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Published by: Levente Gergely on Feb 16, 2012
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Poultry Diseases

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Ascites Egg Drop Syndrome Avian Encephalomyelitis Fatty Liver Syndrome Avian Infectious Bronchitis Fowl Cholera Avian Influenza (HPAI) Fowl Pox Avian Influenza (LPAI) Fowl Typhoid Chicken Anaemia Gout (Non infectious) Collibacillosis Gumboro Disease (IBD) CRD


IBH ± HHS (Leechi Disease)

Infectious Coryza

Infectious Laryngotracheitis

Lymphoid Leucosis

Mareks Disease (MD)

Newcastle Disease (RD)

Viral Arthritis


Avian Encephalomyelitis
Avian encephalomyelitis is a disease of chickens marked by ataxia and tremor of the head, neck and limbs.
Aetiology - Picorna virus. Hosts Affects chicken, quail, turkeys. Transmission Vertical transmission is a very important means of virus dissemination. Horizontal spread due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds. Virus is shed in droppings. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Formalin fumigation is effective. Viral strains Enterotropic strains, embryo-adapted strains.





Avian Encephalomyelitis
Incubation period 1 to 7 days in embryo transmission 11 days by oral administration. Symptoms Chicks in first week of their life show unsteadiness, sitting on hocks, paresis and even complete inability to move. The disease in adult birds is in apparent except for a transient drop in egg production. Gross Pathology In chicks ± whitish areas on gizzard muscle . Diagnosis Based on history, signs and isolation of virus from brain tissue. Material for Laboratory Brain tissue from affected chick stored in 50% glycerine saline to be sent on ice. Control Control of AE is achieved by vaccination of breeder flock during the growing period to ensure that they do not become infected after maturity.




1% glutarldehyde. All ages are susceptible but susceptibility to disease rapidly decreases in immunologically intact chicks during first 3 weeks of life. Aetiology Virus classified as member of circoviridae ± DNA virus. Home Next Previous . Resistance to chemical & physical agents Extremely resistant to heat (56ºC to 70ºC for one hour). Host The chicken is the only known host for CIAV. iodine. hypochlorites are effective. Transmission Spreads horizontally and vertically. 5% formalin.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Chicken infectious anaemia is a disease of young chicken characterized by aplastic anaemia and generalized lymphoid atrophy with concomittant immunosuppression. Horizontal infection occurs by direct or indirect contact with ailing birds.

pale birds. gangrenous dermatitis. demonstration of ongoing seroconversion is parent flock. Home Next Previous . atrophy of thymus and bursa. Gross pathology Pale bone marrow.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Incubation period Under field conditions vertically infected chicks show increased mortality beginning at 10 ± 12 days of age with peak at 17 ± 24 days. No clinical signs or effect on egg production or fertility in parent flock during seroconversion. discolored liver & kidney. second peak is at 30 ± 34 days due to horizontal transmission. Diagnosis On basis of gross lesions. Clinical symptoms Poor growth. Virus may be isolated in specific cell line MDCC ± MSB1. sudden rise in mortality (usually 13 ± 16 days of age).

Control In addition to bio-security measures vaccination of parents is an important strategy of control. Home Next Previous . Both live and inactivated vaccines are reported to be useful. Current vaccine strategies are based on prevention of vertical transmission of virus by immunization of breeder flock and have been successful in reducing the incidence of anaemia in chicks.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Material for Laboratory Liver or spleen tissue or rectal contents from diseased chickens in early phase of the disease to be sent on ice to the laboratory.

REO virus. Home Next Previous . Infection can occur through respiratory route also. it can survive for a year. Transmission Vertical transmission through embryonated eggs. In poultry sheds at 22ºC or so. It can withstand 60ºC for 8 to 10 hours. Hosts Primarily disease of domestic fowl. Resistance to chemical & physical agents REO virus is heat resistant. Horizontal spread occurs readily from bird to bird mainly by ingestion of contaminated faeces.INDOVAX Viral Arthritis Viral arthritis is a contagious disease of domestic fowl ± particularly broiler breeds ± caused by REO virus. 9 to 13 days in contact exposure. Aetiology . Incubation period Depends on virus pathotype.

Home Next Previous . Control In addition to bio-security measures. hemorrhage in tissues. Rising antibody titres. Diagnosis Based on history. inflammation of hock. isolation of virus.INDOVAX Viral Arthritis Symptoms Lameness. Gross pathology Swelling of tendon sheaths. swelling of tendon sheaths. rapture of gastrocnemius tendons. low morbidity. ulceration of articular cartilage. swelling of footpad. poor growth. immunization of birds with live vaccine in growing stage followed by inactivated vaccine when the birds come in lay. lesions. Material to be sent to laboratory Affected joint in 50% glycerine saline to be sent on ice.

Aetiology . Droppings contain the virus in low titres and excretion of virus is intermittent. Except for egg drop or laying misshapen ± shell less eggs ± there are no clinical symptoms. Lateral spread of virus is slow and intermittent. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Gets inactivated by 0. Home Next Previous . Rough. Transmission Vertical transmission through eggs. Clinical symptoms Egg drop at peak or failure to peak. presence of virus in feces probably arises from contamination by oviduct exudates. Egg drop may be 5 to 50% at least for 3 ± 4 weeks. Hosts Chickens of all ages are susceptible to EDS. shell less eggs.5% formaldehyde or 0. In adult birds.5% glutaraldehyde. loss of shell pigment. thin or soft shelled.Adenovirus subgroup III.INDOVAX Egg Drop Syndrome Egg drop syndrome is a contagious disease of poultry characterized by sudden drop in production or a failure to achieve a normal peak in production.

