CHAPTER 9: Moments of Inertia

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Moment of Inertia of Areas
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Second Moment, or Moment of Inertia, of an Area Parallel-Axis Theorem Radius of Gyration of an Area Determination of the Moment of Inertia of an Area by Integration Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas Polar Moment of Inertia
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9.1 Moment of Inertia: Definition
y x dA=(dx)(dy)
I x = ∫ ( y ) 2 dA
A

I y = ∫ ( x) 2 dA
A

y x O

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9.2 Parallel-Axis Theorem of an Area
y´ = Centroidal axis y dx x´ dA y´ CG dy x O x´= Centroidal axis
I x = ∫ ( y '+ d y ) 2 dA
A

= ∫ [( y ' ) 2 + 2( y ' )(d y ) + (d y ) 2 ]dA
A

= ∫ ( y ' ) 2 dA + ∫ 2( y ' )(d y )dA + ∫ (d y ) 2 dA
A A

0, y´ = 0
2

A

= I x + 2d y ∫ y ' dA + d y
A

∫ dA
A

Ix = Ix + 0 + dy A I y = I y + 0 + dx A
J O = J C + Ad 2
3
2

2

where Ix = kx A.9.3 Radius of Gyration of an Area y A The radius of gyration of an area A with respect to the x axis is defined as the distance kx. we have kx O x kx = Ix A ky = Iy A kO = JO A 4 . With similar definitions for 2 the radii of gyration of A with respect to the y axis and with respect to O.

The result is dI x = 1 3 y dx 3 dI y = x 2 y dx 5 .9.4 Determination of the Moment of Inertia of an Area by Integration y The rectangular moments of inertia Ix and Iy of an area are defined as x dx y I x = ∫ y 2 dA I y = ∫ x 2 dA x These computations are reduced to single integrations by choosing dA to be a thin strip parallel to one of the coordinate axes.

y dA = bdy dy y b I x = ∫ y 2 dA A y´ dA = (b/2)dy dy y h/2 x b/2 I x = I x ' = ∫ y 2 dA A h x´ = ∫ y (bdy ) 2 0 h b = 4 ∫ y 2 ( dy ) 2 0 b y3 = 4( ) 2 3 h/ 2 h (by 3 ) = 3 0 h 0 bh3 = 3 bh 3 = 12 6 .• Moment of Inertia of a Rectangular Area.

y b dA = hdx x x dx h/2 y´ x dx dA = (h/2)dx x´ h b/2 I y = I y ' = ∫ x 2 dA A I y = ∫ x 2 dA A b = ∫ x (hdx) 2 0 h = 4 ∫ x 2 ( dx) 2 0 h x3 = 4( ) 2 3 hb 3 = 12 b/2 h (hx 3 ) = 3 0 hb 3 = 3 b 0 7 .

y h/2 h/2 b I x = I x + Ad 2 bh 3 Ix = 12 bh 3 x Ix = 3 bh 3 h = + (bh)( ) 2 12 2 bh 3 bh 3 = + 12 4 bh 3 Ix = 3 8 .

y Integrating dIx from y = 0 to y = h. we obtain I x = ∫ y 2 dA h-y h l y x b/2 dIx = y2 dA b/2 dA = l dy dy h− y b =∫y b dy = ∫ ( hy 2 − y 3 ) dy h h0 0 2 h h b y 3 y 4 h bh 3 = [h − ]0 = 4 12 h 3 I x = I x + Ad 2 I x = I x − Ad 2 bh 3 bh h 2 bh 3 = − ( )( ) = 12 2 3 36 h− y dy h 9 Using similar triangles. we have l h− y = b h l =b h− y h dA = b .• Moment of Inertia of a Triangular Area.

Example 9. y y = kx2 b x a 10 .1 Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to each of the coordinate axes.

• Moment of Inertia Ix. y y = kx2 dA = (a-x)dy a dy b I x = ∫ y 2 dA A = ∫ y 2 ( a − x) dy 0 b x = ∫ y 2 (a − 0 b a 1/ 2 y )dy b1/ 2 a = a ∫ y dy − 1/ 2 b 0 2 b ∫y 0 b 5/ 2 dy b Substituting x = a and y=b y = kx 2 b = ka 2 b k= 2 a ay 3 a 2 = − 1/ 2 ( y 7 / 2 ) 3 0 b 7 0 ab 3 a 2 = − 1/ 2 ( b 7 / 2 ) 3 b 7 b y= b 2 x a2 or x= a 1/ 2 y b1/ 2 ab3 2ab 3 = − 3 7 ab 3 = 21 11 .

