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8 °R = 25 °C + 460 5 °C = 9 (°F – 32) 8 5111 °R = 45 [°F + 2 ] K = 273 + C 9 C° = 5 F° = K THERMOMETER SCALES
3. The change in temperature of a body is 45 C . How o much is it in F ? In K? 9 5 F° 45C° x 1C° = 81F° 1K 45C° x 1C° = 45K
* Fo and Co is different from oF and oC. Fo and Co is a notation for the change in temperature.
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS 1. While vacationing in Italy, you see on local TV one summer morning that the temperature will rise from o o the current 18 C to a high of 39 C. What is the corresponding increase in the Fahrenheit temperature? 9 °F = 5 °C + 32 9 °F = 5 (18) + 32 9 °F = 5 (39) + 32
REFERENC E POINTS STEAM PT. FREEZING PT. ABSOLUTE ZERO
CELSIUS 100 C 0 C -273 C
o o o
FAHRENHE IT 212 F 32 F
KELVIN 373 K 273K 0K
RANKINE 492 R 460 R
°F = 64.4°F °F = 102.2°F 102.2 – 64.4 = 37.8 F °
SAMPLE PROBLEMS: 1. Convert: o a.) -15 F to KELVIN answer: 246.89 K b.) 303 K to CELSIUS and to FAHRENHEIT o o answer: 30 C and 86 F o c.) -459 F to CELSIUS o answer -272.78 C 2. A thermometer has 0 A freezing point and 80 A, the boiling point of water at normal pressure. Give the o o equation to change A to C, A to F, and A to K. FAHRENHEIT O 212 F KELVIN 373 K
Two beakers of water, A and B, initially are at the same temperature. The temperature of the water in beaker A o is increased 10 F, and the temperature of the water in beaker B is increased 10 K. After those temperature changes, which beaker of water has the higher temperature? Explain. 5 °CA = 9 (°F – 32) °CB = K – 273 5 °CA = 9 (10 – 32) °CB = 10 – 273 °CA = -12.22°C °CB = -263° Beaker A increased -12.22 C while beaker B o increased -263 C which means beaker A has a higher temperature than beaker B.
CELSIUS O 100 C
You put a bottle of soft drink in a refrigerator and leave it until its temperature has dropped 10 K. What is its o o temperature change in F and C ? -10K = -10°C 9 5 F° -10°C x 1C° = -18F°
273 K THERMAL EXPANSION Linear: Lf = Lo + ΔL Lf = Lo (1 + α ΔT) ΔL = α Lo ΔT where α = coefficient of thermal expansion Area: ΔA = Af – Ao ΔA = 2xΔx ΔA = 2x (x α ΔT) ΔA = 2α Ao ΔT x Δx
TEMPERATURE SCALE OF “A” 80 A
0 A A to C* A to K*
80− 0 100− 0 = A− 0 C− 0
A to F*
80− 0 373− 273 = A− 0 K− 273
80− 0 212− 32 = A− 0 F − 32
*Gamitin nyo lang yung law of proportionality between SCALE A and STANDARD SCALE para makuha nyo ang equivalent formula ng A to the other standard temperature scale.
Δx Volume: ΔV = 3α Vo ΔT ΔV = β Vo ΔT where βsolid < βliquid Over Flow = (βliquid – βsolid) Vo ΔT
without changing the temperature of the glass? *Find the change ΔL in the diameter of the lid.0 C°) = 0.55 cm L0 zinc = 25. When the temperature drops to o 20 C.000765 ∆𝑇 = 25.000765 ∆T 0.4 L -5 3 2 2 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS: 1.00141 -3 3 ΔVs = .86 m o To = 17 C -4 ΔL = 1.2.41°C o Tf > To Tf < To 5.000030 per C°. The brass bar and the aluminum bar as shown are each attached to an immovable wall.8) (75 x 10 ) (-14) ΔVe = . A0 = 𝜋r0 = 𝜋 (0.14 °C lb 6 -6 S = (33 x 10 )(11 x 10 )(-10) = -3630in2 b.431 cm -6 2 2 2 αsteel = 11 x 10 /C -6 o b.1.431 + (5. At what temperature will its volume be 0.55 [1 + (0.10− (C°)−)(725 mm)(30. ∆A = (2∝)Ao∆T = 2(1.431)(175-25) -5 2 = 5.8 m of ethanol when both the tank and the ethanol are at temperature of 32.31C° .86)(23 x 10-6) Tf = 25.26 mm 8. a.0°C. the air gap -3 between the rod is 1.5 x 10 Vo = (5. exactly 0.089°C 3.41 x 10 m ~ .6 x 10 ) (-14) ΔVs = .50 [1 + (0.1 x 10 ) Let Xo = the initial volume Let Xo + 0.35 cm in a steel plate at a temperature of 25°C. dynes cm 2 2 lb in 2 2 2 N/m N/m dynes/cm dynes/cm lb/in or lb/ft lb/in or lb/ft 2 2 A steel tank is completely filled with 2.000030)(∆T) 25.0005095 ∆𝑇 = 0.0.To Liron = Lzinc Lo iron (1 + ∝ ∆T) = Lo zinc (1 + ∝ ∆T) 25.675) =1.8) (3.15 x 10 ) = 1. the bat lengthens by 1.05 ∆𝑇 = 98.000010 per C° and 0.55 cm and 25.) the stress developed at the ends of the rod b.2 x 10 )(1.6 x 10 m ∆L ∆T = L α o 1. The ends of a steel rod.0294 -2 3 ΔVe = -2.5 + 0. respectively.) F S = A = Yα∆T 6 2 2 6. An iron rod and a zinc rod have lengths of 25.6 x 10 Tf – 17 = (0. At 28 °C.2 in in cross-sectional area are rigidly held between two fixed points at a o temperature of 30 C.2) = -726lb 2.1 x 10 )(Vo)(Tf – 20) Tf = 49. -6 o ( αAl = 23 x 10 /C ) Lo = 86 cm or 0.3 x 10 m -6 -6 -3 [(19 X 10 )(2)∆T + (23 X 10 )(1)∆T = 1.31 = 49.000010)(∆T)] = 25.6 x 10 m.436 cm 7.3 x 10 m.14 + 0°C Tf = 98.5 – 25.50 cm respectively. ΔL = αLΔT = (1.3 x 10 m ∆T = 21.15 x 10 cm A = Ao + ∆A -6 2 = 1. At what temperature will the gap be closed? BRASS ALUMINUM -4 2m αBr = 19 X 10 /C° -3 -6 -6 1m αAl = 23 X 10 /C° ∆LBr + ∆LAl = 1.31C° Tf = 28 + 21. A machinist bores a hole of diameter 1. What is the cross sectional area of the hole a) at 25°C b) when the temperature of the plate is increased to 175°C? Assume that the coefficient of linear expansion remains constant over this temperature range.0 C. At what temperature will the rods have the same lengths? The coefficients of linear expansion of iron and zinc are 0.0002555∆𝑇 – 0. When the tank and its contents have cooled to 18°C.0.41 L ΔVe = Vo βe ΔT = (2.0.55 + 0. find: a.0002555 ∆T = 25.5 . An aluminum baseball bat has a length of 86 cm at a o temperature of 17 C. What will be the size of the mismatch between the lid and the jar if the lid is briefly held under hot water until its temperature rises to 50°C. A copper cylinder is initially at 20.0015 Xo = the final volume Let ∆V = 0.6 x 10 /C ) -5 ΔVs = Vo βs ΔT = (2.150%Vo ΔV = βVo ΔT -3 -5 1.14 𝐶° Tf = 98.1.) F = SA F = (-3630)(0. The outer diameter of a glass jar and the inner diameter of an iron lid are both 725 mm at room temperature (20°C).150% larger than it is o -5 at 20. When the temperature of the bat is -4 raised. at 32°F. what additional volume of ethanol can be put into the tank? -5 o -5 o (βe = 75 x 10 /C βs = 3. L0 iron = 25.) the pull in the rod Ysteel = 33 x 10 lb/in a.94 x 10 m ~ -29.THERMAL STRESS (Tensile or Compressive) F ∆L S = A = YL O where: Y = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity ∆L Lo = fractional change due to stress ∆L Lo = α∆T = fractional change due to change in length COMPRESSION: TENSION: UNITS: F A S Y N m 2 4.0 C? (βCu = 5.50 cm T0 = 32°F = 0°C Tf= ? ∆T = Tf . Determine the final temperature of the bat.3 x 10 m -3 (α Lo ΔT)Br + (α Lo ΔT)Al = 1.
