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Ascites Egg Drop Syndrome Avian Encephalomyelitis Fatty Liver Syndrome Avian Infectious Bronchitis Fowl Cholera Avian Influenza (HPAI) Fowl Pox Avian Influenza (LPAI) Fowl Typhoid Chicken Anaemia Gout (Non infectious) Collibacillosis Gumboro Disease (IBD) CRD
IBH ± HHS (Leechi Disease)
Mareks Disease (MD)
Newcastle Disease (RD)
Avian encephalomyelitis is a disease of chickens marked by ataxia and tremor of the head, neck and limbs.
Aetiology - Picorna virus. Hosts Affects chicken, quail, turkeys. Transmission Vertical transmission is a very important means of virus dissemination. Horizontal spread due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds. Virus is shed in droppings. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Formalin fumigation is effective. Viral strains Enterotropic strains, embryo-adapted strains.
Incubation period 1 to 7 days in embryo transmission 11 days by oral administration. Symptoms Chicks in first week of their life show unsteadiness, sitting on hocks, paresis and even complete inability to move. The disease in adult birds is in apparent except for a transient drop in egg production. Gross Pathology In chicks ± whitish areas on gizzard muscle . Diagnosis Based on history, signs and isolation of virus from brain tissue. Material for Laboratory Brain tissue from affected chick stored in 50% glycerine saline to be sent on ice. Control Control of AE is achieved by vaccination of breeder flock during the growing period to ensure that they do not become infected after maturity.
5% formalin. Horizontal infection occurs by direct or indirect contact with ailing birds. iodine. Aetiology Virus classified as member of circoviridae ± DNA virus.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Chicken infectious anaemia is a disease of young chicken characterized by aplastic anaemia and generalized lymphoid atrophy with concomittant immunosuppression. Home Next Previous . All ages are susceptible but susceptibility to disease rapidly decreases in immunologically intact chicks during first 3 weeks of life. Transmission Spreads horizontally and vertically. Host The chicken is the only known host for CIAV. Resistance to chemical & physical agents Extremely resistant to heat (56ºC to 70ºC for one hour). hypochlorites are effective. 1% glutarldehyde.
atrophy of thymus and bursa. Gross pathology Pale bone marrow. Diagnosis On basis of gross lesions. Virus may be isolated in specific cell line MDCC ± MSB1. discolored liver & kidney. sudden rise in mortality (usually 13 ± 16 days of age). demonstration of ongoing seroconversion is parent flock.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Incubation period Under field conditions vertically infected chicks show increased mortality beginning at 10 ± 12 days of age with peak at 17 ± 24 days. pale birds. No clinical signs or effect on egg production or fertility in parent flock during seroconversion. second peak is at 30 ± 34 days due to horizontal transmission. gangrenous dermatitis. Clinical symptoms Poor growth. Home Next Previous .
Control In addition to bio-security measures vaccination of parents is an important strategy of control.INDOVAX Chicken Anaemia Material for Laboratory Liver or spleen tissue or rectal contents from diseased chickens in early phase of the disease to be sent on ice to the laboratory. Current vaccine strategies are based on prevention of vertical transmission of virus by immunization of breeder flock and have been successful in reducing the incidence of anaemia in chicks. Home Next Previous . Both live and inactivated vaccines are reported to be useful.
REO virus. it can survive for a year. Home Next Previous . Aetiology . In poultry sheds at 22ºC or so.INDOVAX Viral Arthritis Viral arthritis is a contagious disease of domestic fowl ± particularly broiler breeds ± caused by REO virus. 9 to 13 days in contact exposure. Resistance to chemical & physical agents REO virus is heat resistant. Incubation period Depends on virus pathotype. Infection can occur through respiratory route also. Hosts Primarily disease of domestic fowl. Transmission Vertical transmission through embryonated eggs. Horizontal spread occurs readily from bird to bird mainly by ingestion of contaminated faeces. It can withstand 60ºC for 8 to 10 hours.
Rising antibody titres. Control In addition to bio-security measures. low morbidity. Material to be sent to laboratory Affected joint in 50% glycerine saline to be sent on ice. immunization of birds with live vaccine in growing stage followed by inactivated vaccine when the birds come in lay. Gross pathology Swelling of tendon sheaths. isolation of virus. ulceration of articular cartilage. rapture of gastrocnemius tendons. Home Next Previous . Diagnosis Based on history. lesions. poor growth. swelling of footpad. hemorrhage in tissues.INDOVAX Viral Arthritis Symptoms Lameness. swelling of tendon sheaths. inflammation of hock.
Except for egg drop or laying misshapen ± shell less eggs ± there are no clinical symptoms. Hosts Chickens of all ages are susceptible to EDS. presence of virus in feces probably arises from contamination by oviduct exudates. loss of shell pigment. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Gets inactivated by 0. Droppings contain the virus in low titres and excretion of virus is intermittent. Egg drop may be 5 to 50% at least for 3 ± 4 weeks. thin or soft shelled. Aetiology .5% glutaraldehyde. Clinical symptoms Egg drop at peak or failure to peak. Rough. shell less eggs.INDOVAX Egg Drop Syndrome Egg drop syndrome is a contagious disease of poultry characterized by sudden drop in production or a failure to achieve a normal peak in production. Transmission Vertical transmission through eggs. Lateral spread of virus is slow and intermittent.5% formaldehyde or 0. Home Next Previous .Adenovirus subgroup III. In adult birds.
