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Thermowells

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

Performance Test Codes

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

Thermowells

Performance Test Codes

A N A ME R I C A N N A T I O N A L S T A N D A R D

Three Park Avenue • New York, NY • 10016 USA

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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Date of Issuance: July 12, 2010

This Code will be revised when the Society approves the issuance of a new edition. There will be no addenda issued

to PTC 19.3 TW-2010.

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this document. Periodically

certain actions of the ASME PTC Committee may be published as Code Cases. Code Cases and interpretations are

published on the ASME Web site under the Committee Pages at http://cstools.asme.org as they are issued.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards. The

Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests

have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides

an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.

ASME does not “approve,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this

document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent,

nor assumes any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights,

and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.

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in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,

without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2010 by

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

All rights reserved

Printed in U.S.A.

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2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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iii

CONTENTS

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................................. v

Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................................................ v

Committee Roster ................................................................................................................................................................ vi

Correspondence With the PTC Committee ..................................................................................................................... vii

Section 1 Object and Scope .................................................................................................................................... 1

1-1 Object ............................................................................................................................................................... 1

1-2 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................ 1

Section 2 Nomenclature .......................................................................................................................................... 2

Section 3 Jurisdiction of Codes ............................................................................................................................... 4

3-1 Reference Standards and Governing Codes .............................................................................................. 4

3-2 Specification of Thermowells ....................................................................................................................... 4

Section 4 Dimensions ............................................................................................................................................. 5

4-1 Configurations ............................................................................................................................................... 5

4-2 Dimensional Limits ....................................................................................................................................... 5

Section 5 Materials ................................................................................................................................................. 10

5-1 General Considerations ................................................................................................................................ 10

Section 6 Stress Equations ..................................................................................................................................... 11

6-1 General Considerations ................................................................................................................................ 11

6-2 Corrosion and Erosion .................................................................................................................................. 11

6-3 Flow-Induced Thermowell Stresses ............................................................................................................ 12

6-4 Strouhal Number, Drag Coefficients, and Lift Coefficient ...................................................................... 13

6-5 Natural Frequency of Thermowells ............................................................................................................ 14

6-6 Mounting Compliance Factor ...................................................................................................................... 15

6-7 Unsupported Length, Diameter, and Fillet Radius .................................................................................. 16

6-8 Frequency Limit ............................................................................................................................................. 18

6-9 Magnification Factor ..................................................................................................................................... 21

6-10 Bending Stresses ............................................................................................................................................ 21

6-11 Pressure and Shear Stresses ......................................................................................................................... 24

6-12 Steady-State Static and Dynamic Stress Limits ......................................................................................... 24

6-13 Pressure Limit ................................................................................................................................................ 27

Section 7 Overview of Calculations ......................................................................................................................... 28

7-1 Quantitative Criteria ..................................................................................................................................... 28

7-2 Fluid Properties .............................................................................................................................................. 28

7-3 Fluid Velocity ................................................................................................................................................. 28

7-4 Material Properties and Dimensions .......................................................................................................... 28

7-5 Reynolds and Strouhal Numbers ................................................................................................................ 29

7-6 Natural Frequency at Operation Temperature .......................................................................................... 29

7-7 Natural Frequency at Expected Mode of Operation ................................................................................ 29

7-8 Steady-State and Dynamic Stresses ............................................................................................................ 29

7-9 Allowable Fatigue Limits ............................................................................................................................. 29

7-10 Pressure Rating .............................................................................................................................................. 29

Section 8 Examples ................................................................................................................................................. 30

8-1 Tapered, Welded Thermowell for a Steam-Header Application (U.S. Customary Units) .................. 30

8-2 Step-Shank, Threaded Thermowell for a Hot Water Application (SI Units) ......................................... 33

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2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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iv

Section 9 Statement of Compliance ........................................................................................................................ 39

9-1 Specification of a Thermowell ..................................................................................................................... 39

9-2 Velocity and Pressure Ratings ...................................................................................................................... 39

Section 10 References .............................................................................................................................................. 40

10-1 Referenced Documents ................................................................................................................................. 40

10-2 Referenced ASME Documents ..................................................................................................................... 40

Figures

4-1-1 Schematic Diagram of a Thermowell ........................................................................................................ 6

4-1-2 Examples of Straight-Shank Thermowells ................................................................................................. 7

4-1-3 Examples of Step-Shank Thermowells ....................................................................................................... 8

4-1-4 Examples of Tapered Thermowells ............................................................................................................. 9

6-3.1-1 Fluid-Induced Forces and Assignment of Axes for Calculation of Thermowell Stresses ................... 12

6-6-1 Unsupported Length of Thermowells ........................................................................................................ 17

6-8.1-1 Schematic Indicating Excitation of Resonances When Excitation Frequency Coincides

With the Thermowell Natural Frequency .................................................................................................. 19

6-8.1-2 Schematic Showing the Amplitude Response of a Thermowell Subjected to

Fluid-Induced Forces as Solid Lines, for In-Line and Transverse Excitation Modes ........................... 19

6-10.1-1 Bending Moment, Stress at the Support Plane, and Locations of Maximum

Steady-State or Oscillating In-Line Stress .................................................................................................. 22

6-10.7-1 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow, With the Tip Facing Downstream ........................................ 24

6-10.7-2 Geometry to Be Used in Calculation of Thermowell Ratings ................................................................. 25

6-10.7-3 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow, With the Tip Facing Upstream ............................................. 25

Tables

4-1-1 Dimensional Limits for Straight and Tapered Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard ...... 7

4-2-1 Dimensional Limits for Step-Shank Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard ....................... 8

6-5.3-1 Parameters for Natural Frequency Calculation for Step-Shank Thermowells ..................................... 15

6-12.3-1 Allowable Fatigue-Stress Amplitude Limits for Material Class A and Class B .................................... 26

Nonmandatory Appendix

A Conversion Factors ........................................................................................................................................ 41

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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v

FOREWORD

In 1957, the ASME Performance Test Codes Committee 19.3 determined that the 1930 edition of the Supplement on

Temperature Measurement dealing with thermowells was unsatisfactory. Since the design of thermowells requires both

thermal and stress considerations, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee was approached for assistance.

However, the special needs for the design of intrusive pipe fittings were deemed beyond the scope of what could be

properly included in the vessel codes.

The PTC 19.3 Committee is charged with temperature measurement and thermowell design. The purpose of the ther-

mowell is to facilitate temperature measurement while resisting fluid forces of the process. This committee undertook

the task of providing guidance in this area, on the basis of a paper authored by J. W. Murdock [1], ultimately leading

to the publication of PTC 19.3-1974, Supplement on Instruments and Apparatus, Part 3, Temperature Measurement. Prior to

the acceptance of PTC 19.3-1974, the incidence of thermowell failures during the start-up testing of high-pressure steam

turbines was unacceptable; its subsequent use in steam services has been highly successful at preventing catastrophic

thermowell failure.

Since its publication, PTC 19.3 has received widespread acceptance and use in both steam and nonsteam applica-

tions outside the scope of the performance test codes. In 1971 an ASME ad hoc committee, PB51, under the jurisdiction

of the PTC Board, was formed to assess the thermowell standard. This committee, designated PTC 19.3.1, produced a

draft thermowell standard. In 1999, PTC 19.3 undertook the task of completing this draft. In the course of this effort,

it was discovered that a number of thermowells designed to PTC 19.3-1974 but placed in nonsteam services suffered

catastrophic failure. Review of the literature revealed that the PTC 19.3.1 draft did not incorporate recent, significant

advances in our knowledge of thermowell behavior, and the committee decided to thoroughly rewrite the standard.

The goals of the new Standard are to provide a thermowell rating method that can be used in a myriad array of services,

including processes involving corrosive fluids; offer advice where fatigue endurance is critical; and establish criteria for

insuring sensor reliability. These factors result in a more reliable basis for thermowell design than the PTC 19.3-1974

Supplement. It is intended that this edition of this Standard not be retroactive.

PTC 19.3 TW on thermowells was approved by the PTC Standards Committee on January 15, 2010, and approved

and adopted as a Standard practice of the Society by action of the Board on Standardization and Testing on February

18, 2010. It was also approved as an American National Standard by the ANSI Board of Standards Review on April 22,

2010.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Committee gratefully acknowledges the special contributions of R. D. Blevins, D. R. Frikken, W. J. Koves, and

A. Löbig.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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vi

ASME PTC COMMITTEE

Performance Test Codes

(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Code.)

STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS

M. P. McHale, Chair

J. R. Friedman, Vice Chair

J. H. Karian, Secretary

STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL

P. G. Albert, General Electric Co. M. P. McHale, McHale & Associates, Inc.

R. P. Allen, Consultant P. M. McHale, McHale & Associates, Inc.

J. M. Burns, Burns Engineering J. W. Milton, Reliant Energy

W. C. Campbell, Southern Company Services S. P. Nuspl, Consultant

M. J. Dooley, Sigma Energy Solutions R. R. Priestley, General Electric Co.

J. R. Friedman, Siemens Energy, Inc. J. A. Rabensteine, Environmental Systems Corp.

G. J. Gerber, Consultant J. A. Silvaggio, Jr., Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery, Inc.

P. M. Gerhart, University of Evansville W. G. Steele, Jr., Mississippi State University

T. C. Heil, Consultant J. C. Westcott, Mustan Corp.

R. E. Henry, Sargent & Lundy W. C. Wood, Duke Power Co.

J. H. Karian, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers T. K. Kirkpatrick, Alternate, McHale & Associates, Inc.

D. R. Keyser, Service Engineering J. A. Scavuzzo, Alternate, The Babcock & Wilcox Co.

S. J. Korellis, EPRI

PTC 19.3 COMMITTEE — TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

D. C. Ripple, Chair, National Institute for Standards & Technology S. M. Dale, Conax Technologies LLC

J. H. Karian, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers A. G. Gilson, Black & Veatch

D. S. Bartran, Consultant A. Heisler, Pyromation, Inc.

D. Bauschke, Emerson Process Management F. L. Johnson, JMS Southeast, Inc.

C. W. Brook, Wika Instruments Ltd. D. Marra, Florida Power Light

M. Carugati, Alloy Engineering Co, Inc. J. W. Stevens, University of Colorado

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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vii

CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE PTC COMMITTEE

General. ASME Codes are developed and maintained with the intent to represent the consensus of concerned

interests. As such, users of this Code may interact with the Committee by requesting interpretations, proposing revi-

sions, and attending Committee meetings. Correspondence should be addressed to

Secretary, PTC Standards Committee

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Three Park Avenue

New York, NY 10016-5990

http://go.asme.org/inquiry

Proposing Revisions. Revisions are made periodically to the Code to incorporate changes that appear necessary or

desirable, as demonstrated by the experience gained from the application of the Code. Approved revisions will be

published periodically.

The Committee welcomes proposals for revisions to this Code. Such proposals should be as specific as possible,

citing the paragraph number(s), the proposed wording, and a detailed description of the reasons for the proposal,

including any pertinent documentation.

Proposing a Case. Cases may be issued for the purpose of providing alternative rules when justified, to permit

early implementation of an approved revision when the need is urgent, or to provide rules not covered by existing

provisions. Cases are effective immediately upon ASME approval and shall be posted on the ASME Committee Web

page.

Request for cases shall provide a Statement of Need and background information. The request should identify

the Code, paragraph, figure or table number(s), and be written as a Question and Reply in the same format as exist-

ing Cases. Requests for Cases should also indicate the applicable edition of the Code to which the proposed Case

applies.

Interpretations. Upon request, the PTC Standards Committee will render an interpretation of any requirement

of the Code. Interpretations can be rendered only in response to a written request sent to the Secretary of the PTC

Standards Committee.

The request for interpretation should be clear and unambiguous. It is further recommended that the inquirer sub-

mit his request in the following format:

Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) and a concise description.

Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the Code for which the interpretation is being requested.

Question: Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of a specific requirement suitable for general

understanding and use, not as a request for an approval of a proprietary design or situation.

The inquirer may also include any plans or drawings that are necessary to explain the question;

however, they should not contain proprietary names or information.

Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten in the appropriate format by the Committee prior to being

answered, which may inadvertently change the intent of the original request.

ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any interpretation when or if additional information that might

affect an interpretation is available. Further, persons aggrieved by an interpretation may appeal to the cognizant

ASME Committee. ASME does not “approve,” “certify,” “rate,” or “endorse” any item, construction, proprietary

device, or activity.

Attending Committee Meetings. The PTC Standards Committee and its subcommittees, such as PTC 19.3, hold

meetings or telephone conferences, which are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend any meeting or telephone

conference should contact the Secretary of the PTC Standards Committee.

Copyright

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

1

THERMOWELLS

Section 1

Object and Scope

1-1 OBJECT

The object of this Standard is to establish a mechani-

cal design standard for reliable service of tapered,

straight, and stepped-shank thermowells in a broad

range of applications. This includes an evaluation of

the forces caused by external pressure, and the combi-

nation of static and dynamic forces resulting from fuid

impingement.

1-2 SCOPE

This Standard applies to thermowells machined from

bar stock and includes those welded to or threaded into

a fange as well as those welded into a process vessel

or pipe with or without a weld adaptor. Thermowells

manufactured from pipe are outside the scope of this

Standard.

Thermowells with specially designed surface struc-

tures (e.g., a knurled surface or a surface with spiral

ridges) are beyond the scope of this Standard, due to the

diffculty of providing design rules with broad applica-

bility for these types of thermowells.

Thermowell attachment methods, standard dimen-

sions, parasitic vibration of a sensor mounted inside the

thermowell, and thermal equilibrium of the sensor rela-

tive to the process stream are beyond the scope of this

Standard. In addition, thermowells fabricated by weld-

ing, including fame spray or weld overlays, at any place

along the length of the shank or at the tip are outside the

scope of this Standard.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

2

Section 2

Nomenclature

For U.S. Customary units, lb denotes pound as a

unit of mass, lbf denotes pounds-force, kip denotes

10

3

pounds-force, and ksi denotes 10

3

pounds-force per

square inch or kips per square inch. When parameters

are specifed in mixed units within the U.S. Customary

unit system (e.g., diameter B in inches, velocity V in feet

per second), conversion factors between feet and inches

will be needed in the calculations. See para. 6-4.1 and

subsection 8-1 for examples.

A 5 outside diameter of thermowell at support

plane or root, based on which point is closest

to the thermowell tip, m (in.)

A

p

5 projected area of thermowell perpendicular

to direction of fow and exposed to the fow

stream, m

2

(in.

2

)

a 5 polynomial function used in eq. (6-8-4),

dimensionless

B 5 outside diameter at tip of thermowell, m (in.)

b 5 fllet radius at the root of the thermowell

shank, m (in.)

b

S

5 fllet radius at the base of the reduced-diameter

length of a step-shank thermowell, m (in.)

C

D

5 coeffcient for steady-state drag pressure,

dimensionless

C

d

5 coeffcient for oscillating-drag (in-line with

fow) pressure, dimensionless

C

l

5 coeffcient for oscillating-lift (transverse to

fow) pressure, dimensionless

c 5 corrosion allowance, m (in.)

c

i

5 coeffcients used in eq. (6-5-3), dimensionless

D 5 outside diameter at any cross section, m (in.)

D

a

5 average diameter of the thermowell, as defned

in para. 6-5.3, Step 1, m (in.)

d 5 bore diameter of thermowell, m (in.)

E 5 modulus of elasticity at service temperature,

Pa [psi or lb/(in.⋅sec

2

)] (Refer to

Nonmandatory Appendix A and para. 6-5.3 for

a discussion of units of E.)

E

ref

5 reference value of modulus of elasticity, Pa (psi)

F

D

5 in-line static drag force on thermowell, due to

fuid impingement, N (lbf)

F

d

5 in-line dynamic drag force on thermowell, due

to fuid impingement, N (lbf)

F

l

5 transverse dynamic drag force on thermowell,

due to fuid impingement, N (lbf)

F

M

5 magnifcation factor for thermowell

oscillations transverse to fuid fow,

dimensionless

F’

M

5 magnifcation factor for thermowell

oscillations in-line with fuid fow,

dimensionless

f 5 frequency, Hz

f

a

5 approximate resonance frequency of

thermowell, Hz

f

n

c

5 resonance frequency of thermowell with

compliant support, Hz

f

n

5 natural frequency with ideal clamping, Hz

f

S

5 vortex shedding frequency or rate, Hz

G 5 parameter defned in eq. (6-10-3),

dimensionless

G

RD

5 parameter G appropriate for evaluation of

stress at the base of a reduced-diameter shank,

dimensionless

G

SP

5 parameter G appropriate for evaluation of

stress at the support point, dimensionless

G

b

5 either G

RD

or G

SP

, dimensionless

H

a,f

5 factor to account for added fuid mass,

dimensionless

H

a,s

5 factor to account for added sensor mass,

dimensionless

H

c

5 frequency factor to account for support or

foundation compliance, dimensionless

H

f

5 frequency factor to account for shear, rotation,

taper, and tip-mass effects, dimensionless

I 5 moment of inertia of cross section, kg⋅m

2

(lb⋅in.

2

)

K

M

5 rotational stiffness of thermowell support,

N⋅m/rad [(in.-lb)/rad]

K

t

5 stress concentration factor, dimensionless

L 5 unsupported length of thermowell, measured

from the tip to the support plane, m (in.)

L

0

5 length of the thermowell shielded from fuid

fow, m (in.)

L

S

5 length of reduced-diameter shank for a step-

shank thermowell, m (in.)

M 5 bending moment, N⋅m (in.-lb)

M

b

5 bending moment for steady-state drag (for b

5 D), oscillating drag (for b 5 d), or lift (for b

5 l), N⋅m (in.-lb)

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

3

m 5 mass per unit length of a thermowell of

uniform cross section, kg/m (lb/in.)

N

S

5 Strouhal number, dimensionless

N

Sc

5 Scruton number or mass damping factor,

dimensionless

P 5 operating pressure, Pa (psi)

P

c

5 design static pressure of shank of thermowell,

Pa (psi)

P

D

5 aerodynamic force per unit of projected area

on thermowell, Pa (psi)

P

d

5 oscillating-drag force per unit of projected area

on thermowell, Pa (psi)

P

f

5 design pressure for fange supporting

thermowell, Pa (psi)

P

l

5 oscillating-lift force per unit of projected area

on thermowell, Pa (psi)

P

r

5 external pressure rating of the thermowell, Pa

(psi)

P

t

5 design pressure of tip of the thermowell, Pa

(psi)

P

b

5 either P

D

, P

d

, or P

l

, Pa (psi)

R

p

5 pipe radius, m (in.)

r 5 ratio of shedding frequency to natural

frequency, dimensionless (lift resonance)

r’ 5 ratio of shedding frequency to natural

frequency, dimensionless (in-line resonance)

Re 5 Reynolds number, calculated on the basis of

the tip diameter: Re 5 BV

/, dimensionless,

or Re 5 BV/, dimensionless

S 5 maximum allowable working stress, Pa (psi)

S

a

5 axial pressure stress, Pa (psi)

S

D

5 steady-state drag stress due to fuid

impingement, Pa (psi)

S

d

5 oscillating-drag stress due to fuid

impingement, Pa (psi)

S

f

5 fatigue endurance limit, in the high-cycle limit,

Pa (psi)

S

L

5 oscillating-lift stress due to fuid impingement,

Pa (psi)

S

r

5 radial pressure stress, Pa (psi)

S

S

5 shear stress, Pa (psi)

S

t

5 tangential pressure stress, Pa (psi)

S

z

5 longitudinal stress in the thermowell, Pa (psi)

T 5 operating temperature, 8C (8F)

T

a

5 ambient temperature, 8C (8F)

t 5 minimum tip thickness of the thermowell, m

(in.)

V 5 process fuid velocity, m/s (in./sec)

V

IR

5 fuid velocity that excites the in-line resonance,

m/s (in./sec)

v 5 specifc volume (reciprocal of the fuid density

), m

3

/kg (in.

3

/lb)

xˆ 5 unit vector normal to the fuid velocity and to

the axis of the thermowell

y 5 distance from thermowell axis, m (in.)

yˆ 5 unit vector pointing in the direction of the

fuid fow

z 5 distance from the thermowell root along the

thermowell axis, m (in.)

z

s

5 distance from the thermowell root to the plane

where stress is evaluated, m (in.)

zˆ 5 unit vector along axis of the thermowell,

pointing toward the tip

a 5 average coeffcient of thermal expansion, m/

(m⋅K) [in./(in.⋅8F)]

b 5 parameter used in eq. (6-5-3), dimensionless

5 dynamic fuid viscosity, Pa⋅s [lb/(ft⋅sec)]

Note: Viscosity is often given in the literature in units of

centipoise, abbreviation cP. Useful conversion factors are

1 cP 5 0.67197 × 10

−3

lb/(ft.⋅sec) and 1 cP 5 10

−3

Pa⋅s.

5 kinematic fuid viscosity, m

2

/s (ft

2

/sec)

5 fuid density, kg/m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

m

5 mass density of the thermowell material, kg/

m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

s

5 average density of a temperature sensor, kg/

m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

5 damping factor, dimensionless

s

5 2pf

S

, rad/s (rad/sec)

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

4

Section 3

Jurisdiction of Codes

Thermowells are an integral part of the piping system

and the process containment system, and as a result,

they may be subject to requirements from the governing

piping or pressure vessel code.

3-1 REFERENCE STANDARDS AND GOVERNING

CODES

(a) ASME B40.9, Thermowells for Thermometers and

Elastic Temperature Sensors, discusses the selection, fab-

rication, and installation of thermowells, as well as

providing some standardized designs. Complementing

B40.9, PTC 19.3 TW is limited in scope to mechanical

design of thermowells.

(b) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)

Section III Appendices, Appendix N provides guid-

ance on the fow-induced vibration of banks or arrays

of tubes and on the excitation of structural vibrations

by turbulence. Both of these topics are outside the scope

of PTC 19.3 TW, which considers the vibration of single

thermowells due to vortex shedding only.

(c) Guidance on minimizing temperature measure-

ment errors in thermowell applications is found in the

latest edition of PTC 19.3. Effects considered include

heating of the thermowell by fuid impingement, errors

due to thermal radiation and conduction along the ther-

mowell, and heat transfer between the thermowell and

the surrounding fuid.

3-2 SPECIFICATION OF THERMOWELLS

Specifcation of a thermowell and the materials of con-

struction are the sole responsibility of the designer of the

system that incorporates the thermowell. Sole responsi-

bility for ensuring compatibility of the process fuid with

the system rests with the end user. Thermowells may be

stated to be in conformance to this Standard, subject to

the requirements of Section 9 of this Standard.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

5

Section 4

Dimensions

4-1 CONFIGURATIONS

Figure 4-1-1 shows a schematic diagram of a ther-

mowell, along with its characteristic dimensions.

Typical thermowell attachment confgurations include

threaded, socket weld, weld-in, lap-joint (Van Stone),

and integral-fanged as shown in Figs. 4-1-2, 4-1-3, and

4-1-4 (see also Table 4-1-1). These fgures are representa-

tive of common practice but do not display all allowable

attachment confgurations. The selection of a specifc

attachment method is subject to the governing piping or

pressure vessel code. Use of ball joints, spherical unions,

or packing gland installations are not permissible in

Performance Test Code applications.

The dashed line in Fig. 4-1-1 indicates the support plane,

which is an imaginary extension of the supporting-struc-

ture surface that passes through the shank of the ther-

mowell. The unsupported length, L, is calculated as the

distance from the tip of the thermowell to the intersection

of the thermowell axis with this surface. For thermowells

mounted on fanges or welded into weld adaptors, the

support plane will be a fat plane. However, for thermo-

wells mounted by direct welding into a pipe wall, the sup-

port plane will actually be a curved surface with the same

curvature as the inner pipe wall. For this case, the support

plane should be approximated as a plane located at a dis-

tance from the thermowell tip equal to the largest actual

distance from the tip to any point on the true curved sup-

port surface. For thermowells welded to a fange or pipe

wall at an angle, the support plane will not be normal to

the thermowell axis.

For nonstandard attachments, this Standard covers

the design requirements of the thermowell only. The

designer shall account for the support compliance of the

attachment (refer to subsection 6-6), and the attachment

method shall meet all the requirements of the governing

piping or pressure vessel code.

4-2 DIMENSIONAL LIMITS

This standard applies to straight and tapered ther-

mowells within the dimensional limits given in Table

4-1-1, where

A 5 thermowell outer diameter at the root of the

thermowell shank, or at the support plane if

the thermowell is frmly supported along its

shank

B 5 thermowell diameter at the tip

d 5 bore diameter

L 5 length of the thermowell from the tip to the sup-

port plane

t 5 minimum thickness of the tip

For the purpose of defning L and A, the support plane

shall also be defned (see subsection 6-7). The root of

the thermowell is located where the thermowell shank

makes a transition to

(a) a machined transition to a fange, socket weld col-

lar, or threaded section of the thermowell

(b) a weld-joint transition to other piping components

The Standard also applies to step-shank thermowells

within the dimensional limits given in Table 4-2-1, where

L

S

is the length of the reduced-diameter section of ther-

mowell shank, in addition to the dimensions defned for

Table 4-1-1. Refer to Fig. 4-1-1.

Calculations should be made using the nominal

dimensions provided that a corrosion allowance is not

used (see subsection 6-2) and that the thermowell is

fabricated with manufacturing tolerances of ±1% for

lengths L and L

S

and ±3% for diameters A, B, and d. If

tolerances for A, B, or d are not met, calculations shall

be made according to subsection 6-2, using as the cor-

rosion allowance the linear sum of the actual toler-

ance and any corrosion allowance. If tolerances for L

or L

S

are not met, calculations shall be made assum-

ing that the lengths L and L

S

each equal the nominal

length plus the respective manufacturing tolerance.

External pressure calculations shall be made based

on the minimum material condition, as discussed in

subsection 6-13.

This Standard applies to thermowells with an as-new

surface fnish of 0.81 µm (32 µin.) Ra or better. Stress lim-

its given in subsection 6-12 are not valid for thermowells

manufactured with rougher surfaces.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

6

Fig. 4-1-1 Schematic Diagram of a Thermowell

L

d

t

b

A

D � (A � B)/2

�

Support plane

(a) Schematic, Cross-Sectional View of a Thermowell

(b) Schematic, Cross-Sectional View of a Step-Shank Thermowell

B

L

d

t

b

A

�

Support plane

Ls

B

bs

�

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

7

Fig. 4-1-2 Examples of Straight-Shank Thermowells

Table 4-1-1 Dimensional Limits for Straight and Tapered Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard

Description Symbol Minimum Maximum

Unsupported length L 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) [Note (1)] 60.96 cm (24 in.) [Note (2)]

Bore diameter d 0.3175 cm (0.125 in.) 2.0955 cm (0.825 in.)

Tip diameter B 0.92 cm (0.36 in.) 4.65 cm (1.83 in.)

Taper ratio B/A 0.58 1

Bore ratio d/B 0.16 0.71

Aspect ratio L/B 2 …

Minimum wall

thickness

(B – d)/2 0.30 cm (0.12 in.) …

GENERAL NOTE: Limits in this table apply to the nominal dimensions of the thermowell.

NOTES:

(1) Thermowells of length less than the minimum specifed require design methods outside the scope of this Standard.

(2) The equations in this Standard are valid for thermowells longer than the maximum indicated; however, only single-piece, drilled bar-stock

shanks are covered by this Standard.

(a) Straight-Shank Threaded Thermowell

(c) Straight-Shank Flanged Thermowell

(b) Straight-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell

(d) Straight-Shank Lap-Joint (Van Stone) Thermowell

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

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(a) Step-Shank Threaded Thermowell

(c) Step-Shank Flanged Thermowell

(b1) Step-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell

Installed in Bored-Through Thermocouple Adapter

(b2) Step-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell

Installed in Sockolet Adapter

Fig. 4-1-3 Examples of Step-Shank Thermowells

Table 4-2-1 Dimensional Limits for Step-Shank Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard

Description Symbol Minimum Maximum

Unsupported length L 12.7 cm (5 in.) 60.96 cm (24 in.)

Bore diameter d 0.61 cm (0.24 in.) 0.67 cm (0.265 in.)

Step diameter ratio, for

B = 1.270 cm (0.5 in.)

B/A 0.5 0.8

Step diameter ratio, for

B = 2.223 cm (0.875 in.)

B/A 0.583 0.875

Length ratio L

S

/ L 0 0.6

Minimum wall thickness (B2 d)/ 2 0.30 cm (0.12 in.) …

Allowable Dimensions [Note (1)]

Tip diameter B 1.270 cm (0.5 in.) and 2.223 cm (0.875 in.)

GENERAL NOTE: Limits in this table apply to the nominal dimensions of the thermowell.

NOTE:

(1) The methods presented in this Standard apply for other tip diameters than those specifed, but the correlation for natural frequency is sup-

plied only for the given tip diameters.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

9

Fig. 4-1-4 Examples of Tapered Thermowells

(a) Tapered-Shank Threaded Thermowell

(c) Tapered-Shank Flanged Thermowell

(b) Tapered-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell

Installed in Bored-Through Thermocouple Adapter

(d) Tapered-Shank Weld-In Thermowell

Installed Directly Into Pipe Wall

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

10

Section 5

Materials

5-1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The system designer (see subsection 3-2) shall care-

fully consider, among other environmental conditions,

the characteristics of the following to determine the

proper material for the thermowell:

(a) process fuid

(b) pressure

(c) temperature

(d) fuid velocity

(e) application

(f) weldability

In general, the choice of material shall be governed

mainly by strength requirements and possible corrosion

that the thermowell will encounter. Thermowells are

subjected to sustained stress reversals with a very high

number of cycles (see subsection 6-3), so the materials of

construction shall be selected on the basis of resistance

to corrosion and corrosion fatigue. Of particular concern

is use of materials susceptible to stress corrosion crack-

ing or embrittlement at the service conditions.

The thermowell material used should be forged or bar

stock and shall conform to the requirements of the gov-

erning code.

In the absence of a governing code, other materi-

als, which may or may not be ASTM, ANSI, or ASME

approved, may be used when necessary, subject to the

following requirements:

(a) The specifc materials shall be agreed to by the

designer and supplier of the thermowell.

(b) Unlisted materials may be used provided they

conform to a published specifcation covering chemical,

physical, and mechanical properties; method and proc-

ess of manufacture; heat treatment; and quality control,

and otherwise meet the requirements of this Standard.

(c) Allowable stresses shall be determined in accor-

dance with the applicable allowable stress basis of this

Standard or a more conservative basis.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

11

Section 6

Stress Equations

6-1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

6-1.1 Overview of Design Criteria

Thermowells shall be designed to withstand static

pressure, steady-state fuid impingement, turbulence,

and dynamic excitation due to von Karman vortices.

Excitation by structure-born vibration is a possibility

and should also be considered, but is not addressed by

this Standard, since this type of excitation is determined

by the design and support of the entire piping system.

Consideration of these loads on a mechanical model

of the thermowell results in pressure and velocity lim-

its due to the combination of steady-state and oscilla-

tory forces acting on the thermowell. In evaluating an

existing design or in designing a thermowell for given

applications, the complete range of operating conditions

for the thermowell, from start-up to emergency condi-

tions, shall be considered. Factors that reduce the ther-

mal mass of the thermowell and measurement errors are

those that tend to reduce strength. Thermowell design

consists of achieving accurate and reliable temperature

measurement without compromising mechanical integ-

rity or fuid containment. In all cases, the mechanical

strength requirements shall control.

6-1.2 Optimization of Thermowell Design

Proper design of a thermowell requires that the sensor

mounted inside the thermowell attain thermal equilib-

rium with the process fuid. Thermal modeling of the

sensor response is outside the scope of this Standard

(refer to the latest version of PTC 19.3 for guidance).

This Section briefy summarizes general design rules

that will optimize the sensor performance within the

constraints of the mechanical strength requirements.

A high fuid-velocity rating for the thermowell requires a

suffciently high natural frequency for the thermowell (sub-

section 6-8) and suffciently low oscillatory stresses (subsec-

tion 6-10). Higher natural frequencies result from decreasing

the unsupported length, L, increasing the support-plane

diameter, A, and decreasing the tip diameter, B. Lower oscil-

latory stresses result from decreasing length L and increas-

ing diameter A. A higher static pressure rating (subsection

6-13) requires increasing the value of tip diameter B.

In contrast, good thermal performance favors increas-

ing length L and decreasing diameters A and B.

6-1.2.1 Factors Improving Mechanical Strength.

Factors that improve mechanical strength with mini-

mal degradation of thermal performance include the

following:

(a) locating a larger fllet radius at the support plane

(b) locating the support plane away from a weld or

heat-affected zone of a weld

(c) avoiding threaded installations

6-1.2.2 Factors Improving Thermal Performance.

Factors that improve thermal performance with mini-

mal degradation of mechanical strength include the

following:

(a) use of the smallest practical bore size

(b) insulation of the outside of the pipe to reduce heat

fux along the sensor axis

6-2 CORROSION AND EROSION

Refer to subsection 5-1 for considerations on materials

selection for corrosive environments.

For applications where corrosion or erosion of the outer

thermowell surface cannot be avoided, the designer shall

establish a corrosion allowance, c. It is emphasized that

the use of a corrosion allowance alone is insuffcient at

ensuring structural integrity of the thermowell in cases

when stress corrosion is present.

When a corrosion allowance is included, thermowell

ratings for maximum allowable pressure and maximum

allowable fuid velocity shall be calculated for three

cases:

(a) initial thermowell dimensions

(b) a thermowell design with tip thickness t and outer

diameter at the support plane, A, reduced by c; all other

dimensions as in (a)

(c) a thermowell design with tip thickness t and outer

diameter at the tip, B, reduced by c; all other dimensions

as in (a)

Cases described in (b) and (c) are intended to approxi-

mate two extreme cases of corrosion and erosion: case

(b), where the thermowell loses material at the root; and

case (c), where the thermowell loses material at the tip.

If fnite element calculations are performed to determine

this effect, assume that the value of c varies linearly

along the length of the thermowell, from zero at the tip

to c at the root for case (b), and from c at the tip to zero at

the support plane for case (c).

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

12

The maximum allowable pressure and maximum

allowable fuid velocity shall be the minimum of the

values obtained for the three cases above.

6-3 FLOW-INDUCED THERMOWELL STRESSES

6-3.1 Overview of Flow-Induced Stresses

The fow-induced stresses are modeled as a distrib-

uted force acting on a fexible beam. The total force on

the beam is proportional to the projected area of the

thermowell normal to the fow direction. While the

hydrostatic-pressure stresses control rupture strength

of the thermowell, the bending stresses and the possi-

bility of fow-induced resonance dominate its velocity

rating. The pressure stresses are primarily circumferen-

tial, while the fow-induced stresses are in the form of

longitudinal bending stresses. These are greatest at the

support plane of the thermowell and distributed about

the neutral axis as with any transversely loaded beam.