*water equivalent means yung mass ng water is equal to mass of container.0°C) + (10g)(80 cal/g) = mw (1)(22°C .093)(100°C-45°C) = 120g(0. QLOSS = QGAINED SAMPLE PROBLEMS: .90 cm when warmed to 420°C.74Btu x 1Btu = 15.093 and that of aluminum is 0. Qlost = Qgained mcopperCcopper(Tf-Ti) = malCal(Tf-Ti) + miquidCliquid(Tf-Ti) 200g(0. 0. Find the stress in the wire if it is cooled to 20°C without being allowed to contract. a) A wire that is 1. If the Lf of the substance is 200 cal/g.∆Vglass = 8.5. liquid. cal/gC o J/kgC or kcal/kgC o CONVERSION FACTOR: 1 Btu = 252 cal 1 kcal = 1000 cal 1 cal = 4. (b) The wire is stretched just tant (zero tension) at 420°C.9 – 8.48 = 15[-20-(-40)] + (15)(200) + (15)(1.4 cal/gC respectively.2 x 10 (C°) -5 -1 QLOSS = QGAINED o 40 c (97 – 22)C = [Cal mAl + cw mw] (22 – 18) [ (200▪0.74 Btu of heat is liberated. When 15g of this o o substance at 180 C is brought to -40 C. (a) ΔL=αLΔT ∆L ∝= = Lo ∆T The Calorimeter cup.31gC° 2.7 x 10 /K -5 How much water could be cooled from 22°C to 5°C by a 10-g ice cube placed into a glass of water? The glass container is initially at 5° C and its water is equivalent is 10-g. ∆VHg . What is the specific heat of the unknown liquid? C of copper is 0.95 = 9. 0. the cup and the solid o material was observed at 22 C.10 11 Pa)(3.95 = 0. Q Q = m c ΔT where: c = specific heat capacity UNITS: Q m ΔT c calorie gram C o Joule (kcal) Kg C o Btu lb F Btu/lbF o o Qlost = Qgained miceCwater(Tf-Ti) + miceLf = mwaterCwater(Tf—Ti) + mglassCwater(Tf-Ti) (10g)(1)(22°C .48 cal Q = mc∆T + mLf + mc∆T + mLv + mc∆T 15810.0445 c water= 1 cal kcal Btu =1 =1 o o gC kgC lbF o CALORIMETRY (Principle of conservation energy) HEAT LOST by warmer bodies is equal to the HEAT GAINED by the cooler bodies.10 -5 (C°) -1)(−400 C°) = +2.5)[120-(20)] + 15Lv + (15)(0. When flask and 3 mercury are warmed to 55°C.2kg of water. compute the coefficient of volume expansion of the glass. A 40g mass of solid material is heated to a temperature of the water.95 cm ∆VHg = Vo𝛽 Hg∆𝑇 -5 3 = (1000) (18 x 10 ) (55) = 9.9cm ∆Vglass = ∆VHg . determine its Lv? 252cal 62. = 0.95 1000 (55) = 1.95 cm of mercury overflow.15kg in mass.5°C) + (10g)(1)(22°C .10 9 Pa 10.8.22) + (150▪1) ](4) c= (40)(75) cal c = 0.0. the mixture reaches a temperature of 45°C. o 1.50m (420 °C−20°C) =3. If the coefficient of volume expansion of mercury -5 is 18 x 10 /K. 62. after thermal equilibrium was established. Initially the water and the cup have a common temperature of 18 o C. Compute its average coefficient of linear expansion for this temperature range. 9.21.5°C) 220 + 800 = 17 mw + 170 17 mw = 850 mw = 50 g 4.4)(180-120) 15810.0 x 10 Pa. Equal din ang value of C HEAT. Its specific heat capacity as a solid.019 m 1.50 m long at 20°C is found to increase in length by 1. Young’s 11 modulus for the wire is 2. and 0. A glass flask whose volume is 1000 m at 0°C is completely filled with mercury at this temperature.6.48 = 6810 _ 15Lv cal Lv = 600 g o o (b) Stress F/A= −YαΔT ΔT=20°C−420°C=−400 C° *ΔT always means final temperature minus initial temperature F/A= −(2.95 𝛽 glass= ∆Vglass 𝑉𝑜 ∆𝑇 3 3 3.21)(45°C-15°C) + 200g(Cliquid)(45°-15°C) 1023 = 756 + 6000 Cliquid Cliquid = 0. A substance boils at 120 C and freezes at -20 C. and gas are 1.186 J When 200g of copper at 100°C is dropped into an aluminum container of mass 120g and containing 200g of an unknown liquid at 15°C.810. 8. is made of aluminum and contains 0.1.2.
