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Cargo Calulation Theory

1. CARGO CALCULATIONS 1.1 General: An oil volume can only be measured at its prevailing temperature and it therefore follows that the standard volume must usually be calculated. Unfortunately different countries have different standard (reference) temperatures. Generally, the reference temperatures are: In Eastern Bloc, Brazil 20oC; In Western Europe 15oC; In the USA 60oF. The situation is further confused in that there are primarily two volumetric units, which are: 3 In metric countries the cubic meter (m ) In non-metric countries the barrel (Bbl). Combining a statement of volume with a statement of the reference temperature yields the following measurement systems: In Eastern Bloc, Brazil m3 at 20 C; In Western Europe m3 at 15 C; In the USA US Bbl at 60 F. It is customary to refer to volumes at the reference temperature as Standard Volumes e.g US barrels @ 60 F or cubic meters @ 15oC. However confusion may arise in the latter case if the reference temperature is not stated (Bill of Lading and or Certificate of Quantity and or shore Quantity Calculations Certificate). It should be noted that most crude oils are traded in Barrels. 1.2 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT (See also ISGOTT) 1.2.1 Quantities 1.2.1.1 On Board Quantity (OBQ) All the oil, water, sludge and sediment in the cargo tanks and associated lines and pumps on a ship before loading commences. 1.2.1.2 Quantity Remaining On Board (ROB) All the measurable oil, water, sludge and sediment in the cargo tanks and associated lines & pumps on a ship after discharging a cargo has been completed, excluding vapour. 1.2.2 Sediment Suspended sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present within the oil but not in solution. Bottom sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present in a tank as a separate layer at the bottom. Total sediment is the sum of suspended and the bottom sediment. 1.2.3 Water Dissolved water : is the water contained within the oil forming a solution at the prevailing temperature. Suspended water is the water within the oil which is finely dispersed as small droplets Note: It may over a period of time either collect as free water, or become dissolved water depending on the conditions of the temperature and pressure prevailing. Free water is the water that exists in a separate layer, Note: It typically lies beneath the oil. Total water is the sum of all the dissolved, suspended and free water in a cargo or parcel of oil. 1.2.4 Volumes Total Observed Volume (TOV) is the volume of oli including total water and total sediment measured at the oil temperature and pressure prevailing. Gross Observed Volume (GOV) is the volume of oil including dissolved water, suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water and bottom sediment, measured at the oil temperature and pressure prevailing. Gross Standard Volume (GSV) is the volume of oil including dissolved water, suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water and bottom sediment, calculated at standard condition e.g 15oC or 60oF and 1013.25 hPa. Net Observed Volume (NOV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and total sediment at the oil temperature & pressure prevailing. Net Standard Volume (NSV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and total sediment, calculated at standard conditions e.g 15oC or 60oF and 1013.25 hPa. Total Calculated Volume (TCV) is the gross standard volume plus the free water measured at the temperature & pressure prevailing. The Volume Correction Factor (VCF) is the factor depending on the oil type, density or its equivalent and temperature which corrects oil volumes to the Standard Reference Temperature (s). (ASTM Tables 54 A, B, C, D or 6 A, B) Page 1 of 4
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6. There is no reason why similar techniques cannot be used at the discharge ports. Such factors shall be obtained from the API-ISO-ASTM-IP Petroleum Measurement Tables (Tab56) (All terms according to ISO.6. (typically kg/m3 or sometimes kg/litre Since density is dependent on temperature & pressure these should be stated.9 Weight Conversion Factor (WCF) The Weight Conversion Factor is a factor dependent on the density.2. 1. In reality this ratio is not constant but varies about a mean value which is known as the vessel's experience factor. suspended water & suspended sediment but excluding free water & bottom sediment.2. refined products and lubricating oils (excluding light hydrocarbons. 1.6. atmospheric conditions or air buoyancy effects.2.Cargo Calulation Theory 1.2. Both the shore figures & the ship figs will be subject to the effects of random errors and systematic errors so they are unlikely to agree exactly. 1.2.2.2.2.6. 2) Vessel Experience Factor (Discharging) [VEFD] The adjusted mean value of the Vessel Discharge Ratio(VDR) obtained after several voyages.2 Weight Weight is accepted as being the value secured when an object is weighed in air. There is also a body of opinion which suggests that part cargoes (less than 80% of the capacity) should not be considered when calculating a VEF. The IP stipulates that the following types of voyages should not be used when calculating a VEF: First voyage after dry-dock. also o at 60 F: The Density of a substance @ 60 F The Density of pure water @ 60oF Specific Gravity is now internationally known as Relative Density.2. for converting volumes to weight in air.5 Density The density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.6 Density @ 15 C (VACUO) Mass / Unit volume @ 15 C (typically kg/m3 or sometimes kg/litre) 1. Voyages prior to any structural modifications which have affected the vessel's carrying capacity. although in practice this is seldom done.1 Mass Mass is a measure of the quantity of material in a body & constant.6. Lightening operations. Now often referred to as 'apparent mass'.131. 1. The question is: "How closely should they agree?" In a perfect world. a constant ratio between the ship's figure & the shore figures should be achievable (even if the ship's tanks are over or under-calibrated).8 API Gravity API Gravity = 141.2.5 o o o o o 1. 1.5 Vessel Experience Factor At the end of a ship loading or discharge operation. Such factors are often used at loading ports to provide a convenient means of checking the acuracy of B/L and ship's figures.1 Institute of Petroleum (IP) Terminology 1) Vessel Experience Factor (Loading) [VEFL] The adjusted mean value of the Vessel Loading Ratio(VLR) obtained after several voyages.6. International Organisation for Standardisation) 1.6. it is customary to compare the quantity loaded or discharged measured on shore with the quantity measured on board the ship. for any given vessel.7 Relative Density @ 60 60 F (Specific Gravity @ 60 60 F) The Relative Density @ 60 60 oF is the density of a substance at 60oF to the density of pure water.3 Gross Weight In Air Gross Weight in Air is the weight of oil including dissolved water. regardless of geographical location.6 Units of Measurements 1. 1.7 Standard Tables The 1980 / 1982 edition of the API-ASTM-IP Petroleum Measurement Tables for crude oils.6.5 o Relative Density @ 60 60 F .2.2.2. 1.6.5. and can be converted to mass by the application of an air buoyancy correction (Table 56 = weight correction for oils). 1. altitude. LPG's and bitumen) are carried onboard Page 2 of 4 . Voyages where the B/L has been based on shipboard measurement.4 Net Weight In Air Net Weight in Air is the weight of oil excluding total water & total sediment.

