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**c. K. Teh,"l J. Tuszyriski, and F. L. Weichman Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2]]
**

(Received 19 July 1989;accepted 14 September 1989)

Tn undoped liquid-encapsulated Czochralski-grown semi-insulating gallium arsenide (LEC SI GaAs), the carbon acceptor, CA" is responsible for the -1.49 eV emission due to donor-acceptor (D-A) pair radiative recombination. We have studied the effect of different carbon concentrations on the line shape and decay kinetics at and ncar the D-A emission peak for temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 34 K. The photoluminescence decay has been found to follow a double exponential law at the early stage of the decay but follows a power law of the form L(t)at- at a later stage. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the exponential components gives two activation energies of =5.7 and =15 meV. We find that the 5.7 meV is most likely associated with Sica shallow donor, while the 15 meV is due to a more indirect process involving an EL2 related donor cluster near 20 meY. The exponent, p, of the power-law decay is found to be both temperature (T) and concentration dependent of the form p = f3T - 1, where f3 is a linear function of the concentration of the acceptors, CAS.in the temperature range of 18 ~ T < 30 K. A promising, simplified model based on a continuous set of trapping levels is presented and compared to the experiments. Some aspects of the observed exponential and power law decays are predicted by the theory.

P

I. INTRODUCTION

Carbon has been identified l-4 as the dominant shallow acceptor in undopcd semi-insulating (SI) GaAs grown hy the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) technique from pyrolytic BN crucibles. The presence of an appropriate amount of carbon, together with deep donor levels, commonly known as EL2,2 is in fact essential to obtain reliable semi-insulating material. Semi-insulating GaAs is useful as a substrate for GaAs devices, where device isolation and low parasitic capacitance are important for full integration on a single chip. Carhon in epitaxial GaAs has been studied extensively using photoluminescence spectroscopy and the shallow acceptor level C As has an ionization energy of =26 mey',·1iThe luminescence lines of carbon are well known to be at 1.493 and 1.490 eV, which have been attributed to the conduction band-to-acceptor (B-A) transition, and the donor-to-acceptor (D-A) transition, respecti vely.6-9 In a previous paper " we have reported that the photoluminescence decay of the =1.49 eV emission obeys a double exponential and a power-law behavior with the exponent p = 1.4 at 4.2 K. We have seen that the decay time constant of the slower component, b, of the double exponential decay follows the Arrhenius relation Tb = Tbn exp(.iEb/kT), and gives an activation

"Current address: Department of Chemistry, Tulane University,

energy of !iEb = 15 ± 1 meV (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature). Jonschcr and de Polignac" have given a review on the decay of luminescence in solids where the p values of the power laws arc between 0.5 and 2. From our studies of the temperature dependence of the decay for several samples of LEC SI GaAs (with carbon concentration ranging from =1014 to =1016 ern -3) in the ternperature range of 4.2 to 34 K, we have found that in the temperature range of 18 ~ T < 30 K, the exponent p of the power-law decay is linearly dependent on temperature according to the expression peT) = f3T - 1, where f3 in turn is a linear function of the concentration of the CA, acceptors. The p value increases up to =3.5 at -28 K. This seems to contradict the more familiar expression of peT) = akT + 1,12 where akT = 1 for an ideal bimolecular decay and a = 0 for a solid with uniform trap distribution. We suggest, instead, that the observed large values of p at higher temperatures are due to two parallel processes involving detrapping and quenching of the luminescence signal. We will also present a theory that can explain some aspects of the temperature dependence of p,

II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

New Orleans. Louisiana 70118. J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No.2, Feb 1990

Prior to measurements, all the LEC SI GaAs samples (courtesy of Cominco Ltd., Electronic Materials Div., Trail, British Columbia) were chemo-mechanically polished on lint-free tissues (LABX 170) using freshly