The thermal conductivity of the 2 o glass is 5.5 g = 0.22 -8 W σ =5.maymLfkasimaguundergosiyang phase change from solid to liquid Lv from liquid to steam. If the heat of fusion of the substance is 200 cal/g.738 of heat is liberated. RADIATION 4 P = eσAT where: P = radiant power (Heat Rate) Q P= t e = emissivity of material A = surface area T = temperature of the material net radiant power: 4 4 P = eσA(T – Ts ) where: Ts = surrounding temperature σ = Stefan – Boltzmann Constant 4. Compute the heat conducted per hour through a plate2 glass window of area 15 ft and thickness ¼ in.22)(120 – 70)] -27. and a gas are 1. A spherical body emits 1 x 10 watts at 1000K surface temperature.00˚C by an ice-water mixture. What is the temperature at a point 22 com from the cooler end of the bar? H2T = HT1 KA∆T2T KA∆TT1 L2T = LT1 T2 . 4 P = eσAT P 2 A = eσT4 A = 4πr P 2 4πr = eσT4 r= r= P 4 4πeσT 8 8 Qlost = Qgained mironCiron∆T = mwateCwate∆T + malCal∆T (2)(0.66/page 604) One end of an insulated metal rod is maintained at 100.7 x 10 m2K4 or -12 W 5.5)(140) + 15Lv + 15(0. and the other end is maintained at 0. Q H= t Q = Ht Btu Q = 719.76°c 2.0 cm = 0.5.113 and C of Al = 0. Q = mc∆T + mLf + mc∆T + mLv +mc∆T = 15(1)(20) + 15(200) + 15(1. from -40°𝐶 to -20°C.7 x 10 cm2K4 *Note: for BLACKBODY. a liquid. A substance boils at at 120°C and freezes at -20°C. 1. The heat conducted by the rod melts 8. respectively. When 15g of this substance at 180°C is brought to -40°C.T1 = 22 68 . CONDUCTION KA∆T H = L where: H = rate of heat flow t = time of heat flow K = thermal conductivity A = cross-sectional area L = thickness of material ∆T L = temperature gradient II.8 + 2 Q Btu t = 719. from 20°C to 120°C.40 cal/g-C°.120) = [(2)(1)(120 – 70) + (1)(0. find the amount of heat flow.20) t = 1 1 4 1 2 +5.. find its radius.600 m 2 -4 2 A = 1.6 x 10 )(1000) r = 11. when o the inside temperature is 70 F and the outside o temperature is 20 F.113)(T .01 h x 24h Q = 17. The system is immediately insulated and the temperature of the water and container rises from 70°F to the equilibrium temperature of 120°F.85m III.0085 kg 4186 𝐽 Lf = 80 kcal/kg × = 3.34 × 105 1 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐽 𝑘𝑔 . from 120°C to 180°C. Find the thermal conductivity k of the metal.T T .50 g of ice in 10. What was the oven temperature? C of iron = 0.25 x 10 m m = 8.0˚C. Q A∆T t =1 L 1 h +k + h Q 15(70 .5 and 0.22 T = 45.4)(60) = 5010 + Lv Lv= 600 cal/g HEAT TRANSFER I. e = 1 SAMPLE PROBLEMS: o 1. 62.0 cm long and has a 2 cross-sectional area of 1. Its specific heat as a solid.8 Btu/[h ft (F /in)] and the film coefficient for 2 o the fluid is about 2 Btu/(h ft F ).Third.01 h in one day. what is the heat of vaporization? *may tatlong𝑚𝑐∆T kasi 3 beses siya maguundergo ng temperature change.00˚C L = 60. He removes a 2-lb iron bar from the oven and places it in a 1-lb aluminum container partially filled inside an oven with 2-lb of water.2 Btu 3. CONVECTION Q K A▪T H = t = L A∆T = h A∆T = 1 L 1 hf +K +hf where: h = film coefficient 1 x 10 -8 4 4π(1)(5. A worker needs to know the temperature inside an oven.226 T = 138.Second.25 cm . The bar has a length of 68 cm.25 cm = 1.256. First.12 T = 611.226 T = 100 + 11 0. Given: TH = 100.0min. The rod is 60.12 + 0.0˚C TC = 0. (17.15 °F 6. Assuming the body is a perfect emitter. The temperature at the ends of a bar are 85 C and 27 o C.