1. 1.2. Gross Standard Volume in m3 at 15 C Density @ 15 C (Vacuo) * Weight Correction Factor (ASTM Table 56).5 hPa. (Gross Weight in in Vacuo = GSV * Density @ 15oC (Vacuo) Note: Hydrometers used on board are for density @ 15oC (vacuo). B.2. o Explanations are given in the Charterer's Instructions.Cargo Calulation Theory according to the vessel's trade. However. b) Suspended Water. To compare ship's figures loaded / discharged with shore figures always compare Gross Standard Volumes. weight in vacuo is not normally calculated on board & therefore this part is normally omitted. Gross Weight In Air = Gross Weight in Vacuo * Weight Correction Factor. Oil cargo calculations are based on: 1) 2) 3) Metric System Standard Temperature / Pressure 15 C / 1013.10 Ballast Calculations Use the density of the water to find the WCF in ASTM Table 56.g. Weight in Air. C.2. Note: Be aware of the fact that some terminals use weight in vacuo (e. The cargo statement requires weights in air to be recorded therefore the weight in Vacuo must be corrected for the buoyancy of air. Note: ASTM Table 52 to be used for conversion of m3 at 15 C to Bbls at 60 F (As 15 C is not equal to 60 F).8 Cargo Calculations in STASCO Within Shell International Trading & Shipping Co. Gross Standard Volume = Gross Observed Volume * Volume Correction Factor. Pernis / Europort). 1. or D) Gross Standard Volume in m3 at 15 C ASTM Tables 52 Factor Gross Standard Volume in Bbls at 60 F. Note: Ship's volume / weight quantities are always GROSS as vessels are unable to determine the: a) Dissolved Water. c) Suspnded Sediment. CARGO CALCULATION Page 3 of 4 . 2) Gross Weight In Vacuo (Mass) = Gross Standard Volume * Density @ 15oC (Vacuo). 3) Gross Weight In Air = Gross Standard Volume * Density @ 15oC (Vacuo) * WCF.11 Conversions in Weight Use the ASTM Table Volume XI / XII. Gross Weight In Air in Metric Tonnes. Shell Netherlands Refinery BV.9 Manner of Calculations On Board Total obs volume in m3 at a temperature as observed by vessel Free Water m3 Balance Volume m3 Bottom Sediment m3 Balance Volume m3 Slops m3 Gross Obs Volume in m3 at a temperature as observed by vessel Volume Correction Factor (ASTM Tables 54A.2. 1. Oil quantity calculations should be made with the ASTM Petroleum Measurement Tables (ASTM Tables). Ltd. The equations are as follows: 1) Volumes at 15oC on board a vessel always GROSS = Gross Volume at 15oC = Gross Standard Volume. o o o o o o o o - - - x x x Refer to the SONAR Operating instructions for more information on cargo calculation methods used by SONAR.

0. 11 Page 4 of 4 .Cargo Calulation Theory x WCF Metric Tonnes Tab 56 x 6.28981 US Barrels at Load Temperature o by VCF m3 / Nat C o US Barrels WCF = Weight Correction Factor (Table 56 or Density . 3 = API ----------Density @ 15oC Tab.293 m3 / 15 C Tab.293 (Tab 52) m3 / 15 C Tab 54A x 6.2928 x by WCF Metric Tonnes Tab. 51 = Density @ 15oC ----------API CARGO CALCULATION IN US BARRELS by 6. 13 x by WCF Long Tonnes Tab. 52 o by VCF US Barrels @ 60 F Tab 6A o US Barrels @ Nat F o 6.0011) VCF = Volume Correction Factor Tab.