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**DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
**

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES, RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

LECTURE NOTES

F. O. K. Anyemedu

KUMASI

MARCH - 2007

1

Chapter 1; Hydraulic Structures

Hydraulic Structures

Hydraulic structures are engineering structures constructed for the purposes of

harnessing and using water resources (groundwater, surface water, lakes, sea,

etc) or for the prevention of the negative and destructive actions (floods, shore

erosion, etc) of water on the surrounding environment.

There are a large variety of hydraulic structures to serve the many purposes for

which water resources are put to use. There are several classifications of

hydraulic structures, however, the most important is the classification by function

as given below.

2

Table 1. Classification of Hydraulic Structures by function

Type Purpose Structure

1. Storage structures To store water Dams, tanks

2. Flow control

structures

To regulate the

quantity and pass

excess flow

Spillways, outlets, gates,

valves

3. Flow measurement

structures

To determine

discharge

Weirs, orifices, flumes

4. Division structures To divert the main

course of water

Coffer dams, weirs, canal

headworks, intake works

5. Conveyance

structures

To guide flow from

one location to

another

Open channel, pressure

conduits, pipes, canals and

sewers

6. Collection structures To collect water for

disposal

Drain inlets, infiltration

galleries, wells

7. Energy dissipation

structures

To prevent erosion

and structural

damage

Stilling basins, surge tanks,

check dams

8. Shore protection

structures

To protect banks Dikes, groins, jetties,

revetments

9. River training and

waterway stabilization

structures

To maintain river

channel and water

transportation

Levees, cutoffs, locks, piers,

culverts

10. Sediment and

quality control

structures

To control or remove

sediments and other

pollutants

Racks, screens, traps,

sedimentation tanks, filters,

sluiceways

11. Hydraulic machines To convert energy

from one from to

another

Pumps, turbines, rams.

1. Storage structures - Dams

Dam: Dam is any artificial barrier and its appurtenant works constructed for the

purpose of holding water or any other fluid.

There are three common classification schemes for dams. According to the

function performed, dams are classified into:

i) storage dams for impounding water for developmental uses.

ii) Diversion dams for diverting streamflow into canals or other

conveyance system and

iii) Detention dams to hold the water temporary to retard flood flows

From hydraulic design considerations, dams are classified as:

i) overflow dams to carry discharge over their crests, and

3

ii) ii) non-overflow dams, which are not designed to be overtopped.

The most common classification is one based on the materials of which dams are

made. This classification makes further sub-classification by recognizing the

basic type of design, such as concrete gravity or concrete arch dams. Types of

dams include:

i) Earthfill dams

ii) Rockfill dams

iii) Concrete dams

a) concrete gravity dams

b) concrete arch dams

c) concrete buttress dams

iv) Stone masonry

a) stone-masonry gravity dams

b) stone-masonry arch dams

v) Timber dams

vi) Steel coffer dams

SELECTION OF TYPE OF DAM

There are many factor involved in the selection but at the beginning, physical

factors play important role. Topographically, a narrow stream section with high

rocky walls suggest a suitable site for a concrete dam. Where the wall are strong

enough to resist arch thrust, a concrete arch dam is adaptable. Low-rolling plains

suggest an earthfill or rockfill dam.

When the geologic characteristics of foundation are comprised of solid rock, any

type of dam can be constructed, although concrete gravity or arch dams are

favourable. Gravel foundation are suitable for earthfill, rockfill, and low concrete

gravity dams. Silt and fine sand foundations are used to support earthfill and low

concrete gravity dams but not suitable for rockfill dams.

Availability of certain materials close to the sitewill effect considerable reduction

in cost if the type of dam selected utilizes these materials in sufficient quantity.

Size, type and natural restrictions in location of a spillway influence the choice of

dam. A large spillway requirement indicates the adoption of a concrete gravity

dam. A small spillway requirement favours the selection of rockfill dam. When

the excavated material from a site channel spillway can be used in a dam

embankment, an earthfill dam is advantageous.

Apart from the above factors, others, such as the cost of diverting the stream,

availability of labour, and traffic requirements on top of the dam will favour one

type or the other.

4

Chapter 2: EARTHFILL DAMS

Earthfill dams

Earthfill dams are the most common type of dam built to any height. They are

designed as a non-overflow section with separate spillway. The reason for such

wide spread use of earthfill dams are:

• The foundation requirements are not as rigorous as other dams

• Local available soil is the main construction material

• High skill not required

• No special plants are required. Most earth-moving machines can be used

•

Fig. 1. General view of an Earthfill

dam

Figure 2: General view of an Earthfill

dam

Classification of earthfill dams

Earthfill dams are classified by many factors.

1. Based on the method of construction

• Rolled fill earth dams

• Hydraulic fill dam

2. Based on mechanical characteristics of earth materials making the section of

the Dam

• Homogeneous earth dams

• Non-Homogeneous (zoned) earth dams

i) non-homogeneous with inclined impervious zone (ekran) of

artificial material

ii) with impervious zone of soil with low permeability

iii) with central core soil material of low permeability

iv) with a central thin diaphragm of impervious material

Rolled Fill Earth dams

5

In this type of dams, successive layers of moistened or damp soils are laid one

over the other. Each layer not exceeding 20 cm in thickness is properly

consolidated at optimum moisture content, only then is the next layer laid.

Hydraulic Fill dams

In this type of dams, the construction, excavation, transportation of the earth is

done by hydraulic methods. Outer edges of the embankments are kept slightly

higher than the middle portion of each layer. During construction, a mixture of

excavated materials in slurry condition is pumped and discharged at the edges.

This slurry of excavated materials and water consists of coarse and fine

materials. When it is discharged near the outer edges, the coarser materials

settle first at the edges, while the finer materials move to the middle and settle

there. Fine particles are deposited in the central portion to form a water tight

central core. In this method, compaction is not required.

Homogeneous Earthen Dam

These dams are constructed with uniform and homogeneous materials. It is

suitable for low height dams (up to 10m). These dams are usually constructed

with soil and grit mixed in proper ratios. The seepage action of such dams are

not favourable, therefore, for safety in case of rapid drawdown, the upstream

slope is kept relatively flat (3:1)

Homogeneous section is modified by constructing rock toe at the downstream

lower end and providing horizontal filter drain.

6

Zoned Earth Dams

These are dams with the central portions called core or hearting made from

materials which are relatively impervious. The thickness of the core wall is made

sufficiently thick to prevent leakage of water through the body of the dam.

Dam with a Diaphragm

This type of dam is constructed with pervious materials, with a thin impervious

diaphragm in the central part to prevent seepage of water. The thin impervious

diaphragm may be made of impervious clayey soil, cement concrete or masonry

or any impervious material The diaphragm can be constructed in the central

portion or on the upstream face of the dam. The main difference in zoned and

diaphragm type of dams depend on the thickness of the impervious core or

diaphragm. The thickness of the diaphragm is not more than 10 m.

7

The criteria for the design of earth dams are:

1. Sufficient spillway capacity and freeboard are provided so that there is no

danger of overtopping of the dam

2. Seepage flow through the embankment is controlled so that the amount lost

does not interfere with the objective of the dam and there is no erosion or

sloughing of soil. In this respect, seepage line should remain well within the

downstream face of the dam and the portion of the dam on downstream side of

the impervious core should be well drained.

3. Uplift pressure due to the seepage underneath is not enough to cause piping

4. The slopes of the embankment are stable under all conditions of reservoir

operation, including rapid drawdown and during steady seepage under full

reservoir.

5. The stresses imposed by the embankment upon the foundation are less than

the strength of material in the foundation with a suitable factor of safety.

6. The upstream face is properly protected ((stone pitching, riprap, revetment)

against erosion caused by wave action, and the downstream face is protected

(counter-booms, turfs) against the action of rain

Embankment Materials

a. Earth-fill materials.

(1) While most soils can be used for earth-fill construction as long as they are

insoluble and substantially inorganic, typical rock flours and clays with liquid

limits above 80 should generally be avoided. The term “soil” as used herein

includes such materials as soft sandstone or other rocks that break down into soil

during handling and compaction.

(2) If a fine-grained soil can be brought readily within the range of water contents

suitable for compaction and for operation of construction equipment, it can be

used for embankment construction. Some slow-drying impervious soils may be

unusable as embankment fill because of excessive moisture, and the reduction

of moisture content would be impracticable in some climatic areas because of

anticipated rainfall during construction. In other cases, soils may require

additional water to approach optimum water content for compaction. Even

ponding or sprinkling in borrow areas may be necessary. The use of fine-grained

soils having high water contents may cause high porewater pressures to develop

in the embankment under its own weight. Moisture penetration into dry hard

borrow material can be aided by ripping or plowing prior to sprinkling or ponding

operations.

(3) As it is generally difficult to reduce substantially the water content of

impervious soils, borrow areas containing impervious soils more than about 2 to

5 percent wet of optimum water content (depending upon their plasticity

8

characteristics) may be difficult to use in an embankment. However, this depends

upon local climatic conditions and the size and layout of the work, and must be

assessed for each project on an individual basis. The cost of using drier material

requiring a longer haul should be compared with the cost of using wetter

materials and flatter slopes. Other factors being equal, and if a choice is possible,

soils having a wide range of grain sizes (well-graded) are preferable to soils

having relatively uniform particle sizes, since the former usually are stronger, less

susceptible to piping, erosion, and liquefaction, and less compressible. Cobbles

and boulders in soils may add to the cost of construction since stone with

maximum dimensions greater than the thickness of the compacted layer must be

removed to permit proper compaction. Embankment soils that undergo

considerable shrinkage upon drying should be protected by adequate

thicknesses of non-shrinking fine-grained soils to reduce evaporation. Clay soils

should not be used as backfill in contact with concrete or masonry structures,

except in the impervious zone of an embankment.

(4) Most earth materials suitable for the impervious zone of an earth dam are

also suitable for the impervious zone of a rock-fill dam. When water loss must be

kept to a minimum (i.e., when the reservoir is used for long-term storage), and

fine-grained material is in short supply, resulting in a thin zone, the material used

in the core should have a low permeability. Where seepage loss is less

important, as in some flood control dams not used for storage, less impervious

material may be used in the impervious zone.

Some causes of failure of earthfill dams

Like most of engineering structures, earth dams may fail due to faulty design,

improper construction and poor maintenance practices, etc

The various causes of failure may be classified as:

a) Hydraulic failure

b) Seepage failure

c) Structural failure

a) Hydraulic failure:

Hydraulic accounts for over 40% of earth dam failure and may be due to one or

more of the following:

9

.

i) By overtopping: When free board of dam or capacity of spillway is insufficient,

the flood water will pass over the dam and wash it downstream.

ii). Erosion of downstream toe: The toe of the dam at the downstream side may

be eroded due to i) heavy cross-current from spillway buckets, or ii) tail water.

When the toe of downstream is eroded, it will lead to failure of dam. This can be

prevented by providing a downstream slope pitching or a riprap up to a height

above the tail water depth Also, the side wall of the spillway should have

sufficient height and length to prevent possibility of cross flow towards the earth

embankment.

iii) Erosion of upstream surface: During winds, the waves developed near the

top water surface may cut into the soil of upstream dam face which may cause

slip of the upstream surface leading to failure. For preventing against such

failure, the upstream face should be protected with stone pitching or riprap

iv). Erosion of downstream face by gully formation: During heavy rains, the

flowing rain water over the downstream face can erode the surface, creating

gullies, which could lead to failure. To prevent such failures, the dam surface

should be properly maintained; all cuts filled on time and surface well grassed.

Berms could be provided at suitable heights and surface well drained.

F.W.L

Body of dam after

failure

Fig. Dam failure by overtopping

10

Figure 3. Beginning of downstream failure

b). Seepage failure:

Seepage always occurs in the dams. If the magnitude is within design limits, it

may not harm the stability of the dam. However, if seepage is concentrated or

uncontrolled beyond limits, it will lead to failure of the dam. Following are some of

the various types of seepage failure.

i) Piping through dam body. When seepage starts through poor soils in the body

of the dam, small channels are formed which transport material downstream. As

more materials are transported downstream, the channels glow bigger and

bigger which could lead to wash out of dam

.

Failure of dam due to piping through dam

body

H.F.L

.

Channel formation

11

ii) Piping through foundation: When highly permeable cavities or fissures or

strata of gravel or coarse sand are present in the dam foundation, it may lead to

heavy seepage. The concentrated seepage at high rate will erode soil which will

cause increase flow of water and soil. As a result, the dam will settle or sink

leading to failure.

iii) Sloughing of downstream side of dam:

The process of failure due to sloughing starts when the downstream toe of the

dam becomes saturated and starts getting eroded, causing small slump or slide

of the dam. The small slide leaves a relative steep face, which also becomes

saturated due to seepage and also slumps again and forms more unstable

surface. The process of saturation and slumping continues, leading to failure of

dam.

c) Structural Failure:

About 25% of failure is attributed to structural failure, which is mainly due to

shear failure causing slide along the slopes. The failure may be due to:

i) Slide in embankment: When the slopes of the embankments are too steep, the

embankment may slide causing failure. This might happen when there is a

sudden drawdown, which is critical for the upstream side because of the

development of extremely high pore pressures, which decreases the shearing

strength of the soil. The downstream side can also slide especially when dam is

full. Upstream embankment failure is not as serious as downstream failure.

ii) Foundation slide: When the foundation of an earthfill dam is composed of fine

silt, clay, or similar soft soil, the whole dam may slide due to water thrust. If

seams of fissured rocks, such as soft clay, or shale exist below the foundation,

the side thrust of the water pressure may shear the whole dam and cause its

piping

Failure due to piping

12

failure. In such failure the top of the dam gets cracked and subsides, the lower

slopes moves outward and forms large mud waves near the dam heel.

iii) Faulty construction and poor maintenance: When during construction, the

compaction of the embankment is not properly done, it may lead to failure.

iv) Earthquake may cause the following types of failure to earthfill dams;

1 cracks may develop in the core wall, causing leakages and piping failure.

2. slow waves may set up due to shaking of reservoir bottom, and dam may

fail due to overtopping

3. settlement of dam which may reduce freeboard causing failure by

overtopping

4. slidding of natural hills causing damage to dam and its appurtenant

structures

5. Fault movement in the dam site reducing reservoir capacity and causing

overtopping.

6. Shear slide of dam

7. The sand below foundation may liquefy

8. Failure of slope pitching.

Some elements of earthfill dams

1.Crest of dam:

The crest width of dams should be sufficient to keep the seepage line within the

dam, when the reservoir is full. The crest width of the dam if road is not

envisaged should not be less than 3m for low and medium head dams and 6m

for high head dams. If road is envisaged, then the width of the dam is determined

according to the class of road and determined by the road code.

Top width could be determined by the following recommended formulae:

a) For very low dams top width is given by

B = H/5 + 3

b) For dams lower than 30m

B = 0.55(H)

1/2

+ H/5

For dams higher than 30m,

13

B = 1.65(H + 1.5)

1/3

B = 1.67(H)

1/2

Balustrades are provided at the end of the roads to prevent car falling off the

slopes.

2. Side slopes of dam: side slope of dams must satisfy the static stability.

However, since the stability computations can be done only after defining the

profile of the dam and determining the seepage line, it becomes necessary to

give an initial side slopes. Initial slope could be taken from the tables below.

(Taken from “hydraulic structures” –N. P. Rosanova)

Slope Material

of dam

Side slopes depending on height of dam

Less than 5m From 5m -

10m

From 10-15m

Upstream Clayey

Sandy

2

2.5 – 2

2.5

3 – 2.5

3

3

Downstream

With filter

Clayey

Sandy

1.5

2

1.75

2

1.75

2

Downstream

without filter

Clayey

Sandy

1.75

2

2

2.25

2.25

2.25

In low head dams, usually one and constant side slope is used, however in

medium and high head dams, different side slopes are usually adopted to reduce

the volume of the dam.

Side Slope According to the recommendations of Terzaghi

No. Type of material Upstream

slope

(H :V)

Downstream

slope (H:V)

1 Well graded homogeneous soil 2.5:1 2:1

2 Homogeneous coarse silt 3:1 2.5:1

3 Homogeneous silt clay:

i) for dam height less than 15m

ii) for dam height more than

15m

2.5:1

3:1

2:1

2.5:1

4 Sand or sand and gravel with

clay core

3:1 2.5:1

5 Sand or sand and gravel with

reinforced concrete core wall

2.5:1 2:1

3. Berms: Berms are constructed at both the upstream and downstream side of

the dam for the purposes of observing the conditions of protections at the

slopes and their repairs and also for increasing the width of dam at the base

14

with aim of increasing seepage length. It is also done when constructions

coffer dams are made part of the body of the dam. At the downstream side,

berms are done at an interval of 10 – 15m high. Width of berm is taken

between 1 – 2 m.

4. Free Board

Normal freeboard is the vertical distance between the normal pool level and the

crest of the dam. Minimum freeboard is the vertical distance between the high

flood level and the crest of dam.

The minimum height of freeboard is taken as 1.5 hw where hw is given by:

hw = 0.032 (V.F)

1/2

+ 0.763 – 0.271(F)

1/4

for F, 32 km -----------(X)

and hw = 0.032 (V.F)

1/2

for F . 32km -------------------------------------(Y)

where hw = wave height ( height of water from top to trough of waves in meters)

V = velocity of wind in km/hr

F = fetch or straight length of water expanse in km.

Free board values as recommended by U.S.B.R are given in table below.

Free Board by USBR

Spillway Type Dam Height in m Minimum freeboard

over M.W.L

Free spillway Any height 2 m to 3 m

Controlled

spillway

Up to 60 m 2.5 m above top of

gate s

Controlled

spillway

More than 60 m 3.0 m above top of

gates

5. Slope Protection (Revetment)

15

Upstream side protection: For protecting the upstream slope from deterioration

and damage from wave action, the slope is covered with different protective

material.

Rock riprap, either dry dumped stone boulders or hand-packed stone boulders

can be made. Stone pitching provided at slope of 1.5 : 1 to 2 : 1 for ordinary soil

material of dam and 3 : 1 for poor soil material. The revetment stones are fixed

at the toe of the dam to prevent slipping of the embankment. The thickness of the

Figure 3. Upstream protection with hand-

layed rip-rap

Figure 4. Upstream protection

stone pitching is usually more than 60 cm. In most cases the stone pitching is

placed over gravel then sand cushion. Big sizes stones with their broader face

downwards are packed with each other by means of hammer.

Concrete, reinforced concrete slabs, steel plates, bituminous material pavement,

brick tile pavement could also be used. However, extensive survey done by US

Corps of Engineers in the 1940s o over 100 dams show that dry dumped riprap

stone pitching has the best efficiency in terms of failure rate.

16

Downstream protection

One of the cheapest, simple and effective methods of protecting the downstream

from rainfall and wind action is by planting green grass (turfs) on the slope.

Counter-boom could also be done.

17

Figure 4. Downstream protection

6. Drainage: Drainage in earth dams is meant for lowering the seepage curve;

prevent seepage water from flowing onto the downstream slope, and

conveying seepage water through the body of the dam to the downstream

part of the dam. By its function, dam drainage must have two parts; an intake

structure (drainage trench) that allows seepage water from the body and

foundation of the dam, while at the same time preventing deformation due to

seepage and conveyance structure that transports the seepage water from

the dam. However, in most drainage, it is difficult to see clearly these two

parts.

18

Hydrotechnical construction practice has work out many drainage systems

depending on the type of dam, materials of the foundation and body of dam.

Among some of the most commonly used drainage systems are:

i) Drainage prism: with many positive sides (advantages) but requires the use of

large quantity of stones

ii) A type of drainage prism in which the filter material of the drainage system is

laid to extend to a certain height on the downstream side. Such drainage

system is used when there could be rise of the tail water above the crest of

the prism.

iii) Flat horizontal drainage: It requires much smaller quantity of stones and

simplifies construction. It has the advantage of draining both the foundation

and body of dam and it is used mainly when the foundation is made up of

saturated material

iv) Combination of horizontal drain with the prism.

v) Horizontal piped drainage: consists of a pipe (tube), laid parallel to base of

the slope of dam.

vi) Horizontal stone drainage: a type of horizontal piped drain in which instead of

the pipe, a stone prism is used.

19

Seepage through dam

Filtration (seepage) computation through dams are carried out with the aim of:

• determining the position of the seepage depression curve

• finding the value of the gradient and velocity of filtration

• determine the filtration flow (discharge)

The seepage pattern through a dam is shown above. The pattern is the same

irrespective of the material (sand, clay, loam) of the dam, though the rate of

seepage will depend on soil type. The emergence of seepage lines on the

downstream slope tends to make the downstream slope unstable. Either the

downstream slope has to be made very flat or the seepage must be diverted

away from the downstream slope. The second alternative is favoured because it

is economical.

The diagram below shows the seepage lines for a homogeneous earthfill dam

with a horizontal gravel filter on the base of the dam at the downstream side. The

flow lines

20

enter the blanket vertically. Cassagrande (1937) has shown that the phreatic

line, which is the topmost seepage line, quite closely approximates a parabola.

The parabola

Seepage through a homogeneous dam with horizontal drainage blanket

(filter)

Insert drawing

21

intersects the water surface at A such that AB = 0.3 CB. Near the upstream

face, the phreatic line diverges from the parabola and join B perpendicularly.

The focus of the parabola is at F and the directrix passes through D. Every point

on the parabola with origin at the focus F can be given by

0

2

0

2

2y

y y

x

−

·

----------------1

At the point A, x = d and y = H. Substituting in equation 1 yields

d d H y − + ·

2 2

0

------------(2)

y0 , which is also the distance FD, is determined from eq. (2)

How to get the point D graphically. With A as the centre and AF as radius, draw

an arc to cut the water surface at J. From J drop a perpendicular to the base at

D. D is the directrix. Locate the mid-point of FD at E which is the vertex of the

parabola.

The phreatic line can be drawn by equation (1).

For an approximate estimate of seepage, the Darcy’s law at point G , per unit

length of dam

0

y

dx

dy

K KiA q

,

_

¸

¸

· ·

-------------- (3)

From eq. (1)

2

0 0

0

2 y xy

y

dx

dy

+

·

--------------------(4)

Since at G, x= 0, and y = y0 then

dy/dx = 1 ------------------------------(5)

Hence q = K (1) (y0) ------------------------------(6)

The flow through the section at G is the same as at any other section.

Consequently, the total seepage through the length L of the dam is given by:

Q = K(y0)(L) ------------------------------(7)

Worked example

A homogeneous earthfill dam has a top width of 30ft and a height of 100ft with a

freeboard of 10ft. The side slopes are 1V: 2.5H. It has a horizontal drainage

blanket at the base that extends from the downstream toe to a distance of 100ft.

The embankment has a permeability of 1.5 x 10

-5

ft/sec. Determine the seepage

through the dam.

Solution

H = 90 ft ; CB = 90 (2.5) = 225ft ; AB = 0.3(225) = 67.5ft and CA = 157.5 ft

d = base length – blanket length – CA

22

= 530 -100 – 157.5 = 272.5 ft.

From eq. (2) d d H y − + ·

2 2

0

= [(90)

2

+ (272.5)

2

]

1/2

-272.5 = 14.5 ft

From eq. 6 q = K (1) (y0) = (1.5 x 10

-5

)(14.5) (1) = 2.18 x 10

-4

cfs or 18.8ft

3

/day

per foot of dam.

Seepage line of a homogeneous dam without filter

For a homogeneous dam without filter, the focus point F of the parabola is at the

downstream toe of the dam. The base parabola cuts the downstream slope of the

dam and extends beyond the dam.

The seepage line emerges out at point C meeting the downstream face

tangentially. The portion CF of the dam is known as the discharge face and

always remains saturated.

The portion DC (Δa) and CF (a) are inter-related as follows:

( )

,

_

¸

¸ −

∆ + · ∆

0

0

400

180 α

a a a

The table below gives the values of Δa/(a + Δa) for various values of α (angles

which the discharge face makes with the horizontal) as per Cassagrande

α in

degree

Δa/(a + Δa)

30 0.36

60 0.32

90 0.26

120 0.18

135 0.14

150 0.10

180 0.0

Seepage rate calculation from flow net

Flow net is a network form by streamlines (flow lines and equi potential (head

lines) which are mutually perpendicular. In the network, the portion between any

two successive flow lines is called flow channel and the portion between any two

successive equi potential lines called flow field.

Then from Darcy’s law of flow through porous medium, considering unit

thickness,

( ) 1 . . b

l

h

k q

∆

· ∆ --------------------a)

23

If Δh = drop of head through a field,

h = total head causing flow

Δq = discharge passing through the field

If the total number of potential drops in the flow net = Nd

Then Δh = h/Nd ----------------------b)

Putting b) into a), we obtain

,

_

¸

¸

· ∆

l

b

N

h

k q

d

.

------------c)

Or Total flow

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸

· ∆ ∑ ·

l

b

N

N

kh N

l

b

N

h

k q q

d

t

t

d

. . .

----------- d)

Where Nt = total number of flow channels in the net.

When the flow field is square, then b = l and the discharge becomes

d

t

N

N

kh q ·

---------------------f)

Seepage under the Dam

If the foundation material is alluvial sand or gravel, seepage could occur

underneath the dam. If the upward seepage pressure of water near the toe is

greater than the effective weight of the soil, the surface of the soil will rise at a

point of least resistance, and water and soil will start flowing away from dam.

This phenomena is known as piping and can result in the sliding of the toe or the

settling of the whole dam.

l

b

equipotential

lines

Flow lines

24

The submerged unit weight soil is given by

w

s

sub

e

G

γ γ

+

−

·

1

1

----------(Y)

where Gs = specific gravity of soil; e = void ratio.

For a seepage line at a gradient, I, the upward seepage force per unit volume is

iγw . When the two forces are in balance,

e i

G

i

s

+

−

·

1

-----------------(Z)

Eq. (Z) is known as the critical gradient and equal to unity. A gradient of slightly

higher than unit value will cause piping or sand particles to be in an unstable

condition known as quicksand. The actual gradient at the downstream end of the

dam is evaluated from the flow net by dividing the head difference between the

lst two potential lines by the distance between these potential lines. This should

be less than unity.

An empirical approach, the creep ratio, L/H is computed; here L is the length

along the surface of contact between the soil and the base of the structure. This

ratio is kept at 4 for gravels and 18 for sand and silt.

Measures against seepage. Seepage Control.

The following are some common measures for controlling seepage through the

dam and embankments.

1. Prevention of Seepage through Foundation

i) By providing drainage trenches

ii). By providing downstream seepage berms

iii). By providing impervious blanket layer on upstream slope

iv). By providing impervious cutoff.

2. Prevention of Seepage through Embankment (Dam)

i). By providing horizontal drainage filter

25

ii). By providing toe filter

iii). By providing filter downstream of toe

iv). By providing downstream coarse section

v). By providing chimney drains extending upwards into the embankment

Design of Filter

The design of filters should be done in such a way that all the seepage water

through the dam is effectively drained off. The filter consists of several layers.

The first layer of the filter which comes in contact with the seeping water consists

of fine sand material. Subsequent layers of filter are made of sand of increased

fineness. The last layer of the filter is made of gravels. The soil of the earth dam

and the foundation material surrounding the filter are known as the base material.

The filters of filter drains are known as reverse or inverted filter.

The U.S. Bureau of reclamation, Washington 1960 recommended the following

for materials to be used for filters;

i) Filter material should be fine and poorly graded so that the voids in

the filter are small and thus prevent base material from entering the

filter

ii) The filter material should be coarse and pervious in relation to the

base material. This aspect facilitates rapid removal of seeping

water without building up any seepage forces within the filter.

iii) The filter material should be coarser than the perforations of

openings in the drain pipes, so that filter material is not lost in the

drains. The perforations (openings in the pipes drains should be

adequate to admit all seeping water safely.

iv) The thickness of filter material should be sufficient to provide a

good distribution of all particle sizes, also throughout the filter. The

thickness should be adequate to provide safety against piping.

Terzaghi has recommended the following two requirements which should be

fulfilled by the filter:

a). The D15 size of the filter material must not be more than 4 to 5 times the D85 of

the base material. This prevents the foundation material from carrying through

the pores of the filter material.

Chimney drain

26

b). The D15 size of the filter material should be at least 4 to 5 times the D16 of the

base material. This keeps seepage forces within the filter to permissible levels.

The above criteria can be expressed as follows:

D15 of filter < 4 to 5 < D15 of filter

D85 of base material D15 of base material.

