Geographical Information System

Other meanings of GIS. geographic information system. Geographical information science. Geospatial information studies 

 GIS  (Goodchild. manage. and database technology. is the merging of cartography. and present all types of geographically referenced data.Definitions of Geographical Information System  GIS is a system designed to capture. manipulate. store. . Michael F (2010) also defined Geographic information science is the science underlying the geographic concepts. applications and systems. analyze. statistical analysis.

possibly the earliest use of the geographic method. which allowed maps to be split into layers. for example one layer for vegetation and another for water y .Origin of Geographical Information System y In 1854. John Snow depicted a cholera outbreak in London using points to represent the locations of some individual cases. 20th century saw the development of photozincography.

y . Roger Tomlinson. it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) CGIS was an improvement over 'computer mapping' applications as it provided capabilities for overlay. the first operational GIS was developed in Ottawa Canada by the federal Department of Forestry and Rural Development by Dr.Origin of GIS Continued y In 1960. measurement and digitizing/scanning. particularly for his use of overlays in promoting the spatial analysis of convergent geographic data. Tomlinson has become known as the 'father of GIS'.

y The CGIS was never available in a commercial form even though it lasted till late 1990s. y . In 1964. Fisher formed the Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and important theoretical concepts of spatial handling were developed and in 1970·s distributed software systems like GRID. SYMAP and ODDESSEY. Howard T.

How GIS Work GIS technologies use digital information. y . for which various digitized data creation methods are used y The most common method of data creation is digitization whereby hard copy is transferred into a digital medium through the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and geo-referencing capabilities example Google Earth Software . y With the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (both from satellite and aerial sources). heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is extracted.

have a geographic component and be linked to a geographic location.  Non-spatial .How GIS Works Continued !  Spatial Data and Data  Non-spatial  Spatial data refers to geographic areas or features. It can however. data has no specific location in space. A feature occupies a location.

Themes  Geographical Database or Themes:  Themes link features with their attributes  Themes are linked by geography  Collections of themes form a GIS database.  Visualizing customer locations is critical to businesses trying to make better marketing decisions. Themes can be used to solve problems like:  Site Location.  Analyzing location is key to making decisions about where to set up a business or service. .  Presenting information as maps reveals `relationships and patterns that may otherwise be hidden.

such as a bore hole. such as roads and rivers. can be stored as a collection of point coordinates. y y The location of a point feature. can be described by a single x. and polygons encoded and stored as a collection of x.y coordinate.Types of Geographical Information THE VECTOR MODEL y Information about points. lines. .y coordinates. Linear features.

and polygon area location symbols of scalable vector graphics as the basis of the vector model of area attribute rendering. as is distinct from the commonly used points. y Models continuous feature a collection of grid cells. y .Types of Geographical Information THE RASTER MODEL y The Raster graphics pixel as the smallest individual grid unit building block of an image. usually not readily identified as an artifact shape until an image is produced on a very large scale. y A combination of the pixels making up an image color formation scheme will compose details of an image. lines.

Advantages of The Geographical Information System (GIS). y y . In most cases maps are in 2-D and are viewed on flat displays or paper hardcopy materials. Maps are designed and produced as representations for particularly purposes. True 3-D and 4-D viewing is associated with visualisation and implies an immersive environment. A GIS enables this production. variable fashion on demand. y GIS enable not only the production of one kind of map. but the production of many kinds of maps. Their data is accessed in an integrative fashion and outputs produced in an adaptive. which is often optimised for communication purposes based on map content.

Advantages of GIS Continued It is easy to change the data underlying a map in GIS. They can also be reproduced quicker. y . many organizations previous to GIS could not create and produce maps. or someone with cartographic talent. y GIS enable participation better: a cartographer. y Timeliness ² GIS produce maps more quickly than can be drawn.

Dust or moisture can cause internal flashovers. y . Long outage periods as repair of damaged part at site may be difficult.Disadvantages of GIS High cost compared to conventional outdoor substation. y Such substations are generally in door. They need a separate building This is generally not required for conventional outdoor substations. y Excessive damage in case of internal fault. y Requirement of cleanliness is very stringent.

Resource management Reference and projections of a geospatial nature. both artificial and natural. Infrastructure assessment and development. for a thematic and/or time-based purpose. Criminology. Urban planning and regional planning. Cartography. Environmental impact-assessment.Areas of Application of GIS y y y y y y y y y y y y Earth surface-based scientific investigations. . Asset management and location planning\ Archaeology. Geospatial intelligence. Gis data development.

y . Most city and transportation systems planning offices have GIS sections. Example of this is the John Snows type whereby he was able to detect and prevent the spread of Cholera.Examples of uses of GIS : GIS may allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times and the movement of response resources (for logistics) in the case of a natural disaster. y GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection strategies regarding pollution. and y GIS can be used to track the spread of emerging infectious disease threats. y GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of GIS data identified trends to respond to a previously under-served market. This allows for informed pandemic planning and enhanced preparedness.


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