Loss of pigmentation Egg Drop Syndrome . soft shelled and misshapen eggs Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Signs .Thin.
Birds should be vaccinated between 14 and 16 weeks. Indovax can assist in determining seroconversion in vaccinated birds. Indovax offers an effective EDS inactivated vaccine for control of the disease. Material to be sent to laboratory Serum samples. Control An oil adjuvant inactivated vaccine is widely used and gives good protection against clinical EDS. Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Egg Drop Syndrome Gross Pathology No specific lesions. abnormal egg samples. Virus can be isolated in Duck embryo from the pouch shell gland of affected bird. Diagnosis Abnormalities of egg production ± High HI titres in affected birds which were not vaccinated with EDS vaccine.
loss of appetite. turkeys. Diseased birds contaminate their environment particularly feed & water. Aetiology Pasteurella multocida. Symptoms Depression. sudden death. coughing. highly contagious disease caused by Pasteurella multocida. Fowl cholera may be caused by any of 16 Heddlesson serotypes although certain serotypes appear to be more often associated with disease. diarrhoea. Home Next Previous . lameness. swollen and cyanotic wattles (in chronic cages). swollen joints (chronic cases). Death losses usually occur in laying flocks. nose. Hosts Affects poultry. ruffled feathers. Disease could be mechanically transmitted by flies. Transmission Chronically infected birds on the farm are major source of infection.INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Fowl cholera is a serious. ducks and geese. Dissemination of Pasteurella multocida with in a flock is primarily by excretions from mouth. Incubation period Incubation period is very short ± 24 to 48 hrs.
leg or wing joints .Tracheal rales and dyspnoea Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Signs Fowl Cholera Chronic .Swollen wattles. sinuses.
Swollen and usually contains multiple pin point foci Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Lesions Fowl Cholera Liver .
Petechial and eccymotic haemorhhages -General hyperemia is evident -with haemorrhages on heart Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Lesions Ovary .
Oedematous lungs (Pneunomia) Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Lesions Chronic cases .
yolk peritonitis. Control Bio-security measure. Diagnosis Examine blood slides. Home Next Previous . pericardial effusions.INDOVAX Fowl Cholera Gross Pathology Hemorrhages on myocardium ± hemorrhages on duodenum. Organisms can be isolated from heart blood. Every bird needs a primary dose and a booster dose set two weeks apart. rodent control. The age of vaccination is decided on basis of the vulnerable age for this infection as seen on farm. The vaccines are designed on basis of prevalent strain in locality and selection of strains is done on basis of cross protection tests in addition to somatic/capsular typing. Material to be sent to laboratory Femur bone kept in charcoal to be sent on ice to laboratory. Protect all the birds with fowl cholera vaccine. Vaccines INDOVAX offers very effective vaccine for fowl cholera. control of flies and insects. The booster dose should be given at least 15 days before the vulnerable age ± the age at which fowl cholera cases are seen on farm.
Incubation period 24 ± 72 hours. Inappetance. Aetiology Hemophilus paragallinarum ± Serovars A and C. sneezing. swelling of face under the eyes. On farms where multiple age groups are brooded and raised. Home Next Previous . sneezing.INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens characterized by nasal discharge. purulent ocular and nasal discharge. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents These are delicate organisms and get rapidly inactivated outside the host. spread of the diseases to successive age groups usually occurs with in 1 to 6 weeks after such birds are moved from the brooder house to growing cage near older birds. drop in egg production 10 ± 40%. Transmission Chronic or healthy carrier birds on the farm. Clinical symptoms Facial swelling.swollen wattles.
INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Signs Seromucoid nasal and ocular discharge Sometimes swollen wattles Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Signs Facial oedema and conjunctivitis Home Next Previous .
Material for laboratory Chopped off head to be stored on ice and sent to laboratory by air. The vaccine is presented in either aluminium hydroxide gel form or stable water in oil emulsion. It is necessary to protect the birds at proper age so that they complete the primary & booster applications at least 15 days before the chicks are transferred in vicinity of older birds. It is better to send a live bird for attempting isolation as the organism is very fragile and may get inactivated in transit. Home Next Previous . Caseous material in sinuses. set one fortnight apart.INDOVAX Infectious Coryza Gross pathology Conjunctivitis. Vaccines INDOVAX offers H. It is also necessary to confirm that birds receiving primary vaccination or booster are not already suffering with coryza. Two doses are necessary ± primary and booster. paragallinarum vaccine containing local isolates belonging to group A and C. All in all out management. It may be necessary to press near the infraorbital sinus to confirm absence of nasal exudate. Control Bio-security. Tracheitis. Vaccination of entire flock with coryza bacterin.
Post mortem The cutaneous form can be easily seen in life. Home Next Previous . Clinical signs Warty.INDOVAX Fowl Pox Fowl pox is a slow ± spreading viral infection of chickens and turkeys characterized by proliferative lesions in the skin that progress to thick scabs and by lesions in the upper GI and respiratory tracts (diphtheritic form). It is relatively slow spreading viral disease. Hosts Can infect birds of both sexes and all ages and breeds. In diphtheritic form of the disease caseous plaques can be seen in mouth.particularly visible and comb. Aetiology Large DNA virus ± an avian poxvirus ± family poxviridae. trachea and nasal cavities. In diphtheritic form caseous deposits are seen in buccal cavity. pharynx. throat and some times in trachea. Incubation period 4 to 10 days. wattles. spreading eruptions on un-feathered part of body.
