Charged Rod and Aluminum Can

You will be asked to use your knowledge of physics to predict the outcome of an experiment.

Part A Consider the situation in the figure below, where two charged rods are placed a distance either side of an aluminum can. What does the can do?

on

Hint A.1

How to approach the problem. This problem asks you to think about induced charge on the surface of an object and the resulting polarization force.
To get started, draw a diagram. Draw the induced surface charges on the outside of the can. Next, draw a force diagram (free-body diagram) to show the forces exerted on the can. Aluminum is a conductor.

ANSWER:

Stays still Rolls to the right Rolls to the left

Correct The positively charged rod induces a negative charge on the left side of the can, creating an attractive force between the rod and the can. However, the negatively charged rod induces an equal positive charge on the right side of the can, which creates an attractive force between the can and that rod. The net force acting on the can is zero. Part B Now, consider the situation shown in the figure below. What does the can do?

ANSWER:

Rolls to the right Stays still Rolls to the left Correct

The polarization force is always attractive, so the can does not move.

Part C Using the setup from the first question, imagine that you briefly touch the negatively charged rod to the can. You then hold the two rods at equal distances on either side of the can. What does the can do? Hint C.1 How to approach the problem. This problem asks you to consider what happens to a conductor after being touched by a charged object. What charge will the can have after being touched? Negative

ANSWER:

Rolls away from the positively charged rod Does not move Rolls toward the positively charged rod

Correct The can acquires a net negative charge after being touched, so it is then attracted to the positively charged rod.

Charging an Insulator

This problem explores the behavior of charge on realistic (i.e. non-ideal) insulators. We take as an example a long insulating rod suspended by insulating wires. Assume that the rod is initially electrically neutral. For convenience, we will refer to the left end of the rod as end A, and the right

end of the rod as end B . In the answer options for this problem, "weakly attracted/repelled" means "attracted/repelled with a force of magnitude similar to that which would exist between two balls, one of which is charged, and the other acquires a small induced charge". An attractive/repulsive force greater than this should be classified as "strongly attracted/repelled". Part A A small metal ball is given a negative charge, then brought near (i.e., within a few millimeters) to end A of the rod. What happens to end A of the rod when the ball approaches it closely this first time? Hint A.1 What is an insulator? An insulator is a material which does not allow charge/current to flow easily through it.

Hint A.2 Charge at end A Keeping in mind that like charges repel each other, and opposite charges attract each other, what sort of charge is induced at end A of the (non-ideal) insulating rod?
Top of Form

A small positive charge

A small negative charge

Bottom of Form

Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted

weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct Currently, you can think of this in the following way: When the sphere is brought near the rod, a positive charge is induced at end A (and correspondingly, end B acquires a negative induced charge). This means that some charge must have flowed from A to B. Since charge flow is inhibited in an insulator, the induced charges are typically small. Later you will learn how to model insulators more accurately and formulate a slightly more accurate argument. Now consider what happens when the small metal ball is repeatedly given a negative charge and then brought into contact with end A of the rod Part B After several contacts with the charged ball, how is the charge on the rod arranged? Hint B.1 What is an insulator? An insulator is a material which does not allow charge/current to flow easily through it.

Select the best description. ANSWER: positive charge on end B and negative charge on end A negative charge spread evenly on both ends negative charge on end A with end B remaining almost neutral positive charge on end A with end B remaining almost neutral

none of the above Correct When the sphere is touched to end A, some of its negative charge will be deposited there. However, since charge cannot flow easily through an insulator, most of this charge will just sit at end A and will not distribute itself over the rod, as it would if the rod was a conductor. Part C How does end A of the rod react when the ball approaches it after it has already made several contacts with the rod, such that a fairly large charge has been deposited at end A? Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted

We take as an example a long conducting rod suspended by conducting wires that are connected to ground. i.weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct More on insulators: You may have learnt that any material is made of atoms. electrons) can move around easily.e. we will refer to the left end of the rod as end A." Part A A small metal ball is given a negative charge. they will arrange so that the internal field is zero. "strongly attracted/repelled" means "attracted/repelled with a force of magnitude similar to that which would exist between two charged balls. and the right end of the rod as end B . in a static situation. Charging a Grounded Conducting Rod Learning Goal: To understand interactions between a grounded conductor and a charged ball that is repeatedly brought into contact with it. In insulators.2 How much charge moves to end A? It is stated that the ball approaches the end of the rod much closer than the length of the rod.e. which leaves them free to move around the volume of the material. Such electrons are called "free" electrons. if points down the rod several times . because the charge (i. some of the electrons are "bound" to the nucleus very weakly. which in turn consist of a nucleus and electrons. Therefore. and such materials are called conductors.e. within about 1/10 the length of the rod) to end A of the rod. What happens to end A of the rod when the ball approaches it closely this first time? Hint A. then brought near (i. there are no free electrons available to move through the insulator. For convenience.1 The key property of a conductor is that the charges are free to move around inside in response to internal electric fields. In the answer options for this problem. Hint A. This problem explores the behavior of charge on grounded conductors. In the atoms of some materials.. Assume that the rod is initially electrically neutral. all the electrons in the atom are bound quite tightly to the nucleus.

ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct Now consider what happens when the small metal ball is repeatedly given a negative charge and then brought into contact with end A of the rod. Any charge previously transferred to the rod has been conducted to ground.e.1 The rod is grounded. how is any charge on the rod arranged (when the charged ball is far away)? Hint B. the charge on end A of the rod must be comparable in magnitude to the charge on the ball (so that their fields will cancel).the distance of approach (but still much closer to end A than end B) are to experience no electric field. Select the best description. ANSWER: positive charge on end B and negative charge on end A negative charge spread evenly on both negative charge on end A with end B remaining neutral both ends neutral positive charge spread evenly on both . Part B After a great many contacts with the charged ball. Select the expected behavior. it produces a negligible electric field in the vicinity of the rod). and the charged ball is far away (i. and there are no electric fields around to induce any charge in the rod..

1 The rod is a grounded conductor Any charge previously transferred to the conducting rod has been conducted to ground.Correct Part C How does end A of the rod react when the (re)charged ball approaches it after a great many previous contacts with end A? Hint C. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled . Select the expected behavior. Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct Part D How does end B of the rod react when the charged ball approaches it after a great many previous contacts with end A? Hint D.1 The rod is a grounded conductor Any charge previously transferred to the conducting rod has been conducted to ground.

You will be asked to rank the Coulomb force on Part A Rank the six combinations of electric charges on the basis of the electric force acting on . The distance between . Rank positive forces as larger than negative forces. what is the direction of the net electric force on due Hint 1.1 Definition of electric force The electric force between a pair of charges is proportional to the product of the charge magnitudes ( and ) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance ( ) between them. Define forces pointing to the right as positive and forces pointing to the left as negative. The direction of the force is such that opposite charges attract and like charges repel each other. Hint A. and . This result is summarized mathematically by Coulomb’s law: .2 Determine the net force for one combination of charges For combination of charges ( . ).neither attracted nor repelled Correct Electric Force of Three Collinear Points Ranking Task In the diagram below. to the other charges? . and . . there are three collinear point charges: and due to is the same as that between and . Find the direction of the force on due to . Hint A.

overlap them. . ANSWER: Correct ± PSS 21. Two of the particles have a negative charge: = -6. SET UP the problem using the following steps: . placing the largest on the left and the smallest on the right. ).8 .8 . What is the net electric force acting on particle 3 due to particle 1 and particle 2? Problem-Solving Strategy: Coulomb's law IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: Coulomb’s law comes into play whenever you need to know the electric force acting between charged particles. Top of Form to the right to the left There is no force in any direction. what is the direction of the electric force on due to ? Remember that like charges repel each other and opposite charges attract each other. Bottom of Form Rank from largest to smallest. = 8. Three charged particles are placed at each of three corners of an equilateral triangle whose sides are of length 2.0 . The remaining particle has a positive charge.For combination of charges ( .1 Coulomb's Law. To rank items as equivalent.1 Coulomb's Law Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 21.4 and = -12.

4. identify that particle. 6. 3. Whenever possible. SET UP the problem using the following steps Part A Identify the most appropriate xy coordinate system. If you are given non-SI units. 2. 2. you will need to use Coulomb's law. the charge distribution will be symmetrical. IDENTIFY the relevant concepts To determine the angle of the force vector on a single charged particle. Recall that the force exerted by particle 1 on particle 2 points from particle 2 toward particle 1 if the two charges have opposite signs. Recall that the electric force. If three or more particles are present and they do not all lie on the same line. If there is a continuous distribution of charge along a line or over a surface. Make a drawing showing the locations of the charged particles. and label each particle with its charge. calculate the magnitude of that force using . set up an xy coordinate system. like any force. Often you will need to find the electric force on just one particle. using consistent units is essential. you will need to calculate the vector sum of all the forces on that particle due to the presence of other charged particles. Calculate the total electric force on the particle(s) of interest. If so. For each particle that exerts a force on the particle of interest. and then integrate to find the vector sum. and confirm that the direction of the net electric force agrees with the principle that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. divide the total charge distribution into infinitesimal pieces. EVALUATE your answer: Check whether your numerical results are reasonable. To do this. don’t forget to convert! 5. but points from particle 2 directly away from particle 1 if the charges have the same sign. ANSWER: . use Coulomb’s law for each piece.1. As always. is a vector. 3. exploit any symmetries to simplify the problem-solving process. In many situations. EXECUTE the solution as follows: 1. Sketch a free-body diagram showing the electric force vectors acting on the particle(s) of interest due to each of the other particles.