© 1990 Materials Research Society 365

C. K. Teh, J. Tuszynskl, and F. L. Weichman: Decay of carbon luminescence

prepared 2% Br2 in electronic grade methanol, followed by etching in a freshly prepared solution of 5H2S04: 1HzOz: lH20. The sample was cooled by a continuous flow of liquid helium in an optical cryostat (Cryotran CT-310). The temperature was controlled using a Lake Shore Cryotronics digital temperature controller (stability of ±O.l K) with a silicon diode sensor (accuracy of ±0.5 K). A wavelength of 510 nm from a nitrogen laser-pumped dye laser was used for excitation. An excitation intensity of ~ 1014 photons/pulse was maintained throughout the measurements. This level was monitored by two discriminators which allow pulses only within a preset window to be used to trigger the data acquisition system. The emission wavelengths were resolved by a 0.45 m Czerny-Turner grating monochromator with reciprocal linear dispersion of 3.5 nm mm". The luminescence signal was detected by a dry ice cooled S-1 response photomultiplier (RCA 7102) placed at the exit slit of the monochromator. Photoluminescence decay curves were measured at one-degree intervals from 4.2-34 K using the time resolved photon counting technique. Data were collected at 1.490 eV and on both sides of the carbon peak at 1.494 and 1.487 eV. The temperature dependence of the line shape of the emission band related to C Aswas measured using the spectral scanning mode. The data acquisition scquence in thc spectral scanning mode involved amplifying the output current from the photomultiplier, followed by analog-to-digital conversion using a fast B-bit analogto-digital converter which was controlled by a Z80 microcomputer. This system enabled the whole emission spectrum to be collected automatically. The concentrations of CAs and Sin. were obtained by measuring the localized vibrational mode (LVM) absorbance at 582.5 and 383.6 cm-I,lJ·14using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Initial double exponential decay

**TABLE 1. Decay time constants for a sample with
**

N

=

1.08

X

lU15

cm",

7'.

Temperature (K) 19

20 21 22 23 24

(ns)

Th

(ns)

25

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

85.3 tH.5 75.2 73.3 67.2 67.2 64.1

677 647 588 547 470 446 384

59.2 53.1

48.5 43.4 39.7 37.1 32.3 31.13 28.0

333

259 211 155

131

112 106

T .,-; 18 K: no significant change in values.

bon concentration of 1.08 X 1015 cm", The decay times arc temperature independent below 18 K with values of -85 ns and -700 ns for the a and b components, respectively. However, it is found that from 25-34 K, the decay time constant for the a component folJows the Arrhenius relation (Fig. 1):

Tu

=

Tuu

exp(IlEa/kT),

(2)

where 1/Tuu is the maximum recombination frequency and aE. is the activation energy. This behavior' is similar to that of the b component, as descnbed by Teh et al.ID (where IlEh = 15 meV). The activation energy ilEu is found to be 5.7 ± 0.7 meV.

-16.0

r------------------,

-16.5

~

• •• 00

The time dependence of the photoluminescence signal at 1.490 eV consists of a double exponential in the initial stage and a power-law behavior in the later stage of the decay similar to that reported in Ref. 10. At temperatures > 32 K, only the fast component of the double exponential decay can be detected. At the initial part of the decay (t < 1 J.l-s),he dout ble exponential decay can be written as follows:

Lit)

__J

c

-17.0

-17.5

=

a exp( -t/7'a)

+ b exp( -t/rh),

(1)

-18·°25

30

50

55

with decay time constant Ta varying from -85-20 ns and r» varying from -700-70 ns for various samples in the temperature range of 4.2-34 K. Table I shows a typical set of values for 7'a and Tb for a sample with car366

FIG. 1. Temperature dependence of decay time constant; T. for three samples with different CA, concentrations. 0, 1.34 x 101'; -, 1.08 x 1015; and 0, 0.39 x 10" em -3.

