They wash themselves. Elle s'est lavé les mains. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. There are three types of ask a question pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs.I'm going to wash myself.I'm not going to wash myself. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.We wash ourselves. reciprocal verbs.She was herself. . . . • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. . • • • • Elle s'est lavée. Je vais me laver. . and naturally pronominal verbs.

to return. • • . people perform actions to each other.We spoke to each other. .to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.She remembered. . . Tu te souvenu? . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? .You remember? • • In perfect tenses. .They called to one another. Nous nous sommes parlé.We like each other. Otherwise.Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. Like reflexive verbs. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.We liked each other. rendre . • • • Nous nous aimons. .You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. Elles se sont téléphoné. the past participle agrees with the subject. to give back se rendre (à) . It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. Elle s'est souvenue. • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.

. and I don't speak French any more). l'examen. not just the plusque-parfait. in English. He came the day after. this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). but they occur at different times." In this example. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other.. In French. It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses. Il a été mon ami. Examples J'ai parlé français.06 • Adolescence live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque. So. Il est venu. Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. Je parlais français.. Il venait tous les jours. the past before the past. In English. He had already come. He came/used to come every day. He was my friend when . the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle. Nous avons réussi We passed the test. Il était déjà venu. one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). I spoke French (during a period of time. Essentially. I had eaten. congratulations on completing Lesson 3.G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other. conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). there are two past tenses. the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or. They did their homework. . He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain.

Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. You danced. You danced.07 • History live version discussion exercises G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs edit lesson comment Unlike English. He danced. We danced Vous -âtes Vous dansâtes. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense. This past tense is the passé simple. Tu -as Tu dansas. one simply uses ask a question the passé simple in literary French. as according to the table: French Grammar • History The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb English Je -ai Je dansai. used when writing formally. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense: for report an error every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French. one finds the stem and appends the following. I danced. They danced. and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the passé composé does. L'histoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. Formation To conjugate in this tense. there is a literary past tense. . Ils -èrent Ils dansèrent. Nous -âmes Nous dansâmes. Il -a Il dansa.

Stem Je.07 • History live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question ...Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative. put are regular in their passé simple stems. -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis Infinitive congratulations on completing Lesson 3.

Others must be memorized.Historical Text for this lesson. G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle. je tu il nous vous -i_ Endings assis ass m'assis t'assis s'assit nous assîmes vous assîtes conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisîmes conduisîtes conquis conqu conquis conquis conquit conquîmes conquîtes contruis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes craign craignis craignis craignit craignîmes craignîtes dit d dis dis dit dîmes dîtes f fis fis fit fîmes fîtes écriv écrivis écrivis écrivit écrivîmes écrivîtes mis m mis mis mit mîmes mîtes naqu naquis naquis naquit naquîmes naquîtes peign peignis peignis peignit peignîmes peignîtes pris pr pris pris prit prîmes prîtes rejoin rejoignis rejoignis rejoignit rejoignîmes rejoignîtes Infinitive ils s'assirent conduisirent conquirent construisirent craignirent dirent firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent s'asseoir conduire conquérir construire craindre dire faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Past Stem Passé simple Part.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3.08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen .

rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir ri souri avoir eu boire bu connaître connus courir couru croire cru devoir dû être falloir fallu lire lut mourir plaire plu pleuvoir plu pouvoir p recevoir reçu savoir su valoir valu vivre vécu vouloir voulu r ris ris sour souris souris vainqu vainquis vainquis -in_ Endings dev devins devins t tins tins v vins vins -u_ Endings e eus eus b bus bus conn connus connus cour courus courus cr crus crus d dus dus f fus fus fall fallus fallus l lus lus mour mourus mourus pl plus plus pl plus plus pus pus put reç reçus reçus s sus sus val valus valus véc vécus vécus voul voulus voulus rit sourit vainquit devin tint vint eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut pûmes reçut sut valut vécut voulut rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûtes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes purent reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent .

even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé.The man that did it is here.He is the man that he has seen. qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. it is shortened to qu'.He is the man that I have seen. ce is the noun congratulations on completing Lesson 3.08 • Revolution! live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . qui is never shortened. • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu.I see the man that did it. but more naturally mean what. • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici.I see the car that is broken. the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues. remember that in perfect tenses.G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait. If que is folled by a vowel. . . which literally mean that which. que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu. . .They are the women that I have seen. . .

you. Object toi. + Verb Comparative Adverb Comparative Je vois plus/aussi/moins clairement que more than I see as clearly as less than Verbs Sub.09 • Modern France G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub. Lesson 3. you toi. Object toi. you. Verb Comparative Comparative Je joue plus/autant/moins que more than I play as much as less than Nouns Sub.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. you. Object toi toi. you toi. + Verb Comparative Adjective Comparative Je suis plus intelligent que I am more intelligent than Je suis moins intelligent que I am less intelligent than Je suis aussi intelligent que I am as intelligent as Adverbs Sub. + Verb Comparative Noun Comparative plus de Je joue à autant de jeux que moins de more than I play as many games as less than live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Object toi.09 • Modern France live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Subject Être Conj. appy to the future perfect as well. This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. something else "will have" occured by that time. . French Grammar • Current events The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler passer Subject Avoir Conj. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. The auxiliary verb. Past Part. is conjugated in the future tense. j' aurai parlé je serai passé(e) tu auras parlé tu seras passé(e) il aura parlé il sera passé elle aura parlé elle sera passée nous aurons parlé nous serons passé(e)s vous aurez parlé vous serez passé(e)(s) ils auront parlé ils seront passés elles auront parlé elles seront passées Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English. Past Part. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur.10 • Current events G: Future Perfect In French.Level Three Lessons Lesson 3. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. avoir or être. All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses.

current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une a daily newspaper news.) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m.) or un attentat la criminalité burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime .

petits ou grands. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement. Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.V: French Government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. . à la surprise générale. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. • En 2002. L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. proposent un candidat. • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. En général.