The fuid forces acting on the thermowell are directed

along the fow direction

y (drag) and transverse direc-

tion xˆ (lift) [2–4] as shown in Fig. 6-3.1-1. These can be

represented as a vector acting on the centerline of the

thermowell:

F(t) 5 [F

D

1 F

d

sin(2

s

t)]yˆ 1 F

1

cos(

s

t)xˆ (6-3-1)

where f

s

5

s

/2p is the Strouhal frequency discussed in

subsection 6-4. Forces acting along the fow direction are

termed “in-line”; forces acting along a direction normal

to the fow are termed “transverse.” Approximating the

fuid forces as two orthogonal components normal to

the thermowell axis greatly simplifes the fuid-structure

interaction and at the same time retains suffcient

accuracy for the reliable calculation of velocity ratings

of the thermowell.

6-3.2 Force Amplitudes

The force amplitudes should be expressed as a force

per unit area, P

b

, acting on the projected area, A

p

, of the

thermowell, for that portion of the thermowell that is

exposed to the fow stream. There are three cases:

F A P F A P F A P

D p D d p d l p l

5 5 5 (6-3-2)

where

subscript D 5 conventional steady-drag forces

subscript d 5 oscillating-drag (in-line) forces

subscript l 5 oscillating-lift (transverse) forces

The symbol P

b

is used below to denote any one of the

three forces per unit area, P

D

, P

d

, or P

l

. Each of the forces

should be interpreted as effective pressures, P

D

, P

d

, and

P

l

, having the form

P C V P C V P CV

D D d d l l

5 5 5

1

2

1

2

1

2

2 2 2

(6-3-3)

where

C

D

, C

d

, and C

l

5 constants (see para. 6-4.2)

V 5 velocity of the process fuid

5 density of the process fuid

Summing the forces per unit area of eq. (6-3-3) over

the thermowell projected area, while invoking a coher-

ent vortex shedding process based on the vortex shed-

ding rate at the tip, results in a conservative estimate

Fig. 6-3.1-1 Fluid-Induced Forces and Assignment of Axes

for Calculation of Thermowell Stresses

V

In-line

forces

Transverse

forces Fluid vortices

downstream

Y Z

X

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

13

of the excitation forces and resultant bending stresses.

These assumptions result in a lower bound estimate of

the conditions that lead to stress failure.

6-3.3 Choice of Maximum Velocity Value

In all cases, design calculations shall take into account

the possibility of fow increases above the design rating

of the mechanical equipment and for process upset con-

ditions. Specifc fow maximums should be used where

such data are available. Examples include start-up, shut-

down, process upset, and pressure-relief conditions.

Pre-start-up conditions such as steam blows for pipe

clean out shall also be considered. In the case of high-

pressure steam blows, the fuid velocities can greatly

exceed 100 m/s (300 ft/sec), and thermowells shall be

designed for these conditions.

6-3.4 Flow-Induced Vibration of Thermowell Arrays

This Standard addresses the vibration of a single

thermowell in a fuid fow and does not address the

interactions of multiple thermowells in close prox-

imity. Flow-induced vibrations of arrays of tubes are

discussed in ASME BPVC Section III-A, Appendix N,

Section N-1300.

6-3.5 Turbulence-Induced Vibration of Thermowells

This Standard addresses the dynamic vibration caused

by vortex shedding but does not address the incoher-

ent excitation of structural vibrations by broad-band,

high-frequency turbulence. This excitation mechanism

can be important for short, slender [e.g., 6 cm (2.5 in.)

long by 1 cm (0.4 in.) diameter] thermowells in high

fows. These cases require specialized analysis beyond

the scope of the present Standard. ASME BPVC Section

III-A, Appendix N, Section N-1340 provides guidance

on turbulence-induced vibrations.

6-3.6 Low Fluid Velocities

At very low fuid velocities, the risk of thermowell

failure is greatly reduced. The calculations of natural-

frequency and corresponding-frequency limits (subsec-

tions 6-5 to 6-8), steady-state stress (para. 6-12.2), and

oscillating stress (para. 6-12.3) do not need to be per-

formed provided the following criteria are met:

(a) The process fuid has a maximum velocity less

than 0.64 m/s (2.1 ft/sec).

(b) The thermowell dimensions satisfy the limits

(1) A 2 d > 9.55 mm (0.376 in.)

(2) L < 0.61 m (24 in.)

(3) A > B > 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)

(c) The thermowell material satisfes S > 69 MPa

(10 ksi) and S

f

> 21 MPa (3 ksi).

(d) The thermowell material is not subject to stress

corrosion or embrittlement.

The calculation of the external pressure rating (sub-

section 6-13) shall still be performed.

Designers are cautioned that if the in-line resonance

is excited at fuid velocities below 0.64 m/s (2.1 ft/ sec),

sustained operation on resonance may damage the

temperature sensor even if the risk of mechanical ther-

mowell failure is very small.

6-3.7 Pulsed Flow

The analysis of thermowell response to fuid fow in

this document presumes a steady fuid velocity. Pulsating

fows where the fuid velocity varies at a frequency

close to the natural frequency of the thermowell can

also excite thermowell vibrations. Thermowell failures

have been attributed to the exposure of a thermowell to

pulsating fuid fow (e.g., thermowell failures have been

seen for installations close to the discharge of a centrifu-

gal pump). Designers should consider possible sources

of fow pulsations.

6-4 STROUHAL NUMBER, DRAG COEFFICIENTS,

AND LIFT COEFFICIENT

6-4.1 Strouhal Number

The shedding of vortexes by a thermowell subject to

transverse fuid fow produces a periodic force on the

thermowell [4, 5]. The frequency of the vortex shedding,

f

s

, is related to the fuid velocity by the dimensionless

Strouhal number, N

S

:

f N

V

B

s

s

S

5

p

5

2

(6-4-1)

where

B 5 tip diameter of the thermowell

Machined thermowells of dimensions within the

scope of this Standard have Strouhal numbers charac-

teristic of rough-surfaced cylinders [6]. A correlation of

available experimental data gives the Strouhal number

as a function of the Reynolds number [7]:

N

Re Re

Re

S

5

2 # ,

2

0 22 1 22 1 300

0 213 0 0248 1 300

10

. ( / ) ,

. . Log / ,

for 22

( )

¸

1

]

( )

¸

1

]

2

10

3

5

0 0095 1 300 5 10

0 22

1 # , 3 . Log / ,

.

Re Re for 1,300

for 5 10 5 10

5 7

3 # , 3 Re

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

(6-4-2)

In eq. (6-4-2), the Reynolds number is calculated using

the tip diameter:

Re

VB

Re

VB

5 5

m n

or

(6-4-3)

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

14

where

m 5 dynamic viscosity

n 5 kinematic viscosity

5 fuid density at fowing conditions

For thermowell design, the Strouhal number may also

be calculated from a simplifed, conservative approxi-

mation of eq. (6-4-2):

N

S

≅ 0 22 . (6-4-4)

For Reynolds numbers above approximately 100, the

Strouhal number depends only weakly on the value of

fuid viscosity. For a Reynolds number between 10

3

and

5 3 10

5

, the viscosity needs to be known only to within a

factor of 2. For Reynolds numbers greater than 5 3 10

5

,

the viscosity needs to be known only well enough to con-

frm that Re . 5 3 10

5

. References [8, 9, and 17] should be

consulted for typical viscosity values. If the viscosity is

diffcult to determine, eq. (6-4-4) should be used for the

Strouhal number.

6-4.1.1 Example. Superheated steam at a tem-

perature of 1,000°F and a pressure of 2,000 psig fows

through a pipe of 6-in. diameter at 100,000 lb/hr, past a

thermowell with a tip diameter of 0.625 in. What is the

Reynolds number?

(a) Calculation in SI Units

From steam tables [8, 9], the dynamic fuid viscosity

m 5 3.079 3 10

−5

Pas.

Input parameters for the Reynolds number calcula-

tion are

B 5 0.625 in. 3 (0.0254 m/in.) 5 0.015875 m

Pipe radius 5 R

p

5 (6 in./2)(0.0254 m/in.)

5 0.0762 m

Pipe area 5 pR

p

2

5 0.018241 m

2

V 5 (density) 3 (fow velocity)

5 (mass fow rate) / (pipe area)

5 (100,000 lb/hr)(0.454 kg/lb)(1 hr/

3,600 sec) /(0.018241 m

2

)

5 691.36 kg/(m

2

s)

Finally

Re 5 BV/m

5 0.015875 m 3 691.36 kg/

(m

2

s/3.079 3 10

−5

Pas)

5 3.56 3 10

5

(b) Calculation in U.S. Customary Units

From steam tables [8, 9], the dynamic fuid viscosity

m 5 2.07 3 10

−5

lb/(ft⋅sec).

Input parameters for the Reynolds number calcula-

tion are

B 5 0.625 in. 3 (1 ft/12 in.) 5 0.052083 ft

Pipe radius 5 R 5 (6 in./2)(1 ft/12 in.) 5 0.25 ft

Pipe area 5 pR

2

5 0.19635 ft

2

V 5 (density) 3 (fow velocity)

5 (mass fow rate)/(pipe area)

5 (100,000 lb/hr)(1 hr/3,600 sec)/

(0.19635 ft

2

)

5 141.47 lb/(ft

2

⋅sec)

Finally

Re 5 BV /m

5 0.052083 ft 3 141.47 lb/(ft

2

sec)/2.07

3 10

−5

lb/(ftsec)

5 3.56 3 10

5

6-4.2 Drag and Lift Coeffcients

For design purposes, the eq. (6-3-3) coeffcients for

conventional-drag, oscillating-drag, and oscillating-lift

pressures shall be

C

D

5 1.4

C

d

5 0.1 (6-4-5)

C

l

5 1.0

6-5 NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THERMOWELLS

6-5.1 Transverse Vibrations

The natural frequency of transverse vibrations of a

thermowell mounted to a support is a function of

(a) elastic properties of the thermowell

(b) mass per unit length

(c) shear and rotational inertia at small values of L/A

(d) support compliance

(e) added mass of the fuid

(f) added mass of the sensor

The formulas of subsection 6-5 establish a conservative

estimate of the natural frequency of common industrial

thermowells by applying a series of correction factors to

an idealized beam having the mean dimensions of the

actual thermowell. Nonuniform cross sections, shear,

and rotational inertia are all accounted for using the fre-

quency factor, H

f

, in para. 6-5.3, Step 3. Foundation com-

pliance, accounted for with the compliance factor, H

c

, is

treated in subsection 6-6. The added mass of the fuid

is accounted for with the factor H

a,f

, and added sensor

mass is accounted for with H

a,s

.

While there are an infnite number of vibrational modes

for a thermowell, the lowest-order resonance (i.e., the nat-

ural frequency including effects of support compliance),

f

n

c

, controls the onset of fow-induced resonance.

6-5.2 Finite Element Methods

The natural frequency of a thermowell may be cal-

culated using fnite element methods, provided the

software is validated by comparison of calculated fre-

quencies with the results obtained in para. 6-5.3.

6-5.3 Calculations and Correction Factors

Step 1. Calculate an average outer diameter, D

a

, for the

thermowell. For straight thermowells, D

a

is the outer shank

diameter. For tapered thermowells, set D

a

5 (A + B)/2.

For step-shank thermowells, set D

a

5 A.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

15

Step 2. Calculate the approximate natural frequency of

the thermowell as

f

EI

m L

a

5

p

1 875

2

1

2

1 2

2

.

/

¸

¸

_

,

(6-5-1)

where

E 5 elastic modulus at the operating temperature

I 5 p(D

a

4

– d

4

)/64, the second moment of inertia

L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell

m 5

m

p (D

a

2

– d

2

)/4, the mass per unit length of the

thermowell

When performing calculations with U.S. Customary

units, and when E is given in units of pounds per square

inch (equivalent to lbf/in.

2

, or psi), the conversion factor

386.088 in.-lb 5 1 lbfsec

2

is used to convert the units of

E to pounds per inch per second squared. See para. 8-1.2

for an example.

Step 3. Calculate the correction factor, H

f

, for deviations

from a solid beam of uniform cross section. For straight-

shank or tapered thermowells, use the correlation

H

B A B A

D L

f d D

5

1 2 1 2

1

2

0 99 1 1 1

1 1 1

2

3 1 0 8

.

/ /

.

/

[ . ( / )]

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

( ) a

a

(6-5-2)

where

A 5 thermowell diameter at the support plane

B 5 thermowell diameter at the tip

D

a

5 average thermowell diameter 5 (A + B)/2

d 5 bore diameter

For step-shank thermowells of nominal 0.66-cm

(0.26-in.) bore, and tip diameters of either 1.27 cm

(0.5 in.) or 2.22 cm (0.875 in.), use the correlation

H y y

y c A B c L L c A B c

y c

f

S

5 1

5 1 1 1

5

2 2

2

1 2

1

1 1 2 3 4

2 5

b b

b

( )

[ ] [ ]

/

( / ) ( / ) ( / )

(AA B c L L c A B c

c A B c

/ ) ( / ) ( / )

( / )

1 1 1

5 1

6 7 8

9 10

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

S

b

(6-5-3)

where the parameters c

i

are given in Table 6-5.3-1, and

L

S

is the length of the reduced-diameter section of the

thermowell. Interpolation is not allowed between the

entries for Table 6-5.3-1, although the designer may use

appropriate beam models or fnite-element methods to

determine the H

f

for thermowells of other dimensions.

The value of H

f

will be approximately 1 for slender ther-

mowells with L/A . 10 and A 5 B. For short thermowells

or for those for which A B, values of H

f

will depend in

detail on the taper ratio, bore diameter, and existence of

any step; values may vary from approximately 0.6 to 1.5.

Step 4. Calculate the added mass correction factor for the

fuid, H

a,f

:

H

a, f

m

− 1

2

(6-5-4)

or alternatively, set H

a,f

5 1.0 exactly for steam service or

similar low-density gas, or H

a,f

5 0.94 for liquid water.

For a highly dense liquid, H

a,f

may be considerably lower

(e.g., H

a,f

5 0.90 for a fuid density of 1 600 kg/m

3

and a

thermowell density of 8 000 kg/m

3

).

Step 5. Calculate the sensor-mass correction factor H

a,s

:

H

D d

a s

s

m

,

/

−

( ) −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

a

(6-5-5)

where

s

5 average density of the temperature sensor

to be inserted in the thermowell. For a sensor with com-

pacted, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed construc-

tion (either resistance thermometer or thermocouple), a

typical sensor density is

s

5 2 700 kg/m

3

(169 lb/ft

3

),

and this value should be used in the absence of detailed

information on the sensor design. Alternatively, set

H

a,s

5 0.96 for a 0.25-in. nominal sensor diameter, or

H

a,s

5 0.93 for a 0.375-in. nominal sensor diameter.

Step 6. The lowest-order natural frequency of the

thermowell with ideal support is given by

f

n

5 H

f

H

a,f

H

a,s

f

a

(6-5-6)

6-6 MOUNTING COMPLIANCE FACTOR

The natural frequency, f

n

, of a cantilever beam is cal-

culated assuming an ideal, rigid base. In practice, how-

ever, this ideal is never achieved, and it is necessary to

account for a signifcant reduction in natural frequency

that results from fexibility of the thermowell mount

or support [10]. The in situ natural frequency of the

mounted thermowell is expressed in terms of a support

fexibility or compliance factor, H

c

, as

f H f

n

c

c n

(6-6-1)

Table 6-5.3-1 Parameters for Natural Frequency

Calculation for Step-Shank Thermowells

Parameters

B = 2.22 cm

(0.875 in.)

B = 1.27 cm

(0.50 in.)

c

1

1.410 1.407

c

2

20.949 20.839

c

3

20.091 20.022

c

4

1.132 1.022

c

5

21.714 22.228

c

6

0.865 1.594

c

7

0.861 1.313

c

8

1.000 0.362

c

9

9.275 8.299

c

10

27.466 25.376

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

16

The foundation compliance is highly sensitive to the

radius of curvature b of the thermowell shank and sup-

port transition (see Fig. 4-1-1).

For cases where the support plane for the thermowell

is at the thermowell root with fllet radius b [e.g., see

Fig. 4-1-4, illustration (c) or (d)], the general form of the

mounting-compliance frequency factor is

H

K E

A d

L b A

c

M

5 2

p 2

1

1

1

32 1 1 5

4 4

2

/ [ . ( / )] ( )

( )

(6-6-2)

where

A 5 root diameter of the thermowell

b 5 fllet radius at the root of the thermowell

E 5 elastic modulus of the thermowell material

K

M

5 rotational stiffness of the thermowell support

(discussed below)

L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell

When the fllet radius at the root of the thermowell, b, is

not known, it shall be set to zero. For weld-in installations

where the weld fllet is not located directly at the root of

the thermowell, the fllet radius b is not equivalent to the

fllet radius of the weld. Instead, the value of b shall be

determined from the fllet geometry at the root. For cases

in which the support plane of the thermowell has a geom-

etry without a clear fllet at the support plane (e.g., see

the indicated unsupported length in Fig. 6-6-1 for socket-

weld or weld-in thermowells), set b equal to zero.

The stiffness, K

M

, relates the angular displacement,

du, of the thermowell at its support plane to a bending

moment, M, applied to the thermowell:

K

M

du 5 M (6-6-3)

For a beam of uniform circular cross section with outside

diameter D supported by a semi-infnite base of the same

modulus as the thermowell material, K

M

is given by

K

E D

M

5

0 787 2

3

.

¸

¸

_

,

(6-6-4)

Since the base compliance depends predominantly

on the root diameter, eq. (6-6-2) should be applied to

thermowells of general geometry by replacing D with

A. Approximating A

4

– d

4

by 0.99A

4

, one obtains for a

semi-infnite base

H

A L

b A

c

5 2

1

1 0 61

1 1 5

2

( . )

( / )

[ . ( / )]

(6-6-5)

The value of K

M

attained in practice may be signif-

cantly less than that of eq. (6-6-4), due either to the fex-

ibility of the supporting piping or to the fexibility of

the thermowell attachment to the piping [11]. Reference

[11], models of the piping system under static load, or

literature results should be used to determine K

M.

For

thermowells installed in thin-wall pipes with outer con-

nection heads, the mass of the head will cause a sig-

nifcant perturbation on the resonance frequency of the

thermowell. The increased susceptibility of small-bore

fttings to vibration fatigue is well known, and practices

designed to minimize the risk of cantilevered small-bore

fttings also apply to thermowell connections and elec-

trical-connection-head top works.

6-7 UNSUPPORTED LENGTH, DIAMETER, AND

FILLET RADIUS

For the purpose of calculating the natural frequency

of a thermowell, the unsupported length L shall be taken

as the axial distance from the tip of the thermowell to the

point where the thermowell is rigidly supported. The

effect of support compliance (fexibility) is included by a

series of correction factors applied to the ideal case.

In some installations, or for some varieties of ther-

mowells, the defnition of the unsupported length and

the corresponding diameter A and fllet radius b is not

obvious. Guidance for a variety of thermowell types is

given below and illustrated in Fig. 6-6-1.

(a) Lap-Joint and Flanged Thermowells. For fanged

thermowells, the unsupported length extends from the

tip of the thermowell to the fanged face that is part of

the machined thermowell.

(b) Threaded Thermowells. A threaded connection

has greater compliance than a semi-infnite base. If the

unsupported length is taken as the distance between the

tip of the thermowell and the frst engagement of the

thread, then the increased compliance of the threaded

joint (not including any additional compliance of the pip-

ing beyond the joint) should be accounted for by using

H A L

c

5 2 1 0 9 . ( / ) (6-7-1)

The support-point diameter, A, shall be equal to the

diameter of the thermowell shank at the beginning of

the transition to the threaded section of the thermowell.

Although there may be a fllet between the shank and

the threaded portion of the thermowell, this fllet does

not effectively reduce the bending compliance of the

thermowell or reduce stress concentration at the threads.

Consequently, the fllet radius shall be taken as b 5 0.

(c) Socket-Weld Thermowells. The clearance between a

socket adaptor and the thermowell wall is suffciently

large that the joint between the adaptor and thermow-

ell wall cannot be treated as an interference ft. In this

case, the unsupported length extends from the tip of the

thermowell to the point on the thermowell where the

socket is welded to the adaptor. For design purposes,

this point shall be taken as the midpoint of the thermow-

ell weld collar, as indicated in Fig. 6-6-1. The base diam-

eter, A, shall be taken as the diameter of the thermowell

shank at the transition to the weld collar, and the fllet

radius shall be taken as b 5 0.

(d) Weld-In Thermowells. The unsupported length will

depend on how far the thermowell is inserted into the

pipe and on the degree of penetration of the weld. Weld

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

17

Fig. 6-6-1 Unsupported Length of Thermowells

(e) Lap-Joint (Van Stone) Thermowell

(f) Tapered-Shank Weld-In Thermowell

Installed Directly Into Pipe Wall

(c) Socket Weld Thermowell

Unsupported

length

Unsupported

length

Unsupported

length

Unsupported

length

Unsupported

length

Do not bottom

thermowell in

fitting

Thermowell

weld collar

Thermowell

weld collar

Unsupported

length

(d) Flanged Thermowell

(a) Threaded Thermowell

(b) Socket Weld Thermowell

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

18

specifcations and tolerances for those specifcations shall

be taken into account when determining the unsupported

length, which shall be taken as the longest length possi-

ble within the weld and location tolerances. Eqs. (6-6-2)

and (6-6-5) for thermowell bending compliance and eq.

(6-12-4) for stress-concentration factor apply only for

weld fllets on the inside of the pipe. Consequently, the

fllet radius shall be taken as b 5 0 even if there is a sub-

stantial fllet on the outside of the pipe.

(e) Thermowells With Support Collars. Support collars

or other means of support are outside the scope of the

Standard. The use of support collars is not generally

recommended, as rigid support can be obtained only

with an interference ft between the support collar and

the installed piping. In special cases, small support-

collar gaps flled with a viscous process fuid may add

signifcant damping, thereby suppressing thermowell

resonances, and engineering models that account for

the degree of support and fuid damping may be useful.

Such designs require methods beyond the scope of this

Standard. If a section of thermowell shank of increased

diameter is used in the support-collar design, the added

mass will shift the natural frequency of the thermowell,

and the correlations for natural frequency supplied in

this Standard do not apply.

Note that for Fig. 6-6-1, illustrations (b) and (c), the

support plane for the thermowell is located at the inter-

section of the seal weld and the clearance gap between

the thermowell shank and the adaptor. Such cases where

the thermowell root is geometrically similar to a crack

have reduced fatigue strength and should be avoided

when the limiting factor for the thermowell velocity rat-

ing is fatigue strength.

6-8 FREQUENCY LIMIT

6-8.1 Overview

When a thermowell is immersed in a fowing fuid,

the shedding of vortices produces the following two

types of force on the thermowell (see Fig. 6-3.1-1):

(a) an oscillating-lift force, transverse to the fuid fow

at frequency f

s

(b) an oscillating-drag force, in-line with the fuid

fow at frequency 2f

s

As the fuid velocity is increased, the rate of vortex

shedding increases linearly while the magnitude of the

forces increases with the square of the fuid velocity. The

thermowell responds elastically according to the force

distribution and its variation in time. Should the vor-

tex shedding rate coincide with the natural frequency of

the thermowell, resonance occurs and is attended with a

dramatic increase in the dynamic bending stresses. The

fuid velocity at which this takes place is referred to as

a velocity critical. There are a minimum of two velocity

criticals for each natural frequency of the thermowell:

one describing the lift and the other describing the in-

line response. These should not be confused with the

critical velocity marking the transition to turbulent

boundary-layer fow.

Since the in-line force fuctuates at twice the fre-

quency of the lift excitation, the corresponding velocity

critical is approximately one-half that required for lift

resonance. For any given fuid velocity, both forces are

acting on the thermowell with the result that the tip of

the thermowell sweeps out an orbital (Lissajou fgure)

that changes shape as the fuid velocity is increased.

If the natural frequency of the thermowell overlaps

with either f

s

or 2f

s

, a large resonant buildup in vibra-

tion amplitude can occur, resulting in failure of either

the thermowell or the temperature sensor mounted in

the thermowell (see Fig. 6-8.1-1). Because f

s

is propor-

tional to fuid velocity V, the in-line resonance occurs at

half the velocity of the transverse resonance. Although

the in-line force is only weakly excited, large vibration

amplitudes may still be encountered due to the low

damping of typical thermowells [3, 12–15]. The vibra-

tion amplitude is proportional to the force per unit

area exerted by the fuid (see para. 6-3.2 and subsec-

tion 6-10) and the magnifcation factor (see subsection

6-9). Figure 6-8.1-2 illustrates the variation of vibration

amplitude with fuid velocity.

Because the elastic response of the thermowell and

the vortex shedding process are so closely coupled, the

actual vortex shedding process is extremely nonlinear

and can be expected to be captured or locked onto the

structural resonance of the thermowell [2]. This cap-

ture takes place as the vortex shedding rate approaches

a natural frequency of the thermowell. As the beam

responds, the vortex shedding rate tends to settle onto

the resonant frequency of the beam and remains locked

in for a considerable range of fuid velocities (refer to

paras. 6-8.4 and 6-8.5). The natural frequency of ther-

mowells may be as high as several thousand hertz;

together with the lock-in phenomenon, it is possible for

a thermowell to encounter many thousands of fatigue

cycles in a single start-up process, even if the vortex

shedding rate does not coincide with the natural fre-

quency of the thermowell during steady-state process

conditions.

To prevent the occurrence of lock-in phenomena and to

limit the buildup of vibration amplitudes to a safe value,

the resonant frequency of the installed thermowell shall

be suffciently higher than either the in-line or the trans-

verse resonance condition. Operation of the thermowell

through the in-line resonance is allowed only if the

cyclic stresses at the resonance condition are acceptably

small (see paras. 6-8.4 and 6-8.5). The user is cautioned,

however, that even if a thermowell is suffciently strong

to withstand in-line resonance, tip vibration at an in-line

resonance may be extreme, leading to sensor degrada-

tion or destruction. In all cases, operation near the trans-

verse resonance condition shall be avoided completely,

other than exceptions discussed in para. 6-12.5.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

19

6-8.2 Frequency Limit for Low-Density Gases

For fuids of suffciently low density and with Re , 10

5

,

the intrinsic damping of the thermowell suffciently sup-

presses the in-line vibrations due to vortex shedding. The

intrinsic damping factor, z, of common thermowells should

be conservatively set at 0.0005 [2]. Values of z known from

direct modal measurements should be used, although

the designer is cautioned that the damping factor is not

highly reproducible among multiple thermowells of simi-

lar design and may depend on details of the thermowell

mounting, such as gasket choice for fanged thermowells.

Calculate the mass damping factor, or Scruton

number, as

N

Sc

5 p

2

z (

m

/ )[1 2 (d/B)

2

] (6-8-1)

If N

Sc

. 2.5 and Re , 10

5

, in-line resonance is sup-

pressed, and the installed natural frequency of the ther-

mowell shall satisfy

f f

S n

c

,0 8 . (6-8-2)

If N

Sc

. 64 and Re , 10

5

, both transverse and in-line

resonances are suppressed. Designs for a fuid veloc-

ity beyond the limit of eq. (6-8-2) are possible but shall

consider the excitation of higher-order thermowell reso-

nances. These calculations are beyond the scope of this

Standard.

If N

Sc

# 2.5 or Re $ 10

5

, the limits of 6-8.3 shall apply.

Fig. 6-8.1-1 Schematic Indicating Excitation of Resonances When Excitation

Frequency Coincides With the Thermowell Natural Frequency

Fig. 6-8.1-2 Schematic Showing the Amplitude Response of a Thermowell Subjected to

Fluid-Induced Forces as Solid Lines, for In-Line and Transverse Excitation Modes

In-line (drag)

excitation

Transverse

(lift)

Approximate

lock-in range

Fluid Velocity

GENERAL NOTE: Lock-in between the fluid vortices and the

thermowell mechanical resonances can cause a resonance

condition within the approximate boundaries indicated by

the gray boxes.

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

f

n

Nominal resonance

condition

Transverse

resonance

In-line

resonance

Fluid Velocity

GENERAL NOTE: The frequency limits discussed in paras. 6-8.2 to 6-8.4

are shown as dotted lines. The figure ignores lock-in effects, which can

shift the locations of the resonances, as shown in Fig. 6-8.1-1.

V

i

b

r

a

t

i

o

n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

f

s

� 0.4f

n

c

f

s

� 0.8f

n

c

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

20

6-8.3 Frequency Limit for the General Case

If the conditions in para. 6-8.2 do not apply, establish

the frequency limit of the thermowell as described in the

following four steps:

Step 1. If the damping factor is known, set the magnifca-

tion factor ′ F

M

for in-line resonance to 1/(2z). Otherwise,

set the amplifcation factor for in-line resonance to 1/

(2z) 5 1,000, an upper limit for amplifcation exactly on

resonance. The requirement that the natural resonance

coincides with the in-line resonance also fxes the ampli-

fcation factor for the transverse resonance to a value of

4/3 [obtained by evaluating eq. (6-9-1) with r 5 0.5].

If the Strouhal number is calculated with the correla-

tion of eq. (6-4-2), set the fuid velocity for the in-line

resonance to

V

Bf

N B V B

Bf

IR

n

c

S

n

5

2 1 # ,

2

1

22 22

22 1 300

m

m

¸

¸

_

,

for Re ,

cc

S S

n

c

S

N

a R

N

Bf

N V 2

1

2

1 300 5 1

10

2 # , 3

( )

, Log for

¸

¸

_

,

¸

1

]

1

1

Re 00

2

5 10

5

5

Bf

N

n

c

S

for 3 # RRe ,10

7

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

(6-8-3)

where

a R R R

R Re Re

Re

( ) . .

( / )

,

−

0 0285 0 0496

1 300

2

0

0

Log

10

(6-8-4)

and N

S

is evaluated at the design velocity V, and not at

the value V

IR

[the factors to the right of

Bf N

n

c

S

( ) ( ) 2

cor-

rect for the difference in N

S

at V and at V

IR

].

If the Strouhal number is calculated with the simpli-

fed relation of eq. (6-4-4), set the fuid velocity for the

in-line resonance to

V

Bf

N

IR

n

c

S

2

(6-8-5)

Step 2. Evaluate the cyclic drag stress following subsection

6-12. The cyclic lift stress should be neglected in evaluat-

ing the peak oscillatory bending stress [see eq. (6-10-6) and

paras. 6-10.2 to 6-10.5].

Step 3. If the thermowell passes the cyclic stress condition

[eq. (6-12-1)] for operation at the in-line resonance con-

dition, the installed natural frequency, f

n

c

, shall satisfy

f f

S n

c

< 0 8 .

(6-8-6)

Step 4. If the thermowell fails the cyclic stress condi-

tion for operation at the in-line resonance condition,

the installed natural frequency, f

n

c

,

shall be high enough

to limit excitation of the in-line resonance, as shown in

Figs. 6-8.1-1 and 6-8.1-2. In this case, f

n

c

shall satisfy

f f

S n

c

< 0 4 .

(6-8-7)

6-8.4

Frequency Limit When the In-Line Resonance

Does Not Limit Operation

In cases where the thermowell passes the cyclic stress

condition for operation at the in-line resonance condi-

tion, care shall still be taken that in steady state the fow

condition will not coincide with the thermowell reso-

nance. The steady-state fuid velocity should meet one

of the following conditions:

f f

S n

c

(steady state) < 0 4 . (6-8-8)

or

0 6 0 8 . . f f f

n

c

S n

c

, , (steady state) (6-8-9)

Graphically, these conditions are equivalent to opera-

tion at a fuid velocity intermediate between the two

gray boxes in Fig. 6-8.1-1.

6-8.5 Passing Through the In-Line Critical

In cases where the thermowell design fails the cyclic

stress condition for steady-state operation, transient

exposure to the in-line resonance condition may be

allowable, provided that certain criteria are met. A

thermowell with a natural-frequency intermediate

between the steady-state Strouhal frequency (which

excites transverse vibrations) and twice the Strouhal

frequency (which excites in-line vibrations) is subjected

to large-amplitude vibration only for limited periods

on start-up or shutdown, as the in-line vibrations are

excited only when twice the Strouhal frequency coin-

cides with the natural frequency of the thermowell.

Passage through the in-line resonance is allowed only

if all of the following conditions are met:

(a) The process fuid is a gas.

(b) The thermowell is exposed to the in-line reso-

nance condition only on start-up, shutdown, or other

infrequent transient variations in fuid velocity.

(c) The sustained or steady-state peak stress is less

than the fatigue limit for the number of cycles.

(d) The process fuid is known to not cause metal-

lurgical changes to the thermowell material that would

signifcantly reduce the fatigue resistance.

(e) The potential consequences of thermowell failure

to equipment or personnel are suffciently limited to be

acceptable.

The number of cycles sustained for each fow-velocity

transient shall be calculated assuming that lock-in phe-

nomena occurs for a range of forcing frequencies equal

to 20% of the natural frequency. If the criteria above are

met, the designer shall evaluate the maximum stresses

when the thermowell is excited at its natural frequency,

in accordance with subsection 6-12, and determine

whether the thermowell has suffcient fatigue strength

for the expected number of start-up and shutdown

events encountered by the thermowell in its lifetime.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

21

Note that the design rules of PTC 19.3 TW ensure only

the mechanical integrity of the thermowell. Passage

through the in-line resonance may cause a severe vibra-

tion of the thermowell tip resulting in unacceptable sen-

sor damage or drift.

6-9 MAGNIFICATION FACTOR

6-9.1 Magnifcation Factor Away From Resonance

The magnifcation factor, F

M

, equals the ratio of

thermowell defection and stress at a given frequency

to the defection and stress at zero frequency. For fre-

quencies outside the lock-in band of the vortex fre-

quency [the lock-in band is equivalent to an r value

in eqs. (6-9-1) and (6-9-2) in the range 0.8 , r , 1.2]

and at frequencies low enough that only the natural

frequency of the thermowell is appreciably excited,

the simple expressions below accurately model the

magnifcation factor.

In the case of transverse lift resonance, the magnifca-

tion factor is

F

r

r

f

f

M

s

n

c

5

2

5

1

1

2

(6-9-1)

f

n

c

being the natural frequency of the thermowell includ-

ing the reduction in the thermowell vibration frequency

due to compliance of the foundation or support. For the

case of in-line resonances, the magnifcation factor is

′

− ′ ( )

′

F

r

r

f

f

M

s

n

c

5

5

1

1

2

2

(6-9-2)

6-9.2 Magnifcation Factor Near Resonance

When the natural frequency of the thermowell falls

within the lock-in band of the vortex frequency, the ther-

mowell defection is limited by the intrinsic damping

factor, z, of the thermowell. At resonance, the maximum

magnifcation factor is

F

F

M

M

, max

,

for excitation of a transverse (lift) resonance 5

1

2z

for excitation of an in-line (drag) resonance

max

’

5

1

2z

(6-9-3)

6-10 BENDING STRESSES

6-10.1 Point of Maximum Stress

The peak stresses occur on the outside surface of

the thermowell at the support plane for taper and

straight-shank thermowells, and at either the sup-

port plane or the base of the reduced-diameter sec-

tion of shank for step-shank thermowells. Except

in special cases where a thermowell is supported

along its shank, the support plane will be at the

thermowell root. As shown in Fig. 6-10.1-1, stresses

for fluid-flow-induced forces are obtained from the

relation between the second moment of the beam, M,

the moment of inertia, I, and the longitudinal stress

in the thermowell:

S

yM I

yMF I

z M

5

2

2

for steady-state stresses

for lift reson

aance stresses

for drag resonance stresses 2yMF I

M

’

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

(6-10-1)

Eq. (6-10-1) is evaluated at x 5 0, y 5 D(z

s

)/2 (steady-

state and oscillating-drag stresses) or x 5 D(z

s

)/2, y 5 0

(oscillating-lift stresses), and z 5 z

s

, where z

s

is equal to

either zero for evaluation of stress at the support plane,

or to the distance from the support plane of the thermo-

couple to the cross section where the stress is evaluated.