J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No.2, Feb 1990

C. K. Teh,

J. Tuszynski,

and F. L. Weichman:

Decay of carbon luminescence

From the least-squares curve fitting analysis of the entire decay curve measured at 4.2 K, we have found that the different decay mechanisms that are responsible for the double exponential and power-law behaviors do not coexist over the entire time range. In fact, the power-law mechanism occurs only -1 ILS after the end of the excitation pulse and is always preceded by the double exponential decay. Similar analysis of the luminescence curves measured at 1.494 and 1.487 eV shows that the decay rate at 1.494 is faster than that at 1.487 eV. The activation energies t:J.Eb at the 1.494 and 1.487 eV emissions arc 13.8 ± 0.9 and 16 ± 1 meV, respectively. Analysis of the line shape shows that the carbon emission band consists of two overlapping peaks. Figure 2 shows the spectra at different temperatures. It can be seen from Fig. 2 that there is a coexistence of the B-A (1.4930 eV) and D-A (1.4916 eV) emissions with the B-A transition dominating at higher temperatures. For temperatures >20 K, the intensity of both peaks is greatly reduced. This observation of the predominance of the D-A transition at low temperatures and that of the B-A transition at high temperatures is in agreement with observations reported in the literature?' 15-18 on epitaxial layers of GaAs doped with C, Si, Gc, Zn, Mn, and Mg. In our preliminary analysis!" of the initial double exponential decay, we have attributed the component a to band-gap recombination, in accordance with Dingle's proposal," and the component b has been attributed to O-A pairs recombination. We have observed that the decay time constant, T, due to bound exciton recombination at 1.512 eV is <10 ns. Weiner and Yu20 have reported that the free carrier lifetime for band-to-band transition is 1.2 ns for undoped SI GaAs. The decay time constant, Ta, in our case is ~80 ns, which is larger than the decay time reported by Weiner and Yu, It is not possible, therefore, for the component a to be re-

60~----------------------------~

, O-A ~B-A

w u

(/)

,

1:5 30 u

z :E

:::J

w

...J

9.485

1.490

1.495

1.500

PHOTON ENERGY, eV FIG. 2. Temperature dependence of luminescence emissions.

lated to the band gap or bound exciton recombinations, Ulbrich" has found that the time constant of B-A transitions in epitaxial GaAs is 80 ns. We therefore assigned the component a to B-A recombinations. Further confirmation now comes from the observed ratio of the pre-exponential coefficients (a: b), which increases with increasing temperatures. Later in this paper we discuss an ad hoc model which allows for multiple exponential decays, followed by a power law, as observed at the high temperature end of our measurements. For the moment we will use the simplest possible analysis based on a variety of known defect levels to relate our results to other known properties of SI GaAs. One such approach is that the activation energy of t:J.Ea = 5.7 meV associated with the B-A transition for temperatures> 18 K is due to some intermediate states where such an activation energy is required to raise the electron out of the trap. A reasonable candidate is the Si G. center whose binding energy is reported to be 5.85 meV.22 Our FTIR measurements show the presence of ::::1015 crn " of SiGa in all the samples studied. Other donors cannot be ruled out; however, no other impurity, besides C, B, and Si, could be detected in our samples by FTIR spectroscopy, leaving SiGa as the most probable shallow donor. We now turn our attention to the mechanism for the activation energy, !1Eb, of ::::15meV. We will explore two possible models here. One model involves two trapping levels, one at about 5-6 meV22 from the conduction band (previously discussed above) and the other at about 15 meV below this first level (or about 21 meV from the conduction band). This deeper level at ::::21meV is within the range of 20-30 meV reported by Walukiewicz et al." for a set of shallow donors which they attributed to a center related to the deep donor, EL2. They23 have found that, in a given sample, the concentration of the shallow donor level (20-30 meV) is the same as that of the deep donor, EL2, which led them to conclude that the EL2 center is a double donor giving rise to a deep level at aboutE, - 0.76 eV and a shallow donor level at about 20-30 meV from the conduction band. A second suggestion involves the acceptor, CA" centers. In this model, activation energies are involved in both the ionization of the carbon acceptor and the excitation of that acceptor into an excited state. For example, the excitation of the C,\, acceptor into a higher excited state does require an activation energy comparable to the observed value. However, ionization of CA, is not quantitatively compatible with our observed value of about 15 mev.5,6 Note also that we have observed a range of activation energies from 13-16 meV (see above), depending on whether the measurement is done on the higher energy side or the lower energy side of the 1.490 eV peak, This range of values leads us to believe