Vary depending on host susceptibility & virulence of the virus Cutaneous . eyelids & other unfeathered parts of the body Home Next Previous .Nodular lesions on comb.INDOVAX Fowl Pox Signs . wattle.
eyelids & other unfeathered parts of the body Home Next Previous .Nodular lesions on comb. wattle.INDOVAX Signs Fowl Pox Cutaneous .
Yellowish lesions on mucous membrane of mouth. oesophagus or trachea -.leading to respiratory distress Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Fowl Pox Signs Diptheritic .
INDOVAX Fowl Pox Viral strains A nucleoprotein precipitinogen is common to all poxviruses. Control Routine immunization of birds with pox vaccine is practical method of control. Resistance Virus can survive in dried scabs for months or even years. Diagnosis It can be readily diagnosed on basis of flock history and presence of typical lesions. Indovax Fowl Pox vaccine is available in 500 & 1000 dose vials along with a special diluent for the vaccine. It is resistant to 1% phenol and 0. Transmission By direct or indirect contact. It gets inactivated by 1% caustic potash. Material for laboratory examination Dry scabs stored in sterile vials. Home Next Previous .1% formalin. The disease may be transmitted by a number of species of mosquitoes. Diphtheritic lesions from throat stored in 50% Glycerin saline to be sent on ice.
As age increases. oviduct lesions and mortality due to infection. coughing and sneezing. sneezing. chicken become more resistant to the nephrogenic effects.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Infectious bronchitis is an extremely contagious respiratory disease of chickens characterized by coughing. swollen pale kidneys with tubules & ureter distended with urates. loss of internal egg quality. rales. Clinical signs Drop in egg production 20 ± 50%. Incubation period 18 ± 36 hours. Several sero types of corona virus have been recognized. Aetiology It is caused by a corona virus. egg drop and nephritis. Gross pathology Flaccid follicles. soft shell eggs. Home Next Previous . Host All ages are susceptible but the disease is more severe in baby chicken. caseous plugs found in trachea of young chick. rough shells. yolk in peritoneal cavity.
shell less and mis-shapen eggs .Decline in egg production in addition to respiratory signs .INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Clinical Signs (Layers / Adults) .Poor shell.Severe decline in setting eggs and highly reduced hatchability Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Clinical Signs (Layers / Adults) .Inferior quality of eggs with watery albumin Home Next Previous .
ruffled feathers. wet droppings and nephrosis is seen apart from respiratory signs Home Next Previous .In broilers depression.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Clinical Signs .
ileocaeccal tonsils duly preserved in 50% . Air borne disease can jump considerable distances during an active outbreak.glycerin saline should be sent on ice to the laboratory.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Diagnosis Isolation of virus in chick embryo. When it occurs all susceptible birds on premises become infected. Transmission Highly contagious disease. Rising Elisa titre in birds together with egg drop and or respiratory symptoms is indicative of active infection. It can be spread mechanically by formites. Material for virus isolation Trachea. The virus can survive for about one fortnight in summer months and 56 days in winter months. Kidneys. Home Next Previous . Resistance Infectious bronchitis virus is considered to be sensitive to common disinfectants. Several passages are necessary before the virus is isolated.
Bronki-L Infectious bronchitis vaccine inactivated alone or in combination with ND. Indovax offers following products for control of infectious bronchitis: Infectious bronchitis vaccine (live) Mass strain . vaccinated birds. Indovax can assist in sero monitoring of day old chicks.Newcastle disease F.Bronki-F . EDS is available for breeders. Live vaccine available in the following combinations: . strain + IB virus for young chicks . Newcastle disease + IB virus combined. This vaccine has the advantage that a prevalent strain of IB virus in a territory can be incorporated in inactivated vaccine.Bronkichick Infectious bronchitis vaccine (Inactivated) for breeders. Vaccination has to be repeated from time to time to ensure adequate protection.INDOVAX Avian Infectious Bronchitis Control Vaccination of birds with high passage Massachusetts strain of IB is a practical method of control. IBD.Newcastle disease LaSota strain + IB virus for older birds . Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Infectious bursal disease is an acute. Aetiology Infectious bursal disease is caused by a birna virus.2 to 3 days. human traffic. Susceptible chicken younger than 3 weeks do not exhibit clinical signs but get sub clinical infection in which the bursa gets damaged resulting into immuno suppression. contaminated air-equipment ± feed. Transmission The spread of the disease can occur by direct contact. Although the disease causes severe losses. It is extremely contagious. Serotype I variants of IBD virus have not been seen in India so far. insects and wild birds. care taker. Incubation period . The period of greatest susceptibility to clinical disease is between 3 and 6 weeks of age. Home Next Previous . its affect on reducing the bird¶s ability to develop immunity to other diseases in the most serious effect produced by this disease. It causes marked morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. Hosts Chickens and turkeys are the natural hosts of the virus. contaminated litter & feces. It is most often found in highly concentrated poultry producing areas. highly contagious viral disease of young chickens.
INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Lesions Haemorrhages in thigh and pectoral muscles Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Lesions Renal changes are prominent Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Lesions Bursa is enlarged. gelatinous & sometimes even bloody Home Next Previous .
ocassionally throughout the bursa Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Lesions Petechial or ecchymotic haemorrhages on mucosal surface.