[For the common case of a thermowell supported at its

root, eq. (6-10-1) is evaluated at z 5 0 and either x 5 0,

y 5 A/2, or x 5 A/2, y 5 0.] The general equation relat-

ing peak-second moment for each type of force acting on

the thermowell is

M P D z z z dz

s

z

L

s

b b

5 2 ( ) ( )

∫

(6-10-2)

where P

b

denotes either P

D

, P

d

, or P

l

and is equal

to the force per unit area applied transverse to the

beam. For a thermowell shielded from fluid flow for

a distance L

0

from the thermowell root, L

0

replaces z

s

as the lower limit of the integration in eq. (6-10-2),

and the result for M

b

is used in eq. (6-10-1) to obtain

the value of S

z

.

For calculation purposes, it is convenient to defne G as

G

M D z

P I z

D z

D z d

D z z z dz

z

L

≡

( )

( )

∫

b

b

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

s

s

s

s

s

s

2

32

4 4

5

p 2

2

(6-10-3)

The dimensionless quantity G depends only on the

thermowell geometry. At the thermowell support point,

G is evaluated with the lower limit of integration z

s

5

max (0, L

0

) and shall be denoted G

SP

. For step-shank

thermowells, peak stress amplitudes need to be evalu-

ated at the base of the reduced-diameter shank, of diam-

eter B, as well as at the support point. In this case, G is

evaluated with the lower limit of integration z

s

5 max

(L − L

S

, L

0

) and shall be denoted G

RD

.

At the thermowell support point, the steady-state drag

stress on the downstream side of the thermowell is

S G P

G C V

D D

D

5 5

b

b

2

2

(6-10-4)

where the equation uses the convention that compres-

sive stresses have a positive sign and G

b

is a placeholder

for either G

SP

for stress evaluated at the support point

or G

RD

for stress evaluated at the reduced-diameter

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

22

Fig. 6-10.1-1 Bending Moment, Stress at the Support Plane,

and Locations of Maximum Steady-State or Oscillating In-Line Stress

Fluid velocity

Maximum longitudinal bending stress

M S(x � 0; y, z � 0)

y

(a) For a Tapered Thermowell

Fluid velocity

M S(x � 0; y, z � 0)

y

(b) For a Step-Shank Thermowell Subject to Fluid-Flow

Maximum longitudinal bending

stress at step-shank base

Maximum longitudinal bending

stress at support plane

GENERAL NOTE: Locations for maximum oscillating transverse stress are located in

the same plane, but at points rotated 90 deg about the thermowell axis.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

23

shank (see paras. 6-10.2 to 6-10.5). The amplitudes for

oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag stresses are

S G F P

G C F V

L M l

l M

5 5

b

b

2

2

(6-10-5)

S G F P

G C F V

d M d

d M

5 5

b

b

’

’ 2

2

(6-10-6)

Equation (6-4-5) gives coeffcients C

D

, C

l

, and C

d

; eqs.

(6-9-1) through (6-9-3) give magnifcation factors F

M

and ′ F

M

. The stress amplitudes are used in estimating the

combined bending stress in subsection 6-12.

For step-shank thermowells, peak stress amplitudes

shall be evaluated at the base of the reduced-diameter

shank, of diameter B, as well as at the support point.

In this case, evaluating G at D(z

s

) 5 B for use in eqs.

(6-10-4) through (6-10-6) gives the stress amplitudes at

the base of the reduced-diameter shank.

6-10.2 Maximum Stress for Tapered or Straight

Thermowells, No Shielding From Flow

With no shielding for a tapered or straight thermowell

subject to a constant force per unit area, eq. (6-10-2) is

integrated along the whole thermowell length. The

result for the parameter G is

G

L

A d A

A

SP

5

p 2

1

16

3 1

1 2

2

2

4

/

( )

( )

¸

1

]

[ ]

B (6-10-7)

The steady-state drag stress and oscillating-lift and

oscillating-drag stress amplitudes are evaluated using

eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of G

SP

from

eq. (6-10-7).

6-10.3 Maximum Stress for Tapered or Straight

Thermowells, Shielded From Flow

If the thermowell is shielded from fuid fow from

the thermowell support plane to a distance L

0

along the

shank, the point of maximum stress shall be evaluated at

the support plane for a straight or tapered thermowell.

The parameter G is given as

G

L

A d A

L L

B A L L

SP

5

p 2

2

1 2 2

16

3 1

3 1

2 1 1

2

2

4

0

2

0

3

/

/

/ /

( )

¸

1

]

( )

¸

1

]

¦

( ) ( )

¸¸

1

]

¦

(6-10-8)

The steady-state drag stress and oscillating-lift and

oscillating-drag stress amplitudes are evaluated using

eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of G

SP

from

eq. (6-10-8).

The majority of installed thermowells have some

degree of shielding from fuid fow near the support

point. However, the total second moment, and conse-

quently the value of G, varies little from the shielded

case when L

0

/L , 1. For typical thermowells, the values

of G

SP

evaluated using eqs. (6-10-7) and (6-10-8) will dif-

fer by less than approximately 10% if L

0

/L , 0.3.

6-10.4 Maximum Stress for Step-Shank Thermowells,

No Shielding From Flow

For a step-shank thermowell, the peak stresses may

occur either at the support plane of the thermowell or

at the base of the reduced-diameter step shank. At the

support plane, the parameter G is given as

G

L

A d A

B A B A L L

SP S

5

p 2

1 2 2

16

1

1 1

2

2

4

2

/ ( )

¸

1

]

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

( )

¸

1

] ¦ ¦

(6-10-9)

where the reduced-diameter step has length L

S

and

diameter B. At the reduced-diameter shank step, the

parameter G is given as

G

L

B d B

RD

S

5

p 2

16

1

2

2

4

/ ( )

¸

1

]

(6-10-10)

At the support plane of the thermowell, the steady-

state drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillating-

drag stresses are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-4) through

(6-10-6) and the value of G

SP

from eq. (6-10-9). At the

base of the reduced-diameter step shank, stress ampli-

tudes are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6)

and the value of G

RD

from eq. (6-10-10).

6-10.5 Maximum Stress for Step-Shank Thermowells,

Shielded From Flow

If the thermowell is shielded from fuid fow from

the thermowell support plane to a distance L

0

along the

shank, the parameter G at the support plane for a step-

shank thermowell is given as

G

L

A d A

B A B A

L L L L

SP

S

− ( )

¸

1

]

( ) + − ( )

¸

1

]

¦

− ( )

¸

1

]

− ( )

16

1

1

1

2

2

4

2

0

2

p /

¦¦

< −

− ( )

¸

1

]

− ( )

¸

1

]

≥

for

for

L L L

G

BL

A d A

L L L L

S

SP

0

2

3

4

0

2

0

16

1

1

p /

−− L

S

(6-10-11)

At the reduced-diameter shank step, eq. (6-10-10)

applies for shielding from fuid fow with L

0

, L – L

S

.

For L

0

. L – L

S

, the parameter G is given as

G

L

B d B

L L L L L L

RD S

− ( )

¸

1

]

− ( )

¸

1

]

( ) − + ( )

¸

1

]

16

1

1 2 1

2

2

4

0 0

p /

(6-10-12)

At the support plane of the thermowell, the steady-

state drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag

stresses are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6)

and the appropriate value of G

SP

from eq. (6-10-11). At the

base of the reduced-diameter step shank, stress ampli-

tudes are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6)

and the appropriate value of G

RD

from eq. (6-10-10) or

(6-10-12).

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

24

6-10.6 Partial Exposure to Fluid Flow

For thermowells with only partial exposure to the

fuid fow not covered by paras. 6-10.3 or 6-10.5, the

bending moment should be calculated by integrating

the moment created by the pressure acting on the pro-

jected area exposed to fuid fow.

6-10.7 Mounting of Thermowells in an Elbow

For thermowells mounted in an elbow and point-

ing downstream, as shown in Fig. 6-10.7-1, the exact

fow path is diffcult to model. Thus, the projected

area shall be conservatively estimated as the pro-

jected area of the thermowell if the fow were to be

normal to the thermowell axis along the length of the

thermowell exposed to fuid fow. The geometry to be

used in the calculation of thermowell ratings is given

in Fig. 6-10.7-2.

Thermowells mounted in an elbow with the tip point-

ing upstream, as shown in Fig.6-10.7-3, are often prefer-

able to a mounting with the tip pointing downstream.

Provided that the fow lines in the upstream pipe are

closely approximated as lines parallel to the pipe axis,

there is minimal transverse fuid fow near the tip of the

thermowell, with a consequent reduction of the bend-

ing moment. Tip effects are important, and the effec-

tive Strouhal number varies with the angle of fow with

respect to the thermowell axis [16]. For such an instal-

lation, calculation of the bending moment is beyond

the scope of this Standard. Predictions of the bending

moment and Strouhal number should be made by using

computational fuid dynamics or experimental meas-

urements to determine the fuid fow pattern, includ-

ing the perturbations of upstream piping elements, and

consulting reference [16] to determine the forces on the

thermowell.

6-11 PRESSURE AND SHEAR STRESSES

In addition to the bending stresses, there are the fol-

lowing stresses:

(a) radial pressure stress, S

r

(b) tangential pressure stress, S

t

(c) axial pressure stress, S

a

(d) shear stress due to fow impingement

Shear stresses are small relative to the other stresses

and should be neglected.

For an external operating pressure P, the radial and

hoop stresses at the root are given by

S

r

5 P (6-11-1)

S P

d A

d A

t

5

1

2

1

1

2

2

( / )

( / )

(6-11-2)

where d is the bore diameter of the thermowell and com-

pressive stresses have a positive sign.

The axial pressure stress is given by

S

P

d A

a

5

2 1

2

( / )

(6-11-3)

6-12 STEADY-STATE STATIC AND DYNAMIC

STRESS LIMITS

6-12.1 Overview

In addition to the hydrostatic pressure limit of sub-

section 6-13, thermowells shall meet strength criteria to

prevent fatigue failure. For conditions of low fuid veloc-

ity, as described in para. 6-3.6, the fuid does not impart

suffcient momentum to the thermowell to cause fatigue

Fig. 6-10.7-1 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow,

With the Tip Facing Downstream

L

V

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

25

Fig. 6-10.7-3 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow,

With the Tip Facing Upstream

Fig. 6-10.7-2 Geometry to Be Used in Calculation of

Thermowell Ratings

L

V

L

V

failure and only the steady-state stress limit in para.

6-12.2 shall be met. For higher fuid velocities, the ther-

mowell shall meet the requirements described in para.

6-12.2 for steady-state stresses and paras. 6-12.3 and

6-12.4 for dynamic stresses. Paragraph 6-12.5 describes

the special case of thermowells designed for operation

at fuid velocities where the Strouhal frequency exceeds

the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell.

6-12.2 Steady-State Stress Limits

The steady-state loading from the combined effects of

hydrostatic fuid pressure and nonoscillating drag produces

a point of maximum stress, S

max

, in the thermowell located

on the outer surface of the thermowell, at the downstream

side of the base of the thermowell, along the axial direction

of the thermowell. For design, S

max

is given by

S

max

5 S

D

1 S

a

(6-12-1)

Using the Von Mises criteria for failure, the applied

stresses S

max

, S

r

, and S

t

should satisfy

S S S S S S

S

r t t r max max

2 1 2 1 2

#

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2

1 5 .

(6-12-2)

where

S 5 maximum allowable stress of the material, as

specifed by the governing code

For combinations of materials and operating temper-

ature not covered by the governing code, stress limits

shall be established by test. Note that for service at ele-

vated temperatures for extended periods, creep rate and

creep rupture limit the allowable stress to values signif-

cantly below the stress limits obtained from short-term

yield-strength tests.

6-12.3 Dynamic Stress Limits

The dynamic stresses are the result of periodic drag

forces that cause the thermowell to oscillate in the direc-

tion of the stream and periodic lift forces that cause it to

oscillate in the transverse direction. The dynamic stress

amplitude shall not exceed the high-cycle maximum

allowable stress amplitude. The peak oscillatory bend-

ing stress amplitude, S

o,max

, is taken as the amplitude of

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

26

the two components added in quadrature, amplifed by

a stress concentration factor, K

t

:

S K S S

o, t d L max

5 1

2 2

1 2

( )

/

(6-12-3)

The thermowell design should be evaluated for

fatigue in accordance with ASME BPVC, Section VIII,

Division 2, Part 5, independent of the requirements of

para. 6-12.3. Alternatively, the thermowell design should

be evaluated for fatigue in accordance with the require-

ments of para. 6-12.3.

In the absence of more directly applicable data, the

following should be used:

(a) A stress concentration factor of K

t

5 2.2 should be

used in the absence of specifc dimensional details of the

fllet at the base of the thermowell.

(b) Threaded connections shall use a stress concentra-

tion factor of K

t

5 2.3 as a minimum.

(c) For known fllet radii b and root diameter A, K

t

shall be obtained from

K A b A b

K A b

t

t

5 1

5 $

1 1 0 033 33

2 2 33

. . / /

. /

( ) < for

for

(6-12-4)

The peak oscillatory bending stress amplitude S

o,max

shall not exceed the fatigue-endurance limit, adjusted

for temperature and environmental effects:

S F F S

o, T E f max

, ⋅ ⋅ (6-12-5)

where S

f

is the allowable fatigue-stress amplitude limit

in air at room temperature. F

E

is an environmental factor

(F

E

# 1) allowing designers to adjust fatigue limits, when

appropriate, for environmental effects such as corrosive

service. ASME B31.1, Power Piping, Appendices IV

and V provide guidance on corrosion control and piping

corrosion. F

T

is a temperature correction factor given by

F

T

5 E(T)/E

ref

(6-12-6)

where E(T) is the elastic modulus at the operation tem-

perature. For material class A (see Table 6-12.3-1), E

ref

equals 202 GPa (29.3 3 10

6

psi), except for the low-Cr

alloys, for which E

ref

equals 213 GPa (30.9 3 10

6

psi).

For material class B (see Table 6-12.3-1), E

ref

equals

195 GPa (28.3 3 10

6

psi), except for the nickel–copper

alloys, for which E

ref

equals 179 GPa (26.0 3 10

6

psi).

Because the natural frequency of thermowells is typi-

cally hundreds of hertz, the total number of fatigue cycles

can readily exceed 10

11

during the thermowell lifetime

and S

f

should be evaluated at the design-cycle limit. In

the absence of more directly applicable data, the values of

S

f

in the high-cycle limit in Table 6-12.3-1 should be used

for a design life of 10

11

cycles for typical hydrocarbon and

steam environments. Use of the values in Table 6-12.3-1

for other environments or at temperatures in excess of

427°C (800°F) may require a reduction in the environmen-

tal factor F

E

to account for corrosion or related effects.

When thermowells are welded into a pipe or adaptor

of different composition than the thermowell, the value

of S

f

shall be the smaller of the values for the two met-

als. The designer shall consider the effects on fatigue

strength of the dissimilar weld and thermal-expansion

mismatch between the materials.

For materials not covered by Table 6-12.3-1 or ASME

BPVC Section VIII, Division 2, fatigue-strength ampli-

tude limits shall be established by test. Testing shall

be in accordance with the provisions of ASME BPVC

Section VIII, Division 2, Annex 5.F. A fatigue analysis in

Table 6-12.3-1 Allowable Fatigue-Stress Amplitude Limits for Material Class A and Class B

Thermowell Material Class Metal State at Location of Maximum Stress Value of S

f

, ksi/MPa

A As-welded [Note (1)] or threaded 3.0 / 20.7

A Welded, then machined [Note (2)] 4.7 / 32.4

A No welds [Note (3)] 7.0 / 48.3

B As-welded [Note (1)] or threaded 5.4 / 37.2

B Welded, then machined [Note (2)] 9.1 / 62.8

B No welds [Note (3)] 13.6 / 93.8

GENERAL NOTES:

(a) Class A is carbon, low-alloy, series 4XX, and high-alloy steels not covered in class B.

(b) Class B is series 3XX high-alloy steels, nickel–chromium–iron alloy, nickel–iron–chromium alloy, and nickel–copper alloys.

NOTES:

(1) Location of maximum stress coincides with either a welded joint or associated heat-affected zone [e.g., a weld-in thermowell, as shown in

Fig. 4-1-4, illustration (d)].

(2) Location of maximum stress coincides with either a welded joint or associated heat-affected zone, which has been machined to a smooth

surface subsequent to welding [e.g., a fanged thermowell, as shown in Fig. 4-1-4, illustration (c)]. The welded joint must be a full-penetra-

tion weld, and visual and magnetic-particle or liquid-dye-penetrant examination is required after machining. In the absence of full-penetra-

tion welds and/or weld inspection, “as welded” values for S

f

should be used.

(3) Location of maximum stress is a smooth, machined surface and does not coincide with either welded joint or associated heat-affected zone

(e.g., a lap-joint thermowell).

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

27

accordance with ASME BPVC Section VIII, Division 2,

Part 5 (latest edition) is required for conditions outside

the scope of Table 6-12.3-1.

The values in Table 6-12.3-1 are evaluated for 10

11

fatigue cycles. For thermowells subject to a lower number

of cycles over the design lifetime, the designer should use

fatigue data for the appropriate number of cycles.

6-12.4 Maximum-Stress Locations for Step-Shank

Thermowells

For step-shank thermowells, the stress criteria [eqs.

(6-12-2) and (6-12-5)] shall be evaluated for the follow-

ing two locations:

(a) at the support plane of the thermowell

(b) at the root of the reduced-diameter portion of the

shank

First, evaluate the stress at the thermowell support

plane, using the procedures described in subsection 6-10.

Second, evaluate the stress at the root of the reduced-di-

ameter portion of the shank, substituting (B/b

s

) for (A/b)

in eq. (6-12-4), where b

s

is the fllet radius at this root.

6-12.5 Supercritical Operation

It is recognized that where the fuid density is low,

namely low-pressure gases with densities less than 1 kg/

m

3

(0.06 lb/ft

3

), it is possible to design a thermowell for

supercritical operation, defned as an operation where

the Strouhal frequency exceeds the natural frequency

of the mounted thermowell: f

S

. f

n

c

. Finite-element and

modal analysis methods are generally required, but

in principle, if the stresses of the lowest-order mode

at the lift resonance condition are well below both the

maximum allowable stress (static loads) and the fatigue

allowable stress (dynamic loads), then the second order

mode should be considered as a basis for thermowell

design and selection. The success of such operation is

dependent on many factors and shall be handled on a

case-by-case basis. Supercritical operation is discour-

aged in performance testing of rotating equipment.

6-13 PRESSURE LIMIT

The external pressure rating of the thermowell shall

be determined as follows:

Step 1. For pressure ratings less than 103 MPa (15 ksi),

use UG-28 of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME

BPVC to calculate the allowable external pressure, P

c

,

(as defned in UG-28) for a cylinder of outer diameter B,

inner diameter d, and length L for straight and tapered

thermowells, or length L

s

for step-shank thermowells.

As a simplifed alternative, and for materials not cov-

ered by UG-28, the allowable external pressure should

be calculated as

P S

B B d

c

5

2

2 0 66

2 167

2

0 0833 .

.

/

.

( )

¸

1

]

1

1

(6-13-1)

where

S = the maximum allowable stress of the governing

code

The value of P

c

calculated by eq. (6-13-1) may be as

much as 17% lower than the value calculated by UG-28

for some materials at some temperatures.

At temperatures beyond the limits established by

UG-28, designers should use eq. (6-13-1). In determining

the appropriate value of S, designers should consider

the possibility of creep buckling, especially for the larger

values of d/B allowed by Tables 4-1-1 and 4-2-1.

For high-pressure [. 103 MPa (15 ksi)] service, use

ASME BPVC Section VIII, Division 3, or ASME B31.3,

Chapter IX.

Step 2. The minimum tip thickness, t, (see Fig. 4-1-1)

shall always be equal to or greater than the minimum

wall thickness of the shank. (Refer to Tables 4-1-1 and

4-2-1 for minimum allowed wall thickness.) Calculate

the allowable pressure, P

t

, for the thickness t using

P

S t

d

t

5

0 13

2

.

¸

¸

_

,

(6-13-2)

where

d 5 thermowell bore diameter

S 5 maximum allowable stress

Step 3. The external pressure rating, P

r

, of the

thermowell is the minimum of P

c

, P

t

, and P

f

for

fange thermowells, or the minimum of P

c

and P

t

for

other types of thermowells. The external pressure rat-

ing shall exceed the maximum operating pressure, P.

For a fanged or a lap-joint (Van Stone) thermowell,

determine the allowable pressure of the fange, P

f

, in

accordance with ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flange

Fittings, or the governing code. De-rate the fange to

the minimum of P

t

and P

c

if P

f

. P

t

or P

c

. The maximum

allowable operating pressure of the fange, P

f

, shall

be in accordance with ASME B16.5 or the governing

code unless P

t

, P

f

or P

c

, P

f

, in which case P

f

shall be

reduced to the minimum of P

t

and P

c

.

The design pressure shall be calculated at the temper-

ature of the operating condition. More than one oper-

ating condition may require calculations at multiple

temperatures.

Copyright

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

28

Section 7

Overview of Calculations

7-1 QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA

There are four quantitative criteria that the thermowell

shall meet to be ft for service.

(a) Frequency Limit. The resonance frequency of the

thermowell shall be suffciently high so that destructive

oscillations are not excited by the fuid fow.

(b) Dynamic Stress Limit. The maximum primary

dynamic stress shall not exceed the allowable fatigue

stress limit.

(c) Static Stress Limit. The maximum steady-state

stress on the thermowell shall not exceed the allowable

stress, as determined by the Von Mises criteria.

(d) Hydrostatic Pressure Limit. The external pressure

shall not exceed the pressure ratings of the thermowell

tip, shank, and fange.

In addition, the suitability of the thermowell material for

the process environment (section 5) shall be considered.

7-2 FLUID PROPERTIES

Collect the following fuid properties:

P 5 operating pressure, Pa (psi)

T 5 operating temperature, 8C (8F)

V 5 process-fuid velocity, m/s (in./sec)

v 5 specifc volume (reciprocal of the fuid density ),

m

3

/kg (in.

3

/lb)

m 5 dynamic fuid viscosity, Pa⋅s (lbf⋅sec/ft

2

), or

v 5 kinematic fuid viscosity, m

2

/s (ft

2

/sec)

5 fuid density, kg/m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

As noted in para. 6-4.1, viscosity is not needed if

eq. (6-4-4) is used to specify the Strouhal number. In deter-

mining the process-fuid velocity, the designer should

consider variations in the fuid velocity due to start-up

or shutdown conditions (para. 6-3.3), valve operations,

or other deviations from steady-state operation.

7-3 FLUID VELOCITY

Determine whether the fuid velocity is suffciently

low that no calculations other than the external pressure

limit need to be performed (para. 6-3.6).

7-4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DIMENSIONS

Collect thermowell material properties and

dimensions.

7-4.1 Necessary Dimensions

Necessary dimensions include

A 5 outside diameter of thermowell at support plane

or root, m (in.)

B 5 outside diameter at tip of thermowell, m (in.)

b 5 fllet radius at root base of thermowell, m (in.)

b

S

5 fllet radius at the base of the reduced-diameter

length of a step-shank thermowell, m (in.)

d 5 bore diameter of thermowell, m (in.)

L 5 unsupported length of thermowell, m (in.)

L

S

5 length of reduced-diameter shank for a step-shank

thermowell, m (in.)

t 5 minimum tip thickness of the thermowell, m (in.)

Values of A, b, and L may depend on details of the

installation (see subsection 6-7), such as the weld geom-

etry or the use of weld adaptors.

7-4.2 Material Properties

Necessary material properties of the thermowell

include

E 5 modulus of elasticity at service temperature, Pa (psi)

S 5 maximum allowable working stress, Pa (psi)

S

f

5 fatigue endurance limit, in the high-cycle limit, Pa

(psi)

m

5 mass density of the thermowell material, kg/m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

Material properties do not need to be known to bet-

ter than 1% of the property value for mass density, 5%

for elastic modulus, and 10% for stress and endurance

limits. Any interpolation of values in tables or fgures

should follow the methods recommended by the source

of the tables.

Necessary properties of the temperature sensor

installed in the thermowell include

s

5 density of the

temperature sensor, kg/m

3

(lb/in.

3

)

The temperature-sensor density enters into the calcu-

lations only as a small correction, and the default values

of para. 6-5.3 may be used.

7-4.3 Temperature Dependence of Properties

Evaluate the thermowell material density and all of

the thermowell dimensions at ambient temperature.

Fluid properties, the elastic modulus of the thermowell

material, and the stress- and fatigue-amplitude limits

shall all be evaluated at the operating temperature.

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c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

29

7-4.4 Installation Details

Necessary details of the installation include

K

M

5 rotational stiffness of thermowell support,

(N⋅m)/rad [(in.-lb)/rad]

See subsection 6-6 for additional information on the

factor K

M

. Subsection 6-7 discusses determination of val-

ues of L, A, and b for various installation types.

7-5 REYNOLDS AND STROUHAL NUMBERS

Calculate the Reynolds number and Strouhal number

characterizing the fuid fow (para. 6-4.1). Obtain the

coeffcients of lift and drag characterizing fuid forces

on the thermowell (para. 6-4.2).

7-6 NATURAL FREQUENCY AT OPERATION

TEMPERATURE

Calculate the natural frequency of the mounted ther-

mowell at operation temperature (subsection 6-5). This

calculation consists of the following steps:

Step 1. Calculate the approximate natural frequency.

Step 2. Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for

deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory.

Step 3. Correct for sensor and fuid mass.

Step 4. Correct for foundation compliance.

7-7 NATURAL FREQUENCY AT EXPECTED MODE OF

OPERATION

Determine if the natural frequency of the mounted

thermowell is suffciently high for the expected mode

of operation (subsection 6-8). For the general case, this

determination will require calculation of the maximum

stresses, as described in subsection 7-8.

7-8 STEADY-STATE AND DYNAMIC STRESSES

Calculate the maximum steady-state and dynamic

stresses at the support plane of the thermowell (subsec-

tions 6-10 and 6-11). For step-shank thermowells, repeat

this calculation at the root of the reduced-diameter por-

tion of the shank.

7-9 ALLOWABLE FATIGUE LIMITS

Determine if the stresses exceed allowable fatigue

limits (subsection 6-12).

7-10 PRESSURE RATING

Calculate the pressure rating of the thermowell, based

on the pressure rating of the tip, thermowell shank, and

any fange (subsection 6-13). Determine if the pressure

rating exceeds the design pressure.

Copyright

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c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

30

Section 8

Examples

NOTE: In the following examples, intermediate results are given

for the multistep calculations. Although intermediate results are

rounded to four signifcant digits in the text for clarity, numeri-

cal calculations were performed for the full chain of calculations

without rounding.

8-1 TAPERED, WELDED THERMOWELL FOR

A STEAM-HEADER APPLICATION (U.S.

CUSTOMARY UNITS)

8-1.1 Application, Properties, Dimensions, and

Installation

Consider a thermowell for a steam bypass line, for use

under ASME B31.1, Power Piping.

8-1.1.1 Steam Properties

(a) superheated steam pressure: P 5 235 psig

(b) operating temperature: T 5 4508F

(c) normal fow condition: V 5 295 ft/sec

(d) steam density: 5 0.499 lb/ft

3

(e) viscosity: 5 0.0171 cP, or using the conversion fac-

tor 1 cP 5 6.7197 3 10

24

lb/(ftsec), 5 1.149 3 10

25

lb/

(ftsec)

8-1.1.2 Thermowell Dimensions. The thermowell

has a tapered shank, with a machined fllet at the root of

the shank, which is also the support plane. For this high-

velocity application, the thermowell is welded directly

into the process piping, with the support plane in the

heat-affected zone of the weld. The nominal insertion

of the thermowell into the process stream is 4 in. The

unsupported length, L, exceeds this nominal length due

to the possible incomplete penetration of the weld [see

Fig. 6-6-1, illustration (e)].

(a) root diameter: A 5 1.5 in.

(b) tip diameter: B 5 1.0 in.

(c) fllet radius at base: b 5 0.0 in.

(d) bore: d 5 0.26 in.

(e) unsupported length: L 5 4.06 in.

(f) minimum wall thickness: t 5 0.188 in

8-1.1.3 Materials Properties. The material of con-

struction is ASTM A 105 carbon steel [18], with the fol-

lowing properties:

(a) from ASME B31.1, Table C-1 (interpolated in tem-

perature), modulus of elasticity at service temperature:

E 5 27.5 3 10

6

psi

(b) from ASME B31.1, Table A-1, maximum allowable

working stress: S 5 19,800 psi

(c) thermowell construction is welded, then machined,

so from Table 6-12.3-1 (Class A, welded), fatigue endur-

ance limit, in the high-cycle limit: S

f

5 3,000 psi

(d) from reference [19], mass density of carbon steel:

m

5 0.284 lb/in.

3

8-1.1.4 Installation Details. For the rotational stiff-

ness of the thermowell support, K

M

, we will assume the

thermowell is mounted to a thick-wall pipe (subsection

6-6) and will use eq. (6-6-5).

For the average density of the temperature sensor, we

will use the default value found in para. 6-5.3, Step 5,

s

5 169 lb/ft

3

.

8-1.1.5 Reynolds and Strouhal Numbers. The Reynolds

number is calculated [eq. (6-4-3)] as

Re

VB

5 5

3

2

295 1 0 0 499

1 149

5

ft/sec in. lb/ft

10 lb/ f

3

( ) ( ) . ( . )

. tt sec in/ft ⋅ ( )

¸

1

]

( )

×

12

1 068 10

6

5 .

For this example, Re . 5 3 10

5

, and either eq. (6-4-2)

or (6-4-4) gives the Strouhal number N

S

5 0.22.

The force coeffcients using eq. (6-4-5) are

C

D

5 1.4

C

d

5 0.1

C

l

5 1.0

8-1.2 Natural Frequency Calculation

Step 1. Approximate natural frequency [eq. (6-5-1)]:

I 5 p(D

a

4

2 d

4

)/64

5 p[(1.25 in.)

4

2 (0.26 in.)

4

]/64

5 0.1196 in.

4

m 5

m

p(D

a

2

2 d

2

)/4

5 (0.284 lb/in.

3

) p[(1.25 in.)

2

2 (0.26 in.)

2

]/4

5 0.3334 lb/in.

where

D

a

5 (1.5 in. + 1.0 in.)/2 5 1.25 in.

Calculate the approximate natural frequency of the

thermowell as

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

31

f

EI

m L

a

5

p

5

p

3

1 875

2

1

1 875

2

27 5 10

2

1 2

2

2 6

.

. ( .

/

¸

¸

_

,

**psi)[386.088 iin.-lb/(lbf sec (0.1196 in.
**

lb/in.

2 4

⋅

¸

1

]

1

1

)] )

.

(

/

0 3334

1

1 2

44 06

2 095

2

. )

,

in.

Hz 5

where

E 5 the elastic modulus at the operating temperature

I 5 p(D

a

4

2 d

4

)/64, which is the second moment of

inertia

L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell

m 5

m

p(D

a

2

2 d

2

)/4, which is the mass per unit

length of the thermowell

The conversion factor 386.088 in.-lb 5 1 lbfsec

2

is nec-

essary when E is given in units of pounds per square

inch (equivalent to lbf/in.

2

). (See para. 6-5.3, Step 2, and

Nonmandatory Appendix A.)

Step 2. Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for

deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory:

H

B A B A

D L

f

a

d D

5

5

2

0 99 1 1 1

1 1 1

0 9

2

3 1 0 8

.

.

.

[ . ( / )]

− ( ) − ( )

¸

1

]

( )

/ /

/

a

99 1 1 0 6667 1 0 6667

1 1 1 0 3079

2

3 1 0 8 0 2080

2

2

− ( ) ( )

¸

1

]

( )

. .

. .

[ . ( . )]]

. 51 352

where

B/A 5 (1.0 in.)/(1.5 in.) 5 0.6667

D

a

/L 5 (1.25 in.)/(4.06 in.) 5 0.3079

d/D

a

5 (0.26 in.)/(1.25 in.) 5 0.2080

Step 3. Correct for the fuid mass:

H

a f

m

,

3

3 3 3

0.499 lb/ft

2 0.284 lb/in. in. /ft

5

5

1

2

1

1 728

−

−

( )

( )

, (( )

50 9995 .

Step 4. Correct for the sensor mass:

H

D d

a s

m

,

s

a

3

169 lb/ft

2 0.284 lb/in.

5 2

2

5 2

1

2

1

1

1

2

/ ( )

¸

1

]

1

1

( )

33 3

in. /ft ( ) ( )

¸

¸

_

,

1 728

1

4 808 1

0 9922

3 2

, .

.

2

5

where

D

a

/d 5 (1.25 in.)/(0.26 in.) 5 4.808

Step 5. The lowest-order natural frequency of the ther-

mowell with ideal support [eq. (6-5-6)] is given by

f

n

5 H

f

H

a,f

H

a,s

f

a

5 (1.352)(0.9995)(0.9922)(2,095 Hz)

5 2,809 Hz

Step 6. Correct for foundation compliance [eq. (6-6-5)]:

H

A L

b A

c

5 2

5 2

5

1 0 61

1 1 5

1 0 61

0 3695

1 1 5 0

2

2

( . )

( / )

[ . ( / )]

( . )

( . )

[ . ( )]

00 7746 .

where

A/L 5 (1.5 in.)/(4.06 in.) 5 0.3695

b/A 5 (0.0 in.)/(1.5 in.) 5 0.0

The in situ natural frequency of the mounted ther-

mowell [eq. (6-6-1)] is given as

f H f

n

c

c n

5

5

5

( . )( ,

,

0 7746 2 809

2 176

H )

Hz

z

8-1.3 Scruton Number Calculation

Because the Reynolds number exceeds 10

5

, the general

frequency limits of para. 6-8.3 apply and no calculation

of Scruton number is needed. The calculation is included

here as an example. We take a conservative value of 0.0005

for the damping factor, , used in eq. (6-8-1):

N d B

Sc m

5 2

5

p

p

2 2

2

1

0 0005

0 499

( )

¸

1

]

( / )

( . )

.

0.284 lb/in.

lb/f

3

tt ft /in.

3 3 3

( )( )

¸

1

]

1

1

( )

5 787 10

1 0 2600

4 525

4

2

.

.

.

3

2

5

2

where

d/B 5 (0.26 in.)/(1.0 in.) 5 0.26

Although N

Sc

is greater than 2.5, the Reynolds number

exceeds 10

5

, and the in-line resonance cannot be assumed

to be suppressed.

