c

Aplicaciones de las Ec. Diferénciales
CAIDA LIBRE DE UN CUERPO 
cc c
c c
c  c  
c
ccccc c 
c
c 
 ccc

c

‫ݒ‬ൌ
݉

ௗ௬
ୢ୲

ௗమ೤
ୢ୲మ 

‫ ܽݕ‬ൌ

ൌ െ݉݃cc

ௗ௩
ୢ୲

ൌcccccc

೏೤

ௗቀ ೏೟ ቁ
ௗ௧

cൌ

ௗమ೤
ୢ୲మ

cccccccc

c 
 cc c  c  c  c  c
c 
cc cc 
c c c  c c݄଴ c
‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ  ݄଴ c c
c
c
c 
c cc 
c ccc c! c" c‫ݒ‬଴ c
cccccccccc‫ݕ‬ƲሺͲሻ  ൌ ‫ݒ‬଴ c

c 

c cc cc

ௗమ೤
ୢ୲మ

݉‫ ̶ݕ‬ൌ െ݉݃c
c
c
# $ cc cc
c
c‫ ̶ݕ‬ൌ െ


ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ c

݃‫݁݊݁݅ݐ݁ݏ݋݂݈݀݊ܽܿ݅݅݌݉݅ݏ‬c

̶࢟ ൌ െࢍc c
— c c c c %c cc cc
c
c 

 c c %c c c %c c cc
c
c
‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ െ݃‫ ݐ‬൅ ܿଵ ‫ݒ݀ܽ݀݅ܿ݋݈݁ݒ݈ܽ݁ݑݍݏܽ݉ݏ݁݋݊݁ݑݍ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻc

c 
 c ccc  c cccc  cc c c 
 %cc!   c
c
‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬Ԣc
‫ݑ‬ᇱ ൌ െ݃c

ௗ௬
ୢ୲

ൌ െ݃cccc

c
# cc c %cc cc!&'c c c %c c 
c c c %c  c  c c c 
 c

# ccccccc‫ݕ‬ԢሺͲሻ
!c  cc c %c c  cc! c 
cܿଵ c
c
‫ݒ‬଴ ൌ െ݃ሺͲሻ ൅ ܿଵc
ܿଵ ൌ ‫ݒ‬଴ c
c 
c c
࢟ᇱ ൌ ࢜ሺ࢚ሻ ൌ  െࢍ࢚ ൅  ࢜૙ c
c
c  

 c c cc c cc
!   c  c c
݀‫ݕ‬
ൌ െ݃‫ ݐ‬൅  ‫ݒ‬଴ c
†–
c
†› ൌ ሺെ݃‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫ݒ‬଴ ሻ݀‫ݐ‬c

ௗ௬
ୢ୲

ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ
c c   %cc

c

" c

න †› ൌ නሺെ݃‫ ݐ‬൅  ‫ݒ‬଴ ሻ݀‫ ݐ‬c

c

‫ݕ‬ൌ

ି௚௧ మ
ଶ 

൅  ‫ݒ‬଴ ‫ ݐ‬൅ ܿଶ cccc

c
— c %c 
c cc c c %c  c 
cܿଶ
c c  c c  c
݀ܽ݀‫ݕ݋‬ሺͲሻ
cccc 

ሺͲሻଶ  ൅  ‫ݒ‬଴ ሺͲሻ  ൅  ܿଶ ccc

݄଴ ൌ

ି௚

࢟ ൌ

ିࢍ ૛శ࢜
૙ ࢚ 

c

c
ܿଶ ൌ  ݄଴ c
c 
c c

൅  ࢎ૙ c

c
c 
  c !c 
( cc)c$
c#cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c  

cc c*c+ cc cc!c %c  ccc 
!ccc  c,c cc c- cc 
cc .cc
c
c 
.c c/c  cc
cccc0ccccccccc1c
c
c 
- cc  cc ccc c ccc ccc/ c c- cc %
c 
c  c2c c ccc c  cc c
c
݉݃ െ ݇‫ ݏ‬ൌ Ͳc
c