46288 W = 0.0 cm=0. = (0.0 W.03m = 𝑘𝑠 . the interior surface temperature is 19. with a thermal conductivity of 0.Solution: Q = mLf = (0. approximately how long will it take the coffee to cool to a final temperature of 55˚C? Take a room temperature to be 25˚C.30 𝑘𝑔 (4186 𝑄 𝑡 𝑘 𝑤 𝐴 𝐿𝑤 𝐻𝑤 = 𝐻𝑠 𝑇− 𝑇1 𝑘 𝐴 = 𝑠 𝐽 ∙ 𝐾) 55 − 65 𝐾 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑤 𝐿𝑠 𝑇 − 𝑇1 = 𝑘𝑠 𝐿𝑤 𝑇2 − 𝑇 (0. = −1.022m) (T – 263)K = (0. The walls and the lid of a thermos bottle have low thermal conductivities so the rate of heat flow of the bottle is small.040 0. and the Styrofoam has k= 0.00206 W/K = 0.03m)( 292 – T)K T ·0.84 × 10 𝐽 𝑄 𝑡 3 𝐽 𝑘𝑔 ) 6.3 × 104 𝐽 *The negative sign indicates that the energy flows out of the coffee.22 – 263 K 0.01 𝑚 𝑇𝑜 = 291𝐾 𝑇𝑜 = 291𝐾 − 273𝐾 = 18℃ 𝐻 𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝑐 = 𝑘( ) 𝐴 𝐿 Wood: 𝐻𝑤 𝑇− 𝑇 = 𝑘𝑤 ( 1 ) 𝐴 𝐿𝑤 = (0.600 𝑚) 1.0℃. The dog’s metabolism produces heat at a rate of 40 W and its internal (body) temperature is 38°C.010 W/m·K) (0.2 cm thick on the inside wall surface.1 𝑚 𝐴 = 0.080 W/m·K 𝑘𝑠 = 0.0 cm.010 W/m·K) = 11.0 cm thick on the outside and layer of Styrofoam insulation 2.03 m 𝐿𝑠 = 2.010 W/m·K. so its specific heat is about the same as that of water.50 𝑚2 311 − 𝑇𝑜 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 40 𝑊 = 0.84× 10 3 𝐽 10 𝑚𝑖 𝑛 𝑄 𝑡 × 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 𝑠 = 4. Suppose the coffee inside has a mass m= 0.0 𝑐𝑚 = 0. (a) What is the temperature at the plane where the wood meets the Styrofoam? (b) What is the rate of heat flow per square meter through the wall? Given: T1= -10˚C = 263 K T2=19˚C=292 K 𝐿𝑤 = 3.50 m2. (17.55048 W T = 267.3 𝑊 𝑚2 292−267 .T·0.73 𝑊 ( 0.080 W/m·K) (0.0085 kg)( 3.67/page 604) A carpenter builds an exterior house wall with a layer of wood 3. Coffee is mostly water.0003 W/K T·0.25 ×10 −4 𝑚 2 (100 𝐶°) = 227 𝑊 𝑚 ∙𝑘 5.50 𝑚2 Solution: 𝐾𝐴∆𝑇 𝐻 = 𝐿 𝑊 0.2cm = 0.0 𝑊 𝑜𝑟 𝐽/𝑠 𝑇𝑓 = 55℃ 𝑘𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐽 𝑐 = 1 ∙ 𝐶° = 4186 ∙ 𝐾 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 Solution: 𝐻 = 𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇 𝑄 = 0.8 ˚C (b) 𝐻 = 𝑘𝐴 (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ) 𝐿 7.3 × 104 𝐽 𝑡 = = = 4300 𝑠 𝐻 𝐽/𝑠 A small dog has thick fur.010 W/m·K Solutions: (a) 𝐻 = 𝐻𝑤𝑜𝑜𝑑 𝐻𝑠𝑡𝑦𝑟𝑜 𝑘𝐴 (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ) 𝐿 𝑘𝑤 𝐴 (𝑇 − 𝑇1 ) = 𝐿𝑤 𝑘𝑠 𝐴 (𝑇2 − 𝑇) = 𝐿𝑠 𝑇2 − 𝑇 𝐿𝑠 Heat Flow and Cooling your Coffee The author likes to bring a thermos bottle of coffee in his office each morning.34 × 105 Q= 2.080 W/m·K . The wood has k = 0.0876 . 𝑄 1.30 𝑘𝑔 𝑇𝑜 = 65℃ 𝐻 = 3. and that the length of the dog’s hair is 1. Given: 𝑚 = 0.040 W/(m _ K).5.22 K T = . what is the outside temperature? Assume the dog has a surface area of 0.00176 W/K – 0. the exterior temperature is 10. Given: 𝐻 = 40 𝑊 𝑊 𝑘 = 0.04 𝑚 ∙ 𝐾 𝑇𝑖 = 38℃ = 311 𝐾 𝐿 = 1. If all of this heat flows out through the dog’s fur.30 kg and an initial temperature of 65˚C.022 m = 2.080 W/m·K) = 11.3 𝑊 𝑚2 Styrofoam: 𝐻𝑠 𝐴 𝑇2 − 𝑇 𝐿𝑠 267 .022 m 𝑘𝑤 = 0. If the average rate of heat flow through the walls of the thermos bottle is Q/t = 3.73 𝑊 𝐻 = 𝑘 = = 𝑘𝐴 (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ) 𝐿 𝐻 𝐿 𝐴 (𝑇𝐻 − 𝑇𝐶 ) = 4.0℃.22 K 0.