INDOVAX ‡ Signs . soft shelled and misshapen eggs Home Next Previous .Thin.Loss of pigmentation Egg Drop Syndrome .

abnormal egg samples. Indovax offers an effective EDS inactivated vaccine for control of the disease. Birds should be vaccinated between 14 and 16 weeks. Material to be sent to laboratory Serum samples. Diagnosis Abnormalities of egg production ± High HI titres in affected birds which were not vaccinated with EDS vaccine. Control An oil adjuvant inactivated vaccine is widely used and gives good protection against clinical EDS. Indovax can assist in determining seroconversion in vaccinated birds. Home Next Previous . Virus can be isolated in Duck embryo from the pouch shell gland of affected bird.INDOVAX Egg Drop Syndrome Gross Pathology No specific lesions.

loss of appetite. coughing. Home Next Previous . Disease could be mechanically transmitted by flies. Transmission Chronically infected birds on the farm are major source of infection. diarrhoea. Symptoms Depression. highly contagious disease caused by Pasteurella multocida. ducks and geese. lameness. turkeys. swollen joints (chronic cases). swollen and cyanotic wattles (in chronic cages). Incubation period Incubation period is very short ± 24 to 48 hrs. Death losses usually occur in laying flocks. ruffled feathers. sudden death. Aetiology Pasteurella multocida. nose. Diseased birds contaminate their environment particularly feed & water.INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Fowl cholera is a serious. Dissemination of Pasteurella multocida with in a flock is primarily by excretions from mouth. Fowl cholera may be caused by any of 16 Heddlesson serotypes although certain serotypes appear to be more often associated with disease. Hosts Affects poultry.

Swollen wattles.Tracheal rales and dyspnoea Home Next Previous . sinuses.INDOVAX ‡ Signs Fowl Cholera Chronic . leg or wing joints .

INDOVAX ‡ Lesions Fowl Cholera Liver .Swollen and usually contains multiple pin point foci Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Fowl Cholera ‡ Lesions Ovary .Petechial and eccymotic haemorhhages -General hyperemia is evident -with haemorrhages on heart Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Fowl Cholera ‡ Lesions Chronic cases .Oedematous lungs (Pneunomia) Home Next Previous .

Diagnosis Examine blood slides. pericardial effusions. Protect all the birds with fowl cholera vaccine.INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Gross Pathology Hemorrhages on myocardium ± hemorrhages on duodenum. Material to be sent to laboratory Femur bone kept in charcoal to be sent on ice to laboratory. Vaccines INDOVAX offers very effective vaccine for fowl cholera. Home Next Previous . Organisms can be isolated from heart blood. The age of vaccination is decided on basis of the vulnerable age for this infection as seen on farm. yolk peritonitis. Control Bio-security measure. The booster dose should be given at least 15 days before the vulnerable age ± the age at which fowl cholera cases are seen on farm. control of flies and insects. rodent control. The vaccines are designed on basis of prevalent strain in locality and selection of strains is done on basis of cross protection tests in addition to somatic/capsular typing. Every bird needs a primary dose and a booster dose set two weeks apart.

sneezing.INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens characterized by nasal discharge. sneezing. Home Next Previous . spread of the diseases to successive age groups usually occurs with in 1 to 6 weeks after such birds are moved from the brooder house to growing cage near older birds. swelling of face under the eyes. On farms where multiple age groups are brooded and raised. Transmission Chronic or healthy carrier birds on the farm.swollen wattles. Incubation period 24 ± 72 hours. drop in egg production 10 ± 40%. Aetiology Hemophilus paragallinarum ± Serovars A and C. Clinical symptoms Facial swelling. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents These are delicate organisms and get rapidly inactivated outside the host. purulent ocular and nasal discharge. Inappetance.

INDOVAX Infectious Coryza ‡ Signs Seromucoid nasal and ocular discharge Sometimes swollen wattles Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Infectious Coryza ‡ Signs Facial oedema and conjunctivitis Home Next Previous .

All in all out management. set one fortnight apart. Home Next Previous . Vaccines INDOVAX offers H. Control Bio-security. paragallinarum vaccine containing local isolates belonging to group A and C. It is also necessary to confirm that birds receiving primary vaccination or booster are not already suffering with coryza. The vaccine is presented in either aluminium hydroxide gel form or stable water in oil emulsion.INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Gross pathology Conjunctivitis. It is better to send a live bird for attempting isolation as the organism is very fragile and may get inactivated in transit. Vaccination of entire flock with coryza bacterin. Tracheitis. It may be necessary to press near the infraorbital sinus to confirm absence of nasal exudate. Caseous material in sinuses. It is necessary to protect the birds at proper age so that they complete the primary & booster applications at least 15 days before the chicks are transferred in vicinity of older birds. Material for laboratory Chopped off head to be stored on ice and sent to laboratory by air. Two doses are necessary ± primary and booster.