The above criteria has been modified by USBR in “ Design of small Dams ” as:

a)

a) D15 of filter material = 5 to 40

D15 of base material

b). D15 of filter material = 5 or less

D85 of base material

c). D85 of filter materials . = 2 or more

Max opening of perforations of pipes

d). The grain size curve of the filter material should be about parallel to the curve

of the base material.

6. Stability of Earthfill dams

Stability computation for earthfil dams are done to check on the following:

2. stability of downstream slope during steady seepage

3. stability of upstream slope during drawdown

4. stability of downstream and upstream slopes during and

immediately after construction

5. Stability of foundation against shear.

Earthfill dams usually fail due to the sliding of large soil mass along a curved

surface.

The most common method used for examining the stability of earthfill dam

embankment slopes is the Swedish slip circle or (the slice) method.

Swedish slip Circle Method (Slide Method)

In this method, the failure of the embankment surface is assumed to be

cylindrical. The factor of safety against sliding, which is the ratio of average

shearing stress as determined by the Coulomb equation s = (c + σ tan φ) to the

average shearing stress determined by statics on a potential sliding surface.

For testing the stability of a slope, the centre of the possible arc is assumed. It is

necessary first to locate the centre of the Critical Circle to locate the Centre of

Critical Slope.

Fellenious has given the following method to locate the locus on which the

probable centre line may lie.

27

For a homogeneous soil, the centre of critical slip centre lies on the line PQ. The

coordinates of point Q is H downwards from toe and 4.5 H horizontal away from

toe as shown above. The location of point P is done with the help of directional

angles i, α and β given in the table below.

Slope angle

(i)

o

Slope Directional angles

α β

11.3 5 : 1 25 35

18.4 3 : 1 25 35

26.6 2 : 1 25 35

33.8 1.5 : 1 26 35

45 1 : 1 28 37

60 0.58 : 1 29 40

First extend the surface of the fluid WL. Draw angle i from the toe of dam to cut

the surface of fluid at S. From S draw the angle β and from the toe draw angle α

to intercept angle β at the point P. Now by joining QP, we obtain the line on which

the centre of critical slip centre lies.

Now on line QP we assume point O and an arc AB is drawn with radius OA. The

earth mass above the arc is divided into a number of vertical segments known as

slices. The number of slices may be from 6 to 12. Neglecting the forces between

slices, each slice is assumed to act independently as a column of soil of unit

thickness and width. The weight of each slice is assumed to be acting at its

centre. The weight is resolved into two components N and T (ie. normal

P

S

R

Q

4.5 H

T

H

α

i

β

WL

28

component passing through the centre of the arc O, and will not cause any

driving moment on the slice. But the tangential component T causes a driving

moment of T x R). Near the toe of the dam, some of the slices may cause

resisting moment and in such cases, T is negative.

Let thew slices be numbered 1, 2, …6 and their weights be numbered W1, W2…

W6

Now N = W cos α and T = W sin α

From Coulomb’s equation, the resisting force

FR = c x ΔL + N tan φ ……….1)

where c = unit cohesion ; ΔL = curved length of slice ;

φ = angle of internal friction of soil.

The driving moment

MD = R x ∑T …………………..2)

The resisting moment

MR = R[c∑ΔL + tan φ x ∑N

∑ΔL = sum of curved length of all components = 2πθ/360 - length of arc AB

The factor of safety against sliding

[ ]

[ ]

) 3 .......( ..........

tan

.

tan

.

∑

∑ ∑

∑

∑ ∑

+ ∆

·

+ ∆

· ·

T

N L c

S F

T R

N L c R

M

M

S F

D

R

φ

φ

The values of ∑N and ∑T are generally calculated in a tabular form.

T

W

N

R

O

O R

A

B

α

29

Now if w1, w2, …….wn are the weight of slices, then

∑N = cos α (∑w) and ∑T = sin α∑(w)

No. of slice Weight of

slice

N = w x cos α T = w x sin α c x ΔL

1 w1 N1 T1 c x ΔL1

2 w2 N2 T2 c x ΔL2

3 w3 N3 T3 c x ΔL3

4 w4 N4 T4 c x ΔL4

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

n wn Nn Tn c x ΔLn

∑N ∑T c x ∑ ΔL =

c x 2πθ/360

The factor of safety is computed for the point O with equation (3). Different

points on the line QP are chosen and the procedure gone through to deyermine

the factor of safety. Various factor of safety so obtained are plotted as ordinates

on the corresponding centres and a smooth curve of F.S drawn. The centre

corresponding to the lowest factor of safety is the required centre of critical slip

circle.

Downstream Slope Stability during Steady Seepage

The critical condition for downstream slope occurs when the reservoir is full and

seepage is at its maximum rate. The seeping water below the phreatic surface

exerts a pore pressure on the soil mass. Therefore, the shearing strength of the

slices of the critical arc within the range of pore-pressure is reduced.

The net shear strength of the affected slice is

c x ΔL = (N –U) tan φ ………………(5)

where U = the pore pressure

The factor of safety (F.S) for the entire slip circle is

F.S. = c∑ΔL + tan φ (∑N - ∑U) = c∑ΔL + tan φ ∑N’ …….(6)

∑ T ∑ T

where N’ = normal components, calculated on the buoyant unit weight

γ’=(ρs – ρw)g of the dam.

Values of ∑T is calculated on the basis of its saturated weight.

Slope Stability during Sudden Drawdown

If dam is suddenly emptied, it may cause critical conditions for the stability of the

upstream slope. In this condition, the soil pores remain filled with water causing

30

the water level to remain the same as before the sudden drawdown. The water

weight within the soil tends to slide the upstream slope along a circular arc. The

hydrostatic force acting along the upstream slope when reservoir is full is also

removed with the sudden drawdown. Therefore, the tangential component of the

saturated weight is the main force causing disturbance to the upstream slope.

The shear resistance is considerably reduced due to development of pore

pressure on the likely slip surface.

The factor of safety can be calculated by the formula (6) above.

Stability of Upstream and Downstream Slopes during and immediately after

Construction

During construction of the dam and embankment with relatively impervious soil,

8excess pore pressure is developed in the air and water entrapped in the pore

space. This is due to the fact that the soil mass undergoes a change in volume

during compaction during and after construction. With time, this initial excess

pore pressure gets gradually dissipated.

Stability of Foundation against Shear.

At dam site, the silt and clay or fine, loose cohesionless material that form the

foundation may have good imperviousness, but are weak in shear and always

require checking.

For increasing the shear area and keeping the shear stress within permissible

limits, the embankment slopes are flattened or berms are added on both sides of

the dam.

The method for determining the factor of safety, which is approximate is based

on the assumption that earthfill materials have an equivalent liquid weight, which

would produce the same shear stress as the material will develop itself.

The horizontal shear on left is given by:

Toe

Foundation material

B

0.4B

h

h

1

h

2

L J

Firm stratum

31

weight unit liquid equivalent where

h h

P

o

m

o

m

. . . ..... .......... ..........

2

'

45 tan .

) 7 .........( ..........

2

'

45 tan .

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

φ

γ

φ

γ

φ

’

= equivalent angle of friction

( )

1

1

.

tan . .

' tan

h

c h

m

m

γ

φ γ

φ

+

·

…………………(8)

where φ = angle of repose of foundation material

c = unit cohesion of foundation material

γm = mean unit weight of the dam and foundation weighted in proportion

to the

depth of each.

( )

1

2 2 1

.

h

h h h

f d

m

γ γ

γ

+ −

·

where γd = density of the dam; γf = density of foundation material

The average unit shear = Sav = P/b

Hence the maximum unit shear = Smax = 1.4 x Sav

The maximum unit shear occurs at 0.4 B from point J.

The unit shear strength below toe K

S1 = c + γf . h2 tan φ

The unit shear strength at point J

S2 = c + γf . h1 tan φ

Therefore the average shear strength

S = (S1 + S2)/2

The factor of safety against shear

F.S. = S/Sav

The factor of safetyso obtained must be more than 1.5 for stability of foundation

against shear.

The F.S. at maximum shear, point L, let

S = c + γav . h . tan φ = (γd . h + γf . h2)/(h + h2)

And factor of safety (F.S.) = S/Smax

For stability the value of F.S. so obtained must be more than 1.0.

Chapter 3

GRAVITY DAMS

32

Basically, gravity dams are solid concrete structures that maintain their stability

against design loads from the geometric shape and the weight and strength of

the structure. Generally, they are constructed on a straight axis, but may be

slightly curved or angled to accommodate the specific site conditions. Gravity

dams typically consist of a non-overflow section(s) and an overflow section or

spillway. They are constructed with masonry or concrete but of late conventional

concrete or roller-compacted concrete are popular.

The two general concrete construction methods for concrete gravity dams are

conventional placed mass concrete and roller-compacted concrete (RCC).

a. Conventional concrete dams.

(1) Conventionally placed mass concrete dams are characterized by construction

using materials and techniques employed in the proportioning, mixing, placing,

curing, and temperature control of mass concrete. Construction incorporates

methods that have been developed and perfected over many years of designing

and building mass concrete dams. The cement hydration process of conventional

concrete limits the size and rate of concrete placement and necessitates building

in monoliths to meet crack control requirements. Generally using large-size

coarse aggregates, mix proportions are selected to produce a low-slump

concrete that gives economy, maintains good workability during placement,

develops minimum temperature rise during hydration, and produces important

properties such as strength, impermeability, and durability. Dam construction with

conventional concrete readily facilitates installation of conduits, penstocks,

galleries, etc., within the structure.

(2) Construction procedures include batching and mixing, and transportation,

placement, vibration, cooling, curing, and preparation of horizontal construction

joints between lifts. The large volume of concrete in a gravity dam normally

justifies an onsite batch plant, and requires an aggregate source of adequate

quality and quantity, located at or within an economical distance of the project.

Transportation from the batch plant to the dam is generally performed in buckets

ranging in size from 4 to 12 cubic yards carried by truck, rail, cranes, cableways,

or a combination of these methods. The maximum bucket size is usually

restricted by the capability of effectively spreading and vibrating the concrete pile

after it is dumped from the bucket. The concrete is placed in lifts of 5- to 10-foot

depths. Each lift consists of successive layers not exceeding 18 to 20 inches.

Vibration is generally performed by large one-man, air-driven, spud-type

vibrators. Methods of cleaning horizontal construction joints to remove the weak

laitance film on the surface during curing include green cutting, wet sand-

blasting, and high-pressure air-water jet.

3) The heat generated as cement hydrates requires careful temperature control

during placement of mass concrete and for several days after placement.

Uncontrolled heat generation could result in excessive tensile stresses due to

extreme gradients within the mass concrete or due to temperature reductions as

33

the concrete approaches its annual temperature cycle. Control measures involve

precooling and postcooling techniques to limit the peak temperatures and control

the temperature drop. Reduction in the cement content and cement replacement

with pozzolans have reduced the temperature-rise potential. Crack control is

achieved by constructing the conventional concrete gravity dam in a series of

individually stable monoliths separated by transverse contraction joints. Usually,

monoliths are approximately 50 feet wide.

b. Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dams.

The design of RCC gravity dams is similar to conventional concrete structures.

The differences lie in the construction methods, concrete mix design, and details

of the appurtenant structures. Construction of an RCC dam is a relatively new

and economical concept. Economic advantages are achieved with rapid

placement using construction techniques that are similar to those employed for

embankment dams. RCC is a relatively dry, lean, zero slump concrete material

containing coarse and fine aggregate that is consolidated by external vibration

using vibratory rollers, dozer, and other heavy equipment. In the hardened

condition, RCC has similar properties to conventional concrete. For effective

consolidation, RCC must be dry enough to support the weight of the construction

equipment, but have a consistency wet enough to permit adequate distribution of

the past binder throughout the mass during the mixing and vibration process and,

thus, achieve the necessary compaction of the RCC and prevention of

undesirable segregation and voids.

Site Selection

a. General. During the feasibility studies, the preliminary site selection will be

dependent on the project purposes. Purposes applicable to dam construction

include navigation, flood damage reduction, hydroelectric power generation, fish

and wildlife enhancement, water quality, water supply, and recreation. The

feasibility study will establish the most suitable and economical location and type

of structure.

b. Selection factors.

(1) A concrete dam requires a sound bedrock foundation. It is important that the

bedrock have adequate shear strength and bearing capacity to meet the

necessary stability requirements. The foundation permeability and the extent

and cost of foundation grouting, drainage, or other seepage and uplift control

measures should be investigated.

(2) The topography is an important factor in the selection and location of a

concrete dam and its appurtenant structures. Construction at a site with a narrow

canyon profile on sound bedrock close to the surface is preferable, as this

34

location would minimize the concrete material requirements and the associated

costs.

(3) The criteria set forth for the spillway, powerhouse, and the other project

appurtenances will play an important role in site selection. The relationship and

adaptability of these features to the project alignment will need evaluation along

with associated costs.

(4) Additional factors of lesser importance that need to be included for

consideration are the relocation of existing facilities and utilities that lie within the

reservoir and in the path of the dam. Included in these are railroads, powerlines,

highways, towns, etc. Extensive and costly relocations should be avoided.

(5) The method or scheme of diverting flows around or through the damsite

during construction is an important consideration to the economy of the dam. A

concrete gravity dam offers major advantages and potential cost savings by

providing the option of diversion through alternate construction blocks, and

lowers risk and delay if overtopping should occur.

Forces on Gravity Dams

3-3. Loads

a. General. In the design of concrete gravity dams, it is essential to determine the

loads required in the stability and stress analysis. The following forces may affect

the design:

(1) Dead load. (2) Water Pressure (Headwater and tailwater pressures).

(3) Uplift. (4) Temperature. (5) Earth and silt pressures. (6) Ice pressure.

(7) Earthquake forces. (8) Wind pressure. (9) Subatmospheric pressure.

(10) Wave pressure. (11) Reaction of foundation.

b. Dead load.

Dead load comprises the major resisting force.

The dead loads considered should include the weight of concrete, superimposed

backfill, and appurtenances such as gates and bridges.

In the computation of the dead load, relatively small voids such as galleries are

normally not deducted except in low dams, where such voids could create an

appreciable effect upon the stability of the structure. The cross section of the dam

is divided into several triangles and rectangles. Weight of each triangle and

rectangle and their points of application at respective centre of gravity are

computed. The resultant of all these downward forces is thus found by talking

moments of the component forces which constitute the total weight of the dam

acting at its centre of gravity. Unit weight of concrete and masonry is taken as

2400kg/m

3

and 2300kg/m

3

.

c. Water Pressure; (Headwater and tailwater).

35

Water pressure is the major external force acting on the dam. As the water is

stored in the reservoir, and stands against the body of the dam, it exerts

horizontal pressure on the dam.

Fig. G.D. 1 Headwater pressure with vertical upstream face

Fig. G.D. 2 Water pressure for slanted upstream face and water at tailrace

When the upstream face of the dam is vertical, the water pressure P = ½ γh

2

and

acting at h/3 from base.

When the upstream face is slanted, the water pressure is resolved in two

components:

Horizontal oressure P = ½ γh

2

and acting at h/3 from base.

Vertical pressure Ww = weight of water on slanted side and acting at centre of

gravity of volume of water.

Uplift Pressure.

It is the second major external force acting upwards on the dam.

h

P=1/2γh

h/3

Max. flow level

Dam

P

2

Tail water

h

P

1

W

w

W

w

Head water

36

Uplift pressure resulting from headwater and tailwater exists through cross

sections within the dam, at the interface between the dam and the foundation,

and within the foundation below the base. This pressure is present within the

cracks, pores, joints, and seams in the concrete and foundation material. Uplift

pressure is an active force that must be included in the stability and stress

analysis to ensure structural adequacy. These pressures vary with time and are

related to boundary conditions and the permeability of the material.

(1) Along the base.

(a) General. The uplift pressure will be considered as acting over 100 percent of

the base. A hydraulic gradient between the upper and lower pool is developed

between the heel and toe of the dam. The pressure distribution along the base

and in the foundation is dependent on the effectiveness of drains and grout

curtain, where applicable, and geologic features such as rock permeability,

seams, jointing, and faulting. The uplift pressure at any point under the structure

will be tailwater pressure plus the pressure measured as an ordinate from

tailwater to the hydraulic gradient between upper and lower pool.

Fig. G.D.3 Uplift distribution without foundation drainage

(b) Without drains. Where there have not been any provisions provided for uplift

reduction, the hydraulic gradient will be assumed to vary, as a straight line, from

headwater at the heel to zero or tailwater at the toe. Determination of uplift, at

any point on or below the foundation, is demonstrated in Figure G.D.3 above.

(c) With drains. Uplift pressures at the base or below the foundation can be

reduced by installing foundation drains. The effectiveness of the drainage system

will depend on depth, size, and spacing of the drains; the character of the

37

foundation; and the facility with which the drains can be maintained. This

effectiveness will be assumed to vary from 25 to 50 percent, and the design

memoranda should contain supporting data for the assumption used.

Along the base, the uplift pressure will vary linearly from the undrained pressure

head at the heel, to the reduced pressure head at the line of drains, to the

undrained pressure head at the toe, as shown in Figure G.D.4

Figure G.D. 4 Uplift distribution with drainage gallery

Where the line of drains intersects the foundation within a distance of 5 percent

of the reservoir depth from the upstream face, the uplift may be assumed to vary

as a single straight line, which would be the case if the drains were exactly at the

heel. This condition is illustrated in Figure G.D.5

If the drainage gallery is above tailwater elevation, the pressure of the line of

drains should be determined as though the tailwater level is equal to the gallery

elevation.

38

Figure G.D.5. Uplift distribution with foundation drains near upstream face

(d) Grout curtain. For drainage to be controlled economically, retarding of flow to

the drains from the upstream head is mandatory. This may be accomplished by a

zone of grouting (curtain) or by the natural imperviousness of the foundation. A

grouted zone (curtain) should be used wherever the foundation is amenable to

grouting. Grout holes shall be oriented to intercept the maximum number of rock

fractures to maximize its effectiveness. Under average conditions, the depth of

the grout zone should be two-thirds to three-fourths of the headwater-tailwater

differential and should be supplemented by foundation drain holes with a depth of

at least two-thirds that of the grout zone (curtain).

Figure G.D.6. Uplift distribution cracked base with drainage, zero

compression zone not extending beyond drains (3-4)

Where the foundation is sufficiently impervious to retard the flow and where

grouting would be impractical, an artificial cutoff is usually unnecessary. Drains,

however, should be provided to relieve the uplift pressures that would build up

over a period of time in a relatively impervious medium. In a relatively impervious

foundation, drain spacing will be closer than in a relatively permeable foundation.

(e) Zero compression zones. Uplift on any portion of any foundation plane not in

compression shall be 100 percent of the hydrostatic head of the adjacent face,

except where tension is the result of instantaneous loading resulting from

earthquake forces. When the zero compression zone does not extend beyond

the location of the drains, the uplift will be as shown in Figure G.D.6. For the

condition where the zero compression zone extends beyond the drains, drain

effectiveness shall not be considered. This uplift condition is shown in Figure

G.D.7

39

Figure G.D.7. Uplift distribution cracked base with drainage, zero

compression zone extending beyond drains(3-5)

.

When an existing dam is being investigated, the design office should submit a

request to CECW-ED for a deviation if expensive remedial measures are

required to satisfy this loading assumption.

(2) Within dam.

(a) Conventional concrete. Uplift within the body of a conventional concrete-

gravity dam shall be assumed to vary linearly from 50 percent of maximum

headwater at the upstream face to 50 percent of tailwater, or zero, as the case

may be, at the downstream face. This simplification is based on the relative

impermeability of intact concrete which precludes the buildup of internal pore

pressures. Cracking at the upstream face of an existing dam or weak horizontal

construction joints in the body of the dam may affect this assumption.

(b) RCC concrete. The determination of the percent uplift will depend on the mix

permeability, lift joint treatment, the placements, techniques specified for

minimizing segregation within the mixture, compaction methods, and the

treatment for watertightness at the upstream and downstream faces. A porous

upstream face and lift joints in conjunction with an impermeable downstream face

may result in a pressure gradient through a cross section of the dam

considerably greater than that outlined above for conventional concrete.

Wave Pressure

40

The portions of the dam is subjected to the impact of waves, which is produced in

water surface during wind

Figure G.D. 8

The wave pressure is tdetermined by the following formula developed by D. A.

Molitor

Wave height, hw = 0.032(V.F.)

1/2

+0.763 – 0.271(F)

1/4

for F<32 km -------- (A)

and hw = 0.032(V.F)

1/2

for F>32 km ---------(B)

where hw = height of wave in metres from top of crest to bottom of trough.

F = fetch or straight length of water expanse in km

V = velocity of wind in km.hr

The maximum pressure intensity due to wave pressure is given by

Pw = 2.4 x γ x hw and act at hw/2m above still water.

Total force due to wave pressure

P

w

= ½(2.4 w. h

w

) x 5/3 . h

w

= 2 . w . h

2

= 2 . 1000 .h

w

2

kg/m

This force act at 3/8hw above the still water level of the reservoir.

Wind Load

Wind load in stability analysis is usually ignored

Earth and Silt

Earth pressures against the dam may occur where backfill is deposited in the

foundation excavation and where embankment fills abut and wrap around

concrete monoliths. The fill material may or may not be submerged. Silt

pressures are considered in the design if suspended sediment measurements

indicate that such pressures are expected. Whether the lateral earth pressures

will be in an active or an at-rest state is determined by the resulting structure

lateral deformation.

2.4γh

5/3h

w

h

w

Water surface

P

w

41

Earthquake Forces

(1) General.

(a) The earthquake loadings used in the design of concrete gravity dams are

based on design earthquakes and site-specific motions determined from

seismological evaluation. As a minimum, a seismological evaluation should be

performed on all projects located in seismic zones.

(b) The seismic coefficient method of analysis should be used in determining the

resultant location and sliding stability of dams. In strong seismicity areas, a

dynamic seismic analysis is required for the internal stress analysis.

(c) Earthquake loadings should be checked for horizontal earthquake

acceleration and, if included in the stress analysis, vertical acceleration. While an

earthquake acceleration might take place in any direction, the analysis should be

performed for the most unfavorable direction.

(2) Seismic coefficient. The seismic coefficient method of analysis is commonly

known as the pseudostatic analysis. Earthquake loading is treated as an inertial

force applied statically to the structure. The loadings are of two types: inertia

force due to the horizontal acceleration of the dam and hydrodynamic forces

resulting from the reaction of the reservoir water against the dam (see Figure

G.D.9). The magnitude of the inertia forces is computed by the principle of mass

times the earthquake acceleration. Inertia forces are assumed to act through the

center of gravity of the section or element. The seismic coefficient is a ratio of the

earthquake acceleration to gravity; it is a dimensionless unit, and in no case can

it be related directly to acceleration from a strong motion instrument. The

coefficients used are considered to be the same for the foundation and are

uniform for the total height of the dam.

42

Figure G.D. 9. Seismically loaded gravity dam, nonoverflow monolith

(a) Inertia of concrete for horizontal earthquake acceleration. The force required

to accelerate the concrete mass of the dam is determined from the equation:

Pe = Max =( W/g)αg = W α

Where Pex = horizontal earthquake force

M = mass of dam

ax = horizontal earthquake acceleration = g

W = weight of dam

g = acceleration of gravity

a = seismic coefficient

(b) Inertia of reservoir for horizontal earthquake acceleration. The inertia of the

reservoir water induces an increased or decreased pressure on the dam

concurrently with concrete inertia forces. FigureG.D.9 shows the pressures and

forces due to earthquake by the seismic coefficient method. This force may be

computed by means of the Westergaard formula using the parabolic

approximation:

Pew = 2/3 Ce (α) y (hy)

1/2

where

Pew = additional total water load down to depth y (kips)

Ce = factor depending principally on depth of water and the earthquake vibration

period, t , in seconds e

h = total height of reservoir (feet)

43

Westergaard's approximate equation for Ce, which is sufficiently accurate for all

usual conditions, in pound-second feet units is:

2

000 , 1

72 . 0 1

51

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

e

t

h

Ce

where t is the period of vibration.

COMBINATION OF FORCES FOR DESIGN

The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interative process involving

a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. If

the structure fails to meet criteria then the layout is modified and reanalyzed. This

process is repeated until an acceptable cross section is attained.

Analysis of the stability and calculation of the stresses are generally conducted

at the dam base and at selected planes within the structure. If weak seams or

planes exist in the foundation, they should also be analyzed.

Basic Loading Conditions

Dams are designed for the most adverse combination of load conditions as have

reasonable probability of simultaneous occurrence. The following basic loading

conditions are generally used in concrete gravity dam designs (see Figure G.D

10).

44

(1) Load Condition No. 1 - unusual loading condition - construction.

(a) Dam structure completed. (b) No headwater or tailwater.

(2) Load Condition No. 2 - usual loading condition - normal operating.

(a) Pool elevation at top of closed spillway gates where spillway is gated, and at

spillway crest where spillway is ungated. (b) Minimum tailwater. (c) Uplift. (d) Ice

and silt pressure, if applicable.

(3) Load Condition No. 3 - unusual loading condition - flood discharge.

(a) Pool at standard project flood (SPF). (b) Gates at appropriate flood-control

openings and tailwater at flood elevation. (c) Tailwater pressure. (d) Uplift. (e)

Silt, if applicable. (f) No ice pressure.

(4) Load Condition No. 4 - extreme loading condition - construction with operating

basis earthquake (OBE).

(a) Operating basis earthquake (OBE). (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration in

upstream direction.

(c) No water in reservoir. (d) No headwater or tailwater.

(5) Load Condition No. 5 - unusual loading condition - normal operating with

operating basis earthquake.

(a) Operating basis earthquake (OBE). (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration in

downstream direction.

(c) Usual pool elevation. (d) Minimum tailwater. (e) Uplift at pre-earthquake level.

(f) Silt pressure, if applicable. (g) No ice pressure.

(6) Load Condition No. 6 - extreme loading condition - normal operating with

maximum credible earthquake.

(a) Maximum credible earthquake (MCE). (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration

in downstream direction. (c) Usual pool elevation. (d) Minimum tailwater. (e) Uplift

at pre-earthquake level. (f) Silt pressure, if applicable. (g) No ice pressure.

(7) Load Condition No. 7 - extreme loading condition - probable maximum flood.

(a) Pool at probable maximum flood (PMF). (b) All gates open and tailwater at

flood elevation. (c) Uplift. (d) Tailwater pressure. (e) Silt, if applicable. (f) No ice

pressure.

b. In Load Condition Nos. 5 and 6, the selected pool elevation should be the one

judged likely to exist coincident with the selected design earthquake event. This

means that the pool level occurs, on the average, relatively frequently during the

course of the year.

45

Stability Considerations

a. General requirements. The basic stability requirements for a gravity dam for all

conditions of loading are:

(1) That it be safe against overturning at any horizontal plane within the structure,

at the base, or at a plane below the base.

(2) That it be safe against sliding on any horizontal or near-horizontal plane

within the structure at the base or on any rock seam in the foundation.

(3) That the allowable unit stresses in the concrete or in the foundation material

shall not be exceeded.

Characteristic locations within the dam in which a stability criteria check should

be considered include planes where there are dam section changes and high

concentrated loads. Large galleries and openings within the structure and

upstream and downstream slope transitions are specific areas for consideration.

b. Stability criteria. The stability criteria for concrete gravity dams for each load

condition are listed in Table G.D -1.

Overturning Stability

a. Resultant location.

The overturning stability is calculated by applying all the vertical forces (SV) and

lateral forces for each loading condition to the dam and, then, summing moments

(SM) caused by the consequent forces about the downstream toe. The resultant

location along the base is:

Resultant location =

∑

∑

V

M

b. Criteria. When the resultant of all forces acting above any horizontal plane

through a dam intersects that plane outside the middle third, a noncompression

zone will result.

For usual loading conditions, it is generally required that the resultant along the

plane of study remain within the middle third to maintain compressive stresses in

the concrete. For unusual loading conditions, the resultant must remain within the

middle half of the base. For the extreme load conditions, the resultant must

remain sufficiently within the base to assure that base pressures are within

prescribed limits.

46

Sliding Stability

a. General. The sliding stability is based on a factor of safety (FS) as a measure

of determining the resistance of the structure against sliding.

The horizontal components of the loads acting on a dam are resisted by frictional

or shearing forces along horizontal or nearly horizontal planes in the body of the

dam, on the foundation or on horizontal or nearly horizontal seams in the

foundation. It follows that the total magnitude of the forces tending to induce

sliding shall be less than the minimum total available resistance along the critical

path of sliding. The sliding resistance is a function of the cohesion inherent in the

materials and at their contact and the angle of internal friction of the material at

the surface of sliding.