Huddling.INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Clinical signs Depression. Home Next Previous . inappetance. hemorrhages in skeletal muscles. may be hemorrhagic to start with followed by regression of bursa. The hardy nature of this virus is one reason for its persistent survival in poultry house. A laboratory procedure of isolation of virus can be used to substantiate the diagnosis. swollen kidneys with urates. Vent pecking. Material to be sent to laboratory The affected bursa stored in 50% glycerin saline needs to be sent on ice to the laboratory. Diarrhoea with urates in mucus. Susceptibility to physical & clinical agents IBD virus is very stable. Post mortem lesions Oedamatous bursa. unsteady gait. Control It is universally accepted that the control of the disease depends on ± (1) Bio-security (2) Proper vaccination. Formalin and iodophore are considered as effective disinfectants. Diagnosis A workable diagnosis can be made on basis of flock history and post mortem lesions.
Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine Inactivated alone or in combination with ND. In view of the variance in maternal antibody pattern of chick population. Home Next Previous . This can be done by knowing the maternal antibody pattern.IV95 strain for layer chicks carrying higher maternal antibodies and where the outbreaks are persistent. Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) Intermediate strain . Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) ± Bursa B2K strain for broiler chicks. it may be necessary to do repeated vaccination.GEORGIA ± for layer and broiler chicks. Indovax can assist in studying MAb profile and deciding vaccination schedules. IB is available for Breeders. A single application of the vaccine at 11 ± 12 day age of the birds is usually effective.INDOVAX Gumboro Disease (IBD) Vaccination strategies It is important to choose correct age for priming the birds. It is also necessary to review the vaccination strategies from time to time ± particularly in commercial farms as the chick population originating from a breeder lot may have different levels of Mab ± depending on immune status of the breeder flock. VACCINES INDOVAX offers very effective vaccines of proven worth for control of IBD. Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine (live) .
It has been shown that the virus survives in trachea exudates & chicken carcasses for a period of 10 ± 100 days at ambient temperature of 13 ± 23ºC. Disease is usually seen in birds 3 to 9 months of age. Hosts All ages of fowl are susceptible. highly contagious herpes virus infection of chicken characterized by sever dyspnea. coughing and rales. Transmission Vertical transmission not recorded. Aetiology Herpes virus strains appear to be homogenous antigenically. Recovered birds or even vaccinated birds act as carrier. However the virus gets inactivated at 38ºC within 48 hrs. 3% cresol or 1% lye will inactivate the virus in less than one minute.INDOVAX Infectious Laryngotracheitis Infectious laryngo tracheitis is an acute. Home Next Previous . conjunctivitis and mild rales. Young chicks are more vulnerable. In the flock the disease spreads due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds and fomites. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents. It may manifest as subcute disease characterized by lacrimation. tracheitis.
Vaccinated birds can act as carries of the disease and hence vaccination should not be done where it is not indicated.INDOVAX Infectious Laryngotracheitis Clinical signs Dyspnoea. Live modified ILT vaccine is available and it can be used on chicks as well as adult birds as per immune response. clinical syndrome and lesions in trachea. Isolation of virus. Mild forms cannot be diagnosed on clinical symptoms alone. intra nuclear inclusion bodies in trachea tissues and increase in titre between acute and convale scant sera are methods available. Control Vaccination should only be done when there is a confirmed diagnosis of ILT. and sinusitis. Gross Pathology Sever laryngo tracheitis often with blood in lumen. caseous plugs may be presence. Diagnosis The acute disease could be diagnosed on basis of spread. Material to be sent to laboratory Affected trachea stored in 50% glycerin saline to be sent on ice to the laboratory. Home Next Previous . coughing of mucous or blood drop in egg prodution. ocular discharge.
The age group 12 week to 24 week is very vulnerable. Home Next Previous . Aetiology Cell associated lymphotropic herpes virus. cell associated oncogenic herpes virus.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Marek¶s disease is a lymphoproliferalive and neuropathic disease of domestic chicken caused by a highly contagious. Sero types Sero type I includes all oncogenic and pathogenic viruses. Transmission Direct and indirect contact. Clinical signs can be seen usually after 4 weeks of age. The epithelial cells in keratinising layer of feather follicle replicate fully infectious virus and serve as source of contamination to the neighboring environment. Hosts MDV infection in chickens is ubiquitous among poultry population through out the world. sero type II consists of naturally occurring avirulent strains of Marek¶s virus (example SB1 strains) HVT is sero type III virus.
Symptoms Paralysis of wings. Home Next Previous . legs and neck. skin around feather follicle raised and roughened. grey iris.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Incubation period Cytolytic changes occur in between 3 to 6 days. loss of weight. for classical disease with lameness 8 ± 12 days.
Loss of striations and thickening Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Lesions Peripheral nerves .
Home Next Previous . kidney. spleen. heart. heart & skeletal muscles thickening of nerve trunks and loss of striation. age affected. gonads. It is necessary to differentiate from lymphoid leucosis. distribution of lesions. skin with feather follicles for viral isolation. histopathology. kidney. spleen. Diagnosis History. gonads nerves for histopathology.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Gross Pathology Grey ± white foci of neoplastic tissue in liver. Material to be sent to laboratory Enlarged liver. clinical signs.
Vaccines INDOVAX offers High PFU HVT vaccine cell free. It is necessary to keep the vaccinated chicks away from infected sheds at least for one month during which time the chicks would have acquired the required immune status. HVT frozen vaccine and HVT + SB1 frozen vaccine.INDOVAX Mareks Disease (MD) Disinfection The stability of cell associated MDV sero type I and II strain is completely dependent on the viability of the cells. The virus gets inactivated by commonly used disinfectants. freeze dried. In case of very virulent (vvMDV) bivalent vaccines. Cell free virus found in feather follicle and cellular debris can remain viable for 4 ± 8 months at room temperature. In case of very virulent to (vv + MDV) infections use of sero type I vaccines is indicated. Home Next Previous . Vaccination The vaccination strategy depends on type of virulence of Marek¶s infection. HVT + SB1 would be necessary. The infections caused by mild (mMDV) and virulent (vMDV) could be controlled by use of HVT cell free vaccine or HVT frozen vaccine.