Clinical signs Warty. Home Next Previous .particularly visible and comb.INDOVAX Fowl Pox Fowl pox is a slow ± spreading viral infection of chickens and turkeys characterized by proliferative lesions in the skin that progress to thick scabs and by lesions in the upper GI and respiratory tracts (diphtheritic form). Incubation period 4 to 10 days. wattles. Post mortem The cutaneous form can be easily seen in life. throat and some times in trachea. Hosts Can infect birds of both sexes and all ages and breeds. spreading eruptions on un-feathered part of body. In diphtheritic form caseous deposits are seen in buccal cavity. It is relatively slow spreading viral disease. In diphtheritic form of the disease caseous plaques can be seen in mouth. Aetiology Large DNA virus ± an avian poxvirus ± family poxviridae. pharynx. trachea and nasal cavities.

wattle.INDOVAX Fowl Pox ‡ Signs .Vary depending on host susceptibility & virulence of the virus Cutaneous . eyelids & other unfeathered parts of the body Home Next Previous .Nodular lesions on comb.

wattle.Nodular lesions on comb.INDOVAX ‡ Signs Fowl Pox Cutaneous . eyelids & other unfeathered parts of the body Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Fowl Pox ‡ Signs Diptheritic . oesophagus or trachea -.leading to respiratory distress Home Next Previous .Yellowish lesions on mucous membrane of mouth.

1% formalin. Diphtheritic lesions from throat stored in 50% Glycerin saline to be sent on ice. It gets inactivated by 1% caustic potash. Diagnosis It can be readily diagnosed on basis of flock history and presence of typical lesions. Material for laboratory examination Dry scabs stored in sterile vials. The disease may be transmitted by a number of species of mosquitoes. Control Routine immunization of birds with pox vaccine is practical method of control. Indovax Fowl Pox vaccine is available in 500 & 1000 dose vials along with a special diluent for the vaccine. It is resistant to 1% phenol and 0.INDOVAX Fowl Pox Viral strains A nucleoprotein precipitinogen is common to all poxviruses. Transmission By direct or indirect contact. Resistance Virus can survive in dried scabs for months or even years. Home Next Previous .

Host All ages are susceptible but the disease is more severe in baby chicken. Clinical signs Drop in egg production 20 ± 50%. swollen pale kidneys with tubules & ureter distended with urates.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Infectious bronchitis is an extremely contagious respiratory disease of chickens characterized by coughing. soft shell eggs. sneezing. caseous plugs found in trachea of young chick. oviduct lesions and mortality due to infection. chicken become more resistant to the nephrogenic effects. loss of internal egg quality. As age increases. rales. Aetiology It is caused by a corona virus. Several sero types of corona virus have been recognized. coughing and sneezing. egg drop and nephritis. Gross pathology Flaccid follicles. yolk in peritoneal cavity. Incubation period 18 ± 36 hours. rough shells. Home Next Previous .

Poor shell.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis ‡ Clinical Signs (Layers / Adults) .Decline in egg production in addition to respiratory signs .Severe decline in setting eggs and highly reduced hatchability Home Next Previous . shell less and mis-shapen eggs .

INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis ‡ Clinical Signs (Layers / Adults) .Inferior quality of eggs with watery albumin Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis ‡ Clinical Signs .In broilers depression. wet droppings and nephrosis is seen apart from respiratory signs Home Next Previous . ruffled feathers.

Transmission Highly contagious disease. Material for virus isolation Trachea. Air borne disease can jump considerable distances during an active outbreak.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Diagnosis Isolation of virus in chick embryo. ileocaeccal tonsils duly preserved in 50% . Kidneys. Home Next Previous . Resistance Infectious bronchitis virus is considered to be sensitive to common disinfectants. The virus can survive for about one fortnight in summer months and 56 days in winter months.glycerin saline should be sent on ice to the laboratory. It can be spread mechanically by formites. Rising Elisa titre in birds together with egg drop and or respiratory symptoms is indicative of active infection. Several passages are necessary before the virus is isolated. When it occurs all susceptible birds on premises become infected.

Live vaccine available in the following combinations: . strain + IB virus for young chicks . Vaccination has to be repeated from time to time to ensure adequate protection. This vaccine has the advantage that a prevalent strain of IB virus in a territory can be incorporated in inactivated vaccine. Indovax offers following products for control of infectious bronchitis: ‡ Infectious bronchitis vaccine (live) Mass strain .Newcastle disease LaSota strain + IB virus for older birds . EDS is available for breeders. IBD.Bronkichick ‡ Infectious bronchitis vaccine (Inactivated) for breeders.Newcastle disease F.Bronki-L ‡ Infectious bronchitis vaccine inactivated alone or in combination with ND. ‡ Newcastle disease + IB virus combined.Bronki-F . Home Next Previous . vaccinated birds.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Control Vaccination of birds with high passage Massachusetts strain of IB is a practical method of control. Indovax can assist in sero monitoring of day old chicks.

INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Infectious bursal disease is an acute. contaminated litter & feces. insects and wild birds. Although the disease causes severe losses. Home Next Previous . Incubation period . Aetiology Infectious bursal disease is caused by a birna virus. It is extremely contagious. its affect on reducing the bird¶s ability to develop immunity to other diseases in the most serious effect produced by this disease. human traffic. The period of greatest susceptibility to clinical disease is between 3 and 6 weeks of age. highly contagious viral disease of young chickens.2 to 3 days. Transmission The spread of the disease can occur by direct contact. Susceptible chicken younger than 3 weeks do not exhibit clinical signs but get sub clinical infection in which the bursa gets damaged resulting into immuno suppression. Serotype I variants of IBD virus have not been seen in India so far. contaminated air-equipment ± feed. It causes marked morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. care taker. Hosts Chickens and turkeys are the natural hosts of the virus. It is most often found in highly concentrated poultry producing areas.

INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) ‡ Lesions Haemorrhages in thigh and pectoral muscles Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) ‡ Lesions Renal changes are prominent Home Next Previous .

gelatinous & sometimes even bloody Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) ‡ Lesions Bursa is enlarged.

INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) ‡ Lesions Petechial or ecchymotic haemorrhages on mucosal surface. ocassionally throughout the bursa Home Next Previous .