Definition of sliding factor of safety.

(1) The sliding FS is conceptually related to failure, the ratio of the shear strength

(tF), and the applied shear stress (t) along the failure planes of a test specimen

according to Equation 4-2:

( ) ( )

1

1

]

1

¸

+

−

·

+

· ·

c

F

F

CA

F

u w

P

c

S F

φ

φ

τ

φ σ

τ

τ tan 1 tan

. .

where tF = s tan f + c, according to the Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion; w = total

weight of dam; u = total upthrust force; tan φ = coefficient of internal friction of

material; c = cohesion of the material at the plane considered; A = area under

consideration for cohesion; Fφ =partial factor of safety in respect of friction; Fc =

partial factor of safety in respect of cohesion and P = total horizontal force.

Table G.D.2: Partial factors of safety against sliding (taken from Textbook of

Water and Power Engineering, R.K. Sharma & T.K. Sharma)

Sl. No. Loading

conditions

Fφ Fc

For dams and the

contact plane with

foundation

For foundation

Thoroughly Others

investigated

(i) 1, 2, 3 1.5 3.6 4.0 4.5

(ii) 4, 5 1.2 2.4 2.7 3.0

(iii) 6, 7 1.0 1.2 1.35 1.5

Safety against Crushing

Safety against crushing is ensured if the compressive stresses produced are

within the allowable stresses.

47

Maximum compressive stress = Direct stress + Bending moment

Bending moment MB

,

_

¸

¸

+ · + ·

B

e

A

W

B A

e W

A

W . 6

1

.

. . 6

where W = weight of dam, A = area of dam section, e = eccentricity

ELEMENTARY PROFILE OF A GRAVITY DAM

The elementary profile of the gravity dam to bear only the water pressure, will be

triangular in section as shown below. The width of the profile will be zero at the

water surface, where the pressure is zero and maximum at the base, where the

pressure is maximum. Thus the shape of the elementary profile is the same as

that of the hydrostatic pressure distribution. When the reservoir is empty, the

only force acting is self weight (W) of the dam acting at a distance B/3 from the

heel. It is the maximum possible inner-most position of the resultant so that no

tension develops and provides the maximum possible stabilizing force against

overturning without causing tension at toe under empty dam condition. If any

triangular profile other than the right-angled is provided, its weight will act closer

to the upstream face to provide a higher stabilizing force but will cause tension to

develop at the toe.

Vertical stresses developed when dam is empty will be:

heel at

B

e

A

W

P

toe at

B

e

A

W

P

.. ....

. 6

1

.. ...

. 6

1

min

max

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

Now when reservoir is full and downstream empty, forces acting on elementary

profile will be:

P

R

W

e

h

h/3

P

B

2

B

2

x

48

a) Dam weight W = ½ B. h.sg. γw

where sg = specific gravity of dam material (for concrete, = 2.4)

γw = unit weight of water (9.81 x 1000 kg/m

3

)

b). Water Pressure, P = ½.γw.h

2

acting at 1/3 from the base.

c). Uplift pressure u = 1/2.c. γw .B.h

where c = uplift pressure intensity coefficient.

The base width, ‘B’ of the elementary profile is determined by the following two

vriteria:

a) Stress criteria

b) Stability or sliding criteria.

a) Stress criteria. When the reservoir is empty, there is no tension in the dam,

the resultant is acting at the inner 1/3

rd

point J. When the reservoir is full, for no

tension, the resultan must pass at outer 1/3

rd

point K.

Now taking moment of all forces about point K,

½. . γw h

2

.h/3 + ½.c. γw.B.h.B/3 - ½.B.h. sg. γw. B/3 =0

Multiplying both sides by 6/ γw.h

h

2

+ c.B

2

– B

2

sg = 0 or

B

2

(sg – c) = h

2

from whence

B = h/( sg-c)

1/2

------------------------------------- (B)

h

3

P

P

R

u

h

W

B

3

B

3

γh

Uplift pressure

J

K

49

By considering the force triangle, using similar triangles, we have:

(W –u )/P = (h/3)/(B/3)

or

( )

( ) c sg

h

B

h c sg B

B

h

h

h B c Bhsg

w

−

·

· −

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

2 2

2

2

1

. . .

2

1

2

1

γ

γ γ

When the uplift force is not considered, c = 0 or B = h/ (sg)

1/2

Stability or Sliding Criteria

For no sliding of the dam, the horizontal forces causing sliding should be equal to

the frictional forces, i.e.

P = μ(W – u)

or 1/2γw.h

2

= μ(1/2.B.h.sg. γw – 1/2. c.B. γw.h

B = h/μ(sg –c)

And neglecting uplift pressure,

B = h/μsg ----------------------------------------------- ©

The base width ‘B” of the elementary profile should be greater of the widths

obtained in equation (B) or (C)

Stresses in the elementary profile

The normal stressing the dam is given by:

) (

6

1 D

B

e

B

u W

p − − − − − − − − − −

,

_

¸

¸

+

,

_

¸

¸ −

·

when the reservoir is full, the normal stress at toe is

( )

( )

[ ] ( ) ) ( . . . . . 2 / 1 . . 2 / 1

2

2

1 1

E c sg h h B c sg h B

B

p

B

u W

B

u W

p

w w w

− − − − − − − · − ·

−

· +

,

_

¸

¸ −

·

γ γ γ

The corresponding stress at the heel is:

50

( ) ) ( 0 1 1 F

B

u W

p − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − · −

,

_

¸

¸ −

·

When the reservoir is empty, the only force acting on the elementary profile is its

weight, acting through J. In this case, the maximum compressive stress at the

heel = W/B(1+1) = 2W/B and the corresponding normal stress at toe is

W/B(1-1) =0

The Practical Dam Profile

The elementary profile of a gravity dam is a triangle with maximum water surface

at its apex. This profile is only theoretical one. For meeting the practoical

requirements certain changes have to be made namely: i) for communication,

road has to be provided and therefore a top width; ii) for wave action, free board

above the high flood level must be provided.

The addition of the above will cause the resultant force to shift towards the heel.

Earlier, when the reservoir was empty, the resultant was passing through the

inner middle third. The above changes will shift it towards the heel, crossing the

inner middle third point; this will create tension in the toe. To prevent this tension,

some concrete is added in the dam body towards upstream side.

Figure G.D. : Practical dam profile

Free board

a

h

Dam

a

16

51

Principal and Shear Stress in Dam

Check drawing from main notes

The figure above shows the dam with possible pressure distribution on it. The

maximum normal stress in the dam is the major principal stress which will be

generated on the major principal plane. When the dam is full, the vertical direct

stress is the maximum at the toe as the resultant is near the toe. The principal

stresses near the toe is shown on the second diagram with a small element ABC.

Let dr, ds and db be the lengths of AB, AC and BC respectively, and let

p = be intensity of water pressure

σ1 = principal stress on plane AB

τ = shear stress

Now considering unit length of the element ABC of the dam, the normal forces on

the planes AB, AC and BC are σ1.dr σ1.dr, pv.db and p.ds sinα respectively.

Resolving all the forces in the vertical direction,

p v.db = p.ds sinα + σ1.dr.cosα ----------------- (G)

But dr = db.cosα and ds = db.sinα

Therefore pv .db = p.ds.sin

2

α + σ1.db.cos

2

α

Or pv = p.sin

2

α + σ1.cos

2

α

Therefore σ1 = (p v –p.sin

2

α)/cos

2

α

Need to redraw

52

σ1 = p v. sec

2

α –p.tan

2

α ---------------------- (H)

Equation (H) is known as the principal stress relationship, which is applicable to

both upstream and downstream faces. For the downstream side the worst

condition will be when there is no tail water, and hence p will be zero. In this case

the major principal stress σ1 is given by

σ1 = p v. sec

2

α -----------------------------(I)

If pe’ is the intensity of hydrodynamic pressure of tail water due to an earthquake,

the principal stress at the downstream is given by:

σ1 = p v. sec

2

α –(p – pe.’) tan

2

α

In the same way,considering the hydrodynamic pressure for the upstream side,

in the horizontal direction;

Τ.db = σ1.dr.sin α + p.ds cos α

τ = σ1..sin α(dr/db) + p.(ds/db)cos α

τ = (σ1-p).sin α.cos α.

Now substituting the value of σ1 from eq. (H)

τ = (p v sec

2

α - p.sec

2

α) cos α .sin α

or τ = (p v - p) tan α

The shear stress for the upstream side has the same value but with reversed

direction

For the upstream side, τ = - (p v - p) tan α

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY DAMS

The stability analysis of a gravity dam section can be done by any one of the

following methods:

a) Gravity method of two-dimensional method

b) Slab analogy method

c) Trial load twist method

d) Lattice analogy method

Gravity Method or Two-dimensional Method.

Being an approximate method, it is used for the preliminary calculations.

The gravity method can be carried out by:

i) Graphical method or

53

ii) Analytical method.

We shall consider only the analytical method.

For the analytical method, the following steps are carried out:

a) Considering unit length of the dam, all vertical loads are determined the

algebraic sum of all vertical forces ∑V is calculated

b) Considering unit length of the dam, all horizontal forces are determined

and their algebraic sum ∑H calculated.

c) The sum of the righting moments (∑MR) and the sum of overturning

moments ∑MO) at the toe of the dam are calculated.

The difference between the algebraic sum of the overturning and righting

moments is determined i.e ∑M = ∑MR - ∑MO

d) The location of the resultant force FR from the toe of the dam is also

calculated by the following:

) (J

V

M

x

e

− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − ·

∑

∑

e) Now the eccentricity of the resultant force is determined by:

) (

2

K x

B

e

e

− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −

,

_

¸

¸

·

f) The normal stress at the toe of the dam is determined by:

) (

. 6

1 L

B

e

B

V

N

T

− − − − − − − − − − − − −

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

∑

σ

g) The normal stress at the heel is determined by

) (

. 6

1 M

B

e

B

V

N

H

− − − − − − − − − − − − − − −

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

∑

σ

h) The principal and shear stresses at the toe and heel are determined from

σ1 = p v. sec

2

α -----------------------------(I)

τ = - (p v - p) tan α

i) The factor of safety against overturning is calculated by:

54

∑

∑

·

O

R

M

M

S F .) . (

j) The factor of safety against sliding is calculated by:

∑

∑

∑

∑

+

· −

· −

H

q B V

S F factor friction Shear

H

V

S F factor Sliding

.

) . ( . .

) . ( .

µ

µ

LOW AND HIGH GRAVITY DAMS

Low Dam: is one of limiting height such that the resultant of all forces passes

through the middle third and the maximum compressive stress at the toe does

not exceed the permissible limit i.e

σ1 =γwH(s-c+1) = fc

or limiting height

( )

( ) 1 .

1 .

+

·

− − −

+ −

·

g s

f

H

or

c g s

f

H

w

w

γ

γ

The limiting height, for the usual stress of dam material i. e. γw = 9.81 x1000

kg/m

3

, ρ = 2.4 and f = 30 kg/cm

2

(or 300tonnes /m

2

) gives:

( )

m

x

x

H 99 . 8

1 4 . 2 1000 81 . 9

1000 300

·

+

·

s = Specific gravity of material; c = coefficient of uplift pressure, γw = specific

weight of water; f = permissible compressive stress of material.

High Dam: A dam the height of which exceeds the limiting height of low dams is

termed as high. In a high dam, the allowable stress are often exceeded if the

resultant of all the forces were to pass through the middle third; to avoid

excessive stresses the resultant is maintained still near the centre of the base for

which purpose the downstream slope is flattened and the upstream slope is also

provided with a batter.

55

Design of Gravity Dams

Before starting, one must establish whether it is low or high dam using the above

relationship.

.

Top width is chosen according to Creager must be about 14%of the dam’s

height.

B

Limiting height

of low dam

Height of

high dam

Upstream

batter

Figure G.D. : Low dam and high dam

Reservoir level

H

1

Figure G.D. 13. Economic section of Low Gravity Dam

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

c S

h

B

s

1

B

c S a h

s

− · 2

1

h

a

J S

K

Q

O

56

Free Board: is provided on the basis of height of waves and other practical

considerations. In practice a free board of between (3 – 5)% of dam height is

used

Base width B1 I is given by

( ) c S

h

B

or

c S

h

B

s

s

−

·

− − −

−

·

µ

1

1

WORKED EXAMPLES

The diagram below shows the cross section of a masonry dam. Determine the

stability of the dam. Also determine the principal stress at the toe and heel of the

dam. Take unit weight of dam material as 2250 kg/m

3

, density of water 1000

kg/m

3

and the permissible shear stress of joint = 15 kg/cm

2

. Assume value of

coefficient of friction μ = 0.75

SOLUTION

Stability of dam is tested assuming no free board.

A. Vertical forces

i) Self weight of dam = (12 + 2.5)/2 x 15 x 1 x 2250 = 244,687.5 kg

ii) Weight of water in column DD’A = (1 x 15)/2 x 1000 = 7500 kg

iii) Uplift force on dam =(15 x 12)/2 x 1000 = 90,000kg

D

A B

15m

C

1

2.5

8.5

D

β

α

57

iv) Therefore ∑V = 244687.5 + 7500 – 90,000 = 162.187.5 kg

v) Horizontal water pressure = (γw x h

2

)/2 = (1000 x 15

2

)/2 = 112,500 g

Calculation of moments due to various forces about toe of dam

vi) Moment of self weight

[(1x 15)/2](1 + 2.5 + 8.5) + (2.5x 15 x 2250)[(2.5/2)+ 8.5] + [(8.5x15)/2](2/3x8.5)

= 194,062.5 + 822,656.25+ 406,406.25 = 1,423,124.9kg-m (+ve)

vii) Moment due to weight of water in DD’A

7500 x (1 +2.5 + 8.5) = 78,750kg-m (+ve)

viii) Moment due to uplift force

82,500 x 2/3 x 12 = 660,000 kg-m (-ve)

ix) Moment due to horizontal water pressure

112,500 x 1/3 x 15 = 562,500 kg-m (-ve)

Therefore ∑M =1,423,124.9 + 78750-660000-562500 = + 279,374.9 kg-m

Factor of safety calculation

x) Factor of safety against overturning = Resisting Moments =

Overturning Moments

(1423124.9 + 78750) = 1.228 < 2 unsafe.

(660,000 + 562,500)

xi) Factor of safety against sliding = μ∑V = 0.75 x 162,187.5 = 1.08 >1.0 safe

∑H 112,500

xii) Shear friction factor =μ∑V + b.q = 0.75x 162,187.5 + 12 x 15 x 10

4

= 17.08

∑H 112,500

Stress calculation

Let the resultant be acting at xav from the toe

Xav = ∑M = 279,374.9 = 1.72m

∑H 162,187.5

Distance of resultant force from centre of dam, (eccentricity, e)

e = B/2 – xav = 12/2 – 1.72 = 4.28

Compressive stress at toe

ft =∑V(1+6.e/B)=162,187.5(1+6x 4.28/12) = 509,268.7 > 50kg/cm

2

unsafe

58

B 12

Tensile stress at heel,

fh = ∑V(1– 6.e/B)=162,187.5(1–6x4.28/12)= -15407.81 =-1.54 kg/cm

2

unsafe

B 12

In masonry dams, there should not be any tensile stress, therefore the sectionis

not safe.

Calculation of principal stresses

From the diagram, tan β = 8.5/15 = 0.567

Sec α = (1 + 15

2

)/15 = 1.002

Sec β = (8.5

2

+ 15

2

)/15 = 1.149

tan α = 1/15 = 0.067

Principal stress at toe

σ = pn sec

2

β = 509,268.7 x 1.149 = 672,336 kg/m

2

Shear Stress at toe

Τ = pn tan β = 509,268.7 x 0.567 = 288,755 kg.m

2

Principal stress at heel

σh = pn sec

2

α – p. tan

2

α = -15407.81 x (1.002)2 -1000 x 15 x (0.067)

2

= (15469.5 - 67.33) = 15402.16 kg/m

2

Shear stress at heel

= - (pn-p) tan α = - [ - 15407.81 – 10,000] x 1/15 = -(25407.81)/15 = 1693.8 kg/m

2

Example 2: From the data given below, design a stone masonry gravity dam of

practical profile.

Ground level, R.L = 1130.5m

R.L of HFL = 1155.5m

Wave height = 1.0m

Specific gravity of masonry = 2.5

Permissible compressive stress for stone masonry 125t/m

2

Solution

Free board height = 1.5 x height of wave = 1.5 x1.0 1.5 m

Therefore required level of top of dam = 1155.5 + 1.5 = 1157m

Height of dam = 1157 – 1130.5 = 26.5m

Limiting height of dam =

( )

m

x

S

f

s w

c

71 . 35

1 5 . 2 ( 1000

1000 125

1

·

+

·

+ γ

Therefore the dam is a low gravity dam.

59

The design of the dam can be done with respect to the details.

Depth of water = 1155.5 – 1130.5 = 25m

Top width of dam = 14% height of dam = 14?100 x 26.5 = 3.71m

Assume a roadway width of 4.5 m

Therefore provide top width MN of dam = 4.5m

Base width of dam PS = B1 =

( )

m

c Ss

h

81 . 15

0 5 . 2

25

·

−

·

−

; assume 16m

Extra width JS = MN/16 = 4.5/16 = 0.281m (assume 0.3m)

Vertical distance LK = 23 . 14 5 . 2 5 . 4 2 2 · · x Ss a assume 14m

Vertical distance LR = m x Ss a 22 5 . 2 5 . 4 1 . 3 1 . 3 · ·

Example 3

What should be the maximum height of elementary profile of a dam, it the safe

limit os stress on the masonry should not exceed 350 tonnes/m

2

. Assume weight

of masonry 2.4 tonnes/m

3

. Determine the base width also. Determine H and B if

uplift intensity factor is 0.67 and factor of safety is 2

Solution: The limiting height of elementary profile of a masonry dam

B

1

= 16m

0.3

22m

14m

25m

1130.5

4.5

1.5 1155.5

1157.0

J S

P

K

R

Q

O

N M

L

DAM

60

H =

( )

m

xg

xg x

sg

f

w

c

103

) 1 4 . 2 ( 1000

1000 350

1

·

+

·

+ γ

Base width B =

m

c Ss

H

66

4 . 2

103

· ·

−

ii) F.S =2, c = 0.67: H =

( ) ( )

m

xg x

xg x

c Ss Sx F

f

w

c

64

1 67 . 0 4 . 2 1000 0 . 2

1000 350

1 .

·

+ −

·

+ − γ

m

c Ss

H

B 49

67 . 0 4 . 2

64

·

−

·

−

·

Example 4.

A concrete gravity dam has maximum water level 305.0m, bed level 225.0m, top

required level of dam 309.0m, downstream face slope starts at required level

300.0m, downstream slope 2:3, tail water is nil, upstream face of dam is vertical,

centre line of drainage gallery is 8m downstream of upstream face, uplift

pressure is 100% at heel, 50% at line of gallery and zero at toe, specific gravity

of concrete is 2.4. Considering only weight, water pressure and uplift, determine

i) Maximum vertical stresses at toe and heel of dam

ii) major principal stresses at toe of dam and

iii) Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near the toe

Solution:

Height of dam H = 309.0 – 225.0 = 84m

Depth of water h = 305.0 – 225.0 = 80m

1. Top width of dam = 14% of height = 0.14 x 84 = 12m

2. Bottom width of dam = 12 + (300 – 225) x2/3 = 62m

Calculating weight and moments by considering unit length of dam

61

Designation Force Moment arm Moment about toe

Weight of dam,

w1=12 x84 x 1 x2.4 x γw

w2=50x75/2x1x2.4 γw

w = w1+w2

=2419 γw

=4500 γw

= 6919

50 + 12/2 = 56

50 x 2/3 = 33.33

13546 γw

149985 γw

∑M1=(+)285449 γw

Uplift

U1=40 x 8 x 1/2 γw

U2=40 x 8 γw

U3=54 x40/2

∑u

=160 γw

=320 γw

=1080 γw

=1560 γw

54+2/3x8=59.33

54 + 4 =58

54x2/3=36

9493

18560

38880

∑M2= (-) 66933 γw

Water pressure

P = γwh

2

/2=80 x80/2 γw 3200 γw 80 x 1/3=26.67 ∑M3= (-) 85344 γw

∑V = W – U = 6919 – 1560 = 5359 γw ∑M = M1-M2-M3 = (+) 133172 γw

Position of resultant from toe xav = M/V= 133172 γw /5359 γw=24.85

Eccentricity, e = B/2 –xav 62/2 – 24.85=6.15m

Normal compressive stress at toe pn=V/B(1+6e/B)= 5359 γw /62(1+6x6.15/62)=

138 γwN/m

2

Normal compressive stress at heel pn

’

= V/B(1-6e/B)= 5359 γw /62(1-6x6.15/62)=

35 γwN/m

2

Uplift pressure diagram

80

300

W

1

W

2

50

62

8

309

305

80

225

40

8 54

U

1

u

2

u

1

α

62

Principal stress at toe σ = p n sec

2

α – p’ tan

2

α p’ = zero because tail wate is

zero; tan α = 2/3 sec

2

α = 1 + tan

2

α = 1 +(2/3)

2

=13/9

Therefore σ = p n sec

2

α= 138 γw x13/9=199 γw N/m

2

Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near toe

Τ τo =( pn – p’)tan α = (138 γw – 0)x2/3 = 92 γw N/m

2

Example 5. A concrete gravity dam has maximum reservoir level 150.0m, base

level of dam = 100.0m, tail water elevation 110.0m, base width of dam 40m,

location of drainage gallery 10m from upstream face which may be assumed as

vertical. Compute the hydrostatic thrust and the uplift force per metre length of

dam at its base level. Assume 50 % reduction in net seepage head at the

location of the drainage gallery.

Solution:

Free board = 5% of dam height = 0.05x50= 2.5 adopt 3m

Dam height h = 50 + 3 =53m

Top width a = 14%xh = 0.14 x 53 = 7.5m adopt 7.5m

Designation x γw Force x γw Moment arm Moment about toe

X γw

50

143

W

1

W

2

32

40

1

1

1

50

1

α

Uplift pressure diagram

30

1 30

U

3

u

2

u

1

U

4

63

Weight of dam

W1=7.5x53x1x2.4

W2 = 32.5 x43/2 x1 x2.4

Weight of tail water

W3 = 8x10/2x1x1

=954

=1677

40

∑V1 =2671

32.5+7.5/2=36.25

32.5x2/3=21.67

8 x 1/3 = 2.67

34583

36341

107

∑M1 (+) 71031

Uplift pressure

U1=20 x 10/2

U2=10 x30 x1

U3=10 x30 x 1

U4=20 x 30/2 x 1

100

300

300

300

∑V2= 1000

30 + 10 x2/3=36.67

(30 +10/2) = 35

(30/2) = 15

(30 x 2/3) = 20

3667

10500

4500

6000

∑M2 =24,667

Water pressure

U/S=γwh

2

/2=γwx1.10.10/2

D/S=γwh

2

/2=γw.1.10.10/2

1250

50

∑H3= 1200

50/3

10/3

(-) 20,833

(+)167

∑M3 (-) 20,666

Position of resultant from toe xav = M/V=25698/1671=15.38m

Eccentricity, e =B/2-xac=40/2 – 15.38 = 4.62m

Normal compressive stress at toe, pn= V/B(1 + 6e/B)

= 1671/40(1 +6.4x62/40)=70.73 γw

Normal compressive stress at heel p’ =V/B(1 – 6e/B)

= 1671/40(1-6x4.62/40)= 12.82 γw

Maximum principal stress at toe σ = pn sec

2

α – p’ tan

2

α p’ = 10 γw

tan α = 40/50, sec

2

α= 1.64

σ=70.73 x 1.64 – 10(40/50)

2

=110 γw

Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near toe

Ττ0 = (pn – p’)tan α

τ0 = 70.73 -10)40/50 = 49 γw

64

Chapter 4

SPILLWAYS AND GATES

Spillway is a passageway to convey past the dam flood flows that cannot be contained in

the allotted storage space or which are in excess of those turned into the diversion

systems. Spillways function infrequently, at times of flood or sustained high runoff, when

other facilities are inadequate. However its ample capacity is of prime importance for the

safety of the dam and other hydraulic structures. Hydraulic aspects of spillway design

relates to design of the three spillway components: control structure, discharge channel

and terminal structure. The control structure regulates outflows from the reservoir and

may consist of a sill, weir section, orifice, tube or pipe. Design problems here relate to

determining the shape of the section and computing discharge through the section. The

flow released from the control structure is conveyed to the streambed below the dam in a

discharge channel. This can be the downstream face of the overflow section, a tunnel

excavated through an abutment, or an open channel along the ground surface. The

channel dimensions are fixed by the hydraulics of channel flow. Terminal structures are

energy dissipating devices that are provided to return the flow into the river channel

without serious scour or erosion at the toe of the dam.

Spillways are usually located at the normal flood level and the water just overflows the

crest when it gets to that level. However, some spillways are equipped with gates, which

are temporary barriers installed over the permanent crest of the spillway for storing

additional water during period of low water seasons. All small flows exceeding the

barrier top level are allowed to pass over the barrier, but during large flood flows, the

barrier is removed and full spillway capacity is used to discharge the flood water.

Types of Spillways

Spillways may be classified, depending upon the type of structure as:

i) Side channel spillway

ii) Straight drop spillway

iii) Overflow or Ogee spillway

iv) Chute or Trough spillway

v) Shaft (Morning glory) spillway

vi) Siphon spillway

Side channel spillway

This type of spillway is most suited for earthfill and rockfill dams, in narrow canyons,

where construction of other types of spillway is not possible. Also when a long overflow

crest is required for limiting the surcharge head, this type is suited. It is also useful when

its discharge is to be connected to a narrow discharge channel or tunnel. In this type the

control weir is kept along the side and approximately parallel to the upper portion of the

spillway. The discharge after passing over the crest turns at about 90

o

before flowing into

a trough to be discharged.

Straight Drop (free overfall) Spillway. In this type, water is allowed to fall freely from a

low weir and vertical fall structure. In some cases the crest of the spillway is extended in

65

the shape of overhanging lip which keeps the discharge away from the straight drop

section. Ogee (Overflow) Spillway: is a special form of a weir whose shape is made to

conform to the profile of lower nappe of a ventilated sheet of water falling from a sharp-

crested weir. The profile is so shaped that the discharging water always remains in touch

with the spillway surface.

Earthfill dam

Side channel spillway

Upstream

downstream

66

Accordingly, the profile of the ogee spillway is made to the shape of the lower nappe of a

free falling jet.

The downstream curve of the ogee has the equation:

( )

85 . 0 85 . 1

2 h y x · --------------------------- (S-1)

where x and y are the co-ordinates of the crest profile measured from the apex of the

crest, and h is the design water head.

The upstream curve may be approximate to the following

Straight drop spillways

With downstream protection

spillway

Spillway

Without downstream protection

O

x

r

1

Origin and apex of crest

y

b

r

2

Design head h

a = 0.175h

b = 0.292h

r

1

= 0.50h

r

2

= 0.20h

a

Fig. S-1 Definition sketch of overflow spillway

67

( )

( )

85 . 0

85 . 1

27 . 0 724 . 0

h

h x

y

+

· ------------------------ (S-2)

For larger discharges, (eg flows beyond H.F.L), the nappe may leave the ogee profile and

will cause negative pressure resulting in cavitation and increase of discharge.

Discharge over an Overflow Spillway

The discharge equation of the ogee-shaped spillway is given by

Q = C.L

e

.(h

e

)

3/2

------------------------------(S-3)

Where, Q = discharge over the ogee spillway

L

e

= effective length of the crest

h

e

= h + v

2

/2g = total water head at crest including the velocity approach

C = a variable coefficient of discharge, whose value varies from 2.1 to 2.5

depending on various factors.

The effect length of the crest is given by the equation:

L

e

= L – 2(NK

p

– K

a

) ---------------------------(S-4)

Where L = Total clear length of crest

N = No. of piers in the spillway

K

p

= pier contraction coefficient

K

a

= abutment contraction coefficient

Table S-2 Pier Contraction Coefficient K

p

Table S-3 Abutment Contraction Coefficient (K

p

)

Condition of Abutment Value of K

a

1 Rounded abutment with head wall as 90

o

to the direction

of flow, when 0.5h > r > 0.15h

2 Rounded abutment where r> 0.5H

o

and the angle of head

wall with direction of flow is <45

o

0.00

3 Square abutment with head wall at 90

o

to the direction of

flow of water

0.20

Condition of Pier Value of K

p

1 Pointed nose piers 0.00

2 Round nose piers 0.01

3 Square-nose pier with corners rounded on a

radius 0.1 times pier thickness

0.02

68

Example 9.10

Design an overflow spillway section for a design discharge of 50,000cfs. The upstream

water surface is at Elv. 800 and the channel floor is 680. The spillway, having a vertical

face, is 180ft long.