• à gauche : le PS.. Nicolas Sarkozy L'UDF : François Bayrou. François Hollande. Dominique de Villepin (Premier ministre). Ségolène Royal. L'UDF et l'UMP sont actuellement fachés mais ils ont souvent gouverné ensemble. L'UMP et l'UDF refusent tout contact avec le FN.10 • Current events live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . L'UMP : Jacques Chirac (Président de la République).. Lutte Ouvrière(LO) : Arlette Laguiller. l'UDF et le Front National (FN). le gouvernement est soutenu par l'UMP. • à droite : l'UMP. Le Parti Communiste Français (PCF) : MarieGeorges Buffet Les Verts : Dominique Voynet Front national (FN) : Jean-Marie Lepen (extrême droite) La ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) : Olivier Besancenot. congratulations on completing Lesson 3. les Verts. Le FN est un parti souvent classé à l'extrême-droite et certains l'accusent de racisme. le PCF.V: French Politics Quelques hommes politiques Le Parti Socialiste (PS) : Lionel jospin.. • • • • • • • • La politique en France • • En france. de quelques membres du PCF et des Verts.. Jack Lang. la LCR et LO. Les gouvernements de gauche sont composés de membres du Parti Socialiste. La LCR et LO sont souvent classés à l'extrême gauche et refusent de participer à tout gouvernement. En 2005. les partis politiques sont de droite ou de gauche.

GRA M R M A une fleuve au pont de Sainte-Marguerite .

Prepositions 185 – Pronouns 191 – Sentences 192.Adverbs 177 .Irregular Conjugations 205 .Pronominal .Negation 183 .Adjectives 175 .Gender 181 .Grammar Contents • • • • • • • • • 172 .Tenses 195 – Verbs • • 196 .

Grammar Adjectives Just like articles. amusan. are affected by this rule. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. amusant. Regular Formation Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes Pronunciation Generally. lent . such as those above. Most adjectives. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant.

récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus). Masc. carnaval. toy ). -Masc. cal. un chou (des choux.Irregular Formation Irregular Plural Formation Katy Leeanne Jones Examples M -. pal. stone)). pneu (pneus) Exceptions:bal. knee) . chacal. owl).M. These are: un bijou (des bijoux. cabbage). un pou (des poux. un caillou (des cailloux. un hibou (des hiboux. festival. Plural Sing. jewel). un genou (des genoux. > Pl. seven are the exception. un joujou (des joujoux. louse). Singular > -s un plafond bas des plafonds -s un gros porc bas -x des gros porcs un homme généreux des hommes No -x un garçon généreux change furieux des garçons -z furieux un gaz -z des gaz dangereux dangereux -au -aux un journal des journaux -eu -eux un pieu -eau -eaux un château des pieux -al -aux un journal des châteaux des journaux __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux Notes Exceptions:landau (landaus).

(all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. when pauvre goes before a noun. tes Third person singular . When it comes after the noun. Sing. Masc.notre. we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. Likewise. it means unfortunate.leur. it means financially poor. and Vieux Masc. notre. it means great.Special Rules Adjectives That Precede Nouns Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns. they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male. Sing. leurs Grammar Adjectives live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . when it goes after the noun. These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. ma. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem. leur. This rule works most of the time. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. ses First person plural . nos Second person plural (and polite form) . sa.mon. First person singular . ta. Sing Cons. Nouveau. votre.ton. it means tall. but be careful. mes Second person singular (informal) . Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre Masc.votre. However. Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English. "pauvre" can mean "financially poor" even when used before the nouns. In French. vos Third person plural .son. Beau.

nor any characteristics of what they modify. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. edit lesson comment report an error Formation ask a question In French. As in English. however. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. discussion They do not display any inflection. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. as in English. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. their form does not change to reflect exercises their precise role. other adverbs. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. like their English counterparts. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. In most cases. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). that is. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form.Grammar Adverbs French adverbs. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i. as in English. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • . are used to modify live version French/Grammar/Adjectives. For example. similarly.

or before the clause: • Note that. afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2. unlike in English.Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. plus ("not any more"). Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. also a preposition Grammar Adverbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . such as pas ("not"). this is true even of negative adverbs: • List of Common Adverbs • après 1. An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly.

g. For example. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question . objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. even if the person is male. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. and the word for teacher. is always feminine. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. all nouns have a grammatical gender. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. This form can be masculine or feminine.. for example. professeur. the word for person. that is. for example. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine.Grammar Gender Gender of Nouns In French. personne. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form.

but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. and vice versa. There are even words that are spelled the same. la foi is feminine and means a belief. Then there are some that just don't make sense. for example. un livre (m) means a book.Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Common Endings Used Masculine With Masculine Nouns: le fromage le cheval the horse -age the cheese le professeur le chien the dog -r the teacher le chat le livre the book -t the cat le capitalisme le bruit the noise -isme capitalism Common Endings Used Feminine With Feminine Nouns: la boulangerie la colombe the dove -ie the bakery la nation la chemise the shirt -ion the nation la fraternité la maison the house -ite/-ité brotherhood la balance la liberté liberty -nce the scales la fille -nne the girl -mme l’indienne -lle the Indian Unfortunately. . but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. whereas le foie means liver. be sure to learn the genders along with the words.

