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Power System Analysis

Power System Analysis

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(a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is
called a load bus. At this bus real and reactive load demand P

d and Q

d are drawn
from the supply. The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast
or metered and measured from instruments. Quite often, the reactive power is
calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor. A load bus is

al~o called a p, Q bus. Since the load demands P

d and Q

d are known values at this
bus. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its
phase angle at the bus. In a power balance equation P d and Q

d are treated as negative

quantities since generated powers P g and Q g are assumed positive.

(b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus:

A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can
be controlled. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied
b: changing the prime mover input. This in turn changes the machine rotor axis
position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference
bus. In other words, the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real
power generated by the machine. The voltage magnitude on the other hand, i~
mainly, influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. Thus at a generator
bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified. It
is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too. They
compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage
control. At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus, also called a PV-bus the
reactive power Q

g and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed.

(c) ,",llIck htl.\'

In a network as power tlow~ from the generators to loads through transmission
lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when
included, we get the power balance relations

Pg-P

d-PL'~O

..... (5.14)

Qg-Qd-QI =0

..... (5.15)

where P <; and Qo are the total real and reactive generations, P d and Q d are the total
real ancf reactive power demands and P land OI. are the power losses in the
transmission network. The values ofP g' 0 g' P d and 0 d are either known or estimated.
Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not
known in advance, PI. and OI. remains unknown before the analysis of the network.
But. these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system. For this

102

Power System Analysis

purpose, one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or
'swing bus'. At this bus the generation P g and Q

g are not specified. The voltage
magnitude is specified at this bus. Further, the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at
this bus. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured
with respect to voltage at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as
reference bus. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus.
Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this
bus. The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

Slack bus IV d. 8

1

= 0° specified P l'

Q

1 to be
determined at the
end of the
solution

P 3' Q3' IV 31. 83

Load bus P 3. 03
specified IV 31.8

3

are not known

Fig. 5.1

Bus classification is summarized in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1

Generator bus P 2'
IV 2i spcified O2,
8

2 to be known

Bus

Specified variables

Computed variables

Slack-bus

Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Real and reactive powers

Generator bus

Magnitudes of bus voltages and real

Voltage phase angle and

(PV -bus or voltage powers (limit on reactive powers)

reat.:tive power.

controlled bus)

Load bus

Real and reactive powers

Magnitude and phase
angle of bus voltages

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