Formalin and iodophore are considered as effective disinfectants. Home Next Previous . Vent pecking. A laboratory procedure of isolation of virus can be used to substantiate the diagnosis. swollen kidneys with urates. Post mortem lesions Oedamatous bursa. may be hemorrhagic to start with followed by regression of bursa. Control It is universally accepted that the control of the disease depends on ± (1) Bio-security (2) Proper vaccination.INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Clinical signs Depression. Material to be sent to laboratory The affected bursa stored in 50% glycerin saline needs to be sent on ice to the laboratory. Susceptibility to physical & clinical agents IBD virus is very stable. Diagnosis A workable diagnosis can be made on basis of flock history and post mortem lesions. Huddling. unsteady gait. The hardy nature of this virus is one reason for its persistent survival in poultry house. hemorrhages in skeletal muscles. inappetance. Diarrhoea with urates in mucus.

In view of the variance in maternal antibody pattern of chick population. VACCINES INDOVAX offers very effective vaccines of proven worth for control of IBD. ‡ Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) Intermediate strain . Indovax can assist in studying MAb profile and deciding vaccination schedules. This can be done by knowing the maternal antibody pattern. IB is available for Breeders. ‡ Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) ± Bursa B2K strain for broiler chicks.IV95 strain for layer chicks carrying higher maternal antibodies and where the outbreaks are persistent. It is also necessary to review the vaccination strategies from time to time ± particularly in commercial farms as the chick population originating from a breeder lot may have different levels of Mab ± depending on immune status of the breeder flock.GEORGIA ± for layer and broiler chicks. ‡ Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine Inactivated alone or in combination with ND. A single application of the vaccine at 11 ± 12 day age of the birds is usually effective. it may be necessary to do repeated vaccination. Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Vaccination strategies It is important to choose correct age for priming the birds. ‡ Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) .

In the flock the disease spreads due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds and fomites. Disease is usually seen in birds 3 to 9 months of age. Young chicks are more vulnerable.INDOVAX Infectious Laryngotracheitis Infectious laryngo tracheitis is an acute. coughing and rales. Recovered birds or even vaccinated birds act as carrier. conjunctivitis and mild rales. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents. Hosts All ages of fowl are susceptible. It may manifest as subcute disease characterized by lacrimation. However the virus gets inactivated at 38ºC within 48 hrs. 3% cresol or 1% lye will inactivate the virus in less than one minute. tracheitis. Home Next Previous . Transmission Vertical transmission not recorded. It has been shown that the virus survives in trachea exudates & chicken carcasses for a period of 10 ± 100 days at ambient temperature of 13 ± 23ºC. Aetiology Herpes virus strains appear to be homogenous antigenically. highly contagious herpes virus infection of chicken characterized by sever dyspnea.

Mild forms cannot be diagnosed on clinical symptoms alone. and sinusitis. Gross Pathology Sever laryngo tracheitis often with blood in lumen. Isolation of virus. Home Next Previous . Material to be sent to laboratory Affected trachea stored in 50% glycerin saline to be sent on ice to the laboratory. Live modified ILT vaccine is available and it can be used on chicks as well as adult birds as per immune response. Vaccinated birds can act as carries of the disease and hence vaccination should not be done where it is not indicated. coughing of mucous or blood drop in egg prodution.INDOVAX Infectious Laryngotracheitis Clinical signs Dyspnoea. clinical syndrome and lesions in trachea. intra nuclear inclusion bodies in trachea tissues and increase in titre between acute and convale scant sera are methods available. ocular discharge. caseous plugs may be presence. Diagnosis The acute disease could be diagnosed on basis of spread. Control Vaccination should only be done when there is a confirmed diagnosis of ILT.

INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Marek¶s disease is a lymphoproliferalive and neuropathic disease of domestic chicken caused by a highly contagious. The epithelial cells in keratinising layer of feather follicle replicate fully infectious virus and serve as source of contamination to the neighboring environment. cell associated oncogenic herpes virus. Clinical signs can be seen usually after 4 weeks of age. Sero types Sero type I includes all oncogenic and pathogenic viruses. The age group 12 week to 24 week is very vulnerable. Home Next Previous . sero type II consists of naturally occurring avirulent strains of Marek¶s virus (example SB1 strains) HVT is sero type III virus. Hosts MDV infection in chickens is ubiquitous among poultry population through out the world. Transmission Direct and indirect contact. Aetiology Cell associated lymphotropic herpes virus.

for classical disease with lameness 8 ± 12 days. legs and neck. skin around feather follicle raised and roughened. Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Incubation period Cytolytic changes occur in between 3 to 6 days. loss of weight. Symptoms Paralysis of wings. grey iris.

Loss of striations and thickening Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) ‡ Lesions Peripheral nerves .

Home Next Previous . histopathology. gonads.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Gross Pathology Grey ± white foci of neoplastic tissue in liver. spleen. heart. gonads nerves for histopathology. spleen. distribution of lesions. kidney. heart & skeletal muscles thickening of nerve trunks and loss of striation. kidney. Material to be sent to laboratory Enlarged liver. It is necessary to differentiate from lymphoid leucosis. age affected. clinical signs. Diagnosis History. skin with feather follicles for viral isolation.