0 kg of water at 0°C.350.0004 (100 −65) 1 𝑚 = 5. The lengths and thermal conductivities of the rods are: copper.200 m long is maintained at a temperature of 20 K. A long rod. 2 4 4 4 H=4π (0. what is the maximum operating power? 4.6)(1)(0. A square chip of width L = 15 mm on a side are mounted to a substrate that is installed in an enclosure whose walls and air are maintained at a temperature of Tsurr = 25°C.12 kg of a material by 30 K.67 x 10 W/m K )(2730 K) = 3.015) 4 4 (358 -298 ) = 0.67 x 10 W/m K )(273 K) = 315 W/m -8 2 4 4 -8 4 2 (b) = (1)(5. 𝑘𝐴 ∆𝑇 𝑄/𝑡 = 50.2 W/m -K (b)If a fan is used to maintain air flow through the enclosure and heat transfer is by forced convection. The sides of the rod are insulated.10−8 W/m ⋅K )([3000 K] −*290 K+ 4 ) = 4.67x10 (0. One section of a steel railroad track is 25 m long. brass. insulated to prevent heat loss along its sides.26 °C 10.26. Thermal conductivities are expressed in the CGS units. The end of the copper rod is maintained at 120°C. The rod consists of a 1.015) (85 – 25) + 5.424 K = 20. How much of this water is converted to steam? Assume the steel. 50cm and 0. A tungsten sphere with radius 1.2 W/m⋅K. the water.015) (85 – 25) + 5. The other end is blackbody and exposed to thermal radiation from surrounding walls at 500 K. To cool it off. Q/t is the same for both sections of the rod. What is the value of the “absolute zero” of temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? How much heat is required to raise the temperature of a 3.25 may be approximated as h = C (Ts – Tsurr) where C = 2 5/4 4. Both reactions of the rod have cross-sectional 2 areas of 4 cm . The emissivity of tungsten is 0. For steel. you find that it takes 400 J of heat to increase the temperature of 0.015 ) 4 4 (358 – 298 ) = 3. 5. e = 1 so T1 = 20 K and T2yunghahanapin.49. 6.79 x 10 K ) (Ts – T1 ) = T1 + 0.15 x 10 𝐴 2 W/m 6 13.2232 W (b) Maximum operating power if a fan used is Pmax = Qtot = Qconv + Qrad 4 4 = hA (Ts – Tsurr) + 𝜎efA (Ts – Tsurr ) 2 -8 2 = 250 (0.0150 m) (0. The end of the aluminum rod is at 100°C and the ends of the brass and steel rods are at 0°C.60 and a maximum allowable temperature of T s = 85°C. If its temperature increases by 25 K during the day. how much does the track expand? 3. steel.92.39 J/s *For steel L= 9.35)(5.44 W 12. 25cm and 0. . 60cm and 0.0-kg block of steel by 50 K? While working in a research lab. 𝟐𝟒𝟐 𝒎 *Remember that the e of blackbody is 1. *For the copper 𝑄 𝑡 SOLUTION: (a) The maximum operating chip power is the summation of heat transfer due to convection and radiations Pmax = Qtot = Qconv + Qrad 4 4 = hA (Ts – Tsurr) + 𝜎efA (Ts – Tsurr ) 2 1.6)(1)(0. What is the specific heat of the material? You are a blacksmith and have been working with 12 kg of steel.25 -8 2 = (4. 11. Cu Brass = e𝛿T 2 4 4 (a) 𝐻 𝐴 𝐻 = (1)(5.26 (𝑇 − 0))/25 + (0.92 (120 − 𝑇))/50 + (0. you drop it into a bucket containing 5. s k = 50.00 m section of copper (one end in boiling water) joined end to end to a length L2 of steel (one end in the ice-water mixture). 15cm and 0. (a) If heat is neglected from the chips by radiation and natural convection. 𝐻 𝐴 Rods of copper. What is rate of energy radiation per unit area of a blackbody at a temperature of (a) 273 K (b) 2730 K? = 385 𝑚𝐾 𝑊 0.67. so no energy is lost or gained except at the ends of the rod. (a) How much heat per second flows from the boiling water to the ice-water mixture? (b) What is the length L2 of the steel section? For copper. the steel is at a temperature of 400°C. When equilibrium is reached. brass.0004 (65−0) 5. is in perfect thermal contact with boiling water (at atmospheric pressure) at one end and with an icewater mixture at the other.12 (𝑇 − 0))/15 T = 67. Calculate the temperature of the junction. what is the temperature of the blackened end? *Dahil blackened yung end.67 x 10 (0. The chips have an emissivity of 0. The melting point of tin is 232°C. One end of a solid cylindrical copper rod 0. what is the maximum operating power of each chip? The convection coefficient