EXECUTE the solution as follows Part B Find the net force acting on particle 3 due to the presence of the other two particles. You know that . Centering the xy coordinate system on particle 3 will make this easier. and a direction measured from the positive x axis. Then. sum the .Correct You are asked to find the net force acting on particle 3.2 Draw a free-body diagram Identify the forces on the positively charged particle 3. Apply vector algebra to find the component forces in the component forces for each direction: and the directions. Use Coulomb's law to calculate the magnitude of each of these forces. you should begin by drawing a free-body diagram indicating the forces acting on particle 3 due to particle 1 and particle 2. From and force vector. you can find the magnitude and direction of the resulting electric Hint B. . Report you answer as a magnitude Hint B.1 How to approach the problem To calculate the electric force acting on particle 3.

Keep in mind that .Hint B. The angle between particle 1 and particle 3 is 60 : Enter the components of the force in newtons separated by a comma. .3 Using the equation for Coulomb's law. using simple trigonometry. calculate the magnitude of the force on particle 3 due to particle 1.87×10−4 Hint B. =5.4 Calculate the component forces on particle 3 due to particle 1 Calculate the x component and the y component forces acting on particle 3 due to particle 1. Express your answer in newtons using three significant figures.

93×10−4. In what direction would particle 3 move the instant after being released? Draw the velocity vector for particle 3 below. where Express the magnitude in newtons and the direction in degrees to three significant figures. =2. there will be no y component to calculate.5. the magnitude and direction are given by . Hint B. Correct EVALUATE your answer Part C Assume that particle 3 is no longer fixed to a corner of the triangle and is now allowed to move.19. = 1.55×10−3 . and the y component will be zero.1 . but not its length. The orientation of your vector will be graded. Hint B. The x component of force will therefore be equal to the value calculated from Coulomb's law.08×10−4 .6 How to determine the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components If a vector has components and . ANSWER: .5 How to calculate the component forces on particle 3 due to particle 2 Because particles 2 and 3 both lie on the x axis. ..

so particle 3 will . . like charges repel and unlike charges attract. at an angle of from the positive x axis.1 A positive charge is kept (fixed) at the center inside a fixed spherical neutral conducting shell. In other words. . from Newton's 2nd law. .ANSWER: Correct Specifically. that is. Hence the charge distribution must also be the same in all directions. particle 3 accelerates in the same direction as . In general. particle 3 would start to move toward them along a direction equidistant from each charge. be more strongly attracted toward particle 2 and will move off in a direction less than Charge Distribution on a Conducting Shell . and the shell is of uniform thickness in all directions. its velocity at that instant will be . If particle 3 were free to move. Part A The positive charge is equal to roughly 16 of the smaller charges shown on the surfaces of the spherical shell. Moreover. Let us interpret this result in terms of electric forces. Which of the pictures best represents the charge distribution on the inner and outer walls of the shell? Hint A. the initial direction of particle 3 is the same direction as its acceleration. If and were the same size. at the instant after being released. Instead.1 Effects of symmetry The charge is centered. and therefore the same direction as the applied net force. Therefore. since particle 3 starts from rest. you know that a mass accelerates in the same direction as the net force acting upon it. it would move toward the negative charges and .

The direction of the force is along the line connecting the two charges. electric fields. If the charges have the same sign. In other words. the electric . This mechanism is the electric field. The magnitude of the depends on the product of the charges and the square of the distance between the charges: . where . the force will be attractive. .ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 5 Correc t Electric Fields and Forces Learning Goal: To understand Coulomb's law. The electric field at any location is equal to the force per unit charge experienced by a charge placed at that location. and the connection between the electric field and the electric force. the force will be repulsive. opposite charges attract and like charges repel. if a charge field at that point is experiences a force . Coulomb's law gives the electrostatic force force between two charges and acting between two charges. Because the charges are not in contact with each other. If the charges have opposite signs. there must be an intermediate mechanism to cause the force. In other words.

