65

3.1

ANALOG ELECTRONICS - II
L T P 4 - 3

RATIONALE Having attained basic knowledge of electronic devices like diodes, transistors, and elementary circuits, in second semester, this course will enable the students to learn about the use of transistors in analog circuits like power amplifier, multistage amplifier, oscillators, wave shaping circuits and in multivibrators etc. It also gives information about timer, operational amplifier, voltage regulator, ICs and their applications for effective functioning in the field of electronic service industry. DETAILED CONTENTS 1. Multistage Amplifiers a) b) c) Need for multistage amplifier Gain of multistage amplifier Different types of multistage amplifier like RC coupled, transformer coupled, direct coupled, and their frequency response and bandwidth (08 hrs) (08 hrs)

2.

Large Signal Amplifier a) b) c) d) Difference between voltage and power amplifiers Importance of impedance matching in amplifiers Class A, Class B, Class AB, and Class C amplifiers Single ended power amplifiers, push-pull amplifier, and complementary symmetry push-pull amplifier

3.

Feedback in Amplifiers a) b) c) d) e) Basic principles and types of feedback Derivation of expression for gain of an amplifier employing feedback Effect of feedback (negative) on gain, stability, distortion and bandwidth of an amplifier RC coupled amplifier with emitter bypass capacitor Emitter follower amplifier and its applications

(08 hrs)

scale changer. CMMR. Line and load regulation (06 hrs) . subtractor. Their working principles and simple numerical problems Series and parallel resonant circuits and bandwidth of resonant circuits Single and double tuned voltage amplifiers and their frequency response characteristics (04 hrs) (08 hrs) d) e) 6. differentiator. slew rate and input offset current Operational amplifier as an inverter. Operational Amplifiers a) b) c) d) Characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier and its block diagram Definition of differential voltage gain. adder. Wien’s bridge. Hartley Colpitts. Wave Shaping Circuits a) b) c) General idea about different wave shapers RC and RL integrating and differentiating circuits with their applications Diode clipping and clamping circuits and simple numerical problem on the circuits 7. Regulated DC Power Supplies a) Concept of DC power supply. Sinusoidal Oscillators a) b) c) Use of positive feedback Barkhausen criterion for oscillations Different oscillator circuits-tuned collector. and integrator Concept of Schmitt trigger circuit and sample/hold circuit using operational amplifier and their applications (06 hrs) 9. Multivibration Circuits a) b) c) d) working principle of transistor as switch Concept of multi-vibrator: astable. PSRR. monostable. phase shift.66 4. and crystal oscillator. and bistable and their applications Block diagram of IC555 and its working IC555 as monostable and astable multi-vibrator (08 hrs) 8.

and variable voltage regulator like (IC 723) Idea of SMPS LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. To use IC 741 (op-amplifier) as i) ii) iii) iv) Inverter Adder Subtracter Integrator 12. IC regulators (like 7805. New Delhi Electronic Devices and Circuits by Millman and Halkias. McGraw Hills. 2. 7. 9. To measure the gain of push-pull amplifier at 1KHz To measure the voltage gain of emitter follower circuit and plot its frequency response Plot the frequency response curve of Hartley and Colpitts Oscillator Plot the frequency response curve of phase shift and Wein bridge Oscillator To observe the output waveforms of series and shunt clipping circuits To observe the output for clamping circuits To observe the output waveform of a Bistable multivibrator Use of IC 555 as monostable multivibrator and observe the output for different values of RC 10. 7812. 8.67 b) c) Concept of fixed voltage. Plot the frequency response of two stage RC coupled amplifier and calculate the bandwidth and compare it with single stage amplifier 2. 7905) RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 3. Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits by NN Bhargava. New Delhi Electronics Principles by Malvino. To realize positive and negative fixed voltage AC power supply using three terminal voltage regulator IC (7805. Tata McGraw Hills. 6. 3. New Delhi . 5. Tata McGraw Hills. 7905). Use of IC 555 as astable multivibrator and observe the output at different duty cycles 11. 4.