Solution

1. Assume C = 3.95

2. from the discharge equation

( )

1 . 17

32 . 70

180 95 . 3

000 , 50

2 / 3

·

· · ·

e

e

h

CL

Q

h

3. Depth of water upstream = 800 – 680 = 120 ft.

Velocity of approach v

o

= 50,000/120(180) = 2.31ft/sec

Velocity head = v

2

/2g = (2.31)

2

/(32.2) = 0.08 ft

4. Maximum water head = 17.1 – 0.08 = 17.0ft

5. Height of crest, P = 120 – 17.0 = 103ft.

6. Since h

e

<30 ft, design head, h

d

= 17.1/1.42 = 12.0ft

7. P/h

d

= 103/12 = 8.58 > 1.33, high overflow section

8. Downstream quadrant of the crest shape

y/12 = ½ (x/12)

1.85

or y = 0.06x

1.85

X (select)ft Y (computed) ft

5 1.18

10 4.25

15 9.00

20 15.30

30 32.40

9. Point of tangency assume a downstream slope of 2:1

(X

DT

)/h = 0.485(Kα)

1.

176

where X

DT

= horizontal distance from the apex to the downstream tangent point

α – slope of the downstream face

X

DT

= 0.485[2(2)]

1.176

(12) = 30 ft

10. Upstream quadrant. A/h = 0.28, B/h = 0.165

A = 0.28(12) = 3.36; B = 0.165(12) = 2.00ft

(x

2

)/(3.36)

2

+ (2.0 – y)

2

/(2.0)

2

=1

X (selected) ft Y (computed) ft

1.0 0.09

2.0 0.39

3.0 1.10

3,36 2.00

69

CHUTE OR TROUGH SPILLWAY

Chute spillway is a type of spillway in which the discharge is conveyed fro a reservoir to

the downstream river level through a steep open channel placed either along the dam

abutment or through a saddle. In a chute spillway, the velocity of flow ia always greater

than the critical. The name chute applies, regardless of the control device used at the

head of the chute, which can be an overflow crest, a gated orifice or a side channel crest.

The chute spillway consists of four parts: an entrance channel, a control structure or crest,

the sloping chute and a terminal structure. The entrance structure is usually an open

channel of sub-critical flow. The critical velocity occurs when the water passes over the

control.

Flow in the chute is maintained at supercritical stage until the terminal structure DE is

reached. It is desirable that from B to C, where a heavy cut is involved, the chute is

placed on a light slope. From C to D it follows the steep slope and ends with an energy

dissipating device placed at the bottom of the valley D. The axis of the chute is kept as

straight as possible; otherwise, the floor has to be super-elevated to avoid the piling up

high-velocity flow around the curvature.

It is preferable that the width of the control section, the chute, and the stilling basin are

the same.

To prevent hydrostatic uplift under the chute, a cutoff wall is provided under the control

structure and a drainage system of filters and pipes is provided. When the stilling basin is

operating, there is substantial uplift under the lower part of the chute and upstream part of

the stilling basin floor. The floor must be made sufficiently heavy or anchored to the

foundation.

Slope of Chute Channel

Chute section

Terminal Structure

Entrance cha. Control structure

Fig. S – 3 Chute Spillway Section

C

B

A

D E

F

70

It is important that the slope of the chute in the upstream section BC chute, should be

sufficiently steep to maintain a supercritical flow to avoid the formation of a hydraulic

jump. Therefore slope should always be above the critical slope.

Fro the Manning’s formula;

2 . 1 3 / 2

1

I AR

n

Q · -------------------------- ( S-5 )

For a rectangular channel under critical flow conditions,

h

3

= q

2

/g ----------------------------------(S-6 )

By putting this into Manning’s formula, the critical slope could be determined. The slope

to be given to the chute must be greater than this critical slope.

A review of existing spillways indicate that the actual slopes of the upstream section of

the chute are 1 or 2 % or more.

Chute Sidewalls

Except for the diverging or converging sections, chute channels are designed with parallel

vertical sidewalls, commonly of reinforced concrete 30 to 45cm thick; designed as

retaining wall. The height of the walls is designed to contain the depth of flow for the

spillway design flood by gradually flows hydraulics equation. Free board or allowance is

made for pier end waves, roll waves and air entrainment. In view of uncertainties

involved in the evaluation of surface roughness, pier end waves, roll waves and air

entrainment, the following empirical equation is added to the computed depth of water

surface profile

Freeboard (ft) = 2.0 + 0.002V h

1/3

--------------------- (S-7)

where V - mean velocity in chute section under consideration, h – mean depth.

SIDE CHANNEL SPILLWAYS

In side-channel spillway, the overflow weir is placed along the side of the discharging

channel, so that the flow over the crest falls into a narrow channel section (trough)

opposite the weir, turns through a right-angle, and continues I the direction approximately

parallel to the weir crest

71

This type of weir is adoptable to certain special conditions, such as when a long overflow

crest is desire but the valley is narrow, or where the overflow are most economically

passed through a deep narrow channel or a tunnel. The crest is similar to an overflow or

ordinary weir section. A control section downstream from the trough is achieved by

constricting the channel or elevating the channel bottom to induce critical flow.

Downstream from the control section functions as a chute spillway. Thus the side-

channel design is concerned only with the hydraulic action in the trough upstream of the

control section, where varied flow takes place. The water surface profile in the trough is

determined from the momentum equation applied to gradual varied flow. If flow rate and

velocity in left is Q

1

and V

1

while those at the right is Q

2

and V

2

, then by applying the

momentum equation, the rate of change of momentum in the reach dx is equal to the

external forces acting in the reach.

Rate of momentum at left(upstream) = ρQ

1

V

1

Rate of momentum at downstream = ρQ

2

V

2

Change in momentum = ρ(Q

2

V

2

– Q

1

V

1

) ------------------------------------------(S -8)

Due to smallness of friction forces and weight component in the direction of flow, the

only force acting is the hydrostatic pressure force.

The resultant hydrostatic force Fp

1

–Fp

2

= γ.(A

1

.

h

1

– A

2

h

2

) = γ(Q

1

/V

1

– Q

2

V

2

)dy ---(S-9)

Trough

Side-channel spillway: plan and section

A

Dam

Side channel crest

Control section

Side channel trough

Chute

A

72

Equating equations (S-8) and (S-9) and rearranging

( )

( )

1

]

1

¸

−

+ −

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

2

1 2 1

2 1

2

2

1

1 2

Q

Q Q V

V V

Q

V

Q

V

g

Q

dy

---------------------------(S-10)

Equation (S-10) is solved by a trial and error procedure .

Worked example:

Design a side-channel trough for a spillway of 100ft length for a maximum discharge of

2500 cfs. The side-channel trough has a length of 100ft and a bottom slope of 1ft in 100

ft. A control section of 10 ft width is placed downstream from the trough with the bottom

of the control at the same elevation as the bottom of the trough floor at the downstream

end.

Solution

1/. Critical depth at the control section, y

c

= (q

1

2

/g)

2. q

1

= 2500/10 = 250cfs/ft.

3. y

c

= (250

2

/32.2)

1/3

= 12.44ft

4. v

c

= q

1

/y

c

= 250/12.44 = 20.1ft/sec

5. Velocity head, h

c

= v

c

2

/2g = (20.1)

2

/2(32.2) = 6.27ft

6. For a side-channeltrough, assume a trapezoidal section with 2V:1H slope and a 10ft

bottom width. Also, assume that the transition loss from the end of side-channel trough to

the control section is equal to 0.2 of the difference in velocity heads between the end of

the transition.

dx

P

2

P

1

dy

Crest

73

7. The following energy equation may be written between the trough end and the control

section;

y

100

+ h

100

= y

c

+ h

c

+ 0.2(h

c

– h

100

) or

y

100

+ 1.2h

100

= 12.44 + 1.2(6.27) = 19.96 --------- (S-11)

where the subscript c refers to “critical” and “100” refers to the distance of the trough

from the upstream end of the spillway. Equation (S-11) is solved by trial and error.

Assume y

100

= 19.2; then A = 376.3 ft

2

, v = Q/A = 2 500/376.3 = 6.64 ft/sec, and h

100

=

6.64)

2

/2(32.2)0.68. Thus Eq. (S-11) is satisfied.

8. The known values above relate to section 1 at the downstream end of the trough.

Section 2 is taken at the upper end of a selected increment dx, 25 ft in this case. A value

of the change in water level, dy, is assumed for each reach, all terms of equation (S-10)

are evaluated, and dy is computed, as in table below. The assumed and computed values

of dy should match; otherwise, a new value is assumed for dy.

9. The process is repeated until the upstream end of the channel is reached.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

dx

(selected

)

Bottom

Level

dy

(Assume)

Water

Level

y

(col 4-col 2)

A Q =

q(L-dx)

v

= Q/A

D/S end 100.0 119.2 19.20 376.3 2500 6.64

25 100.25 1.0 120.2 19.95 398.5 1875 4.71

0.62 119.82 19.57 387.2 4.84

25 100.50 0.50 120.32 19.82 394.6 1250 3.17

0.40 120.22 19.72 391.6 3.19

25 100.75 0.25 120.47 19.72 391.6 625 1.60

15 100.90 0.10 120.57 19.67 390.2 250 0.64

0.07 120.54 19.64 389.3 0.64

9 10 11 12 13 14

Q

1

+ Q

2

Q

2

– Q

1

v

1

+ v

2

v

2

– v

1

dy

computed

Remarks on

assumed dy

4375 -625 11.35 -1.93 0.63 High

4325 -625 11.48 -1.80 0.61 Ok

3125 -625 8.01 -1.67 0.41 High

3125 -625 8.03 -1.65 0.41 Ok

1875 -625 4.79 -1.59 0.24 Ok

875 -375 2.24 -0.96 0.07 High

875 -375 2.24 -0.96 0.07 ok

Note: 1. q = Q/L = 2500/100= 25cfs/ft ; bottom slope = 1 in 100ft given

2. Bottom level (col. 2) = slope x channel length + datum

3. Water level (col. 4) = final water level at the preceding station (section) + assumed dy.

4. A (col. 6 = area of cross-section of trough computed for depth y in col.5

5. Q (col.7) = q(L - ∑dx), L = crest length

74

6. Q

1

+ Q

2

(col. 9) = Col. 7 + value in col. 7 at the preceding station (section)

MORNING GLORY OR SHAFT SPILLWAYS

In this type of spillway, water enters over a horizontal circular crest and then drops

through a circular shaft, and then through a horizontal tunnel or conduit. This type of

spillway is suitable under the following situations:

1. For damsites with steeply rising abutments particularly where a diversion tunnel

can be utilized as discharge carrier.

2. For sites in narrow canyons.

3. For sites where there is inadequate space for locating other type of spillway.

Advantages: The main advantage of such type of spillways are as follows:

1. The nearly maximum capacity may be attained at relatively low heads.

2. It is ideal for sites where maximum spillway overflow is to be limited.

This type of spillway consists of four parts: 1) a circular weir at the entry, 2) a flared

transition conforming to the shaft of the lower nappe of a sharp-crested weir, 3) a vertical

drop shaft, and 4) a horizontal or near-horizontal outlet conduit or tunnel. As the head

increases, the control shifts from weir crest, to drop shaft, and to outlet conduit.

Table S-3. Discharge characteristics of shaft spillway

Control Point Condition Characteristics Discharge relations

Weir crest Unsubmerged flow Weir flow Q = CLh

3/2

--------(S-12)

Throat of drop

shaft

Partially

submerged

Orifice flow

95 . 0 ... 2

1

· ·

d a d

C gH A c Q

----------------- (S-13)

Downstream of

outlet conduit

Submerged flow Pipe flow

K

gH

A Q

T

Σ

·

2

2

-----(S-14)

∑K = loss coefficient

through pipe

Condition 1: a free-discharging weir prevail as long as the nappe forms to converge into

the shape of a solid jet.

Condition 2: weir crest is drowned out. The US Bureau of Reclamation (1977) indicated

that this condition is approached when H

d

/R

s

>1, where H

d

is the design head and R

s

is

the radius of the crest.

Condition 3: Spillway is flooded out, showing only a slight depression and eddy at the

surface. Under condition 3, the head rises rapidly for a small increase in discharge. Thus

the design is not recommended under this condition (i.e., under the design head, the outlet

conduit should not flow more than 75% full).

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation suggested that the following weir formula may be used

for flow through the shaft spillway entrance regardless of the submergence, by adjusting

the coefficient to reflect the flow conditions.

Q = C(2πR

s

)H

3/2

----------------------------- (S-15)

75

Where C = discharge coefficient related to H

d

/R

s

and P/R

s

, where H

d

= design head and

P = crest height from the outlet pipe; R

s

= radius to the circular crest; H = head over the

weir ( Gupta page 495)

Equation (S-15) can be used to determine the crest size (radius), R

s

for a given discharge

under the maximum head.

Equation (S-13) can be used to determine the shape of the transition (drop shaft) that is

required to pass the design discharge with the maximum head over the crest.

Worked Example: A shaft spillway is to discharge 2000 cfs under a design head of 10 ft.

Determine the minimum size of the overflow crest. Also determine the shape of the

transition if the control section is 4 ft below the crest level.

Solution

1. Since the coefficient C is related to P and R

s

, assume that P/R

s

> 2 and determine

R

s

by trial and error.

2. Try R

s

= 7 ft.

H

d

/R

s

= 10/7 = 1.43

From the curve of C as a function of H

d

/R

s

, we choose C = 1.44

3. From equation (S-15)

Q = C(2πR

s

)H

3/2

= 1.44(2π) (7) (10)

3/2

= 2002cfs

This ois practically the same as the required discharged. Hence the crest radius = 7 ft.

4. Depth of the control section from the water surface;

H

a

= 10 + 4 = 14 ft.

5. From equation (S-13), 95 . 0 ... 2

1

· ·

d a d

C gH A c Q

R

2

= 2000/{0.95π(2gH

a

)

1/2

}

or R = 9.14/(H

a

)

1/4

SIPHON SPILLWAYS

A siphon spillway is a short enclosed duct whose longitudinal section is curved. When

flowing full, the highest point in the spillway lies above the liquid level in the upstream

reservoir, and the pressure at that point must therefore be sub-atmospheric. This is the

essential characteristics of a siphon. Siphon spillways can be saddle type or volute type

but the volute is not very common. The siphon has usually three parts, 1) the inlet or

mouth; 2) throat, and 3) lower limb.

The siphon spillway functions as follows:

When the water level exceeds the crest level, the water commences to spill and flows

over the downstream slope in much the same way as a simple Ogee spillway. As the

water rises further, the entrance is sealed off fro the atmosphere. Air is initially trapped

H

a

(select), ft R (ft)

14 4.73

16 4.57

18 4.44

20 4.32

76

within the spillway, but the velocity of flow of water tends to entrain the air (giving rise

to aeration of the water) and draws it out through the exit. When all the air has been

expelled, the siphon is primed and is therefore acting as a simple pipe. \There are thus

three possible operating conditions depending on upstream depth.

1. Gravity spillway flow

2. Aerated flow (during self priming)

3. Pipe flow (after priming).

Operational problems with siphon spillways. The aerated condition is unstable and is

maintained while the siphon begins to prime. In a simple siphon, a small change in H

produces a sharp increase or decrease in the discharge through the spillway. Depending

on the discharge entering the reservoir, the siphon could go through the following cycle:

a) if the spillway is initially operating with gravity flow, then the upstream

(reservoir) level must rise,

b) when the upstream level has risen sufficiently, the siphon primes and the

spillway discharge increases substantially,

c) the upstream level falls until the siphon de-primes and its discharge drops.

The cycle (a) to (c) is then repeated. This obviously can give rise to radical surges and

stoppages in the downstream flow.

Other potential problems encountered with siphon spillway are:

i) blockage of spillway entrance by debris ( this problem could be overcome by

submerging the inlet of the hood into the water or installing a trash-

intercepting grid in front of the intake).

ii) Substantial foundations required to resist vibrations during operation of

siphon.

iii) Waves arriving in the reservoir during storms may alternately cover and

uncover the entry, thus interrupting smooth siphon action

The discharge of a saddle siphon can be calculated from the following formula;

gH CA Q 2 · --------------------------- (S-16)

where A = area of cross section at crown; A = L x b

L = length of hood (going into the paper)

b = height of throat

H = operating head

H = Reservoir level – downstream tail water level if outlet is submerged

H = Reservoir level - downstream centre of outlet if the outlet is discharging

freely.

C = Coefficient of discharge. Its average value may be taken as 0.65.

77

SPILLWAY OR CREST GATES

Spillway gates are the temporary barrier installed over the permanent crest of the

spillway, for storing additional water during dry weather season. The small flows in

excess above the spillway gates is allowed to pass over the gates, but in case of large

flood, the spillway gates are opened and the full capacity is used to remove excessive

flood water.

Spillway gates can be provided on all types of spillways except siphon spillway.

Following types of spillway gates are commonly used:

a) Flash board gates

b) Stop logs or needle gates

c) Radial gates

d) Drum gates

e) vertical lift gates

H

2

Crown

Throat

Crest

De-primer

Air vent

Hood

H

1

Mouth

Figure S- . Siphon Spillway

78

Flash Board Gate

Flash Board

Rubber stopper

Spillway crest

Stop logs or needle gates

Piers

Groove

Stop log

79

Chapter 5

RESERVOIRS

Reservoirs are the most important man-made storage elements in water systems

because their capacity and operational schedules determine the rates and

volumes of flow in streams. They have enabled humans to make the desert

bloom and flourish and provide water supplies for large and concentrated

populations. A reservoir is usually created by the construction of a dam across a

flowing stream. Storing water is necessary because when water occurs naturally

in streams and is not stored, it is sometimes not available when needed.

Reservoirs solve this problem by capturing water when it occurs and making it

available at latter times. However, with today’s environmental awareness,

reservoirs are sometimes negative symbols of “man taking dominion over nature”

and work against sustainable development as they interfere with natural

ecosystems.

While the concept of a reservoir may bring to mind a large body of water, many

small reservoirs are also in service. These include urban water tanks, farm

ponds, regulating lakes, and small industrial or recreational facilities. These

small reservoirs can have important cumulative effects especially in rural areas

A reservoir is created with the impounding of runoff from the catchment upstream

by the construction of a dam across a river or stream. Storage is done during the

period the flow is in excess of the demand for release during the lean period.

Storage reservoirs are constructed for the purposes of 1) flood control or 2)

conservation of water. Reservoir construction may be contemplated under one of

the following conditions:

Inactive Storage

Active or Live storage

HydroPower

Buffer

Normal. Res. Level

Dead storage

Food Control

High flood level

Max. Elevation

Normal full elev.

Surcharge storage

80

i) Running water is available in sufficient quantity, but running to waste or causing

damage. In this case, an attempt is made to utilize the available water for

developmental purposes of the area.

ii) Water is needed all the time either for the generation of hydro-power to meet

the requirement of power for development or for irrigation , however the flow in

the stream is unable to meet the demand all the time.

Once it is decided to construct a reservoir, it is important to know that it is

cheaper to construct a larger reservoir and combine several functions than to

construct series of separate dams for each purpose. The following factors must

be investigated before deciding to put up a reservoir:

a) Availability of water

b) Availability of suitable site for the construction of a dam to create the

reservoir.

c) Availability of construction material in sufficient quantity, equipment,

labour, etc.

Investigations if carried out in details, will be time consuming and expensive.

Sometimes, it may happen that the investigations made may reveal that the

project is not economical or technically sound. In such a case, all the labour and

resources spent is a waste. Therefore an investigation should be planned and

executed such that the soundness of the project will be determined as early and

as cheap as possible. To achieve this aim, investigation may be divided as

follows:

1. Reconnaissance or preliminary investigations: which seeks to collect and

analyze the following information: i) A not very precise topographic map of the

site; ii) Some information of over burden; iii) Characteristics of the foundation

(few samples are needed); iv) A preliminary geological survey of site; v)

Hydrological studies; vi) Investigation of the available construction materials; vii)

Checking of high flood marks and their use to determine spillway capacity.

The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to obtain sufficient data to carry

out the office studies and estimate cost sufficiently accurate to select the most

economical and suitable site amongst the several options that may be available.

2. Final investigations: Is limited to the point that is necessary to confirm the

relative merits of few selected options and working out details. The investigations

should include: i) to select the final option; ii) to determine the nature of

foundation; iii) to determine availability and quantity of construction materials; iv)

T obtain all other necessary information useful for the design purpose.; v)

requirement for coffer dam, pumping and other provisions for dewatering the site;

vi) transport facilities and accessibility to site; vii) suitable site for construction

camp and repair of construction equipments.

81

Investigations for Reservoir Planning

1. Engineering Surveys; 2) Geological Surveys; 3) Hydrological surveys

1. Engineering surveys of the reservoir and work areas are required to

determine the capacity and spread of the reservoir at various elevation; for laying

out the lines of communications and other various works and for estimating

quantities of materials and their cost.

The contour interval is 2.5 m but at the site of dam an interval of 1.5 m is used

and a map on a scale of 1/250 to 1/500.

Area Capacity Curves.

From the contour map of the reservoir area, the water spread of the reservoir at

any elevation may be directly determined by measuring the area at that contour

with a planimeter. From these measurements, an area – elevation curve can be

drawn. The capacity of the reservoir may be determined by taking contour areas

at equal interval and summing up these areas by any of the following methods:

2. Geological Surveys is essential to determine 1) the suitability of foundation; 2)

the tightness of the reservoir basin and 3) location of quarry sites.

Hydrological investigation is necessary to 1) have accurate estimate of the run-

off pattern at the proposed dam site for the purposes of determining the height of

Volume ( Km

2

–m)

Area (Km

2

)

Elevation, H(m)

V = f(H)

A = f(H)

82

dam, reservoir size, capacity of power house and other installations and 2) to

determine the hydrograph of the worst flood to estimate the spillway size.

Site Selection for Reservoir

The storage capacity of site should be sufficient to the meet the requirement for

which it is designed.

i) Site where the width of river is narrow but rapidly widening upstream

ii) Site where sufficient quantity of water is available. This will depend on the

intensity of rainfall, run-off and catchment area.

iii) As much as possible, site should be such that water can flow under gravity

from reservoir to demand points

iv) Site must be close to demand points

v) The geological conditions at the site should permit minimum percolation

losses, with maximum run-off.

vi)Site must be close to useful construction materials.

vii) The topography should be favourable for site for spillway.

viii) Site should be such that the run-off water has minimum percentage of

sediment

ix) Site must be free from such minerals and salts, which may make the water

unfit for the purpose, for which the dam built.

Classification of Reservoirs

a) Storage reservoir

b) Flood Control (flood mitigation) Reservoir

c) Distribution Reservoir

d) Single Purpose reservoir,

e) Multipurpose Reservoir.

Storage Reservoir: are small storage capacity reservoir, which are constructed

to store water for meeting the demand for water supply, irrigation, power

generation etc.

Flood Control (Flood Mitigation) Reservoir: The main function of such

reservoirs is to temporary store flood waters and release it at such a safe rate

that it may not flood downstream side.

Distribution Reservoir: These are small capacity reservoirs used for water

supply of towns. These reservoirs may store raw water for treatment. As the

water is required at varying rate during the day, they permit the water treatment

plant to function at a constant rate

83

Single Purpose Reservoir: It is a reservoir to serve only one purpose which

may be: a) Municipal Water Supply, b) Power generation; c) Flood Control;

d) irrigation; e) Navigation; f) Recreation.

Multipurpose Reservoir: In this reservoir, the storage and release cater for a

combination of two or more purposes.

STORAGE ZONES AND LEVELS OF A RESERVOIR

1. Dead Storage: us about 10 – 25 % of the gross storage and it is provided to

cater for sediment deposition by the impounded sediment –laden waters. Usually

this volume is below sluiceway, and therefore below it, the reservoir is not

susceptible to release water by the built in outlet means. The dead storage is

equivalent to the volume of sediment expected to be deposited in the reservoir

during the design life of the reservoir.

2. Live (Active or Useful) Storage: It is the storage capacity above the inactive

storage, which constitutes useable portion of the total storage.It is thus the

difference of gross storage capacity and the sum of dead storage capacity and

inactive capacity Live storage has to be sufficient so that the project is successful

for i) 75% of its life period in an irrigation project; ii) 90% for hydro- power and iii)

100% for water supply.

3. Flood Storage: is the storage contained between the normal reservoir level

and the full reservoir level. It is the storage space provided in a reservoir for

storing flood water temporary to moderate the releases downstream.

4. Valley Storage: is the storage in the river in floods after it gas overflowed its

banks. It is important element in the design of large size flood control reservoirs

where it could be a significant proportion in respect to the reservoir storage

volume.

5. Surcharge Storage: It is the storage between the Normal full reservoir level

and the maximum possible level in the reservoir. This storage is usually difficult to

control since it depends on maximum floods, rains and the resulting run-offs.

6. High Flood Level (Maximum Pool Level): The level to which the water will rise

during the design flood

7. Full Reservoir Level The level to which water will rise during ordinary

conditions of operation of reservoir.

Minimum Pool Level: The level to which water from the reservoir in ordinary

conditions may be drawn.

Storage Capacity and Yield

Yield: It is the volume of water that can be supplied from the reservoir I a specific

interval of time. The time interval may vary from a day to a year.

Dependable or Firm Yield: The maximum guaranteed supply of water during the

worst dry period.

84

Secondary Yield: The quantity of water available in excess of dependable yield

during the flood period.

Designed Yield: It is the quantity of water for which the project is designed after

ascertaining the availability of water. It is usually kept lower than firm yield.

Average Yield: It is the arithmetic average of safe yield and secondary yield over

a long period.

Reservoir Storage Capacity Determination

The storage capacity of a reservoir to meet the demand of continuous supply is

determined with the help of observed discharge data of a stream on which the

dam is to be constructed. The flow values for the driest years in as long a period

as is available, eg, 25 to 30 years are used.

There are two approaches for the determination of the size of reservoir storage.

The simplified method, which are commonly used in planning stage studies,

comprise mass curve analysis.

The detail method, used at the time of developing reservoir operating plans,

performs a sequential reservoir routing of the historical flows, which will not

be treated here.

A third, by Bar Graph Method. In this method, the inflows of the driest year are

plotted as ordinates against time as abscissa to get a stepped graph as bar

graph. The area under the bar graph represents total volume of inflow into

reservoir. The average demand is likewise plotted. The area between the two

plots indicates either surplus or deficit volume. The area of maximum deficit

between the demand and inflow represents the minimum storage required.

Surplus

Deficit

Surplus

Max. deficit

STORAGE

Bar Graph Method

85

Simplified Procedure for Reservoir Storage Capacity.

There are two methods of analyses: i) the sequential mass-curve method and ii)

the non-sequential mass-curve method.

Mass curves are useful in reservoir studies since they provide a ready means of

determining storage capacity necessary for a particular average drawoff.

Properties of the mass curve

1. Any point on the curve indicate the total inflow from the beginning of the

period up to the given point.

2. The slope of the tangent to the mass curve at any time gives the inflow

rate at that time

3. The slope of a line joining any two points on the mass curve gives the

average inflow rate withi the period

4. Dry spells (periods) are indicated as hollows on the curve.

A sequential mass-curve method (Rippl Method) considers the most critical

period of recorded flow, which might be a severe drought period. The cumulative

difference between the inflow and outflow to the reservoir during successive

periods are evaluated, the maximum value of which is the required storage.

S = maximum ∑(It –Ot) -------------------------R-1

Where S – required storage capacity

It – inflow during period dt, Ot – outflow (draft) during period dt

Equation (R–1) can be solved either analytically or graphically.

Analytical Method: In this method, the inflow and demand values in each month

are determined. The demand includes prior rights, if any, evaporation, seepage,

etc. The deficit and surplus of water which is the departure of inflow volume from

86

demand volume is determined. The maximum value of cumulative excess of

demand over inflow represents the minimum storage necessary to meet the

demand. The cumulative excess inflow volume starting from each demand

withdrawal from the storage is also determined which indicates the filling up of

the reservoir and the volume in excess of storage to be spilled over.