A distribution of charges creates an electric field that can be found by taking the vector sum of the fields created by individual point charges. (many times larger than the charge on a single Part A There is a single electron at a distance from the point charge. . The electric field a distance from a point charge has magnitude . the force between two particles depends on the charge on each of them and the distance between them. Note that if a charge is placed in an electric field created by . .The electric field vector has the same direction as the force vector on a positive charge and the opposite direction to that of the force vector on a negative charge. On which of the following quantities does the force on the electron depend? Check all that apply. An electric field can be created by a single charge or a distribution of charges. will not significantly affect the electric field if it is small compared to Imagine an isolated positive point charge with a charge electron). The electric field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron Correct According to Coulomb's law.

what is the magnitude of the electric field from the charge? caused by this charge at point P. a distance Enter your answer numerically in newtons per coulomb.62×10−6 = 1.Part B For the same situation as in Part A. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron Correct The electrostatic force cannot exist unless two charges are present. The value of the electric field depends only on the charge producing the electric field and the distance from that charge. on the other hand. ANSWER: = 6220 Corr ect .53 . on which of the following quantities does the electric field at the electron's position depend? Check all that apply. Part C If the total positive charge is = 1. can be created by only one charge. The electric field.

Part E Now find the magnitude of the force on an electron placed at point P. Recall that the charge on an electron has magnitude .1 Determine how to approach the problem What strategy can you use to calculate the force between the positive charge and the electron? Top of Form Use Coulomb's law. Hint E. ANSWER: = 9.95×1 0−16 Correc t Part F What is the direction of the force on an electron placed at point P? . Do neither of the above. Do either of the above. Multiply the electric field due to the positive charge by the charge on the electron. Bottom of Form Enter your answer numerically in newtons.Part D What is the direction of the electric field at point P? Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of ANSWER: G Corre ct .

00 at are spaced equally along the y . indicate the position of the field point (the point at which you want to calculate the electric field ). or a combination of these).00 at . SET UP the problem using the following steps: 1.00 and at . a distribution over a line. = 4. Three positive point charges axis ( ). Make a drawing that clearly shows the locations of the charges and your choice of coordinate axes. Find the x and y components of the total electric field located on the x axis at .Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of ANSWER: C Corre ct . = 4. or volume.2 Electric-Field Calculations Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 21. 2. On your drawing. which is . surface.2: Electric-Field Calculations at point IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: Use the principle of superposition whenever you need to calculate the electric field due to a charge distribution (two or more point charges. . and = 4.2 Electric-Field Calculations. Problem Solving Strategy 21. ± PSS 21.

6. In some situations you will have a continuous distribution of charge along a line. If your result for the electric-field magnitude is a function of position (say.y) coordinate pairs as a source point or a field point. 5. remember that electric field is a vector. EVALUATE your answer: Check that the direction of is reasonable. so you must use vector addition. . Be sure to use a consistent set of units. and represents the location where you will need to .EXECUTE the solution as follows: 1. check your answer by calculating it in a different way. over a surface. representing where the electric field emanates. Distances must be in meters and charge must be in coulombs. and find a way to add the fields of all the IDENTIFY the relevant concepts The target variables are the x and y components of the electric field. SET UP the problem using the following steps and . at point due to the Part A Classify these (x. check your result in any limits for which you know what the magnitude should be. When possible. The field produced by a point charge always points from source point to field point if the charge is positive. 4. ANSWER: Correct The source points are the three point charges along the y axis. Take advantage of any symmetries in the charge distribution to simplify your calculations. three point charge configuration. 2. Most often you will use components to compute vector sums. 3. When adding up the electric fields caused by different parts of the charge distribution. it points in the opposite direction if the charge is negative. The field point is located at point calculate the x and y components of . or through a volume. find its electric field at point charge elements. Then you must define a small element of charge that can be considered as a point. Be certain the components are consistent with your choice of coordinate axes. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. the coordinate x).

make use of the superposition principle of electric fields to calculate the total electric field components and at the field point due to the three charges. . However when adjusting the relative lengths of the vectors.EXECUTE the solution as follows Part B Find the x and y components of the total electric field at point at Hint B. . and to match the relative electric field vectors produced at point by the corresponding point charge. adjust the angles of . electric fields with equal magnitudes should have equal lengths. Hint B. Note that you will not be graded explicitly on vector lengths since the graph is set in units of distance. Finally.1 .2 Sketch the electric field vectors at On the graph below. which is located on the x axis How to approach the problem Use the equation for an electric field due to a point charge and the geometry of the charge distribution to solve for the x and y components of the individual electric fields produced by each point charge. Identifying any symmetry in the problem can reduce the number of steps to the solution. .