68 4. Ltd. 8. 5. Jalandhar . New Delhi. New Delhi Art of Electronics by Horowitz Electronic Principles by Sahdev. 6. Tata McGraw Hills. Basic Electronics by Grob. Saini. Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Electronics Devices and Circuits by Rama Reddy. Electronics Devices and Circuits-II by Naresh Gupta.. Jyotesh Malhotra and Harish C. New Delhi Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits by Ramakant A. Gaykwad 10. 9. New Delhi 11. Eagle Prakashan. 7. Dhanpat Rai and Sons. S Chand and Co Ltd. Electronic Circuit Theory by Boylstead Electronic Devices and Circuits by BL Theraja.

permeability. semi-conducting and insulating materials through a brief reference to their atomic structure.3 1. PVC. Ferro) and their properties. cylindrical capacitor.4 Magnetic Materials (8 hrs) Different Magnetic materials. types of capacitors.- RATIONALE Study of Electronic components and Materials is important from point of view of manufacturing. their examples and typical applications. Domains. Soft and hard magnetic materials. (Dia. Para. spherical capacitors.2 ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS (ECM) L T P 4 . Copper. DETAILED CONTENTS 1. alloying and mechanical stressing. Classification of conducting materials into low resistivity and high resistivity materials. merits.1 Materials (32 hrs) Classification of materials (4 hrs) Conducting. Students should understand the procedure of identification. Ferro magnetism. Energy stored in a capacitor. limitations. Polythene and Varnish. Silicon. mechanical and thermal) and applications of the following material: Mica. Bakelite. Rubber. and applications of electronic components and materials. 2. Hysteresis loop. Ceramic. Conducting Materials (10 hrs) Resistors and factors affecting resistivity such as temperature. Cotton. 1. constructional details and testing specifications Capacity of parallel plate capacitors. units of capacitance. Glass.69 3.1 Concept of capacitance and capacitors. Polyester.2 1. Sliver. specifications. . Components Capacitors a) b) c) (32 hrs) (8 hrs) 2. characteristics. 1. Insulating Materials (10 hrs) Important relevant characteristics (electrical. testing and maintenance of electronic devices and systems.

Khanna Publishers. New Delhi 4. transistors. Various processes in IC manufacturing. New Delhi 5. New Delhi. Tata McGraw Hill.3 2. Dhanpat Rai and Sons. Electrical and Electronic Engineering Materials by SK Bhattacharya. Simple numerical problems of capacitor.4 2. Dhanpat Rai and Sons. (4 hrs) Connectors. application and trouble shooting Surface Mounted Devices (SMDs): Constructional detail and specifications. concept of current growth and decay. FETs and SCRs. New Delhi 3. switches and cables. relays. Semi Conductors and Integrated Circuits • • • (8 hrs) 2. carbon composition. inductors and RF coils: (4 hrs) Methods of manufacture. metal film. testing. their symbols. Superconductivity and piezoelectric ceramic transducer elements RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. time constant in R-C circuits.2 2. construction and characteristics. wound and variable types (presets and potentio-meters) (3 hrs) Transformer. Electronic components and Materials by SM Dhir. break down voltage. Resistors: Carbon film.5 Concept of di-electric and its effects on capacitance. Series and parallel combination of capacitor.70 d) e) f) 2. New Delhi 2. Electronic components and Materials by Grover and Jamwal. testing of diodes. Hybrid IC technology. Need of shielding. simple problems.7 Basic characteristics of Semiconductor materials. Electronic Engineering Materials by ML Gupta. Relays. switches and cables: (5 hrs) Different types of connectors. di-electric constant. Charging and discharging of capacitor with different resistances in circuit. Tata McGraw Hill. Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits by NN Bhargava and Kulshreshta. .

maximum frequency deviation and deviation rating Effect of noise on FM carrier. DETAILED CONTENTS 1. DSB-SC. The students will be able to understand the working principle of various communication devices used in industry after going through the basic principles and concepts contained in this subject.3 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION L T P 3 . the communication gains utmost importance whether it be voice or data or control signal. ISB and VSB modulation and their comparison and area of application b) 3.3 RATIONALE In the present age of information technology. Need for modulation and demodulation in communication system Basic schemes of modern communication system (08 hrs) (03 hrs) Amplitude Modulation a) Definition.71 3. wave carrier and side band component modulation index. Principles of AM Modulator Working principles and typical applications of: (04 hrs) . Frequency Modulation a) Expression for frequency modulated wave and frequency spectrum (without proof and analysis of Bessel function). modulation index. Need for pre-emphasis and deemphasis Narrow band and wide band FM Comparison of FM and AM in communication system (07 hrs) b) c) d) 4. SSB-SC.M.. relative power distribution in carrier and side bands Basic idea of DSB. Noise triangle. Introduction a) b) 2. derivation of expression for an A.