depends on the chip-to-air temperature difference and 0. Ts = 500 K T2 = T1 + (Ts – T1 ) 𝑘 -12 -3 4 4 = T1 + (6. What is this temperature on the Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales? 2.50 cm suspended within a large evacuated enclosure whose walls are at 290K. c k=385 W/m⋅K. with h = 250 W/mK.2)(0.12. aluminum. and the steam all have the same final temperature.54 x 10 W 2 4 4 𝑄 EXERCISES: 1. Assume that the cross-sectional area of each rod is the same.39 𝐽 /𝑠 = 𝟎.49 (100 − 𝑇))/60 = (0. aluminum and steel are welded together to form an X-shaped figure. When you are finished shaping it.8. The temperature of the copper-steel junction is 65°C after a steady state has been set up. What power input is required to maintain the sphere at a temperature of 3000 K if heat conduction along the supports is neglected? H=Aeσ(Tf −Ti ).2 𝑚𝐾 𝑊 0.42 K 𝛿𝐿 2 4 Al 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 Steel ( )Cu + ( )Al = ( )Br + ( )St 𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 𝑡 (0.
Calculate the thermal conductivity of the metal. A jogger generates heat energy at a rate of 800 W. A cylindrical hot plate is maintained at a temperature of 120°C by an electrical heating coil placed beneath it. Named after William John Macquorn Rankine (a Scottish engineer and physicist who proposed it in 1859). Assume that the heat generated by the coil is totally effective in heating the plate. What is the total power emitted by the Sun? 14. KCu = 0. of steel (one end in ice). 21.40 m at 6 15°C. respectively.750 cm2. The rod consists of 100 cm of copper (one end in steam) and length. without changing the temperature of the glass? 18. The intensity of sunlight at the Earth’s surface is about 1000 2 W/m .595 x 10 (∆𝑇) 27. The beam is clamped rigidly at both ends. A long rod.. The block eventually slides to rest due to friction. and that the length of the dog’s hair is 1.0 cm. . A steel building is 120 m tall when the outside temperature is 0°C. 1°F = 1°R). (b) Find the formula to convert from Kelvin to Rankine.35 cm in a steel plate at a temperature of 25°C. (a) If the temperature of the beam is increased by 30°C. The Rankine scale.750 cm . The block has an initial speed of 10 m/s and an initial temperature of 10°C. A cylindrical hot plate is maintained at a temperature of 120°C by an electrical heating coil placed beneath it. The heat conducted by the rod melts 3. Calculate the thermal conductivity of the metal. An aluminum block slides along a horizontal surface. the Rankine scale is similar to the Kelvin scale in that the zero point is placed at absolute zero.12 cal/s-cm-C°. If all this energy is removed by sweating. with a thermal conductivity of 0. but the size of temperature differences are the same as that of the Fahrenheit scale (e. what is the outside temperature? Assume the dog has a surface area of 2 0. The temperature of the Cu-steel junction is 60°C. A typical incandescent lightbulb has a filament temperature of approximately 3000 K. A small dog has thick fur. The rod has a length of 40cm and a cross-section of 0. Determine the diameter of the hot plate if the heating coil is penetrating heat at a rate of 800 W.595 x 10-4 ()1/4 23.00 min. Determine the diameter of the hot plate if the heating coil is penetrating heat at a rate of 800 W. Assuming all the initial kinetic energy is converted to heat energy and all this energy stays in the block. at 32°F. The room temperatue is 30°C. what is the final temperature of the plate? An aluminum beam 80 m long and with a cross-sectional 2 area of 0. At what temperature will the rods have the same lengths? The coefficients of linear expansion of iron and zinc are 0. h for a horizontal place facing upward is 0.92 and Ksteel = 0.50 cm respectively.12 cal/s-cm-C°. The rod 2 has a length of 40cm and a cross-section of 0. An iron rod and a zinc rod have lengths of 25.000010 per C° and 0. A tungsten filament reaches a temperature of 2000 K when its power consumption is 16 watts. (a) How many calories per second flow from the steam bath to the ice water mixture? (b) How long is L2? 