Introduction to Mobile Cellular Networks

Part I: 3G Mobile Core Network in a Nutshell

VU 389.134 389 134 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 5.10.2009

What this lecture is about …
• Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks
– – – – Cellular networks Packet switched data transmission Video and other services Cross layer approaches

• How to measure/analyze/optimize such services • What you should already know
– Cellular network (basics) – UDP TCP IP, … UDP, TCP, IP – eMail / HTTP / streaming (basics)
HTTP IP TCP UDP HyperText Transport Protocol Internet Protocol Transport Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol
2 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134

The Problem
• Today data services generate more traffic than voice
– Radio link is expensive and limit resource

• Data services
– consume more bandwidth at less revenue – QoS definition is problematic

• Looking for ways to offer constant QoS at reduced datarate/bandwidth needs
– – – – Measurement and analysis of existing traffic Link layer modeling from IP point of view Cross layer optimization (video streaming …) streaming, ) Traffic modeling with respect to cellular networks
QoS Quality Q alit of Ser ice Service
3 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134

Possible Solutions
• Communication system are split into independent atomic layers
– Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model

• Data transmission
– Two consecutive layers: payload – Two corresponding layers: payload, signaling

• Processing information stays within the layer g y y
4 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134

: receivers fight for < 1dB improvement • Idea: use processing information from multiple layers – Soften the boundaries between two layers – e.Some (more) Motivation • Today every layer is optimized to a large extend – e.134 .: variable priority for video streaming and web browsing g p y g g • Optimization problems get much harder – Optimum often hard to prove X X X TB Transport Block 5 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.g.g.

2010 / Svoboda) – Detection of Anomalies in a Network – Traffic Flows – Traffic Modeling in High-Delay Environments 6 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.2009 / Rupp) – Principles of Video Encoding – Error Detection and Concealment – Cross Layer Error Resilience in Video Streaming – End to End Video Q alit Estimation Quality • Traffic in Mobile Networks (11.Outline of this Lecture • Cellular Mobile Networks: (5.2010 .2009 .12.134 .11.01.14.25.11.01.16 11 2009 / Svoboda) (5 10 2009 16.2009 – PS-Core Network – Link Error Analysis y – Link Error Prediction – Measurement and Analysis • Video in Error Prone Environments (23.2009 .10.

Outline of today's talk • Evolution of mobile cellular networks • 3G Network Hierarchy • 3G core network El t k Elements t • 3G protocol Hi t l Hierarchy h • S Simple procedures in mobile cellular networks l d bl ll l k • Journey of a packet through the network 7 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

Network Architecture • Hierarchical ordering of functional groups • Functional structures/groups – Defined by “functions” / procedures functions – Consist of one or several physical elements • Interfaces (reference points) – Points allowing for interconnection between functional structures IP MS UE Internet Protocol Mobile Station User E i U Equipment 8 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

134 .Network Architecture: Example GSM/GPRS • GSM (2G): digital circuit switched network for voice – All services reserve the same fixed bandwidth – Charging on time unit basis – Data rate: 9.5G): extension for p ( ) packet switched traffic – Packet switched (PS) domain is introduced – PS oriented shared data channels at the radio link – Data rate: ~114 kbit/s GSM GPRS SIM BTS BSC PCU MSC SGSN GGSN Global System for Mobile Communication General Packet Radio Service Subscriber Identity Module Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Packet Control Unit Mobile Switching Center Serving GPRS Support Node Gateway SGSN 9 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.6 kbit/s • GPRS (2.

QoS. .Network Architecture: Example UMTS/HSPA • UMTS (3G): – The UTRAN (UMTS RAN) is added to existing 2.2 Mbit/s PS UMTS HSPA USIM NodeB RNC Packet Switched Universal Mobile Telecommunications System High Speed Packet Access Universal SIM NodeB Radio Network Controller 10 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389. – Data rate: 384 kbit/s • HSPA (3.5G): – Real packet switched radio bearers (similar to GPRS) – N more soft h d No f handover – Data rate: 7. – Link speed is variable but fixed to certain values. soft handover. … .134 .5G networks • WCDMA.Q .

5G)  UMTS (3G) – Large changes in the RAN • The first network designed for PS traffic – Small changes in the Core • UMTS R99 (3G)  HSPA (3.5G) (2 5G) – No changes on the radio interface – Large changes in RAN g g – Birth of the PS-Core (!) • GPRS (2.134 .Evolution of (digital) Cellular Networks • GSM (2G)  GPRS (2.5G) – Changes in the radio interface – No changes in the Core RAN PS GSM GPRS UMTS HSPA Radio Access N t R di A Network k Packet Switched Global System for Mobile Communication General Packet Radio Service Universal Mobile Telecommunications System High Speed P k t A Hi h S d Packet Access 11 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The Complete Picture of a 3G Core Network 2G 3G 12 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .Summary of (digital) Cellular Networks • Main Components of a Cellular Network – User equipment – Radio access network – Core network RAN PS GSM GPRS UMTS HSPA Radio Access Network Packet Switched Global System for Mobile Communication General Packet Radio Service Universal Mobile Telecommunications System High Speed Packet Access • GSM: digital and circuit switched • GPRS: adds the CN PS-domain to GSM • UMTS: pseudo PS radio links. RAN  UTRAN • HSPA: PS radio links for UMTS. no soft handover 13 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