Example: In the table below, (col. 2) gices the yield of a river, (col. 3 & 4) gives

total losses including evaporation, percolation, etc., and total estimated

consumption of water. Determine the storage capacity of the proposed reservoir.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Month Yield of

River

Total

Losses

Total

consumptio

n

Total

(3 + 4)

Surplus

(2 – 5)

Total

surplus

June 0.0385 0.0863 0.1883 0.2746 - -

July 0.4013 0.0784 0.1851 0.2633 0.1378 -

Aug 0.4327 0.0678 0.1782 0.2460 0.1863 -

Sept. 0.4832 0.0615 0.1513 0.2128 0.2704 -

Oct 0.3384 0.0482 0.1482 0.1964 0.2902 -

Nov. 0.3156 0.0257 0.1215 0.1472 0.1684 -

Dec. 0.2983 0.0173 0.0987 0.1160 0.1823 -

Jan 0.2357 0.0195 0.1142 0.1337 0.1020 -

Feb. 0.2013 0.0202 0.1348 0.1550 0.0463 1.3837

Mar. 0.1605 0.0823 0.1562 0.2085 - -

April 0.1114 0.0845 0.1732 0.2577 - -

May 0.0713 0.1032 0.1784 0.2816 - -

June 0.0401 0.0975 0.1895 0.2870 - -

July 0.3247 0.0767 0.1883 0.2650 0.0597 -

Aug 0.3652 0.0681 0.1790 0.2471 0.1181 -

Sep 0.2830 0.0600 0.1551 0.2151 0.0679 -

Oct 0.2218 0.0515 0.1503 0.2018 0.0200 -

Nov 0.1943 0.0301 0.1284 0.1585 0.0358 -

Dec 0.1814 0.0165 0.1010 0.1175 0.0639 -

Jan 0.1703 0.0183 0.1186 0.1369 0.0334 -

Feb 0.1415 0.0197 0.1207 0.1404 0.0011 03997

87

Mar 0.1137 0.0515 0.1531 02046 - -

April 0.0945 0.0726 0.1802 0.2528 - -

May 0.0687 0.0985 0.1854 0.2839 - -

June 0.0312 0.1013 0.1903 0.2916 - -

July 0.4215 0.0695 0.1900 0.2595 0.1620 -

Aug 0.4183 0.0603 0.1805 0.2408 0.1775 -

Sept. 0.3967 0.0587 0.1570 0.2157 0.1810 -

Oct 0.3818 0.0494 0.1525 0.2019 0.1799 -

Nov 0.2323 0.0286 0.1312 0.1598 0.0725 -

Dec 0.1738 0.0108 0.1135 0.1243 0.0495 -

Jan 0.1621 0.0143 0.1218 0.1361 0.0260 0.8484

Feb 0.1358 0.0195 0.1256 0.1451 - -

Mar 0.1148 0.0613 0.1583 0.2196 - -

April 0.0887 0.0688 0.1831 0.2519 - -

May 0.0595 0976 0.1867 0.2843 - -

8 9 10 11 12 13

Deficit

(5-2)

Total deficit Cumulative

yield

Cumulative

Draft

Difference

(10-11)

Carry over

0.2361 - 0.0385 0.2746 0.2361 Emptying

- - 0.4398 0.5381 0.0983 of reserv.

- - 0.8725 0.7481 0.0884 Filling of

- = 1.3557 1.9969 0.3588 Reservoir

- - 1.6941 1.1933 0.5008 Overflow

- - 2.0097 1.3405 0.6692 Overflow

- - 2.3080 1.4565 0.8515 Overflow

- - 2.5437 1.5902 0.9535 Overflow

- - 2.7450 1.7452 0.9998 Emptying

0.048 - 2.9055 1.9537 0.9518 Emptying

0.1463 - 3.0169 2.2114 0.8055 Emptying

0.2103 - 3.0882 2.4930 0.5952 Emptying

88

0.2469 0.8876 3.1283 2.7800 0.3483 Emptying

- - 3.4530 3.0450 0.4080 Emptying

- - 3.8182 3.2921 0.5261 Emptying

- - 4.1012 3.5072 0.5940 Emptying

- - 4.3230 3.7090 0.6140 Emptying

- - 4.5173 3.8675 0.6498 Emptying

- - 4.6987 3.9850 0.7137 Emptying

- - 4.8690 4.1219 0.7471 Emptying

- - 5.0105 4.2623 0.7482 Emptying

0.0909 - 5.1242 4.4669 0.6573 Emptying

0.1583 - 5.2187 4.7197 0.4990 Emptying

0.2125 - 5.2874 5.0036 0.2838 Emptying

0.2604 0.7221 5.3185 5.2952 0.0234 Emptying

- - 6.7401 5.5547 0.1854 Filling

- - 6.1584 5.7955 0.3629 Filling

- - 6.5551 6.0112 0.5439 Filling

- - 6.9369 6.3121 0.7238 Filling

- - 7.1692 6.3729 0.7963 Overflow

- - 7.3430 6.4972 0.8458 Overflow

- - 7.5051 6.6333 0.8718 Overflow

0.0093 - 7.6409 6.7784 0.8625 Overflow

0.1048 - 7.7557 6.9980 0.7577 Emptying

0.1632 - 7.8444 7.2499 0.5945 Emptying

0.2248 0.5021 7,9039 7.5342 0.3697 Emptying

Graphical Method: there are two graphical procedures. In the first method,

(Mass Curve method), It is accumulated separately as a mass inflow curve and

Ot as a mass yield curve. For a constant draft rate, the yield curve is a straight

line having a slope equal to the draft rate. At each high point on the mass inflow

curve, a line is drawn parallel to the yield curve and extended until it meets the

inflow curve. The maximum vertical distance between the parallel yield line and

the mass inflow curve represents the required storage. Assuming the reservoir is

full at A; and going from A to F along the inflow curve. From A to B, the draft is

more than inflow resulting in a lowering of reservoir; from B to C, the inflow is

89

higher than the draft, but not enough to refill the reservoir; from C to D, the draft

is more, once again causing a drop in reservoir level; from D to E, however, the

inflow is very high, thus filling the reservoir at E.

The second graphical procedure plots the difference of successive accumulated

values of inflow and yield ∑(It - Ot) against time. The maximum vertical difference

is the storage.

A

O

B

C

D

E

F

G

Cumulative volume

Time

Storage

Inflow curve

Yield/demand

Curve

Time

∑(I –O)

Storage volume

90

RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

Every stream (river) carries some sediment load along with the flow. The larger

solid particles roll along the bed as bed load. Smaller particles are kept in

suspension by the upwards component of the turbulent forces and will only settle

by gravitational force when velocity reduces. Such particles are called

suspended load.

When sediment laden water reaches a reservoir, in the vicinity of a dam, the

velocity and the turbulence are greatly reduced due to enlarged area of the

channel. The larger suspended particles and most of the bed load gets deposited

in the head reaches of the reservoir. The smaller particles remain in suspension

for longer periods and are deposited further down in the reservoir. Very fine

particles may remain in suspension for still longer period and some may pass

over the dam along with the water discharged through spillway or sluiceways.

If the water stored in the reservoir is clear and the inflow is charged with

sediment or is muddy, the heavier water with sediment will flow along the channel

bottom towards the dam under the influence of gravity and the clear light water

will flow on the upper surface of the turbid water. This condition is known as

stratified flow and the under flow of sediment laden water is known as density

current. The process whereby sediments are deposited at the bed of the

reservoir due to reduced turbulence and velocity is known as reservoir

sedimentation. The deposition of sediments will reduce the water storing capacity

of the reservoir and if this process continues for a long time, a stage will be

reached when the whole reservoir will be silted and would be rendered useless.

Mechanism of Sedimentation in Reservoirs

Silt deposition in reservoirs follow a typical pattern just like the formation of deltas

at the confluence of a river at the sea or lake. There are four patterns:

1. Top set bed; 2) Fore set bed; 3) Bottom set bed; and density currents.

1. Top set bed: The velocity of a river is reduced considerably as it

approaches the reservoir even before the river enters the reservoir due to

back water effect. Due to the reduction of velocity of flow, the silt carrying

capacity of the river reduces and it deposits the heavy sediment particles

in the channel above the highest level, just at the entry into the reservoir.

This is called the top set bed.

2. Fore set bed: As the river water enters the relatively calmer waters of the

reservoir, the coarser particles and most medium size sediment particles

settle down at the toe of the top set bed. This is called the fore set bed.

3. Bottom set bed: The fine particles (silt) do not settle till they have moved

through a sufficient distance into the reservoir where they may settle and

get deposited in thin layers as bottom set bed.

4. Density current: is the turbid water which flows under the clear water of

the reservoir due to its relative dense nature

In reservoir engineering, a special storage is allocated to sediment called the

dead storage under the lowest sluice-way. The dead is can be as much as a

fourth of the total capacity of the reservoir.

91

Estimation of the Rate of Sedimentation

The amount of sediment load carried by a stream is determined by taking

samples of water carrying silt at various depths. The samples are filtered,

sediment removed and dried. The sediment load per day may be computed by:

1000

86400

CxQ

x W

d

· tones per day

where Wd = dry weight of sediment

Q = mean daily discharge in cumecs

C = dry sediment weight in grams per litre of water.

Khosla’s Studies.

In the absence of any information on sediments, one could use the studies of Dr.

A. N. Khosla. On the basis of studies on some catchment areas, Khosla

suggested the rate of silting per 100 square kilometer of catchment to be 0.036

million cubic metres.

Recent studies have shown that Khosla’s value is on the low side. The average

sediment rate of reservoirs in USA is given below:

No. Area of watershed

(Km

2

)

No. of

measurement

Average annual sediment rate

(in mil m

3

per 100 sq. km area).

1 Under 25 650 0.180

2 25- 250 205 0.076

3 250 – 2500 123 0.048

4 Above 2500 118 0.029

TRAP EFFICIENCY AND LIFE OF A RESERVOIR

Trap efficiency η of a reservoir is defined as the ratio of sediments retained in

reservoir to the total sediment brought in the reservoir by the stream.

92

Trap efficiency (η) = Sediment deposited in reservoir .

Total sediment brought into reservoir by river

It has been observed that most reservoirs trap about 95 – 100% sediment

brought to it. It is not possible to reduce it below 90 % irrespective of sediment

control measures taken.

Capacity-Inflow Ratio

Capacity inflow ratio is the ratio of the capacity (volume) of a reservoir to the total

inflow (volume) of water in a given time (usually one year).It is an important factor

as detailed observations of reservoir sedimentation has shown that trap

efficiency is a function of this factor.

Thus: η

trap efficiency(η) = f (Reservoir capacity)

Total inflow

The figure below shows a graph of trap efficiency and capacity inflow ratio based

on observations of existing reservoirs. From the figure, it will be noted that for a

given inflow rate, the trap efficiency decreases with age of reservoir as the

capacity of the reservoir reduces due to sediment deposition. Hence, the rate of

silting is higher in the initial stages and it decreases as silting takes place.

Complete filling of the reservoir may take a long time, but actually the useful life

of the reservoir is terminated when its capacity is reduced to 20 % of the

designed capacity or sediment is so much as to prevent the from serving

intended purpose.

For small reservoirs on large rivers having large inflow rates, the trap efficiency

trap efficiency is low, because the capacity inflow ratio is very small. The silting in

such reservoirs is low, because most of the sediments are passed to the

downstream.

93

The procedure for determination of the life of a reservoir is as follows:

i) The capacity of the reservoir is determined. Next, the capacity inflow ratio and

the trap efficiency are determined for the full capacity of the reservoir with the

help of the curve.

ii) Divide the total capacity into 10 parts. Assuming that 10% capacity has been

reduced due to deposits of sediments, determine the trap efficiency for the

reduced capacity (90% of the total capacity) and the inflow ratio.

iii) For the above 10% interval of capacity, determine the average trap efficiency

by taking into account the trap efficiency (η) obtained in the above steps.

iv) By collecting water samples and drying the sediments, determine the

sediment inflow rate. The total annual sediment collected in the reservoir per

year is multiplied with the trap efficiency determined in step (iii) above. The

sediment quantity so obtained is converted into hectare-meter units deposit per

year.

v) Now the reservoir volume interval ( i.e. 10% of the capacity is divided by the

sediment deposited per year, obtained in step (iv) above. It will give the number

of years required to fill this volume interval of 10% capacity.

vi) Now repeat the procedure (i) to (v) above for further capacity intervals i.e.

80%, 70%, 60%etc of the total reservoir capacity. The total life of the reservoir

will be the total number of years required to fill each of the volume intervals.

Examples

The following data is available from a reservoir regarding its trap efficiency and

capacity inflow ratio;

Cap

Inflow

Ratio

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Trap

efficiency

87 92 93 95.5 96 96 96.5 97 97.5 98

Find the probable life of reservoir with an initial reservoir capacity of 40 million

cubic meters and with an annual average flood inflow of 80 million cubic meters.

The annual sediment inflow is found to be 22 x 10

4

tonnes. The specific weight of

sediment may be taken as 1.15 tones per m

3

. The useful life of reservoir may be

assumed when its capacity is reduced to 20% of its designed capacity.

Solution.

Initial reservoir capacity = 40 x 10

6

m

3

Average annual inflow = 88 x 10

6

m

3

Therefore capacity inflow ratio = 40/80 = 0.5

Average annual sediment inflow = 22 x 10

4

tonnes

Let’s assume that 20%of the initial capacity is filled in the first interval, i.e. 20/100

x 40 x 10

6

= 8 x 10

6

m

3

capacity is filled at a time.

94

For 0.5 C-I-R the trap efficiency is 96%.

At the end of the first interval, the capacity of reservoir = (40 – 8) x 10

6

= 32 x

10

6

m

3

At the end of the first interval the C-I-R = 32/80 = 0.4

From the curve, this correspond to a trap efficiency of 95.5%

Therefore the average trap efficiency for the entire period = (96 + 95.5)/2 =

95.75%

Weight of sediment deposited annually = 22 x10

4

x 0.975 = 0.2107 x 10

6

tonnes

Volume of sediment deposited annually = (0.2107 x 10

6

)/1.15 = 0.1823 x 10

6

m

3

Therefore No. of years to fill 20% (8 x 10

6

m

3

) capacity = (8 x10

6

)/0.1823 x10

6

=

43.9 years.

Similarly, the silting period for the other intervals can be calculated. The rest of

the calculations are done in the table below

Capacit

y

x 10

6

m

3

Capacit

y Inflow

Ratio

(C-I-R)

%

Trap Efficiency Sediment

Trapped

At

indicate

d

volume

Average

for

incremen

t

Tonne

s

x 10

6

tonnes

Volum

e

x 10

6

m

3

Incrementa

l Volume

(x 10

6

m

3

)

Years to

fill

(Col.7)/

(Col. 6)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

40 0.5 96.0

32 0.4 95.5 95.75 2.107 0.1831 8 43.70

24 0.3 95.0 95.25 2.095 0.1822 8 43.93

16 0.2 92.5 93.75 2.062 0.1793 8 44.61

8 0.1 87.5 90.0 1.98 0.1722 8 46.46

178.9

179year

s

Example 2.

Below are data regarding trap efficiency and capacity inflow ratio of a reservoir

Capacity

Inflow ratio

0.

8

0.

1

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Trap

efficiency

85 86 92 94 95 9

5.5

96 9

6.5

97 9

7.5

9

7.7

Determine the probable life of the reservoir with an initial reservoir capacity of 25

million m

3

, if the annual inflow is 50 million m

3

and the average annual sediment

inflow is 300,000 tonnes. Assume the density of the sediment as 1250kg/m

3

. The

95

useful life of the reservoir will terminate when 85 % of the initial capacity is filled

with sediment.

Solution:

Average annual sediment inflow = 300,000 x 1000 kg

Volume of sediment inflow = 300,000,000/1250 = 0.24 x 10

6

Initial reservoir capacity = 25 x 10

6

m

3

Annual inflow = 55 x 10

6

m

3

Therefore Initial capacity = 25 x 10

6

= 0.5

Capacity 50 x 10

6

The capacity inflow ratio goes on decreasing as the sediment takes place and

trap efficiency also decreases. The volume of interval chosen is 5 x 10

6

i.e. 20%

of initial capacity. To obtain the 85% filling of initial capacity the volume interval in

last two readings is taken as 5%.

Similarly, for the calculation of the years to fill the last 5% capacity is determined

by taking 1 = . 1 . = 4.87 years

St 0.2.52

Capacity

% Volume

x

10

6

m

3

Cap.

Inflo

w

Ratio

Trap Efficiency η Sediment Trapped

@

indicate

d

Volume

Averag

e for

interval

Tonnes

x 10

6

=300,00

0

x col(5)

Volum

e

x10

6

(m

3

)

=col(6)

/

1.25

Incre-

menta

l

Vol.

x 10

6

(m

3

)

Years

to fill

col 8

/col 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

0

25 0.5 0.955

80 20 0.4 0.95 0.9525 2.8575 0.2286 5 21.7

60 15 0.3 0.94 0.945 2.835 0.2268 5 22.04

40 10 0.2 0.92 0.93 2.79 0.2232 5 22.40

20 5 0.1 0.86 0.89 2.67 0.2136 5 23.40

15 4 0.08 0.85 0.855 2.565 0.2052 121.7 4.87

Total 94.58

Example 3. A reservoir has a drainage area of 49,000 acres. The reservoir has a

capacity of 10,000 acre-ft. Streamflow runoff averages 15.5 in. per year. The

annual sediment production is 9.5 x 10

6

ft

3

. Determine the life of the reservoir,

assuming that the life is over when 80% of the original capacity is lost

Solution

1. Annual inflow I = (49,000) (15.5/12) = 63,290 acre-ft

96

2. Annual sediment production = 9.5 x 10

6

ft

3

or 218.5 acre-ft

3. Unfilled capacity (20%) = (20/100) (10,000) = 2,000 acre-ft

4.

Capacity

% Volum

e

Acre-ft

Cap.

Inflow

Ratio

=col2

/63,29

0

Trap Efficiency η Sediment

Trapped

@

indicate

d

Volume

Averag

e for

interval

Tonnes Volume

Acre-ft

=col(5)

x

218.5

Incre-

menta

l

Vol.

x 10

6

(m

3

)

Years

to fill

col 8

/col 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

0

10,000 0.16 0.92

80 8,000 0.13 0.88 0.90 197 2,000 10.1

60 6,000 0.09 0.85 0.865 189 2,000 10.6

40 4,000 0.06 0.80 0.825 180 2,000 11.1

20 2,000 0.03 0.68 0.74 162 2,000 12.3

Total 44.1

Control of Silting in Reservoirs

It is utmost necessary to reduce the depositions of sediments in the reservoir bed

for increasing its life. Sediment control methods may be classified as:

Pre-construction methods

Post-construction methods.

1. Pre-construction Methods includes:

i) Site Selection: For silting control, the site of reservoir should be such that the

catchment area should have firm soil which would not be easily erodable.

ii) The ratio of reservoir capacity and drainage size: If the storage capacity of the

reservoir is much less than the annual inflow into reservoir, large quantity of

water will flow out of reservoir and with it large volume of sediment.

iii) Design of Reservoir: For the release of density currents, adequate outlets

such as sluices should be provided in the design of the dam. I this way, sufficient

quantity of sediment may be flashed fro the reservoir.

iv) Vegetation Screen: If the ground around reservoir is covered by vegetation,

grass, etc., it will prevent the erosion of soil particles as well as it will trap large

amount of sediments. Therefore, if vegetations are grown in the catchment area,

the silting will be reduced to considerable extent. The vegetations covering the

ground are known as vegetation screens and are the cheap and effective means

of silting control.

97

Post-Construction Methods:

i) Mechanical Stirring of Sediment: The sediments which are deposited in the

reservoir bed are scrapped and stirred by mechanical equipments and kept in

moving state. The sediments mixed water is pushed towards the sluices and is

flashed out.

ii) Excavation: It is a very expensive method. Iy is expensive to excavate and

also expensive to dispose of excavated material.

iii) Dredging: It is also expensive as it require the purchase and maintenance of

costly machines as dredger.

Watershed Erosion Control

a) By afforestation: In this method, vegetation is planted to provide a cover to

soil, which reduces the scoring effect of the soil in three different ways:

i) It provides a cushion to the falling rain drops and reduces their impact

and consequent damage due to erosion.

ii) The roots of the plants penetrate deep into the soil and bind soil

particles enabling it resist water and wind erosion.

iii) Plants offer resistance to flow and thereby reduces the velocity of flow.

b) Controlling Overgrazing

OPERATION OF RESERVOIRS

After a dam is built, it must be operated correctly. The key person is the operator,

who makes decisions about when to release or store water. The operator may be

a part-time worker who lives near a lake and who occasionally operates a gate,

or a highly trained engineer working at a remote location who makes system

decisions based on computer forecast. In the past, reservoir operating decisions

were made by RULES CURVES, which provided the operator with simple

guidelines about how much water to release and what lake levels to maintain. As

the science of forecasting and the use of computers has become more complex,

however, reservoir operation has become more sophisticated. It is not

uncommon to have a reservoir control center where operators use computers to

monitor weather forecasts furnished from satellite data and simulate future

demands for water to make decisions about water releases. They may also be

bound by legal requirements to release water for downstream users, including

fish and wildlife.

Basically what is required in the operations problem is an analytical tool to

illustrate the time rate of inflows, outflows, and change in storage. In other

words, it is necessary to consider the storage equation both numerically and

graphically. Recall that the storage equation relates inflow, outflow and change

in storage as a function of time, where for any time period such as an hour, day

month or year.

98

Qi – Q0 = DS

Where Qi – is the rate of inflow; Q0 – is the rate of outflow; and DS – change in

storage.

A simple way to view the operation plan is to consider a rule curve such as one

shown below, which is taken fro the corps of engineers operating plan for lake

Lanier in Georgia. A rule curve illustrates a typical operations time period,

usually a year, and shows the boundaries within which operations should occur.

Rule curve for Lake Lanier, Geopgia

8.1.2 Reservoir Operations

Reservoir operation in the CRYSTAL model is based on the Snohomish County PUD

Jackson Operations model (JKSOPR). Release policies depend on the "state" of both

Spada Reservoir and Lake Chaplain. The state of the reservoir is determined by

comparing the storage to maximum storage capacity, rule curves, and minimum storage

capacity. When water is in abundance, releases are dependent on the capacity of Jackson

Powerhouse transmission line. Otherwise, releases are functions of instream flows,

demands, and relative storage.

99

Snohomish County PUD No. 1 (SnoPUD) operates Spada Reservoir using two rule

curves based on storage (Figure 8.3). In addition,”poweroff" storage may be used during

extreme conditions (Spada reservoir has yet to reach the poweroff storage). Comparing

the reservoir storage to the Full Storage condition (FS), Upper normal rule curve, and

Lower normal rule curve determine the state of the reservoir. If reservoir storage is

between the rule curves (State 3), then a variable amount of flow (based on a ratio of

storage to lower rule curve and time of year) is conveyed through the Powerhouse

pipeline. If storage in Spada is below the Lower normal rule curve (State 4) then

minimum flow to meet instream flow requirements and M&I demand is conveyed. The

maximum flow of 1300 cfs is conveyed if the reservoir is above the Upper normal rule

curve (States 1&2). No flow is conveyed if storage is below the "Power off" level.

FLOOD ROUTING

Flood routing is the process whereby the shape of a flood hydrograph is modified

as it passes through a hydraulic system (such as a river channel, reservoir, lake,

etc). The hydrograph resulting after passing through the hydraulic system is one

with considerably reduced peak and enlarged time base. The process can be

represented as:

100

Flood routing in fact is a technique of determining the extent of change in the

inflow hydrograph as it passes through a hydraulic system and it is done for the

purposes of:

1. Studying the effect of a hydraulic system on the modification of a flood peak

2. Determining the design elevations of flood walls and levees

3. Determining the site for a spillway

4. Derivation of unit hydrograph and synthetic hydrographs

5. For flood forecasting

6. Any other flood flow-related objectives.

In flood routing, all the components of the routing process (inflow, storage and

outflow) are connected by the storage (continuity) equation in the form:

[ Inflow volume in time Δt] + [Change in volume of water stored by the hydraulic

system during time Δt] = [Outflow volume in time Δt]

t O S t I ∆ · ∆ + ∆ ------------------------- (1)

where I and O are the average inflow and outflow rates within the time Δt.

The hydraulic system can be a reservoir (lake) or a section of a river channel,

and so the routing process is, accordingly classified into two namely: reservoir

routing and channel (streamflow) routing.

In the above equation (1) I- the inflows are known quantities but the outflows, O

and the storage, S are unknown parameters. To solve the equation, either both O

and S have to be related to a common unknown parameter or S has to be

defined in terms of d to a common unknown parameter or S has to be defined in

terms of O. The former approach is applicable to reservoir routing whiles the

latter to channel routing.

Equation (1) when expressed in the differential form can be integrated, however,

the terms in the equation have a form that is not amenable to direct solution.

Therefore, the numerical solution expressed as numerical approximation can be

written as :

2 2

2 1 2 1 2 1

O O

t

S S I I +

·

∆

−

+

+

------------------ (2)

101

where subscript 1 and 2 denote beginning and end of routing period Δt

RESERVOIR FLOOD ROUTING

Reservoir routing is the process of determining the reservoir stage, storage

volume and outflow rate corresponding to a particular hydrograph of inflow. The

flood routing procedure is used in the detention and storage reservoir for studies

related to the variations in reservoir levels with inflow and outflow discharge with

time with a view to deciding the location and capacity of proposed reservoirs,

determining the spillway outlet capacities, height of dam, extent of land

submergence in the reservoir area.

In reservoir routing, the volume of storage can be expressed as a function of

water surface elevation in the reservoir, so also is the outflow, which can be

expressed as a function of elevation.

In routing through a reservoir, equation (2) is re-organised to the form:

( )

,

_

¸

¸

+

∆

· −

,

_

¸

¸

+

∆

+ +

2

2

1 1

1

2 1

2

2

2

O

t

S

O O

t

S

I I

-------------- (3)

Since the outflow and the storage are both functions of water surface elevation,

the storage equation becomes a relation between the known inflow and the

unknown elevation, from which elevation can be computed as a function of time.

Procedure

1. What is available at the beginning.

i) An inflow hydrograph I =f(t)

ii) An elevation –capacity curve H =f(S) or elevation – area curve of the

reservoir

H =f(A)

iii) An elevation – outflow curve H = f(O)

2. From the above, the routing curve is prepared and plotted

( ) O f H

O

t

S

f H

·

,

_

¸

¸

+

∆

·

2

3. At the initial time, t = 0 (start of the routing, just before flood arrives, we

assume a steady state condition, so that I1 = I2 = O1 and S1 corresponds to the

storage corresponding to elevation of O1.

4. Select the time interval Δt for the routing. This is usually taken as the interval

of time given for the inflow hydrograph. Otherwise, the time interval is so chosen

so that one does not miss the peak values.

5. At the beginning of the routing, I1 = I2 =O1. With O1 known, read off H from H

=f(O) curve. With H now known, read off 2S/ Δt +O from the H = f(2S/ Δt + O)

curve. So at time t = 0, the following quantities are known; H, O2 and (2S2 + O2)

and they will become the quantities at the end of a fictitious previous period.

102

Time Inflow (I1 + I2) (2S/ Δt +

O)

-2O1 (2S2/ Δt+O2) H O

0 I1 - - - X

*

H

*

O

*

6 I2 I1+I2 X

*

-2O

*

X H O

16 I3

18 I4

26 I5

30 I6

6. The values in row corresponding to time t = 0, being the values at the end of a

routing period is transferred to become the initial values on the left hand-side of

the routing equation (3) for the next time step of the routing period.

7. The left hand side of the routing equation now has known values that yield a

value for (2S2 + O2). With this known, H is read from the plot and O is also

determined.

8. The procedure is repeated until all the inflow values are used up.

Example: Given an inflow hydrograph and storage vs elevation data for a

reservoir below. The spillway discharge Q = 3LH

3/2.

The crest height of the

spillway is 50 ft and the length of the spillway is 35ft

Time(days) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Flows(cfs) 70 185 360 480 300 165 80 0

Storage data

Elevation(ft) 50 50.5 51.0 51.5 52.0 52.5 53.0 53.5

Storage(acre-ft) 231 247 277 313 353 400 452 509

Solution:

1. The discharge data, which is the outflow, is computed from the given equation

Q = 3 x (35) x H

2/3

and the storage data are listed in tabular form.