367

J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No.2, Feb 1990

C, K. Teh, J. Tuszyriskl. and F, L. Weichman: Decay of carbon luminescence

that there exists a set of trap depths, and this too argues against the carbon acceptor as being responsible.

B. Power-law decay

p

=

{3T - y,

(3)

**where y = 1.1 ± 0.2 and {3 is found to depend on the carbon concentration, N, according to the empirical relation:
**

{3

= 0.172 -

FoUowing the exponential decays (t > 1 JLs), the luminescence follows a power law, Figure 3 shows the decay curves at different temperatures on the log-log scale for a sample with a carbon concentration of 0.6 x 1014 cm", (To avoid cluttering, only a few curves with varying p arc shown.) The exponent, p, of the powerlaw decay is found to be linearly dependent on temperature in the range 18 ~ T < 30 K (Fig. 4), according to the ex pression: 5,------------------------------,

3.73

x 10-18

N,

(4)

4

(with N in cm "), as shown in Fig. 5. In our previous paper 10 we loosely stated that the power law could be due to the existence of intermediate trapping states. A proposal for power-law decay is due to Jonscher and de Polignac, II based on either one or two sets of deep traps, Assuming a single set of traps, as in Fig. 6, then the rate of luminescence decay is determined by the rate at which the carrier escape from the trap to the recombination centers, either directly or by way of the conduction band. The decay kinetics are then determined by the thermal detrapping," which we will deal with in a much greater detail in the next section. Other mechanisms, such as nonradiative surface recombinations= and the ionization of acceptors by hole

3

o

_j

.20 ,-----------------------------,

rn

2

Q;)_

.15

-4 Log (t(s))

FIG. 3. Decay curves at different temperatures N = 0,6 X 1014 cm-3• for a sample with

.10 OL..,_--~------I.4-----.-----8..------.----'12 N,

FIG. 5. Concentration

1d

5

em'.!

dependence of {:J.

4.-----------------------------.

Conduction band

0..

I-

3

¢

Z W Z

Q_

o

[j 2

20

24 28 TEMPERATURE, K

32

FIG. 4, Linear temperature dependence of exponentp in the temperature range IS !;; T < 30 K for four samples with different CA, concentrations, 0, 11.60 x 10''; 0, 4.55 X 10'5; 0, 1.34 X JOl'; and /::., 1.08 x 10" em 3. 368

Valence

band

FIG, 6, Schematic energy diagram showing a set of traps.

J, Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No.2. Feb 1990

C. K. Teh,

J.

Tuszyriski, and F. L. Weichman: Decay of carbon luminescence

detrapping, become significant at increasing tures, and cannot be ruled out.

tempera-

In order to be able to separate out the roles of a, Eu, and ii, we first stipulate that there be a constant number of traps N,. This sets the following requirement: N,