#  - cc3c  c c c %ccc c c  
%cc c cc 
.c cc ccc
cccccccccccccccccccc
݀ଶ ‫ݔ‬
݉ ଶ  ൌ  െ݇ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݉Ǥ ݃c
†–

c

݀ଶ ‫ݔ‬
݉ ଶ  ൌ െ݇‫ ݏ‬െ ݇‫ ݔ‬൅ ݉݃c
݀‫ݐ‬
# cc݉݃ െ ݇‫ ݏ‬ൌ Ͳc
݉

ௗమ ௫
ௗ௧ మ

ൌ  െ݇‫ݔ‬ccc 

cc  %c#c c cc c c
c 


ௗమ ௫
ௗ௧

c
c
c
c

ି௞
௠ 

‫ ݔ‬ൌ൐ 

ௗమ ௫
ௗ௧ మ 

൅  ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳccc

ௗమ ௫
ௗ௧ మ 

ି௞
௠ 

‫ݔ‬c 

c c %c c4 cc cc c
c
݇
‫ ̶ݔ‬൅  ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳc
݉
c
5 !c cc
, c %c63 c
݇ 
‫ן‬ଶ൅   ൌ Ͳc
݉
c
െ݇


‫ן‬ଶ ൅ 
Ǣ‫ן‬ଵ ൌ  ට௠  ՛‫ן‬ଶൌ  െට௠  ՛c
݉
c
c 
c c7c c ( c $ c c c  cc c 
cc c#cc ( c $ c c
c
‫ ͳݕ‬ൌ  ܿଵ݁ ‫ן‬ǡ௧ …‘• ߚcccccccccc‫ ʹݕ‬ൌ  ܿଶ ݁ ௫ଶ௧ ‫ߚ݊݁ݏ‬cc
c
#c‫ן‬c c c c c cߚc c c c   c c c
c
‫ ͳݕ‬ൌ  ܿଵ݁ ௢௧ …‘• ට೘ೖ c ccccccc‫ ʹݕ‬ൌ  ܿଶ ݁ ௢௧ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ට೘ೖ c
c

‫ ͳݕ‬ൌ  ܿଵ …‘•  ට೘ೖ ccccccccccccccccc‫ ʹݕ‬ൌ  ܿଶ •‡ ට೘ೖ cc
c
, c %c c c c

࢞ሺ࢚ሻ ൌ  ࢉ૚ ‫ ܛܗ܋‬ට࢓࢑  ൅ ࢉ૛ ࢙ࢋ࢔ට࢓࢑ cccccccccccccccccc

c 
8c9c:c c  cc c  cc
c
c
c
c

c
c 

c  cc‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ  ݂‫ݐ‬Ȁ‫ݏ‬ccccc- cc ccc!c

%cccc
c
݇
݀ଶ ‫ݔ‬ 
൅  ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳc
݉
݀‫ݐ‬
c
‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ 

ିସ

ଷ 

ccccccccccccccc  c  cc

c
‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͺc
c 
cc c c/c c cc;/cc
c
ʹ െ ݇ ቀଶቁ  ൌ Ͳc

c
ʹ ൌ  ೖమ‫ ܭ‬ൌ Ͷccc
c
c
6 ccccc ccc  cccc
c
‫ ݌‬ൌ ݉Ǥ ݃c
ʹ ൌ ݉Ǥ ͵ʹc 
ൌ  భలభ c
݉ ൌ యమ
యమ
c
̶࢞ ൅ ૟૝࢞ ൌ ૙ࡱǤ ࡰc
c 
%c63 cc
c
‫ן‬ଶ ൅ ͸Ͷ ൌ Ͳc
‫ן‬ଵൌ  ξ͸Ͷ  ՛‫ן‬ଶ ൌ െξ͸Ͷ  ՛ccc
‫ן‬ଵൌ ͺ ՛  ‫ݔ‬ଶ  ൌ െͺ ՛c
‫ ͳݕ‬ൌ  ܿଵ …‘• ͺccccccccccc‫ ʹݕ‬ൌ ܿଶ‫݊݁ݏ‬ͺ‫ݐ‬c
‫ ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ  ܿଵ …‘• ͺ ‫ ݐ‬൅  ܿଶ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ͺ‫ݐ‬c

c 
ccc ccc:cc9c:cc c c  ccc

‫ ݔ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ  ଷ݂‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ 

ିସ ௙௧ 
ൗ௦c

c 
cc
‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ  െͺܿଵ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ͺ‫ ݐ‬൅ ͺܿଶ …‘• ͺ‫ݐ‬c
c
c
ʹ 
ൌ ܿଵ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ͺሺͲሻ  ൅  ܿଶ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ͺሺͲሻc
͵
c
ʹ 
ൌ ܿଵ  ൅ ‫׎‬c
͵
c
ʹ
ܿଵ  ൌ  c
͵
c
െͶ
ൌ  െͺܿଵ‫݊݁ݏ‬ሺͲሻ ൅ ͺሺʹ …‘• ͺሺͲሻc
͵
c
ିସ

