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# Cargo Calulation Theory

1. CARGO CALCULATIONS 1.1 General: An oil volume can only be measured at its prevailing temperature and it therefore follows that the standard volume must usually be calculated. Unfortunately different countries have different standard (reference) temperatures. Generally, the reference temperatures are: In Eastern Bloc, Brazil 20oC; In Western Europe 15oC; In the USA 60oF. The situation is further confused in that there are primarily two volumetric units, which are: 3 In metric countries the cubic meter (m ) In non-metric countries the barrel (Bbl). Combining a statement of volume with a statement of the reference temperature yields the following measurement systems: In Eastern Bloc, Brazil m3 at 20 C; In Western Europe m3 at 15 C; In the USA US Bbl at 60 F. It is customary to refer to volumes at the reference temperature as Standard Volumes e.g US barrels @ 60 F or cubic meters @ 15oC. However confusion may arise in the latter case if the reference temperature is not stated (Bill of Lading and or Certificate of Quantity and or shore Quantity Calculations Certificate). It should be noted that most crude oils are traded in Barrels. 1.2 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT (See also ISGOTT) 1.2.1 Quantities 1.2.1.1 On Board Quantity (OBQ) All the oil, water, sludge and sediment in the cargo tanks and associated lines and pumps on a ship before loading commences. 1.2.1.2 Quantity Remaining On Board (ROB) All the measurable oil, water, sludge and sediment in the cargo tanks and associated lines & pumps on a ship after discharging a cargo has been completed, excluding vapour. 1.2.2 Sediment Suspended sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present within the oil but not in solution. Bottom sediment are non-hydrocarbon solids present in a tank as a separate layer at the bottom. Total sediment is the sum of suspended and the bottom sediment. 1.2.3 Water Dissolved water : is the water contained within the oil forming a solution at the prevailing temperature. Suspended water is the water within the oil which is finely dispersed as small droplets Note: It may over a period of time either collect as free water, or become dissolved water depending on the conditions of the temperature and pressure prevailing. Free water is the water that exists in a separate layer, Note: It typically lies beneath the oil. Total water is the sum of all the dissolved, suspended and free water in a cargo or parcel of oil. 1.2.4 Volumes Total Observed Volume (TOV) is the volume of oli including total water and total sediment measured at the oil temperature and pressure prevailing. Gross Observed Volume (GOV) is the volume of oil including dissolved water, suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water and bottom sediment, measured at the oil temperature and pressure prevailing. Gross Standard Volume (GSV) is the volume of oil including dissolved water, suspended water and suspended sediment but excluding free water and bottom sediment, calculated at standard condition e.g 15oC or 60oF and 1013.25 hPa. Net Observed Volume (NOV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and total sediment at the oil temperature & pressure prevailing. Net Standard Volume (NSV) is the volume of oil excluding total water and total sediment, calculated at standard conditions e.g 15oC or 60oF and 1013.25 hPa. Total Calculated Volume (TCV) is the gross standard volume plus the free water measured at the temperature & pressure prevailing. The Volume Correction Factor (VCF) is the factor depending on the oil type, density or its equivalent and temperature which corrects oil volumes to the Standard Reference Temperature (s). (ASTM Tables 54 A, B, C, D or 6 A, B) Page 1 of 4
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