HVT + SB1 would be necessary. In case of very virulent to (vv + MDV) infections use of sero type I vaccines is indicated. freeze dried. Cell free virus found in feather follicle and cellular debris can remain viable for 4 ± 8 months at room temperature. The infections caused by mild (mMDV) and virulent (vMDV) could be controlled by use of HVT cell free vaccine or HVT frozen vaccine. Home Next Previous . In case of very virulent (vvMDV) bivalent vaccines. It is necessary to keep the vaccinated chicks away from infected sheds at least for one month during which time the chicks would have acquired the required immune status. Vaccination The vaccination strategy depends on type of virulence of Marek¶s infection. The virus gets inactivated by commonly used disinfectants. HVT frozen vaccine and HVT + SB1 frozen vaccine.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Disinfection The stability of cell associated MDV sero type I and II strain is completely dependent on the viability of the cells. Vaccines INDOVAX offers High PFU HVT vaccine cell free.

E and J. however incidence is usually highest at about sexual maturity. Home Next Previous . D. The virus may be transmitted mechanically from infected birds to susceptible birds by blood sucking parasites or by man in such procedures as fowl pox vaccination. lymphatics and myeloid tissue. Transmission The disease is transmitted in a variety of ways. Incubation period Depends on strain and dose of virus in field outbreaks. C. The causative viral agent is passed out of the body of infected birds via eggs and feces. B. Aetiology Caused by Exogenous lymphoid leucosis (LL) retro virus belonging to subgroups A.INDOVAX Lymphoid Leucosis Lymphoid leucosis is a disease of adult chicks characterized by lymphoid tumor response in most of the organs (except nerves) and lymphoid leucosis manifestation in bones. LL cases can occur anytime after 14 weeks of age.

Home Next Previous . The disease may manifest as osteopetrosis. sternum and pelvis. Control No vaccine is available.INDOVAX Lymphoid Leucosis Clinical signs Visceral tumors can be found in liver. The only method available for control is laboratory detection of infected breeder and their elimination. spleen. erythroid and/or myeloid leukemia. kidneys and bursa of birds that are in general older than 25 weeks. Diagnosis Histopathology of affected organs. The new J virus produces tumors in adult birds on surface of bones ± junction of ribs. Breeding leucosis free offspring from Leucosis free breeders can eventually lead to eradication of this disease.

1 (PMV ± 1) only one serotype of ND is known.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Newcastle disease is a contagious viral infection causing respiratory. ND Neurotropic velogenic ± causes neurological and respiratory signs. Most of the vaccine strains are Lentogenic strains. ND Lentogenic ± may cause sub clinical mild infections. ND Mesogenic ± these viruses are used as vaccines in previously immunized birds. Home Next Previous . Aetiology Paramyxovirus . It is highly virulent for chickens. Can affect any age. Hosts Birds of all age group are susceptible. Pathology of the virus ND ± velognic ± viscerotropic (vvND) it is also called as Asiatic or exotic ND. The vulnerable age for the disease is first 6 weeks of the life or birds in late stage of their lay. nervous disorders in several species of fowl including chickens and turkeys.

Material to be sent to laboratory Lungs & Trachea. degrees of vaccinate immunity and condition of flock. partial or complete cessation of egg production. Gross Pathology Hemorrhage in proventriculus Necrotic plaques in proventriculus. twisting of the head and neck. specially feces from infected birds. implements. intestine. Clinical signs Gasping. dragging legs. human clothing etc. caecal tonsils. spleen in 50% glycerin saline to be sent on ice. water. tracheitis. drooping ± wings. Contaminated feed. premises. Incubation period 2 to 15 days (average 5 ± 6 days). coughing. Morbidity and mortality depend on virulence of virus. Disease spreads through Air to long distances.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Transmission Direct contact with secretions. greenish diarrhoea. in appetance. Home Next Previous .

Inflammation of trachea with haemorrhages Home Next Previous .INDOVAX ‡ Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease .

Necrotic button ulcers in the intestines Home Next Previous .INDOVAX ‡ Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease .

INDOVAX ‡ Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease Necrotic button ulcers in the intestines Home Next Previous .

INDOVAX Newcastle Disease ‡ Gross Lesions .Airsacs are inflammed. Peritonitis & watery yolk material in abdominal cavity Home Next Previous . cloudy and congested .Ovaries flaccid.

strain (ICPI 0. vaccination programmes are needed that involve sequential use of progressively more virulent viruses or live virus followed by inactivated vaccine. intravenous pathogenic index in chickens. Therefore to obtain the desired level of protection without serious reaction. Two types of vaccines are available: . Live vaccine ± The immune response to a vaccine increases as the pathogenicity of live vaccine increases. It is a mild strain well tolerated by a young chick.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Diagnosis Presumptive diagnosis may be made on basis of clinical syndrome. Control Systematic vaccination is the key of Newcastle disease control. P.Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine. Newcastle disease live vaccine F. rising titres in serology. lesions. Mere isolation of ND virus from the tissues is not enough to pronounce ND.25) is used as primary dose in first few days (2 3 days) of the chick. .Newcastle disease live vaccine. The isolate has to be studied in tests known as minimum death time.M. Home Next Previous . intracerebral pathogenic index.