Again. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini feminine une une fille a daughter singular masculine un un fils a son des filles some daughters plural des des fils1 some sons . the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". the definite article is always “the”.Definite and Indefinite Articles The Definite Article In English. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). Gender 2. "La" is used for feminine nouns. starting with a vowel l’ l’enfant the child sound les filles the daughters plural les les fils the sons les enfants the children Note: Unlike English. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. Plurality 3. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini feminine la la fille the daughter singular le le fils the son singular. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. It is similar to english. In French. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. The Indefinite Article In English. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French.

you cannot say. looking at nothing in particular. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. "Je regard des photographies. if a group of people consists of both males and females. While in English. When referring to a single person." ("I am looking at the photographs. instead of “nous”. see notes in lesson 1. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns." In French. elle. In everyday language. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. 2nd. the male form is used. Also. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. to express “we”. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info •61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis singular je I 1st person plural nous we singular tu you 2nd person plural vous you singular il. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. 2nd. Also. one 3rd person they (masculine) plural ils. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". see the Wikipedia entry. elles they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person.") If you were just flipping through the album. In English. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". you would say.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures.” (formal). on he. and 3rd person plural. However. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Grammar Gender live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .") Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. we would say "I am looking at photographs. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. "Je regarde photographies. “vous” must be used. For example. when pronounced. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock"." ("I am looking at some photographs." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. she. you would say "Je regarde les photographies. For more. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu.1"des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. “on” is used. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. The French third person "on" has several meanings. as discussed in lesson 1.

..I want to not steal.pas wraps around the auxillary verb.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne.pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb.I do not steal.I do not want to steal.. .I did not steal it.pas around the verb. ... • Je n'ai pas volé. not the participle. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. . ne.Grammar Negation ne. In a perfect tense.I have never stolen. ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. • Je ne veux pas voler. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question .. ne. • Je ne vole pas.. When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together. . • Je ne le vole pas. • Je veux ne pas voler..

..ni requires two objects. none.pas du tout not at all ne. • Je ne l'ai donné à personne.pas encore not yet ne... . Il Je ne peux guère voir mon frère et ma sœur .. None...I did not give it too anyone. . either direct or indirect. However.plus ne.He has only one piece of paper. Il n'a qu'une feuille de papier..nor ne.. • Je ne veux le donner à personne.ni not any. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations. Aucun. .Other Negative Expressions ne. • • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) Grammar Negation live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .I can hardly see my brother and sister. • Il n'a aucun ami. Aucune.aucun(e)..que • nobody no longer hardly only • • • • ne. Spoken French Now...... ni à ma sœur... the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. .personne wraps around the entire verb set...I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister.. . In ne.ni. .I do not want to give it to anybody.He has no friend.jamais ne..ni... no never neither..aucun(e) ne. None..He has no sheet of paper.. and comes before them.... aucun(e) goes before an object. . ne. • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère.personne ne. • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier.guère ne. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur.I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister..

Je pars à cinq heures. price. means.Grammar Prepositions Common Prepositions live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to). -. -. of. in Example Je vais à Paris. Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb.This is a friend of mine. from 2. possession (of or 's). to 2. time (at). à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de next to. -This is John's car. Also a conjugation of the verb entrer.I am going to Paris. La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle. of 4. a complement of the name or adjective. . Contractions: du. about outside behind in front of in between here far Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space. -. Prepostion Translation à 1.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution. C'est la voiture à John. Also a pronoun.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi. at 3. des IPA: /də/ . manner. besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1.

meaning sure IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur Prepositions live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . on 2.(golf) par IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . out of 6.par près de pour sans selon 1. through 2. for near for without 1. by.penny. according to 2. sept sur dix (seven out of ten) Grammar Also a noun: le par . under) Antonyms: dessous. on top of 4. peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below. au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. wothless thing. in accordance with below. under 1. above 5. upon 3.

and disjunctive) are not replaced by forms of on unless on is the subject as well. it is often used as an empty subject when the agent is unknown or unimportant: « On me l'a donné. Because of French's limited passive voice.") It is used as a less formal substitute for the subject pronoun nous (we). Also. numbers can be used as pronouns — « Deux sont entrés et un est ressorti ». "We're American"). only the reflexive pronoun se. » ("It is by blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith. its disjunctive-pronoun form. It has a number of uses: • • • • It is used in the same ways as the English personal pronoun one: • It is used in expressing generalities: « C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeur. On (indeterminate) ask a question • First person plural (we) .Vous (polite). "They gave it to us. (Hence. Elle (female). and therefore is not used to mean "one of them.Il (male)." but « On se l'est donné ».and indirect-object pronouns. note that even though on always takes a third-person singular verb. "to think oneself right").Je. The pronoun quelqu'un ("someone") can fill some of the roles of on. is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. she) . "We gave it to ourselves. Tu (informal. .Grammar Pronouns live version discussion Subject Pronouns exercises • First person singular (I.e.Vous • Third person plural (them) . In this case. in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English. not on. » ("[On] gave it to me" or "I was given it" or "It was given to me. soi. moi edit lesson • Second person singular (you) . « Ils nous l'ont donné ». except that it is not so formal. Similarly. note that the other forms of nous (direct object. On does not have ordinary direct. "Two went in and one came back out" — but the number 1 is un(e).") It is not the number 1.Ils (male). well-known comment acquaintances only) report an error • Third person singular (he." In French as in English. Elles (female) The pronoun on The subject pronoun on is analogous to the English personal pronoun one. me) . and is more common.Nous • Second person plural (you) .") • It is the implicit subject for an infinitive that has no other implicit subject: « penser qu'on a raison » ("to think that one is right. it takes plural adjectives (« On est américains ». indirect object." i.