Top of Form There is symmetry in the x components of There is symmetry in the y components of There is symmetry in the x components of There is no symmetry present about point Bottom of Form and and and . Determine an electric field due to a point charge Write the expression for the magnitude of due to a point charge. where Hint 2. Hint B. Express your answer in terms of the charge . about point through point about point . the distance from the charge . using the magnitude . = Enter the expression to determine the x and angle from the x axis . . and about point .Hint B. . where symmetry implies equal magnitudes but opposite directions in similar components of two vectors.3 Identify any symmetry Choose the appropriate statement concerning any symmetry present in the components of the electric field vectors .4 Calculate Calculate the x component of the electric field at point due to . . Determine the expression for component of . Hint 1. and the constant . .

at if the charge on is increased? . and 1. =2160 Enter the values for ANSWER: = . Use the convention that angles measured counterclockwise are positive and . this problem essentially reduced to a one dimensional problem in the x direction. =-53. point . Calculate the x component of the electric field at point due to . point and and . would have a negative value.1 degrees angles measured clockwise are negative. ). EVALUATE your answer Part C Due to the symmetry in the y components of and . What would the affect be on the y component of the totoal electric field ANSWER: would have be unchanged (i..0 Corre ct in newtons per coulomb separated by commas. Calculating the angles angle between the x axis.43× 104. and Calculate the angles and and . where is the . is the angle between the x axis.= Hint 3.53.1.e.

1 How to approach the problem Approach 1 In what direction is the field due to a point on the ring? Add to this the field from a point on the opposite side of the ring. then the magnitude of the electric field due to that charge will increase also.. because more information is The electric field is directly dependent upon charge. The ring has radius and positive charge distributed evenly along its circumference. the total electric field at will have a net y Charged Ring Consider a uniformly charged ring in the xy plane. The affect on needed. and results in an increase in . because the ring that is rotated looks just like the one that isn't. An increase in the symmetry in the y components of component in the positive y direction. Your friend wouldn't be able to tell them apart. Thus.e. Now imagine that you make a copy of the ring and rotate this copy about its axis. the component of the electric field in the xy plane will rotate also.would have a positive value. As a result of the rotation. i. they have the component of the electric field in the xy plane pointing in different directions! This apparent contradiction can be resolved if this component of the field has a particular value. centered at the origin. Now you ask a friend to look at both rings. What is this value? Does a similar argument hold for the z component of the field? . one that has a z component as well as a component in the xy plane. Correct cannot be determined. However. In what direction is the net field? What if you did this for every pair of points on opposite sides of the ring? Approach 2 Consider a general electric field at a point on the z axis. Part A What is the direction of the electric field at any point on the z axis? Hint A. If charge increases. losing .

1 Formula for the electric field You can always use Coulomb's law. Given the force. . Consider an away.ANSWER: parallel to the x axis parallel to the y axis parallel to the z axis in a circle parallel to the xy plane Correct Part B What is the magnitude of the electric field along the positive z axis? Hint B. Then. to find the electric field (the Coulomb force per unit charge) due to a point charge. . you can integrate over the ring to find the value of infinitesimal piece of the ring with charge of the infinitesimal figure. you should use Coulomb's law to find the contribution electric field at the point from a piece of charge on the ring at a distance . Use Coulomb's law to write the magnitude shown in the at a point on the positive z axis due to the charge . the electric field say at due to is . to the In the situation below.

= .Use in your answer. = Hint B. the radius of the ring. What is the component on an infinitesimally small portion of the ring of the electric field caused by the charge in the z direction? is Express your answer in terms of . the infinitesimally small contribution to the electric field. and . Therefore.2 Simplifying with symmetry By symmetry. where . away from the ring. because the horizontal component of each contribution of magnitude exactly canceled by the horizontal component of a similar contribution of magnitude from the other side of the ring. the net field must point along the z axis. . and . the coordinate of the point on the z axis. You may also use some or all of the variables . all we care about is the z component of each such contribution. .

the negative sign from the charge causes the electric field to point in the negative z direction. The total field is . the algebraic expression is valid for any signs of the parameters. Notice that this expression is valid for both positive and negative charges as well as for points located on the positive and negative z axis. If the charge is positive. the electric field should point toward the origin. the field points in the negative z direction. which is also outward from the origin. The ball is released from .3 Integrating around the ring If you combine your results from the first two hints. For points on the positive z axis. convince yourself that . where ANSWER: = Corre ct . which points toward the origin. the electric field should point outward. you will have an expression for . over the ring. the vertical component of the field due to the infinitesimal charge .Hint B. the negative sign from the z coordinate and the negative sign from the charge cancel. Therefore. As a check. Use in your answer. even though we obtained the above result for postive and . it is good to see that if is much greater than the magnitude of is approximately . change to a spatial variable. the field points in the positive z direction. For points on the negative z axis. For points on the positive z axis. If the charge is negative. Since If you are not comfortable integrating the total charge is distributed evenly about the ring. which also points toward the origin. independent of the size of the ring: The field due to the ring is almost the same as that due to a point charge at the origin. Part C Imagine a small metal ball of mass and negative charge . which is outward from the origin. For points on the negative z axis. and the field points in the positive z direction.