ൌ Ͳ ൅ ͺܿଶ ccccccccccܿଶ  ൌ

ିସ
ଶସ 

ൌ  െ cc

‫ݐ‬
ʹ
‫ ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ  …‘• ͺ‫ ݐ‬െ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ͺ‫ݐ‬c
͸
͵
c
c 
 cc c  ccc <c c ( cc
8c cc
c8:c   cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

à  c  
 c c    c    cc  

c

Û›̶ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ܿ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳccccc4 cc
cc 
c  c
ܽ ് Ͳ   

ccàc

࢟ ൌ ࢋ‫ ࢚ן‬ሺ‫ן‬ൌ ࢇࢊࢋ࢚ࢋ࢘࢓࢏࢔ࢇ࢘ሻc

࢟ᇱ ൌ‫࢚ןࢋ  ן‬c

̶࢟ ൌ‫ן‬૛  ࢋ‫ ࢚ן‬c   

cc࢟࢟ᇱ ̶࢟c

ࢇ ‫ן‬૛ ࢋ‫  ࢚ן‬൅ ࢈ ‫  ࢚ןࢋ  ן‬൅ ࢉࢋ‫ ࢚ן‬ൌ ૙cc

ࢋ‫࢚ן‬ሺࢇ ‫ן‬૛ ൅ ࢈ ‫  ן‬൅ࢉሻ ൌ ૙c
ࢇ ‫ן‬૛ ൅ ࢈ ‫  ן‬൅ࢉ ൌ ૙c

ࢇ ‫ן‬૛ ൅ ࢈ ‫  ן‬൅ࢉ ൌ ૙ࡱࢉ࢛ࢇࢉ࢏࢕࢔ࢇ࢛࢞࢏࢒࢏ࢇ࢘ccccccccccc

‫ן‬ൌ 

ି࢈േඥ࢈૛ ି૝ࢇࢉ

c
c

c

૛ࢇ

ccccccc‫ ן‬Ԣ ൌ ሺെ࢈ ൅ ξ࢈૛ െ ૝ࢇࢉሻȀ૛ࢇccccc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccc‫ ̶ ן‬ൌ  ሺെ࢈ െ ξ࢈૛ െ ૝ࢇࢉሻȀ૛ࢇccccc 

c cc 
c  c  
c   
cሺ࢈૛ െ ૝ࢇࢉ ൐ Ͳሻc 

െܾ ൅ ξܾଶ െ Ͷܽܿ
‫ן‬ଵൌ 
c
ʹܽ
c 

‫ן‬ଶൌ 

െܾ െ ξܾଶ െ Ͷܽܿ c
ʹܽ

c
c
c
c
c
c

:cc5 ( c  c 
c cሺܾଶ െ Ͷܽܿ ሻ ൌ Ͳ  c 
=-  cc4cc!  %cc <cc
c
‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ  ݁ ‫ן‬భ ௧ c
‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ  ‫ן ݁ݐ‬భ௧ c
c

c7cc5 ( c $ c$  cሺܾ ଶ െ Ͷܽܿ ൏ Ͳሻc
‫ן‬ଵൌ െߚଵ  ൅  ߚଶ ݅cc 

‫ן‬ଶ ൌ  െߚଵ െ  ߚଶ ݅c

െܾ ξͶܽܿ െ ܾଶ
൅ 
c
ʹܽ
ʹÛ

c 

c cccc

‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ݁൫െߚͳ൅ߚʹ݅൯‫ ݐ‬ൌ ݁ െߚͳ‫ ݐ‬Ǥ ݁ ߚʹ‫ ݅ݐ‬c

‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ  ݁ ሺିఉభିఉమ௜ሻ௧  ൌ ݁ ିఉభ௧ Ǥ ‫ିܤ‬ఉమ௜௧ c

‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ܥ‬ଵ ݁ ఉభ௧ ܿ‫ߚݏ݋‬ଶ ‫ݐ‬c

‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ‫ܥ‬ଶ ݁ ఉభ௧ ‫ߚ݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݐ‬c

c 

c c  c 8c c :c c  c 
c c c %c 
c c#,c c
‫ݕ‬௚௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൅  ܿଶ ‫ݕ‬ଶ Ǣܿଵ ܿଶ ‫ݏ݁ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊݋ܿ݊݋ݏ‬c