to you (singular. Il te voit.He calls to me. Il nous le jette.to them Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois. .me.us. . . . Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit.He throws it to us.I see you.He throws the ball. Il nous voit. to me te . • Je veux te voir. la.you. and les are called direct object pronouns.I saw you.He sees you. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.you.I want to see you. .He throws it to you. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. . informal) lui . If a perfect tense is used. .me. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Meanings • • • • • • me . to you (plural. le.He sees me. Il te le jette. and les le. .He sees you. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. used as direct object. to us vous . . you guessed it. te.to him nous . Il vous voit. formal) leurs . because they are pronouns that are. . • Je t'ai vu.He throws it to you. la. Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle.He sees us. . . Il vous le jette. . nous. • Il jette la boule.

which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les . "He throws him the ball" is also said. They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively.replaces plural direct objects. la. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. Similary. . . • Il la lui jette.He throws them. Note that while le.He throws the ball to them.He throws the ball to him. Il jette la boule à Marie. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things.He throws the ball to Mary. Il leur jette la boule. such as "la boule". .replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. • • lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. .replaces a masculine singular direct object la .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur .He throws it to him.He throws it. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. Il les jette.).. . la.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . lui and leur come after those pronouns. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. • • • • le . tu.He throws the ball to Jack. . can be replaced by pronouns. lui is never shortened y Indirect Object Pronoun . . • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. • • lui . In English..to it. Il lui jette la boule. When used with the direct object pronouns le.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. direct objects.You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. and les. . Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. both masculine and feminine Il la jette. . Also note that unlike le and la. and means the same thing.He throws the ball to her. .

Note that lui and leur. and not y. I respond to the questions. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. the pronouns are embedded as follows: .It's Done! J'y suis! .I come from it. Pronoun Order Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive. . Note that en.I get it! en Replacement of a Partitive Construction Replacement of Quantified Nouns Replacement of Phrases with de • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. • • Les hommes vont en France. • J' en viens. and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons.I come from Paris. . • Je viens de Paris.• • Je réponds aux questions.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de (for which en is used).J' y réponds. Idioms • • Ça y est! . .I respond to them. Note that stress pronouns.Les hommes y vont. The men go to France . . . Replacement of Places .The men go there.

Me and Te become moi and toi. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le. • Il y en a. and vous go first. la.He takes me to Paris. . there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. When there are two pronouns in a sentence. and vous with the direct object pronouns le. .Find it. • Il me le donne...Give me the videos. . and les go first. and les. en always go last. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. • Donnez-moi les vidéos.There exist several ones. Le. vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me. la. . me.He takes me there.Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le te pas il (elle) la lui conjugated past ne nous y en plus nous l' leur verb participle vous etc. and les precede all other object pronouns. When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns.He gave it to him/her. and les.Give it to me. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc. • Il m'y emmène. . la. • Retrouve-la. nous. nous. .. • Il m'emmène à Paris. te. L'impératif When expressing positive commands. • Donnez-le-moi. Y in conjunction with en is only used in a few cases. . te. y goes after all of them with the exception of en. . vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) If a sentence uses an infinitive. la. .. le. • Il le lui donne.He gave it to me.

we have ours. nous avons la nôtre.Yes. • • Elle est ta voiture? . . Grammar Pronouns live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . . elle est à moi. it is mine. French Grammar • Pronouns Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend le mien le tien le sien le nôtre le vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copains mes copains tes copains nos copains vos copains his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miens les tiens les siens les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours ma copine ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend la mienne le tienne le sienne la nôtre la vôtre mine yours his/hers ours yours ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines his/her my friends your friends our friends your friends friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres les vôtres mine yours his/hers ours yours • Vous avez votre voiture? .Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets.You have your car? • Oui.Is that your car? Oui. leur copain their friend le leur theirs leurs copains their friends les leurs theirs leurs copine their friend la leur theirs leurs copines their friends les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence.Yes. This usually occurs in sentences with être.

How? Quel/Quels/Quelle/Quelles? .Why? Comment? .Grammar Sentences Interrogation Question Words • • • • • • Où? .When? Pourquoi? .What? Qui? .Where? Quand? .Who? live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative Grammar Sentences live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

Grammar Tenses Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood Non-finite Forms • • • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le Verbe Auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé (The Past Infinitive) live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Perfect Tenses • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present Perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Other Tenses • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) .

L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) Verb Tenses Sorted by Type Simple Tenses • • • • • • • Le présent de l'indicatif (The Present Indicative) L'imparfait de l'indicatif (The Imperfect) Le passé simple (The Past Historic) Le futur (The Future) Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le présent du subjonctif (The Present Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Perfect Tenses • • • • • • • Le passé composé (The Present perfect) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect of the Subjunctive) Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior) Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior) Le conditionnel passé (The Conditional Past) Le passé du subjonctif (The Subjunctive Past) Perfect Tense Components • • • Le participe présent (The Present Participle) Le participe passé (The Past Participle) Le verbe auxiliaire (The Auxiliary Verb) .

