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Power System Analysis|Views: 230|Likes: 12

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/81991597/Power-System-Analysis

04/19/2013

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(a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is

called a load bus. At this bus real and reactive load demand P

d and Q

d are drawn

from the supply. The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast

or metered and measured from instruments. Quite often, the reactive power is

calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor. A load bus is

`al~o `called a p, Q bus. Since the load demands P

d and Q

d are known values at this

bus. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its

phase angle at the bus. In a power balance equation P d and Q

d are treated as negative

quantities since generated powers P g and Q g are assumed positive.

(b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus:

A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can

be controlled. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied

b: changing the prime mover input. This in turn changes the machine rotor axis

position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference

bus. In other words, the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real

power generated by the machine. The voltage magnitude on the other hand, `i~
`mainly, influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. Thus at a generator

bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified. It

is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too. They

compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage

control. At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus, also called a PV-bus the

reactive power Q

g and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed.

(c) ,",llIck htl.\'

In a network as power `tlow~ `from the generators to loads through transmission

lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when

included, we get the power balance relations

Pg-P

d-`PL'~O
`

..... (5.14)

Qg-Qd-QI =0

..... (5.15)

where P <; and Qo are the total real and reactive generations, P d and Q d are the total

real ancf reactive power demands and P land OI. are the power losses in the

transmission network. The values ofP g' 0 g' P d and 0 d are either known or estimated.

Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not

known in advance, PI. and OI. remains unknown before the analysis of the network.

But. these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system. For this

102

Power System Analysis

purpose, one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or

'swing bus'. At this bus the generation P g and Q

g are not specified. The voltage

magnitude is specified at this bus. Further, the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at

this bus. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured

with respect to voltage at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as

reference bus. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus.

Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this

bus. The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

Slack bus IV d. 8

1

= 0° specified P l'

Q

1 to be

determined at the

end of the

solution

P 3' Q3' IV 31. 83

Load bus P 3. 03

specified IV 31.8

3

are not known

Fig. 5.1

Bus classification is summarized in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1

Generator bus P 2'

IV 2i spcified O2,

8

2 to be known

Bus

Specified variables

Computed variables

Slack-bus

Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Real and reactive powers

Generator bus

Magnitudes of bus voltages and real

Voltage phase angle and

(PV -bus or voltage powers (limit on reactive powers)

reat.:tive power.

controlled bus)

Load bus

Real and reactive powers

Magnitude and phase

angle of bus voltages

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