rest at the point and constrained to move along the z axis. leading to oscillation at a frequency of (here.1 Simple harmonic motion Recall the nature of simple harmonic motion of an object attached to a spring. Hint D. assume that and in simple harmonic motion. with no damping. the prime on the symbol representing the spring constant is to distinguish it from ). Hint 1. If what will be the ball's subsequent trajectory? ANSWER: repelled from the origin attracted toward the origin and coming to rest . Hint D. A formula for the force on a charge in an electric field . Write an analogous equation for the ball near the charged ring in term. that is. the z component of the force on the ball on the ball at the point ? Use the approximation . The solution to this differential equation is a sinusoidal function of time with angular frequency order to find the . oscillating along the z axis between and circling around the z axis at Correct Part D The ball will oscillate along the z axis between What will be the angular frequency your calculation. to simplify of these oscillations? Use the approximation . Newton's second law for the system states that .2 Find the force on the charge What is .

just as the length of vectors indicates the strength of the electric field. Electric field lines are a tool used to visualize electric fields. A field line is drawn beginning at a positive charge and ending at a negative charge. The greater the spacing between field lines. dimensions. Notice that. ANSWER: = Corr ect Visualizing Electric Fields Learning Goal: To understand the nature of electric fields and how to draw field lines. the weaker the electric field. Field lines may also appear from the edge of a picture or disappear at the edge of the picture. and constants. Also. as stated above. in particular. the electric field lines are drawn such that their tangents point in the same direction as the electric field vectors on the left. Because of the nature of electric fields. electric field lines depict the same situation. On the left. Use that expression in the equation above to find on the ball at the point . = Express your answer in terms of given charges. and the electric field lines spread out as you move away from the charge. electric field lines present a much less cluttered and more intuitive picture of more complicated charge arrangements. in Part B. field lines never cross. The spacing between electric field lines indicates the strength of the electric field. . You have already found on a charge in an electric field . The figure shows two different ways to visualize an electric field. The field lines are directed so that the electric field at any point is tangent to the field line at that point. is . On the right.The formula for the force Therfore. the vectors shrink as you move away from the charge. vectors are drawn at various points to show the direction and magnitude of the electric field. Although the advantage of field lines over field vectors may not be apparent in the case of a single charge. Don't an expression for the z component of the force forget to use the approximation given. Such lines are said to begin or end at infinity.

Part A Which of the following figures correctly depicts the field lines from an infinite uniformly negatively charged sheet? Note that the sheet is being viewed edge-on in all pictures. Hint A. ANSWER: Field lines cannot cross each other. what is wrong with . .) Check all that apply.1 Description of the field ANSWER: A B C D Correc t Part B In the diagram from part A figure B? (Pick only those statements that apply to figure B.

.The field lines should be parallel because of the sheet's symmetry. The field lines should always end on negative charges or at infinity. You should try to get a feeling for how altering the charges or the distance affects the field lines. Correct Part C Which of the following figures electric field lines for an electric dipole? ANSWER: A B C D Correc t shows the correct This applet shows two charges. You can alter the charge on each independently or alter the distance between them. The field lines should spread apart as they leave the sheet to indicate the weakening of the field with distance.

. electric field lines are quite helpful for understanding the field qualitatively (understanding the general direction in which a certain charge will move from a specific position. what is wrong with The field lines should turn sharply as you move from one charge to the other. ANSWER: Field lines cannot cross each other.). Correct In even relatively simple setups as in the figure. A good figure with electric field lines can help you to organize your thoughts as well as check your calculations to see whether they make sense. etc. identifying locations where the field is roughly zero or where the field points a specific direction.Part D In the diagram from part C figure D? (Pick only those statements that apply to figure D. The field lines should always end on negative charges or at infinity. The field lines should be smooth curves. .) Check all that apply.

Which of the following could represent the magnitudes and In the following. . Part A Which of the following figures best represents the charge distribution on the inner and outer . the electric field lines are shown for a . and the charges in the shell are allowed to reach electrostatic equilibrium. . Charge Distribution on a Conducting Shell .Part E In the figure system of two point charges. signs of and ? and . take to be a positive quantity. The large positive charge inside the shell is roughly 16 times that of the smaller charges shown on the inner and outer surfaces of the spherical shell. ANSWER: .2 A positive charge is kept (fixed) off-center inside a fixed spherical conducting shell that is electrically neutral. At large enough distances. . the system looks like a single charge with value . . the field lines will be indistinguishable from the field lines due to a single point charge . Correct Very far from the two charges.

and hence the charge on the inner surface of the shell will arrange itself asymmetrically to cancel the field of the large positive charge. ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 5 Correc t Exercise 21. the charges on the outer surface will feel no force other than their own mutual repulsion. To the charges on the outer surface.1 Symmetry inside shell The field inside the conductor must be zero. The charge inside the shell is off-center. it is as if the inside of the conductor were completely neutral. Hint A.walls of the shell? Hint A.16 . and will therefore have no preferred direction.2 Symmetry outside shell The field inside the conductor must be zero. Thus.