D. lymphatics and myeloid tissue. C. Aetiology Caused by Exogenous lymphoid leucosis (LL) retro virus belonging to subgroups A. The causative viral agent is passed out of the body of infected birds via eggs and feces. The virus may be transmitted mechanically from infected birds to susceptible birds by blood sucking parasites or by man in such procedures as fowl pox vaccination. however incidence is usually highest at about sexual maturity. Home Next Previous . LL cases can occur anytime after 14 weeks of age. Incubation period Depends on strain and dose of virus in field outbreaks.INDOVAX Lymphoid Leucosis Lymphoid leucosis is a disease of adult chicks characterized by lymphoid tumor response in most of the organs (except nerves) and lymphoid leucosis manifestation in bones. E and J. B. Transmission The disease is transmitted in a variety of ways.
The new J virus produces tumors in adult birds on surface of bones ± junction of ribs. spleen. Diagnosis Histopathology of affected organs. The disease may manifest as osteopetrosis. Home Next Previous . sternum and pelvis.INDOVAX Lymphoid Leucosis Clinical signs Visceral tumors can be found in liver. Breeding leucosis free offspring from Leucosis free breeders can eventually lead to eradication of this disease. The only method available for control is laboratory detection of infected breeder and their elimination. Control No vaccine is available. erythroid and/or myeloid leukemia. kidneys and bursa of birds that are in general older than 25 weeks.
ND Mesogenic ± these viruses are used as vaccines in previously immunized birds. ND Neurotropic velogenic ± causes neurological and respiratory signs.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Newcastle disease is a contagious viral infection causing respiratory. Pathology of the virus ND ± velognic ± viscerotropic (vvND) it is also called as Asiatic or exotic ND. The vulnerable age for the disease is first 6 weeks of the life or birds in late stage of their lay. ND Lentogenic ± may cause sub clinical mild infections. Hosts Birds of all age group are susceptible.1 (PMV ± 1) only one serotype of ND is known. Aetiology Paramyxovirus . Most of the vaccine strains are Lentogenic strains. It is highly virulent for chickens. nervous disorders in several species of fowl including chickens and turkeys. Home Next Previous . Can affect any age.
intestine. specially feces from infected birds. human clothing etc. partial or complete cessation of egg production. drooping ± wings. Incubation period 2 to 15 days (average 5 ± 6 days). greenish diarrhoea. implements. degrees of vaccinate immunity and condition of flock. in appetance. dragging legs. Gross Pathology Hemorrhage in proventriculus Necrotic plaques in proventriculus. coughing. twisting of the head and neck. Contaminated feed. tracheitis. Disease spreads through Air to long distances. caecal tonsils. Home Next Previous . Morbidity and mortality depend on virulence of virus.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Transmission Direct contact with secretions. premises. spleen in 50% glycerin saline to be sent on ice. Clinical signs Gasping. water. Material to be sent to laboratory Lungs & Trachea.
INDOVAX Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease .Inflammation of trachea with haemorrhages Home Next Previous .
Necrotic button ulcers in the intestines Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease .
INDOVAX Gross Lesions Newcastle Disease Necrotic button ulcers in the intestines Home Next Previous .
Airsacs are inflammed.Ovaries flaccid. Peritonitis & watery yolk material in abdominal cavity Home Next Previous . cloudy and congested .INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Gross Lesions .
.M.Newcastle disease live vaccine. Newcastle disease live vaccine F. Therefore to obtain the desired level of protection without serious reaction. P. intravenous pathogenic index in chickens.Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine. Live vaccine ± The immune response to a vaccine increases as the pathogenicity of live vaccine increases. intracerebral pathogenic index. It is a mild strain well tolerated by a young chick. Mere isolation of ND virus from the tissues is not enough to pronounce ND.strain (ICPI 0. vaccination programmes are needed that involve sequential use of progressively more virulent viruses or live virus followed by inactivated vaccine. The isolate has to be studied in tests known as minimum death time.25) is used as primary dose in first few days (2 3 days) of the chick.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease Diagnosis Presumptive diagnosis may be made on basis of clinical syndrome. lesions. rising titres in serology. Two types of vaccines are available: . Control Systematic vaccination is the key of Newcastle disease control. Home Next Previous .
2 ml. The repetition of LaSota vaccine will depend on Mab profile of the chick population.5 ml dose for chicks less than 1 month of age 0. Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine Encivax(>109 EID50) stable water in oil emulsion ± dose for adult birds 0. Newcastle disease live vaccine F strain >106 EID50 with special diluent.INDOVAX Newcastle Disease The subsequent live vaccines consist of NDV LaSota strain which are administered 12 ±15 days. 20 ± 25 days. Indovax can assist in determining Mab titres for ND and assess sero conversion due to vaccination from time to time. Home Next Previous . The layer birds should have HI titre of >26 HI in order to ensure sustained production. Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (R2B strain ) is administered when the birds are 8 to 10 weeks of age. Indovax offers world class highly effective live vaccines prepared from CAV free SPF eggs ± viz. There are special circumstances when judicious use of ND killed vaccines is found beneficial in farms where there is persistent problem of ND and/or great variation in Mab titre of chicks. Newcastle disease live vaccine R2B strain >105 EID50 with special diluent. Newcastle disease live vaccine LaSota strain >106 EID50 with special diluent. It may be necessary to boost the layer immunity by administration of LaSota (usually every 3 months) as per need. The HI titre of birds is routinely monitored. Similarly in case of broiler birds having high maternal antibody ± in many cases ± simultaneous vaccination of live + inactivated ND vaccine is found beneficial. 35 ±40 days ( if necessary). Newcastle disease inactivated vaccine Encivax(Titre of bulk >109 EID50) is administered at point of lay. simultaneous vaccination of live and inactivated ND vaccine is found beneficial.