IV. A MODEL

In the preceding section we have discussed the experimental results which show, over short time scales, the existence of exponentials, and over longer time scales the appearance of a power-law decay. Both exponentials and the power law had been previously seen by Teh et al." at 4.2 K, but particularly the exponent in the power law was within the limits of an existing theory" at p = 1.4. In extending the measurements to higher temperatures, two sets of new results arose. First, the exponentials are temperature dependent, which give a numerical value for the distance from trapping levels to the donor levels responsible for the carbon lines. Second, the exponent of the power law, p, takes on values well beyond previously developed theory, and turns out to be both temperature and concentration dependent. In surveying the literature on the kinetics of decay of luminescence," it becomes clear that power laws are not particularly rare, but that the theory is only qualitative. Mostly one finds the statement that the power law is due to a continuous distribution of levels. In view of the experimental data we acquired, we searched for a model which would at least have some predictive power, while at the same time favoring mathematical simplicity over detailed agreement. As the basic assumption, we have taken the suggestion that continuous trapping levels are involved. The mechanism for this is not quantitatively laid down, but, again qualitatively, we assume that, as the number of impurities, in this case involving carbon, increases, their levels vary in energy to some extent due to, for example, coulomb interactions and variable spatial separation between the impurities. Such a mechanism is then thought to give rise to very large numbers of discrete trapping levels, but clustered above and below some average value energy level Eo below E". The model we consider is the simplest possible one. There is such an average trapping energy Eo and the density of trapping states drops exponentially at values above and below Eo. We further assume that the trapping levels arc de-excited to the conduction band from which the luminescence takes place. Note that in GaAs we believe that the actual luminescence decay takes place from donor to acceptor or conduction band to acceptor. For the modeling purposes, therefore, we postulate the concentration of trap levels to depend on energy as: (5) where ii defines the density of traps at peak value of Eo and a describes the sharpness of the distribution. At this stage of modeling both ii and a are considered to be adjustable parameters.

=

f

E< E,.

2ii 6.no{E) dE ==. a

(6)

t

I

where we have assumed that the distribution specified in Ref. 5 falls off rapidly from Eo; i.e., that lal-1 4 E; - Eo, Eo - E For luminescence to be observed we postulate a nonequilibrium filling of the traps due to excitation prior to t = 0 and that from thereon the kinetic processes involving individual traps follow standard exponential decay laws for a single trap level E"

1,.

**dn(t) = dnue -1/< with the Arrhenius
**

T

(7) relation for the relaxation time as (8)

=

TO

exp(dE/kT)

where dE = E, - Eo. Taking into account that the continuum distribution of traps involves an integration over all the trap levels as dn(t) = (' Jlnu{E) exp[ -t/T{dE)]dE dii(t) == an+(t) (9)

+

where 6.n+ and 6.n- denote the contributions from above and below the mean trap energy Eo, respectively. These are given by dn+ = iikT exp[ -a{Ec - Eo)/kT]

(;J

-a

y( a,

;J

(10) and 6.ii

=

iikT exp[ a(E" - E o)/kT] (

X

;J-a

(11)

e+U<E<-EV)lkTr(

a,

;0

e-{f:'-f',j!kT)

The new variable a is defined by a = akT. The expressions (10) and (11) are obtained substitutions of variables using the

y

and

=

_(E<k~ E)

Ee - Eu

z=y-

kT

in the two integrals, respectively, of expression (9), followed by direct integration using the tables of integrals by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik "; see Eq. (3.331). In Eq. (10) y stands for the incomplete gamma function y(p., (3) == I'(«) - [(p., f3)

369

J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No.2. Feb 1990

C. K. Teh, J. Tuszvnski,

and F. L. Weichman:

Decay of carbon luminescence

and r is the gamma function. The complete expression for the number of occupied traps then becomes

~n(t) ==

nkT(

:J

-a {e-a(EC-EO)/kT[

f(a) -

r(

a,

:J]

+ ea(E,-EOJ/kTf( a, :G e -rl-;',-lo )!kT) }

v

(12)

**Further simplification of (12) relies on the property of the gamma functions that for small arguments:
**

f(a,x) == f(a) - _!x"

a

+ ...

as given in Abramowitz and Stegurr"; see Eq. (6.5.32). To give some numerical estimates of the range of validity of the above approximation, we postulate some typical values associated with GaAs. Eo ~ E" == 1.5 eV, E; - Eo = 6 meV, as discussed in the previous section, and a1 == 0.5 meV, as we will see shortly. For the temperature range of T > 18 K, Eq. (12) reduces to

iln(t) == nkTea(Ec-EoJqakT)

(:J

-"kT

(13)