Water surface

Elevation (ft)

Head on crest

(ft)

Storage

(acre-ft)

Outflow (cfs)

Q=3 x (35) x

H

3/2

(2S/ Δt + O)

Δt = 0.5 day

50 0 231 0 465.6

50.5 0.5 247 37.1 536.4

51.0 1.0 277 105.0 664.4

51.5 1.5 313 192.9 825.3

52.0 2.0 353 297.0 1009.4

52.5 2.5 499 415.0 1224.3

53.0 3.0 452 545.6 1459.5

53.5 3.5 509 687.5 1715.7

103

The routing is done in the table below

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time Inflow I1 + I2 (2S1+O1) -2O1 (2S2+O2) H O

0 0 - - - 465.6 50 0

0.5 70 70 465.6 0 535.6 50.45 35

1.0 185 255.0 535.8 -70 720.6

1.5 360 545.0 720.6

2.0 480

2.5 300

3.0 165

3.5 80

4.0 0

4.5 0

i). Column 1 & 2 are the given inflow hydrograph

ii) Column 3 is obtained by adding the two successive values in column (2)

iii)Column 4 is obtained by transferring col. 6 of the previous routing period

iv)Col. 5 is obtained by transferring 2 times col. 8

v)Col. 6 is obtained by adding columns (3)+(4)+(5) to obtain the right hand side

of eq.(3)

vi. Col. 7 is obtained by reading off H from the plot of H = f(2S/Δt + O)

vii Col 8 is obtained by reading off O from the plot of H = f(O)

5. After the computation, a plot of the inflow and the outflow hydrographs are

made from which the extent of peak reduction can be seen and when the peak

occurs.

Example: An impounding reservoir enclosed by a dam has a surface area that

varies with elevation as given below. The dam is equipped with two circular gated

discharge ports each of 2.7 m diameter, whose centres are at elevation 54.0 with

discharge coefficient cd=0.8 and a free overflow spillway 72.5 m long with crest

level at elevation 66.0. Live storage at elevation 54 is 5.5 x 10

6

m

3

discharge

gates are opened and the surface water level is at elevation 63.5 at time t=o. The

flood hydrograph table below is forecast.. What will the maximum reservoir level

be and when will it occur.

Elevation (m) 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72

Surface area

(km

2

)

4.12 4.19 4.28 4.36 4.45 4.58 4.71 4.88 5.05 5.22

104

Chapter 6

DIVERSION HEAD WORKS

The construction work done at the river or canal for diversion of water to the off-

taking canal is known as head-work. Depending on the purpose, head-works

may be:

1. storage head-work or

2. diversion head-work

Storage head-work is constructed to store water for some purpose

The main purpose of diversion head-work is to divert the required quantity of

water into the off-taking canals for irrigation purpose. A diversion head-works

may also serve the following purposes:

105

i) to raise the water level in the river for increasing its command

ii) to regulate the intake of water into the canal

iii) to control silt entry into the canal

iv) to store water for meeting emergency requirements

v) to prevent fluctuations in the level of supply of the river.

i). Diversion head-work provides an obstruction across a river, so that the water

level is raised and water is diverted to the channel at required level. The increase

water level helps the flow of water by gravity and results in increasing the

commanded area and reducing the water fluctuations in the river.

ii). Diversion head-work may serve as silt regulator into the channel. Due to the

obstruction, the velocity of the river decreases and silt settles at the bed. Clear

water with permissible percentage of silt is allowed to flow through the regulator

into the channel.

iii).To prevent the direct transfer of flood water into the channel.

6.1.1. Headwork for direct river offtake

In rivers with a stable base flow and a high enough water level throughout the

year in relation to the bed level of the intake canal, one can resort to run-off-river

water supply (Figure 38 and Example 1 in Figure 37).

106

A simple offtake structure to control the water diversion is sufficient. The offtake

should preferably be built in a straight reach of the river (Figure 39). When the

water is free from silt, the centre line of the offtake canal could be at an angle to

the centre line of the parent canal. When there is a lot of silt in the system, the

offtake should have a scour sluice to discharge sediments or should be put at a

90° angle from the parent canal. If it is not possible to build the offtake in a

straight reach of the river, one should select a place on the outside of a bend, as

silt tends to settle on the inside of bends. However, erosion usually takes place

on the outside of the bend and therefore protection of the bank with, for example,

concrete or gabions might be needed.

The offtake can be perpendicular, at an angle or parallel to the riverbank,

depending on site conditions, as illustrated in Figure 40.

107

The functions of the offtake structures are:

To pass the design discharge into the canal or pipeline

To prevent excessive water from entering during flood

108

Considering these functions, the most important aspect of the structure is the

control arrangement, which can be a gate, stop logs, or other structures. When

the gate is fully opened, the intake behaves like a submerged weir (Figure41)

and its discharge is given by equation 23

Where: Q = Discharge in intake (m3/sec) C = Weir coefficient B = Width

of the intake (m)

h = Difference between river water level and canal design water level (m) hd =

Difference between canal design water level and sill level of the intake (m)

River offtake using a weir

Figure 42 shows an example of a river diversion structure, in this case a weir

(Example 2 in Figure 37). Structures constructed across rivers and streams with

an objective of raising the water level are called cross regulators (see Section

6.4).

109

A weir should be located in a stable part of the river where the river is unlikely to

change its course. The weir has to be built high enough to fulfill command

requirements. During high floods, the river could overtop its embankments and

change its course. Therefore, a location with firm, well defined

banks should be selected for the construction of the weir. Where possible, the

site should have good bed conditions, such as rock outcrops. Alternatively, the

weir should be kept as low as possible. Since weirs are the most common

diversion structures, their design aspects will be discussed below.

Diversion head-works may be a weir or a barrage.

Weirs are solid walls constructed across a river for the purpose of raising the

water level

Barrage is a structure constructed either to store water or raise the level of water.

In case of barrages, no wall is constructed across the river, but there is an

arrangement of gates which can be used to store water to the required level.

Diversion Head-Works consists of:

1. A weir or barrage; 2. Under sluices; 3. Divide wall; 4. Fish ladder; 5. Canal

head regulator; 6. Silt controlling devices; 7. Guide bunds; 8. Approach channel.

1. Weir (Barrage) may be masonry; rockfill or cement concrete. All weirs normally

have the following components: i) body wall usually with shutters; ii) upstream

rough stone or boulder pitching; iii) upstream curtain wall; iv) upstream

impervious apron; v) crest shutters; vi) downstream impervious apron; vii)

downstream curtain wall; vii) downstream apron for channel bed.

Head Regulator

CANAL

Weir

u/s GUIDE BUND

d/s GUIDE BUND

Under sluices

Fish ladder

Divide wall

River

Marginal Bunds

110

Masonry (or concrete) Rockfill

Shutters

Rockfill weir

111

General Equation of Weirs.

The flow over any type of weir is given by

Figure 44. C2 coefficient for different types of weirs in relation to crest

shape

112

Where: Q = Discharge (m3/sec) C1 = Coefficient related to condition of

submergence and crest shape (Figure 43) C2 = Coefficient related to crest

shape (Figure 44)

B = Weir length, i.e. the weir dimension across the river or stream (m) H = Head

of water over the weir crest (m)

113

114

Design of weir

a) Design of Weir Walls. Weir walls are design as a retaining wall or masonry

dam of solid gravity type. The two main loads to be considered are the horizontal

water thrust, P, and the self – weight of the weir body wall, W. The resultant of

forces P and W should pass through the middle third of the base of the weir, for

the weir to be safe.

Bligh has recommended the following:

If b = bottom width of the body wall (to be designed);

a = top width ( to be fixed)

H = height of weir above the floor or the height of the body wall, and

d = depth of water above the weir crest or height of weir crest wall,

S = specific gravity of the body wall, then

b

H

d

a

115

− − − − − − − − − + ·

− − − − − − − − − − − − −

+

·

).. ( 552 . 0 .. d H a and

S

d H

b

(D.H -1)

From the above recommendations, stability are checked under the following

conditions:

I) The water in upstream is at crest level or the crest of shutter and there

is no flow over the weir

II) The weir is submerged and water is passing over it.

III) Water is passing over weir crest and the weir is discharging with a

clear overfall.

Design of Impervious Apron

a)The upstream Apron

The length of the upstream impervious apron according to Bligh is:

CH L

s u

208 . 2

/

· -----------------------( )

where C = creep coefficient

H = head of water stored against the body wall

The thickness of this apron is about 30 cm placed over 30 to 50 cm thick

concrete foundation.

b). Downstream Apron.

The length of this apron is:

13

208 . 2

/

H C

L

s d

· ---------------- (D.H - 2)

u/s apron

u/s curtains

d/s boulder pitching

Body of weir

d/s apron

Shutter

Well

u/s boulder pitching

116

Thickness of apron:

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

1 3

4

/

SG

h H

t

s D

-------------------(D.H - 3)

Where tD/s = is in metres; H = total head causing seepage.

h = head lost by the creeping water u to the point where thickness is to be

calculated.

SG = specific gravity of material of the apron.

c). Upstream Curtain Wall: This is usually 2.0 to 2.5 m in depth.

d) Downstream Curtain Wall: usually 2.5 to 3.0 m depth

Two major causes of failure of weirs

i) Piping (or Undermining): Since there is always a differential head between

upstream and downstream, water is constantly moving form upstream to

downstream from under the base of weir. However, if the hydraulic gradient

becomes big, greater than the critical value, then at the point of exist of water at

the downstream end, it begins to dislodge the soil particles and carry them away.

In due course, when this erosion continues, a sort of pipe or channel is formed

within the floor through which more particles are transported downstream which

can bring about failure of weir.

The main preventive measure of piping is to reduce the hydraulic gradient by

increasing the length of travel of the fluid by either increasing the length of the

impervious floor or providing curtains or piles at both upstream and downstream.

2.Uplift Pressure Rupturing the Floor of the Weir

The floor of the weir may burst due to inadequate weight of the weir and the

heavy uplift pressure. This bursting of the floor reduces the effective length of

the impervious floor, which will resulting increasing exit gradient, and can cause

failure of the weir.

Rapture of floor could be prevented by:

i) providing adequate length of impervious floor

ii) providing sufficiently thick impervious apron

iii) by providing a pipe at the upstream end to reduce the uplift pressure at the

downstream end.

BLIGH’S CREEP THEORY

Water from upstream percolates and creeps (or travel) slowly through weir base

and the subsoil below it. The head lost by the creeping water is proportional to

the distance it travels (creep length) along the base of the weir profile. The

creep length must be made as big as possible so as to prevent the piping action.

This can be achieved by providing deep vertical cut-offs or sheet

piles.

According to Bligh’s theory, the total creep length for first drawing: L = B and for

second drawing: L = B + 2(d1 + d2 + d3)

117

If H is the total loss of head, then the loss of head per unit length of the creep ©

shall be

( ) [ ]

3 2 1

2

'

d d d B

H

L

H

C

+ + +

· ·

Bligh called the loss of head per unit length of creep as Percolation coefficient.

The reciprocal, (L/H) of the percolation coefficient is known as the coefficient of

creep C.

.

Table D-1. Coefficient of creep C for various soils.

No. Type of soil Coefficient of

creep

1 Boulder or shingle, gravel and sand

mixed

5 – 9

2 Coarse grained sand 12

3 Fine micaceous sand 15

4 Light sand and mud 18

Design Criteria.

For design, Bligh proposes the following two important criteria:

B = L

d

1

d

2

d

3

Method of increasing creep length

H

118

1. Safety Against Piping: For safety against, the creep length L should be

sufficient to provide a safe hydraulic gradient, depending on the type of soil.

Safe creep length, L = CH

Where L =safe creep length; H = H1 – H2 Total loss of head for the length of

creep;

H1 = upstream head; H2 = downstream head; C = creep coefficient

2. Safety against Uplift: The uplift pressure = γwH

!

; where H

!

= the uplift pressure

head at any point of the apron.

The downward resisting force per unit length of apron FR = t. γw . S

where t = thickness of the apron floor; S = specific gravity of floor material.

Equating the two forces, we determine the limiting floor thickness

γw H

!

= t. γw .S

H

!

= t . S

Or H

!

– t = t . S – t = t(S – 1)

Or

1 1

!

−

≅

−

−

·

S

h

S

t H

t - the limiting thickness

where h is the ordinate of the hydraulic gradient line measured above the top of

the floor.

Now applying a safety factor of 4/3

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

1 3

4

S

h

t

Divide Wall

This is a long solid wall of stone masonry built at right angles to the axis of the

body of the weir. Its function is to divide the river channel into two portions and to

create a still pond near the canal head regulator end. It is usually built in stone

masonry but it could be done in earth with stone pitching or in concrete. Because

of the divide wall a still pond is created. This helps the deposition of silt before

the water is allowed to pass through the head regulator. It also protects the

regulator from the direct turbulence of river flow.

119

6.1.4. Scour gates for sedimentation control

Many rivers carry substantial sediment loads, especially during the rainy season,

in the form of sand, silt, weeds, moss and tree leaves. Approximately 70% of all

suspended and bed load sediments travel in the lower 25% of the flow profile.

While suspended silt can be beneficial to the scheme by adding nutrients to the

farmland, coarse sediments usually cause problems once they are blocked by a

weir or other diversion structure. Headworks have to be adapted to these

sediment loads to avoid silting of canals and structures. A properly-designed

intake should divert only the relatively clean upper part of the water flow into the

canal and dispose of the lower part down the river. A sluice should

therefore be incorporated into the diversion structure design. It should be placed

in line with the weir near the canal intake (Figure 51). Its seal level is generally

placed at the river bed level while the floor to the intake gate should be located

higher (Figure 52).

The control arrangement in the scour sluice generally consists of a series of stop

logs (timber, concrete) or a sluice gate. This arrangement allows the water to be

raised when there are very few or no sediments in the water. During the flood

season, the sluice is permanently open or opened at

regular intervals so that depositions of sediments can be flushed away. The guide

wall prevents lateral movement of sediments deposited in front of the weir and

separates the flow through the sluice and the flow over the weir.

Under Sluices (Scour Sluices): These are openings provided in the body wall of

the weir. Their main function is to prevent the obstructions to the flow of water

through the main sluice. They also transport deposited silt in front of the head

regulator at the upstream side, to the downstream side, thus preventing the entry

of bed silt in the canal. They create a clear, unobstructed river channel at the

approach portion of the head regulator. They also help to reduce maximum flood

level. They are provided near the wing walls of the weir. They are operated by

Concrete slab

Concrete foundation

Divide Wall

1.5

Stone pitching

Stone Masonry

120

means of gates provided for this purpose. The gates are operated by levers

provided at the top of the weir.

In designing the scour sluices, the following are to be noted:

i) the design flow should be at least twice the discharge in the off-take

channel

ii) the crest of the under sluice should be one metre lower than the crest

of the head regulator.

iii) The downstream portion of the under sluice must be well protected to

prevent downstream erosion.

Canal Head Regulator

A canal head regulator (or head sluice) is a structure constructed at the head of

an off-take channel of a weir. This may consist of a number of spans created by a

number of piers and covered by a number of gates. The functions of canal head

regulator are:

i) to regulate the quantity of water passing into the canal

ii) to control the amount of silt entering the channel

iii) for shutting out flood flows.

The head regulator consists of a raised crest with abutments on both sides. Piers

may be constructed on the crest to create a number of spans and to support a

roadway and a platform at its top to operate the gates.

Marginal Bunds: are earthen embankments constructed parallel to the river along

the banks. They are located near the approaches of the diversion head works.

Their main function is to control the floods and prevent submergence of the areas

behind the hydraulic structures. Their design and construction are similar to earth

dams.

Guide Banks (or Bell’s bunds): are constructed almost parallel to the flow of the

river, near the hydraulic structure. They are bunds with a straight length and a

curved end at their flanks. Their function is to guide the flow into and protect the

hydraulic structure by controlling and regulating the flow of the river.

121

Marginal Bunds(embankment)

Stone pitching

Marginal Embankment

122

Chapter 7

DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

Discharge measurement in irrigation schemes is important for the following

reasons:

To ensure the maintenance of proper delivery schedules

To determine the amount of water delivered for water pricing, where it is

applicable

To detect the origin of water losses and to estimate the quantity

To ensure efficient water distribution

To conduct applied research

Almost any kind of obstacle that partially restricts the flow of water in an irrigation

canal and provides a free fall, to ensure that upstream and downstream flow are

independent, can be used as a measuring device, provided that it can be

calibrated. Standard structures, which have already been accurately described

and calibrated, exist. Weirs, flumes and orifices are the devices that are normally

used for discharge measurement.

6.6.1. Discharge measurement equations

The three fundamental equations used to solve discharge problems in canals are

based on the principles of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. For our

purposes, only the conservation of mass and energy equations will be dealt with.

Conservation of mass

Conservation of mass leads to the Continuity Equation 12 to be constant:

Q = A x V = Constant

Conservation of energy

Conservation of energy applied along a streamline results in the Bernoulli

Equation:

Equation 38

Where: P = Pressure (kgf/m2) γ = Density of water (kg/m3) V = Water

velocity (m/sec) g = Gravitational force (9.81 m/sec2) z = Elevation above

reference line (m)

123

Equation 38 sums up the pressure head, velocity head and gravitational head to

give the total head. For an open canal, the pressure head equals the water depth

h. When there is frictional loss along the flow path, an expression for frictional

head loss must be included. Thus applying the Bernoulli Equation to two

successive cross sections along a flow path results in:

Equation 39

The numbers 1 and 2 refer to the first and second cross section. HL is the

frictional head loss.

Specific energy

The concept of specific energy is used in the analysis of critical flow. At any

cross-section of a canal, the energy with respect to the canal bed is referred to

as specific energy. It is derived from the Bernoulli Equation according to the

following equation:

124

Where: E = Specific energy (m), h = Depth of flow (m) g = Gravitational

force (9.81 m/sec2)

V = Water velocity (m/sec)

Assuming a uniform velocity distribution, the specific energy is constant across

the section. Combining the above equation and the Continuity Equation gives:

The cross-sectional area varies with the depth of flow only if the geometry of the

canal is constant. Therefore, for a given discharge the specific energy is a

function of depth alone

Specific energy can be determined for different structures:

Rectangular canal

125

Plotting E against h for different values of (Q/b) gives curves as shown in

diagram above.

The curves show that, for a given discharge and specific energy, there are two

alternate depths of flow, which coincide at a point where the specific energy is a

minimum for a given discharge. Below this point, flow is physically not possible.

At this point flow is critical and it occurs at critical depth and velocity. At a greater

depth, the velocity is low and flow is sub-critical. At the lesser depth, the velocity

is high and flow is super-critical. For sub-critical flow, the mean velocity is less

than the

velocity of propagation of stream disturbances such as waves. Thus, stream

effects can be propagated both upstream and downstream. This means that

downstream conditions affect the behaviour of flow. When flow is supercritical,

the velocity of flow exceeds the velocity of propagation. Consequently, stream

effects (for example, waves) cannot be transmitted upstream, and downstream

conditions do not affect the behaviour of the flow. For critical flow, the specific

energy is a minimum for a given discharge. In this case, a relationship exists

between the minimum specific energy and the critical depth. This relationship is

found by differentiating Equation 41 with respect to h, while Q remains constant.

This gives:

Froude Number

The Froude Number is calculated according to:

Where: Fr = 1 for critical flow, Fr = > 1 for super-critical flow, Fr = < 1 for sub-

critical flow

If a structure is built in a canal which has sub-critical flow, it may cause the flow

to pass through the critical to the super-critical state. This means that the state

126

upstream of the structure becomes independent of the state downstream. This

can either be achieved if the structure narrows the canal, which means

increasing the (Q/b)- ratio without altering the specific energy, or if it raises the

canal bed, which means reducing the specific energy without altering the

discharge per unit width. That is how critical flow is obtained with a measuring

device. A control section in a canal is a section that produces a definitive

relationship between water depth and discharge.

Hydraulic jump

If, through a structure, super-critical flow is introduced in a canal where the

normal flow is sub-critical, flow adjusts back to the sub-critical state through a

hydraulic jump in which the water level rises over a short distance with much

visible turbulence. This situation occurs, for example, downstream of a sluice

gate or a flume. It is undesirable to have a hydraulic jump in an unlined canal

because of the risk of scour. In such cases, a jump is usually induced over a

concrete apron by means of a sill or baffle blocks set in the floor, as shown in

Figure 67.

The relationship between depths just upstream and downstream of a hydraulic

jump is found by the application of the momentum theory to the simplified

situation shown in Figure 68. It is assumed that boundary frictions are negligible

over the length of the jump. For a rectangular

canal it can be shown that:

Equation 43

6.6.2. Weirs

FLOW OVER WEIRS AND NOTCHES

127

A weir in general is any regular obstruction over which flow occurs. Weirs, especially the

sharp-crested ones are commonly used for measuring large and small open flows in the

field or laboratory.

The zone of fluid before the wall of the weir is called the head race while the zone of

water after the weir is called the tail race

The distance L

B

from the wall of the weir to the point where a fall in the level of stream is

noticeable, known as the drawdown section is given by:

L

B

= (3- 5)H

H - measured at the section B-B is called the geometric head which is the rise of fluid

above the crest of the weir

B – width of weir going into the paper

δ – thickness of the wall of the weir

z – geometric drop in the level of fluid at the weir. It is the difference between the head

race and the tail race.

v

o

– approach velocity

H

o

– The total head which is given by the sum of the geometric head and the velocity

head.

z

o

– total drop in head over the weir which is the sum of the geometric drop plus the

velocity head.

L

B

H

v

o

z

P

δ

Tail race

Head race

B

B

H

o

128

Classification of weirs

1. By form of the opening

a) Rectangular

b) Triangular

c) Trapezoidal

d) Circular

e) Parabolic

f) With inclined crest

2. By the thickness of the cross-section of weir wall

a) Sharp-crested weir δ ≤ (0.1 – 0.5)H: In sharp-crested weirs, the nappe springs

free as it leaves the upstream face

b) Broad – crested weir 2H ≤ δ < 8H: In broad-crested weir, the falling nappe is

supported on the crest and does not allow the nappe to fall free.

c) Weir with practical profile (Orgee weir)

3. By width of obstacle in relation to width of stream

a) Suppressed weir: - When the length of the weir is the same as the width of the

channel (stream) It is so called because in this case, the effect of sides or ends of the weir

on contraction of the nappe is eliminated or suppressed. The width of the nappe is the

same as the width of the stream.

b) Weirs with end contractions: - In this case, the length of the weir is less than

the width of the channel. Therefore there is a lateral contraction of the nappe so that the

length of the nappe is less than the length of the weir crest.

4. By the level of downstream water level relative to the crest of the weir.

a) Un-submerged weir: - When the water level on the downstream side of the weir

is below the crest of the weir, it is said to be un-submerged.

b) Submerged weir: When the water level on the downstream side of the weir

rises above the level of the crest, the weir is said to be submerged.

The flow of fluid over weirs is extremely complex phenomenon and virtually impossible

of exact analytical solution. As result, all weir formula are derived by making lots of

129

simplification of the problem which leads to an approximate solution which is somehow

rectified by the use of experimental coefficients derived from experimental set ups.

To derive a simplified relationship for a weir, the following assumptions are made:

i) velocity distribution upstream from the weir is uniform

ii) all fluid particles move horizontally as they trave pass the weir crest

iii) thew pressure in the nappe is zero; ie atmospheric

iv) the influence of viscosity, surface tension, turbulence are all neglected

After simplification, the sharp-crested weir is considered as a large orifice of rectangular

shape placed in the channel such that the head on its upper edge is zero. As a result, the

upper edge is eliminated leaving only the lower edge or the crest. By considering the weir

as a large orifice and by considering an elementary strip of of area Bdh below the free

surface, the velocity of flow is given by:

. . 2gh c u

v

·

The flow rate through the strip

gh Bdhc dQ

v

2 ·

The theoretical flow passing over the weir is obtained by integrating the above equation

over the geometric head.

v

1

H

v

1

2

/2g

P

Fig. Simplified flow over weir with the above assumptions

1 1

2

2

h

dh

H

Weir crest

B

130

2 / 3

0

2

3

2

2 H g Bc dh gh Bc Q

v

H

v ∫

· ·

To obtained the actual flow rate over the weir due to the above assumptions, we introduce

an experimental coefficient of discharge

2 / 3

2

3

2

H g B C Q

D

·

If the approach velocity v

o

is appreciable (>1.0), then instead of geometric head one has

to use the total head H

o

As can be seen, the formula for flow over weir seems simple and easy to use however, the

difficulty is with the correct determination of the discharge coefficient. In the laboratory,

this could be determined quite easily and accurately, however, it becomes extremely

difficult to determine this accurately in the field. A few empirical formulae exist for the

determination of the discharge coefficient for a rectangular weir.

C

D

= 0.40 + 0.05 H/P ------------Chugaev R. R. (2/3 in front of flow rate absorbed)

C

D

= 0.405 + 0.003/H -----------Basen (2/3 in front of formula absorbed)

C

D

= 0.397 + 0.00015/H

3/2

Fteley and Stearn (2/3 in front of formula absorbed)

C

D

= 605 + 0.08H/P + 1/1000H ------Rehbock

C

D

= 0.611 + 0.075H/P -----------taken from A. K. Jain.

Contracted Weirs

For weir with end contractions, Francis observed that the effect of the contraction is to

reduce the length of nappe by 0.1H. Thus if there are n end contractions, then the length

of the nappe will be reduced by 0.1nH and will be equal to (B – 0.1nH) and the discharge

equation will then be given as:

2 / 3

2 ) 1 . 0 (

3

2

H g nH B C Q

D

− ·

Flow over a Triangular Weir (Notch)

A triangular weir (notch) is particularly useful where the discharge is to vary over a large

range and the same accuracy is desired for both small and large discharges because of the

following advantages:

131

i) The coefficient of discharge for a triangular weir is practically independent of the head.

This is because, for all heads the ratio of the head to the wetted length of crest is constant.

But in a rectangular weir, the ratio of head to the wetted length of crest is not constant.

ii) When the discharge is small, a triangular notch provides a greater head than the

rectangular notch. Hence head measurement can be done more accurately over the

triangular notch than over the rectangular notch.

iii) When the flow rate is small, there is the tendency of a clinging nappe in a rectangular

notch. However, for the same flow rate over a triangular notch, the head will be greater

and clinging nappe will be avoided.

The equation for the discharge over the vee-notch can be obtained just like we did in the

rectangular weir by considering an elementary strip of width b and height dh.

Considering the notch as a large orifice, the velocity of flow is given by:

. . 2gh c u

v

·

The flow rate through the strip

gh bdhc dQ

v

2 ·

But b = 2(H – h)tan θ/2

Putting b into the discharge equation,

dh gh c h H dQ

v

2

2

tan ) ( 2

θ

− ·

b

H

h

θ

dh

132

( )

2 / 5

0

2 / 3 2 / 1

2

tan 2

15

8

2

2

tan 2 H g c dh h Hh g c Q

v

H

v

θ θ

· − ·

∫

The above equation represents the theoretical discharge without consideration of the

contraction of the flow area. The actual discharge is obtained by applying the coefficient

of discharge C

D.

to obtain:

2

5

.

2

tan 2

15

8

H g C Q

D

θ

·

By representing k= (8/15)C

D

(2g)

1/2

and taking the average value of C

D

=0.60

k = 8/15 x 0.60 x 4.43 = 1.42 and hence

Q = 1.42 x tan(θ/2) H

5/2

For a right angled Vee-notch, θ = 90

o

and hence

Q = 1.42 H

5/2

Empirical formulae 1) By Thompson

Q = 1.4 H

5/2

2. By King

Q = 1.343 H

2.47

By Grave When 22

o

≤ θ ≤ 118

o

Q = 1.331 (tan θ/2)

0.996

H

2.47

The coefficient of discharge is made up mainly of the contraction coefficient and the

velocity coefficient. The contraction coefficient of a notch depends on the wetted

perimeter. For a rectangular notch, the wetted perimeter does not vary with head because

the base, which forms part of the wetted perimeter remains constant for all heads.

Consequently, the coefficient of contraction and hence the coefficient of discharge will

not be constant for all heads. In a triangular notch, there is no base and therefore the

contraction is due to the sides only. The wetted perimeter depends on the length of the

sides which in turn depend on the head. Consequently, the coefficient of discharge is

fairly constant in a triangular notch.