20.00 g of ice in 5.0 x 10 2 m . 19. Both rods have cross-sectional area of 5 2 cm . What is the final result when 400g of water and 100g of ice at 0°C are in a calorimeter whose water equivalent is 50g into which is passed 10 g of steam at 100°C? 26. One end of an insulated metal rod is maintained at 100°C and the other end at 0°C by an ice-water mixture. 17. The heat conducted by the rod melts 3.10 m is used as part of a bridge. L2.50 m .55 cm and 25. Heat is being transferred the surrounding air through natural convection. 9. One end of an insulated metal rod is maintained at 100°C and the other end at 0°C by an ice-water mixture. KCu = 0. At what wavelength is the intensity of the emitted light highest? 13. Assume that the heat generated by the coil is totally effective in heating the plate. 25. The dog’s metabolism produces heat at a rate of 40 W and its internal (body) temperature is 38°C.000030 per C°. The rod consists of 100 cm of copper (one end in steam) and length. What is the final result when 400g of water and 100g of ice at 0°C are in a calorimeter whose water equivalent is 50g into which is passed 10 g of steam at 100°C? 22. A machinist bores a hole of diameter 1. has one end immersed in boiling water and the other end in water-ice mixture all at atmospheric pressure.00 g of ice in 5. L2. of steel (one end in ice). Both rods have cross-sectional area of 5 cm2.040 W/(m K). The temperature of the Cu-steel junction is 60°C. The room temperatue is 30°C. What is the cross sectional area of the hole a) at 25°C b) when the temperature of the plate is increased to 175°C? Assume that the coefficient of linear expansion remains constant over this temperature range. (c) What is the temperature of the freezing point of water on the Rankine scale? What is room temperature on this scale? 16. so express your answer with five significant figures.92 and Ksteel = 0. (a) How many calories per second flow from the steam bath to the ice water mixture? (b) How long is L2? 24. what is the extra force exerted by the beam on one of its supports? (b) What is the force if the temperature of the beam is decreased by 40°C? 2 8. (a) Determine the conversion formula to go from the Fahrenheit to the Rankine scale. If all of this heat flows out through the dog’s fur. insulated to prevent heat losses. how much water must evaporate from the jogger’s skin each hour? 12.00 min. A long rod. what is the final temperature of the block? 15. h for a -4 1/4 horizontal place facing upward is 0.g. insulated to prevent heat losses. Heat is being transferred the surrounding air through natural convection. On the assumption that the filament radiates heat as a blackbody.7. The outer diameter of a glass jar and the inner diameter of an iron lid are both 725 mm at room temperature (20°C). What will be the size of the mismatch between the lid and the jar if the lid is briefly held under hot water until its temperature rises to 50°C. How tall is the building on a hot summer day (30°C)? The change in height is small. has one end immersed in boiling water and the other end in water-ice mixture all at atmospheric pressure. 11. If it is heated until its area has increased by 4. what power must be supplied to maintain a filament temperature of 3000 K? 10. A rectangular aluminum plate has an area of 0.
26 mm Tf = 98. 9. ΔL = 0. 20g ice 121.06°C 15. 20.7 X 10 N (compression) 6 (b) 6. 490 g H2O. 27.6 X 10 m 26 13. 110 J/(kg K) 5.57 cm 0. 2. 0.436 cm2 17. 24. 25. 7.46 cm 81 J/s .14 °C 1. 6.431 cm2 0 A = 1. 18°C 11. 120.3 X 10 N (tension) 10. 19. 10.04 m 8.3 kg/h 7 12.427 0°C. 20g ice 121. 19.84 cal/s. 21. 22. (a) 4.84 cal/s. TF = 450°F and TK = 505 K 2.427 0°C. 23. 18.8 X 10 W 14. room temperature = 530°R 16.46 cm 1. 490 g H2O. 460°F 4 3. (a) TR = TF + 459 (b) TR = (9/5)TK (c) Freezing point of water = 491°R. 26. 1. 19. 155°C 6 9.ANSWERS: 1.5 X 10 m 7.57 cm 0.8 X 10 J 4.26 kg 3 6. A = 1.
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