Part A Find (a)the magnitude and (b) direction of the weakest electric field that can bring the proton uniformly to rest over a distance of 3. = 0? Part A Express your answer using two significant figures.10 ANSWER: = Part B ANSWER: 0 Corre = ct 2.30 .97× 106 Corre ct . point charge -3.30 . counterclockwise from the left direction Part C How much time does it take the proton to stop after entering the field? ANSWER: 1.0 at = 0.27 A proton is traveling horizontally to the right at 4. What are (a)the magnitude and (b)direction of the total electric force that these charges exert on a third point charge = 5. = 0.48×1 0−8 Corre = ct .Point charge 3.5 is located at = 0 = -0.5 is located at = 0.0 Corre = ct 0.40 .76 Corr ect clockwise from the direction Exercise 21. ANSWER: = Part B ANSWER: 90.20×106 .

19.5× 10−8 Corr ect .36 Part A Calculate the magnitude of the electric field = (-11 +14 ) Express your answer using two significant figures.5 point charge is placed at the point P in Fig. 21. ANSWER: 130 Corre = ct counterclockwise from the -axis = (-11 +14 ) . Express your answer using two significant figures.Part D What minimum field ((a)magnitude and (b)direction) would be needed to stop an electron under the conditions of part (a)? ANSWER: = 1620 Corr ect Part E ANSWER : 180 Corre = ct counterclockwise from the left direction Exercise 21. ANSWER: = 18 Corr ect . Part C Find the magnitude of the force that the -8.0 charge at the origin exerts on the -2. Part B Calculate the direction (relative to the -axis ) of the electric field Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 4.

The pattern on the paper is controlled by an electrostatic valve that determines at each nozzle position whether ink is squirted onto the paper or not. Operation of an Inkjet Printer In an inkjet printer.5 charge exerts on the -8. Part F Find the direction of the force that the -2.0 Express your answer using two significant figures.0 charge at the origin exerts on the -2. letters and images are created by squirting drops of ink horizontally at a sheet of paper from a rapidly moving nozzle.Part D Find the direction of the force that the -8.0 .5× 10−8 Corr ect charge. where there is a uniform vertical electric field with . ANSWER: 130 Corre = ct counterclockwise from the -axis charge.45 . The drops pass through a charging unit that gives each drop a positive charge by causing it to lose some electrons.00×10−11 each and leave the nozzle and travel horizontally toward the paper at velocity = 20. The ink drops have a mass = 1. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 52 Corre = ct below the -axis point Part E Find the magnitude of the force that the -2.0 Express your answer using two significant figures.5 charge exerts on the -8. ANSWER: = 4.5 charge is placed at the point P in Fig. The drops then pass between parallel deflecting plates of length = 2. 21.19.

and ignore the effects of gravity. How to calculate the vertical acceleration . Hint A. what magnitude of charge must be given to the drop? Assume that the density of the ink drop is 1000 .1 How to approach the problem First.300 . Use this relation to calculate the time the ink drop spends between the plates. Express your answer in seconds. calculate the charge by setting the electric force equal to this required force.2 Calculate the time spent between the plates How much time does it take for the ink drop to travel horizontally from the start to the end of the deflection plates? Hint 1.3 Calculate the vertical acceleration Calculate the acceleration needed for the ink drop to be deflected vertically by 0. Next. Therefore.300 by the time it reaches the end of the Part A If a drop is to be deflected a distance deflection plate.55×104 .23×10−3 Hint A. = 0. Hint A. find the amount of time spent by the drop between the plates and use the result to find the acceleration needed for the drop to have a vertical deflection of 0. the distance traveled by the drop is equal to the product of the horizontal velocity and the time traveled. using Newton's 2nd law.magnitude = 7. =1. Finally. Hint 1. find the force needed for this vertical deflection.300 during its trip between the deflection plates. Relating horizontal distance and velocity The ink drop has no acceleration in the horizontal direction.