‫ݕ‬ଵ 
് ݈ܿ݁c
‫ݕ‬ଶ
c

݆݁ǣ
c

‫ݔ‬ଶ
ൌ ‫ݔ‬c
‫ݔ‬

‫ݕ‬ଵ
݁ ‫ן‬ଵ௧ 
ൌ  ‫ן‬ଶ௧  ൌ ݁ ሺ‫ן‬భି‫ן‬మሻ௧ c
‫ݕ‬ଶ
݁

c

8c c

‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ݁ ‫ן‬భ௧ ൅  ܿଶ ݁ ‫ן‬మ௧ c
c

:c c
‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟
c

݁ ‫ן‬௧
ൌ ‫ן‬௧  ് ܿ‫݁ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊݋‬c
݁‫ݐ‬

7c cc

‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ݁ ‫ן‬௧ ܿ‫ ݐߚݏ݋‬൅  ܿଶ ݁ ‫ן‬௧ ‫ݐߚ݊݁ݏ‬c
c 

$ c c c cc c   c cc  c cc 
c
c  
cccccc‫ ̶ݕ‬െ ͷ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳc
c
à  c 
ccc‫ן‬ଶെ ͷ ‫ ן‬൅͸ ൌ Ͳc
c
ሺ‫ ן‬െ͵ሻሺ‫ ן‬െʹሻ ൌ Ͳc
‫ן‬ଵൌ ͵ ‫ן‬ଶൌ ʹc

c
‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ݁ ‫ן‬భ௧  ൌ  ݁ ଷ௧ c
‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ݁ ‫ן‬మ௧  ൌ  ݁ ଶ௧ c
c 
ccc,"cccc

௘ య೟
௘ మ೟ 

ൌ  ݁௧ c

‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ݁ ଷ௧  ൅  ܿଶ ݁ ଶ௧ c

c 

$ c:cc‫ ̶ݕ‬െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳc
‫ן‬ଶ െ Ͷ ‫  ן‬൅Ͷ ൌ Ͳc

ሺ‫ ן‬െʹሻଶ ൌ Ͳc

‫ן‬ൌ Ͳccccccccccccccccc‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ  ‡ଶ୲ c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ‫ ݁ݐ‬ଶ௧ c

‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ݁ ଶ௧  ൅  ܿଶ ൅  ݁ ଶ௧ c
c

‫ ̶ݕ͵݋݈݌݆݉݁ܧ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳc
‫ן‬ଶ ൅‫  ן‬൅ͳ ൌ Ͳc
‫ן‬ൌ 

ିଵേξଵିସ

c
‫ן‬ଵൌ 
c
‫ן‬ଶ ൌ 
c

ଶ 

ߚ ൌ ܸ݈ܽ‫ܽ݅ݎܽ݊݅݃ܽ݉݅݁ݐݎܽ݌݈ܽ݁݀݋ݐݑ݈݋ݏܾܽݎ݋‬ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

െͳ
ξ͵
൅  ݅c
ʹ
ʹ
െͳ
ξ͵ 
െ  ݅c
ʹ
ʹ

‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ൌ ܿଵ݁ మ௧ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ටଶ‫ ݐ‬൅  ܿଶ ݁ మ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ටଶ‫ݐ‬c

cc
O  c( cc. c $ c
݁ ௜௧ ൌ …‘• ‫  ݐ‬൅ ݅‫ݐ݊݁ݏ‬c

݁ ି௜௧ ൌ …‘• ‫  ݐ‬െ ݅‫ݐ݊݁ݏ‬c
c
c 

=6"— c#" 5 "6,c —c;—+—  6c
c
ܽ‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ܿ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ܪܰܮܦܧ‬c
c
݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁‫݌ݔ‬ǡ ‫݊݌‬ǡ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ǡ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬Ǥc
‫ܯ‬Ǥ ݀݁ܿ‫ݏܽ݀ܽ݊݅݉ݎ݁ݐ݂݁݀݊݅݁݋‬c
c
cc 
ààcc
c

‫ ݃ݕ‬ൌ  ‫ݕ‬௖ ൅  ‫ݕ‬௣  ՜ ‫݈݋ݏ‬Ǥ‫ݎ݈ܽݑܿ݅ݐݎܽ݌‬cc

‫ݕ‬௖ଵ ‫݈݋ݏ‬Ǥ ݈݀݁ܽ‫ܧ‬Ǥ ‫ܦ‬Ǥ ‫ ̶ݕܽܪ‬൅ ܾ‫ ݕ‬൅ ܿ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳc

‫ݕ‬௣௜ ‫݈݋ݏ‬Ǥ ‫ܽ݁݊݁݃݋݉݋݄݋݊݊݋݅ܿܽݑ݈ܿ݁ܽ݁݀ݎ݈ܽݑܿ݅ݐݎܽ݌‬c 
$ c‫ ̶ݕ‬െ ͻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬c

ͳ െ ‫ݕ݋݀݊ܽݎݐ݊݋ܿ݊ܧ‬௖ ‫ܽ݅ݎܽݐ݈݊݁݉݁݌݉݋ܿ݊݋݅ܿݑ݈݋ݏ‬c

c

‫ ̶ݕ‬െ ͻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳccccccc‫ן‬ଶ െ ͻ ൌ Ͳc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc‫ן‬ଶ ൌ ͻ ‫ן‬ൌ േ͵c

‫ݕ‬௖ ൌ  ܿଵ ݁ ଷ௫ ൅  ܿଶ ݁ ଷ௧ cc

c

ʹ െ ‫݈݋ݏ݋݀݊ܽݎݐ݊݋ܿ݊ܧ‬Ǥ ‫ݎ݈ܽݑܿ݅ݐݎܽ݌‬c
c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ‫ܤ‬ሺ݁݊ܿ‫ܤݕܣݎܽݎݐ݊݋‬ሻc
c  

cc cc#c
‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ௉ ൌ ‫ܣ‬c

‫̶ݕ‬௉  ൌ Ͳc

Ͳ െ ͻሺ‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ‫ܤ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬c
െͻ‫ ݔܣ‬െ ͻ‫ ܤ‬ൌ ܺc

ͳ
ͳ ൌ െͻ‫ ܣܣ‬ൌ െ c
ʹ
Ͳ ൌ െͻ‫ ܤܤ‬ൌ Ͳc

ͳ
‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ  െ ‫ݕ̶ݕ݋݀ܽ݀ܽݕܦܧ݊݁ݏݑݏݎܾܽ݋ݎ݌݉݋ܿݏ݋݉݁݀݋ܲݔ‬Ԣc
ͻ
‫ݕ‬௚ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଷ௫ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ଶ௫  െ ଽ௫c

c 
$ c:c c&3'c cc cc%c
‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ ʹ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൌ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹc

c 

c   c&cc;4 'c
‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ ʹ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൌ Ͳc

‫ן‬ଶ ൅ ʹ ‫ן‬ൌ Ͳc

‫ ן‬ሺ‫ ן‬൅ʹሻ ൌ Ͳc

‫ן‬ൌ Ͳ ‫ן‬ൌ െʹc

‫ݕ‬௖ ൌ  ܿଵ ݁ ଴௫ ൅  ܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ c

‫ݕ‬௖ ൌ  ܿଵ ൅  ܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ c 

%c  c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ‫ ݔܣ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݔܤ‬൅ ‫ܽ݁݊݁݃݋݉݋݄݊݋݅ܿݑ݈݋ݏݏ݁ܽݐݏܧܥ‬c

‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ‫ܤ‬c

‫ ̶ݕ‬ൌ ʹ‫ܣ‬c  

cc#c c —c;—+—  6c

ʹ‫ ܣ‬൅ Ͷ‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ʹ‫ ܤ‬ൌ ͵ܺଶ ൅ ʹcc

Ͷ‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ሺʹ‫ ܣ‬൅ ʹ‫ܤ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹc
c 

ccc %c+=,","6+—c—5c>?@c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ‫ ݔܣ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ݔܤ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ܥ‬c

‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ‫ ݌‬ൌ ͵‫ ݔܣ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ ݔܤ‬൅ ‫ܥ‬c
‫ ݌̶ݕ‬ൌ ͸‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ʹ‫ܤ‬c
c 

="=9 #—c#c
c

͸‫ ݔܣ‬൅ ʹ‫ ܤ‬൅ ͸‫ ݔܣ‬ଶ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݔܤ‬൅ ʹ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ͵ܺଶ ൅ ʹcc