The layer birds should have HI titre of >26 HI in order to ensure sustained production. Indovax offers world class highly effective live vaccines prepared from CAV free SPF eggs ± viz. Indovax can assist in determining Mab titres for ND and assess sero conversion due to vaccination from time to time. Newcastle disease live vaccine R2B strain >105 EID50 with special diluent. simultaneous vaccination of live and inactivated ND vaccine is found beneficial. Newcastle disease live vaccine F strain >106 EID50 with special diluent. The repetition of LaSota vaccine will depend on Mab profile of the chick population. Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine Encivax(Titre of bulk >109 EID50) is administered at point of lay. It may be necessary to boost the layer immunity by administration of LaSota (usually every 3 months) as per need. Home Next Previous . Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine Encivax(>109 EID50) stable water in oil emulsion ± dose for adult birds 0. Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (R2B strain ) is administered when the birds are 8 to 10 weeks of age. The HI titre of birds is routinely monitored. Newcastle disease live vaccine LaSota strain >106 EID50 with special diluent.2 ml. Similarly in case of broiler birds having high maternal antibody ± in many cases ± simultaneous vaccination of live + inactivated ND vaccine is found beneficial.5 ml dose for chicks less than 1 month of age 0. There are special circumstances when judicious use of ND killed vaccines is found beneficial in farms where there is persistent problem of ND and/or great variation in Mab titre of chicks.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease The subsequent live vaccines consist of NDV LaSota strain which are administered 12 ±15 days. 20 ± 25 days. 35 ±40 days ( if necessary).

Remains viable for long periods in tissue faces and also in water. 60ºC/ 30 min. Resistance to Physical & Chemical action Inactivation at temperature 56ºC / 3 hours. equipment and clothing. Clinically normal water birds ± water fowl. Aetiology Virus family orthromyxoviridae influenza A type virus subtype H5 and H7 possessing multiple basic amino acid at cleavage site. Home Next Previous . sea birds may introduce the virus in flocks. Hosts It is primarily a disease of chicken.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by influenza A virus subtypes H5 and H7 possessing a sequence at the hemagglutinating cleavage site that codes for multiple basic amino acids. Contaminated feed. All age groups are affected. PH Inactivated by acid pH Disinfectant ± Inactivated by formalin and iodine compounds Survival . water. Transmission Direct contact with secretions from infected birds. The virus concentration in droppings is highest. especially faces.

drastic decline in egg production. inappetance. hemorrhagic tracheitis and mucous plugs in trachea. Conjunctivitis. sudden deaths (mortality can reach 100%). petechiae inside sternum and so. oedema of head and neck area. cyanotic combs and wattles. Diagnosis This is very important. abdominal fat. petechial hemorrhages on internal mucous surfaces. facial oedema.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Incubation period 3 ± 5 days. We are fortunate to have high security disease laboratory of IVRI at Bhopal who are authorized to do this work. Home Next Previous . Gross Pathology In case of sudden deaths ± no lesions will be seen. This is a highly specialized work and very few laboratories are equipped to do this work. intravenous pathogenic test in 6-week-old chicks. Symptoms Sever depression. Haemorrhages on all mucous surfaces. sequencing and presence of multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglution cleavage site. It depends on isolation of the virus. typing of H and N antigens. Birds which survive the infection for a day or two may show sever congestion of musculature.

OIE and all the Governments of different countries of the world are apprehensive that the H5N1 outbreaks in poultry may infect human beings. EUROPE and part of Africa. spleen pools of organs and faeces in glycerin saline to be sent on ice.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Samples for viral isolation Lung. NOTE . Home Next Previous . Zoonoses World Health Organization. Trachea. So far there is no evidence of human to human transfer. H5N1 outbreaks are being recorded in the world since 2003 and in 2006 it affected almost entire ASIA. gloves and apparel. If the virus mutates and gets capacity of human to human transfer ± it may repeat the 1918 history of influenza pandemic that killed millions of human beings.The post motem and collection of samples should be left to experienced vets properly protected by sterile facemasks.

‡ Sanitary disposal of dead birds. radius. looking to the wide spread outbreaks. animal products. The OIE has already given a protocol for production & testing of avian influenza vaccines. Netherlands etc have opted for vaccination. Home Next Previous . China. However. Vaccination is now being considered an important tool of control by most of the international forums. cleaning disinfections of poultry houses. France. It is. In India HSADL Bhopal has already developed an effective vaccine for H5N1. however.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Control Important steps in effective control are: ‡ Quick diagnosis of indicator case. ‡ Restrictive measures on trade vaccination of birds for HPAI has been a debatable issue. Vaccinated birds may remain as healthy carrier of the disease. necessary to monitor vaccinated population either through DIVA strategy or through sentinel birds or any such method which can detect a infected bird from vaccinated bird. the quantum of culling operations and impeding all time danger several countries like Russia. ‡ Culling of infected birds and their immediate vicinity of at least 3km.

especially faece contaminated feed. egg drop. Aetiology Virus family orthromyxoviridae genus influenza A subtypes other than H5 and H7. Influenza type A H9N2 has been causing serious losses to poultry industry. turkeys. The disease quickly spreads through airborne particles in a large geographical area. all the world over in recent past by way of mortality. Hosts It affects chickens. Incubation period Depends on the dose of virus. All age groups are susceptible. there are 15 recognized H subtypes and nine N subtypes. water. Home Next Previous . the route of exposure & ability to detect clinical signs. poor growth and performance. Transmission Direct contact with secretions from infected birds. equipment and clothing. Clinically normal waterfowl can transmit LPAI.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (LPAI) Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by influenza virus type A other than H5 and H7.