72 a) b) c) 5.Quadrature detector . Phase Modulation Definition derivation of expression for PM wave modulation index. Concept of Spread Spectrum. Pulse Analog Modulation (PAM. varactor diode modulator. applications of reactance modulator. Basic concept of TDM and FDM (05 hrs) 9. stabilization of carrier for using AFC (block diagram approach) 6. PPM) Sampling theorem (basic idea only). Demodulation of FM Wave a) b) Basic principle of FM detection using single slope and dual slope detector Principle of working of following FM demodulator . frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum. CDMA and generation of spreading sequences Advantages of CDMA (05 hrs) .Foster-seeley discriminator . Collector modulator Base modulator Balanced modulator (06 hrs) Principles of FM Modulator Working principle. pulse width modulation (PWM) and pulse position modulation (only block diagram approach). Comparison with FM (03 hrs) 8.Ratio detector .Phase locked loop. basic idea of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). PLL FM demodulator (07 hrs) 7. VCO and armstrong phase modulator. PAW.

New Delhi Radio Engineering by GK Mittal. 5. 2. New Delhi Electronics Communication by KS Jamwal. New Delhi Principles of Communication Engineering by Anokh Singh. 4. 6. 7. Ambala Communication Engineering by A Kumar Principles of Communication Engineering by Manoj Kumar. 4. New Delhi .Chand & Co. Khanna Publishers. Dhanpat Rai & Sons.73 LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. To obtain AM waveform from a modulator circuits To measure modulation index of AM signal for different level of modulating signal To obtain a FM wave from reactance tube modulator/voltage controlled oscillator circuit and obtain time constant and obtain its optimal value for least distortion To obtain modulating signal from FM detector (foster seeley/ratio detector) circuits and plot the discriminator characteristics a) To generate PAM signal by modulating with audio signal generator b) To demodulate PAM using low pass filter a) To generate PWM signal by modulating with audio signal generator b) To demodulate PWM using comparator and low pass filter To generate PPM signal by modulating with audio signal and generator RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 3. Electronics Communication by Kennedy. 6. 5. 2. Tata McGraw Hill. 3.. S. 7. Satya Prakashan. Ishan Publications. New Delhi Principles of Communication Engineering by DR Arora.

1’s and 2’s complement method of subtraction BCD code numbers and their limitations. error detection and correction using parity 3.3 RATIONALE The objective of this subject is to enable the students to know the basic concepts of digital electronics and gain familiarity with the available IC chips. hexadecimal number systems Conversion of number from one number system to another including decimal points Binary addition.4 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS . conversion of BCD to decimal and vice-versa Excess-3 code. logic gates. pulse waveform. NOR. NAND. Introduction a) b) 2. multiplication. Boolean algebra. counters. difference between analog and digital signals Need of digitization and applications of digital systems (10 hrs) (01 hrs) Number Systems a) b) c) d) e) f) Decimal. shift registers. addition of BCD coded numbers. The students will learn about number systems. symbols. binary. OR. definition. octal. mux and demux. positive and negative logic. filp-flop.74 3. binary to gray and gray to binary conversion Concept of parity. truth tables. This will form a broad base for studying digital system design. gray code. division. single and double parity.I L T P 4 . advanced microprocessors and further studies. Logic Gates a) Logic gates. Define digital and analog signals and systems. EX-OR. EX-NOR gates NAND and NOR as universal logic gates (04 hrs) b) . pulsed operation of NOT. AND. subtraction. DETAILED CONTENT 1. various codes. parities.

full adder circuits and their operation Parallel binary adder. SR-latch. block diagram. Decoders. keyboard encoder Magnitude comparators. symbols and logic diagrams of 4-inputs and 8-inputs multiplexers. master slave and their operation using waveform and truth tables (08 hrs) . symbols and logic diagrams of 2-bit and 4-bit comparators (04 hrs) 9. Latches and Flip-Flops a) b) c) Latch. Product of sum form (maxterms). Display Devices and Associated Circuits a) b) Basic Binary decoder. LED/LCD display (04 hrs) 8.75 4. D-latch. 2-bit and 4-bit binary full adder. working 6. decimal to BCD priority encoder. 4-line to 16 line decoder circuit BCD to decimal decoder. difference between latch and flip-flop S-R. Encoders and Comparators a) b) Encoder. Demorgan’s theorems. their proof Sum of products form (minterm). Flip-flop. simplification of Boolean expressions with the help of Rules and laws of Boolean algebra Karnaugh mapping techniques upto 4 variables and their applications for simplification of Boolean expression (03 hrs) (08 hrs) c) 5. Logic Simplification a) b) Rules and laws of Boolean algebra. Arithmetic Circuits a) b) Half adder. decimal to BCD encoder. Multiplexer/Demultiplexer a) b) c) Basic functions. race around condition JK flip-flop. Realization of Boolean expression using multiplexer/demultiplexers (04 hrs) 7. logic expression. D flip-flop their operation using waveform and truth tables. Function/utility of 16 and 32 inputs multiplexers. BCD to 7-segment decoder/driver.