Exercise 21. .00×10−9 Hint A. the magnitude of the acceleration due to the electric field will be over ten times larger than the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. the vertical deflection 0. Once you know the amount of time the ink droplet spends between the plates.5 Relating the electric force and the electric field By definition. How to approach the problem Recall Newton's 2nd law: .4 Calculate the force that must be acting on the drop using Newton's law Calculate the force needed to deflect the ink drop vertically by a distance of 0. the magnitude of the electric field is the absolute value of the ratio of the magnitude of the force acting on a charged particle in the field to the magnitude of the charge of the particle: . =400 Hint A.30×1 0−14 Correc t Here is something to think about: Is it reasonable to ignore the effect of gravity on the droplet in our calculations? For an average inkjet printer.300 is related to the vertical acceleration by .55 . ANSWER: = 5. you can compute the force needed to deflect the ink droplet vertically.300 Hint 1. gravity will still cause a small deflection of the droplet and hence should not be ignored if the accuracy of the placement of the ink droplet is particularly important. Once you know the droplet's mass and its vertical acceleration. Express your answer numerically in coulombs. =4. you can use this equation and solve for the vertical acceleration .Since the ink drop initially has zero velocity in the vertical direction. However.

A ring-shaped conductor with radius = 2.121 uniformly distributed around it.00 is placed at the point P described in part A. What is the magnitude of the force exerted by the particle on the ring? ANSWER: = 2.00 has a total positive charge = 0.0 ? 6. which is on the positive x-axis at 40.77 Corr ect = ANSWER: = Part B What is the direction of the electric field at point P? ANSWER: +x-direction -x-direction Correct Part C A particle with a charge of 3.03× 10−5 Corre ct Part D What is the direction of the force exerted by the particle on the ring? ANSWER: +x-direction -x-direction . Part A What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P.

20 carry charges of equal magnitude. ( magnitude of the electric field due to the disk at the point C2/N · m2) ANSWER: N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C Correct Problem 21.Correct Problem 21.0 . Calculate the cm along the -axis.34 Part A A thin.530 electric field . but opposite sign.82 Two tiny spheres of mass = 8. circular disk of radius The disk carries a total charge of cm is oriented in the -plane with its center at the origin. the spheres hang at rest with the angle . μC distributed uniformly over its surface. 72. They are tied to the same ceiling hook by light strings of length 0. When a horizontal uniform that is directed to the left is turned on.

between the strings equal to in the following figure. ANSWER: = 3750 Correct Problem 21. charge is located on the positivex-axis at . A positive point . Part A Which ball (the one on the right or the one on the left) has positive charge? ANSWER: The one on the left The one on the right Correct Part B What is the magnitude of the field? Express your answer with the appropriate units. a distance to the right of the end of .89 Positive charge is distributed uniformly along the x-axis from to .

. . at Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = 0 Corr ect Part C Calculate the magnitude of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = exerts on . Correct . . at Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = Correct Part B Calculate the y-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution points on the positive x-axis where . . . . . . and and appropriate constants. and appropriate constants.Part A Calculate the x-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution points on the positive x-axis where . and appropriate constants. . .

90 Positive charge is distributed uniformly along the positive y-axis between lies on the positive x-axis. Part E Show that if the magnitude of the force in part C is approximately . Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. at points . including spaces).A negative point charge from the origin (the figure ). .Part D Calculate the direction of the force that the charge distribution ANSWER: to the left to the right Correct exerts on . ANSWER: My Answer: F=[(kqQ)/ax]*[((1-a/x)^-1)-1]≈ kqQ/x^2≈ k*qQ/r^2 The force takes the form of a force between a pair of point charges due to the charge distribution looking like a point charge from a great distance. Explain why this result is obtained. Part A Calculate the x-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution on the positive x-axis. and appropriate constants. a distance and . Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . Problem 21. .

Correct Part B Calculate the y-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution on the positive x-axis. Correct Part D Calculate the y-component of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum. . and appropriate constants. exerts on . . including spaces). . . . ANSWER: My Answer: 1/sqrt(x^2+a^2)=1/x(1+a^2/x^2)^-1/2=1/x(1-a^2/2x^2)=1/x-a^2/2x^3 Fy=k*qQ(1/x-1/x+a^2/2x^3) Problem 21. . Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . and appropriate constants.107 . at points Correct Part C Calculate the x-component of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . . and appropriate constants. . Correct Part E Show that if and . exerts on .

) Express your answer in terms of the variables . . Correct Part C Assuming . and lie along the x-axis. and appropriate constants. one between and and the other distributed uniformly along its . ANSWER: My Answer: a is the distance between the rods' adjacent ends. and appropriate constants. Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . . (Hint: Use the expansion . Correct Part B Find the magnitude of the force that one rod exerts on the other. -axis. find the magnitude of this force reduces to. ANSWER: = Corr ect Part D Interpret this result. . Carry all expansions to at least order and appropriate constants. . They interact as point charges when the distance between the rods is much greater than their lengths (when a>>L). . Each rod has positive charge Part A Calculate the electric field produced by the second rod at points along the positive Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = . Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum.Two thin rods of length between length. valid for . including spaces). .