Other Tenses • • • • Le passé récent (The Near Past) Le futur proche (The Near Future) L'Impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) Grammar Tenses live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem. One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. The verb tenses here are organized by mood. Grammar Verbs live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .Grammar Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Pronominal verbs Verb Tenses live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. Instead of mentioning both. In this appendix. are in italics. The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading. For instance. which are only used in formal writing. Literary tenses. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs.

there are some words which break these rules. Also see wiktionary:Category:French verbs and wiktionary:fr:Catégorie:Verbes français. . live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question aller indicatif présent je vais [vE] tu vas [va] il va [va] j'allai [alE] tu allas [ala] il alla [ala] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous allons [alO~] vous allez [ale] ils vont [vO~] passé simple nous allâmes [alAm] vous allâtes [alAt] ils allèrent [alER] impératif va [va] allons [alO~] allez [ale] participes allé1 [ale] allant [alA~] radicaux ir.[aj-] all.[al-] imparfait 1 The verb aller uses the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé.Grammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations You spend a lot of time in French learning the grammatical rules . with what they do. and they are listed below.[iR-] aill.

[akeR-] .acquérir indicatif présent j'acquiers [akjER] tu acquiers [akjER] il acquiert [akjER] j'acquis [aki] tu acquis [aki] il acquit [aki] tu nous vous passé conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous acquérons [akerO~] vous acquérez [akeRe] ils acquièrent [akjER] passé simple nous acquîmes [akim] vous acquîtes [akit] ils acquirent [akiR] impératif acquiers [akjER] acquérons [akeRO~] acquérez [akeRe] participes acquis [aki] radicaux acquerr.[akjER-] acquér.[akeR-] acquér.[akER-] acquièr.

avoir indicatif présent j'ai [e] ou [E] tu as [a] il a [a] j'eus [y] tu eus [y] il eut [y] que j'aie [E] que tu aies [E] qu'il ait [E] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait nous avons [avO~] vous avez [ave] ils ont [O~] passé simple nous eûmes [ym] vous eûtes [yt] ils eurent [yR] subjonctif que nous ayons [EjO~] que vous ayez [eje] qu'ils aient [E] impératif aie [E] ayons [EjO~] ayez [eje] participes eu [y] ayant [ajA~] radicaux aur.[Or-] av.[av-] .

to sit participe présent: s'asseyant participe passé: assis(e)(es) présent je m'assieds nous nous asseyons tu t'assieds vous vous asseyez il s'assied ils s'asseyent impératif asseyons-nous assieds-toi asseyez-vous passé simple je m'assis tu t'assis il s'assit nous nous assîmes vous vous assîtes ils s'assirent être indicatif présent je suis [sHi] tu es [E] il est [E] je fus [fy] tu fus [fy] il fut [fy] nous sommes [sOm] vous êtes [Et] ils sont [sO~] passé simple nous fûmes [fym] vous fûtes [fyt] ils furent [fyR] subjonctif que je sois [swa] que tu sois [swa] qu'il soit [swa] tu nous vous que nous soyons [swajO~] que vous soyez [swaje] qu'ils soient [swa] impératif sois [swa] soyons [swajO~] soyez [swaje] .s'asseoir .

[fas-] fais.[et-] faire indicatif présent je fais [fE] tu fais [fE] il fait [fE] je fis [fi] tu fis [fi] il fit [fi] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait nous faisons [f(@)zO~] vous faites [fEt] ils font [fO~] passé simple nous fîmes [fim] vous fîtes [fit] ils firent [fiR] impératif fais [fE] faisons [f(@)zO~] faites [fEt] participes fait [fE] faisant [f(@)zA~] radicaux fer.participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple imparfait été [ete] étant [etA~] radicaux ser.[fER-] fass.[s(@)r-] ét.[fEz-] .

falloir indicatif présent il faut [fo] passé simple il fallut [faly] participe passé fallu [faly] radicaux conditionnel futur simple subjonctif imparfait faudr.[fOdR-] faill.[sOR-] .[fal-] savoir indicatif présent je sais [sE] tu sais [sE] il sait [sE] je sus [sy] tu sus [sy] il sut [sy] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple nous savons [savO~] vous savez [save] ils savent [sav] passé simple nous sûmes [sym] vous sûtes [syt] ils surent [syR] impératif sache [saS] sachons [saSO~] sachez [saSe] participes su [sy] sachant [saSA~] radicaux saur.[faj-] fall.

[sav-] venir The verb tenir and verbs ending in -tenir and -venir also follow this pattern. devenir.[v(@)n-] imparfait 1 The verbs venir. and revenir use the auxiliary verb être in the passé composé. indicatif présent je viens [vjE~] tu viens [vjE~] il vient [vjE~] je vins [vE~] tu vins [vE~] il vint [vE~] tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) nous venons [v(@)nO~] vous venez [v(@)ne] ils viennent [vjEn] passé simple nous vînmes [vE~m] vous vîntes [vE~t] ils vinrent [vE~R] impératif viens [vyE~] venons [v(@)nO~] venez [v(@)ne] participes venu1 [v(@)ny] venant [v(@)nA~] radicaux viendr.[saS-] sav.[vjEn-] ven.[vjE~dR-] vienn. .subjonctif imparfait sach.