Since the luminescence intensity is related to iln(t) through

Ic __

d[iln(t)] dt

(14)

**it is readily seen that for long times one obtains L. - Io(-P
**

(15)

when the exponent p = a + 1 = 1 + 2nkTjN, = 1 + akT. Let us now compare the model to the experimental results and see what can be realistically expected. In the first part of this paper we found two exponentials followed by a power law. Each exponential and the power law are in turn temperature dependent. The theory clearly shows that a power law, with the correct temperature dependence, is a consequence of the exponential distribution of some trap frum a centrallevel Eo. The theory does not, either for long or for short time intervals, predict the exponential decays the experiment shows. We are thus forced into a superposition of causes: the exponentials exist experimentally, pointing to sharply defined trapping levels EA and EB, as discussed in an earlier section of this paper, which give rise to decays of the type (12) The power law, also seen experimentally, points to an independent trap with wide energy distribution. It is further useful to look in detail at the power law aspects as seen above 18 K. The model predicts the power p = akT + 1, experiment finds p = {3T ~ y with yapproximately +1. and {3 in turn is concentration depen370

dent with a best fit of f3 = 0.172 - 3.73 x 10-18 x N, for N in the range of 10114 to 10+16• By direct comparison of the temperature effects we find therefore a, the sharpness of the trapping level, decreases with increased trap concentration, which need not be a contradiction. Numerically we compare ak (theory) with f3 = 0.172 3.73 x lO-IH N (experiment) for the range of N values in our samples. We find that a -I ranges from 0.5 meV for the lowest concentrations of carbon, to 0.7 meV for the highest, well within the validity range of a -1 ~ E; ~ Eo, E, - E; postulated earlier. A serious departure between model and experiments is the constant 'Y. Theory predicts + 1, and we measure approximately -1 in the region 18 < T < 30. Extrapolating to absolute zero, theory predicts a quite reasonable t 1 behavior for the luminescence, while the actual high temperature behavior would extrapolate to r', or an increase in intensity with elapsed time. In fact, of course, we find, by 4.2 K, the limiting behavior of (-1.4. A second serious departure between theory and experiment is already included in the above discussion. Why is the limited agreement between theory and experiment restricted to temperatures above 18 K? We must emphasize that the model was chosen for mathematical simplicity. The continuous trap distribution with exponential decrease in density of states away from the center Eu, as described by Eq. (5), and the assumption that the luminescence is a radiative recombination from conduction to valence band is an obvious oversimplification, but does show some of the required behavior. Other trap distributions and more realistic recombination schemes are now being tried in computer modeling and hopefully will give better agreement. We will report on the results in due course. V. CONCLUSION From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the double exponential decay, we have found two distinct sets of trapping levels at -5.7 and ~21 meY from the conduction band. We suggest that the origin of the level at -5.7 meV from the conduction band is related to the shallow donor states formed by SiGa• The second activation energy of 15 meV could be the second donor level related to the EL2 defects. The exponent, p, of the power law has a value of -1.4 and is temperature independent for T < 18 K, but in the temperature range 18 :;;;T :;;; 30 K, we obtain the relation p(T) = {3T ~ 1, where f3 is a linear function of the concentration of CA,. To explain the power-law results, we have discussed a mechanism involving the detrapping of electrons from intermediate shallow trapping states. Specifically we have presented a model, based on an exponential distribution of trapping levels with subsequent radiative recombination via the conduction band, which matches

Feb 1990

J. Mater. Res .. Vol. 5, No.2,

C. K. Teh, J. Tuszyriski, and F. L. Weichman; Decay of carbon luminescence

at least some of the features of the experiments, in particular the temperature dependence of the power law above 18 K.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

'JG. B. Stringfellow, W. Kuschel, F. Briones, l. Gladstone, and G. Patterson, App!. Phys. Lett. 39, 581 (1981). Wc_ K. Teh, C. C. Tin, and F. L. Weichman, Can. r. Phys, 65, 945

(1987).