8-1.4 Frequency Limit Calculation

Step 1. From eq. (6-4-1), the vortex shedding rate with

a Strouhal number of N

S

5 0.22 and at the normal fow

condition is

f

N V

B

S

S

5

5

5

( . )(

.

0 22 295

778 8

ft/sec)(12 in./ft)

(1.0 in.)

Hz

Step 2. Check that the natural frequency of the mounted

thermowell is suffciently high. In the present example,

the thermowell passes the most stringent frequency

limit [eq. 6-8-7)]:

f f

S n

c

5

0 4

7

.

78.8 Hz 870.2 Hz 0.4(2,176 Hz)

In this case, no calculation of cyclic stress at in-line

resonance is needed, because the forced or Strouhal

frequency is less than the in-line resonance frequency.

However, for the sake of completeness, calculation of

this quantity is included in para. 8-1.5.

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

32

8-1.5 Cyclic Stress at the In-Line Resonance

Step 1. Use eqs. (6-8-3) and (6-8-4) to establish the fow

velocity corresponding to the in-line resonance:

V

Bf

N

IR

n

c

S

5

5

5

2

2

1 0 12 2 176

2 0 22

412 0

1

( . )( ) ,

( . )

.

in. in./ft Hz

ft

( )

//sec

Step 2. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the root. The mag-

nifcation factor, F ’

M

, for the drag or in-line resonance is

set at 1,000 [see paras. 6-8.3, Step 1; and 6-9.2]. Begin by

evaluating the value of G

SP

using eq. (6-10-7):

G

L

A d A

B A

SP

5

p 2

5

p

16

3 1

1 2

16 4 06

3 1 5

2

2

4

2

/

( )

( .

( .

( )

¸

1

]

[ ]

in.)

in.)

22

1 0 1733

1 2 0 6667

29 05

2

2

5

.

( . )

.

( )

[ ]

where

d/A 5 (0.26 in.)/(1.5 in.) 5 0.1733

From eq. (6-3-3), the force per unit area due to cyclic drag is

P C V

d d IR

5

5

3

2

1

2

1

2

0 499 5 787 10 0 1

2

4

. . ( . ) lb/ft ft /in.

[38

3 3 3

( ) ( )

66.088 in.-lb/(lbf sec

ft/sec)(12 in./ft)

0.9

2

5

)]

( . 412 0

2

[ ]

1143 psi

where the conversion factor 386.088 in.-lb 5 1 lbfsec

2

is

included to give a fnal answer in units of pounds per

square inch (psi).

The cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag [eq. (6-10-6)] at

the in-line resonance condition are

S G F P

M d SP d

5

5

5

’

. ( , )( .

,

29 05 1 000 0 9143

26 560

psi)

psi

Step 3. Evaluate the stress concentration factor from

eq. (6-12-4):

K

t

52 2 .

Step 4. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses, with lift

stress set to zero [eq. (6-12-3)]:

S K S S K S

o t d L t d ,max

psi

5 5

5

2 2

1 2

58 430

+ ( )

/

,

Step 5. Evaluate the temperature de-rating factor from

eq. (6-12-6):

F E T E

T

5

5

3

3

5

( ) /

.

.

.

ref

psi

psi

27 5 10

29 3 10

0 9386

6

6

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as

unity for steam service.

Step 6. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( ,

,

0 9386 1 0 3 000

2 816

psi)

psi

The fatigue stress limit, 2,816 psi, is less than the com-

bined stress, 58,430 psi. The thermowell would not pass

the cyclic stress condition for steady-state operation at

the in-line resonance, corresponding to a fuid velocity

of 412 ft/sec, if the vortex shedding frequency, f

s

, had

been greater than 0 4 . f

n

c

(see para. 8-1.4, Step 2).

8-1.6 Steady-State Stress at the Design Velocity

Step 1. Evaluate the radial, tangential, and axial stresses

due to the external pressure, at the location of maximum

stress [eqs.(6-11-1) through (6-11-3)]:

S P

r

5 5235 psi

S P

d A

d A

t

5

2

5

2

5

1

1

235

1 0 1733

1 0 1733

2

2

2

2

( / )

( / )

(

( . )

( . )

psi)

249.66 psi

S

P

d A

a

5

2

5

2

5

1

235

1

1 0 1733

2 2

( / )

(

( . )

psi)

242.3 psi

Step 2. Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the root.

First, evaluate the steady-state drag force per unit

area:

P C V

D D

5

5

3

2

1

2

1

2

0 499 5 787 10 1 4

2

4

. . ( . ) lb/ft ft /in.

[386.

3 3 3

( ) ( )

0088 in.-lb/(lbf sec

ft/sec)(12 in./ft)

6.561 p

2

5

)]

(295

2

[ ]

ssi

where the conversion factor 386.088 in.-lb 5 1 lbfsec

2

is

included to give a fnal answer in units of pounds per

square inch (psi).

Step 3. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag

force [eq. (6-10-4)]:

S G P

D SP D

5

5

5

29 05 6 561

190 6

. ( .

.

psi)

psi

Step 4. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the

stress limit at the root, compute the maximum stress

given by eq. (6-12-1):

S S S

max

.

5

5

D a

432 9 psi

Step 5. Compute the left-hand side (LHS) of the Von

Mises criteria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

LHS

psi

5

2 2

5

S S S S S S

max max

.

r t t r

( ) ( ) + − ( )

2 2 2

2

191 0

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

33

Step 6. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand

side (RHS) of the Von Mises criteria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

RHS

psi)

29,700 psi

5

5

5

1 5

1 5 19 800

.

. ( ,

S

The Von Mises stress, 191 psi, does not exceed the

stress limit, 29,700 psi, and the thermowell passes the

steady-state stress criterion.

8-1.7 Dynamic Stress at the Design Velocity

Step 1. The magnifcation factors for the lift (transverse)

and drag (in-line) resonances are given by eqs. (6-9-1)

and (6-9-2), respectively:

r

f

f

F

r

5 5 5

5

2

5

2

5

s

n

c

M

7

0 3580

1

1

1

1 0 3580

1 147

2 2

78.8 Hz

2,176 Hz

.

.

.

′

( )

′

− ( )

r

f

f

F

5 5 5

5 5

2 2 778 8

0 7159

1

1 0 7159

2 052

2

s

n

c

M

.

.

.

.

Hz

2,176 Hz

Step 2. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at the

root. Using eq. (6-3-3), calculate the force per unit area

due to cyclic drag and lift:

P C V

d d

5

5

3

2

1

2

1

2

0 499 5 787 10 0 1

2

4

. . ( . ) lb/ft ft /in.

[386.

3 3 3

( )( )

0088 in.-lb/(lbf sec

ft/sec)(12 in./ft)

0.468

2

5

)]

(295

2

[ ]

66 psi

P CV

l l

5

5

3

2

1

2

1

2

0 499 5 787 10 1 0

2

4

. . ( . ) lb/ft ft /in.

[386.

3 3 3

( )( )

0088 in.-lb/(lbf sec

ft/sec)(12 in./ft)

4.686

2

5

)]

(295

2

[ ]

psi

The cyclic stresses due to drag and lift [eqs. (6-10-5)

and (6-10-6)] are

S G F P

d SP M d

5

5

5

’

( . )( . )( .

.

29 05 2 052 0 4686

27 93

psi)

psi

S G F P

l SP M l

5

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

29 05 1 147 4 686

156 1

psi)

psi

The concentration factor is identical to the value cal-

culated in 8-1.5, Step 3, K

t

5 2.2.

Step 3. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses

[eq. (6-12-3)]:

S K S S

o t d L ,max

27.93 psi 156.1 psi

5

5

5

2 2

1 2

2 2

1 2

2 2

( )

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

/

/

.

3348 9 . psi

Step 4. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to

the value calculated in para. 8-1.5, Step 5, F

T

5 0.9386.

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as unity

for steam service.

Step 5. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( ,

,

0 9386 1 0 3 000

2 816

psi)

psi

The predicted stress of 348.9 psi is below the fatigue

stress limit, and the thermowell passes the dynamic

stress criterion.

8-1.8 Pressure Stress

Step 1. Compute the external pressure rating for the

shank using eq. (6-13-1):

P S

B B d

c

5

2

2

5

0 66

2 167

2

0 0833

0 66 19 800

2 167

2

.

.

/

.

. ( , )

.

(

( )

¸

1

]

1

psi

11 0

0 0833

9 389

.

.

,

in.)/(1.0 in. 0.26 in.)

psi

2

2

5

¸

1

]

1

Step 2. Compute the external pressure rating for the tip

using eq. (6-13-2):

P

S t

d

t

5

5

5

0 13

19 800

0 13

0 188

0 26

7

2

2

.

,

.

.

.

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

psi in.

in.

99 630 , psi

The pressure rating for the thermowell is the lesser

of P

t

and P

c

, which is 9,389 psi in the present case. This

rating exceeds the 235-psi operating pressure, and the

thermowell passes the external pressure criterion.

8-2 STEP-SHANK, THREADED THERMOWELL FOR

A HOT WATER APPLICATION (SI UNITS)

8-2.1 Application, Properties, Dimensions, and

Installation

Consider a thermowell for a heated-water applica-

tion, for use under ASME B31.1, Power Piping.

8-2.1.1 Fluid Properties

(a) operating pressure: P 5 0.400 MPa (gauge

pressure)

(b) operating temperature: T 5 858C

(c) normal fow condition: V 5 10 m/s

(d) density: 5 968.8 kg/m

3

(e) viscosity: 5 3.334 3 10

24

Pas 5 3.334 3 10

24

kg/

(ms).

Density and viscosity values were obtained from

reference [9], based on the operating pressure and

temperature.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

34

The Reynolds number is calculated [eq. (6-4-3)] as

Re

VB

5 5

3

5

2

1 0 0127 968 8

3 334

3

4

0 m/s m kg/m

10 Pa s

3

( ) ( ) ( )

⋅ ( )

. .

.

..690 10

5

×

For this example, the Strouhal number is calculated

using eq. (6-4-2) as

N Re Re

S

5 2 0 213 0 0248 1 300 0 0095 1 300

10

2

10

. . Log / . Log / ( )

¸

1

]

( )

¸

1

]]

( )

¸

1

]

3

10

5

2

10

0 213 0 0248 3 690 10 1 300 0 0095

3 69

5 2 3 . . Log . / .

Log . 00 10 1 300

0 2040

5

3

3

5

/

.

( )

¸

1

]

and the force coeffcients using eq. (6-4-5) are

C

D

5 1.4

C

d

5 0.1

C

L

5 1.0

8-2.1.2 Thermowell Dimensions. The thermowell

has a step shank with a threaded base, as shown in Fig.

4-1-3, illustration (a).

(a) root diameter: A 5 0.0222 m

(b) tip diameter: B 5 0.0127 m

(c) fllet radius at support plane: b 5 0 m

(d) fllet radius at base of step: b

s

5 0.0032 m

(e) bore: d 5 0.0066 m

(f) unsupported length: L 5 0.19 m

(g) length of reduced-diameter shank: L

s

5 0.0635 m

(h) minimum wall thickness: t 5 0.0048 m

8-2.1.3 Materials Properties. The material of con-

struction is ASTM A 182 F316 stainless steel [20], with

properties as follows:

(a) from ASME B31.1, Table C-1 (interpolated in tem-

perature), modulus of elasticity at service temperature :

E 5 1.91 3 10

5

MPa 5 1.91 3 10

11

Pa

(b) from ASME B31.1, Table C-1 (interpolated in tem-

perature), modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature:

E 5 1.95 3 10

5

MPa

(c) from ASME B31.1, Table A-3 (interpolated in

temperature), maximum allowable working stress:

S 5 122 MPa

(d) thermowell construction is threaded base, so from

Table 6-12.3-1 (Class B, threaded), fatigue stress ampli- fatigue stress ampli-

tude limit: S

f

5 37.2 MPa

(e) from reference [19], mass density of F316 steel at

ambient temperature:

m

5 8 000 kg/m

3

8-2.1.4 Installation Details. For the rotational stiff-

ness of the thermowell support, K

M

, we will assume the

thermowell is mounted to a rigid fange (see subsection

6-6) and will use eq. (6-7-1) to evaluate the correction

factor on the natural frequency.

For the average density of the temperature sensor,

we will use the default value from para. 6-5.3, Step 5,

s

5 2 700 kg/m

3

.

8-2.2 Natural Frequency Calculation

Step 1. Approxiate natural frequency [eq. (6-5-1)]:

I 5 p (D

a

4

2 d

4

)/64

5 p[(0.0222 m)

4

2 (0.0066 m)

4

]/64

5 1.183310

28

m

4

m 5

m

p(D

a

2

2 d

2

)/4

5 (8 000 kg/m

3

) p[(0.0222 m)

2

2 (0.0066 m)

2

]/4

5 2.823 kg/m

where

D

a

5 A 5 0.0222 m

Calculate the approximate natural frequency of the

thermowell as

f

EI

m L

a

5

p

5

p

3 3

1 875

2

1

1 875

2

1 91 10

2

1 2

2

2 11

.

. ( .

/

¸

¸

_

,

Pa)(1.183 10

22

5

8 4

m

.823 kg/m m

Hz

)

( . )

.

/

2

1

0 19

438 5

1 2

2

¸

1

]

1

where

E 5 the elastic modulus at the operating temperature

I 5 p(D

a

4

2 d

4

)/64, which is the second moment of

inertia

L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell

m 5

m

p (D

a

2

2 d

2

)/4, which is the mass per unit

length of the thermowell

Step 2. Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for

deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory:

y c A B c L L c A B c

1 1 2 3 4

1 407 1 748 0 839 0 3

5

5 2

( / ) ( / ) ( / )

. ( . ) . .

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

s

3342 0 022 1 748 1 022

1 525

2 5 6 7

2

5

5

. ( . ) .

.

( / ) ( / ) (

[ ]

[ ] y c A B c L L c A

s

// )

. ( . ) . . . ( . ) .

B c

5 2

8

2 228 1 748 1 594 0 3342 1 313 1 748 0 362

[ ]

[ ] [ ]

55

5

5 2

5

5

2

1 888

8 299 1 748 5 376

9 131

9 10

1

.

( / )

. ( . ) .

.

c A B c

H y y

[ ]

[ ]

f 22

1

9 131 9 131

1 9 131

1 525 1 888

1 503

2

2

2 2

2

5

5

( )

( )

/

. .

/ .

. .

.

where

A/B 5 (0.0222 m)/(0.0127 m) 5 1.748

L

s

/L 5 (0.0635 m)/(0.190 m) 5 0.3342

Step 3. Correct for the fuid mass:

H

a f

m

,

3

3

68.8 kg/m

2 8 000 kg/m

5 2

5 2

5

1

2

1

9

0 9395

( )

( )

.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

35

Step 4. Correct for the sensor mass:

H

D d

a

a s

s

m

,

3

3

2 700 kg/m

2 8 000 kg/m

5 2

2

5 2

1

2

1

1

1

2

/ ( )

¸

¸

_

,

( )

(( )

¸

¸

_

,

1

3 364 1

0 9836

2

.

.

2

5

where

D

a

/d 5 (0.0222 m)/(0.0066 m) 5 3.364

Step 5. The lowest-order natural frequency of the ther-

mowell with ideal support [eq. (6-5-6)] is given by

f

n

5 H

f

H

a,f

H

a,s

f

a

5 (1.503)(0.9395)(0.9836)(438.5 Hz)

5 609.1 Hz

Step 6. Correct for foundation compliance [eq. (6-7-1)]:

H A L

c

5 2

5 2

5

1 0 9

1 0 9 0 1168

0 8948

. ( / )

. ( . )

.

where

A/L 5 (0.0222 m)/(0.190 m) 5 0.1168

The in situ natural frequency of the mounted ther-

mowell [eq. (6-6-1)] is given as

f H f

n

c

c n

( . )( .

.

0 8948 609 1

545 0

Hz)

Hz

8-2.3 Scruton Number Calculation

We take a conservative value of 0.0005 for the damp-

ing factor, , used in eq. (6-8-1):

N d B

Sc m

5p 2

5p

2 2

2

1

0 0005

968 8

( )

¸

1

]

¸

( / )

( . )

.

8 000 kg/m

kg/m

3

3

¸¸

_

,

( )

1 0 5197

0 02974

2

2

5

.

.

where

d/B 5 (0.0066 m)/(0.0127 m) 5 0.5197

Because N

Sc

is less than 2.5, the in-line resonance is

not suppressed.

8-2.4 Frequency Limit Calculation

Step 1. From eq. (6-4-1), the vortex shedding rate with a

Strouhal number of N

S

5 0.2040 and at the normal fow

condition is

f

N V

B

S

S

5

5

5

( . )(

.

0 2040 10

160 6

m/s)

(0.0127 m)

Hz

Step 2. Check that the natural frequency of the mounted

thermowell is suffciently high. In the present example,

the thermowell passes the most stringent frequency

limit [eq. (6-8-7)]:

f f

S n

c

< 0 4

1

.

60.6 Hz 218.0 Hz 0.4(545.0 Hz) 5

In this case, no calculation of cyclic stress at in-line

resonance is needed, because the forced or Strouhal

frequency is less than the in-line resonance frequency.

However, for the sake of completeness, calculation of

this quantity is included in para. 8-2.5.

8-2.5 Cyclic Stress at the In-Line Resonance

The cyclic stress shall be evaluated at both the support

plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter shank.

The thermowell shall pass the cyclic stress criteria at

both locations.

8-2.5.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane

Step 1. Use eqs. (6-8-3) and (6-8-4) to establish the fow

velocity corresponding to the in-line resonance:

R Re

a R R

5

5 3

5

5 2

Log

Log

10

10

( / )

( . / )

.

( ) .

1 300

3 690 10 1 300

2 453

0 0285

5

2

00 0496

0 04983

2

1

2

.

.

( )

R

V

Bf

N

a R

N

Bf

N V

5

5

IR

n

c

S S

n

c

S

−

¸

¸

_

,

¸

Log

10

1

]

1

1

( )

5 2

( .

( . )

.

.

( 0 0127

2 0 2040

1

0 04983

0 2040

m) 545.0 Hz

Log

10

00 0127

2 0 2040 10

16 0

.

( . )(

.

m) 545.0 Hz

m/s)

( )

¸

1

]

1

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

¹

,

¹

¹

¹

5 11 m/s

Step 2. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the support plane,

which is the thermowell root in this case. The magnifca-

tion factor, F ’

M

, for the drag or in-line resonance is set at

1 000 (see paras. 6-8.3, Step 1; and 6-9.2). Begin by evalu-

ating the value of G

SP

using eq. (6-10-9):

G

L

A d A

B A B A L L

SP S

5

2

2 2

5

p

16

1

1 1

16 0

2

2

4

2

/

( .

( )

¸

1

]

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

( )

¸

1

] ¦ ¦

1190

0 0222 1 0 2973

0 5721 1 0 5721 1 0 3342

2

2 4

m)

m) p 2

2 2

( . .

. . .

( )

( )( )

22

¸

1

]

5 286.4

where

B/A 5 (0.0127 m)/(0.0222 m) 5 0.5721

d/A 5 (0.0066 m)/(0.0222 m) 5 0.2973

L

S

/L 5 (0.0635 m)/(0.190 m) 5 0.3342

From eq. (6-3-3), the force per unit area due to cyclic

drag is

P C V

d d IR

5

5

5

1

2

1

2

9 0 1 16 01

2

( )( . )( . 68.8 kg/m m/s)

12 420 Pa

3 2

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

36

Using eq. (6-10-6), the cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag

at the in-line resonance condition are

S G F P

M d SP d

5

5

5 3

5

’

( . )( )(

.

286 4 1000 12 420

3 558 10

3 558

9

Pa)

Pa

MPa

Step 3. The stress concentration factor is taken from the

recommendations of para. 6-12.3:

K

t

52 3 .

Step 4. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses, with lift

stress set to zero [eq. (6-12-3)]:

S K S S

K S

o t d L

t d

,max

MPa

5

5

5

2 2

1 2

8 183

( )

/

Step 5. Evaluate the temperature de-rating factor from

eq. (6-12-6):

F E T E

T

5

5

3

3

5

( ) /

.

.

.

ref

MPa

MPa

1 91 10

1 95 10

0 9795

11

11

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as

unity for this service.

Step 6. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq.

(6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

0 9795 1 0 37 2

36 44

MPa)

MPa

The fatigue stress limit, 36.44 MPa, is less than the

combined stress, 8 183 MPa. The thermowell would not

pass the cyclic stress condition for steady-state opera-

tion at the in-line resonance, corresponding to a fuid

velocity of 16.01 m/s, if the vortex shedding frequency,

f

s

, had been greater than 0 4 . f

n

c

.

8-2.5.2 Evaluation at the Base of the Reduced-Diameter

Shank

Step 1. The fow velocity is identical to that obtained in

para. 8-2.5.1, Step 1:

V

IR

516 01 . m/s

Step 2. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the support plane,

which is the thermowell root in this case. The magnifca-

tion factor, F ’

M

, for the drag or in-line resonance is set at

1,000 (see para. 6-8.3).

Begin by evaluating the value of G

RD

using eq.

(6-10-10):

G

L

B d B

RD

S

5

p 2

5

p 2

16

1

16 0 0635

0 0127 1 0 5197

2

2

4

2

2

/

( .

( . .

( )

¸

1

]

m)

m)

44

( )

5 137.3

where

d/B 5 (0.0127 m)/(0.0222 m) 5 0.5197

From eq. (6-3-3), the force per unit area due to cyclic

drag is identical to that obtained in para. 8-2.5.1, Step 2:

P

d

5 12 420 Pa

Using eq. (6-10-6), the cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag

at the in-line resonance condition are

S G F P

M d RD d

5

5

5 3

5

’

( . )( )( 137 3 1000 124 200

1706

Pa)

1.706 10 Pa

9

MPa

Step 3. The stress concentration factor is obtained from

eq. (6-12-4), replacing A/b with B/b

s

:

K B b

t

5

5

5

1 1 0 033

1 1 0 033 3 969

1 231

. . /

. . ( . )

.

s

( )

Step 4. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses, with lift

stress set to zero [eq. (6-12-3)]:

S K S S

K S

o t d L

t d

,max

MPa

5

5

5

2 2

1 2

2 100

( )

/

Step 5. The de-rating factors are identical to those

obtained in para. 8-2.5.1, Step 5:

F

T

50 9795 .

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as

unity for this service.

Step 6. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

0 9795 1 0 37 2

36 44

MPa)

MPa

The fatigue stress limit, 36.44 MPa, is less than the

combined stress, 2 100 MPa. The thermowell would not

pass the cyclic stress condition for steady-state opera-

tion at the in-line resonance, corresponding to a fuid

velocity of 16.01 m/s, if the vortex shedding frequency,

f

s

, had been greater than 0 4 . f

n

c

.

8-2.6 Steady-State Stress at the Design Velocity

The steady-state stress shall be evaluated at both the

support plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter

shank. The thermowell shall pass the steady-state stress

criteria at both locations.

8-2.6.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane

Step 1. Evaluate the radial, tangential, and axial stresses

due to the external pressure, at the location of maximum

stress [eqs. (6-11-1) through (6-11-3)]:

S P

r

5 50 400 . MPa

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

37

S P

d A

d A

t

5

2

5

2

5

1

1

0 400

1 0 2973

1 0 2973

2

2

2

2

( / )

( / )

( .

( . )

( . )

MPa)

0.44776 MPa

S

P

d A

a

5

2

5

2

5

1

0 400

1

1 0 2973

2

2

( / )

( .

( . )

MPa)

0.4388 MPa

Step 2. Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the support

plane. First, evaluate the steady-state drag force per unit

area:

P C V

D D

5

5

5

1

2

1

2

9 1 4 10

2

68.8 kg/m m/s)

0.06782 MPa

3 2

( )

. (

Step 3. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag

force [eq. (6-10-4)]:

S G P

D SP D

5

5

5

286 4 0 06782

19 42

. ( .

.

MPa)

MPa

Step 4. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the

stress limit at the root, compute the maximum stress

given by eq. (6-12-1):

S S S

max

.

5

5

D a

+

19 86 MPa

Step 5. Compute the left-hand side of the Von Mises cri-

teria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

LHS

MPa

5

2 2 2

5

S S S S S S

max max

.

r t t r

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2

19 42

Step 6. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand

side of the Von Mises criteria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

RHS MPa) MPa 5 5 5 1 5 1 5 122 183 . . ( S

The Von Mises stress, 19.42 MPa, does not exceed the

stress limit, 183 MPa, and the thermowell passes the

steady-state stress criterion at the support plane.

8-2.6.2 Evaluation at the Base of the Reduced-

Diameter Step Shank

Step 1. Evaluate the radial, tangential, and axial stresses due

to the external pressure, at the location of maximum stress

[eqs. (6-11-1) through (6-11-3), but with B replacing A]:

S P

r

5 50 400 . MPa

S P

d B

d B

t

5

2

5

2

5

1

1

0 400

1 0 5197

1 0 5197

2

2

2

2

( / )

( / )

( .

( . )

( . )

MPa)

0.66960 MPa

S

P

d B

a

5

2

5

2

5

1

0 400

1

1 0 5197

2

2

( / )

( .

( . )

MPa)

0.5480 MPa

Step 2. Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the base of

the step shank. The steady-state drag force per unit area

is the same as in para. 8-2.6.1, Step 2:

P

D

50.06782 MPa

Step 3. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag

force [eq. (6-10-4)]:

S G P

D RD D

5

5

5

137 3 0 06782

9 31

. ( .

.

MPa)

MPa

Step 4. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the

stress limit at the step-shank root, compute the maxi-

mum stress given by eq. (6-12-1):

S S S

max

.

5

5

D a

9 862 MPa

Step 5. Compute the left-hand side of the Von Mises cri-

teria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

LHS

MPa

5

2 2 2

5

S S S S S S

max max

.

r t t r

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2

9 317

Step 6. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand

side of the Von Mises criteria [eq. (6-12-2)]:

RHS

MPa)

MPa

5

5

5

1 5

1 5 122

183

.

. (

S

The Von Mises stress, 9.317 MPa, does not exceed the

stress limit, 183 MPa, and the thermowell passes the

steady-state stress criterion at the base of the step shank.

8-2.7 Dynamic Stress at the Design Velocity

The dynamic stress shall be evaluated at both the

support plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter

shank. The thermowell shall pass the dynamic stress cri-

teria at both locations.

8-2.7.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane

Step 1. The magnifcation factor for the lift (transverse)

and drag (in-line) resonances are given by eqs. (6-9-1)

and (6-9-2), respectively:

r

f

f

F

r

5 5 5

5

2

5

2

5

s

n

c

M

160 6

0 2947

1

1

1

1 0 2947

1 095

2 2

.

.

.

.

Hz

545.0 Hz

′

( )

′

′ ( )

r

f

f

F

r

5 5 5

5

2

5

2

2 2 1

0 5895

1

1

1

1 0 5895

2

s

n

c

M

60.6 Hz

545.0 Hz

.

.

22

1 532 5 .

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

38

Step 2. Using eq. (6-3-3), the force per unit area due to

cyclic drag and lift is

P C V

d d

5

5

5

5

1

2

1

2

9 0 1 10

2

( )( . )( 68.8 kg/m m/s)

4 844 Pa

0.0048

3 2

444 MPa

P CV

l l

5

5

5

5

1

2

1

2

968 8 1 0 10

2

( . )( . )( kg/m m/s)

48 440 Pa

0.0484

3 2

44 MPa

Step 3. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at

the support plane [eqs. (6-10-5) and 6-10-6)]. The cyclic

stresses due to drag and lift are

S G F P

M d SP d

5

5

5

’

( . )( . )( .

.

286 4 1 532 0 004844

2 126

MPa)

MPa

S G F P

L SP M l

5

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

286 4 1 095 0 04844

15 19

MPa)

MPa

The concentration factor is identical to the value cal-

culated in para. 8-2.5.1, Step 3, K

t

5 2.3.

Step 4. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses, eq. (6-12-3):

S K S S

o t d L ,max

2.126 MPa 15.19 MPa

5

5

5

2 2

1 2

2 2

1 2

2 3

( )

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

/

/

.

335 29 . MPa

Step 5. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to

the value calculated in para. 8-2.5.1, Step 5, F

T

5 0.9795.

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as unity

for this service.

Step 6. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

0 9795 1 0 37 2

36 44

MPa)

MPa

The predicted stress of 35.29 MPa is below the fatigue

stress limit, and the thermowell passes the dynamic

stress criterion at the support plane.

8-2.7.2 Evaluation at the Base of the Reduced-

Diameter Shank

Step 1. The magnifcation factors are the same as in para.

8-2.7.1, Step 1:

F

F

M

M

5

5

1 095

1 532

.

. ′

Step 2. The force per unit area due to cyclic drag and lift

are the same as in para. 8-2.7.1, Step 2:

P

d

5

5

4 844 Pa

0.004844 MPa

P

l

5

5

48 440 Pa

0.04844 MPa

Step 3. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at the

base of the reduced-diameter shank [eqs. (6-10-5) and

(6-10-6)]. The cyclic stresses due to drag and lift are

S G F P

M d RD d

5

5

5

’

( . )( . )( .

.

137 3 1 532 0 004844

1 020

MPa)

MPa

S G F P

L RD M l

5

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

137 3 1 095 0 04844

7 286

MPa)

MPa

The concentration factor is identical to the value cal-

culated in para. 8-2.5.2, Step 3, K

t

5 1.231.

Step 4. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses, eq. (6-12-3):

S K S S

o t d L ,max

1.020 MPa 7.286 MPa

5

5

2 2

1 2

2 2

1

1 231

( )

( ) ( )

¸

1

]

/

/

.

22

5 9.056 MPa

Step 5. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to

the value calculated in para. 8-2.5.2, Step 5, F

T

5 0.9795.

The environmental de-rating factor, F

E

, is taken as unity

for this service.

Step 6. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue

stress limit, given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-12-5):

F F S

T E f

5

5

( . )( . )( .

.

0 9795 1 0 37 2

36 44

MPa)

MPa

The predicted stress of 9.056 MPa is below the fatigue

stress limit, and the thermowell passes the dynamic stress

criterion at the base of the reduced-diameter step shank.

8-2.8 Pressure Stress

Compute the external pressure rating for the shank

using eq. (6-13-1):

P S

B B d

c

5

2

2

5

0 66

2 167

2

0 0833

0 66 122

2 167

2 0 0

.

.

/

.

. ( )

.

( .

( )

¸

1

]

1

MPa

1127

0 0833

35 20

m)/(0.0127 m 0.0066 m)

MPa

−

¸

1

]

1

2

5

.

.

Compute the external pressure rating for the tip using

eq. (6-13-2):

P

S t

d

t

5

5

5

0 13

1 2

0 13

0 0048

0 0066

496 4

2

2

.

.

.

.

.

¸

¸

_

,

¸

¸

_

,

2 MPa m

m

MPa

The pressure rating for the thermowell is the lesser of

P

t

and P

c

, which is 35.20 MPa in the present case. This rat-

ing exceeds the operating pressure, and the thermowell

passes the external pressure criterion.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

Section 9

Statement of Compliance

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

39

9-1 SPECIFICATION OF A THERMOWELL

Specifcation of a thermowell, including details of its

intended installation and all intended operating condi-

tions, is the responsibility of the designer of the system

that incorporates the thermowell. The designer of that

system is also responsible for ensuring the thermowell

is compatible with the process fuid and with the design

of the thermowell installation in the system. The sup-

plier of the thermowell should state that calculations to

demonstrate compatibility of the thermowell with those

operating conditions specifed by the designer are in

conformance with this Standard, subject to the require-

ments detailed in subsection 9-2.

9-2 VELOCITY AND PRESSURE RATINGS

Velocity and pressure ratings stated by a thermowell

supplier shall be calculated using the fuid density

factor of H

a,f

5 1 and sensor-mass factors calculated

using the default value of

s

, unless the fuid density

and sensor mass are specifcally stated. When velocity

and pressure ratings are stated by a thermowell sup-

plier for cases when the fuid properties, including

anticipated impurities, are not known, such ratings

shall include a note that the ratings apply only to non-

corrosive service.

If the fuid properties, including anticipated impuri-

ties, are known and included in thermowell ratings, the

statement of velocity and pressure ratings by the ther-

mowell supplier shall fully describe fuid properties

needed for the calculations and material considerations

described in this Standard.

The temperature or applicable range of temperatures,

for velocity and pressure ratings, shall be stated by the

supplier.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

Section 10

References

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

40

10-1 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

[1] Murdock, J. W., 1959, “Power Test Code for

Thermometer Wells,” ASME Journal Engineering Power,

403–416.

[2] Blevins, R. D., 2001, Flow-Induced Vibration, 2nd

Edition, Krieger, Malabar, FL.

[3] Blevins, R. D., Tilden, B. W., and Martens, D.

H., 1996, “Vortex-Induced Vibration and Damping of

Thermowells,” Transactions of the ASME, Pressure Vessel

and Piping Conference, 328, 465–484.

[4] Zdravkovich, M. M., 1997, Flow Around Circular

Cylinders: Vol. 1: Fundamentals, Oxford University Press,

Oxford, UK.

[5] Sakai, T., Iwata, K., Morishita, M., and Kitamura, S.,

2001, “Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder

in Super-Critical Reynolds Number Flow and Its

Suppression by Structure Damping,” JSME International

Journal, Series B, 44, 712–720.

[6] Iwata, K., Morishita, M., Sakai, T., Yamaguchi,

A., Ogura, K., 2001, “Evaluation of Turbulence-Induced

Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in Supercritical Reynolds

Number Flow,” JSME Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers

International Journal, Series B, 44, 721–728.

[7] Blevins, R. D., 2009, “Models for Vortex Induced

Vibration of Cylinders Based on Measured Forces,”

ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 131, paper

101203.

[8] International Association of the Properties of Water

and Steam, 2009, “Releases and Guidelines,” available at

http://www.iapws.org, accessed March 6, 2009.

[9] National Institute of Standards and Technology

(NIST), 2009, NIST Chemistry Webbook, NIST Standard

Reference Database Number 69, http://webbook.nist.

gov/chemistry, accessed March 6, 2009.

[10] Brock, J. E., 1974, “Stress Analysis of Thermowells,”

Report NPS–59B074112A, Naval Postgraduate School,

Monterey, CA.

[11] Energy Institute, 2008, Guidelines for the Avoidance

of Vibration Induced Fatigue in Process Pipework, 2nd

Edition, Energy Institute, London.

[12] Morishita, M., and K. Dozaki, 1998, “History of

Flow-Induced Vibration Incident Occurred in Monju,”

Transactions of the ASME, Pressure Vessel and Piping

Conference, 363, 103–108.

[13] Ogura, K., Morishita, M., and A. Yamaguchi, 1998,

“Cause of Flow-Induced Vibration of Thermocouple

Well,” Transactions of the ASME, Pressure Vessel and Piping

Conference, 363, 109–117.

[14] Morishita, M., and Wada, Y., 1998, “Fatigue

Analysis of Thermowell Due to Flow-Induced

Vibration,” Transactions of the ASME, Pressure Vessel and

Piping Conference, 363, 119–124.