Clinically normal water birds ± water fowl. especially faces. equipment and clothing. Resistance to Physical & Chemical action Inactivation at temperature 56ºC / 3 hours. Transmission Direct contact with secretions from infected birds. The virus concentration in droppings is highest. Home Next Previous . sea birds may introduce the virus in flocks.Remains viable for long periods in tissue faces and also in water. water. Hosts It is primarily a disease of chicken. PH Inactivated by acid pH Disinfectant ± Inactivated by formalin and iodine compounds Survival .INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by influenza A virus subtypes H5 and H7 possessing a sequence at the hemagglutinating cleavage site that codes for multiple basic amino acids. Contaminated feed. 60ºC/ 30 min. All age groups are affected. Aetiology Virus family orthromyxoviridae influenza A type virus subtype H5 and H7 possessing multiple basic amino acid at cleavage site.
Home Next Previous . Symptoms Sever depression. abdominal fat. sudden deaths (mortality can reach 100%). Birds which survive the infection for a day or two may show sever congestion of musculature. oedema of head and neck area. hemorrhagic tracheitis and mucous plugs in trachea. typing of H and N antigens.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Incubation period 3 ± 5 days. This is a highly specialized work and very few laboratories are equipped to do this work. It depends on isolation of the virus. inappetance. Haemorrhages on all mucous surfaces. We are fortunate to have high security disease laboratory of IVRI at Bhopal who are authorized to do this work. facial oedema. petechial hemorrhages on internal mucous surfaces. Diagnosis This is very important. Gross Pathology In case of sudden deaths ± no lesions will be seen. petechiae inside sternum and so. sequencing and presence of multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglution cleavage site. intravenous pathogenic test in 6-week-old chicks. Conjunctivitis. cyanotic combs and wattles. drastic decline in egg production.
INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Samples for viral isolation Lung. OIE and all the Governments of different countries of the world are apprehensive that the H5N1 outbreaks in poultry may infect human beings. gloves and apparel. spleen pools of organs and faeces in glycerin saline to be sent on ice. Home Next Previous . If the virus mutates and gets capacity of human to human transfer ± it may repeat the 1918 history of influenza pandemic that killed millions of human beings. Trachea. H5N1 outbreaks are being recorded in the world since 2003 and in 2006 it affected almost entire ASIA.The post motem and collection of samples should be left to experienced vets properly protected by sterile facemasks. EUROPE and part of Africa. So far there is no evidence of human to human transfer. NOTE . Zoonoses World Health Organization.
the quantum of culling operations and impeding all time danger several countries like Russia. looking to the wide spread outbreaks. animal products. however. The OIE has already given a protocol for production & testing of avian influenza vaccines.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (HPAI) Control Important steps in effective control are: Quick diagnosis of indicator case. In India HSADL Bhopal has already developed an effective vaccine for H5N1. However. Netherlands etc have opted for vaccination. Vaccinated birds may remain as healthy carrier of the disease. Culling of infected birds and their immediate vicinity of at least 3km. China. France. Home Next Previous . Sanitary disposal of dead birds. radius. It is. necessary to monitor vaccinated population either through DIVA strategy or through sentinel birds or any such method which can detect a infected bird from vaccinated bird. Restrictive measures on trade vaccination of birds for HPAI has been a debatable issue. cleaning disinfections of poultry houses. Vaccination is now being considered an important tool of control by most of the international forums.
poor growth and performance. Incubation period Depends on the dose of virus. egg drop.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (LPAI) Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by influenza virus type A other than H5 and H7. Aetiology Virus family orthromyxoviridae genus influenza A subtypes other than H5 and H7. Influenza type A H9N2 has been causing serious losses to poultry industry. The disease quickly spreads through airborne particles in a large geographical area. all the world over in recent past by way of mortality. Clinically normal waterfowl can transmit LPAI. Hosts It affects chickens. equipment and clothing. Transmission Direct contact with secretions from infected birds. especially faece contaminated feed. turkeys. All age groups are susceptible. there are 15 recognized H subtypes and nine N subtypes. water. Home Next Previous . the route of exposure & ability to detect clinical signs.