• Moment of Inertia Iy. y y = kx2 dA = ydx dx b y = 2 x2 a I y = ∫ x 2 dA A = ∫ x 2 ydx 0 a b x = ∫ x2 ( 0 a b 2 x ) dx 2 a a b = 2 ∫ x 4 dx a 0 a b x5 = ( 2 )( ) a 5 0 b a5 = ( 2 )( ) a 5 a 3b = 5 a 12 .

b) y2 = x2 y1 = x x 13 . y (a.2 Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to each of the coordinate axes.Example 9.

• Moment of Inertia Ix.b) I x = ∫ y 2 dA A b y2 = x2 dy y1 = x dA = (x2 . y (a.x1)dy x = ∫ y 2 ( x 2 − x1 )dy 0 = ∫ y 2 ( y1/ 2 − y )dy 0 b = ∫(y 0 b 5/ 2 ) dy − ∫ ( y 3 ) dy 0 b = 2 7/2 y y − 7 4 0 b 4 b 0 2 7 / 2 b4 = b − 7 4 14 .

y (a.b) dx y2 = x2 dA = (y1 .y2)dx y1 = x x I y = ∫ x 2 dA A a = ∫ x 2 ( y1 − y 2 )dx 0 = ∫ x 2 ( x − x 2 )dx 0 a = ∫ ( x )dx − ∫ ( x 4 ) dx 3 0 0 a a x4 x5 = − 4 0 5 a 4 a5 = − 4 5 a a 0 15 .• Moment of Inertia Iy.

16 .5 Moment of Inertia of Composite Areas c A similar theorem can be used with the polar moment of inertia. The polar moment of inertia JO of an area about O and the polar moment of inertia JC of the area about its d o centroid are related to the distance d between points C and O by the relationship J O = J C + Ad 2 The parallel-axis theorem is used very effectively to compute the moment of inertia of a composite area with respect to a given axis.9.

100 mm 25 mm 75 mm 75 mm x 17 .Example 9.3 Compute the moment of inertia of the composite area shown.

SOLUTION 100 mm 25 mm 75 mm 75 mm = (dy)Cir x bh 3 2 Ix = ( ) Re ct − ( I x + Ad y ) Cir 3 1 1 = [ (100)(150) 3 ]Re ct − [ π ( 25) 4 + (π × 252 )(75) 2 ]Cir 3 4 = 101x106 mm4 18 .

Example 9.4 Determine the moments of inertia of the beam’s cross-sectional area shown about the x and y centroidal axes. 100 400 100 C 100 400 x y 600 Dimension in mm 19 .

SOLUTION 100 A 400 100 dyA y B C dyD D 600 100 x 400 Dimension in mm 0 I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A + ( I x + Ad y ) B + ( I x + Ad y ) C 2 2 2 1 1 = [ (100)(300) 3 + (100 × 300)(200) 2 ] + [ (600)(100) 3 + 0] 12 12 1 + [ (100)(300) 3 + (100 × 300)(200) 2 ] 12 = 2.9x109 mm4 20 .

6x109 mm4 21 .100 A 400 100 C dxA y x dxD 400 D 600 100 Dimension in mm 0 I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A + ( I y + Ad x ) B + ( I y + Ad x ) C 2 2 2 1 1 = [ (300)(100) 3 + (100 × 300)(250) 2 ] A + [ (100)(600) 3 + 0]B 12 12 1 + [ (300)(100) 3 + (100 × 300)(250) 2 ]C 12 = 5.

33) Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the shaded area with respect to the x and y axes.Example 9.31.5 (Problem 9. y 12 mm 12 mm 6 mm 8 mm 24 mm O 24 mm 6 mm 24 mm 24 mm x 22 .

87 mm [(24 × 6) + (8 × 48) + ( 48 × 6)] A 23 .SOLUTION y 12 mm 12 mm A 8 mm 6 mm 2 0 I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A + ( I x + Ad y ) B + ( I x + Ad y ) C 2 2 dyA 24 mm O x B dyC 24 mm 6 mm 1 = [ (24)(6)3 + ( 24 × 6)(27) 2 ] A 12 1 + [ (8)(48) 3 + 0]B 12 1 + [ ( 48)(6) 3 + (48 × 6)(27) 2 ]C 12 C 24 mm 24 mm Ix = 390x103 mm4 kx = Ix 390 × 103 = = 21.9 mm [(24 × 6) + (8 × 48) + (48 × 6)] A 0 2 0 2 0 2 I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A + ( I y + Ad x ) B + ( I y + Ad x ) C 1 1 1 = [ (6)(24) 3 ] A + [ ( 48)(8) 3 ]B + [ (6)(48) 3 ]C 12 12 12 Iy = 64.3x103 mm4 ky = Iy 64.3 × 103 = = 8.