͸‫ ݔܣ‬ଶ ൅ ሺ͸‫ ܣ‬൅ Ͷ‫ܤ‬ሻ‫ ݔ‬൅  ሺʹ‫ ܤ‬൅ ʹ‫ܥ‬ሻ ൌ  ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹc
͸‫ ܣ‬ൌ ͵cccccccccc ൌ 

c

͸‫ ܣ‬൅ Ͷ‫ ܤ‬ൌ Ͳ͸ ൅ Ͷ‫ ܤ‬ൌ Ͳccccccccccccccccc c

ʹ‫ ܤ‬൅ ʹ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ʹ͵ ൌ െͶ‫ ܤܤ‬ൌ
ʹ ቀ ସ ቁ ൅ ʹܿ ൌ ʹc
ିଷ

െ͵
c
Ͷ

െ͵ 
൅ ʹܿ ൌ ʹc
ʹ

ʹܿ ൌ ʹ ൅  ଶc
ʹܿ ൌ ଶc

͹
ܿൌ c
Ͷ

c

‫ݕ‬௚ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௖ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣ c

͵
͹
ͳ
‫ݕ‬௚ ൌ ܿଵ  ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ ൅  ‫ ݔ‬ଷ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ c
ʹ
Ͷ
Ͷ
c
c 
$ ccc
‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ Ͷ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ʹ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬c
c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏܣ‬൅ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿܤ‬c

‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿܣ‬െ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏܤ‬c
‫ ̶ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏܣ‬Ȃ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿܤ‬c  

c‫ܦܧ݊݁݌̶ݕݕ݌ݕ‬c
cc

െ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏܣ‬െ ‫ ݔ •‘… ܤ‬൅ Ͷ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏܣ‬൅ Ͷ‫ ݔ •‘… ܤ‬ൌ ʹ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬c

ሺെ‫ ܣ‬൅ Ͷ‫ܣ‬ሻሺ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏ‬൅  ሺെ‫ ܤ‬൅ Ͷ‫ܤ‬ሻܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬ൌ ʹ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬c

ʹ
͵‫ ܣ‬ൌ ʹ‫ ܣ‬ൌ c
͵
͵‫ ܤ‬ൌ Ͳ‫ ܤ‬ൌ Ͳc

‫ݕ‬௚ ൌ  ܿଵ …‘• ʹ ‫ ݔ‬൅  ܿଶ‫ ݔʹ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ଷ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬c

c

‫ ̶ݕ‬െ ͷ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݁ ௫ c
c 

$ ccc

‫ ̶ݕ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬Ԣ െ Ͷ‫ ݕ‬ൌ  ݁ ସ௫ c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ݁ ஺௫ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ ݁ܣ‬஺௫ ‫ ̶ݕ‬ൌ ‫ܣ‬ଶ ݁ ஺௫ c
‫ܣ‬ଶ ݁ ஺௫ െ ͵‫ ݁ܣ‬஺௫ െ Ͷ݁ ஺௫ ൌ ݁ ସ௫ c
ሺ‫ܣ‬ଶ െ ͵‫ ܣ‬െ Ͷሻ݁ ஺௫ ൌ ݁ ସ௫ c

‫ܣ‬ଶ െ ͵‫ ܣ‬െ Ͷ ൌ ͳͲ ് ͳc
‫ ܣ‬ൌ Ͷc

‫ ݃ ׵‬ൌ  ݁ ஺௫ ݁‫ܪܦܧ݈݋ݏݏ‬c 

c4c  c c  c &3'c  
c c 
c3   c 
cc c c c4cc!  %cc < c

c+4cc!  %cc < c c&3'c cc c  
c 
3  c cc c
c

ܽ‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ൅ ܿ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻc
‫ݕ‬௚ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௖ ൅  ‫ݕ‬௣ c

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ‫ݑ‬ଵ ൅  ‫ݒ‬ଶ ‫ݑ‬ଶ c
‫ݕ‬௘ ൌ ܿଵ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൅  ܿଶ ‫ݕ‬ଶ c

c 
$ ccc

‫ ̶ݕ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ •‡… ‫ݔ‬c

‫ן‬ଶ ൅ ͳ ൌ Ͳ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ݁ ଴ …‘• ‫  ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬c

‫ן‬ଶ ൌ ͳ‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ݁ ଴ ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏ‬ൌ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬c
‫ן‬ൌ േ݅c

‫ݕ‬௖ ൌ  ܿଵ …‘• ‫ ݔ‬൅  ܿଶ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬cc

‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ܿ‫ݒ  ן ݏ݋‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒݔ݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ccc