vouloir indicatif présent je veux [v2] tu veux [v2] il veut [v2] je voulus [vuly] tu voulus [vuly] il voulut [vuly] nous voulons [vulO~] vous voulez [vule] ils veulent [v9l] passé simple nous voulûmes [vulym] vous voulûtes [vulyt] ils voulurent [vulyR] impératif tu nous vous veux1 [v2] or veuille [v9j] voulons1 [vulO~] voulez1 [vule] or veuillez2 [v9je] participes passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) voulu [vuly] voulant [vulA~] radicaux voudr. and voulez are rare.[v9j-] voul.[vul-] imparfait 1 The imperative forms veux. It is most often used on signs and in impersonal writing. voulons. "Veuillez suivre les instructions ci-dessous.") . (e.[vudR-] veuill. 2 The imperative form veuillez is used to make very polite requests.g.

devoir indicatif présent je dois tu dois il doit je dus tu dus il dut tu nous vous passé présent conditionnel futur simple subjonctif (je/tu/il/ils) subjonctif (nous/vous) imparfait nous devons vous devez ils doivent passé simple nous dûmes vous dûtes ils durent impératif dois devons devez participes dû1 devant radicaux devrdoive devGrammar Verbs Irregular Conjugations live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question .

• • • Je me lave. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. .We wash ourselves.I'm not going to wash myself. être is used as the auxiliary verb. • Je vais me laver. . . depending on the verb that they modify.She was herself. reciprocal verbs. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives.Grammar Verbs Pronominal Pronominal verbs are verbs that. .They wash themselves.I'm going to wash myself. te.I wash myself. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. • Je ne vais pas me laver. . Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object.We wash ourselves. live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report an error ask a question Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. In perfect tenses. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. Elle s'est lavé les mains. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. Nous nous lavons. in gender and plurality. . the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. put simply. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. .We washed our hands. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. . . These pronouns are me. include pronouns. and naturally pronominal verbs.She washed her hands. Ils se lavent. nous. . se. but not the indirect object pronoun.

Nous nous sommes parlé. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. • • . .to return. Elle s'est souvenue. to give back se rendre (à) . .Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs.She remembered. • • • Nous nous aimons. . • • • Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.They called to one another.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.We liked each other. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . people perform actions to each other.You remember? • • In perfect tenses.We like each other. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.We spoke to each other. Tu te souvenu? . Otherwise. the past participle agrees with the subject. . rendre . Like reflexive verbs. Elles se sont téléphoné. .

imperfect.Reflexive Verbs Details Reflexive Verbs in French are actions that one does to oneself. . When conjugating a reflexive verb you must use the correct reflexive pronoun. The following tables show which reflexive pronoun to use with each form of the verb: Subject je tu il nous vous ils Reflexive Pronoun me te se nous vous se Here is an example conjugation of a reflexive verb: Se coucher . passé simple. conditional and subjuntive are all conjugated with the reflexive pronoun in this position. They can be recognised because their infinitive form has the pronoun se in front of it or s' before a vowel.to go to bed Present Je me couche Tu te couches Il se couche Elle se couche Nous nous couchons Vous cous couchez Ils se couchent Elles se couchent NB The futur simple.

vouloir. Futur Proche Je vais me coucher Tu vas te coucher Il va se coucher Elle va se coucher Nous allons nous coucher Vous allez vous coucher Ils vont se coucher Elles vont se coucher NB When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb (e.. Grammar Verbs Pronominal live version • discussion • exercises • edit lesson • comment • report an error • ask a question . pouvoir.g..Passé Composé Je me suis couché Tu t'es couché(e) Il s'est couché Elle s'est couchée Nous nous sommes couché(e)s Vous vous êtes couché(e)(s) Ils se sont couchés Elles se sone couchées NB All reflexive verbs are take être in the passé composé and therefore have an e added to the past participle for females and an s for plural. aller.) it still takes the appropriate reflexive pronoun.

Appendices Le midi d'ossau dans les pyrénées .

Time.Dates.Appendices Contents 1. 213 . and Numbers 2. 240 .Slang 6.Phrasebook 5. 226 . 215 .French Authors 3.Web Resources .Typing Characters 7. 229 .Nations of the World 4. 211 . 242 .

. time. see the phrasebook. and numbers • audio (info •420 kb • help) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Days of the Week. and numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week.01 • Dates. • Les jours de la semaine. time.Appendices Appendix A. [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates. For phrases relating to the day of the week. French Pronunciation English Origin lundi luhndee Monday Moon mardi mahrdee Tuesday Mars mercredi maircruhdee Wednesday Mercury jeudi juhdee Thursday Jupiter vendredi vahndruhdee Friday Venus samedi sahmdee Saturday Saturn dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.

time.Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. and numbers • audio (info •561 kb • # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 • • The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année French Pron. time. For phrases relating to the months of the year.01 • Dates. and numbers live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . [lay mwah duh lahnay] help) French Vocabulary • Dates. and numbers • audio (info •142 kb • help) la saison le printemps l'été (m) l'automne (m) l'hiver (m) Seasons • Les Saisons season Spring Summer Autumn Winter Appendices Appendix A. English janvier jzahnveeyay January février fayvreeyay February mars mahrse March avril ahvrill April mai maye May juin jzwan Juin juillet jzooeeyay July août oot/oo August septembre septahmbruh September octobre oktuhbruh October novembre novahmbruh November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French. time. see the phrasebook Les Saisons French Vocabulary • Dates.