[15] Odahara, S., Murakami, Y., Inoue, M., and

Sueoka, A., 2005, “Fatigue Failure by In-Line Flow-

Induced Vibration and Fatigue Life Evaluation,” JSME

Journal, Series A, 48, 109–117.

[16] Ramberg, S. E., 1983, “The Effects of Yaw and Finite

Length Upon the Vortex Wakes of Stationary and Vibrating

Cylinders,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 128, 81–107.

[17] Lide, D., ed., 2008, CRC Handbook of Chemistry

and Physics, 89th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

[18] ASTM International, 2009, Standard Specifcation for

Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications, ASTM A105/

A105M-09, ASTM International, West Conshohocken,

PA.

[19] Davis, J. R., ed., 1998, Metals Handbook Desk

Edition, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

[20] ASTM International, 2009, Standard Specifcation

for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges,

Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature

Service, ASTM A182/A182M-09a, ASTM International,

West Conshohocken, PA.

10-2 REFERENCED ASME DOCUMENTS

ASME B16.5-2003, Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings

ASME B31.1-2007, Power Piping

ASME B31.3-2008, Process Piping

ASME B40.200-2008, Thermometers, Direct Reading

and Remote Reading: ASME B40.9, “Thermowells for

Thermometers and Elastic Temperature Sensors”

ASME BPVC III-A, Appendices, 2007 Edition

ASME BPVC VIII, Division 1, 2007 Edition

ASME BPVC VIII, Division 2, 2007 Edition

ASME BPVC VIII, Division 3, 2007 Edition

Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical

Engineers (ASME), Three Park Avenue, New York , NY

10016-5990; Order Department, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box

2900 Fairfeld, NJ 07007

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

NONMANDATORY APPENDIX A

CONVERSION FACTORS

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

41

A-1 CONVERSION FACTORS BETwEEN SI AND U.S.

CUSTOMARY UNITS

(a) To convert inches (in.) to meters, multiply by

0.0254.

(b) To convert pounds-force (lbf) to newton (kg⋅m/

s

2

), multiply by 4.448 222.

(c) To convert pounds-force per square inch (psi or

lbf/in.

2

) to pascal (Pa), multiply by 6.894 757 3 10

3

.

A-2 OThER CONVERSION FACTORS

(a) Within the U.S. Customary units system, pres-

sures and elastic moduli are commonly given in units

of pounds per square inch (psi or lbf/in.

2

), which is

not equivalent to the derived unit of pressure resulting

from the combination of pounds, inches, and seconds:

lb/(in.⋅sec

2

). To convert pounds-force per square inch

(psi or lbf/in.

2

) to lb/(in.⋅sec

2

), multiply by 386.088.

(b) Many sources express fuid viscosity in units of

centipoise (1 centipoise 5 0.01 poise). The centipoise is

neither an SI unit nor a U.S. Customary unit, but can be

converted using the following conversion factors:

(1) To convert centipoise (cP) to lb/(ft⋅sec), multi-

ply by 6.714 × 10

4

.

(2) To convert centipoise (cP) to pascal second

(Pa⋅s), multiply by 0.001.

Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

c

42

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Copyright

2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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c

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c

PERFORMANCE TEST CODES (PTC)

General Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 1-2004 (R2009)

Definitions and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 2-2001 (R2009)

Fired Steam Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4-1998

Coal Pulverizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4.2-1969 (R2009)

Air Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4.3-1974 (R1991)

Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4.4-2008

Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6-2004

Steam Turbines in Combined Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6.2-2004

Appendix A to PTC 6, The Test Code for Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6A-2000 (R2009)

PTC 6 on Steam Turbines — Interpretations 1977–1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6

Guidance for Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty in Performance Tests of Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6 Report-1985 (R2003)

Procedures for Routine Performance Tests of Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6S-1988 (R2009)

Centrifugal Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 8.2-1990

Performance Test Code on Compressors and Exhausters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 10-1997 (R2009)

Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 11-2008

Closed Feedwater Heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12.1-2000 (R2005)

Performance Test Code on Steam Surface Condensers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12.2-1998 (R2007)

Performance Test Code on Deaerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12.3-1997 (R2009)

Moisture Separator Reheaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12.4-1992 (R2009)

Single Phase Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12.5-2000 (R2005)

Reciprocating Internal-Combustion Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 17-1973 (R2003)

Hydraulic Turbines and Pump-Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 18-2002

Test Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.1-2005

Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.2-1987 (R2004)

Temperature Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.3-1974 (R2004)

Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.5-2004

Measurement of Shaft Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.7-1980 (R1988)

Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.10-1981

Steam and Water Sampling, Conditioning, and Analysis in the Power Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.11-2008

Data Acquisition Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.22-2007

Guidance Manual for Model Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19.23-1980 (R1985)

Particulate Matter Collection Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 21-1991

Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 22-2005

Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 23-2003

Ejectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 24-1976 (R1982)

Pressure Relief Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 25-2008

Speed-Governing Systems for Hydraulic Turbine-Generator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 29-2005

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 30-1991 (R2005)

Air-Cooled Steam Condensers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 30.1-2007

Ion Exchange Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 31-1973 (R1991)

Waste Combustors With Energy Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 34-2007

Measurement of Industrial Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 36-2004

Determining the Concentration of Particulate Matter in a Gas Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 38-1980 (R1985)

Steam Traps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 39-2005

Flue Gas Desulfurization Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 40-1991

Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 42-1988 (R2004)

Performance Test Code on Overall Plant Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 46-1996

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Generation Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 47-2006

Fuel Cell Power Systems Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 50-2002 (R2009)

Ramp Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 70-2009

Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Steam Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PTC PM-2010

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ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010

Thermowells

Performance Test Codes

AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Three Park Avenue • New York, NY • 10016 USA

Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

Date of Issuance: July 12, 2010

This Code will be revised when the Society approves the issuance of a new edition. There will be no addenda issued to PTC 19.3 TW-2010. ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this document. Periodically certain actions of the ASME PTC Committee may be published as Code Cases. Code Cases and interpretations are published on the ASME Web site under the Committee Pages at http://cstools.asme.org as they are issued.

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No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2010 by THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS All rights reserved Printed in U.S.A.

Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

CONTENTS

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................................. Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................................................ Committee Roster ................................................................................................................................................................ Correspondence With the PTC Committee ..................................................................................................................... Section 1 1-1 1-2 Section 2 Section 3 3-1 3-2 Section 4 4-1 4-2 Section 5 5-1 Section 6 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-13 Section 7 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 Section 8 8-1 8-2 Object and Scope .................................................................................................................................... Object ............................................................................................................................................................... Scope ................................................................................................................................................................ Nomenclature .......................................................................................................................................... Jurisdiction of Codes ............................................................................................................................... Reference Standards and Governing Codes .............................................................................................. Specification of Thermowells ....................................................................................................................... Dimensions ............................................................................................................................................. Configurations ............................................................................................................................................... Dimensional Limits ....................................................................................................................................... Materials ................................................................................................................................................. General Considerations ................................................................................................................................ Stress Equations ..................................................................................................................................... General Considerations ................................................................................................................................ Corrosion and Erosion .................................................................................................................................. Flow-Induced Thermowell Stresses ............................................................................................................ Strouhal Number, Drag Coefficients, and Lift Coefficient ...................................................................... Natural Frequency of Thermowells ............................................................................................................ Mounting Compliance Factor ...................................................................................................................... Unsupported Length, Diameter, and Fillet Radius .................................................................................. Frequency Limit ............................................................................................................................................. Magnification Factor ..................................................................................................................................... Bending Stresses ............................................................................................................................................ Pressure and Shear Stresses ......................................................................................................................... Steady-State Static and Dynamic Stress Limits ......................................................................................... Pressure Limit ................................................................................................................................................ Overview of Calculations ......................................................................................................................... Quantitative Criteria ..................................................................................................................................... Fluid Properties .............................................................................................................................................. Fluid Velocity ................................................................................................................................................. Material Properties and Dimensions .......................................................................................................... Reynolds and Strouhal Numbers ................................................................................................................ Natural Frequency at Operation Temperature .......................................................................................... Natural Frequency at Expected Mode of Operation ................................................................................ Steady-State and Dynamic Stresses ............................................................................................................ Allowable Fatigue Limits ............................................................................................................................. Pressure Rating .............................................................................................................................................. Examples ................................................................................................................................................. Tapered, Welded Thermowell for a Steam-Header Application (U.S. Customary Units) .................. Step-Shank, Threaded Thermowell for a Hot Water Application (SI Units) ......................................... v v vi vii 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 21 21 24 24 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 33

iii Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

..................................................................... Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow................................................1-1 6-10............................................... With the Tip Facing Upstream ..3-1 Schematic Diagram of a Thermowell .............. Nonmandatory Appendix A Conversion Factors .............. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME...................................................................................................7-1 6-10..... Velocity and Pressure Ratings ..... Stress at the Support Plane............. Specification of a Thermowell .......................................................... Allowable Fatigue-Stress Amplitude Limits for Material Class A and Class B .......................................................................................................... Fluid-Induced Forces and Assignment of Axes for Calculation of Thermowell Stresses ............................................................. iv Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................. ... and Locations of Maximum Steady-State or Oscillating In-Line Stress .........7-3 Tables 4-1-1 4-2-1 6-5............. Dimensional Limits for Straight and Tapered Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard .................... Unsupported Length of Thermowells .................................. 10-1 Referenced Documents ............................................... 39 39 39 40 40 40 6 7 8 9 12 17 19 19 22 24 25 25 7 8 15 26 41 Section 10 References ..................................................................................................... Schematic Showing the Amplitude Response of a Thermowell Subjected to Fluid-Induced Forces as Solid Lines.....1-1 6-6-1 6-8........................................................................................................3-1 6-12................................................................. 10-2 Referenced ASME Documents ............................................................................................................................................................................... Examples of Step-Shank Thermowells ................................................................ Parameters for Natural Frequency Calculation for Step-Shank Thermowells ............................... for In-Line and Transverse Excitation Modes ............................................................................................ Examples of Tapered Thermowells ............................................ Figures 4-1-1 4-1-2 4-1-3 4-1-4 6-3...................7-2 6-10............................ With the Tip Facing Downstream ... Schematic Indicating Excitation of Resonances When Excitation Frequency Coincides With the Thermowell Natural Frequency .................................. Examples of Straight-Shank Thermowells ....................................................................... Geometry to Be Used in Calculation of Thermowell Ratings ....................................1-1 6-8.................................... Dimensional Limits for Step-Shank Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard .................................................................................................................. Bending Moment.................................................................................................1-2 6-10. Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow........................................Section 9 9-1 9-2 Statement of Compliance ..............

Review of the literature revealed that the PTC 19. under the jurisdiction of the PTC Board.3. It is intended that this edition of this Standard not be retroactive.3 undertook the task of completing this draft. was formed to assess the thermowell standard. J.1. The purpose of the thermowell is to facilitate temperature measurement while resisting fluid forces of the process. its subsequent use in steam services has been highly successful at preventing catastrophic thermowell failure. Löbig. and approved and adopted as a Standard practice of the Society by action of the Board on Standardization and Testing on February 18. 2010.3-1974. However. the incidence of thermowell failures during the start-up testing of high-pressure steam turbines was unacceptable. R. the ASME Performance Test Codes Committee 19. Since the design of thermowells requires both thermal and stress considerations.3-1974 Supplement. These factors result in a more reliable basis for thermowell design than the PTC 19. PB51. This committee. significant advances in our knowledge of thermowell behavior. 2010. Since its publication.3-1974 but placed in nonsteam services suffered catastrophic failure. W. PTC 19. designated PTC 19. offer advice where fatigue endurance is critical. ultimately leading to the publication of PTC 19. PTC 19. on the basis of a paper authored by J. Koves. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. PTC 19.3-1974.3. it was discovered that a number of thermowells designed to PTC 19. and the committee decided to thoroughly rewrite the standard. In the course of this effort. Temperature Measurement. Blevins. This committee undertook the task of providing guidance in this area. The PTC 19. and A. W. v Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Committee gratefully acknowledges the special contributions of R. In 1999. Murdock [1]. In 1971 an ASME ad hoc committee. It was also approved as an American National Standard by the ANSI Board of Standards Review on April 22. Part 3. . Frikken. Prior to the acceptance of PTC 19. including processes involving corrosive fluids.3 has received widespread acceptance and use in both steam and nonsteam applications outside the scope of the performance test codes. D. the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee was approached for assistance.3 TW on thermowells was approved by the PTC Standards Committee on January 15. the special needs for the design of intrusive pipe fittings were deemed beyond the scope of what could be properly included in the vessel codes.3 determined that the 1930 edition of the Supplement on Temperature Measurement dealing with thermowells was unsatisfactory. The goals of the new Standard are to provide a thermowell rating method that can be used in a myriad array of services.FOREWORD In 1957. Supplement on Instruments and Apparatus. and establish criteria for insuring sensor reliability. D. 2010.1 draft did not incorporate recent. produced a draft thermowell standard.3 Committee is charged with temperature measurement and thermowell design.

) STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS M. Karian. EPRI M. Henry. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers D. Conax Technologies LLC A. M. Service Engineering S. M. McHale & Associates.. R. Gilson. C. G. Keyser. Chair. . Mustan Corp. M. Steele. Carugati. Secretary. Dooley. H. P. P. Silvaggio. PTC 19. Priestley. W. A. Campbell. Inc. Heisler. Friedman. L.. Burns Engineering W. Consultant R. McHale. H.3 COMMITTEE — TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT D. C. R. H. K. A.ASME PTC COMMITTEE Performance Test Codes (The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Code. Sigma Energy Solutions J. Milton. J. Alternate. G. G. R. Nuspl. J. Consultant D. Jr. Alternate. S. General Electric Co. Inc. P. Dale. W. C. P. Allen. Gerhart. Southern Company Services M. Korellis. Karian. Stevens. Consultant J. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. F. Sargent & Lundy J. Bartran. A. McHale. Consultant P. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers D. Reliant Energy S. Inc. Emerson Process Management C. Florida Power Light J. Inc. Alloy Engineering Co. M. C. E. Inc. National Institute for Standards & Technology J. Brook. Karian. Secretary STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL P. C. P. University of Colorado vi Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Wood. Heil. McHale. Ripple. Chair J. Pyromation. M. J. Wika Instruments Ltd. Inc. R. McHale & Associates. W. Vice Chair J. The Babcock & Wilcox Co. Inc. JMS Southeast. Environmental Systems Corp. Black & Veatch A. J. Duke Power Co. S. Scavuzzo. Bauschke. General Electric Co. Albert. McHale & Associates. Johnson. Siemens Energy. Westcott. Marra. D. J. W. Friedman. J. University of Evansville T. Kirkpatrick. Rabensteine. T. Mississippi State University J. G. J. Burns. R. Gerber. Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery. Inc. Consultant R. Jr. W.

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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK viii Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. .

and stepped-shank thermowells in a broad range of applications. Thermowells 1 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. at any place along the length of the shank or at the tip are outside the scope of this Standard..ASME PTC 19. parasitic vibration of a sensor mounted inside the thermowell. straight. thermowells fabricated by welding. including flame spray or weld overlays. This includes an evaluation of the forces caused by external pressure. and thermal equilibrium of the sensor relative to the process stream are beyond the scope of this Standard.g. a knurled surface or a surface with spiral ridges) are beyond the scope of this Standard. 1-2 SCOPE This Standard applies to thermowells machined from bar stock and includes those welded to or threaded into a flange as well as those welded into a process vessel or pipe with or without a weld adaptor. The object of this Standard is to establish a mechanical design standard for reliable service of tapered.3 TW-2010 THERMOWELLS Section 1 Object and Scope 1-1 OBJECT manufactured from pipe are outside the scope of this Standard. and the combination of static and dynamic forces resulting from fluid impingement. Thermowell attachment methods. standard dimensions. Thermowells with specially designed surface structures (e. . In addition. due to the difficulty of providing design rules with broad applicability for these types of thermowells.

ASME PTC 19.-lb) Mb 5 bending moment for steady-state drag (for b 5 D). Pa (psi) FD 5 in-line static drag force on thermowell. and ksi denotes 103 pounds-force per square inch or kips per square inch.) ci 5 coefficients used in eq.2) a 5 polynomial function used in eq. due to fluid impingement. m2 (in. based on which point is closest to the thermowell tip. See para. m (in. N (lbf) Fl 5 transverse dynamic drag force on thermowell.. m (in.s 5 factor to account for added sensor mass. Hz fn 5 natural frequency with ideal clamping. m (in. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. m (in.) L0 5 length of the thermowell shielded from fluid flow. Hz G 5 parameter defined in eq.-lb)/rad] Kt 5 stress concentration factor.) E 5 modulus of elasticity at service temperature. dimensionless c 5 corrosion allowance. dimensionless Ha. dimensionless Ha. Customary units. Step 1. dimensionless f 5 frequency. due to fluid impingement. diameter B in inches. Hz c f n 5 resonance frequency of thermowell with compliant support.g. due to fluid impingement. m (in. dimensionless GSP 5 parameter G appropriate for evaluation of stress at the support point. rotation. A 5 outside diameter of thermowell at support plane or root.S. dimensionless Hc 5 frequency factor to account for support or foundation compliance. dimensionless Cd 5 coefficient for oscillating-drag (in-line with flow) pressure. oscillating drag (for b 5 d). velocity V in feet per second). conversion factors between feet and inches will be needed in the calculations.) Da 5 average diameter of the thermowell. dimensionless D 5 outside diameter at any cross section. m (in. 6-5.) Eref 5 reference value of modulus of elasticity. as defined in para. (6-5-3).-lb) . m (in. N (lbf) Fd 5 in-line dynamic drag force on thermowell. dimensionless I 5 moment of inertia of cross section. m (in. Pa [psi or lb/(in. measured from the tip to the support plane. (6-10-3). FM 5 magnification factor for thermowell oscillations transverse to fluid flow. m (in. dimensionless B 5 outside diameter at tip of thermowell. dimensionless Hf 5 frequency factor to account for shear.⋅sec2)] (Refer to Nonmandatory Appendix A and para.2) KM 5 rotational stiffness of thermowell support. taper. Customary unit system (e.) d 5 bore diameter of thermowell.3 for a discussion of units of E.S. N (lbf) 2 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. dimensionless GRD 5 parameter G appropriate for evaluation of stress at the base of a reduced-diameter shank. kip denotes 103 pounds-force. 6-4.f 5 factor to account for added fluid mass.) bS 5 fillet radius at the base of the reduced-diameter length of a step-shank thermowell. When parameters are specified in mixed units within the U. lb denotes pound as a unit of mass.) CD 5 coefficient for steady-state drag pressure. Hz fS 5 vortex shedding frequency or rate. m (in. N⋅m (in. dimensionless L 5 unsupported length of thermowell. or lift (for b 5 l).3 TW-2010 Section 2 Nomenclature For U.) b 5 fillet radius at the root of the thermowell shank. kg⋅m2 (lb⋅in. 6-5. lbf denotes pounds-force.) LS 5 length of reduced-diameter shank for a stepshank thermowell. N⋅m (in. dimensionless Cl 5 coefficient for oscillating-lift (transverse to flow) pressure.3. m (in.1 and subsection 8-1 for examples. Hz fa 5 approximate resonance frequency of thermowell. and tip-mass effects. dimensionless F’M 5 magnification factor for thermowell oscillations in-line with fluid flow. (6-8-4).) M 5 bending moment. N⋅m/rad [(in.) Ap 5 projected area of thermowell perpendicular to direction of flow and exposed to the flow stream. dimensionless Gb 5 either GRD or GSP.

Pa (psi) SD 5 steady-state drag stress due to fluid impingement. Pd. or Pl. dimensionless (in-line resonance) Re 5 Reynolds number. Pa (psi) Pr 5 external pressure rating of the thermowell./sec) VIR 5 fluid velocity that excites the in-line resonance. Pa (psi) Rp 5 pipe radius. Pa (psi) Pc 5 design static pressure of shank of thermowell. m2/s (ft2/sec) 5 fluid density.) y 5 unit vector pointing in the direction of the ˆ fluid flow z 5 distance from the thermowell root along the thermowell axis. m3/kg (in. 8C (8F) Ta 5 ambient temperature. Pa (psi) Sz 5 longitudinal stress in the thermowell.) V 5 process fluid velocity. Pa (psi) St 5 tangential pressure stress. abbreviation cP.3/lb) x 5 unit vector normal to the fluid velocity and to ˆ the axis of the thermowell y 5 distance from thermowell axis. ˆ pointing toward the tip a 5 average coefficient of thermal expansion. dimensionless. or Re 5 BV/. m (in. 5 kinematic fluid viscosity. m (in./(in. . dimensionless 5 dynamic fluid viscosity. dimensionless s 5 2pfS. Pa (psi) Sa 5 axial pressure stress.ASME PTC 19. dimensionless NSc 5 Scruton number or mass damping factor.) r 5 ratio of shedding frequency to natural frequency. Pa (psi) SL 5 oscillating-lift stress due to fluid impingement./sec) v 5 specific volume (reciprocal of the fluid density ). (6-5-3). Pa (psi) Sd 5 oscillating-drag stress due to fluid impingement.) z 5 unit vector along axis of the thermowell.3) s 5 average density of a temperature sensor. rad/s (rad/sec) 3 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Useful conversion factors are 1 cP 5 0.⋅8F)] b 5 parameter used in eq. m (in. kg/m (lb/in. Pa (psi) Pf 5 design pressure for flange supporting thermowell. Pa (psi) T 5 operating temperature. Pa (psi) Pl 5 oscillating-lift force per unit of projected area on thermowell. m/s (in. m/s (in. Pa (psi) Pd 5 oscillating-drag force per unit of projected area on thermowell. in the high-cycle limit. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.) NS 5 Strouhal number.⋅sec) and 1 cP 5 10−3 Pa⋅s. dimensionless (lift resonance) r’ 5 ratio of shedding frequency to natural frequency. dimensionless P 5 operating pressure. kg/ m3 (lb/in. m (in. kg/ m3 (lb/in. Pa⋅s [lb/(ft⋅sec)] Note: Viscosity is often given in the literature in units of centipoise.3) 5 damping factor. dimensionless S 5 maximum allowable working stress. Pa (psi) Pt 5 design pressure of tip of the thermowell. 8C (8F) t 5 minimum tip thickness of the thermowell. Pa (psi) Sf 5 fatigue endurance limit. Pa (psi) SS5 shear stress.) zs 5 distance from the thermowell root to the plane where stress is evaluated. m/ (m⋅K) [in.3 TW-2010 m 5 mass per unit length of a thermowell of uniform cross section. Pa (psi) Sr 5 radial pressure stress.67197 × 10−3 lb/(ft.3) m 5 mass density of the thermowell material. m (in. calculated on the basis of the tip diameter: Re 5 BV /. Pa (psi) PD 5 aerodynamic force per unit of projected area on thermowell. Pa (psi) Pb 5 either PD. kg/m3 (lb/in.

3.3 TW is limited in scope to mechanical design of thermowells.ASME PTC 19. as well as providing some standardized designs. Thermowells may be stated to be in conformance to this Standard. (c) Guidance on minimizing temperature measurement errors in thermowell applications is found in the latest edition of PTC 19.9.3 TW-2010 Section 3 Jurisdiction of Codes Thermowells are an integral part of the piping system and the process containment system. Both of these topics are outside the scope 3-2 SPECIFICATION OF THERMOWELLS Specification of a thermowell and the materials of construction are the sole responsibility of the designer of the system that incorporates the thermowell. Thermowells for Thermometers and Elastic Temperature Sensors. and as a result. 4 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (b) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section III Appendices. and installation of thermowells. discusses the selection. PTC 19. Sole responsibility for ensuring compatibility of the process fluid with the system rests with the end user. subject to the requirements of Section 9 of this Standard. and heat transfer between the thermowell and the surrounding fluid. of PTC 19. Appendix N provides guidance on the flow-induced vibration of banks or arrays of tubes and on the excitation of structural vibrations by turbulence. . which considers the vibration of single thermowells due to vortex shedding only. Complementing B40. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. they may be subject to requirements from the governing piping or pressure vessel code. 3-1 REFERENCE STANDARDS AND GOVERNING CODES (a) ASME B40. Effects considered include heating of the thermowell by fluid impingement.9.3 TW. errors due to thermal radiation and conduction along the thermowell. fabrication.

Refer to Fig. and the attachment method shall meet all the requirements of the governing piping or pressure vessel code. 4-1-1 indicates the support plane. weld-in. Calculations should be made using the nominal dimensions provided that a corrosion allowance is not used (see subsection 6-2) and that the thermowell is fabricated with manufacturing tolerances of ±1% for lengths L and LS and ±3% for diameters A. If tolerances for L or LS are not met. and integral-flanged as shown in Figs. or packing gland installations are not permissible in Performance Test Code applications. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Typical thermowell attachment configurations include threaded.) Ra or better.ASME PTC 19. For this case. the support plane will not be normal to the thermowell axis. For thermowells welded to a flange or pipe wall at an angle. The unsupported length. along with its characteristic dimensions. These figures are representative of common practice but do not display all allowable attachment configurations. where 5 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. where LS is the length of the reduced-diameter section of thermowell shank. calculations shall be made assuming that the lengths L and LS each equal the nominal length plus the respective manufacturing tolerance. or at the support plane if the thermowell is firmly supported along its shank B 5 thermowell diameter at the tip d 5 bore diameter L 5 length of the thermowell from the tip to the support plane t 5 minimum thickness of the tip For the purpose of defining L and A. or threaded section of the thermowell (b) a weld-joint transition to other piping components The Standard also applies to step-shank thermowells within the dimensional limits given in Table 4-2-1. calculations shall be made according to subsection 6-2. lap-joint (Van Stone). as discussed in subsection 6-13. and d. for thermowells mounted by direct welding into a pipe wall. socket weld collar. the support plane should be approximated as a plane located at a distance from the thermowell tip equal to the largest actual distance from the tip to any point on the true curved support surface. The designer shall account for the support compliance of the attachment (refer to subsection 6-6). This Standard applies to thermowells with an as-new surface finish of 0. For thermowells mounted on flanges or welded into weld adaptors. Stress limits given in subsection 6-12 are not valid for thermowells manufactured with rougher surfaces. If tolerances for A. The dashed line in Fig. L. the support plane will actually be a curved surface with the same curvature as the inner pipe wall. using as the corrosion allowance the linear sum of the actual tolerance and any corrosion allowance. this Standard covers the design requirements of the thermowell only. which is an imaginary extension of the supporting-structure surface that passes through the shank of the thermowell. the support plane will be a flat plane. the support plane shall also be defined (see subsection 6-7). The root of the thermowell is located where the thermowell shank makes a transition to (a) a machined transition to a flange. 4-1-1. 4-2 DIMENSIONAL LIMITS This standard applies to straight and tapered thermowells within the dimensional limits given in Table 4-1-1.3 TW-2010 Section 4 Dimensions 4-1 CONFIGURATIONS A 5 thermowell outer diameter at the root of the thermowell shank.81 µm (32 µin. or d are not met. Figure 4-1-1 shows a schematic diagram of a thermowell. socket weld. The selection of a specific attachment method is subject to the governing piping or pressure vessel code. 4-1-3. Use of ball joints. For nonstandard attachments. is calculated as the distance from the tip of the thermowell to the intersection of the thermowell axis with this surface. B. However. External pressure calculations shall be made based on the minimum material condition. 4-1-2. B. . in addition to the dimensions defined for Table 4-1-1. and 4-1-4 (see also Table 4-1-1). spherical unions.

Cross-Sectional View of a Step-Shank Thermowell 6 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.ASME PTC 19. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.3 TW-2010 Fig. 4-1-1 Schematic Diagram of a Thermowell L � d b A B D � (A � B)/2 Support plane t (a) Schematic. . Cross-Sectional View of a Thermowell L Ls � b A bs � d B t Support plane (b) Schematic.

(2) The equations in this Standard are valid for thermowells longer than the maximum indicated. only single-piece.36 in.125 in.) 0.30 cm (0.) 4. .71 … … GENERAL NOTE: Limits in this table apply to the nominal dimensions of the thermowell.35 cm (2.ASME PTC 19.) Maximum 60. however.65 cm (1. 7 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. drilled bar-stock shanks are covered by this Standard.5 in.) 1 0.) 0. NOTES: (1) Thermowells of length less than the minimum specified require design methods outside the scope of this Standard.92 cm (0. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.58 0.0955 cm (0.83 in.96 cm (24 in.12 in. 4-1-2 Examples of Straight-Shank Thermowells (a) Straight-Shank Threaded Thermowell (c) Straight-Shank Flanged Thermowell (b) Straight-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell (d) Straight-Shank Lap-Joint (Van Stone) Thermowell Table 4-1-1 Dimensional Limits for Straight and Tapered Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard Description Unsupported length Bore diameter Tip diameter Taper ratio Bore ratio Aspect ratio Minimum wall thickness Symbol L d B B/A d/B L/B (B – d)/2 Minimum 6.) [Note (1)] 0.3 TW-2010 Fig.) [Note (2)] 2.16 2 0.825 in.3175 cm (0.

30 cm (0.223 cm (0.270 cm (0.875 in.5 in. for B = 1.) 0.) 0.5 in.270 cm (0.61 cm (0.24 in.67 cm (0. 8 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.7 cm (5 in.265 in.) Dimensional Limits for Step-Shank Thermowells Within the Scope of This Standard Symbol L d B/A B/A LS / L (B2 d)/ 2 B Minimum 12. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.12 in.875 in.3 TW-2010 Fig. .) Allowable Dimensions [Note (1)] 1.96 cm (24 in.223 cm (0.875 0. NOTE: (1) The methods presented in this Standard apply for other tip diameters than those specified.) 0. but the correlation for natural frequency is supplied only for the given tip diameters.8 0.6 … Step diameter ratio.) and 2.) 0. 4-1-3 Examples of Step-Shank Thermowells (a) Step-Shank Threaded Thermowell (b2) Step-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell Installed in Sockolet Adapter (b1) Step-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell Installed in Bored-Through Thermocouple Adapter (c) Step-Shank Flanged Thermowell Table 4-2-1 Description Unsupported length Bore diameter Step diameter ratio.) Maximum 60.) Length ratio Minimum wall thickness Tip diameter GENERAL NOTE: Limits in this table apply to the nominal dimensions of the thermowell. for B = 2.5 0.583 0 0.ASME PTC 19.

3 TW-2010 Fig. 4-1-4 Examples of Tapered Thermowells (a) Tapered-Shank Threaded Thermowell (c) Tapered-Shank Flanged Thermowell (b) Tapered-Shank Socket Weld Thermowell Installed in Bored-Through Thermocouple Adapter (d) Tapered-Shank Weld-In Thermowell Installed Directly Into Pipe Wall 9 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. .ASME PTC 19. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

and otherwise meet the requirements of this Standard. and mechanical properties. . and quality control. so the materials of construction shall be selected on the basis of resistance to corrosion and corrosion fatigue. physical. heat treatment. ANSI. subject to the following requirements: (a) The specific materials shall be agreed to by the designer and supplier of the thermowell. or ASME approved.ASME PTC 19. The system designer (see subsection 3-2) shall carefully consider. among other environmental conditions. In the absence of a governing code. method and process of manufacture.3 TW-2010 Section 5 Materials 5-1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS is use of materials susceptible to stress corrosion cracking or embrittlement at the service conditions. the characteristics of the following to determine the proper material for the thermowell: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) process fluid pressure temperature fluid velocity application weldability In general. (c) Allowable stresses shall be determined in accordance with the applicable allowable stress basis of this Standard or a more conservative basis. Thermowells are subjected to sustained stress reversals with a very high number of cycles (see subsection 6-3). which may or may not be ASTM. (b) Unlisted materials may be used provided they conform to a published specification covering chemical. The thermowell material used should be forged or bar stock and shall conform to the requirements of the governing code. other materials. Of particular concern 10 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. may be used when necessary. the choice of material shall be governed mainly by strength requirements and possible corrosion that the thermowell will encounter.

the designer shall establish a corrosion allowance. shall be considered.1 Factors Improving Mechanical Strength. and case (c). It is emphasized that the use of a corrosion allowance alone is insufficient at ensuring structural integrity of the thermowell in cases when stress corrosion is present. assume that the value of c varies linearly along the length of the thermowell.2 Factors Improving Thermal Performance. reduced by c. In all cases. 11 6-1. This Section briefly summarizes general design rules that will optimize the sensor performance within the constraints of the mechanical strength requirements. and from c at the tip to zero at the support plane for case (c). reduced by c. good thermal performance favors increasing length L and decreasing diameters A and B. turbulence. In contrast.2 Optimization of Thermowell Design Proper design of a thermowell requires that the sensor mounted inside the thermowell attain thermal equilibrium with the process fluid. all other dimensions as in (a) (c) a thermowell design with tip thickness t and outer diameter at the tip. since this type of excitation is determined by the design and support of the entire piping system. B. thermowell ratings for maximum allowable pressure and maximum allowable fluid velocity shall be calculated for three cases: (a) initial thermowell dimensions (b) a thermowell design with tip thickness t and outer diameter at the support plane. A high fluid-velocity rating for the thermowell requires a sufficiently high natural frequency for the thermowell (subsection 6-8) and sufficiently low oscillatory stresses (subsection 6-10). from start-up to emergency conditions. where the thermowell loses material at the root. For applications where corrosion or erosion of the outer thermowell surface cannot be avoided. When a corrosion allowance is included. Thermal modeling of the sensor response is outside the scope of this Standard (refer to the latest version of PTC 19. Factors that improve mechanical strength with mini- Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. all other dimensions as in (a) Cases described in (b) and (c) are intended to approximate two extreme cases of corrosion and erosion: case (b). Lower oscillatory stresses result from decreasing length L and increasing diameter A. increasing the support-plane diameter. A higher static pressure rating (subsection 6-13) requires increasing the value of tip diameter B. the mechanical strength requirements shall control.2. Factors that reduce the thermal mass of the thermowell and measurement errors are those that tend to reduce strength. L. Factors that improve thermal performance with minimal degradation of mechanical strength include the following: (a) use of the smallest practical bore size (b) insulation of the outside of the pipe to reduce heat flux along the sensor axis 6-2 CORROSION AND EROSION 6-1. steady-state fluid impingement.3 TW-2010 Section 6 Stress Equations 6-1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS mal degradation of thermal performance include the following: (a) locating a larger fillet radius at the support plane (b) locating the support plane away from a weld or heat-affected zone of a weld (c) avoiding threaded installations 6-1. Excitation by structure-born vibration is a possibility and should also be considered.2. Thermowell design consists of achieving accurate and reliable temperature measurement without compromising mechanical integrity or fluid containment.ASME PTC 19. Consideration of these loads on a mechanical model of the thermowell results in pressure and velocity limits due to the combination of steady-state and oscillatory forces acting on the thermowell. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. c. where the thermowell loses material at the tip. . In evaluating an existing design or in designing a thermowell for given applications. 6-1.3 for guidance). but is not addressed by this Standard. the complete range of operating conditions for the thermowell. and dynamic excitation due to von Karman vortices. from zero at the tip to c at the root for case (b). and decreasing the tip diameter. B. A. Higher natural frequencies result from decreasing the unsupported length. If finite element calculations are performed to determine this effect. A.1 Overview of Design Criteria Thermowells shall be designed to withstand static pressure. Refer to subsection 5-1 for considerations on materials selection for corrosive environments.