Trapezoidal Weir

A trapezoidal weir has an opening of a trapezoidal shape and may be considered as a

combination of a rectangular and a triangular weirs.

133

The trapezoidal notch is equivalent to two notches; one rectangular with length b and the

other a triangular with an apex angle of θ. The total discharge over the trapezoidal notch

would be equal to the sum of discharges over the equivalent rectangular and triangular

notches.; thus

Q

trap

= Q

1

+ Q

2

=

,

_

¸

¸

+ · +

2

tan

15

8

3

2

2

2

tan 2

15

8

2

3

2

2 / 3

*

2

5

2 / 3

θ θ

H b H g C H g C H g b C

D D D

Cippoletti Weir

The principle behind the Cippoletti weir is based on the fact that in a rectangular weir,

due to end contractions, the effective length of the weir is reduced and consequently the

discharge. On the other hand, by the addition of side slopes to a rectangular weir, gives an

increase in discharge. Therefore if the side slopes of a trapezoidal weir are so adjusted

such that the reduction in discharge due to end contractions is just equal to the increase in

discharge due to the addition of side slopes, the net effect I discharge is zero and

therefore the standard weir formula without end contraction can be used.

The Cippoletti Weir is a trapezoidal weir with side slopes 1 horizontal to 4 vertical such

that the discharge in effect equal to that of a rectangular weir without end contraction.

For Cippoletti weir,

2

3

2

3

2

H g b C Q

D

·

Cipolletti gave the equation for the discharge through such a weir as:

Q = 1.86 b H

3/2

Submerged Weir

b

θ/2

θ/2

H

Trapezoidal Weir

134

A submerged weir (notch) is one in which the level of fluid in the downstream side of the

weir is above the crest of the weir.

The flow over such a weir can be obtained by dividing the flow into two portions:

i) Flow over the upper part of the section (above line AB) of depth (H

1

– H

2

)

may be considered as a free from a weir into the atmosphere and

ii) Flow through the lower part of depth (below line AB) may be considered as a

discharge through a submerged orifice.

The discharge over the upper portion behaving as a free weir is given by

( )

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 1 1

2

3

2

2

3

2

H g b C H H g b C Q

D D

· − ·

and the lower portion acting as an orifice is given by:

( ) gH bH C H H g bH C Q

D D

2 2

2 2 1 2 2

· − ·

Therefore the total flow is given by:

gH bH C H g b C Q

D D

2 2

3

2

2

2 / 3

+ ·

Experimental works by Herschel, Villemonte and Mavis on the discharge characteristics

of a number of sharp-crested submerged weirs on rectangular, triangular. Parabolic and

proportional weirs showed the results for all types could be represented by the equation:

Flow over submerged weir

H

1

H

2

1

2

A

B

H

135

385 . 0

1

2

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

n

H

H

Q Q

where Q = discharge for submerged condition

Q

1

= free discharge given by Q = K H

1

n

n = exponent in the free discharge equation

n = 1.44 for contracted weir

n = 1.5 for suppressed weir

n = 2.50 for 90

o

notch.

Broad-Crested Weir

Broad-crested weirs (long-based weirs) are weirs that have crest lengths that are

sufficiently longer (δ > 0.67H) to prevent the nappe from springing free. These weirs are

usually constructed of concrete, have rounded edges, and are capable of handling much

larger discharges than sharp-crested weirs.

Some advantages of broad-crested weirs.

i) It is cheaply and easily fabricated (can be done in-situ or off-site)

ii) It is easy to install

iii) It possesses a wide modular range;

iv) It produces minimum afflux(increases in upstream depth due to weir

installation)

v) It requires a minimum of maintenance.

Flow over a broad-crested weir must pass through the critical depth somewhere near the

downstream corner. Broad-crested weirs are characterized by the presence of two drops

in the water level over the weir.

δ

Z

B

1 2

H

P

H

o

h

Z

B(o)

v

Z

c

136

By taking Bernoulli’s equation in sections 1 and 2 , the velocity of flow on the weir is

obtained as

( ) h H g c gZ c v

o v B v

− · · 2 2

0

For a rectangular weir, the discharge is given by:

Q = Av = b x h x v =

( ) h H g bhc

o v

− 2

----------(*)

( ) ( ) h f h H g hc q

o v

· − · 2

---------------------(**)

As can be seen from the above equation, in order to determine the discharge, there is the

need to first find h, the depth of flow on the weir. There are many methods of finding h

and Q but the Belanch’s method based on the principle of maximum discharge is much

more appealing.

As can be seen from the above equation, the discharge is only a function of h and the

value of h varies between 0 ≤ h ≤ H

o

however the discharge goes to zero as h = 0 and as

h = H

o

Since the function (**) is a continuous function and the function goes to zero at the two

limits, then it follows that there must be a turning point (maximum or minimum) within

the limits. This is the basis of Belanch’s principle which states that: for a given head H

o

on a broad-crested weir, the depth that will be established on the weir is such as to result

in the maximum discharge on the weir.

With the above postulate, the required depth is obtained by:

( ) [ ]

0

2

·

−

·

dh

h H g h c d

dh

dq

o v

Neglecting the constants and differeniating

( )

0

2

1

·

−

− − ·

−

h H

h

h H

dh

h H h d

o

o

o

which gives h = 2/3H

o

Substituting this value of h into (*) we

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2

2

2 385 . 0 2

27

4

3

2

2

3

2

.

o D

o D

o v o v o o v o

H g C q

H g b C Q

H g b c H g bc H H g c H b Q

·

·

· ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

where C

D

= 0.385 C

v

, C

D

ranges between 0.32 to 0.36.

137

Ventilation of Weirs

When flow takes place over a suppressed weir with wing walls on the downstream side,

the free access of air below the nappe is prevented. The air entrapped between the nappe

and the weir face is gradually evacuated by the dynamic action of the flowing fluid. This

eventually leads to subatmospheric pressure in the underside of the nappe bringing about

increases in the discharge.

Investigations by Bazin have shown that if the flow is sufficient to prevent the air having

access to the underside of the nappe, it may assume one of the forms shown below

Fully aerated (free, ventilated) nappe: In this type, the weir discharges free as the

pressure below the nappe is maintained at atmospheric by proper ventilation.

Drowned (depressed) nappe: When the underside of the nappe is poorly aerated, the air

enclosed between the nappe and the downstream face of the weir gradually mixes up with

the flowing fluid and is carried away. This causes the pressure under the napper to fall

below atmospheric. The pressure difference on the two sides of the nappe-(the upper side

exposed to atmospheric while the bottom side has sub-atmospheric pressure) –causes the

nappe to deflect towards the weir.

Clinging nappe: This type occurs when there is no ventilation and all the air under the

napper has been carried away by the dynamic action of the flowing fluid. The nappe is

forced to adhere to the downstream face of the weir by the atmospheric pressure on the

upper side. In this type, the discharge is 20 to 30 per cent more than in free nappe.

Knowledge of these types of nappes is necessary especially when the weir is used for floe

(discharge) measurement. All the discharge formulae have been derived for free nappe

Fully aerated nappe Drowned nappe Clinging nappe

Atmospheric

Pressure

Sub-atmospheric

pressure

138

and therefore some adjustment in the measured flow must be made when other forms of

nappe occurs during discharge measurement. For discharge measurement it is always

advisable to ensure that the nappe is fully aerated.

FLUMES

Although weirs are the cheapest and simplest structures for flow measurement in open

channels, however the relatively high losses caused by weirs and the tendency of

sedimentation of suspended particles due to reduced velocities in the vicinity of the weir,

could in certain cases pose important limitations Flumes provide a convenient alternative

to weirs for flow measurement in open channels where high head losses and

sedimentation are of concern. Such cases include flow measurement in wastewater

treatment plants and irrigation channels with suspended particles

Flumes are devices in which the flow is locally accelerated by a streamlined lateral

contraction in the channel sides. A flume has: a convergent section, in which the

flow accelerates, a throat section and a divergent section, in which the

flow returns to normal

Flumes are of two types: non-modular or the venturi flume and the modular or the

standing wave flume.

In the non-modular flume, the velocity at the throat is maintained below the critical value

so that no standing wave is produced. However, in the modular type, the flume is

designed such that the velocity of flow at the throat is greater than the critical velocity

thereby resulting in a standing wave within the flume.

Non-Modular Flume (Venturi Flume)

b

2

b

1

v

1

2

/2g

h

1

h

2

v

2

2

/2g

Critical depth

ELEVATION

PLAN

1

1

2

2

139

When the width of a channel is reduced while the bed remains flat, the discharge per unit

width increases. If the losses are neglected, the specific energy remains constant. If the

conditions are made such that the free surface does not pass through the critical depth, the

arrangement forms a Venturi flume.

Referring to the diagram above, for continuity of flow,

h

1

x b

1

x v

1

= h

2

x b

2

x v

2

--continuity equation for section 1-1 and 2-2.

Applying Bernoulli’s equation to sections 1-1 and 2-2

h

1

+ v

1

2

/2g = h

2

+v

2

2

/2g

Substituting v

1

for continuity equation,

h

1

-h

2

= v

2

2

/2g[1-(h

2

b

2

/h

1

b

2

)

2

]

( )

( )

e disch l Theoretica

h b

h b

h h g

h b A v Q

b h

h b

h h g

v

arg .. ..

1

2

1

2

2

1

2

2 1

2 2 2 2

2

1

2 2

2 1

2

− − − −

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

· ·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

Introducing the discharge coefficient, C

D

= (Actual discharge)/(Theoretical discharge)

( )

( )

2 1

2

2

2

1

2 1

2

1 1

2 2

2 1

2 2

2

1

2

h h g

A A

A A

C

h b

h b

h h g

h b C Q

D D

−

−

·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

C

D

= 0.95 to o.99

Therefore to measure the flowrate, water depth are measured at two locations, one at

section 1-1 and the other at section 2-2.

Modular Flume or Standing Wave Flume (eg. Parshall Flume)

As already mentioned, modular flumes are designed to make the flow pass through the

critical depth in some section of the throat.

By considering a section upstream with depth h

1

and another section at the throat with

depth h

2

, then applying Bernoulli’s equation,

h

1

+ v

1

2

/2g

= h

2

+ v

2

2

= H

140

v

2

= (2g(H-h

2

)

1/2

Therefore the discharge Q = b

2

h

2

v

2

= b

2

h

2

[2g(H-h

2

)]

1/2

( ) ( )

2 / 1

3

2 2

3 2

2 2

2 2 h Hh g b h Hh g b Q − · − ·

For the maximum discharge, the quantity (Hh

2

-h

3

)

1/2

should be maximum

Therefore

( )

H h

h Hh

dh

h Hh d

3

2

0 3 2

0

2

2

2 2

3 2

2

·

· −

·

−

Thus for the flow to be maximum, the depth at the throat section should be two-thirds the

total energy.

For this condition, the velocity

( )

2 2

2

2 2

2

3

2 2 gh h

h

g h H g v ·

,

_

¸

¸

− · − ·

This implies that for maximum discharge, the depth at the throat must be equal to the

critical depth and the velocity critical velocity.

Substituting h

2

= 2/3H in the discharger expression, we shall obtain

2 / 3 2

1 1 2

2 / 3

2

2 / 3

2

2 / 1

2

) 2 / ( 705 . 1 705 . 1 2

3 3

2

3

2

3

2

2 g v h b H b H gb H H H g b Q + · · ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

Although flat bed modular flume is easier to construct, it is sometimes necessary to raise

the invert in the throat to attain critical conditions. For the flat or raised floor, the throat

length should ideally be sufficient to ensure that the curvature of water surface is small to

make the water surface parallel to the invert. Such ideal flumes become relatively long

and expensive. A more compact, short and less expensive groups of flumes have been

constructed. However, the surface water profile varies rapidly and as such the theoretical

analysis for ordinary flumes is not wholly applicable. Therefore empirical relationship are

usually developed for such flumes (e.g; Parshall Flume), which make each such flume

standard with its unique calibration curve.

The Parshall Flume

The Parshall flume is a widely-used discharge measurement structure. Figure 76 shows

its general form. The characteristics of Parshall flumes are:

i) Small head losses, ii) Free passage of sediments, iii) Reliable measurements even

when partially submerged and iv) Low sensitivity to velocity of approach

141

The Parshall flume consists of a converging section with a level floor, a throat section

with a downward sloping floor and a diverging section with an upward sloping floor.

Flume sizes are known by their throat width and each size has its own characteristics,

which is unique (see Table 31).

The flow through the Parshall flume can occur either under free flow or under submerged

flow conditions. Under free flow the rate of discharge is solely dependent on the throat

width and the measured water depth, ha. The water depth is measured at a fixed point in

the converging section.

The upstream water depth-discharge relationship, according to empirical calibrations, has

the following general form:

Q = K x (h

a

)

u

Where: Q - Discharge (m

3

/s); h

a

Water depth in converging section (m); K -A fraction,

which is a function of the throat width; u Variable, lying between 1.522 and 1.60

Table 32 gives the values for K and u for each flume size.

When the ratio of gauge reading h

b

to h

a

exceeds 60% for flumes up to 9 inches, 70% for

flumes between 9 inches and 8 feet and 80% for larger flume sizes, the discharge is

reduced due to submergence. The upper limit of submergence is 95%, after which the

flume ceases to be an effective measuring device because the head difference between h

a

and h

b

becomes too small, such that a slight inaccuracy in either head reading results in a

large discharge measurement error

142

143

The discharge under submerged conditions is:

Q

s

= Q - Q

c

Where: Q

c

– Reduction of the modular discharge due to submergence

Figure 77 gives the corrections Qc for submergence for flumes with 6 inch,

9 inch and 1 foot throat width. The correction for the 1 foot flume is made

applicable to other sizes by multiplying the correction Qc for the 1 foot by

the factors given in Figure 77 (1 foot flume).

144

145

146

147

148

The weir is the most practical and economical device for water measurement.

Weirs are simple to construct, easy to inspect, robust and reliable. Discharge

measurement weirs can either be sharp-crested (Figure 69, 70, 71) or

broadcrested (Figure 72).

149

Sharp-crested weirs

Sharp-crested weirs, also called thin plate weirs, consist of a smooth, vertical, flat

plate installed across the channel and perpendicular to the flow (Figure 69). The

plate obstructs flow, causing water to back up behind the weir plate and to flow

over the weir crest. The distance from the bottom of

the canal to the weir crest, p, is the crest height. The depth of flow over the weir

crest, measured at a specified distance upstream of the weir plate (about four

times the maximum h1), is called the head h1. The overflowing sheet of water is

known as the nappe.

Thin plate weirs are most accurate when the nappe springs completely free of

the upstream edge of the weir crest and air is able to pass freely around the

nappe. The crest of a sharp-crested weir can extend across the full width of

channel or it can be notched. The most commonly used notched ones are:

Rectangular contracted weir

Trapezoidal (Cipoletti) weir (Figure 70)

Sharp sided 90° V-notch weir (Figure 71)

The type and dimensions of the weir chosen are based on the expected

discharge and the limits of its fluctuation. For example, a V-notch weir gives the

most accurate results when measuring small discharges and is particularly

adapted to the measurement of fluctuating discharges.

Calibration curves and tables have been developed for standard weir types. The

conditions and settings for standard weirs are as follows:

i. The height of the crest from the bottom of the approach canal (p) should

preferably be at least twice the depth of water above the crest and should in no

150

case be less than 30 cm. This will allow the water to fall freely, leaving an

airspace under and around the jets.

ii. At a distance upstream of about four times the maximum head a staff gauge is

installed on the crest with the zero placed at the crest elevation, to measure the

head h1.

iii. For the expected discharge, the head (h1) should not be less than 6 cm and

should not exceed 60 cm.

iv. For rectangular and trapezoidal weirs, the head (h1) should not exceed 1/3 of

the weir length.

v. The weir length should be selected so that the head for the design discharge

will be near the maximum, subject to the limitations given in (ii) and (iii).

vi. The thickness of the crest for sharp-crest weirs should be between 1-2 mm.

In sediment-laden canals, a main disadvantage of using weirs is that silt is

deposited against the upstream face of the weir, altering the discharge

characteristics. Weirs also cannot be used in canals with almost no longitudinal

slopes, since the required difference in elevation between the water

levels upstream and downstream side of the weir is not available. Discharge

equations for weirs are derived by the application of the Continuity and Bernoulli

Equations (Equation 12 and 38 respectively). In each case, a discharge

coefficient is used in order to adjust the theoretical discharge found by laboratory

measurement

Rectangular contracted weir

A rectangular contracted weir is a thin-plate weir of rectangular shape, located

perpendicular to the flow. To allow full horizontal contraction of the nappe, the

bed and sides of the canal must be sufficiently far from the weir crest and sides.

Many practical formulae have been developed for

computing the discharge, amongst which are the following

Where:

151

Q = Design discharge over weir (m3/sec) b = Length of weir crest (m) h =

Design water depth measured from the top of the weir crest (m) Table 28 gives

discharge data related to length of crest, b, and water head, h, over a weir.

Trapezoidal (Cipoletti) weir

The trapezoidal weir has a trapezoidal opening, the base being horizontal. The

Cipoletti weir is a trapezoidal weir with the sides having an outward sloping

inclination of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical (Figure 70). This side slope is such that the

water depth-discharge relationship is the same as

that of a full width rectangular weir.

The discharge equation for a Cipoletti weir is:

Where:

Q = Design discharge over weir (m

3

/sec) b = Length of weir crest (m) h =

Design water depth measured from the top of the weir crest (m)

Table 29 shows discharge data, related to the design water

depth, h, and weir length, b.

152

V-notch weir

A V-notch weir has two edges that are symmetrically inclined to the vertical to

form a notch in the plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. The most

commonly used V-notch weir is the one with a 90° angle. Other common V-

notches are the ones where the top width is equal to the vertical depth (1/2 x 90°

V-notch) and the one where the top width is half of the vertical depth (1/4 x 90° V-

notch) (Figure 71). The V-notch weir is an accurate discharge-measuring device,

particularly for discharges less than 30 l/sec, and it is as accurate as other types

of sharp-crested weirs for discharges from 30 to 300 l/sec (U.S. Department of

Interior, 1975). To operate properly, the weir should be installed so that the

minimum distance from the canal bank to the weir edge is at least twice the head

on the weir. In addition, the distance from the bottom of the approach canal to the

point of the weir notch should also be at least twice the head on the weir (U.S.

Department of Interior, 1975).

The general and simple discharge equation for a V-notch

153

Where:

Q = Design discharge over the weir (m3/sec) θ = Angle included between the

sides of the notch (degrees)

h = Design water depth (m)

Table 30 gives discharge data for the three common V-notches related to water

depth (head) and angle°.

154

Broad-crested weir

A broad-crested weir is a broad wall set across the canal bed. The way it

functions is to lower the specific energy and thus induce a critical flow (Figure 72

Flumes

Discharge measurement flumes are extensively used in irrigation schemes

mainly because they:

Can be used under almost any flow condition

155

Have smaller head-losses than weirs, thus are more

accurate over a large flow range

Are insensitive to the velocity of approach

Are relatively less susceptible to sediment and debris transport

However, major disadvantages of flumes include the relative large sizes and the

accurate manufacturing/construction workmanship required for optimum

performance (James, 1988).

A canal section that causes flow to pass from sub-critical through critical to the

super-critical state forms a control and the discharge is a single valued function

of the upstream water level. Critical flow can be achieved by raising the canal

bed, thereby reducing the specific energy, or by decreasing the canal width,

thereby increasing the discharge per unit width (see Section 6.6.1). This latter

technique is the one used by flumes. A flume has:

A convergent section, in which the flow accelerates

A throat, in which critical flow occurs

A divergent section, in which the flow returns to normal

Super-critical flow passing from the throat will return to sub-critical flow

downstream of the flume. This occurs due to the development of a hydraulic

jump, which is induced within the divergent section by a sill or other barrier.

Where there is sufficient head available, the divergent section of the

flume could be avoided as the flow could fall freely in a stilling basin. In this case,

weirs could also be used. However, if canals are expected to carry a lot of

sediment, the flume should be the better choice. Flumes are most commonly

rectangular or trapezoidal in cross-section. The former type is the most simple to

construct, but if the canal cross-section is not rectangular there is a risk that

unpredictable flow patterns will result from an abrupt change of cross-section.

The most commonly used flumes are:

Parshall flume

Trapezoidal flume

Cut-throat flume

Trapezoidal flume

Whenever the canal section is not rectangular, trapezoidal flumes such as those

shown in Figure 79, are often preferred, especially for measuring smaller

discharges. A typical trapezoidal flume has an approach, a converging section, a

throat, a diverging and an exit section. A minimum transition will be required. An

additional advantage is the flat bottom, which allows sediment to pass through

fairly easily. Furthermore, the loss in head may be less for comparable

discharges. Trapezoidal flumes are particularly suited for installation in concrete-

lined canals. The flume should normally be put on top of the lining, thus

constricting the flow section to the extent required for free flow conditions over a

156

whole range of discharges up to the canal design discharge. As a rule of thumb,

one can say that the lower the canal gradient the higher the elevation of the

flume above the canal bed level. The flow characteristics of the flume can be

determined experimentally. This allows for the calibrations of the flume.

As an example, a flume with dimensions such as those given in Figure 79 can be

located in a canal with a bed width of 0.30 m (1 foot), having side slopes of 1:1.

The range of calibrated water depth is 6-37 cm and the range of calibrated

discharge is 1.4-169 l/sec. This will suit most conditions in a typical small-scale

irrigation canal.

Cut-throat flume

The cut-throat flume has a converging inlet section, throat and diverging outlet

section. The flume has a flat bottom and vertical walls (Figure 80). It is preferable

157

to have the cut-throat flume operating under free flow conditions. This facilitates

measurements and ensures a high degree of accuracy.

Free flow conditions through the cutthroat flume are described by the following

Where:

Q = Discharge (m3/sec) C = Free flow coefficient ha = Upstream water depth

(m),

K = Flume length coefficient W = Throat width (m)

158

159

Orifices

Orifices, such as gates and short pipes, are also used as water measuring

devices (Figure 82). However, they do not offer any advantage over the use of

weirs or flumes. Furthermore, their calibrations are not as accurate nor as stable

as other types of measuring devices. For weirs the discharge is proportional to

the head above the crest raised to the power 3/2 (Equations 44, 45, 46,

48). Therefore, they are sensitive to the fluctuations in the upstream water level.

For orifices, including gates and short pipes, the discharge is proportional to the

head of water above the crest raised to the power 1/2, as shown by Equation 34

(see Section 6.1.3). Therefore, they are less sensitive to small fluctuations of the

upstream water level. Under submerged conditions both the upstream and

downstream sides of the structure need water level recordings. For free flow

conditions, the discharge is a function of the upstream water depth alone.

160

The general discharge equation for a free flow orifice is (Equation 34):

Where:

161

Q = Design discharge through orifice (m3/sec) C = Design coefficient

(approximately 0.60)

A = Cross-sectional area of the orifice (m2) g = Gravitational force (9.81 m/sec2)

h1 = Water depth upstream of orifice over reference level (m) (Figure 83)

Partially-opened sluice gates could be used for discharge measurements, in

which case they will be acting like submerged orifices (Figure 84). For partially-

opened sluice gates and submerged orifices

the discharge equation reads:

Where:

Q = Design discharge through orifice (m3/sec), C = Discharge coefficient, which

is 0.63 for sluice gates and submerged orifices and 0.85 for short pipes, A =

Cross-sectional area of the orifice (m2) g = Gravitational force (9.81 m/sec2), h1

= Water depth upstream of orifice over reference level (m), h2 = Water depth

downstream of the structure (m)

Current meters

Current meters are used to measure the velocity in a canal, from where the

discharge can be calculated using the Continuity Equation 12 (see Section 5.1).

Most current meters have a propeller axis in the direction of the current. The

flowing water sets the propeller turning. On a meter, forming part of the

equipment, the number of revolutions per time unit can be read and, by means of

162

a calibrated graph or table, the velocity can be determined. A well known type of

current meter is the Ott instrument C31 for velocities up to 10 m (Figure 85).

Propeller meters are reliable and accurate, but rather expensive. In measuring

the velocities, the number of points per vertical and the number of verticals per

cross-section should be determined. For this purpose, the quantity of work and

the time required should be weighed against the degree of accuracy (Euro-

consult, 1989). For example, measurements can be taken at 10 cm horizontal

distance over the cross-section and at 0.2h and 0.8h depth at each 10 cm (h is

the water depth). The velocity is the average of the velocity at 0.2h and 0.8h

depth. If the water depth is less than 0.5-0.6 m, one reading can be done at 0.6h.

Then, for each vertical the flow per unit width can be calculated according to q =

v av x h (Figure 86a). These qs are distributed over the total width (Figure 86b)

and the area between the q-line and the water surface gives the total discharge.

It is also possible to establish the discharge per section and to consider the sum

of the discharges in the sections as the total discharge.

163

Discharge measurement in pipelines

Several types of devices can be used to measure the discharge in pipelines. This

section will discuss differential pressure and rotating mechanical meters, as they

are the ones commonly used.

Differential pressure flow meters

Differential pressure flow meters create a pressure difference that is proportional

to the square of the

discharge. The pressure difference is created by causing flow to pass through a

contraction. Manometers, bourdon gauges, or pressure transducers are normally

utilized to measure the pressure difference. One good example of a differential

pressure flow meter is the Venturi tube (Figure 87).

Venturi tube

The pressure drop between the inlet and throat is created as water passes

through the throat. In the section downstream of the throat, the gradual increase

in cross-sectional area causes the velocity to decrease and the pressure to

increase. The pressure drop between the Venturi inlet and the throat is related to

the discharge, as follows

164

Where:

Q = Discharge (l/min), C = Flow coefficient, D = Diameter of upstream section

(cm), d = Diameter of contraction (cm)

P1 = Pressure in upstream section (kPa), P2 = Pressure in contraction (kPa), K

= Unit constant (K is 6.66 for Q in l/min, d and D in cm, and P1 and P2 in kPa)

The flow coefficient C for a Venturi metre is 0.97.

Rotating mechanical flow meters

There are many types of rotating mechanical flow meters used in pipelines.

These flow meters normally have a rotor that revolves at a speed roughly

proportional to the discharge and a device for recording and displaying the

discharge and total volume. The rotor may be a propeller or axial flow turbine, or

a vane-wheel with the flow impinging tangentially at one or more points.

Calibration tests are usually needed to accurately relate rotor revolutions to the

flow. The lowest discharge that can be accurately measured by a rotating

mechanical flow meter depends on the amount of bearing friction that can be

tolerated while the occurrence of cavitation often establishes the largest flow rate

that can be measured (see Module 5). Head loss through most rotating

mechanical discharge meters is moderate.

165

Chapter 8

DESIGN OF WEIRS AND BARRAGES. THEORY OF SEEPAGE

Weir or Anicut

It is a solid wall of masonry or concrete constructed along the width of the river

from one bank to the other to raise the water level on the upstream side so that

proper supplies of water may be assured to the canals. Usually water flows over

the crest of the weir but sometimes shutters 1m or more high are provided on the

crest of the weir. During the dry period the shutters are raised to raise the water

level and during rainy season, the shutters are dropped to allow flood waters to

pass without causing damage on the upstream side.

Barrage

The function of a barrage is the same as that of a weir. In a barrage, a low height

weir is constructed first and then according to design piers are constructed at

regular intervals along the width of the river. The gaps between the piers are

closed by means of gates, which can be lifted or lowered down mechanically or

manually or both. Barrages are preferred now-a-days as they offer greater

flexibility in operation and better control. In this case, water level can be raised

many times more than weirs and at will, more discharge can be passed by lifting

the gates, but in case of weirs, the crest is fixed and only a fixed amount of

discharge can be passed.

When the foundation of a hydraulic structure is pervious, seepage will take place

as long as differential head exists across the structure.

Seepage of water below the structure may result in failure due to piping or

pressure uplift.

BLIGH’S CREEP THEORY

Bligh stated that: creep is caused by differential head across a structure and the

loss of head is proportional to the length of creep.

Length of creep: is the total distance travelled by seeping (creeping) water.

If H = total head across structure,

And L =total length of travel of seepage water (creep length,

then the head lost per unit creep length = H/L referred to as hydraulic gradient.

Referring to the diagram below, assume that there are three cut-offs down

beneath the foundation of a weir with depths y1, y2, and y3 at A B and C. Then the

total seepage length (creep length)

Lc = L1 + L2 + 2(y1 + y2 + y3)

If H is the total head difference downstream and upstream, then the hydraulic

gradient is given by:

Hydraulic gradient = H / Lc = head lost per unit length travelled by seepage

water.