5 m 2m O 1m 1m 1m 1m 0.6 (Problem 9.34) Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the shaded area with respect to the x and y axes.5 m x 24 .5 m 2m 2m 0. y 0.32.Example 9.5 m 0.

5 m 2m 0.599 m A [(5 × 6) − ( 4 × 2) − (4 × 1)] 0 0 0 2 2 2 I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A − ( I y + Ad x ) B − ( I y + Ad x ) C =[ 1 1 1 (6)(5) 3 ] A − [ ( 2)(4) 3 ]B − [ (1)(4) 3 ]C 12 12 12 Iy = 46.5 m x 0 I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A5×6 − ( I x + Ad y ) B 4×2 − ( I x + Ad y ) C 4×1 2 2 2 dyB =[ 1 1 (5)(6) 3 + 0] A − [ (4)(2) 3 + ( 2 × 4)(2) 2 ]B 12 12 1 − [ ( 4)(1) 3 + (4 × 1)(1.5 m4 ky = Iy A = 46.607 m [(5 × 6) − ( 4 × 2) − (4 × 1)] 25 .5 m 2m B A O C 0.y 0.5 = 1.5 m 2m 1m dyC 1m 1m 1m 0.5) 2 ]C 12 Ix = 46 m4 kx = Ix 46 = = 1.

Example 9. y 1 cm 1 cm 5 cm 1 cm 5 cm x 26 .7 Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the shaded area with respect to the x and y axes and at the centroidal axes.

25 cm 4 OR 1 I x = 2[( (1)(5) 3 + (5 ×1)(1) 2 ] 12 1 + [( (5)(1) 3 + (5 ×1)(2) 2 ] 12 = 51.5)(5 ×1)] + (0.5)(1× 5) 3(5 ×1) = 2.848 cm 15 A 27 .5 cm • Moments of inertia about x axis 1 1 I x = 2[( (1)(5) 3 + (5 × 1)(3.25 cm 4 1 1 I y = I y = 2[( (5)(1) 3 + (5 × 1)(2) 2 ] + (1)(5) 3 12 12 = 51.5) 2 CG Y = 51.5) 2 ] + (5)(1) 3 12 3 = 145 cm 4 kx = ky = Ix 51.25 = = 1.5 x Y = 2[(3.25 cm 4 0.y 1 cm 2 5 cm 3.5 1 cm 5 cm Y ∑ A = ∑ yA 1 cm • Moments of inertia about centroid I x = I x − Ad y 2 = 145 − (15)(2.

229 mm 19 mm C 358 mm 172 mm 28 .8 The strength of a W360 x 57 rolled-steel beam is increased by attaching a 229 mm x 19 mm plate to its upper flange as shown. Determine the moment of inertia and the radius of gyration of the composite section with respect to an axis which is parallel to the plate and passes through the centroid C of the section.Example 9.

5 mm x 1  =  ( 229)(19) 3 + ( 4351)(188.SOLUTION 19 mm 229 mm • Moment of Inertia I x ' = ( I x ' ) plate + ( I x ' ) wide − flange = ( I x ' + Ad 2 ) plate + ( I x ' + AY 2 ) wide − flange d C 358 mm O Y x´ 188.8 × 10 6 k = = A (4351 + 7230) 2 x' k x ' = 149 mm Y (4351 + 7230) = (188.8 mm 29 .2 mm 4 A = 7230 mm2 Aplate = (229)(19) = 4351 mm2 Y ΣA = Σy A • Radius of Gyration I x' 256.5 − 70.8 ×106 mm 4 I x ' = 257 × 10 6 mm 4 172 mm • Centroid The wide-flange shape of W360 x 57 found by referring to Fig.5)(4351) + (0)(7230) Y = 70. 9.13 I x = 160.2 ×106 + (7230)(70.8) 2 [ ] = 256.8) 2  12  + 160.

Observing that r 2 =x 2 + y 2 .9.6 Polar Moment of Inertia y dA r The polar moment of inertia of an area A with respect to the pole O is defined as y x x J O = ∫ r 2 dA O A The distance from O to the element of area dA is r. we established the relation JO = I x + I y 30 .

9 (a) Determine the centroidal polar moment of inertia of a circular area by direct integration. y r O x 31 . (b) Using the result of part a. determine the moment of inertia of a circular area with respect to a diameter.Example 9.

Polar Moment of Inertia. J O = I x + I y = 2I x π 2 r 4 = 2I x I diameter = I x = π 4 r4 32 . Moment of Inertia with Respect to a Diameter.SOLUTION y a. dJ O = u 2 dA dA = 2πu du r r 2 r u O du x J O = ∫ dJ O = ∫ u ( 2πu du ) = 2π ∫ u 3 du 0 0 JO = π 2 r4 b.