Home Next Previous . eggs for estimation of HI antibodies lung/trachea/spleen in glycerin saline to be sent on ice for virus isolation. are not lethal. Mycoplasma are present in population or birds under any stress are on the farm. mild preventricular haemorrhages. egg peritonitis. the mortality may rise to high as 60 ± 70%. pancreatic. they cause sizeable mortality.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (LPAI) Symptoms LPAI viruses when tested under laboratory conditions for IVPI test done on 6 week old bird. anorexia and depression sinusitis low but elevated mortality. When other organisms such as pneumoviruses. Pasteurella. E. respiratory disease. the virus may cause serious drop in egg production. Diagnosis Depends on isolation of virus and its subtyping in H and N antigens. The immunized birds perform well and losses due to egg drop on incidental mortality excited by secondary pathogens is avoided. nephritis. Control In addition to bio-security measures systematic vaccination of the population with the inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine is beneficial for control of the disease.coli. Newcastle disease. Gross Pathology Facial swellings. But when LPAI viruses infect the farm birds. Material for laboratory investigation Serum. In uncomplicated infections of H9N2. There is considerable mortality in broiler chicks. haemorrhatic tracheitis.

INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) Inclusion body hepatitis ± hydro pericardium syndrome (Angara disease) is a contagious disease of poultry birds ± particularly broiler birds characterized by high mortality due to hepatitis accompanied with hydro pericardium. Home Next Previous . 4. F. Symptoms Depression. Death after a short sickness. Disease is seen in all age groups of commercial broilers. respiratory distress inappetance. Transmission Vertical transmission. adv. But the disease in nature is usually seen only in broilers. Horizontal spread due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds or its excretions. Aetiology Fowl adeno virus sero type 4. Hosts The layer chicks can be infected experimentally. Incubation period .Incubation period is short ± 24 to 48 hrs. ruffled feather.

Enlarged and congested Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) ‡ Lesions Pericardium filled with fluid (Leechi appearance) Heart .petechial haemorrhages Liver .

Home Next Previous . Diagnosis The liver tissue gives a positive AGPT test against known positive serum. Virus can be isolated by yolk sac inoculation. Vaccination age is to be decided on basis of vulnerable age. both for commercial broilers as well as broiler breeders. If the disease appears in chicks less than 10 days of age. Inclusion body hepatitis ± hydro pericardium syndrome inactivated vaccine gives solid protection to vaccinates. it is advisable to immunize broiler breeders so that the chicks have sufficient maternal antibody. Material for diagnosis Liver in glycerin saline to be sent on ice.5 ml. The heart is completely immersed in yellowish pericardial fluid.INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) Gross Pathology Liver is congested to start with in advance stages the liver is pale yellow. There is spectacular hydropericardiiuum. Control In addition to bio-security measures vaccination of the commercial broilers is highly beneficial. Usually one vaccine dose is sufficient. In such flocks where the virus load is more. Indovax offers a very effective vaccine for control of inclusion body hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome. The dose for commercial broiler is 0. and dose for broiler breeders is 0. two doses may have to be given.2 ml.

fever and yellowish diarrhoea. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Organism died within 10 min. incubators and contaminated premises.INDOVAX Fowl Typhoid Fowl typhoid is an acute or chronic. Infected and carrier birds shed the organisms in their droppings. at 60ºC and within a few minutes by direct exposure to sunlight. Horizontal transmission is through infected hen. Home Next Previous . Transmission Spreads by both vertical and horizontal transmission. quails. Gets inactivated by Phenol. egg. Mechanical transmission also occurs. dichloride of mercury. formalin. Incubation period Usually 4 ± 6 days. pheasants and ducks are also susceptible. loss of appetite. Potassium permagnate. Aetiology Salmonella gallinarum Hosts Primarily affects chickens & turkeys. septicaemic disease of poultry characterized by dullness. Guinea fowls. Broilers are more susceptible to disease.

Respiratory distress with rapid breathing can also occur. Chicks to be obtained from breeder flock known & tested to be free from disease. Catarrhal enteritis & dark brown bone marrow is also seen. isolation & identification of organism. Control Strict hygiene measures. enlarged friable liver colored dark red or greenish brown and surface has a distinctive coppery bronze sheen after exposure to air for a short period is a consistent finding on post mortem. Mortality may range from 10 to 90%.INDOVAX Fowl Typhoid Symptoms Signs include sudden or sporadic mortality. Material for laboratory examination Affected internal organs to be sent on ice. Home Next Previous . pale combs and wattles are seen. Heart blood to be sent on ice. Diagnosis Based on gross lesions. Routine disinfection of incubators and eggs. loss of appetite. In chronic cases shrunken. Gross Pathology Enlarged & mottled spleen. Pericarditis with turbid yellow fluid pericardial sac & fibrin attached to surface of heart is a feature of chronic fowl typhoid. listlessness. In laying birds. there may be retained yolks. yellow diarrhoea accompanied with pasting of vent feathers.

Vertical transmission occurs through inovo transovarian route. duck. pheasants are also susceptible. Additional transmission may occur via fomites. Incubation period 6 ±10 days. Quail. geese. Transmission Spreads by both horizontal and vertical transmission. coughing.INDOVAX Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) It is a chronic respiratory disease of poultry characterized by respiratory rales. F propiolactone and merthiolate. Aetiology Mycoplasma gallisepticum Host Affects 4 ±10 weeks old birds especially the broilers & turkeys. nasal discharge and conjunctivitis and frequently in turkeys. Organism is inactivated at 50ºC. Susceptibility to physical & chemical agents Commonly employed chemical disinfectants are effective. infraorbital sinusitis. formalin. Home Next Previous . Horizontal transmission occurs readily by direct or indirect contact with infected birds or through droplet infection. Gets inactivated by phenol.