The Core Network Elements 14 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

134 .The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • Routing grid for Circuit Switched (CS) services • Main functions: – – – – Interconnect of CS services Mobility Management Localization Signaling • Protocols: – PCM30 / PCM30 (not AMR!) • Interfaces: – IuCS / SS7(E) 15 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

The Serving GPRS Support Node • Counter part to the MSC in the Packet Switched (PS) domain • Main functions: – – – – Security / authentication Mobility Management (MM): cell update.134 . etc. Handling of data sessions (routing) Caching user subscriber data • Protocols: – GTP / GTP (not terminated in SGSN!) • I t f Interfaces: – IuPS / Gn RNC Iu-ps SGSN Gn G Gr Gn GGSN SGSN HLR 16 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 . … • Protocols: – GTP / IP • Interfaces: – Gn (GTP) / Gi (IP) SGSN Gn GGSN Gi INTERNET 17 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389. Internet Converting the IP packets to GTP protocol Billing. QoS.The Gateway GPRS Supporting Node (GGSN) • „The Gatekeeper to the outer Territories“ The Territories • GGSN ‘hides’ the GPRS infrastructure • Main functions: – – – – Handling of the PDP Context Building a bridge to the external networks – eg.

134 ..The Home Location Register (HLR) • Database holding static user information – – – – – – Telephone number (MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN) Subscriber number (IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN) ( ) Security issues – AUC (key) IMSI MCC QoS parameters MNC MSIN Available services (voice.. C Gr C G-MSC HLR SGSN 18 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.) Position information: Visitor Location Register (VLR) MSISDN = MS . packet.ISDN CC Country Code NDC National Dest.. Mobile Subscriber Id Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code Mobile Station Id Number • P t Protocols: l – IP • Interfaces: – Gr. Code SN Subscriber Number Int.

Summary of Core Network Elements • Core Network Elements – CS: MSC.134 . VLR. GGSN . G-MSC – PS: SGSN. – OM: HLR. OMC. … • • • • • MSC / SGSN interconnect RAN to the CN G-MSC / GGSN interconnect CN with other networks HLR holds all “static” user information VLR local copy of HLR in SGSN CS Circuit Switched PS Packet Switched Further Management units: OM Operation and Maintenance – EIR. EIR. … MSC G-MSC SGSN GGSN HLR VLR Mobile Switching Center Gateway MSC Serving GPRS Supporting Node Gateway GPRS Supporting Node Home Location Register Visiting Location Register 19 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The Protocols 20 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The Protocol Hierarchy 21 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

The Control Plane SDH 22 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

134 .The User Plane IP PDCP RLC MAC Iu .UP GTP-U ATM/ UDP Iu .UP GTP-U ATM GTP-U UDP/ ATM GTP-U UDP/ATM SDH 23 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) • • GPRS version of the MM protocol (MM still needed) Managing the mobility of the terminals – – – – Present location Connections management services User identity confidentiality User states: – Idle: the subscriber is not attached – Standby: the subscriber is attached – R d the subscriber i active Ready: h b ib is i 24 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The RAN Application Part (RANAP) • Handles the signaling between UTRAN and PS CN (Iu) PS-CN – Booking ATM lines. …. Changing Setup. • Includes all control information for UTRAN • 3 Classes of elementary procedures: – General control services – Notification services – Dedicated control services • Some functions: – Iu Release (1) – Overload Control (2) – RAB Assignment (3) A i t RAB Radio Access Bearer 25 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 .The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) • Task: – Abstraction between UMTS and transport system (ATM. IP) –  Transport System is hidden. p y • Supports – – – – connection -less and –oriented extension to MTP Address translation Full F ll OSI l layer 3 compatibility ibili Below SS7 protocol 26 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

SGSN Payload is attached to GTP headers (8Bytes) Used for signaling and data Fields: – – – – – – Version: GTP v0 or v1 Protocol Type: GTP GTP (GTP protocol is used to transfer charging data to the GTP. GGSN RNC.134 . APN) 27 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.The GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP v0) • • • • For the connection between RNC SGSN. Sequence. GTP’ (GTP’ Charging Gateway Function) Flags: Extension. N-PDU Message Type: What is this GTP message about Length: length of payload Tunnel Endpoint Identifier: Start/End point of the GTP tunnel (user.