Up/down counter Construct and verify the operation of an asynchronous binary decade counter using JK flipflop 5. Verification of truth tables and study the operation of tristate buffer IC 74126 or similar IC and construction of 4/8 bit bi-directional bus by using an IC 11. counter applications (10 hrs) 11. Testing of digital ICs using IC tester . 3. serial-in-parallel-out. serial-in-serial out. 4-bit Asynchronous counter. 10. PISO. NOT. 6. PIPO shift register. 8. 4-bit synchronous binary counter. 7. (universal shift register) Study of ring counter. NAND. MOD-5. 4. cascaded counter. EX-OR. parallel-inserial-out. 9. Study of logic breadboard with verification of truth table for AND. MOD-7. SIPO. MOD-12 counters Ring counter. Asynchronous decade counter Asynchronous counter. divide by N counter MOD-3. NOR gate Verification of NAND and NOR gate as universal gates Construction of half-adder and full adder circuits using EX-OR and NAND gate and verification of their operation Verify the operation of a) multiplexer using an IC b) de-multiplexer using an IC a) Verify the operation of BCD to decimal decoder using an IC b) Verify the operation of BCD to 7 segment decoder using an IC Verify operation of SR. 2. parallel-in-parallel out Universal shift register. Asynchronous decade counter Up/down Asynchronous counters. Counters a) b) c) d) Asynchronous counter. Shift Registers a) b) Shift registers functions. D-flip-flop master slave JK filp-flop using IC Verify operation of SISO. shift register counter and applications of shift registers (08 hrs) LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. JK.76 10. OR.

4. Prentice Hall of India. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Universal Book Stall Digital Electronics by RP Jain.. New Delhi Digital Logic Designs by Morris Mano. 9. 8. New Delhi Digital Systems: Principles and Applications by RJ Tocci. New Delhi . New Delhi Digital Electronics by Rajaraman V.77 RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 3. Tata McGral Hill. 2. Digital Electronics and Applications by Malvino Leach. Prentice Hall of India. Prentice Hall of India. Ishan Publication. New Delhi Digital Electronics by KS Jamwal.. 7. New Delhi Digital Electronics by Rajiv Sapra. Ambala Digital Electronics by BR Gupta. Dhanpat Rai & Co. 5.. New Delhi Digital Fundamentals by Thomas Floyds. Tata McGraw Hill. 6.

domestic and commercial appliances etc. construction. Losses in a transformer 3. Three Phase Supply a) Advantages of 3 phase system over single phase system b) Star delta connections c) Relation between phase voltage and line voltage. current and voltage relationship. It is envisaged that after studying the subject. voltage regulation and its significance. effect of (08 hrs) (08 hrs) (05 hrs) (03 hrs) . applications (simple problems) 4. Starting methods.5 ELECTRICAL MACHINES L T P 3 .3 RATIONALE This is a subject dealing with various types of electrical machines being employed in industries. significance of back emf. speed control of DC motors and factors controlling the speed.78 3. motor characteristics for shunt and series. specifications of all types of transformers. Transformer Principles of transformer. students will gain competence in operation. DETAILED CONTENT 1. need for isolation. Methods of connection 3 phase transformers. voltage and current transformation. electrical and transients suppression. power stations. Construction and working of 3 point starter. also between phase current and line current in a 3 phase system d) Power and power factor in 3 phase system and their measurements 2. auto transformer and its uses. DC Motor Principles. instruments transformer. principles of isolation transformer. torque and characteristics. repair and maintenance of such machines and give suggestions for improvement in their performance. 3 Phase Induction Motors Principles. construction. The practicals will enable students to perform various tests necessary for installation and commissioning of such machines. concept of slip. types of motors and their constructions.

working speed control.79 motor resistance on torque (running and starting). Starting of motor and their applications 6. different methods of speed control. Synchronous Motors Principles. rotor current. effect of load and excitation on synchronous motor. applications (simple problems) 5. Single Phase Motors Principles.1 Speed control of dc shunt motor (i) Armature control method (ii) Field control method . DC machines 2. working and their applications (Note: No derivation of any formula) LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. construction. constructions and working. construction. output power. Starting methods and constructional and working of 3 point starter. starting and applications of the following motors: a) c) 7. Induction motor Universal motor (06 hrs) (06 hrs) (06 hrs) Stepper Motor and Servo Motor Types. Introduction to electrical machines Measurement of the angular displacement of rotor of the three phase synchronous machine with respect to the stator on application of DC to the field winding and simultaneously to each phase-winding in sequence OR Measurement of the angular displacement of the rotor of a slip-ring induction motor on application of DC to stator winding in sequence and simultaneously to each phase of rotor winding 2.