1799) .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .1526 .around 1183) 16th century • • • live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.02 • List of authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .Appendices Appendix A.a.1565) 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .

1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1982) Links List of French authors in the French Wikipedia.1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .1955) Marcel Proust (1871 . Appendices Appendix A.1918) 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .02 • List of authors live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 .1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .1870) George Sand (1804 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .1974) André Breton (1896 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1980) Robert Merle (1908 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .

03 • Nations of the world Les pays du monde (Nations of the World) A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda .Appendices Appendix A.

B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso .

C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica .

E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France France G French le Gabon la Gambie la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana English Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea .

H French Haïti la Hongrie English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan .

K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand .

O French l'Oman (m) English Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar R .

French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie le Rwanda Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis .

T
French la Tanzanie le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu English Tanzania Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan

Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

U
French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine

l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay

V
French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican

le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam

W
[None]

X
[None]

Y
le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) Yemen Yugoslavia

Z
French la Zambie English Zambia Appendices

le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

Appendix A.03 • Nations of the world
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Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
TravelWiki phrase book

V: Greetings
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •276 kb • help) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Hi./Bye. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all Bonjour Hello day) Bonsoir Good evening Bonne nuit Good night bun nwee What's up (about you)? (lit. what's Quoi de neuf ? new) Pas grandNot much. (lit. no big-thing) chose.

live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •311 kb •
help)

How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) I'm doing (very) well Ça va (très) bien (lit. It's going (very) well) Oui, ça va. Yes, it goes. Très bien, merci. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. Not Bad pas si bien/pas très bien not so well (très) mal (very) bad Comme ci, comme ça. So-So. Désolé(e). I'm sorry. Et toi? And you? (informal) Et vous? And you? (formal)

Titles
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •325 kb • help) Titles • Les titres French Abbr. Pronunciation English, Usage Singular Monsieur muhsyur Mr., Sir. M. Plural Messieurs. mehsyur Gentlemen. Singular Madame mahdahmn Mrs., Ma'am. Mme maydahm Plural Mesdames Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle mahdmwoizell Miss, Young lady Plural Mesdemoiselles M maydmwahzell Young ladies

V: Courtesy
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •434 kb • help) Courtesy • La politesse S'il te plaît. (Lit: If you please.) Please S'il vous plaît. (formal). Thanks (a lot) Merci (beaucoup). De rien. (Lit: Of nothing.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No Pas de quoi. problem.) You're welcome. Je t'en prie. shtahn pree (informal) Je vous en prie jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal)

V: Good-bye
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •202 kb • help) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. Hi./Bye. (informal) Au revoir. Good-bye. ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until À demain. See you tomorrow. Tomorrow) Au revoir, à Bye, see you demain. tomorrow. À tout à l'heure. See you (later today)! ah tootah luhr À la prochaine. See you (tomorrow)! ah lah proh shayn À bientôt. See you soon. ah byantoe Ciao Bye. chow (Italian)

V: Asking for the day/date/time
French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (info •612 kb • help) Asking For The Day, Date, Time • Demander le jour, la date, le temps Asking for the day. Aujourd'hui c'est quel Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor jour? Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Demain c'est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date kell ay lah daht (aujourd'hui)? (today)? C'est le [#] [month]. It's [month] [#]. Asking for the time. Quelle heure est-il? kell er ayteel What hour/time is it? Il est quelle heure? eel ay kell er Il est [nombre] heure(s). It is [number] hours. eelay [nombre] er

1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b 5

Appendices

Appendix A.04 • Phrasebook
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Appendices

Appendix A.05 • Slang
Notes on how to use slang
Foreign speakers
It is important to note that, as a foreigner, your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny, depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. To understand this, think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner—with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech—came up to you and said "Dude, what a sketchyass hater that bizz-natch was, I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". Therefore, no matter how much slang you use in your native language, limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question

Slang: consistency & style
To use slang effeciently, it is important to maintain a consistency of style. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face, it is quite finely rawkin'".
• •

Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que', only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. When doing this with interrogatives (qui, quand, comment, etc.), place them at the end of the sentence; i.e. "On va bouffer quand?"

Translating 'Fuck'
The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun, verb, adjective, exclamation, and others. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech. Examples noun "He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser, niquer, coucher avec ; insulting: foutre, enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix", "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain, ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state); "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain, là, j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" ; "Putain !" ; "Bordel !" n.b.: these can also be compounded in French, i.e., "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together, see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant)

Glossary
Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced, gargle with water, then try gargling without water. That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. *The U is hardest for English speakers. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!", but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo".

Look up Category:fr:Slang on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n., A retard, an idiot ah-BROO-tee Accro n., addict ack-RO Ado n., teenager; short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n., Short for apéritif. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n., flat or apartment; short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n., Short for après-midi. ah-PRIm Bagnole n., Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n., Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot

. crazy n. to become erect. and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n.. i.e. the boondocks blED Boule n. dick bEEt Blaireau n. or 'head' in its slang usage.. Loser bl-AIR-roh Le Bled n. to eat n. to masturbate (lit. a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'... 'ball'..adj. la bouffe. food BOOF-fay Bosser v. to work boss-SAY Boulot n. to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj.: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v.. often used at the beginning of a phrase. Synonym for 'tête'... to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay . a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v.. for 'well'... job bOOL-oh Se Branler v. litt.