The authors wish to thank Dr. C. C. Tin for fruitful discussions on experimental details, Dr. P. B. Weichman at California Institute of Technology for giving the initial directions for the theory, and Professor J. E. Bertie for use of the FTIR equipment. Financial support from Cominco Ltd. and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada is also gratefully acknowledged.

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27r_

J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5. No.2,

Feb 1990

371

- J.A. Tuszynski and H. Cofta- On the Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Metamagnetism
- J.A. Tuszynski- Comments on the Use of the Landau Theory in Some Order-Order Transitions
- J.A. Tuszynski- The Landau Model of Spontaneous Metamagnetism Involving Inequivalent Sublattices
- B. Mroz et al- Brillouin scattering studies of the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Comments on the hysteresis loop in ferroelastic LiCsSO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. I. Brillouin scattering
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. II. Theoretical Model
- J.A. Tuszynski- Improved calculations of magnetoelastic properties in collinear metamagnets
- P. Winternitz et al- Exact results in the three-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities in uniaxial ferromagnets
- J.A. Tuszynski and A.P. Smith- The role of fluctuations in spontaneous metamagnetism
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition of LiNH4SO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiRb5(SO4)3 x 1.5H2SO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiKSO4
- J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Non-Linear Aspects of the Landau-Ginzburg Model with Applications to New High Temperature Superconductors
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The Emergence of Coherent Structures from Effective Hamiltonians for Superconductors
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. II. Landau Theory Modelling
- B. Mroz et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. I. Brillouin Experiment
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The method of coherent structures and metamagnetism
- M. Otwinowski, J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Vortex arrays and Landau-Ginzburg modelling of the onset of coherence in ceramic superconductors
- M.V. Sataric et al- The Role of Domain Walls in Energy Transfer Mechanisms between Two Connected One-Dimensional Ferroelectrics
- M.V. Sataric and J.A. Tuszynski- Relaxation processes due to collisions involving conduction electrons and magnon solitons in magnetic semiconductors
- B. Mroz et al- Elastic properties of Rb4LiH3(SO4)4 and K4LiH3(SO4)4 crystals
- P. Winternitz et al- Nonlinear magnetization processes in the Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities for uniaxial ferromagnets
- K. Vos et al- Magnetic-field penetration in superconductors studied using the Landau-Ginzburg model and nonlinear techniques

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- J.A. Tuszynski and H. Cofta- On the Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Metamagnetismby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski- Comments on the Use of the Landau Theory in Some Order-Order Transitionsby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski- The Landau Model of Spontaneous Metamagnetism Involving Inequivalent Sublatticesby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- Brillouin scattering studies of the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4by Konnasder

- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Comments on the hysteresis loop in ferroelastic LiCsSO4by Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. I. Brillouin scatteringby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. II. Theoretical Modelby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski- Improved calculations of magnetoelastic properties in collinear metamagnetsby Konnasder

- P. Winternitz et al- Exact results in the three-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities in uniaxial ferromagnets: I. Continuous transitionsby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski and A.P. Smith- The role of fluctuations in spontaneous metamagnetismby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition of LiNH4SO4: a Brillouin scattering study and theoretical modellingby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiRb5(SO4)3 x 1.5H2SO4: Brillouin scattering study and theoretical modellingby Konnasder

- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiKSO4: Brilllouin scattering studies from 140 to 300 K and Landau theory modellingby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Non-Linear Aspects of the Landau-Ginzburg Model with Applications to New High Temperature Superconductorsby Konnasder
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The Emergence of Coherent Structures from Effective Hamiltonians for Superconductorsby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. II. Landau Theory Modellingby Konnasder

- B. Mroz et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. I. Brillouin Experimentby Konnasder
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The method of coherent structures and metamagnetismby Konnasder
- M. Otwinowski, J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Vortex arrays and Landau-Ginzburg modelling of the onset of coherence in ceramic superconductorsby Konnasder
- M.V. Sataric et al- The Role of Domain Walls in Energy Transfer Mechanisms between Two Connected One-Dimensional Ferroelectricsby Konnasder