"cc cc c %c cc4 c

‫ݕ݋݀݊݁ݕݑݐ݅ݐݏݑݏ݅ݏ‬ଵ ݁݊‫ ܦܧ‬ൌ Ͳ‫ ͳݑܾ݋ݏ݁ݎ݋݌‬ൌ Ͳc

‫ݒ‬ଵ ሺ‫̶ݑ‬ଵ ൅ ܾ‫ݑ‬ᇱ ଵ ൅ ܿ‫ݑ‬ଵሻ ൅  ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሺ‫̶ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ܾ‫ݑ‬Ԣଶ ൅ ܿ‫ݑ‬ଶ ሻ ൅ ܾሺ‫ݒ‬ଵᇱ ‫ݑ‬ଵ ൅
‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ଶ ‫ݑ‬ଶ ሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ‫ݑ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ଶ ‫ݑ‬ଶ ሻᇱ ൅ ሺ‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ଵ ‫ݑ‬ᇱ ଵ ൅  ‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ଶ ‫ݑ‬ᇱ ଶ ሻ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻccccc
‫ݒ‬Ԣଵ ‫ݑ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ‫ݑ‬ଶ ൌ Ͳ 

c
‫ݒ‬Ԣଵ ‫ݑ‬ଵ ൅  ‫ݒ‬Ԣଶ ‫ݑ‬Ԣଶ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ

c
c
c
c
5 ,6c#c256+5cc
c

ܿ‫ݒݔݏ݋‬Ԣଵ ൅ ‫ݒݔ݊݁ݏ‬Ԣଶ ൌ Ͳ 
c
െ‫ ݒݔ݊݁ݏ‬ᇱ ଵ ൅ ܿ‫ ݒݔݏ݋‬ᇱ ଶ ൌ •‡… ‫ݔ‬

Ͳ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬


‫  ݔݏ݋ܿ ݔ‬ൌ  െ –ې ‫ݔ‬c
‫ݒ‬Ԣଵ ቐ •‡…
ܿ‫ݔ݊݁ݏݔݏ݋‬

ቚ
െ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݁ݏ‬
c
c

…‘• ‫Ͳ ݔ‬


‫  ݔ …‡• ݔ‬ൌ ͳc
‫ ݒ‬ᇱ ଶ ቐ െ•‡
ܿ‫ݔ݊݁ݏݔݏ݋‬
ቚ 
ቚ
െ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݁ݏ‬
c
‫ݒ‬Ԣଵ ൌ െ –ې ‫ ݒݔ‬ᇱ ଶ ൌ ͳc

‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ െ න –ې ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ Ž ȁܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬ȁ ൅  ݇ଵ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ න ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬c
‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ݈݊ȁܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬ȁ ൅ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏݔ‬c
‫ݕ‬௣ ൌ ܿଵܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ݈݊ȁܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬ȁܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬൅ ‫ݔ݊݁ݏݔ‬c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

c

c
c

c

c
c

c

c 

c

c
c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

࢙ࢋ࢔࢞
c
‫ ࢞ ܛܗ܋‬െ ૚

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

ξ࢞૛

െ૚
c

c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ඥ૝࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢚ ൅ ૢࢉ࢕࢙૛ ࢚c

c

ሺ࢞ െ૚ሻ
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ
c
ሺ૝࢞૜ െ૞ሻ૛

c

ࢋ െࢋ 
c
ࢋ࢞ ൅ ࢋି࢞

c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢙࢞ࢋ࢔૜ ቆ

ξ૛࢞
ቇc

c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢙ࢋ࢔૜ ሺ࢚ࢇ࢔ඥ࢚૛ ൅ ૚c

c

c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

ି࢞

࢞ࢉ࢕࢙૛࢞

c


„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ‫ ܖܔ‬ቆ
ቇc
૚ ൅ ࢞૛

ࢋ࢞ ൅ ૚
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ‫ ܖܔ‬൬ ࢞
൰
ࢋ െ૚
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

૛࢞

ξ࢞

c

c

c


ࢋ࢞ c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢒࢔ ሺ࢞ ൅ ૜ሻc

c

c
c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

࢙ࢋ࢔࢞
c
‫ ࢞ ܛܗ܋‬െ ૚

ξ࢞૛ െ ૚
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ
c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ඥ૝࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢚ ൅ ૢࢉ࢕࢙૛ ࢚c
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢙࢞ࢋ࢔૜ ቆ