loss of appetite and birds lose weight. Home Next Previous . Pericarditis and perihepatitis is seen in cases complicated with E.coli. Material for laboratory . All in all out production system and routine serological monitoring are helpful. There is catarrhal inflammation of trachea. nasal discharge and coughing.INDOVAX Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) Clinical symptoms Most characteristic signs are tracheas rales. Gross pathology Most important pathological lesion is cloudy appearance of air sacs and air sacculitis. Occasionally arthritis and tenosynovitis is observed in chickens. Isolation of organism from trachea or air sacs of affected birds. Control Control strategy is based on maintaining Mycoplasma free breeding stock. Diagnosis Post mortem examination. There may be reduction in egg production to as much as 50% in layer flock. Trachea and conjunctive may be congested. lameness may also be seen in affected cases. Ataxia. High level of bio-security is pivotal. sinuses and bronchi.Serum samples to be sent on ice. nasal passages. Turkeys are more susceptible than chickens and develop more severe clinical signs including infra orbital Sinusitis. Blood testing by rapid serum agglutination test and Elisa.

ruffled feathers. Infection is transmitted by oral or inhalation route due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds. Hosts Chickens. Incubation period 3 ± 5 days. Aetiology . Transmission E.coli is present in intestinal tract as normal inhabitant and shed in the faeces.Escherichia coli organisms. turkeys. respiratory signs and septicemia. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Inactivated by most of disinfectants and temperature of 70 ±80ºC. Home Next Previous . ducks and pheasants all are affected but disease is most commonly seen in young chickens. listlessness.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Collibacillosis is the commonest disease of poultry characterized by dullness. diarrhoea.

perihepatitis and pericarditis. mortality may begin rapidly and progress rapidly. Fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis are most striking gross lesions. Gross pathology Lesions vary from acute to chronic in the various forms of disease. salpingitis may be seen in young birds. dyspnoea. Omphalitis and naval infection is seen in young chickens. peritonitis. loss of appetite. Characteristic gross lesions are airsacculitis. In acute septicemic form. Diarrhoea may be evident. However. sneezing. kidney and spleen are congested in septicemic cases. Liver. symptoms are listlessness with ruffled feathers.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Symptoms The symptoms vary with the different types of infections. in most cases. Past like faeces soil the vent feathers. Home Next Previous . Omphalitis.

Isolation and identification of organism from heart blood using growth media like EMB.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Diagnosis On basis of gross lesions. Control Maintain highest standards of flock management. MacConkey¶s Agar. Home Next Previous . dead bird as such can be sent on ice. Material to be sent to laboratory Heart blood with anticoagulant to be sent on ice. Control of predisposing factors and infections. Good hygiene in handling of hatching eggs.



Ascites is a disease of broiler chickens characterized by accumulation of non-inflammatory transudate in abdominal cavity.
AETIOLOGY Right ventricular failure or hepatic fibrosis or lung damage. Also associated with inadequate supplies of oxygen, poor ventilation and physiology. Hosts Affects all species of poultry. Clinical symptoms There are sudden deaths in rapidly developing birds. Progressive weakness and abdominal distension, which is followed by recumbency. Clinically affected birds show signs of dyspnoea and cyanosis.





Gross Pathology On post mortem, enlarged heart, enlarged and thickened right ventricle, fluid in body cavities and heart sac is observed. Lungs and intestines are congested. Liver is enlarged, congested and have clotted protein adherent to its surface. There is general venous congestion. Diagnosis Gross lesions are characteristic. Material to be sent to laboratory Dead bird as such can be sent to lab. on ice for diagnosis. Control Ascites caused by pulmonary hypertension is controlled by reducing birds oxygen requirement, giving good ventilation and reducing ammonia in the shed. Ascites caused by lung damage or avoiding etiologic agents involved can control liver damage. Avoid predisposition of birds to other respiratory diseases.





Gout (Non-infectious)
Gout is a metabolic disease of poultry characterized by depression, low feed intake and growth and swelling of joints.
Aetiology Excess protein or reduced water intake in diet, nephropathy, and deficiency of Vitamin A, high ± calcium laying feed in layers. Hosts - All poultry species are susceptible. Symptoms Affected birds are dull, depressed and stunted. There is loss of appetite. There may be signs of lameness in cases of articular gout. Gross Pathology Chalky white deposits/urates are seen on pericardium, liver, air sacs and peritoneum. Kidney is swollen and greyish in colour. Ureter is dilated with white pasty material. Similar deposits may be seen in joints. Diagnosis - Based on gross lesions. Material to be sent to laboratory -Dead bird as such can be sent on ice. Control - Balanced diet with adequate supply of vitamin A should be given, ample supply of water.




Egg production is decreased.INDOVAX Fatty Liver Syndrome Fatty liver syndrome is a non-infectious metabolic disease of layers characterized by enlarged fatty liver and excessive abdominal fat deposits. Clinical symptoms Affected birds appear overweight with heavy abdominal fat. Home Next Previous . Aetiology Excessive caloric intake/ faulty diet.Affects chickens primarily cage layers. Birds died due to liver rupture have pale combs & wattles. Hosts .

INDOVAX Fatty Liver Syndrome Gross pathology Primary gross lesion is an enlarged. Material for laboratory . Blood clots are found in abdominal cavity. Liver may show rupture with internal hemorrhage. High energy diets should not be fed. Home Next Previous . friable liver. Diagnosis . Control . yellowish.Balanced ration containing adequate level of proteins and vitamins should be given.Based on gross lesions.Dead hen as such can be sent on ice. Abdominal wall and subcutaneous tissues are generally full of fat.

Fax: 0091-124-231 4680 E-mail: mail@indovax. SCO-24. please contact : INDOVAX Corporate Heights.indovax.com . Sector ± 14 Gurgaon 122 001 ± Haryana (INDIA) Ph: 0091-124-231 5044 to 46.INDOVAX For more information.com Website : www.

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