. "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v. To fuck. "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive. the flu. 'cunt' (as used in UK English). "Quel con" = "What an idiot" exp. ça a été" (Yes. to bugger.. As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n. also a question "Ta présentation. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n. eñ-CU-lay . exhausted. to die. "à la con". Answers to this question: "Ouais.Ça a été exp. exp.. dear-loh Enculer v. 'to kick the bucket' adj. Sex maniac (lit. Also. Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass"). litt. A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n.. stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n. : "enculer des mouches" (litt. a cold. ghetto see-TAY Con adj. stupid. crevé(e).. or adj. "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick". la crève. in a stupid way. ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" . it went well. to burst or explode. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n. Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'.. exp. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off". slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n.. Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt.: "J'ai la crève".. hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n. and means "bastard" or "asshole"..

litt.La Fac n. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood). keef-ay Génial adj. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'. e. Sperm. it can be placed before or after it. 'very'. avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. guh-lay . "faire la gueule". to do or to make. When used with a predicate. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English). "brilliant". Exists also engueuler. e. 'really' .. roughly means "stupid" e.g.g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). college or university fack Faire la tête exp. "severe". 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e. fer lah tet Foutre n. "great". to pout.. Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'. "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer v.g Tu me fais trop kiffer.. slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. slang for 'to reprimand'.g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv. slang. lui!" or "il est grave débile.. gull Gueuler v. Means 'to shout'. v. "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n.. oñ-guh-lay . Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici.g "il est débile grave. e.

c'est de la merde'.. 'Cette porte est niquée. 'really' . Metaphorically.. That is to say. mack-doh Merde n. pew-tAÑ Super adj. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother).' (This door is out of order.) 'Ce jeu nique tout. job. excl.. It can also mean 'rubbish'.Macdo Short for MacDonald's... Stuff trew-uhk Tronche . maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. excl. or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres». "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation.. 'very'. for example 'Ce repas.' (This game is great. an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word". 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck'). old form for 'pute' (whore).) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n. translated as 'shit'. bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. 'whatever' n. adults use it often. work. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'.g. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'. as well as the youth. 'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! e. As a name. task taff Truc n. slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'.

'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent. vachement is a synonym for "very". and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh. as an exclamation. vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n. . Whilst on the subject of 'vache'. TRon-shuh Vachement adj. For instance .'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'.n. slang. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which. For example . Literally "cowly". means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. Colloquial word meaning 'face'.. France.

. angry. quite commonly used among young adults and even adults. ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form.. Fishy.. Crazy. 'reub'). Verlan is. pissed off. girl.. in verlan it will become [2-1]. gross.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin. Venère adj. . suspicious. something that sucks. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit"). Ripou adj. difficult. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. Relou adj. from fou. from fête. Woman. Rotten. A person of Arab descent. Not funny. unlike Pig Latin." Meuf n. shady.. awful.. if you have word [12]. The word verlan is in itself an example of this. aggravated. from enervé(e). it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). Chelou adj. Ouf adj. in that certain words are split in half. Party. from louche. chick. (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). and the two componenents switch positions. from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n. from lourd. heavy. ridiculous.. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). For example. from arabe. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs.. from femme.

"for". ke interr. "it is". imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. "it is necessary". stronger than mdr. pr prep.Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais". (equivalent of lol. "kisses". "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). the conjunction "et" (and). c'est. "why". words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). laughing out loud). ki interr. que. dc conj. laughing out loud). bisous. n... also seen in pourkoi. and the verb "est" (third person sing. mé conj. ct subj+verb. conjugation of être. fok exp. désolé(e). qui. "sorry". . "-ait". "to be"). c'était. "that". "it was". "that" or "which". koi interrogative. pron.. so"... and rel. donc. "therefore. il faut que. "laughing myself to death". dsl adj. pour. mort(e) de rire. ptdr exp. "what". "but".. quoi.. biz c subj+verb. and relative pronoun. (equivalent of lol.. and vois (voi). "bursting with laughter". peté(e) de rire.. mdr exp. mais.

. tout(e). angry.. aggravated. also seen in the expression tout le monde. Appendices Appendix A. vnr adj. "all".05 • Slang live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . from the Verlan form of enervé(e).tt adj. pissed off.

Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text. but there is a much better method.06 • Typing characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below).. however. 2. For longer texts. choose United States-International.. Under Input language. . For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à.. ì. this can become quite tedious. Under Keyboard layout/IME. See http://www. Click Add. 3. 5. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents. In Windows XP: 1. To get Ë.net/kbh for more information. one types ` and then e.Appendices Appendix A. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. one types " and then E. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . or ù. è. ò. choose your native language. live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Now to form accents. 6. to get è.starr.. One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. 4.

Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " Appendices Appendix A. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character.06 • Typing characters live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question . This feature can be used to 'type' special characters.Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text. then type two characters. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type. press and release the Compose key. Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à). Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + . for example typing ~a when you mean à.

automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) live version discussion edit appendix comment report an error ask a question Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About. Dictionnaire anglais/francais.Appendices Appendix A. Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar . Dictionnaire francais/anglais. Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator .com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide. Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www.tv5.Dozens of valuable links. and lots more! French grammar Wikipedia has more about this subject: French language French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr.07 • Web resources Wikipedia French language external links . Dictionnaire de synonymes. Conjugaisons.org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise.

Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki French Administration • Le portail de l'administration Appendices Appendix A.07 • Web resources live version • discussion • edit appendix • comment • report an error • ask a question .

About the Book Plouhinec .Bucht von Pors Poulhan .

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