” Approximating the fluid forces as two orthogonal components normal to the thermowell axis greatly simplifies the fluid-structure 12 where CD.1-1 Fluid-Induced Forces and Assignment of Axes for Calculation of Thermowell Stresses X V Y Z In-line forces Fluid vortices downstream Transverse forces The maximum allowable pressure and maximum allowable fluid velocity shall be the minimum of the values obtained for the three cases above. Pb . The pressure stresses are primarily circumferential. (6-3-3) over the thermowell projected area.2) V 5 velocity of the process fluid 5 density of the process fluid Summing the forces per unit area of eq. of the thermowell. Forces acting along the flow direction are termed “in-line”. results in a conservative estimate Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. forces acting along a direction normal to the flow are termed “transverse.2 Force Amplitudes The force amplitudes should be expressed as a force per unit area. or Pl. for that portion of the thermowell that is exposed to the flow stream. . Pd. While the hydrostatic-pressure stresses control rupture strength of the thermowell.1 Overview of Flow-Induced Stresses The flow-induced stresses are modeled as a distributed force acting on a flexible beam. Each of the forces should be interpreted as effective pressures. and Pl. acting on the projected area. interaction and at the same time retains sufficient accuracy for the reliable calculation of velocity ratings of the thermowell. There are three cases: FD 5 Ap PD Fd 5 Ap Pd Fl 5 Ap Pl 6-3. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1-1. 6-4. These can be ˆ represented as a vector acting on the centerline of the thermowell: F(t) 5 [FD 1 Fd sin(2st)]y 1 F1 cos(st)x ˆ ˆ (6-3-2) where subscript D 5 conventional steady-drag forces subscript d 5 oscillating-drag (in-line) forces subscript l 5 oscillating-lift (transverse) forces The symbol Pb is used below to denote any one of the three forces per unit area. PD. The total force on the beam is proportional to the projected area of the thermowell normal to the flow direction. 6-3. 6-3. Cd. the bending stresses and the possibility of flow-induced resonance dominate its velocity rating. while the flow-induced stresses are in the form of longitudinal bending stresses. Pd. Ap. These are greatest at the support plane of the thermowell and distributed about the neutral axis as with any transversely loaded beam. The fluid forces acting on the thermowell are directed along the flow direction y (drag) and transverse direction x (lift) [2–4] as shown in Fig. PD.ASME PTC 19. 6-3 FLOW-INDUCED THERMOWELL STRESSES 6-3.3 TW-2010 Fig. while invoking a coherent vortex shedding process based on the vortex shedding rate at the tip. and Cl 5 constants (see para. having the form PD 5 1 2 CDV 2 1 Pd 5 CdV 2 2 1 Pl 5 ClV 2 2 (6-3-3) (6-3-1) where fs 5 s/2p is the Strouhal frequency discussed in subsection 6-4.

shutdown. steady-state stress (para. Section N-1340 provides guidance on turbulence-induced vibrations.4 in. 6-3.55 mm (0.5 in. 5 3 107 (6-4-2) In eq. 6-3. ASME BPVC Section III-A. 6-12.5 in. Examples include start-up. and oscillating stress (para. Thermowell failures have been attributed to the exposure of a thermowell to pulsating fluid flow (e.300 # Re . 300 ) NS 5 3 5 10.3 TW-2010 of the excitation forces and resultant bending stresses.376 in.ASME PTC 19..) (2) L < 0.7 mm (0.1 Strouhal Number 6-3. Pre-start-up conditions such as steam blows for pipe clean out shall also be considered. is related to the fluid velocity by the dimensionless Strouhal number.22(1 2 22 / Re ) 2 0. Appendix N. Flow-induced vibrations of arrays of tubes are discussed in ASME BPVC Section III-A.1 ft/ sec). These assumptions result in a lower bound estimate of the conditions that lead to stress failure. Specific flow maximums should be used where such data are available. This excitation mechanism can be important for short. high-frequency turbulence.64 m/s (2. The calculations of naturalfrequency and corresponding-frequency limits (subsections 6-5 to 6-8). NS: fs 5 s 2p 5 NS V B (6-4-1) 6-3. thermowell failures have been seen for installations close to the discharge of a centrifugal pump). where B 5 tip diameter of the thermowell Machined thermowells of dimensions within the scope of this Standard have Strouhal numbers characteristic of rough-surfaced cylinders [6].) (c) The thermowell material satisfies S > 69 MPa (10 ksi) and Sf > 21 MPa (3 ksi). 6 cm (2.5 Turbulence-Induced Vibration of Thermowells This Standard addresses the dynamic vibration caused by vortex shedding but does not address the incoherent excitation of structural vibrations by broad-band. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.61 m (24 in.6 Low Fluid Velocities At very low fluid velocities.22 5 for 5 3 10 # Re . (b) The thermowell dimensions satisfy the limits (1) A 2 d > 9. fs. 300 0. sustained operation on resonance may damage the temperature sensor even if the risk of mechanical thermowell failure is very small. Pulsating flows where the fluid velocity varies at a frequency close to the natural frequency of the thermowell can also excite thermowell vibrations. (d) The thermowell material is not subject to stress corrosion or embrittlement. Designers are cautioned that if the in-line resonance is excited at fluid velocities below 0. 5 3 10 0.1 ft/sec).) diameter] thermowells in high flows.7 Pulsed Flow The analysis of thermowell response to fluid flow in this document presumes a steady fluid velocity. The frequency of the vortex shedding. The shedding of vortexes by a thermowell subject to transverse fluid flow produces a periodic force on the thermowell [4. 1. DRAG COEFFICIENTS.3) do not need to be performed provided the following criteria are met: (a) The process fluid has a maximum velocity less than 0. process upset. .2). slender [e. 5].g.g. These cases require specialized analysis beyond the scope of the present Standard. and thermowells shall be designed for these conditions. 300 ) for 1. 6-3. (6-4-2). 6-12. 6-4 STROUHAL NUMBER. Appendix N. The calculation of the external pressure rating (subsection 6-13) shall still be performed.3 Choice of Maximum Velocity Value In all cases. the Reynolds number is calculated using the tip diameter: Re 5 VB m or Re 5 VB n (6-4-3) 13 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.4 Flow-Induced Vibration of Thermowell Arrays This Standard addresses the vibration of a single thermowell in a fluid flow and does not address the interactions of multiple thermowells in close proximity. the fluid velocities can greatly exceed 100 m/s (300 ft/sec). and pressure-relief conditions. AND LIFT COEFFICIENT 6-4. In the case of highpressure steam blows.. the risk of thermowell failure is greatly reduced. A correlation of available experimental data gives the Strouhal number as a function of the Reynolds number [7]: for 22 # Re . Designers should consider possible sources of flow pulsations.0095 Log 10 ( Re / 1.213 2 0. design calculations shall take into account the possibility of flow increases above the design rating of the mechanical equipment and for process upset conditions.64 m/s (2. Section N-1300.) (3) A > B > 12.) long by 1 cm (0.0248 Log 10 ( Re / 1.

07 3 10−5 lb/(ftsec) 5 3. For straight thermowells. 3 (1 ft/12 in.000°F and a pressure of 2. Customary Units From steam tables [8.454 kg/lb)(1 hr/ 3. Hc .000 lb/hr. set Da 5 (A + B)/2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. (6-4-4) should be used for the Strouhal number.625 in.2 Finite Element Methods The natural frequency of a thermowell may be calculated using finite element methods.56 3 105 (b) Calculation in U. 6-5. For a Reynolds number between 103 and 5 3 105. f nc . For step-shank thermowells.015875 m 3 691. set Da 5 A. the viscosity needs to be known only well enough to confirm that Re . the natural frequency including effects of support compliance). If the viscosity is difficult to determine.) 5 0.25 ft Pipe area 5 pR2 5 0. (6-4-2): NS ≅ 0. What is the Reynolds number? (a) Calculation in SI Units From steam tables [8.1 Transverse Vibrations The natural frequency of transverse vibrations of a thermowell mounted to a support is a function of (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) elastic properties of the thermowell mass per unit length shear and rotational inertia at small values of L/A support compliance added mass of the fluid added mass of the sensor 6-4.018241 m2 V 5 (density) 3 (flow velocity) 5 (mass flow rate) / (pipe area) 5 (100.47 lb/(ft2⋅sec) Re 5 BV /m 5 0.018241 m2) 5 691. 9]./2)(1 ft/12 in.0762 m Pipe area 5 pRp2 5 0. 9. 9]. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.079 3 10−5 Pas) 5 3.1 Example.0254 m/in. While there are an infinite number of vibrational modes for a thermowell.19635 ft2 V 5 (density) 3 (flow velocity) 5 (mass flow rate)/(pipe area) 14 The formulas of subsection 6-5 establish a conservative estimate of the natural frequency of common industrial thermowells by applying a series of correction factors to an idealized beam having the mean dimensions of the actual thermowell. 3 (0.S.4 Cd 5 0.07 3 10−5 lb/(ft⋅sec).625 in.000 lb/hr)(1 hr/3. the dynamic fluid viscosity m 5 2.000 lb/hr)(0.36 kg/ (m2s/3. accounted for with the compliance factor.) 5 0. (6-3-3) coefficients for conventional-drag.19635 ft2) 5 141.56 3 105 (6-4-4) 6-4.3 Calculations and Correction Factors Step 1.079 3 10−5 Pas. 6-5. Calculate an average outer diameter. Input parameters for the Reynolds number calculation are B 5 0.1. 6-5 NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THERMOWELLS 6-5. diameter at 100. the Strouhal number may also be calculated from a simplified.ASME PTC 19.) 5 0.47 lb/(ft2sec)/2. provided the software is validated by comparison of calculated frequencies with the results obtained in para. eq. and rotational inertia are all accounted for using the frequency factor. Superheated steam at a temperature of 1.3. 6-5.600 sec)/ (0.3 TW-2010 where m 5 dynamic viscosity n 5 kinematic viscosity 5 fluid density at flowing conditions For thermowell design.000 psig flows through a pipe of 6-in.s.e. Hf .1 Cl 5 1. the viscosity needs to be known only to within a factor of 2. Input parameters for the Reynolds number calculation are B 5 0. conservative approximation of eq. Nonuniform cross sections. For Reynolds numbers greater than 5 3 105. Da is the outer shank diameter. controls the onset of flow-induced resonance. Foundation compliance. oscillating-drag.052083 ft 3 141. shear. is treated in subsection 6-6. and added sensor mass is accounted for with Ha.052083 ft Pipe radius 5 R 5 (6 in. Da.f . and 17] should be consulted for typical viscosity values.3. for the thermowell. . 5 3 105.625 in. References [8. the dynamic fluid viscosity m 5 3. the lowest-order resonance (i. past a thermowell with a tip diameter of 0./2)(0. the Strouhal number depends only weakly on the value of fluid viscosity.015875 m Pipe radius 5 Rp 5 (6 in. in para.0 (6-4-5) For Reynolds numbers above approximately 100.0254 m/in.600 sec) /(0. Step 3. For tapered thermowells. and oscillating-lift pressures shall be CD 5 1.22 Finally 5 (100. The added mass of the fluid is accounted for with the factor Ha..2 Drag and Lift Coefficients For design purposes.36 kg/(m2s) Finally Re 5 BV/m 5 0. the eq.) 5 0. 6-5.

mineral-insulated.6 to 1. and this value should be used in the absence of detailed information on the sensor design.s 5 0. the mass per unit length of the thermowell When performing calculations with U.000 9. a typical sensor density is s 5 2 700 kg/m3 (169 lb/ft3).s 5 0.8752 EI 2p m 1/2 Table 6-5. values may vary from approximately 0.66-cm (0. Hf. use the correlation H f 5 ( y12b 1 y 22b ) y1 5 [ c1 ( A / B) 1 c2 ] (LS / L) 1 [ c3 ( A / B) 1 c4 ] A y 2 5 [ c5 (A / B) 1 c6 ] (LS / L) 1 [ c7 ( A / B) 1 c8 ] b 5 [ c9 ( A / B) 1 c10 ] 21/b (6-5-3) where the parameters ci are given in Table 6-5.865 0. f = 1 − 2m (6-5-4) 6-6 MOUNTING COMPLIANCE FACTOR The natural frequency.90 for a fluid density of 1 600 kg/m3 and a thermowell density of 8 000 kg/m3). Step 3.f 5 1. or Ha.25-in.875 in. Ha.22 cm (0. metal-sheathed construction (either resistance thermometer or thermocouple). and existence of any step.3-1. Ha. this ideal is never achieved.) 1.26-in. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. For short thermowells or for those for which A B.275 27. Step 4. 10 and A 5 B. or psi).27 cm (0.2 for an example. Calculate the sensor-mass correction factor Ha. Step 5.362 8.f 5 0. set Ha.088 in.714 0.022 22.99 1 1 (1 2 B/A ) 1 (1 2 B/A ) 3[120. The lowest-order natural frequency of the thermowell with ideal support is given by fn 5 Hf Ha. Customary units.g.) bore. Interpolation is not allowed between the entries for Table 6-5. the second moment of inertia L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell m 5 mp (Da2 – d2)/4. In practice.376 where E 5 elastic modulus at the operating temperature I 5 p(Da4 – d4)/64. The value of Hf will be approximately 1 for slender thermowells with L/A . and LS is the length of the reduced-diameter section of the thermowell.091 1. values of Hf will depend in detail on the taper ratio.94 for liquid water.s fa (6-5-6) where A 5 thermowell diameter at the support plane B 5 thermowell diameter at the tip Da 5 average thermowell diameter 5 (A + B)/2 d 5 bore diameter For step-shank thermowells of nominal 0.f 5 0.949 20. of a cantilever beam is calculated assuming an ideal.466 B = 1.022 1.299 25.ASME PTC 19. and when E is given in units of pounds per square inch (equivalent to lbf/in.3-1. The in situ natural frequency of the mounted thermowell is expressed in terms of a support flexibility or compliance factor. nominal sensor diameter. For a highly dense liquid.) or 2. rigid base. for deviations from a solid beam of uniform cross section.f : H a. Ha. and it is necessary to account for a significant reduction in natural frequency that results from flexibility of the thermowell mount or support [10].93 for a 0. .2. or Ha. 8-1.-lb 5 1 lbfsec2 is used to convert the units of E to pounds per inch per second squared.3 TW-2010 Step 2.22 cm (0.861 1.0 exactly for steam service or similar low-density gas.f Ha. See para.594 1. Calculate the approximate natural frequency of the thermowell as fa 5 1.50 in.). Calculate the added mass correction factor for the fluid. Calculate the correction factor. bore diameter.375-in.s: s 1 (6-5-5) 2 2m (Da/d ) − 1 where s 5 average density of the temperature sensor to be inserted in the thermowell. although the designer may use appropriate beam models or finite-element methods to determine the Hf for thermowells of other dimensions. For a sensor with compacted. as f nc = H c f n (6-6-1) 15 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. however. use the correlation Hf 5 2 0. set Ha.1 ( Da/L ) (6-5-2) or alternatively..5.410 20.8 ( d / Da )] 1 1 1.27 cm (0.96 for a 0. Hc.228 1.313 0. fn.132 21.875 in.3-1 Parameters for Natural Frequency Calculation for Step-Shank Thermowells Parameters c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 c9 c10 1 L2 (6-5-1) B = 2.5 in. nominal sensor diameter.) 1. Ha. and tip diameters of either 1.f may be considerably lower (e. For straightshank or tapered thermowells. Alternatively.839 20. the conversion factor 386.s = 1 − Step 6.407 20.S.

this fillet does not effectively reduce the bending compliance of the thermowell or reduce stress concentration at the threads. see Fig.g. Consequently. Although there may be a fillet between the shank and the threaded portion of the thermowell. The increased susceptibility of small-bore fittings to vibration fatigue is well known. (b) Threaded Thermowells. set b equal to zero.. 6-6-1. b. ( K M / E) 32 L[1 1 1. 6-6-1 for socketweld or weld-in thermowells). If the unsupported length is taken as the distance between the tip of the thermowell and the first engagement of the thread. du.5(b / A)]2 1 p A 2d ( 4 4 ) (6-6-2) 6-7 UNSUPPORTED LENGTH. For cases where the support plane for the thermowell is at the thermowell root with fillet radius b [e. (6-6-2) should be applied to thermowells of general geometry by replacing D with A. DIAMETER. In some installations. Approximating A4 – d4 by 0. Weld Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The stiffness.. For cases in which the support plane of the thermowell has a geometry without a clear fillet at the support plane (e. models of the piping system under static load.99A4.787 2 E 3 (6-6-4) Since the base compliance depends predominantly on the root diameter.g. (c) Socket-Weld Thermowells. due either to the flexibility of the supporting piping or to the flexibility of the thermowell attachment to the piping [11]. M. relates the angular displacement. For weld-in installations where the weld fillet is not located directly at the root of the thermowell. KM is given by KM 5 D 0. then the increased compliance of the threaded joint (not including any additional compliance of the piping beyond the joint) should be accounted for by using H c 5 1 2 0. The effect of support compliance (flexibility) is included by a series of correction factors applied to the ideal case. the definition of the unsupported length and the corresponding diameter A and fillet radius b is not obvious. illustration (c) or (d)]. eq. 4-1-1). 4-1-4.9 ( A / L) where A 5 root diameter of the thermowell b 5 fillet radius at the root of the thermowell E 5 elastic modulus of the thermowell material KM 5 rotational stiffness of the thermowell support (discussed below) L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell When the fillet radius at the root of the thermowell. it shall be set to zero. the unsupported length extends from the tip of the thermowell to the point on the thermowell where the socket is welded to the adaptor. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. of the thermowell at its support plane to a bending moment. (d) Weld-In Thermowells. and the fillet radius shall be taken as b 5 0. or for some varieties of thermowells. A threaded connection has greater compliance than a semi-infinite base. see the indicated unsupported length in Fig. the unsupported length extends from the tip of the thermowell to the flanged face that is part of the machined thermowell. (6-6-4). Instead. the mass of the head will cause a significant perturbation on the resonance frequency of the 16 The support-point diameter. the fillet radius b is not equivalent to the fillet radius of the weld. shall be taken as the diameter of the thermowell shank at the transition to the weld collar. The unsupported length will depend on how far the thermowell is inserted into the pipe and on the degree of penetration of the weld. For flanged thermowells. applied to the thermowell: KM du 5 M (6-6-3) (6-7-1) For a beam of uniform circular cross section with outside diameter D supported by a semi-infinite base of the same modulus as the thermowell material. 6-6-1. AND FILLET RADIUS For the purpose of calculating the natural frequency of a thermowell. the fillet radius shall be taken as b 5 0. is not known. this point shall be taken as the midpoint of the thermowell weld collar. For thermowells installed in thin-wall pipes with outer connection heads.61) ( A / L) [1 1 1.5(b / A)]2 (6-6-5) The value of KM attained in practice may be significantly less than that of eq. or literature results should be used to determine KM. Guidance for a variety of thermowell types is given below and illustrated in Fig. as indicated in Fig. A. The base diameter. In this case. . For design purposes. The clearance between a socket adaptor and the thermowell wall is sufficiently large that the joint between the adaptor and thermowell wall cannot be treated as an interference fit. shall be equal to the diameter of the thermowell shank at the beginning of the transition to the threaded section of the thermowell. A. and practices designed to minimize the risk of cantilevered small-bore fittings also apply to thermowell connections and electrical-connection-head top works. the general form of the mounting-compliance frequency factor is Hc 5 1 2 thermowell. the unsupported length L shall be taken as the axial distance from the tip of the thermowell to the point where the thermowell is rigidly supported.ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010 The foundation compliance is highly sensitive to the radius of curvature b of the thermowell shank and support transition (see Fig. (a) Lap-Joint and Flanged Thermowells. KM. the value of b shall be determined from the fillet geometry at the root. one obtains for a semi-infinite base H c 5 1 2 (0. Reference [11].

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.3 TW-2010 Fig. 6-6-1 Unsupported Length of Thermowells Unsupported length Unsupported length (a) Threaded Thermowell (d) Flanged Thermowell Unsupported length Unsupported length Thermowell weld collar (b) Socket Weld Thermowell (e) Lap-Joint (Van Stone) Thermowell Thermowell weld collar Unsupported length Unsupported length Do not bottom thermowell in fitting (c) Socket Weld Thermowell (f) Tapered-Shank Weld-In Thermowell Installed Directly Into Pipe Wall 17 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.ASME PTC 19. .

Support collars or other means of support are outside the scope of the Standard. resulting in failure of either the thermowell or the temperature sensor mounted in the thermowell (see Fig.2 and subsection 6-10) and the magnification factor (see subsection 6-9). operation near the transverse resonance condition shall be avoided completely. (6-6-2) and (6-6-5) for thermowell bending compliance and eq. as rigid support can be obtained only with an interference fit between the support collar and the installed piping. 6-8. the shedding of vortices produces the following two types of force on the thermowell (see Fig. both forces are acting on the thermowell with the result that the tip of the thermowell sweeps out an orbital (Lissajou figure) that changes shape as the fluid velocity is increased. large vibration amplitudes may still be encountered due to the low damping of typical thermowells [3. 6-3. The vibration amplitude is proportional to the force per unit area exerted by the fluid (see para. tip vibration at an in-line resonance may be extreme. the vortex shedding rate tends to settle onto the resonant frequency of the beam and remains locked in for a considerable range of fluid velocities (refer to paras. 6-8. As the beam responds. resonance occurs and is attended with a dramatic increase in the dynamic bending stresses.5. Note that for Fig. however. other than exceptions discussed in para. Should the vortex shedding rate coincide with the natural frequency of the thermowell.1-2 illustrates the variation of vibration amplitude with fluid velocity. the rate of vortex shedding increases linearly while the magnitude of the forces increases with the square of the fluid velocity. . a large resonant buildup in vibration amplitude can occur. In all cases.1 Overview When a thermowell is immersed in a flowing fluid. The use of support collars is not generally recommended. Because the elastic response of the thermowell and the vortex shedding process are so closely coupled. 6-8 FREQUENCY LIMIT 6-8. Although the in-line force is only weakly excited. illustrations (b) and (c). There are a minimum of two velocity criticals for each natural frequency of the thermowell: one describing the lift and the other describing the in18 line response. For any given fluid velocity.1-1). Such cases where the thermowell root is geometrically similar to a crack have reduced fatigue strength and should be avoided when the limiting factor for the thermowell velocity rating is fatigue strength. In special cases. it is possible for a thermowell to encounter many thousands of fatigue cycles in a single start-up process. the actual vortex shedding process is extremely nonlinear and can be expected to be captured or locked onto the structural resonance of the thermowell [2]. even if the vortex shedding rate does not coincide with the natural frequency of the thermowell during steady-state process conditions. To prevent the occurrence of lock-in phenomena and to limit the buildup of vibration amplitudes to a safe value. The user is cautioned. and the correlations for natural frequency supplied in this Standard do not apply. The thermowell responds elastically according to the force distribution and its variation in time. small supportcollar gaps filled with a viscous process fluid may add significant damping. (6-12-4) for stress-concentration factor apply only for weld fillets on the inside of the pipe. If the natural frequency of the thermowell overlaps with either fs or 2fs. Since the in-line force fluctuates at twice the frequency of the lift excitation. together with the lock-in phenomenon. Because fs is proportional to fluid velocity V. These should not be confused with the critical velocity marking the transition to turbulent boundary-layer flow. (e) Thermowells With Support Collars. and engineering models that account for the degree of support and fluid damping may be useful. the fillet radius shall be taken as b 5 0 even if there is a substantial fillet on the outside of the pipe. Consequently.4 and 6-8. The natural frequency of thermowells may be as high as several thousand hertz.ASME PTC 19. thereby suppressing thermowell resonances. the corresponding velocity critical is approximately one-half that required for lift resonance. the added mass will shift the natural frequency of the thermowell. 6-8. transverse to the fluid flow at frequency fs (b) an oscillating-drag force.3 TW-2010 specifications and tolerances for those specifications shall be taken into account when determining the unsupported length. Operation of the thermowell through the in-line resonance is allowed only if the cyclic stresses at the resonance condition are acceptably small (see paras. leading to sensor degradation or destruction. the resonant frequency of the installed thermowell shall be sufficiently higher than either the in-line or the transverse resonance condition. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 6-12. If a section of thermowell shank of increased diameter is used in the support-collar design.4 and 6-8.5). The fluid velocity at which this takes place is referred to as a velocity critical. that even if a thermowell is sufficiently strong to withstand in-line resonance. which shall be taken as the longest length possible within the weld and location tolerances.1-1): (a) an oscillating-lift force. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. in-line with the fluid flow at frequency 2fs As the fluid velocity is increased. Figure 6-8. 12–15]. This capture takes place as the vortex shedding rate approaches a natural frequency of the thermowell.5). 6-6-1. the support plane for the thermowell is located at the intersection of the seal weld and the clearance gap between the thermowell shank and the adaptor. the in-line resonance occurs at half the velocity of the transverse resonance. Such designs require methods beyond the scope of this Standard. Eqs. 6-3.

64 and Re . The intrinsic damping factor. in-line resonance is suppressed. which can shift the locations of the resonances. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. both transverse and in-line resonances are suppressed. If NSc # 2. The figure ignores lock-in effects. and the installed natural frequency of the thermowell shall satisfy fS . z.8fn Vibration Amplitude In-line resonance Transverse resonance Fluid Velocity GENERAL NOTE: The frequency limits discussed in paras. the limits of 6-8. 0. 6-8. as NSc 5 p2 z (m / )[1 2 (d/B)2] If NSc . (6-8-2) are possible but shall consider the excitation of higher-order thermowell resonances. Fig.3 TW-2010 Fig. Values of z known from direct modal measurements should be used. 6-8.1-1 Schematic Indicating Excitation of Resonances When Excitation Frequency Coincides With the Thermowell Natural Frequency Frequency In-line (drag) excitation Transverse (lift) fn Nominal resonance condition Approximate lock-in range Fluid Velocity GENERAL NOTE: Lock-in between the fluid vortices and the thermowell mechanical resonances can cause a resonance condition within the approximate boundaries indicated by the gray boxes. (6-8-1) 19 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.4fn c fs � 0.ASME PTC 19. for In-Line and Transverse Excitation Modes c fs � 0. 6-8. the intrinsic damping of the thermowell sufficiently suppresses the in-line vibrations due to vortex shedding. 105.5 or Re $ 105. Calculate the mass damping factor.1-2 Schematic Showing the Amplitude Response of a Thermowell Subjected to Fluid-Induced Forces as Solid Lines.4 are shown as dotted lines. 6-8.3 shall apply. 2.0005 [2]. or Scruton number. . These calculations are beyond the scope of this Standard.5 and Re .2 Frequency Limit for Low-Density Gases For fluids of sufficiently low density and with Re . such as gasket choice for flanged thermowells.1-1. 6-8. of common thermowells should be conservatively set at 0. 105. although the designer is cautioned that the damping factor is not highly reproducible among multiple thermowells of similar design and may depend on details of the thermowell mounting. Designs for a fluid velocity beyond the limit of eq. as shown in Fig.8 f nc (6-8-2) If NSc .2 to 6-8. 105.

Step 3. 300 # Re . f nc.0496 R R = Log 10 (Re / Re0 ) Re0 = 1. shutdown.1-1. 6-8. ′ set the amplification factor for in-line resonance to 1/ (2z) 5 1.5].5].4 Frequency Limit When the In-Line Resonance Does Not Limit Operation In cases where the thermowell passes the cyclic stress condition for operation at the in-line resonance condition.8 f nc (6-8-9) Graphically.ASME PTC 19. 6-8.4 f nc (6-8-7) Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.1-2. 300 6-8. set the magnification factor FM for in-line resonance to 1/(2z).000. The requirement that the natural resonance coincides with the in-line resonance also fixes the amplification factor for the transverse resonance to a value of 4/3 [obtained by evaluating eq. The number of cycles sustained for each flow-velocity transient shall be calculated assuming that lock-in phenomena occurs for a range of forcing frequencies equal to 20% of the natural frequency.1-1 and 6-8. 20 (6-8-3) where a( R) = 0. the installed natural frequency.3 TW-2010 6-8.2 do not apply. f nc shall satisfy fS < 0. establish the frequency limit of the thermowell as described in the following four steps: Step 1.2 to 6-10. A thermowell with a natural-frequency intermediate between the steady-state Strouhal frequency (which excites transverse vibrations) and twice the Strouhal frequency (which excites in-line vibrations) is subjected to large-amplitude vibration only for limited periods on start-up or shutdown. Passage through the in-line resonance is allowed only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) The process fluid is a gas. the designer shall evaluate the maximum stresses when the thermowell is excited at its natural frequency. provided that certain criteria are met. (6-4-2).8 f nc (6-8-6) Step 4. 1. and not at the value VIR [the factors to the right of ( Bf nc ) ( 2NS ) correct for the difference in NS at V and at VIR]. these conditions are equivalent to operation at a fluid velocity intermediate between the two gray boxes in Fig. The cyclic lift stress should be neglected in evaluating the peak oscillatory bending stress [see eq. If the thermowell passes the cyclic stress condition [eq. shall satisfy fS < 0. (e) The potential consequences of thermowell failure to equipment or personnel are sufficiently limited to be acceptable. (b) The thermowell is exposed to the in-line resonance condition only on start-up. Evaluate the cyclic drag stress following subsection 6-12. as shown in Figs. shall be high enough to limit excitation of the in-line resonance. 300 (6-8-4) and NS is evaluated at the design velocity V. (6-10-6) and paras. an upper limit for amplification exactly on resonance. If the criteria above are met. transient exposure to the in-line resonance condition may be allowable.5 Passing Through the In-Line Critical In cases where the thermowell design fails the cyclic stress condition for steady-state operation.6 f nc . the installed natural frequency. (d) The process fluid is known to not cause metallurgical changes to the thermowell material that would significantly reduce the fatigue resistance. care shall still be taken that in steady state the flow condition will not coincide with the thermowell resonance. Bf nc a(R) 5 Log 10 1 2 for 1. (c) The sustained or steady-state peak stress is less than the fatigue limit for the number of cycles. If the Strouhal number is calculated with the simplified relation of eq. (6-4-4). (6-9-1) with r 5 0. 6-10. set the fluid velocity for the in-line resonance to VIR = Bf nc 2NS (6-8-5) Step 2. set the fluid velocity for the in-line resonance to Bf nc 2NS c Bf n VIR 5 2NS c Bf n 2NS 22m 22m 1 2 B V 1 B for 22 # Re . as the in-line vibrations are excited only when twice the Strouhal frequency coincides with the natural frequency of the thermowell. or other infrequent transient variations in fluid velocity. (6-12-1)] for operation at the in-line resonance condition. If the thermowell fails the cyclic stress condition for operation at the in-line resonance condition.4 f nc (6-8-8) or 0. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Otherwise. and determine whether the thermowell has sufficient fatigue strength for the expected number of start-up and shutdown events encountered by the thermowell in its lifetime. .3 Frequency Limit for the General Case If the conditions in para. 6-8. 0. fS (steady state) . If the damping factor is known. f nc . in accordance with subsection 6-12. The steady-state fluid velocity should meet one of the following conditions: fS (steady state) < 0. 5 3 10 NS 2 NSV for 5 3 10 5 # Re .0285R 2 − 0. 107 6-8. In this case. If the Strouhal number is calculated with the correlation of eq.

6-10. I. In the case of transverse lift resonance. For step-shank thermowells.1 Point of Maximum Stress The peak stresses occur on the outside surface of the thermowell at the support plane for taper and straight-shank thermowells. it is convenient to define G as G≡ Mb D( zs ) 2Pb I ( zs ) 5 6-9. of diameter B. 6-9 MAGNIFICATION FACTOR in special cases where a thermowell is supported along its shank. (6-10-1) to obtain the value of Sz. ’ FM . eq. z.8 . where zs is equal to either zero for evaluation of stress at the support plane. Except The dimensionless quantity G depends only on the thermowell geometry. and the longitudinal stress in the thermowell: 2yM I for steady-state stresses Sz 5 2yMFM I for lift resonance stresses 2yMF ’ I for drag resonance stresses M 6-9.2] and at frequencies low enough that only the natural frequency of the thermowell is appreciably excited. G is evaluated with the lower limit of integration zs 5 max (0. the magnification factor is FM 5 r5 1 12 r 2 fs f c n (6-10-1) Eq. y 5 A/2.ASME PTC 19. As shown in Fig. 1. or to the distance from the support plane of the thermocouple to the cross section where the stress is evaluated. At resonance. For the case of in-line resonances. L0) and shall be denoted GSP. or P l and is equal to the force per unit area applied transverse to the beam.3 TW ensure only the mechanical integrity of the thermowell. FM. peak stress amplitudes need to be evaluated at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. (6-10-1) is evaluated at z 5 0 and either x 5 0. as well as at the support point. max ∫ p ( D( zs )4 2 d 4 ) z 32D( zs ) L s D( z) ( z 2 zs ) dz (6-10-3) 5 5 1 2z 1 2z for excitation of a transverse (lift) resonance for excitation of an in-line (drag) resonance max (6-9-3) 6-10 BENDING STRESSES 6-10. L0) and shall be denoted GRD. In this case. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1 Magnification Factor Away From Resonance The magnification factor. the simple expressions below accurately model the magnification factor. . y 5 0. (6-9-1) and (6-9-2) in the range 0. For frequencies outside the lock-in band of the vortex frequency [the lock-in band is equivalent to an r value in eqs. or x 5 A/2. the thermowell deflection is limited by the intrinsic damping factor. y 5 0 (oscillating-lift stresses). For a thermowell shielded from fluid flow for a distance L 0 from the thermowell root.3 TW-2010 Note that the design rules of PTC 19. Passage through the in-line resonance may cause a severe vibration of the thermowell tip resulting in unacceptable sensor damage or drift. [For the common case of a thermowell supported at its root. and at either the support plane or the base of the reduced-diameter section of shank for step-shank thermowells.1-1. P d. G is evaluated with the lower limit of integration zs 5 max (L − LS.2 Magnification Factor Near Resonance When the natural frequency of the thermowell falls within the lock-in band of the vortex frequency. At the thermowell support point.] The general equation relating peak-second moment for each type of force acting on the thermowell is Mb 5 Pb (6-9-1) L zs ∫ D(z) ( z 2 z )dz s (6-10-2) ing the reduction in the thermowell vibration frequency due to compliance of the foundation or support. the moment of inertia. M. stresses for fluid-flow-induced forces are obtained from the relation between the second moment of the beam. and the result for M b is used in eq. equals the ratio of thermowell deflection and stress at a given frequency to the deflection and stress at zero frequency. and z 5 zs. the support plane will be at the thermowell root. r . of the thermowell. the steady-state drag stress on the downstream side of the thermowell is SD 5 Gb PD 5 Gb CD V 2 2 (6-10-4) where the equation uses the convention that compressive stresses have a positive sign and Gb is a placeholder for either GSP for stress evaluated at the support point or GRD for stress evaluated at the reduced-diameter 21 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (6-10-1) is evaluated at x 5 0. the maximum magnification factor is FM . For calculation purposes. the magnification factor is FM 5 ′ r′ 5 1 1 − (r′) 2 fs f nc 2 f nc being the natural frequency of the thermowell includ- (6-9-2) where P b denotes either PD. At the thermowell support point. y 5 D(zs)/2 (steadystate and oscillating-drag stresses) or x 5 D(zs)/2. (6-10-2). L0 replaces z s as the lower limit of the integration in eq.

z � 0) M Maximum longitudinal bending stress at step-shank base Maximum longitudinal bending stress at support plane (b) For a Step-Shank Thermowell Subject to Fluid-Flow GENERAL NOTE: Locations for maximum oscillating transverse stress are located in the same plane. . 22 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. z � 0) M Maximum longitudinal bending stress (a) For a Tapered Thermowell Fluid velocity y S(x � 0. y. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.1-1 Bending Moment. but at points rotated 90 deg about the thermowell axis.ASME PTC 19. Stress at the Support Plane. y. and Locations of Maximum Steady-State or Oscillating In-Line Stress Fluid velocity y S(x � 0. 6-10.3 TW-2010 Fig.