The immunized birds perform well and losses due to egg drop on incidental mortality excited by secondary pathogens is avoided. nephritis. pancreatic. Mycoplasma are present in population or birds under any stress are on the farm. E. eggs for estimation of HI antibodies lung/trachea/spleen in glycerin saline to be sent on ice for virus isolation.INDOVAX Avian Influenza (LPAI) Symptoms LPAI viruses when tested under laboratory conditions for IVPI test done on 6 week old bird. There is considerable mortality in broiler chicks. In uncomplicated infections of H9N2. respiratory disease. Material for laboratory investigation Serum. But when LPAI viruses infect the farm birds. are not lethal. the mortality may rise to high as 60 ± 70%. Diagnosis Depends on isolation of virus and its subtyping in H and N antigens. Home Next Previous . Control In addition to bio-security measures systematic vaccination of the population with the inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine is beneficial for control of the disease. When other organisms such as pneumoviruses.coli. Gross Pathology Facial swellings. egg peritonitis. haemorrhatic tracheitis. mild preventricular haemorrhages. the virus may cause serious drop in egg production. anorexia and depression sinusitis low but elevated mortality. Pasteurella. Newcastle disease. they cause sizeable mortality.
respiratory distress inappetance. Symptoms Depression. Transmission Vertical transmission. Aetiology Fowl adeno virus sero type 4. ruffled feather.INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) Inclusion body hepatitis ± hydro pericardium syndrome (Angara disease) is a contagious disease of poultry birds ± particularly broiler birds characterized by high mortality due to hepatitis accompanied with hydro pericardium. Disease is seen in all age groups of commercial broilers. Incubation period . F. But the disease in nature is usually seen only in broilers. Home Next Previous . Horizontal spread due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds or its excretions.Incubation period is short ± 24 to 48 hrs. adv. 4. Death after a short sickness. Hosts The layer chicks can be infected experimentally.
INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) Lesions Pericardium filled with fluid (Leechi appearance) Heart .petechial haemorrhages Liver .Enlarged and congested Home Next Previous .
INDOVAX Inclusion body hepatitis ± Hydropericardium syndrome (Leechi/Angara disease) Gross Pathology Liver is congested to start with in advance stages the liver is pale yellow. and dose for broiler breeders is 0. Virus can be isolated by yolk sac inoculation. The dose for commercial broiler is 0. Inclusion body hepatitis ± hydro pericardium syndrome inactivated vaccine gives solid protection to vaccinates. In such flocks where the virus load is more. If the disease appears in chicks less than 10 days of age. both for commercial broilers as well as broiler breeders. two doses may have to be given. Usually one vaccine dose is sufficient. Control In addition to bio-security measures vaccination of the commercial broilers is highly beneficial. The heart is completely immersed in yellowish pericardial fluid.2 ml.5 ml. Home Next Previous . Diagnosis The liver tissue gives a positive AGPT test against known positive serum. Indovax offers a very effective vaccine for control of inclusion body hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome. it is advisable to immunize broiler breeders so that the chicks have sufficient maternal antibody. There is spectacular hydropericardiiuum. Material for diagnosis Liver in glycerin saline to be sent on ice. Vaccination age is to be decided on basis of vulnerable age.
Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Organism died within 10 min. at 60ºC and within a few minutes by direct exposure to sunlight. Aetiology Salmonella gallinarum Hosts Primarily affects chickens & turkeys. pheasants and ducks are also susceptible. dichloride of mercury. Guinea fowls. Home Next Previous . fever and yellowish diarrhoea. quails. Transmission Spreads by both vertical and horizontal transmission. Potassium permagnate. formalin. Gets inactivated by Phenol. Horizontal transmission is through infected hen. Infected and carrier birds shed the organisms in their droppings. Incubation period Usually 4 ± 6 days. Mechanical transmission also occurs. loss of appetite. septicaemic disease of poultry characterized by dullness. incubators and contaminated premises. Broilers are more susceptible to disease. egg.INDOVAX Fowl Typhoid Fowl typhoid is an acute or chronic.
Material for laboratory examination Affected internal organs to be sent on ice.INDOVAX Fowl Typhoid Symptoms Signs include sudden or sporadic mortality. Routine disinfection of incubators and eggs. Catarrhal enteritis & dark brown bone marrow is also seen. isolation & identification of organism. Respiratory distress with rapid breathing can also occur. Control Strict hygiene measures. Pericarditis with turbid yellow fluid pericardial sac & fibrin attached to surface of heart is a feature of chronic fowl typhoid. Home Next Previous . enlarged friable liver colored dark red or greenish brown and surface has a distinctive coppery bronze sheen after exposure to air for a short period is a consistent finding on post mortem. Heart blood to be sent on ice. Mortality may range from 10 to 90%. yellow diarrhoea accompanied with pasting of vent feathers. loss of appetite. Diagnosis Based on gross lesions. Chicks to be obtained from breeder flock known & tested to be free from disease. listlessness. In laying birds. there may be retained yolks. Gross Pathology Enlarged & mottled spleen. In chronic cases shrunken. pale combs and wattles are seen.
nasal discharge and conjunctivitis and frequently in turkeys. Home Next Previous . coughing. Organism is inactivated at 50ºC. F propiolactone and merthiolate. Vertical transmission occurs through inovo transovarian route. Incubation period 6 ±10 days. Horizontal transmission occurs readily by direct or indirect contact with infected birds or through droplet infection. pheasants are also susceptible. Transmission Spreads by both horizontal and vertical transmission. Additional transmission may occur via fomites. infraorbital sinusitis. Quail. geese.INDOVAX Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) It is a chronic respiratory disease of poultry characterized by respiratory rales. Gets inactivated by phenol. formalin. Aetiology Mycoplasma gallisepticum Host Affects 4 ±10 weeks old birds especially the broilers & turkeys. duck. Susceptibility to physical & chemical agents Commonly employed chemical disinfectants are effective.