134 .The GTP -U / -C • GTP-C(ontrol) GTP C(ontrol) – GPRS mobility management between GSNs – Logically attached to the GTP-U tunnel – physically separated – Functions: • Create/Update/Change PDP Context • Echo Request/Response • RAN Information • GTP-U(ser) GTP U(ser) – – – – Hides mobility from IP layer Supports reordering of T-PDUs TEID is always unique Functions: • Data Transmission • Tunnel Setup/Release/Error • Echo Request/Response TEID Tunnel Endpoint IDentifier 28 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

134 . … signaling between UTRAN and CN abstraction between UMTS layers and transport layer transport of user data payload managing of corresponding GTP U (always in pairs) GTP-U • Every user has a least one GTP tunnel (pair) active • SGSN records the states of these protocols for every user CS PS Circuit Switched Packet Switched P k S i h d 29 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.Summary of Core Network Protocols • Protocol hierarchy – Non-access / Access Stratum – Radio / Transport Network Layer p y • Core network p C protocols: – – – – – GMM: RANAP: SCCP: GTP-U: GTP-C: GTP C: location. user mobility.

. y 30 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389. .Let's start the Journey .134 .

Processed Steps • • • • Now we will use the basics basics.134 . GPRS attach PDP context activation Mobile Station starts to send data (IP Packets) 31 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

Activating a PDP Context Svoboda 32 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

IP Core 48 5 48 5 48 5 48 5 48 5 48 5 ATM Layer 33 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.Protocol Mapping Image Size = 2000 Bytes Original 1472 Data1 (1472) 0 20 TCP 20 IP 1500 528 Data2 0 20 TCP 20 IP 1500 IP – Layer USER UTRAN 8 GTP 8 UDP 20 IP 8 GTP 8 UDP 20 IP GTP Layer + UDP.134 .

134 .Sending the Packet: UTRAN-SGSN 34 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

Sending the Packet: SGSN-GGSN SGSN Gn GGSN PAYLOAD (1500) PAYLOAD (1500) PAYLOAD (1500) TCP Header (20) IP Header (20) GTP Header (8) TCP Header (20) IP Header (20) GTP Header (8) TCP Header (20) IP Header (20) UDP (8) IP (20) ATM (5) PDH (var) 35 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

Sending the Packet: Outer Regions Where is the i th bird? GGSN INTERNET PAYLOAD (1500) PAYLOAD (1500) TCP Header (20) IP Header (20) TCP Header (20) IP Header (20) Ethernet Ethernet 36 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.134 .

Gn. GMM • Next stop: UTRAN 37 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389. GGSN. GTP RNC. IuCS. TIMSI IMSI TIMSI. SGSN.134 . NodeB Gi. IuPS PDP.Summary of this lecture • • • • Network hierarchy Core network elements Protocol hierarchy How a data (IP) transmission over mobile cellular networks works • Important things/abbreviations – – – – Subscriber: Elements: Interfaces: Procedures: IMSI.

tuwien.Thank you for your attention Questions? Q i ? psvoboda@nt.at .ac.

060 Core Network Basics: 3gpp 23. 23.com/networking/ http://www.134 .108 (E Interface) Iu User Plane: 3gpp 25.Where to look? [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] RANAP on Iu: 3gpp 25.htm#GTP http://www.sk/protocols2/pbook/gprs.manualy.sk/protocols2/pbook/umts.techfest.manualy.413.at http://www.415 GTP: 3gpp 29.tu-berlin.de/curricula/ws0405/vl-umts/ 39 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.htm http://www.umtslink.tkn.002 www.

134 General Packet Radio System Global System for Mobile communications GPRS Tunneling Protocol GateWay Core Network Home Location Register Information Element International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity .AAL2 ALCAP APN AS ASN.1 ATM BSC BTS CC CN CRNC CS DCH DL DRNC DRNS DSCH EP GERAN GGSN G MSC G-MSC GMM/SM Management GPRS GSM GTP GWCN HLR IE IMEI IMSI ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 pp Access Link Control Application Part Access Point Name Access Stratum Abstract Syntax Notation One Asynchronous Transfer Mode Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Call Control Core Network Controlling RNC Circuit Switched Ci i S i h d Dedicated Channel Downlink Drift RNC Drift RNS Downlink Shared Channel Elementary Procedure GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Supporting Node Gateway Mobile Switching Center GPRS Mobility Management / Session Abbreviations (1) IPv4 IPv6 MAC MBMS MM MOCN MSC MTP NACC NAS NRT N-PDU P-TMSI PCM PCU PDCP PDP PDU PLMN PS PSTN QoS RAB RANAP RLC RNC RNS RRC RT Internet Protocol (version 4) Internet Protocol (version 6) Media Access Control Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Mobility Management Multi O M lti Operator C t Core N t Network k Mobile services Switching Centre Message Transfer Part Network Assisted Cell Change Non Access Stratum Non-Real Time Network – Protocol Data Unit Packet TMSI Puls Code Modulation Packet Control Unit Packet Data Convergence Protocol Packet Data Protocol Protocol Data Unit Public Land Mobile Network Packet Switched Public Switched Telephone Network Quality of Service Radio Access Bearer Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Radio Resource Control Real Time 40 Video and Multimedia Transmissions over Cellular Networks 389.

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