ASME PTC 19. No Shielding From Flow For a step-shank thermowell. At the reduced-diameter shank step. (6-10-2) is integrated along the whole thermowell length. L – LS. the total second moment. 1. At the support plane.4 Maximum Stress for Step-Shank Thermowells. The parameter G is given as GSP 5 2 3 1 2 ( L0 / L ) 4 3 pA 2 1 2 ( d / A ) 3 12 ( B /A 2 1) 1 2 ( L0 / L ) 1 − ( LS L) − ( L0 L) GSP = 16BL2 3 } for L0 < L − LS 1 − ( L0 L)2 for L0 ≥ L − LS 1 − ( d / A )4 pA (6-10-11) 16L2 { } (6-10-8) At the reduced-diameter shank step. The stress amplitudes are used in estimating the ′ combined bending stress in subsection 6-12. the parameter G at the support plane for a stepshank thermowell is given as GSP = 16 L2 4 pA 2 1 − ( d / A ) 2 The steady-state drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag stress amplitudes are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of GSP from eq. (6-10-8).3. the steadystate drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag stresses are evaluated using eqs.5). The result for the parameter G is GSP 5 16 L2 2 4 At the support plane of the thermowell.2 Maximum Stress for Tapered or Straight Thermowells. the peak stresses may occur either at the support plane of the thermowell or at the base of the reduced-diameter step shank. as well as at the support point. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. evaluating G at D(zs) 5 B for use in eqs. 0. 6-10. In this case. L – LS. the steadystate drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillatingdrag stresses are evaluated using eqs.3 TW-2010 shank (see paras. At the base of the reduced-diameter step shank. eq. 23 At the support plane of the thermowell. 6-10. (6-9-1) through (6-9-3) give magnification factors FM and FM . (6-10-10) or (6-10-12). Cl. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of GSP from eq. (6-10-10). (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the appropriate value of GSP from eq. the point of maximum stress shall be evaluated at the support plane for a straight or tapered thermowell. (6-10-10) applies for shielding from fluid flow with L0 . varies little from the shielded case when L0/L . Shielded From Flow {(B A) + 1 − (B A) 2 If the thermowell is shielded from fluid flow from the thermowell support plane to a distance L0 along the shank. No Shielding From Flow With no shielding for a tapered or straight thermowell subject to a constant force per unit area. (6-10-7). For typical thermowells. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of GSP from eq. (6-10-7) and (6-10-8) will differ by less than approximately 10% if L0/L . eq. However. and Cd. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. For L0 . For step-shank thermowells. The majority of installed thermowells have some degree of shielding from fluid flow near the support point. 3 pA 1 2 ( d / A ) [11 2(B A)] (6-10-7) 6-10.2 to 6-10. the parameter G is given as GRD = 1 − ( L0 L) 2 ( LS L) − 1 + ( L0 L) 4 pB2 1 − ( d / B) (6-10-12) 16 L2 The steady-state drag stress and oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag stress amplitudes are evaluated using eqs. of diameter B. eqs. and consequently the value of G. . the parameter G is given as GRD 5 16LS 2 4 pB 2 1 2 ( d / B ) (6-10-10) 6-10. At the base of the reduced-diameter step shank. stress amplitudes are evaluated using eqs.5 Maximum Stress for Step-Shank Thermowells. the parameter G is given as GSP 5 16L2 4 pA 1 2 ( d / A ) 2 Gb Cl FM V 2 2 ’ Gb Cd FM V 2 2 (6-10-5) (6-10-6) Equation (6-4-5) gives coefficients CD. {(B A) 1 12 (B A) 12 (L S L ) 2 } (6-10-9) where the reduced-diameter step has length LS and diameter B. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) gives the stress amplitudes at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. stress amplitudes are evaluated using eqs. (6-10-9). Shielded From Flow If the thermowell is shielded from fluid flow from the thermowell support plane to a distance L0 along the shank. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the value of GRD from eq. peak stress amplitudes shall be evaluated at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. The amplitudes for oscillating-lift and oscillating-drag stresses are SL 5 Gb FM Pl 5 Sd 5 G F P 5 ’ b M d 6-10. (6-10-4) through (6-10-6) and the appropriate value of GRD from eq. the values of GSP evaluated using eqs. (6-10-11).3 Maximum Stress for Tapered or Straight Thermowells.

Tip effects are important. including the perturbations of upstream piping elements. and consulting reference [16] to determine the forces on the thermowell. there are the following stresses: (a) (b) (c) (d) radial pressure stress. as shown in Fig.7-2.6-10.3 or 6-10. calculation of the bending moment is beyond the scope of this Standard.7-3. Shear stresses are small relative to the other stresses and should be neglected. .6 Partial Exposure to Fluid Flow For thermowells with only partial exposure to the fluid flow not covered by paras. the bending moment should be calculated by integrating the moment created by the pressure acting on the projected area exposed to fluid flow. The axial pressure stress is given by Sa 5 P 1 2 ( d / A )2 (6-11-3) 6-12 STEADY-STATE STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRESS LIMITS 6-12. Thermowells mounted in an elbow with the tip pointing upstream.7-1 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow. Sr tangential pressure stress. and the effective Strouhal number varies with the angle of flow with respect to the thermowell axis [16]. as shown in Fig. Sa shear stress due to flow impingement 6-10. 6-10. The geometry to be used in the calculation of thermowell ratings is given in Fig.3 TW-2010 Fig. 6-3. St axial pressure stress. with a consequent reduction of the bending moment. For conditions of low fluid velocity. thermowells shall meet strength criteria to prevent fatigue failure. as described in para.1 Overview In addition to the hydrostatic pressure limit of subsection 6-13. the projected area shall be conservatively estimated as the projected area of the thermowell if the flow were to be normal to the thermowell axis along the length of the thermowell exposed to fluid flow.5. With the Tip Facing Downstream V L 6-10. For an external operating pressure P. 6-11 PRESSURE AND SHEAR STRESSES In addition to the bending stresses.ASME PTC 19.6.7 Mounting of Thermowells in an Elbow For thermowells mounted in an elbow and pointing downstream. Predictions of the bending moment and Strouhal number should be made by using computational fluid dynamics or experimental measurements to determine the fluid flow pattern. Thus. the radial and hoop stresses at the root are given by Sr 5 P 1 1 ( d / A )2 1 2 ( d / A )2 (6-11-1) St 5 P (6-11-2) where d is the bore diameter of the thermowell and compressive stresses have a positive sign. there is minimal transverse fluid flow near the tip of the thermowell. the fluid does not impart sufficient momentum to the thermowell to cause fatigue 24 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 6-10.7-1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. are often preferable to a mounting with the tip pointing downstream. 6-10. 6-10. Provided that the flow lines in the upstream pipe are closely approximated as lines parallel to the pipe axis. For such an installation. the exact flow path is difficult to model.

6-12.7-3 Mounting of a Thermowell in an Elbow.3 Dynamic Stress Limits The dynamic stresses are the result of periodic drag forces that cause the thermowell to oscillate in the direction of the stream and periodic lift forces that cause it to oscillate in the transverse direction.3 TW-2010 Fig. Paragraph 6-12.2 shall be met. 6-12.2 for steady-state stresses and paras. For design. creep rate and creep rupture limit the allowable stress to values significantly below the stress limits obtained from short-term yield-strength tests. 6-12.5S (6-12-2) 6-12.5 describes the special case of thermowells designed for operation at fluid velocities where the Strouhal frequency exceeds the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell. and St should satisfy Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. stress limits shall be established by test. along the axial direction of the thermowell. 6-10. Note that for service at elevated temperatures for extended periods. For higher fluid velocities. 6-12. So. is taken as the amplitude of 25 Using the Von Mises criteria for failure.3 and 6-12. With the Tip Facing Upstream L V failure and only the steady-state stress limit in para.2 Steady-State Stress Limits The steady-state loading from the combined effects of hydrostatic fluid pressure and nonoscillating drag produces a point of maximum stress. Sr. as specified by the governing code For combinations of materials and operating temperature not covered by the governing code. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 6-10. The dynamic stress amplitude shall not exceed the high-cycle maximum allowable stress amplitude. ( Smax 2 Sr ) 2 1 ( Smax 2 St ) 1 ( St 2 Sr ) 2 2 2 # 1. the applied stresses Smax. the thermowell shall meet the requirements described in para.ASME PTC 19. at the downstream side of the base of the thermowell. in the thermowell located on the outer surface of the thermowell.max.7-2 Geometry to Be Used in Calculation of Thermowell Ratings L V Fig. Smax is given by Smax 5 SD 1 Sa (6-12-1) where S 5 maximum allowable stress of the material.4 for dynamic stresses. The peak oscillatory bending stress amplitude. Smax. .

3 TW-2010 Table 6-12. except for the nickel–copper alloys.. then machined [Note (2)] No welds [Note (3)] As-welded [Note (1)] or threaded Welded.4 / 37. the value of Sf shall be the smaller of the values for the two metals.3 5. independent of the requirements of para. the total number of fatigue cycles can readily exceed 1011 during the thermowell lifetime and Sf should be evaluated at the design-cycle limit.2 for A / b $ 33 (6-12-4) The peak oscillatory bending stress amplitude So. For materials not covered by Table 6-12. The welded joint must be a full-penetration weld.3-1). when appropriate.3 3 106 psi). Kt shall be obtained from Kt 5 1. ASME B31. “as welded” values for Sf should be used. The designer shall consider the effects on fatigue strength of the dissimilar weld and thermal-expansion mismatch between the materials. (3) Location of maximum stress is a smooth. fatigue-strength amplitude limits shall be established by test. Division 2.1..7 / 32. Section VIII. nickel–chromium–iron alloy. illustration (d)]. Kt: So. FE is an environmental factor (FE # 1) allowing designers to adjust fatigue limits.0 / 20.3 3 106 psi). Testing shall be in accordance with the provisions of ASME BPVC Section VIII. as shown in Fig. the values of Sf in the high-cycle limit in Table 6-12. and nickel–copper alloys. FT is a temperature correction factor given by FT 5 E(T)/Eref (6-12-6) (6-12-3) The thermowell design should be evaluated for fatigue in accordance with ASME BPVC. In the absence of full-penetration welds and/or weld inspection. and visual and magnetic-particle or liquid-dye-penetrant examination is required after machining. max . Eref equals 195 GPa (28.033 ( A / b ) for A / b < 33 Kt 5 2. Annex 5.3.8 GENERAL NOTES: (a) Class A is carbon. A fatigue analysis in Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.9 3 106 psi).3-1 or ASME BPVC Section VIII. the thermowell design should be evaluated for fatigue in accordance with the requirements of para. nickel–iron–chromium alloy. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.F. In the absence of more directly applicable data. (c) For known fillet radii b and root diameter A.1 1 0. Alternatively. for environmental effects such as corrosive service. the two components added in quadrature.6 / 93.3.3 as a minimum.4 7. Power Piping. Use of the values in Table 6-12.g. 6-12. For material class A (see Table 6-12.3-1 for other environments or at temperatures in excess of 427°C (800°F) may require a reduction in the environmental factor FE to account for corrosion or related effects. (b) Threaded connections shall use a stress concentration factor of Kt 5 2.3-1 should be used for a design life of 1011 cycles for typical hydrocarbon and steam environments. low-alloy.3-1 Allowable Fatigue-Stress Amplitude Limits for Material Class A and Class B Thermowell Material Class A A A B B B Metal State at Location of Maximum Stress As-welded [Note (1)] or threaded Welded. (b) Class B is series 3XX high-alloy steels.2 9. a weld-in thermowell. 4-1-4. 6-12.max shall not exceed the fatigue-endurance limit.0 / 48. for which Eref equals 213 GPa (30. except for the low-Cr alloys. Because the natural frequency of thermowells is typically hundreds of hertz.2 should be used in the absence of specific dimensional details of the fillet at the base of the thermowell.g. for which Eref equals 179 GPa (26. When thermowells are welded into a pipe or adaptor of different composition than the thermowell. the following should be used: (a) A stress concentration factor of Kt 5 2. series 4XX. illustration (c)]. .0 3 106 psi). then machined [Note (2)] No welds [Note (3)] Value of Sf . amplified by a stress concentration factor. a lap-joint thermowell). and high-alloy steels not covered in class B. Division 2. as shown in Fig. NOTES: (1) Location of maximum stress coincides with either a welded joint or associated heat-affected zone [e. For material class B (see Table 6-12.8 13.ASME PTC 19. machined surface and does not coincide with either welded joint or associated heat-affected zone (e.7 4. Eref equals 202 GPa (29. a flanged thermowell. which has been machined to a smooth surface subsequent to welding [e. (2) Location of maximum stress coincides with either a welded joint or associated heat-affected zone. max 5 Kt (Sd 2 1 SL 2 ) 1/ 2 and V provide guidance on corrosion control and piping corrosion. Appendices IV 26 where E(T) is the elastic modulus at the operation temperature. Division 2. FT ⋅ FE ⋅ S f (6-12-5) where Sf is the allowable fatigue-stress amplitude limit in air at room temperature.1 / 62. adjusted for temperature and environmental effects: So. ksi/MPa 3. 4-1-4.. Part 5. In the absence of more directly applicable data.g.3-1).

then the second order mode should be considered as a basis for thermowell design and selection. in which case Pf shall be reduced to the minimum of Pt and Pc. In determining the appropriate value of S. Pt. The success of such operation is dependent on many factors and shall be handled on a case-by-case basis.0833 2B / ( B 2 d ) (6-13-1) 6-12. designers should use eq. especially for the larger values of d/B allowed by Tables 4-1-1 and 4-2-1.66S 2 0.5. (6-13-1) may be as much as 17% lower than the value calculated by UG-28 for some materials at some temperatures. . At temperatures beyond the limits established by UG-28. Pt or Pc. Division 2. Supercritical operation is discouraged in performance testing of rotating equipment. or length Ls for step-shank thermowells. f nc . or the governing code. where S = the maximum allowable stress of the governing code The value of Pc calculated by eq. designers should consider the possibility of creep buckling.13 d 2 6-12. Pt . Step 2. or the minimum of Pc and Pt for other types of thermowells. More than one operating condition may require calculations at multiple temperatures. the stress criteria [eqs. evaluate the stress at the root of the reduced-diameter portion of the shank. Pf .5 Supercritical Operation It is recognized that where the fluid density is low. Division 1 of the ASME BPVC to calculate the allowable external pressure. 27 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (6-13-1). if the stresses of the lowest-order mode at the lift resonance condition are well below both the maximum allowable stress (static loads) and the fatigue allowable stress (dynamic loads).5 or the governing code unless Pt . for the thickness t using Pt 5 S t 0. (see Fig.3 TW-2010 accordance with ASME BPVC Section VIII. (6-13-2) where d 5 thermowell bore diameter S 5 maximum allowable stress Step 3. The external pressure rating shall exceed the maximum operating pressure. Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings. For pressure ratings less than 103 MPa (15 ksi). the designer should use fatigue data for the appropriate number of cycles. defined as an operation where the Strouhal frequency exceeds the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell: fS . the allowable external pressure should be calculated as 2. t. The maximum allowable operating pressure of the flange. For high-pressure [. (as defined in UG-28) for a cylinder of outer diameter B. substituting (B/bs) for (A/b) in eq. For thermowells subject to a lower number of cycles over the design lifetime. evaluate the stress at the thermowell support plane. The external pressure rating. shall be in accordance with ASME B16.3-1 are evaluated for 1011 fatigue cycles. use ASME BPVC Section VIII. it is possible to design a thermowell for supercritical operation. Second. and Pf for flange thermowells. The minimum tip thickness. Pr.ASME PTC 19. 103 MPa (15 ksi)] service. The values in Table 6-12. (6-12-4). Pf.3.06 lb/ft3). Pf . where bs is the fillet radius at this root. in accordance with ASME B16. Finite-element and modal analysis methods are generally required. inner diameter d. Pc. of the thermowell is the minimum of Pc . but in principle. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Chapter IX.4 Maximum-Stress Locations for Step-Shank Thermowells For step-shank thermowells.3-1. using the procedures described in subsection 6-10. (Refer to Tables 4-1-1 and 4-2-1 for minimum allowed wall thickness. use UG-28 of Section VIII. or ASME B31. Pf or Pc . and for materials not covered by UG-28. For a flanged or a lap-joint (Van Stone) thermowell. 4-1-1) shall always be equal to or greater than the minimum wall thickness of the shank. Division 3. 6-13 PRESSURE LIMIT The external pressure rating of the thermowell shall be determined as follows: Step 1. The design pressure shall be calculated at the temperature of the operating condition. namely low-pressure gases with densities less than 1 kg/ m3 (0.167 Pc 5 0. (6-12-2) and (6-12-5)] shall be evaluated for the following two locations: (a) at the support plane of the thermowell (b) at the root of the reduced-diameter portion of the shank First. Part 5 (latest edition) is required for conditions outside the scope of Table 6-12. and length L for straight and tapered thermowells. determine the allowable pressure of the flange. As a simplified alternative. P.) Calculate the allowable pressure. De-rate the flange to the minimum of Pt and Pc if Pf .

The external pressure shall not exceed the pressure ratings of the thermowell tip. or v 5 kinematic fluid viscosity. In determining the process-fluid velocity. or other deviations from steady-state operation. m (in. m/s (in. valve operations. 7-4. Pa⋅s (lbf⋅sec/ft2). The maximum primary dynamic stress shall not exceed the allowable fatigue stress limit. 5% for elastic modulus.) B 5 outside diameter at tip of thermowell. Fluid properties. Pa (psi) Sf 5 fatigue endurance limit. (c) Static Stress Limit. Determine whether the fluid velocity is sufficiently low that no calculations other than the external pressure limit need to be performed (para.3) As noted in para. m (in. as determined by the Von Mises criteria. m (in. m (in. kg/m3 (lb/in. Pa (psi) S 5 maximum allowable working stress. and the default values of para. (a) Frequency Limit. and L may depend on details of the installation (see subsection 6-7).3). m (in. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. m (in. 7-4. The resonance frequency of the thermowell shall be sufficiently high so that destructive oscillations are not excited by the fluid flow.6). Pa (psi) T 5 operating temperature. and the stress. m2/s (ft2/sec) 5 fluid density.ASME PTC 19.) Values of A.) d 5 bore diameter of thermowell. Necessary properties of the temperature sensor installed in the thermowell include s 5 density of the temperature sensor. m (in. the suitability of the thermowell material for the process environment (section 5) shall be considered. 6-3. (6-4-4) is used to specify the Strouhal number. shank.3 Temperature Dependence of Properties Evaluate the thermowell material density and all of the thermowell dimensions at ambient temperature.) bS 5 fillet radius at the base of the reduced-diameter length of a step-shank thermowell. 8C (8F) V 5 process-fluid velocity. the elastic modulus of the thermowell material. . Pa (psi) m 5 mass density of the thermowell material. 6-5. 28 7-4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DIMENSIONS material properties and Collect thermowell dimensions.3 TW-2010 Section 7 Overview of Calculations 7-1 QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA 7-4.) b 5 fillet radius at root base of thermowell.) L 5 unsupported length of thermowell.1 Necessary Dimensions Necessary dimensions include A 5 outside diameter of thermowell at support plane or root. kg/m3 (lb/in.3 may be used.) t 5 minimum tip thickness of the thermowell. Any interpolation of values in tables or figures should follow the methods recommended by the source of the tables. 7-3 FLUID VELOCITY Necessary material properties of the thermowell include E 5 modulus of elasticity at service temperature. (b) Dynamic Stress Limit. In addition. and flange. kg/m3 (lb/in. and 10% for stress and endurance limits. in the high-cycle limit./sec) v 5 specific volume (reciprocal of the fluid density ). (d) Hydrostatic Pressure Limit. m (in. such as the weld geometry or the use of weld adaptors.) LS 5 length of reduced-diameter shank for a step-shank thermowell. viscosity is not needed if eq. 6-3.1.3/lb) m 5 dynamic fluid viscosity.3) The temperature-sensor density enters into the calculations only as a small correction. The maximum steady-state stress on the thermowell shall not exceed the allowable stress. There are four quantitative criteria that the thermowell shall meet to be fit for service. b.3) Material properties do not need to be known to better than 1% of the property value for mass density.2 Material Properties 7-2 FLUID PROPERTIES Collect the following fluid properties: P 5 operating pressure.and fatigue-amplitude limits shall all be evaluated at the operating temperature. m3/kg (in. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. the designer should consider variations in the fluid velocity due to start-up or shutdown conditions (para. 6-4.

and b for various installation types.2). A. Step 3. 7-10 PRESSURE RATING Calculate the pressure rating of the thermowell. based on the pressure rating of the tip. 7-6 NATURAL FREQUENCY AT OPERATION TEMPERATURE Calculate the maximum steady-state and dynamic stresses at the support plane of the thermowell (subsections 6-10 and 6-11). Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory. (N⋅m)/rad [(in. and any flange (subsection 6-13). this determination will require calculation of the maximum stresses.1). 7-7 NATURAL FREQUENCY AT EXPECTED MODE OF OPERATION Determine if the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell is sufficiently high for the expected mode of operation (subsection 6-8).3 TW-2010 7-4. Determine if the pressure rating exceeds the design pressure. Subsection 6-7 discusses determination of values of L. 7-5 REYNOLDS AND STROUHAL NUMBERS 7-8 STEADY-STATE AND DYNAMIC STRESSES Calculate the Reynolds number and Strouhal number characterizing the fluid flow (para. Step 2. Obtain the coefficients of lift and drag characterizing fluid forces on the thermowell (para. For the general case. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.4 Installation Details Necessary details of the installation include KM 5 rotational stiffness of thermowell support.ASME PTC 19. Correct for sensor and fluid mass. as described in subsection 7-8. Calculate the approximate natural frequency. . 6-4. thermowell shank.-lb)/rad] See subsection 6-6 for additional information on the factor KM. Step 4. Correct for foundation compliance. For step-shank thermowells. 6-4. 7-9 ALLOWABLE FATIGUE LIMITS Determine if the stresses exceed allowable fatigue limits (subsection 6-12). repeat this calculation at the root of the reduced-diameter portion of the shank. Calculate the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell at operation temperature (subsection 6-5). 29 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. This calculation consists of the following steps: Step 1.

)/2 5 1. Although intermediate results are rounded to four significant digits in the text for clarity.) (0. (a) from ASME B31.5 Reynolds and Strouhal Numbers. The Reynolds number is calculated [eq. (6-6-5).1 Application. where Da 5 (1. Re . s 5 169 lb/ft3. with a machined fillet at the root of the shank. 8-1 TAPERED.1. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.3. in the high-cycle limit: Sf 5 3.0 in.)2 ]/4 5 0.284 lb/in. Step 5. Table A-1.0 in. For the average density of the temperature sensor. and Installation Consider a thermowell for a steam bypass line. unsupported length: L 5 4.0 in.149 3 1025 lb/ (ftsec) 8-1.1. maximum allowable working stress: S 5 19.284 lb/in. fillet radius at base: b 5 0. Calculate the approximate natural frequency of the thermowell as 8-1. illustration (e)].2 Thermowell Dimensions.25 in. The unsupported length.499 lb/ft3 (e) viscosity: 5 0. CUSTOMARY UNITS) 8-1. The force coefficients using eq. 6-6-1. or using the conversion factor 1 cP 5 6.3 8-1. fatigue endurance limit.2 Natural Frequency Calculation Step 1. with the support plane in the heat-affected zone of the weld. with the following properties: 30 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.1.4 Installation Details. WELDED THERMOWELL FOR A STEAM-HEADER APPLICATION (U.5 in.)4 ]/64 5 0. intermediate results are given for the multistep calculations.800 psi (c) thermowell construction is welded. welded). mass density of carbon steel: m 5 0.4 Cd 5 0. Power Piping.7197 3 1024 lb/(ftsec).25 in. minimum wall thickness: t 5 0.068 × 106 1.25 in. exceeds this nominal length due to the possible incomplete penetration of the weld [see Fig.0 in.5 in.3) p[(1. (6-5-1)]: I 5 p(D a 4 2 d 4 )/64 5 p[(1.3334 lb/in. . 5 1. which is also the support plane. then machined. tip diameter: B 5 1.5 3 106 psi (b) from ASME B31. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) root diameter: A 5 1.188 in For this example.4 m 5 mp(D a 2 2 d 2 )/4 5 (0. Properties.3 Materials Properties.000 psi (d) from reference [19].0 8-1.06 in.ASME PTC 19.26 in. 8-1.1.3-1 (Class A. modulus of elasticity at service temperature: E 5 27. Approximate natural frequency [eq. For the rotational stiffness of the thermowell support. Table C-1 (interpolated in temperature).S. we will use the default value found in para.26 in.1196 in.)4 2 (0. Dimensions. KM. L.149 3 1025 lb/ ( ft ⋅ sec ) (12 in/ft ) 8-1. (6-4-5) are CD 5 1. + 1. and either eq. numerical calculations were performed for the full chain of calculations without rounding.1. for use under ASME B31.26 in. The thermowell has a tapered shank. we will assume the thermowell is mounted to a thick-wall pipe (subsection 6-6) and will use eq. (6-4-2) or (6-4-4) gives the Strouhal number NS 5 0. The nominal insertion of the thermowell into the process stream is 4 in.499 lb/ft 3 ) 5 1.0171 cP.1 Steam Properties (a) superheated steam pressure: P 5 235 psig (b) operating temperature: T 5 4508F (c) normal flow condition: V 5 295 ft/sec (d) steam density: 5 0.22. For this highvelocity application. 5 3 105.3 TW-2010 Section 8 Examples NOTE: In the following examples. so from Table 6-12. The material of construction is ASTM A 105 carbon steel [18]. 6-5.1. the thermowell is welded directly into the process piping.1 Cl 5 1.1. (6-4-3)] as Re 5 VB 5 ( 295 ft/sec )(1.)2 2 (0. bore: d 5 0.1.

4(2.25 in. calculation of this quantity is included in para. . 6-5.s 5 1 2 5 12 1 s 2 2m ( Da / d ) 2 1 169 lb/ft 3 5 778. which is the mass per unit length of the thermowell The conversion factor 386. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.7746 ( A / L) [1 1. the thermowell passes the most stringent frequency limit [eq.)/(1.499 lb/ft ) 2 ( 0.)/(1.99 1 ( 1 − B/A ) ( 1 − B/A ) 3[120.) 5 0. 5 4.088 in.8752 (27.) 5 0.3 Scruton Number Calculation Because the Reynolds number exceeds 105. 095 Hz where E 5 the elastic modulus at the operating temperature I 5 p(Da4 2 d4)/64.3695 b/A 5 (0. We take a conservative value of 0.26 Although NSc is greater than 2. which is the second moment of inertia L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell m 5 mp(D a 2 2 d 2 )/4.2 Hz 5 0.0 in.-lb/(lbf⋅ sec 2 )](0.7746)(2. and Nonmandatory Appendix A.5. Check that the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell is sufficiently high. (6-4-1). the vortex shedding rate with a Strouhal number of NS 5 0.) 5 4.0005) 3 24 3 3 0.809 Hz 31 In this case. and the in-line resonance cannot be assumed to be suppressed.4 ) 5 0.)/(0.3.8 Hz 870. 2p 1 ( 4.26 in. Correct for the fluid mass: H a . because the forced or Strouhal frequency is less than the in-line resonance frequency.f 5 1 − 51− 2m where d/B 5 (0.5 in.787 310 ft /in.8 Hz 2 0. 809 Hz) 5 2. 8-1. The lowest-order natural frequency of the thermowell with ideal support [eq./ft) (1.9922 Step 2.3 2 5 p (0.2600 2 5 ( )( ) ( ) 5 1. From eq.61) 5 0. used in eq. However. (6-8-1): NSc 5 p2 ( m ) 1 2 (d / B)2 0.3334 lb/in. the general frequency limits of para. Correct for the sensor mass: H a .9922)(2. (6-6-1)] is given as f nc 5 H c f n 5 (0. (6-6-5)]: H c 5 1 2 (0. 6-8-7)]: fS 0.)/(4.0 in.99 1 ( 1 − 0.8 ( d / Da )] 1 1.26 in.6667 ) ( 1 2 0.) 5 0. .2080 Step 3. (See para.8 ( 0.808 2 2 1 5 0.5 in.2). the Reynolds number exceeds 105.5 3 106 psi)[386.5 in.ASME PTC 19.)/(4.) 5 0.284 lb/in.9995)(0.5(b / A)]2 (0. 8-1. Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory: Hf 5 2 0. (6-5-6)] is given by fn 5 Hf Ha.0 The in situ natural frequency of the mounted thermowell [eq. 3/ft 3 ( ( )( ) ) 1 4. The calculation is included here as an example.0 in.0005 for the damping factor. In the present example.284 lb/in.06 in.525 1 2 0.3079 d/Da 5 (0.)/(1.)2 5 2.9995 Step 4.22 and at the normal flow condition is fS 5 5 NSV B (0.088 in.2080 )] 1 1. 728 in.4 Frequency Limit Calculation 3 ( 0. no calculation of cyclic stress at in-line resonance is needed.808 Step 5.3 1.8752 EI 2p m 1/ 2 1 L 2 1/ 2 Step 6. 6-8.3695) [1 1.1 ( Da / L ) 2 0.) 5 0.3 apply and no calculation of Scruton number is needed.5(0)]2 1.) 5 0.284 lb/in.176 Hz) where Da/d 5 (1.352)(0. Step 2.06 in.1 ( 0.1196 in.25 in. Correct for foundation compliance [eq.6667 ) ] 3[120.61) 5 1 2 (0.4 f nc 778.)/(1. /ft ) 3 3 3 Step 1. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.5. ) (1.095 Hz) 5 2. 728 in.f Ha. 176 Hz 8-1.3079 ) where A/L 5 (1.06 in.) Step 2.352 where B/A 5 (1.499 lb/ft 5.6667 Da/L 5 (1.0 in.-lb 5 1 lbfsec2 is necessary when E is given in units of pounds per square inch (equivalent to lbf/in. for the sake of completeness.s fa 5 (1.3 TW-2010 fa 5 1.25 in.22)(295 ft/sec)(12 in.) 5 0.26 in.

/ft)] 5 0. Evaluate the radial.0 ft/sec Step 2.) 5 0.5 in. 816 psi 5 412. corresponding to a fluid velocity of 412 ft/sec.)/(1. is less than the combined stress.05(6. (6-8-3) and (6-8-4) to establish the flow velocity corresponding to the in-line resonance: VIR 5 5 Bf nc 2NS (1.499 lb/ft )( 5. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses. compute the maximum stress given by eq. 32 5 191.816 psi. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit. Step 1. with lift stress set to zero [eq.05(1. had been greater than 0.0 ft/sec)(12 in. Use eqs. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.561 psi) 5 190.06 in. Evaluate the temperature de-rating factor from eq.1733)2 1 ( 0. tangential. 000)(0.22) Step 6.1733)2 1 2 (0.088 in.088 in. 560 psi [(295 ft/sec)(12 in. Evaluate the stress concentration factor from eq.(6-11-1) through (6-11-3)]: Sr 5 P 5 235 psi St 5 P 1 ( d / A )2 2 [1 2(B A)] 2 3p(1.6 psi Step 3. First.max 5 Kt Sd 2 + SL 2 5 58.1733)2 1 Sa 5 From eq.3 3 106 psi 5 0.088 in. 176 Hz ) 2(0.787 310 2 24 ft 3 /in. FE. (6-3-3). and axial stresses due to the external pressure.4.1733 ( ) [1 2(0. and 6-9./ft )21 ( 2.-lb/(lbf sec )] 2 [386.9143 psi where the conversion factor 386. The magnification factor. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.05 where d/A 5 (0. Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the root.)2 2 The fatigue stress limit.) 1 2 0.)(12 in.430 psi. 430 psi ( ) 1/ 2 5 Kt Sd Step 4. .3 psi 5 (235 psi) 1 2 (0.0)(3.6 psi P 2 5 (235 psi) 1 (0.9143 psi) 5 26.-lb 5 1 lbfsec2 is included to give a final answer in units of pounds per square inch (psi).ASME PTC 19. for the drag or in-line resonance is M set at 1.4 f nc (see para. (6-12-3)]: So . (6-12-2)]: LHS 5 (Smax 2 Sr )2 (Smax 2 St )2 + (St − Sr )2 2 The environmental de-rating factor.1733 1 2 ( d / A) 6 5 249.0 psi Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. fs.088 in. is taken as unity for steam service. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the root. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag force [eq.9 psi Step 5.3. (6-12-6): FT 5 E(T ) / Eref 5 27.9386)(1.5 in.787 3 10 ft /in. Compute the left-hand side (LHS) of the Von Mises criteria [eq. Step 2). (6-10-7): GSP 5 5 16L2 4 3 pA 2 1 2 ( d / A ) 16( 4. Begin by evaluating the value of GSP using eq.3 TW-2010 8-1. 58. if the vortex shedding frequency. 2. ) (1.5 Cyclic Stress at the In-Line Resonance Step 1. evaluate the steady-state drag force per unit area: 1 PD 5 CDV 2 2 3 24 3 3 1 ( 0.4) 5 2 [386.2].6 Steady-State Stress at the Design Velocity Step 1.499 lb/ft 3 )( 5.9386 Step 5.26 in. 8-1. at the location of maximum stress [eqs./ft)] 5 6.1) Step 2. Step 3.-lb 5 1 lbfsec2 is included to give a final answer in units of pounds per square inch (psi). the force per unit area due to cyclic drag is 1 Pd 5 CdVIR 2 2 5 2 1 2 ( d / A) 5 242. F’ . 000 psi) 5 2. (6-12-4): Kt 5 2. 6-8. given by the right-hand side of eq. (6-10-6)] at the in-line resonance condition are ’ Sd 5 GSP FM Pd 5 29.5 3 10 6 psi 29. 8-1.6667 )] 5 29.0 in.3 ) (0.-lb/(lbf sec 2 )] [(412. The cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag [eq. (6-10-4)]: SD 5 GSP PD 5 29.2 Step 4. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the stress limit at the root.561 psi 2 where the conversion factor 386. The thermowell would not pass the cyclic stress condition for steady-state operation at the in-line resonance.000 [see paras. (6-12-1): Smax 5 SD Sa 5 432.