- M.V. Sataric and J.A. Tuszynski- Relaxation processes due to collisions involving conduction electrons and magnon solitons in magnetic semiconductorsby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- Elastic properties of Rb4LiH3(SO4)4 and K4LiH3(SO4)4 crystalsby Konnasder
- P. Winternitz et al- Nonlinear magnetization processes in the Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities for uniaxial ferromagnetsby Konnasder
- K. Vos et al- Magnetic-field penetration in superconductors studied using the Landau-Ginzburg model and nonlinear techniquesby Konnasder

- Pawel Hawrylak et al- Nonlinear polariton excitations in quantum dot arraysby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- Ferroelastic phase transition in K3Na(SeO4)2: Brillouin-scattering studies and theoretical modelingby Konnasder
- B. Mroz et al- The ferroelastic phase transition in (NH4)4LiH3(SO4)4: Brillouin scattering studies and Landau theory modellingby Konnasder
- J.A. Tuszynski and D. Sept- Comments on phase-front propagation in ferroelectricsby Konnasder

- J.A. Tuszynski and H. Cofta- On the Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Metamagnetism
- J.A. Tuszynski- Comments on the Use of the Landau Theory in Some Order-Order Transitions
- J.A. Tuszynski- The Landau Model of Spontaneous Metamagnetism Involving Inequivalent Sublattices
- B. Mroz et al- Brillouin scattering studies of the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Comments on the hysteresis loop in ferroelastic LiCsSO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. I. Brillouin scattering
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiCsSO4. II. Theoretical Model
- J.A. Tuszynski- Improved calculations of magnetoelastic properties in collinear metamagnets
- P. Winternitz et al- Exact results in the three-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities in uniaxial ferromagnets
- J.A. Tuszynski and A.P. Smith- The role of fluctuations in spontaneous metamagnetism
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition of LiNH4SO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiRb5(SO4)3 x 1.5H2SO4
- B. Mroz et al- On the ferroelastic phase transition in LiKSO4
- J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Non-Linear Aspects of the Landau-Ginzburg Model with Applications to New High Temperature Superconductors
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The Emergence of Coherent Structures from Effective Hamiltonians for Superconductors
- J.A. Tuszynski et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. II. Landau Theory Modelling
- B. Mroz et al- Acoustic Phonon Softening of Selected Double Sulphates. I. Brillouin Experiment
- J.M. Dixon and J.A. Tuszynski- The method of coherent structures and metamagnetism
- M. Otwinowski, J.A. Tuszynski and J.M. Dixon- Vortex arrays and Landau-Ginzburg modelling of the onset of coherence in ceramic superconductors
- M.V. Sataric et al- The Role of Domain Walls in Energy Transfer Mechanisms between Two Connected One-Dimensional Ferroelectrics
- M.V. Sataric and J.A. Tuszynski- Relaxation processes due to collisions involving conduction electrons and magnon solitons in magnetic semiconductors
- B. Mroz et al- Elastic properties of Rb4LiH3(SO4)4 and K4LiH3(SO4)4 crystals
- P. Winternitz et al- Nonlinear magnetization processes in the Landau-Ginzburg model of magnetic inhomogeneities for uniaxial ferromagnets
- K. Vos et al- Magnetic-field penetration in superconductors studied using the Landau-Ginzburg model and nonlinear techniques
- Pawel Hawrylak et al- Nonlinear polariton excitations in quantum dot arrays
- B. Mroz et al- Ferroelastic phase transition in K3Na(SeO4)2
- B. Mroz et al- The ferroelastic phase transition in (NH4)4LiH3(SO4)4
- J.A. Tuszynski and D. Sept- Comments on phase-front propagation in ferroelectrics
- B. Mroz et al- Ferroelastic Phase Transition in (NH4)4LiH3(SO4)4

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