Control Control strategy is based on maintaining Mycoplasma free breeding stock. All in all out production system and routine serological monitoring are helpful. Trachea and conjunctive may be congested. Material for laboratory . Diagnosis Post mortem examination. Gross pathology Most important pathological lesion is cloudy appearance of air sacs and air sacculitis. Pericarditis and perihepatitis is seen in cases complicated with E.coli. High level of bio-security is pivotal. sinuses and bronchi. Home Next Previous . Occasionally arthritis and tenosynovitis is observed in chickens. Blood testing by rapid serum agglutination test and Elisa. nasal passages. Ataxia.INDOVAX Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) Clinical symptoms Most characteristic signs are tracheas rales. There is catarrhal inflammation of trachea. lameness may also be seen in affected cases. Isolation of organism from trachea or air sacs of affected birds. loss of appetite and birds lose weight. nasal discharge and coughing.Serum samples to be sent on ice. Turkeys are more susceptible than chickens and develop more severe clinical signs including infra orbital Sinusitis. There may be reduction in egg production to as much as 50% in layer flock.
Incubation period 3 ± 5 days. Home Next Previous . ruffled feathers. Transmission E. respiratory signs and septicemia. diarrhoea. Aetiology . Infection is transmitted by oral or inhalation route due to direct or indirect contact with ailing birds.Escherichia coli organisms. Susceptibility to chemical & physical agents Inactivated by most of disinfectants and temperature of 70 ±80ºC.coli is present in intestinal tract as normal inhabitant and shed in the faeces. ducks and pheasants all are affected but disease is most commonly seen in young chickens. Hosts Chickens. listlessness.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Collibacillosis is the commonest disease of poultry characterized by dullness. turkeys.
Liver. Omphalitis and naval infection is seen in young chickens. However. salpingitis may be seen in young birds. In acute septicemic form. Omphalitis. sneezing. Fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis are most striking gross lesions. Home Next Previous . kidney and spleen are congested in septicemic cases. Gross pathology Lesions vary from acute to chronic in the various forms of disease. in most cases. Diarrhoea may be evident. perihepatitis and pericarditis. Past like faeces soil the vent feathers. symptoms are listlessness with ruffled feathers. mortality may begin rapidly and progress rapidly. Characteristic gross lesions are airsacculitis. peritonitis. loss of appetite.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Symptoms The symptoms vary with the different types of infections. dyspnoea.
Good hygiene in handling of hatching eggs. Control Maintain highest standards of flock management. Control of predisposing factors and infections.INDOVAX Collibacillosis Diagnosis On basis of gross lesions. Isolation and identification of organism from heart blood using growth media like EMB. MacConkey¶s Agar. dead bird as such can be sent on ice. Material to be sent to laboratory Heart blood with anticoagulant to be sent on ice. Home Next Previous .
Ascites is a disease of broiler chickens characterized by accumulation of non-inflammatory transudate in abdominal cavity.
AETIOLOGY Right ventricular failure or hepatic fibrosis or lung damage. Also associated with inadequate supplies of oxygen, poor ventilation and physiology. Hosts Affects all species of poultry. Clinical symptoms There are sudden deaths in rapidly developing birds. Progressive weakness and abdominal distension, which is followed by recumbency. Clinically affected birds show signs of dyspnoea and cyanosis.
Gross Pathology On post mortem, enlarged heart, enlarged and thickened right ventricle, fluid in body cavities and heart sac is observed. Lungs and intestines are congested. Liver is enlarged, congested and have clotted protein adherent to its surface. There is general venous congestion. Diagnosis Gross lesions are characteristic. Material to be sent to laboratory Dead bird as such can be sent to lab. on ice for diagnosis. Control Ascites caused by pulmonary hypertension is controlled by reducing birds oxygen requirement, giving good ventilation and reducing ammonia in the shed. Ascites caused by lung damage or avoiding etiologic agents involved can control liver damage. Avoid predisposition of birds to other respiratory diseases.
Gout is a metabolic disease of poultry characterized by depression, low feed intake and growth and swelling of joints.
Aetiology Excess protein or reduced water intake in diet, nephropathy, and deficiency of Vitamin A, high ± calcium laying feed in layers. Hosts - All poultry species are susceptible. Symptoms Affected birds are dull, depressed and stunted. There is loss of appetite. There may be signs of lameness in cases of articular gout. Gross Pathology Chalky white deposits/urates are seen on pericardium, liver, air sacs and peritoneum. Kidney is swollen and greyish in colour. Ureter is dilated with white pasty material. Similar deposits may be seen in joints. Diagnosis - Based on gross lesions. Material to be sent to laboratory -Dead bird as such can be sent on ice. Control - Balanced diet with adequate supply of vitamin A should be given, ample supply of water.
Clinical symptoms Affected birds appear overweight with heavy abdominal fat.INDOVAX Fatty Liver Syndrome Fatty liver syndrome is a non-infectious metabolic disease of layers characterized by enlarged fatty liver and excessive abdominal fat deposits. Aetiology Excessive caloric intake/ faulty diet. Hosts . Egg production is decreased. Home Next Previous . Birds died due to liver rupture have pale combs & wattles.Affects chickens primarily cage layers.
Abdominal wall and subcutaneous tissues are generally full of fat. Diagnosis . Liver may show rupture with internal hemorrhage.Based on gross lesions.Dead hen as such can be sent on ice.Balanced ration containing adequate level of proteins and vitamins should be given. Control . yellowish. Material for laboratory . friable liver. High energy diets should not be fed. Blood clots are found in abdominal cavity. Home Next Previous .INDOVAX Fatty Liver Syndrome Gross pathology Primary gross lesion is an enlarged.
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