Power Piping.13 2 5 79.-lb/(lbf sec 2 )] 2 5 4.1) Step 2.05)(2.9386)(1.9 psi Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.8 Hz ) 2. 33 The concentration factor is identical to the value calculated in 8-1.0833 2B / ( B 2 d ) 2. 630 psi 1 Pl 5 ClV 2 2 3 24 3 3 1 ( 0. (6-10-5) and (6-10-6)] are ’ Sd 5 GSP FM Pd 5 (29./ft)] 2 The pressure rating for the thermowell is the lesser of Pt and Pc. This rating exceeds the 235-psi operating pressure./ft)]2 19.)/(1. and the thermowell passes the external pressure criterion. 800 psi 0. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit.686 psi [(295 ft/sec)(12 in.334 3 1024 kg/ (ms).176 Hz 2 5 0.1.147 FM 5 1 2 r 2 1 2 0. ) (1.052)(0. (6-9-1) and (6-9-2). (6-12-2)]: RHS 5 1.3580 2.5(19. 8-2.max 5 Kt ( Sd 2 SL 2 ) 1/ 2 1/ 2 2 2 5 2. (6-12-3)]: So . (0. which is 9. is taken as unity for steam service.4686 psi )( ) [(295 ft/sec)(12 in.088 in.93 psi ) ( 156.1 Fluid Properties (a) operating pressure: P 5 0.167 5 0. Step 5.499 lb/ft 5.2. and Installation Consider a thermowell for a heated-water application.0) 5 [386. and the thermowell passes the dynamic stress criterion.686 psi) 5 156.66(19. THREADED THERMOWELL FOR A HOT WATER APPLICATION (SI UNITS) 8-2. .3580 2 r5 f nc fs The predicted stress of 348. Using eq.8 kg/m3 (e) viscosity: 5 3.1 Application.0 in.1. (6-13-1): 2.334 3 1024 Pas 5 3.26 in. 0. (6-3-3).9386. Compute the external pressure rating for the tip using eq. The environmental de-rating factor. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to the value calculated in para. (6-13-2): Pt 5 5 S t 0.400 MPa (gauge pressure) (b) operating temperature: T 5 858C (c) normal flow condition: V 5 10 m/s (d) density: 5 968. Density and viscosity values were obtained from reference [9].3 TW-2010 Step 6. 8-1.5.1 psi ) 5 348.1 psi STEP-SHANK.13 d 2 5 ( [386. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses [eq.5S 5 1. FT 5 0. 816 psi The Von Mises stress.052 Step 2.188 in. Properties. 8-1. Compute the external pressure rating for the shank using eq.088 in. 800 psi) 2 0.787 310 ft /in.8 Hz r′ 5 FM 5 ′ 2 fs f c n 5 2( 778.389 psi in the present case.787 310 ft /in. FE. Step 5.93 psi Sl 5 GSP FM Pl 5 (29. given by the right-hand side of eq.167 Pc 5 0. 000 psi) 5 2. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.) 5 9. Step 3. respectively: 5 0.0)(3. and the thermowell passes the steady-state stress criterion.147 )( 4. Dimensions. 389 psi 5 778.0 in. The magnification factors for the lift (transverse) and drag (in-line) resonances are given by eqs. Kt 5 2.700 psi Step 4.499 lb/ft )( 5. 191 psi.8 Pressure Stress Step 1. for use under ASME B31. 800 psi) 5 29. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand side (RHS) of the Von Mises criteria [eq. calculate the force per unit area due to cyclic drag and lift: 1 Pd 5 CdV 2 2 3 24 3 3 1 0.05)(1. based on the operating pressure and temperature.4686 psi) 5 27.176 Hz 1 1 5 5 1. does not exceed the stress limit.5.ASME PTC 19.7159 1 1 − ( 0. 0. 2 0.-lb/(lbf sec 2 )] 2 5 0.7159) 5 2. Step 3. 29. 8-2 The cyclic stresses due to drag and lift [eqs.0833 2(1.9 psi is below the fatigue stress limit.700 psi.66S 2 0. 8-1.26 in. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.2 ( 27.7 Dynamic Stress at the Design Velocity Step 1. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at the root.

we will use the default value from para. Approxiate natural frequency [eq.4 Installation Details. s 5 2 700 kg/m3.8752 (1. modulus of elasticity at ambient temperature: E 5 1.1 CL 5 1.2040 5 0. (6-4-2) as NS 5 0. Step 5.1.748) 2 0.131 ) 5 1. as shown in Fig. 6-5. 4-1-3.0248 Log10 ( Re / 1 300 ) 0.594 ] 0. modulus of elasticity at service temperature : E 5 1.2 Natural Frequency Calculation Step 1.190 m) 5 0.3 TW-2010 The Reynolds number is calculated [eq.0127 m ) ( 968.0066 m unsupported length: L 5 0.91 3 105 MPa 5 1.690 × 10 5 For this example.1. the Strouhal number is calculated using eq.88829.1. fatigue stress amplitude limit: Sf 5 37.3342 Step 3.0 Calculate the approximate natural frequency of the thermowell as fa 5 5 1.0222 m)/(0.525 y 2 5 [ c5 ( A / B) c6 ] (Ls / L) [ c7 ( A / B) c8 ] 5 [22. Use the correlations of subsection 6-5 to correct for deviations from the approximate slender-beam theory: y1 5 [ c1 ( A / B) c2 ] (Ls / L) [ c3 ( A / B) c4 ] 8-2.19 m)2 where E 5 the elastic modulus at the operating temperature I 5 p(D a 4 2 d 4 )/64.8 kg/m ) 2 ( 8 000 kg/m ) 3 3 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. we will assume the thermowell is mounted to a rigid flange (see subsection 6-6) and will use eq.022(1.748) 1. For the rotational stiffness of the thermowell support.3.19 m length of reduced-diameter shank: Ls 5 0.888 5 [ c9 ( A / B) c10 ] 5 [ 8.0095 2 3 where Da 5 A 5 0.18331028 m4 m 5 mp(D a 2 2 d 2 )/4 5 (8 000 kg/m3) p[(0. which is the second moment of inertia L 5 unsupported length of the thermowell m 5 mp (D a 2 2 d 2 )/4. threaded). (6-4-5) are CD 5 1. Table A-3 (interpolated in temperature).0635 m minimum wall thickness: t 5 0.0032 m bore: d 5 0.748) 0. Table C-1 (interpolated in temperature).1.313(1. The material of construction is ASTM A 182 F316 stainless steel [20]. The thermowell has a step shank with a threaded base.91 3 1011 Pa)(1.9395 ( 968.8752 EI 2p m 1/ 2 1 L2 1/ 2 8-2. For the average density of the temperature sensor.4 Cd 5 0. (6-5-1)]: I 5 p (D a 4 2 d 4 )/64 5 p[(0.1. Table C-1 (interpolated in temperature). maximum allowable working stress: S 5 122 MPa (d) thermowell construction is threaded base.ASME PTC 19.0127 m fillet radius at support plane: b 5 0 m fillet radius at base of step: bs 5 0.503 where A/B 5 (0.213 2 0.131 21/ 21/ 9.2 MPa (e) from reference [19]. with properties as follows: (a) from ASME B31.823 kg/m (10 m/s )( 0. (6-4-3)] as Re 5 VB 5 8-2.022 ] 5 1.0066 m)4 ]/64 5 1.52529.95 3 105 MPa (c) from ASME B31. (6-7-1) to evaluate the correction factor on the natural frequency. illustration (a).0222 m and the force coefficients using eq. so from Table 6-12.0222 m)2 2 (0. Correct for the fluid mass: H a .748) 2 5.2 Thermowell Dimensions. .748) 1.f 5 1 2 5 12 2m 8-2.407(1. 34 5 0.0127 m) 5 1.334 3 10 24 Pa ⋅ s ) 5 3.228(1.91 3 1011 Pa (b) from ASME B31.0635 m)/(0.131 H f 5 ( y12 y 22 ) 5 ( 1.3342 [20.0222 m tip diameter: B 5 0.0095 Log10 ( Re / 1 300 ) 2 3 Log10 ( 3.690 3 10 5 / 1 300 ) 5 0.183 3 1028 m 4 ) 2p 2. which is the mass per unit length of the thermowell Step 2.131 1. mass density of F316 steel at ambient temperature: m 5 8 000 kg/m3 5 [1.0048 m 1.3342 [1.362 ] 5 1.0222 m)4 2 (0. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) root diameter: A 5 0.839 ] 0.376 ] 5 9. KM. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.8 kg/m 3 ) ( 3.3 Materials Properties.690 3 10 5 / 1 300 ) 0.0248 Log10 ( 3.1.299(1.823 kg/m 5 438.213 2 0.0066 m)2 ]/4 5 2.3-1 (Class B.5 Hz 1 (0.748 Ls/L 5 (0.

because the forced or Strouhal frequency is less than the in-line resonance frequency.0 Hz ) 0.3 Scruton Number Calculation We take a conservative value of 0. 8-2.04983 VIR 5 Bfnc Bfnc a( R) Log 10 1 − 2N V 2 NS NS S (0.0066 m)/(0.2040)(10 m/s) where A/L 5 (0.190 m) 5 0. The thermowell shall pass the cyclic stress criteria at both locations. (6-7-1)]: H c 5 1 2 0. (6-5-6)] is given by fn 5 Hf Ha. F’ . which is the thermowell root in this case. Correct for foundation compliance [eq.2973 4 5 286.2973 LS/L 5 (0.364 Step 5.0 Hz 8-2. From eq.5.0127 m) ( 545.0127 m) 5 0.3 TW-2010 Step 4. calculation of this quantity is included in para.0222 m) 5 0.6 Hz Step 2. for the drag or in-line resonance is set at M 1 000 (see paras.0222 m)/(0.01 m/s)2 2 5 12 420 Pa (0.5721 (1 2 0. 5 0. used in eq.8948 In this case.1168) 5 0.4 ( 8-2.5197 2 3 968.9 ( A / L) 5 1 2 0.0496 R 5 0.1)(16.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane Step 1.3342)2 p(0.4 Frequency Limit Calculation Step 1.190 m)2 5 0. (6-8-3) and (6-8-4) to establish the flow velocity corresponding to the in-line resonance: R 5 Log 10 (Re / 1 300) 5 Log 10 (3. (6-10-9): GSP 5 16L2 2 4 pA 1 2 ( d / A ) 16(0.0222 m) 5 0.5197 Because NSc is less than 2. .5.190 m) 5 0.0005 for the damping factor. (6-4-1). The magnification factor.9836)(438.0222 m)2 1 2 0.0635 m)/(0. .8 kg/m 3 )(0. the vortex shedding rate with a Strouhal number of NS 5 0. 6-8. Correct for the sensor mass: H a .1168 The in situ natural frequency of the mounted thermowell [eq. (6-8-7)]: fS < 0.2040)(10 m/s) where B/A 5 (0.1 Hz) = 545. (6-6-1)] is given as f nc = H c f n = (0. 35 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.5 Hz) 5 609. and 6-9. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.0285 R 2 2 0. no calculation of cyclic stress at in-line resonance is needed.0222 m)/(0. Step 1.3.3342 From eq.5 Cyclic Stress at the In-Line Resonance The cyclic stress shall be evaluated at both the support plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. Begin by evaluating the value of GSP using eq.5721)(1 2 0.2). for the sake of completeness.8948)(609.4 f nc 160.2040 2(0.0005) 1 2 0.0127 m) ( 545.ASME PTC 19. the in-line resonance is not suppressed.0 Hz) where Da/d 5 (0. (6-8-1): NSc 5 p2 ( m ) 1 2 (d / B)2 8 000 kg/m 3 5 p2 (0.8 kg/m 5 16.364 2 2 1 5 0.2040 and at the normal flow condition is fS 5 5 NSV B (0.503)(0.0066 m)/(0.690 3 10 5 / 1 300) 5 2. the force per unit area due to cyclic drag is 1 Pd 5 CdVIR 2 2 1 5 (968.5721 d/A 5 (0. The lowest-order natural frequency of the thermowell with ideal support [eq.9836 the thermowell passes the most stringent frequency limit [eq.5.0127 m) 5 160.1 Hz Step 6.6 Hz 218. However.2040) 0. 8-2.f Ha. (6-3-3).04983 (0. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the support plane. Check that the natural frequency of the mounted thermowell is sufficiently high.01 m/s ( ) Step 2.0066 m) 5 3.9(0.0127 m)/(0.4(545.453 a(R) 5 0.0 Hz 5 0.s fa 5 (1. In the present example. Use eqs. 8-2.02974 {(B A) 12 (B A) 12 (L ) S L) 2 } where d/B 5 (0.0 Hz ) 5 Log 10 1 2 2(0.s 5 1 2 1 s ( D / d )2 2 1 2m a ( 2 700 kg/m3 ) 1 5 12 2 ( 8 000 kg/m 3 ) 3.9395)(0.

706 3 109 Pa 5 1706 MPa Step 4.9795)(1.033 ( B / bs ) 5 1. The thermowell would not pass the cyclic stress condition for steady-state operation at the in-line resonance. Evaluate cyclic drag stress at the support plane. Step 6.3 TW-2010 Using eq. 8 183 MPa. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.969) 5 1. Step 1: VIR 5 16. (6-10-6).44 MPa. is taken as unity for this service. the cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag at the in-line resonance condition are ’ Sd 5 GRD FM Pd 5 (137. The magnification factor. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses. given by the right-hand side of eq.max 5 Kt ( Sd 2 SL 2 ) 5 Kt Sd 5 8 183 MPa 1/ 2 Step 3. Evaluate the radial. FE. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. at the location of maximum stress [eqs. tangential. and axial stresses due to the external pressure.9795 The environmental de-rating factor. is less than the combined stress. which is the thermowell root in this case. 8-2.558 3 10 9 Pa 5 3 558 MPa where d/B 5 (0.01 m/s.000 (see para. (6-10-10): GRD 5 5 16LS 2 4 pB 1 2 ( d / B ) 16(0. (6-12-6): FT 5 E(T ) / Eref 1.ASME PTC 19. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit.95 3 1011 MPa 5 0. The thermowell would not pass the cyclic stress condition for steady-state operation at the in-line resonance. fs. the cyclic stresses due to cyclic drag at the in-line resonance condition are ’ Sd 5 GSP FM Pd 5 (286. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.6.max 5 Kt ( Sd 2 SL 2 ) 5 Kt Sd 5 2 100 MPa 1/ 2 The environmental de-rating factor.0)(37. with lift stress set to zero [eq.1 0.5. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit. with lift stress set to zero [eq.44 MPa Step 5. if the vortex shedding frequency.033(3. had been greater than 0. 8-2. F’ . Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses.3). Step 2.3 Using eq. is taken as unity for this service.4 f nc . (6-3-3). 2 100 MPa.9795)(1. 6-8.1.1. (6-10-6). fs.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane Step 1.0222 m) 5 0. The flow velocity is identical to that obtained in para.5197 From eq.2 Evaluation at the Base of the Reduced-Diameter Shank Step 1. the force per unit area due to cyclic drag is identical to that obtained in para.0127 m)/(0.0)(37.4)(1000)(12 420 Pa) 5 3.5. 8-2. 36. had been greater than 0. corresponding to a fluid velocity of 16. Begin by evaluating the value of GRD using eq. The de-rating factors are identical to those obtained in para. .0127 m) 1 2 0.3: Kt 5 2. (6-11-1) through (6-11-3)]: Sr 5 P 5 0.1 0. replacing A/b with B/bs: Kt 5 1.2 MPa) 5 36.44 MPa.01 m/s The fatigue stress limit.0635 m)2 2 2 8-2. 36. The thermowell shall pass the steady-state stress criteria at both locations.6 Steady-State Stress at the Design Velocity The steady-state stress shall be evaluated at both the support plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. (6-12-3)]: So .91 3 1011 MPa 5 1.01 m/s. The stress concentration factor is taken from the recommendations of para. 6-12.5197 5 137. (6-12-4). Evaluate the temperature de-rating factor from eq. 8-2. FE. corresponding to a fluid velocity of 16.231 Step 5. The stress concentration factor is obtained from eq. if the vortex shedding frequency. (6-12-3)]: So . Step 5: FT 5 0.2 MPa) 5 36.3 ( 4 ) 36 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.44 MPa The fatigue stress limit. for the drag or in-line resonance is set at M 1. Step 2: Pd 5 12 420 Pa Step 3.400 MPa p(0.3)(1000)(124 200 Pa) 5 1. is less than the combined stress. 8-2.9795 Step 4.5.4 f nc . given by the right-hand side of eq. Step 6.5.1.

Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the support plane. (6-12-2)]: RHS 5 1. 9. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag force [eq. compute the maximum stress given by eq.06782 MPa) 5 19. (6-12-1): Smax 5 SD Sa 5 9. respectively: 160. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand side of the Von Mises criteria [eq.4776 MPa P 1 2 ( d / A )2 1 1 2 (0.42 MPa Step 4.4(0.400 MPa) 5 0. 183 MPa. compute the maximum stress given by eq.5197 )2 1 2 (0. . does not exceed the stress limit. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the stress limit at the root. Compute the left-hand side of the Von Mises criteria [eq. Evaluate steady-state drag stress at the base of the step shank.2973)2 5 (0.400 MPa) 6 5 0. does not exceed the stress limit. Evaluate the radial. Compute the stress limit given by the right-hand side of the Von Mises criteria [eq. (6-12-2)]: LHS 5 (Smax 2 Sr )2 (Smax 2 St )2 (St 2 Sr )2 2 5 9.42 MPa.862 MPa Step 4. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.400 MPa) 5 0.31 MPa ( ) Step 3. Step 2: PD 5 0.0 Hz f nc 1 1 5 1.06782 MPa) 5 9. tangential. 8-2.86 MPa Step 5. and axial stresses due to the external pressure. Compute the left-hand side of the Von Mises criteria [eq. evaluate the steady-state drag force per unit area: PD 5 CDV 2 2 1 5 968.4 (10 m/s)2 2 5 0.532 FM 5 ′ 2 5 1 2 0.1 Evaluation at the Support Plane Step 1. at the location of maximum stress [eqs.6 Hz ) 5 5 0.5895 545.42 MPa 2 Step 6.3(0.2947 f nc 545.6. (6-9-1) and (6-9-2).5S 5 1.ASME PTC 19. and the thermowell passes the steady-state stress criterion at the base of the step shank.317 MPa.06782 MPa 1 Step 3.2973)2 4 5 0.2947 2 r5 r′ 5 5 (0.4388 MPa Step 2.095 FM 5 1 2 r 2 1 2 0.3 TW-2010 St 5 P 1 ( d / A )2 1 2 ( d / A )2 1 (0.5(122 MPa) 5 183 MPa (Smax 2 Sr ) 2 (Smax 2 St ) (St 2 Sr ) 2 2 5 19.58952 12 (r′ ) 37 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (6-10-4)]: SD 5 GRD PD 5 137. Before using the Von Mises criterion to assess the stress limit at the step-shank root. 8-2. (6-12-2)]: RHS 5 1. The Von Mises stress.1. 8-2. (6-11-1) through (6-11-3). The thermowell shall pass the dynamic stress criteria at both locations.5197 )2 5 (0.2 Evaluation at the Base of the ReducedDiameter Step Shank Step 1.06782 MPa Step 2.5480 MPa Sa 5 5 (0. but with B replacing A]: Sr 5 P 5 0.6 Hz fs 5 5 0.7.5S 5 1.5197 ) 2 8-2.400 MPa) 1 2 (0. and the thermowell passes the steady-state stress criterion at the support plane.400 MPa St 5 P 1 (d / B)2 1 2 (d / B)2 1 (0. 19. (6-10-4)]: SD 5 GSP PD 5 286.2973)2 Sa 5 P 1 2 (d / B)2 1 1 2 (0. (6-12-2)]: LHS 5 Step 6.8 kg/m 3 1.5(122 MPa) 5 183 MPa The Von Mises stress.7 Dynamic Stress at the Design Velocity The dynamic stress shall be evaluated at both the support plane and at the base of the reduced-diameter shank. The steady-state drag force per unit area is the same as in para. First.317 MPa Step 5. Evaluate the steady-state stress due to the drag force [eq.6.6960 MPa 2 f s 2 (160. (6-12-1): Smax 5 SD + Sa 5 19.0 Hz 1 1 5 5 1. The magnification factor for the lift (transverse) and drag (in-line) resonances are given by eqs. 183 MPa.

8 Pressure Stress Compute the external pressure rating for the shank using eq. (6-12-3): So .286 MPa Step 3.0)(37.020 MPa SL 5 GRD FM Pl 5 (137. Step 1: FM 5 1.66(122 MPa) 2(0. (6-12-3): So .2 MPa) 5 36. given by the right-hand side of eq.004844 MPa The pressure rating for the thermowell is the lesser of Pt and Pc.3. the force per unit area due to cyclic drag and lift is 1 Pd 5 CdV 2 2 1 5 (968.20 MPa The predicted stress of 35.0066 m 2 5 496. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.0833 5 0. 8-2.004844 MPa) 5 1.4 MPa Step 2. 8-2.1. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit. 8-2.095)(0.3 TW-2010 Step 2.8 kg/m 3 )(1.231.19 MPa The concentration factor is identical to the value calculated in para.095)(0.126 MPa ) (15. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to the value calculated in para.0066 m) 5 35. The cyclic stresses due to drag and lift are ’ Sd 5 GRD FM Pd 5 (137.04844 MPa Pl 5 48 440 Pa 5 0. The magnification factors are the same as in para. eq.126 MPa SL 5 GSP FM Pl 5 (286. FT 5 0.5.44 MPa The predicted stress of 9. Step 6. Kt 5 1. Step 6. 8-2.04844 MPa) 5 7.0048 m 0.1.056 MPa ( ) 1/ 2 1/ 2 2 2 5 1. (6-3-3).231 (1.167 Pc 5 0. The cyclic stresses due to drag and lift are ’ Sd 5 GSP FM Pd 5 (286.ASME PTC 19. FT 5 0.5. FE.9795. which is 35. 8-2.5. and the thermowell passes the dynamic stress criterion at the support plane.5. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Compare the predicted stress with the fatigue stress limit.3)(1.9795)(1. 38 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The temperature de-rating factor is identical to the value calculated in para. and the thermowell passes the external pressure criterion.3 ( 2. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses.532)(0.0833 2B / ( B 2 d ) 2. given by the right-hand side of eq.19 MPa ) 5 35. (6-13-1): 2. Step 2: Pd 5 4 844 Pa 5 0.7. Evaluate combined drag and lift stresses.004844 MPa) 5 2.056 MPa is below the fatigue stress limit.167 2 0.04844 MPa) 5 15.max 5 Kt Sd 2 SL 2 Step 5.2 MPa) 5 36. Step 4. 8-2.9795.20 MPa in the present case.66S 2 0.532 ′ Compute the external pressure rating for the tip using eq. and the thermowell passes the dynamic stress criterion at the base of the reduced-diameter step shank. The environmental de-rating factor.3)(1.2 Evaluation at the Base of the ReducedDiameter Shank Step 1. Using eq.29 MPa Step 5.1)(10 m/s)2 2 5 4 844 Pa 5 0.7.max 5 Kt Sd 2 SL 2 5 9. Step 5. Step 4.8 kg/m 3 )(0. The force per unit area due to cyclic drag and lift are the same as in para. 8-2. FE. 8-2.095 FM 5 1.0)(10 m/s)2 2 5 48 440 Pa 5 0.29 MPa is below the fatigue stress limit.2.1.13 d 2 122 MPa 0.13 0. (6-10-5) and 6-10-6)]. Step 3.2. This rating exceeds the operating pressure. (6-12-5): FT FES f 5 (0.532)(0. Step 5.4)(1. eq. The environmental de-rating factor.9795)(1. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at the base of the reduced-diameter shank [eqs.004844 MPa 1 Pl 5 ClV 2 2 1 5 (968. Evaluate the dynamic drag and lift stresses at the support plane [eqs.0)(37. (6-13-2): Pt 5 5 S t 0. Kt 5 2.4)(1.0127 m)/(0.1.04844 MPa Step 3. Step 3.0127 m − 0.286 MPa ) The concentration factor is identical to the value calculated in para.44 MPa ( ) 1/ 2 1/ 2 2 2 5 2. is taken as unity for this service. (6-10-5) and (6-10-6)]. is taken as unity for this service.020 MPa ) ( 7.7. .

3 TW-2010 Section 9 Statement of Compliance 9-1 SPECIFICATION OF A THERMOWELL factor of Ha. When velocity and pressure ratings are stated by a thermowell supplier for cases when the fluid properties. The temperature or applicable range of temperatures.ASME PTC 19. . the statement of velocity and pressure ratings by the thermowell supplier shall fully describe fluid properties needed for the calculations and material considerations described in this Standard. including anticipated impurities. such ratings shall include a note that the ratings apply only to noncorrosive service.f 5 1 and sensor-mass factors calculated using the default value of s. Specification of a thermowell. 9-2 VELOCITY AND PRESSURE RATINGS Velocity and pressure ratings stated by a thermowell supplier shall be calculated using the fluid density 39 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. including anticipated impurities. are not known. are known and included in thermowell ratings. subject to the requirements detailed in subsection 9-2. shall be stated by the supplier. for velocity and pressure ratings. The designer of that system is also responsible for ensuring the thermowell is compatible with the process fluid and with the design of the thermowell installation in the system. If the fluid properties. including details of its intended installation and all intended operating conditions. unless the fluid density and sensor mass are specifically stated. is the responsibility of the designer of the system that incorporates the thermowell. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. The supplier of the thermowell should state that calculations to demonstrate compatibility of the thermowell with those operating conditions specified by the designer are in conformance with this Standard.

T. Dozaki. 1998. [15] Odahara. [6] Iwata. D.. Division 1.. 2009. Y. and Kitamura. M. S. M. Thermometers. and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service. D. “Stress Analysis of Thermowells... 721–728.” ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering. 363.” Transactions of the ASME. 10-2 REFERENCED ASME DOCUMENTS ASME B16. M. accessed March 6. “Vortex-Induced Vibration and Damping of Thermowells.O. [14] Morishita. 2007 Edition Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Appendices. and Sueoka. “Power Test Code for Thermometer Wells. [20] ASTM International. Tilden.. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. [13] Ogura. ed.. 2008. CRC Press. 22 Law Drive. T.. West Conshohocken. 48. ed. Division 3.” JSME Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers International Journal. Guidelines for the Avoidance of Vibration Induced Fatigue in Process Pipework.1-2007. 44. NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. and Wada.. [7] Blevins.. J. NJ 07007 40 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2007 Edition ASME BPVC VIII. “Fatigue Failure by In-Line FlowInduced Vibration and Fatigue Life Evaluation. NIST Chemistry Webbook. R. Series B.. Inoue. 128. 2007 Edition ASME BPVC VIII.. 2nd Edition. “Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in Super-Critical Reynolds Number Flow and Its Suppression by Structure Damping. R. 2009. Order Department. 2nd Edition. Series B. ASTM A105/ A105M-09. K. Flow Around Circular Cylinders: Vol. 103–108. 363. 1983. 2001. FL. A. 109–117. 2001. 2009. Murakami. 328. 1996. [11] Energy Institute. 1997. W. New York . 2009. accessed March 6.org. W.. 403–416. Direct Reading and Remote Reading: ASME B40.” JSME International Journal... 131. “History of Flow-Induced Vibration Incident Occurred in Monju. [12] Morishita. 2005. [16] Ramberg. West Conshohocken..” ASME Journal Engineering Power. J.3 TW-2010 Section 10 References 10-1 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS [1] Murdock. London. gov/chemistry. Yamaguchi. R.. [3] Blevins. Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges. “Thermowells for Thermometers and Elastic Temperature Sensors” ASME BPVC III-A. Process Piping ASME B40. Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications. . Morishita. E. 1998.. Box 2900 Fairfield. R.3-2008. Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference.” Transactions of the ASME. PA...” Report NPS–59B074112A. Division 2. 119–124.. 109–117. Three Park Avenue.” Transactions of the ASME.” JSME Journal. 363. “The Effects of Yaw and Finite Length Upon the Vortex Wakes of Stationary and Vibrating Cylinders. FL. Boca Raton. Monterey. 2008. 1: Fundamentals. and Martens. 1998.. S. [5] Sakai. CRC Press. and A. 81–107.5-2003.. Series A. 2009. E. CA. 465–484. 44.200-2008. Morishita. 2009..9. [4] Zdravkovich. [18] ASTM International. Power Piping ASME B31. D.. 2009. UK. J. 2nd Edition. [10] Brock. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. [17] Lide. D. Yamaguchi. A.nist. M.. paper 101203. M.. [8] International Association of the Properties of Water and Steam.ASME PTC 19. “Evaluation of Turbulence-Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in Supercritical Reynolds Number Flow. NY 10016-5990.” available at http://www. Malabar.” Transactions of the ASME. Ogura. 1998. M. ASTM International. [9] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Boca Raton. “Models for Vortex Induced Vibration of Cylinders Based on Measured Forces. Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings ASME B31. Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference. and K.. http://webbook. 2001. K. “Cause of Flow-Induced Vibration of Thermocouple Well. Energy Institute. K. FL. 2007 Edition ASME BPVC VIII. Morishita. M. 1974. [2] Blevins. “Fatigue Analysis of Thermowell Due to Flow-Induced Vibration.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Metals Handbook Desk Edition. Naval Postgraduate School. Flow-Induced Vibration. Iwata.. ASTM A182/A182M-09a. 89th Edition. Y. M. 1959. K. “Releases and Guidelines. Oxford University Press. Forged Fittings. ASTM International. D. [19] Davis... P. B. Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference.iapws. 712–720. S. PA. Oxford. Sakai. Krieger. Pressure Vessel and Piping Conference.. H.

ASME PTC 19. A-2 OThER CONVERSION FACTORS (a) Within the U.001.⋅sec2). CUSTOMARY UNITS (a) To convert inches (in.088. Customary units system. The centipoise is neither an SI unit nor a U.894 757 3 103.01 poise). pressures and elastic moduli are commonly given in units 41 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (b) Many sources express fluid viscosity in units of centipoise (1 centipoise 5 0. inches.2) to lb/(in. multiply by 0. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.S.3 TW-2010 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX A CONVERSION FACTORS A-1 CONVERSION FACTORS BETwEEN SI AND U. To convert pounds-force per square inch (psi or lbf/in. multiply by 6.) to meters. (c) To convert pounds-force per square inch (psi or lbf/in.448 222. and seconds: lb/(in.⋅sec2).2) to pascal (Pa).S. .2). Customary unit. multiply by 386. multiply by 0. multiply by 6. which is not equivalent to the derived unit of pressure resulting from the combination of pounds. multiply by 4. but can be converted using the following conversion factors: (1) To convert centipoise (cP) to lb/(ft⋅sec).0254. (2) To convert centipoise (cP) to pascal second (Pa⋅s). (b) To convert pounds-force (lbf) to newton (kg⋅m/ s2).714 × 104. of pounds per square inch (psi or lbf/in.S.

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 42 Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. .

At ASME’s Information Central. or E-mail us and an Information Central representative will handle your request. Mail ASME 22 Law Drive. Simply mail. Box 2900 Fairfield. Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. phone. Additional procedures for inquiries may be listed within. fax. Information as to whether or not technical inquiries are issued to this code or standard is shown on the copyright page.ASME Services ASME is committed to developing and delivering technical information.org * Information Central staff are not permitted to answer inquiries about the technical content of this code or standard. Our representatives are ready to assist you in the following areas: ASME Press Codes & Standards Credit Card Orders IMechE Publications Meetings & Conferences Member Dues Status Member Services & Benefits Other ASME Programs Payment Inquiries Professional Development Short Courses Publications Public Information Self-Study Courses Shipping Information Subscriptions/Journals/Magazines Symposia Volumes Technical Papers How can you reach us? It’s easier than ever! There are four options for making inquiries* or placing orders. All technical inquiries must be submitted in writing to the staff secretary. . New Jersey 07007-2900 Call Toll Free US & Canada: 800-THE-ASME (800-843-2763) Mexico: 95-800-THE-ASME (95-800-843-2763) Universal: 973-882-1167 Fax—24 hours 973-882-1717 973-882-5155 E-Mail—24 hours Infocentral@asme. we make every effort to answer your questions and expedite your orders. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

PTC PM-2010 The ASME Publications Catalog shows a complete list of all the Standards published by the Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . PTC 42-1988 (R2004) Performance Test Code on Overall Plant Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1974 (R1991) Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2004 Appendix A to PTC 6. . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 31-1973 (R1991) Waste Combustors With Energy Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 70-2009 Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Steam Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 36-2004 Determining the Concentration of Particulate Matter in a Gas Stream . . . . . . . . . .1-2007 Ion Exchange Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 2-2001 (R2009) Fired Steam Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 29-2005 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1997 (R2009) Moisture Separator Reheaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2005 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 12. . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 30-1991 (R2005) Air-Cooled Steam Condensers. .2-1969 (R2009) Air Heaters . . PTC 4. . PTC 40-1991 Wind Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1980 (R1988) Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses . . . . . . . . PTC 1-2004 (R2009) Definitions and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PERFORMANCE TEST CODES (PTC) General Instructions . . . . . . . . PTC 6 Report-1985 (R2003) Procedures for Routine Performance Tests of Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 50-2002 (R2009) Ramp Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 21-1991 Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2000 (R2005) Performance Test Code on Steam Surface Condensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1992 (R2009) Single Phase Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4-1998 Coal Pulverizers . . . . . . .11-2008 Data Acquisition Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-1980 (R1985) Particulate Matter Collection Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2000 (R2005) Reciprocating Internal-Combustion Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Test Code for Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1974 (R2004) Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1987 (R2004) Temperature Measurement . . . . PTC 38-1980 (R1985) Steam Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 23-2003 Ejectors . . . . . . . . .2-1998 (R2007) Performance Test Code on Deaerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . call 1-800-THE-ASME (1-800-843-2763). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 17-1973 (R2003) Hydraulic Turbines and Pump-Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 25-2008 Speed-Governing Systems for Hydraulic Turbine-Generator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 10-1997 (R2009) Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6S-1988 (R2009) Centrifugal Pumps . . . . PTC 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6A-2000 (R2009) PTC 6 on Steam Turbines — Interpretations 1977–1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 22-2005 Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . PTC 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-1981 Steam and Water Sampling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2008 Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6-2004 Steam Turbines in Combined Cycles . . . . . . . Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 18-2002 Test Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2004 Measurement of Shaft Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22-2007 Guidance Manual for Model Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1990 Performance Test Code on Compressors and Exhausters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 4. PTC 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or the latest information about our publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 11-2008 Closed Feedwater Heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For a complimentary catalog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Analysis in the Power Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 24-1976 (R1982) Pressure Relief Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 34-2007 Measurement of Industrial Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 47-2006 Fuel Cell Power Systems Performance . . . . PTC 46-1996 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Generation Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 6 Guidance for Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty in Performance Tests of Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PTC 39-2005 Flue Gas Desulfurization Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010 C07410 .Copyright c 2010 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.

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