ξ૛࢞
ቇc

ሺ࢞૛ െ૚ሻ૜
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ
c
ሺ૝࢞ଷ െ૞ሻଶ

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢙ࢋ࢔ଷ ሺ࢚ࢇ࢔ඥ࢚૛ ൅ ૚c
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

ࢋ࢞ െ  ࢋି࢞
c
ࢋ࢞ ൅ ࢋି࢞

ࢋ௫௖௢௦૛࢞
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ
c

࢞૛
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ‫ ܖܔ‬ቆ
ቇc
૚ ൅ ࢞૛
ࢋ࢞ ൅ ૚
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ‫ ܖܔ‬൬ ࢞
൰c
ࢋ െ૚
„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ

݁ ૛࢞
ξ࢞

c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢋ࢞ c

„ሺ࢞ሻ ൌ ࢒࢔૛ ሺ࢞ ൅ ૜ሻc

c
c
c
c

‫ ߠ݊ܽݐ‬െ ‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬
ൌc
ఏ՜଴
ߠଷ
c
‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬
െ ‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬
c 
ͳ െ  Ž‹ ܿ‫ ߠݏ݋‬ଷ
ఏ՜଴
ߠ
c
‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬െ ‫ߠݏ݋ܿߠ݊݁ݏ‬
ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ 
ʹ െ  Ž‹
c
ఏ՜଴
ߠଷ
c
‫݊݁ݏ‬ሺͳ െ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ 
͵ െ  Ž‹
c
ఏ՜଴
ߠଷ
c
‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬ሺͳ െ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
c 
Ͷ െ  Ž‹
ఏ՜଴
ߠ ଷ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
c
‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬ሺͳ െ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ ሺͳ ൅ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ 
ͷ െ  Ž‹ 

c
ఏ՜଴
ߠ ଷ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
ሺͳ ൅ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
c
‫ߠ݊݁ݏ‬ሺͳ െ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଶ ߠሻ 
͸ െ  Ž‹ ଷ
c
ఏ՜଴ ߠ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሺͳ ൅ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
c
ͳ
‫݊݁ݏ‬ଷ ߠ 
͹ െ  Ž‹ 

c
ఏ՜଴ ߠ ଷ
ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሺͳ ൅ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
c
Ž‹

‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬ଷ
ͳ 
ͺ െ  Ž‹ ൬
൰ 
c
ఏ՜଴
ߠ
ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሺͳ ൅ ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻ
c
ͳ
ͳ
ͳ 
ൌ ͳ  ൌ c
ൌ ͳଷ 
ʹ
ʹ
ͳሺͳ ൅ ͳሻ
c
c
c
c
c
c

c
c

ߨ
‫݊݁ݏ‬ሺߠ െ ሻ
͵ ൌc 
Ž‹గ 
ͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠ
ఏ՜
c
c

ͳ
‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬െ ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ 
‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬െ 
ʹ
ʹ 
Ž‹గ ʹ
ൌ  Ž‹గ 
c
ͳ

ʹܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
ͳ

ʹ
…‘• ߠ
ఏ՜
ఏ՜
c

c

c

c

c

‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬െ ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ 
Ž‹గ 
c
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻ
ఏ՜

‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬െ ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ 
Ž‹గ  
‫‹Ž  כ‬గ 
c
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻ
‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ξ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬
ఏ՜
ఏ՜

‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠ െ ͵ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଶ ߠ 
Ž‹గ 
c
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻሺ‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ሺ͵ܿ‫ ߠݏ݋‬ሻሻ
ఏ՜
‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠ ൅ ሺ͵ሺͳ െ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠሻሻ 
Ž‹గ 
c
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻሺ‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ሺ͵ܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ሻሻ
ఏ՜
‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠ ൅ ͵ െ ͵‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠ
c 
Ž‹గ 
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻሺ‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ሺ͵ܿ‫ ߠݏ݋‬ሻሻ
ఏ՜
c

c

െʹ‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ߠ ൅ ͵ 
Ž‹గ 
c
ʹሺͳ െ ʹ …‘• ߠሻሺ‫ ߠ݊݁ݏ‬൅ ሺ͵ܿ‫ ߠݏ݋‬ሻሻ
ఏ՜

ξ͵
െʹ ቆ ቇ ൅ ͵
ʹ

͵ 
Ž‹గ  
ൌ  c
ʹ
ͳ
ͳ
ఏ՜
ଷ ʹ ቀͳ െ ቁ ቆξ͵  െ  ξ͵  ቇ
ʹ
ʹ
ʹ
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

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