2 To perform open circuit and short circuit test for determining parameter of a transformer To determine the regulation and efficiency from the data obtained from open circuit and short circuit test 4. Tata Mc Graw Hill. Jalandhar Electrical Machines by Nagrath and Kothari. New Delhi Electrical Machines by SK Sahdev.2 3. Electrical Machine by SK Bhattacharya. New Delhi .80 2. Study of dc series motor with starter (to operate the motor on no load for a moment) Transformers (single phase) 3.1 3.1 4.2 Checking the polarity of the windings of a three phase transformer and connecting the windings in various configurations Finding the voltage and current relationships of primary and secondary of a three phase transformer under balanced load in various configurations conditions RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. Unique International Publications. 3. 2. Tata Mc Graw Hill. Three-phase transformers 4.

current and resistance measurement (block diagram only) Specifications of electronics voltmeter (06 hrs) (08 hrs) (04 hrs) . sensitivity. precision. AC voltage. current and resistance using multimeter Specifications of multimeter and their applications Limitations with regard to frequency and input impedance 3. the study of this subject will help students to gain the knowledge of working principles and operation of different instruments. requirements. During practical sessions.3 RATIONALE In the real world of work the technician is required to handle wide variety of instruments while testing. importance and applications of standards. errors in measurement. DC current. sources of errors. types of instruments Specifications of instruments: Accuracy. he will acquire the requisite skills. method of measurement. range. limiting errors loading effect. calibration 2. moving coil and moving iron type instruments (voltmeter and Ammeter) Block diagram of multimeter and measurement of voltage. DETAILED CONTENTS 1.81 3. calibration etc. Electronic Voltmeter Advantages over conventional multimeter for volt measurement with respect to input impedance and sensitivity Principles of voltage. Basics of Measurements Measurement.6 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT L T P 4 . Multimeter Principles of measurement of DC voltage. resolution. AC current. trouble shooting.

De-Sauty’s bridge. signature analyzer and logic analyzer (08 hrs) (12 hrs) (06 hrs) (05 hrs) (04 hrs) . Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Construction and working of different blocks used in CRT Time base operation and need for blanking during flyback. specifications of RLC bridge Block diagram and working principle of Q meter 8. time period and phase using CRO CRO probes. Schering bridge and Anderson bridge Block diagram description of laboratory type RLC bridge. logic pulser. front panel controls Specifications of CRO and their explanation Measurement of current. Signal Generators and Analysis Instruments Explanation of block diagram specifications of low frequency and RF generators.82 4. synchronization Block diagram description of a basic CRO and triggered sweep oscilloscope. Impedance Bridges and Q Meters Wheat stone bridge AC bridges: Maxwell’s induction bridge. voltage. Hay’s bridge. special features of dual beam. dual trace. logic comparator. frequency. AC Milli Voltmeter Types of AC milli voltmeters and their block diagram description Typical specifications and their significance 5. Digital Instruments Comparison of analog and digital instruments Working principle of ramp. wave analyser and spectrum analyser 7. logic analyzer. pulse generator. dual slope and integration type digital voltmeter Block diagram and working of a digital multimeter Measurement of time interval.delay sweep Digital storage oscilloscope: block diagram and working principle 6. function generator Distortion factor meter. time period and frequency using universal counter/frequency counter Working principle of logic probe.

Ishan Publications. 6. Delhi Electronics Instrumentation by Cooper. frequency. frequency. New Delhi . Prentice Hall of India Electronics Test and Instrumentation by Rajiv Sapra. 7. To observe the loading effect of a multimeter while measuring voltage across a low resistance and high resistance To observe the limitations of a multimeter for measuring high frequency voltage Measurement of voltage. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. Ambala Electronics Instrumentation by JB Gupta. 5. 3. Measurement of time period. 3. frequency. 4. 2. Study of operation and features of a logic analyser RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 8. Satya Prakashan. Electronics Measurement and Instrumentation by AK Sawhney. time period and phase using CRO Measurement of rise time and fall time using CRO Measurement of Q of a coil and its dependence on frequency Measurement of voltage. 4. 2. average period using universal counter/ frequency counter 11. 9. time and phase using DSO Measurement of resistance and inductance of coil using RLC meter Measurement of distortion of RF signal generator using distortion factor meter Use of logic pulser and logic probe 10.83 LIST OF PRACTICALS 1.

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