Head loss across cut-off A = (H/Lc) x 2y1

166

B = (H/Lc) x 2y2

C = (H/Lc) x 2y3

Based on the above, Bligh suggested the following to prevent failure by seepage.

1. Safety against Piping: If sufficient creep length is provided by providing vertical

cut-off, the head causing creep can be destroyed before the water exits on the

downstream side and piping (undermining) would be prevented. Accordingly

Bligh gave the following criteria.

Lc = C.H where H is the head across structure; and C = a constant

depending on

soil type and given by Bligh below.

No. Type of soil Value of

C

Limiting value of

safe hydraulic

gradient

1 Fine micaceous sand, alluvial soil,

etc

15 1/15

2 Coarse grained sand 12 1/12

3 Sand with boulders and gravel 5 – 9 1/9- 1/5

4 Light sand and mud (silt?) 8 1/8

Safety against Uplift

The ordinate at any point on the bottom of the floor to the hydraulic gradient

represent the uplift at that point. This uplift must be balanced by the weight of

the floor if uplift is to be prevented. Therefore the floor must be of sufficient

thickness to provide the necessary resisting force to this uplift force.

If we let t be the required floor thickness to balance uplift force , then

H

A

B

Hydraulic gradient

Weir or barrage

L

1

L

2

y

3

h

Q

y

1

C

y

2

167

Weight of floor = γ . SG. t

Uplift force = γ.h

where γ = weight density of water, SG specific gravity of material of floor.

In the limiting condition,

.γ. SG. t = γ.h

or t = h/SG.

If h’ is the ordinate to the hydraulic gradient line considered from the top of the

floor, then: h = h’ + t

And t = h/SG = (h’ + t)/SG

Or t = h’/(SG-1)

This is the limiting thickness of the floor to withstand uplift.

Limitations of Bligh’s Theory

1. Bligh made no distinction between horizontal and vertical creep

2. Bligh did not explain exit gradient

3. Bligh did not make any distinction between outer and inner faces of sheet piles

4. Bligh did not explain any effect of sheet piles length and their distances on exit

gradient.

5. Head loss is not directly proportional to creep length; Also uplift pressure

distribution is not linear.

6. Bligh did not specify the necessity of providing downstream end sheet pile.

A. N. Khosla’s Theory

After studying a lot of dam failure constructed based on Bligh’s theory, Khosla

came out with the following;

Seeping water below a hydraulic structure does not follow the bottom profile of

the impervious floor as stated by Bligh but each particle traces its path along a

series of streamlines.

H

1

H

2

H

1

H

2

Uplift pressure on foundation

168

For steady flow, seepage in a homogeneous soil obeys the Laplacian equation :

0

2

2

2

2

· +

dz

Q d

dx

Q d

---------------------- ( )

where Q = K . h - flow potential

h = residual head at any point within the soil and K coefficient of

permeability as defined by Darcy.

The above equation represents two sets of curves STREAMLINES and

EQUIPOTENTIAL (VELOCITY POTENTIAL) LINES which intercept each other

orthogonally.

Streamline

A streamline is the path traced out by particles of water seeping through the

subsoil. Every particle traces out its own path which represents the streamline for

that particle.

The first streamline, immediately below the hydraulic structure follows the bottom

profile of the structure and will be almost the same as Bligh’s creep path. The

others streamlines will be curves as they proceed through the pervious soil. If an

impervious boundary intervenes, then the last streamline near the boundary

follows the boundary.

Equipotential Lines.

Let us consider that there is no water on the downstream side. If we assume the

downstream bed as the datum, then the on the upstream side is h. All the floor at

the upstream side AB and every particle of water entering the subsoil on the

upstream side will be having a head h. This head will be gradually utilize as the

particle traces out the streamline and when it emerges at the downstream end,

the entire head h will have been utilized so that the head at the exit end will be

Streamlines

A B C D

Equipotential

lines

Flow network

h

169

zero. At any intermediate position along the streamline, the particle will be

having a head h1 which is the residual head; which will be dissipated by the

particle while traveling the remaining path on the streamline. Thus every

streamline moving from a head of h to a head of zero will pass through a residual

head of h1. If all points on all streamline with a residual head of h1 are joined, we

shall obtain a curve called an equipotential line. Thus equipotential line is a line

joining points of equal residual head.

Flow Nets

The streamlines and equipotential lines always intercept at right angles. In a flow

field, the combination of the two groups of lines form a network in the flow field

called the flow net. The space enclosed between any two adjacent streamlines

and equipotential lines is known as a field. Though it is possible to draw an

infinite streamlines and equipotential lines, for the sake of practical convenience

and easy interpretation, only a limited number is usually drawn in such a way that

every field becomes an elementary square.

By drawing the flow net, all characteristics such as flow rate, velocity etc can be

obtained.

Exit and Critical Gradient

Every particle of water while seeping through the sub-soil, at any position will

exert a force f, which will be tangential to the streamline at any point. As the

streamlines bend upward, the tangential force f will be having a vertical

component f1. Also at that point, there will be a downward force W due to the

submerged weight of the soil particle. Thus at that point there will be two forces

on the particle; one upward vertical component of f, and the other, the

submerged weight. It is evident that if the soil particle is not to be dislodged, then

the submerged weight must be greater than the upward vertical component of f.

h

170

The upward vertical component force at any point is proportional to the water

pressure gradient dp/dx.

Hence for stability of the soil and for the prevention of erosion and piping, the

seeping water when it emerges at the downstream side, at the exit position, the

force f1 should be less than the submerged weight W. In other words the exit

gradient at the downstream end must be safe.

If at the exit point at the downstream side, the exit gradient is such that the force

f1is just equal to the submerged weight of the soil particle, then that gradient is

called critical gradient. Safe exit gradients = 0.2 to 0.25 of the critical exit

gradient.

Values of safe exit gradient may be taken as:

0.14 to 0.17 for fine sand

0.17 to 0.20 for coarse sand

0.20 to 0.25 for shingle

Method of Independent Variable of Khosla.

For the determination of seepage below the foundation of hydraulic structure

developed the method of independent variable.

In this method, the actual profile of a weir which is complex, is divided into a

number simple profiles, each of which cab be solved mathematically without

much difficulty.

The most useful profile considered are:

i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness provided with a

sheet pile at the upstream end or a sheet pile at the downstream

end.

ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed, but without any

vertical

cut-off.

C

H

d

D

E

b

Sheet pile at u/s end

E C

d

D

b

H

Sheet pile at d/s end

b

1

171

ii) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with a sheet pile at

some

intermediate point

The mathematical solution of the flow-nets of the above profiles have been given

in the form of curves. From the curves, percentage pressures at various key

points E, C, E1, C1 etc) be determined. The important points to note are:

i) Junctions of pile with the floor on either side{E, C (bottom), E1, C1

(top) }

ii) Bottom point of the pile (D), and

iii) Junction of the bottom corners (D, D’) in case of depressed floor

The percentage pressures at the key points of a simple forms will become valid

for any complex profile, provided the following corrections are effected:

i) correction for mutual interference of piles

ii) correction for the thickness of floor

iii) correction for slope of the floor.

Sheet pile at intermediate position

Depressed floor

b

D

1

D

d

b

1

b

d

H

E C

H

172

173

Correction for Mutual Interference of Piles

Let b1 = distance between the two piles 1 and 2, and

D = the depth of the pile line (2), the influence of which on the neighbouring

pile (1)

of depth d must be determined

b = total length of the impervious floor

c = correction due to interference.

The correction is applied as a percentage of the head

174

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

b

D d

x

b

D

C

1

19

--------------------------- ( )

This correction is positive when the point is considered to be at the rear of the

interfering pile and negative for points considered in the forward or flow direction

with the interfering pile.

For example, correction for pressure at C1 for pile line (1) by the interference of

pile line (2) is positive as pile line (1) is to the rear of the interfering pile line (2).

Similarly, correction for pressure at E2 for pile line (2) due to the interference of

pile line (1) is negative, because E2 is in the forward or flow direction of

interfering pile line (1).

The interference effect will not be present on the intermediate pile if:

i) the outer pile is equal to or longer than the intermediate pile and

175

ii) if the distance between the intermediate pile and outer interfering

pile is less than twice the length of the outer pile

Correction for Floor Thickness

Standard profiles assuming the floors as having negligible thickness. Hence the

values of the percentage pressures computed from the curves corresponds to

the top levels (E1*, C1*) of the floor. However, the junction points of the floor and

pile are at the bottom of the floor (E1, C1)

The pressures at the actual points E1 and C1 are interpolated by assuming a

straight line variation in pressures from the points E1* to D1 and from D1 to C1*

b

1

b

s

E

1

D

1

C

1

d

1 2 3

D

3

b

D

D

2

C

3

D

3

E

1

* C

1

*

E

1

C

1

D

1

Depressed floor

176

The corrected pressures at E1 should be less than the computed pressure t E1*.

Therefore the correction for the pressure at E1 will be negative. And so also is for

pressure at C1.

Correction for Slope of Floor.

A correction for a sloping impervious floor is positive for the down slope in the

flow direction and negative for the up slope in the direction of flow.

No. Slope =Ver:Horiz Correction

as % of

pressure

1 1:1 11.2

2 1:2 6.5

3 1:3 4.5

4 1:4 3.3

5 1:5 2.8

6 1:6 2.5

7 1:7 2.3

8 1:8 2.0

The correction factor must be multiplied by the horizontal length of the slope and

divided by the distance between the two poles between which the sloping floor

exists.

In the diagram above, correction for slope can be applied only to point E2. As the

point E2 is terminating at the descending slope in the direction of flow, the

correction will be positive. The value of correction will be:

C.F. x bs/b1

Where C.F. =correction factor

bs = horizontal length of sloping floor

b1 = horizontal distance between the pile lines

Exit Gradient

H

d b

177

For the standard form consisting of a floor of a length b, and a vertical cut-off of

depth d, the exit gradient at its downstream end is given by:

exit gradient GE = (H/d) x

λ π

1

By referring to plate (17.3 ), for any value of α = b/d, the corresponding value of

λ π

1

can be read off. When H and d are given, GE should be easily calculated.

The value of exit gradient GE should be within safe limits as given below.

No. Type of soil Safe exit Gradient

1 Fine sand 1/7 to 1/6

2 Coarse sand 1/6 to 1/5

3 Shingle 1/5 to 1/4

Use of Khosla’s Pressure Curves.

First consider plate 17.1. Values of 1/α = d/b are plotted as abscissa and

percentage pressure φ = P/H x 100 are plotted as ordinates. There are three

curves, one for QD and one for QE for sheet piles fixed at the ends of the floor and

the last one for φD for depressed floor

To find the percentage pressure at the points C1 and D1 of the upstream pile,

calculate

Αα = b/d and then 1/α = d/b

For this value of 1/α determine the value of φD from the curve

Then subtract this value of φD from 100 to get φD1

ΦD1 = 100 – φD

Similarly, determine the value of φE for the value of 1/α. Subtract this φE from

100 to get φC1 φC1 = 100 – φE

Example: Let b = total length of floor = 60.0 m and d = depth of u/s pile = 6.0

Then 1/α = d/b = 6/60 = 0.1

For this value of 1/α, we read the values of φD = 20 and φE = 28.

Then φD1 = 100 – 20 = 80

φC1= 100 – 28 = 72

These percentages pressures must be corrected for mutual interference.

Next, let us consider plate 17.2. This gives pressure curves for φC, φD for sheet

pile not at end condition. The ratios b1/b are plotted as abscissa and φC = Pe/H x

178

100 plotted as ordinates on the left portion of graph and φD = Pe/H x 100 plotted

on the right side of graph for different values of α.

To find φE for any value of α and base ratio b1/b, read φC for base ratio (1-b1/b) for

that value and subtract this value from 100.

Thus for finding φE for base ratio b1/b = 0.3 and α = 3.0

(1 – b1/b) = 1 – 0.3 = 0.7 for α = 3.0

Qc = 20

ΦE = 100 – Qc = 100 – 20 = 80%

ΦD can be calculated for values of b1/b less than 0.5.

Similarly finding φD for b1/b = 0.13 and α = 2.0

(1 – b1/b) = 0.87

Corresponding to 0.87 and α = 2.0 value of φD’ = 40

ΦD = 100 – 40 = 60%

Example. Determine the percentage pressures for various key points shown in

diagram below. Calculate the exit gradient and plot the hydraulic gradient line for

the pond level on the u/s side with no water on downstream side.

Solution:

1. Upstream pile No. 1

Total length of floor b = 60 m

Depth of u/s pile below the top of floor = 105 – 99 = 6.0 m

α = b/d = 60/6 = 10.0

1/α = 0.1

▼107

▼100

60m

(3)

▼102.0

▼94.0

45m

6 6

6

2

25

(1)

(2)

▼110

▼105.0

▼99

14 D

1

D

2

D

3

▼104

0.5m

0.5m

179

From plate 17.1, φC1 = 100 – φE = 100 – 28 = 72 %

ΦD1 = 100-20 = 80 %

For these values, three corrections must be applied .

i) Correction for mutual interference of piles, for pressure at C1

φC1 is affected by the presence of intermediate pile No. (2)

Let D = depth of pile No. (2) = 104.00 – 99.00 = 5.0 m

d = depth of pile No. (1). = 104.00 – 99.00 = 5.0 m

b1 = distance between the two piles = 14.0 m

b = total length of floor = 60.0 m

Then the correction =

) %( 9 . 1 1 . 0 6 . 0 19

60

5 5

.

14

5

19 . 19

1

ve x x

b

D d

b

D

+ · ·

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

,

_

¸

¸ +

Point C1 is to the rear of the next pile No. (2). Hence correction is positive.

ii) Correction at C1 due to thickness of floor.

φC1 calculated from curves corresponds to point C1

!

At the top of the floor. But we

want the pressure at C1 at the bottom of the floor. Pressure atC1 will be more

than that at C1

!

, therefore the correction will be positive.

Pressure at C1

!

= φC1 = 72%

Pressure at D1 = φD1 = 80%

Distance from C1

!

To D1 = 1050. – 99.0 = 6.0 m

Hence pressure correction at C1 = (80 – 72) x (105.0-104.0)

(105.0 – 99.0)

= 8/6 x 1 = 1.67 % (+ve)

iii) Correction due to slope at C1

As C1 is neither the starting point nor terminating point of a slope, slope

correction is zero.

Hence, corrected pressure at C1

ΦφC1 = 72% + 1.9% + 1.67% = 75.57%

C

1

!

E

1

C

1

1.0

D

1

D

2

▼99.0

▼105.0

E

2

C

2

E

2

!

C

2

!

180

ΦD1 = 80%

2. Intermediate Pile Line No. 2

d = 105 – 99 = 6 m

b = 60 m

α = b/d = 60 / 6 = 10

b1 = 0.5 + 14 = 14.5

b1/b = 14.5 /60 = 0.24

(1 – b1/b) = 1 – 0.24 = 0.76

For b1/b = 0.76, and α = 10, φC = 27% and 100 – 27 = 73% = φE2

For base ratio 0.24 and α = 10,

ΦC2 = 60%

For base ratio 0.76 and α = 10,

ΦD = 34% and φD2 =100 – 34 = 66%.

Corrections for φE2

i) Correction for sheet pile lines at E2.

Pile No. (1) affects the pressure at E2 (φE2). As E2 is in a forward direction with

respect to pile (1), the correction will be negative.

D = depth of pile No.(1), the effect of which on E2 is considered.

= 104 – 99.00 = 5.0 m

d = depth of pile No. (2) which is affected = 104 -99.0 5.0 m

b1 = distance between the two pile lines = 14m

b = Total floor length = 60.0m

Correction

) %( 9 . 1

60

5 5

14

5

19

19

1

ve

b

D d

b

D

− ·

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

ii) Correction at E2 due to floor thickness

Correction = observed value of φE2 – observed φ D2 x Thickness of floor

Distance E2D2

= 73 – 66 x 1.0 = 7 x 1.0 = 1.17 % (-ve)

105.0.99.0 6

Pressure is observed at E2

!

and the direction of flow is from E2

!

To E2. Hence,

pressure at E2 will be less than that at E2

!

. Correction is therefore negative.

iii) Correction at E2 due to slope is zero as E2 is neither the beginning nor the end

of a slope.

Hence corrected pressure at E2 = (73% - 1.9% - 1.17%) = 69.93%

Corection for φC2

181

i) Correction at C2 due to pile interference. Pressure at C2 is affected by

pile line (3) and as C2 is to the rear of pile line (3), correction will be

positive. The amount of this correction is given by:

Correction

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

b

d D

x

b

D

1

Where D = depth of pile No. 3, the effect of which is considered below

the level at which the interference is desired = 104.0 – 99.0 = 10 March

2007

d = depth of pile No. (2), which is affected = 104.0 – 99.0 =

5.0m

b1 = distance between pile (2) and pile (3) = 45m

b = total floor length = 60.0m

Correction

) %( 28 . 2

60

15

9

2

19

60

5 10

45

10

19

ve + ·

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

ii) Correction at C2 due to floor thickness. From the diagram, it can be

observed that the pressure at C2

!

is less than that at C2 due to the

direction of seepage

flow. The amount of correction is the same as that for E2 and equal to

1.17%

+ve

iii) Correction at C2 due to slope. C2 is at the commencement of a up

slope of 3:1 in the direction of flow and the correction will be negative.

Correction factor 3:1 slope = 4.5 (see table of correction for slope

above)

Horizontal slope length = 6m

Distance between the two pile lines (2) and (3) between which the

sloping floor exists = 45.0 m

Correction = correction factor x horizontal slope length

distance between piles

= 4.5 x 6/45 = 0.6% (-ve)

Hence corrected pressure φC2 = (60% + 2.28% + 1.17% - 0.6% =

62.85%

3. Downstream Pile Line.

d = 102.00 – 94.00 = 8.00m

b = 60m

1/α = d/b = 8/60 = 0.133

Referring to curves of plate 17.1, we find

ΦD3 = 22%

ΦE3 = 32%

182

Note that for downstream pile at end, the values of φD and φE are taken directly

from the curves for the required value of 1/α.

a) Correction for φE3

i) Correction due to mutual interference of pile. The point E3 gets affected by

pile No.2. E3 is in the forward direction of flow with reference to pile No. 2,

correction is negative. Value of correction

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

b

d D

x

b

D

1

where D = depth of pile No. 2 which influences point E3 of pile No. 3, the depth

being considered below the level at which interference is desired = 100.0 –

99.0 = 1.0m

d = depth of pile No. 3 which is affected = 100.0 – 94.0 = 6.0m

b1 = distance between the two piles = 45.0m

b = total floor length = 60 m

therefore correction = ) %( 262 . 0

60

6 1

45

0 . 1

ve x − ·

,

_

¸

¸ +

·

iii) Correction due to floor thickness. From the direction of flow of

seepage water, it is clear that pressure at E3 at the bottom of the

floor is less than that at E3

!

, top of the floor which is the value got by

Khosla’s curves. Hence, correction to be applied for φE3 should be

negative.

Value of this correction = 32% - 22% x 2.00

(102.0-94.0)

= (10 x 2)/8 = 2.5% (-ve)

iv) Correction due to slope. Point E3 is neither starting point nor the

terminus of a slope. Hence, slope correction = 0

Hence, corrected pressure at E3 = φE3=(32%-0.262%-2.5%)=

29.238%

The corrected pressures at all the key points can be shown in the table below

Upstream pile No.

1.

Intermediate pile No.

2.

Downstream pile No.

3.

ΦE1 = 100.0% ΦE2 = 69.93% ΦE3 = 29.24%

ΦD1 = 80.0% ΦD2 = 66% ΦD3 = 22.0%

ΦC1 = 75.57% ΦC2 = 62.85% ΦC3 = 0 %

Exit Gradient

Pond level = 110.0

With no water on downstream, maximum head causing seepage H = (110.0–

102)= 8.0m

Depth of downstream cut–off = d = (102.0 – 94.0) = 8.0m

Total floor length = b = 60m

α = b/d = 60/8 = 7.5

Referring to curve of plate 17.3, for α = 7.5,

183

16 . 0

1

·

λ π

Hence, exit gradient GE = (H/d) x

λ π

1

= (8/8) x 0.16 = 0.16

This exit gradient is safe even for fine sand.

184

Chapter 9

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS

Whenever a canal intercepts a natural or artificial drainage in its passage, cross

drainage works have to be provided.

Types of Cross-Drainage Works

Three main possibilities may occur when a canal has to cross a natural drainage:

1. When the canal bed level is higher than the bed level of the river, the

cross-drainage work constructed is known as aqueduct

2. When the bed level of the natural drainage is higher than that of the canal,

the cross-drainage work constructed is called a super passage

3. When the bed levels of the canal and the natural drainage are almost the

same, and the waters of both the canal and natural drainage are mixed up

while crossing, such cross-drainage works are known as level crossing.

If the bed level of the canal is not very much higher than that of the drainage,

then the cross-drainage work is called siphon aqueduct

Similarly, if the difference between the bed level of the canal and natural drainage

in not very much, the natural drainage being at a higher level, then the cross-

drainage work is called siphon super passage.

The selection of any particular type of cross-drainage work depends on the

following:

1. Bed level of canal and bed level of natural drainage;

2. Discharge of the canal and the drainage

3. The foundation conditions of the site

4. Availability of materials and labour

5. availability of existing modes of communication.

Aqueduct

Canal

Drain

Aqueduct

Canal

Drain

Super passage

185

An aqueduct is a structure constructed at the position, where a canal has to

cross a drainage at a sufficiently high level. It is very similar to a bridge but

instead of a roadway or railway, canal water flows above a natural drainage.

Irrigation water may be taken through a pipe over the drainage water if the

section of the irrigation canal is very small. The pipe is supported in position at

the ends by masonry walls and in between by supports

There are three types of aqueducts:

Type I. In this type of aqueduct, the sides of the aqueduct are completely

earthen embankment with full earthen slopes. The length of the culvert through

which the discharge is passing should be adequate to accommodate the water

way of the canal and also the bottom width of the side embankments. In this

case the original canal section is retained and no fluming of canal section is

done.

Type II.

Type II is very much like type one except that the outer section is reduced by

supporting it by masonry or concrete wall.

Type III.

In this type of aqueduct, the canal banks are discontinued at the aqueduct

portion and the canal water is transported in a masonry or concrete trough

constructed above the drainage culvert. In this case the length of the culvert is

reduced because fluming is done. This type becomes necessary where big

canals have to cross big natural drainage with large catchment areas.

Selection of a suitable type. In order to select a suitable type, it is necessary to

understand the following terms:

Pipe

Tail wall

Head wall

Support

186

1. Culvert length: is the width of the aqueduct, measured along the drain.

The culvert depends upon the shape and size of the canal section

2. Length of aqueduct: is the length measured perpendicular to the drain. It

is evidently equal to the width of the drain

3. Bank connection: consist of masonry (concrete) wings, etc required to

connect the regular section of the canal to its modified section over the

aqueduct.

In the type I, since the canal is fully in earthen section, the culvert length is

maximum. Hence the cost per unit length of aqueduct will be maximum.

However, bank connections are not require. Hence, the selection of this type

depends on the relative cost of bank connections and that of the aqueduct

proper. In all cases the cost of bank connection is independent of the length of

the aqueduct. \Therefore, the type I is suitable when the length of the aqueduct is

small and the cost of bank connections would be large in comparison to the

saving from the reduction in the width of work if type III were adopted. On the

contrary, in type III, the culvert length is minimum. Hence the cost per unit length

of the aqueduct is minimum. However, the cost of bank connections will be

additional. Therefore, type III is suitable where the length of culvert is large. Type

two is suitable for intermediate conditions.

Design of Cross-Drainage Works

The following are some of the important features of design of cross-drainage

works:

A. From hydraulic consideration, the following are important

i) determination of the maximum flood discharge and the high flood level

(H.F.L)

ii). Determination of the stable waterway of drain

iii). Contraction of the canal waterway.

iv). Discharge and head losses through the cross drainage works

v). Determination of uplift pressure on the roof of trough

vi). Determination of uplift pressure on the floor.

vii). Design of bank connections

B. Structural design.

1) Design of cross-section of aqueduct trough.

ii). Design of piers and abutments

iii). Design of foundation.

i) Maximum Flood Discharge of Drain: This is determined by any one of the

known methods depending on size of catchment and other available data

ii) Determination of the Waterway of drain: This can be determined by using

Lacey’s regime perimeter equation

Pw = 4.75 Q

½

where Pw = wetted perimeter of the drain (m)

Q = total discharge in drain (cumecs)

In large drains, Pw can be taken as equal to width of river, and hence equal to the

waterway required.. In small drains, a contraction of up to 20% of the waterway is

187

permissible i.e the length between abutments may be increased by 20% to

compensate for contraction of waterway due to the width of the piers.

iii) Velocity of flow through the barrel. This may be taken between 2.0 -3.0 m/s.

Lower velocities may result in silting in the barrel and higher velocities will cause

abrasions of

barrel surface by rolling grit.

Iv0. Height of Opening: The depth of flow in the barrel can be calculated as the

waterway discharge and velocity are fixed. Sufficient margin (free board) should

be provided between the H>F>L and the bottom of canal bed.

Total height of opening = (Depth of flow in barrel + clearance (freeboard)

v). Number of Spans: The total width of the culvert or total length of aqueduct

already been fixed. The number of spans for the culvert should be fixed

considering structural strength and economy of design. More spans may be used

in case of arched culverts.

vi). Contraction of canal waterway: Canal waterway in the aqueduct portion is

reduced in type III by fluming. Fluming ratio is the ration between the restricted

width of canal in the aqueduct portion and the normal width of the canal. This is

taken as ½. However, this reduction in width should not results in the velocity in

the trough exceeding 3m/s or exceeding the critical value bringing the flow to

supercritical flow, which could result in the formation of hydraulic jump in trough –

not desirable.

vii). Length of Contraction: This is the horizontal distance in which the normal

width of the canal is gradually reduced to the contracted width in the aqueduct

portion. A convergence of 2 horizontal to 1 lateral could be assumed.

Viii). Length of expansion: the expansion ration is assumed as 3 horizontal to 1

lateral. This decides the length of the expansion downstream side of the

aqueduct.

ix). Bank connections : these consist of two sets of wing walls for the canal called

canal wings and two sets of wing walls for the drainage called the drainage

wings.

Canal wing walls. These are to be provided on the upstream and downstream

sides of the aqueduct. They protect and retain the earth in the canal banks. The

wings should be constructed on sound foundation.

The Drainage wing are provided on the upstream and downstream sides of the

barrel. They protect and retain the natural slopes of the drain and increase the

seepage path and control the exit gradient. The drainage wings should be taken

deep into the foundation, well below the maximum scour depth. They must be

taken back well into the top of the guide banks.

Example. Design a suitable cross drainage for the following particulars:

a) Drainage particulars:

Catchment area for the drain = 20.0 km

2

; value of “C” in Dicken’s formula = 20

Gauge reading at the site of intersection = 1.0m during maximum flood; Bed

level of drainage = 100.00m

b) Channel Particulars

188

Full supply discharge = 20cumecs; full supply depth = 1.5m; Bed width = 10.0m;

Side slopes = 1.5:1. The canal has to be provided with inspection paths of 3.0 m

width on both the banks. The channel is unlined. Bed level of the channel =

103.00m. Good foundation is available at site. Missing data may be suitably

assumed.

Solution:

The bed level of the canal = 103.0m

The bed level of the drainage = 100.0m

The High Flood Level in the drainage = 1.0m so that level of H.F.L = 101.0

The difference between canal bed level and H.F.L = 103.0 – 101.0 = 2.0m

Hence an aqueduct would have to be designed.

Determination of flood discharge: by Dicken’s formula

Q = C . M

3/4

Where C = is a constant = 20; M = catchment area = 20.0km

2

CULVERT LENGTH

DRAIN

Canal

Road

H.F.L

TYPE I AQUEDUCT

189

Q = 20 x 20

3/4

= 189.2cumecs ≈ 190 cumecs

Waterway for drainage:

By Lacey’s equation, the wetted perimeter Pw = 4.75 Q

1/2

Pw = 4.75 x 190

1/2

= 65.47m

iv) Smaller spans can be adopted, as the foundation is good

Assuming a trapezoidal drain of side slopes of 1.5 :1 ( 1.5 horizontal to 1.0

vertical ) the bed width of drain b = 65.47- 2 x 1.5 x1= 62.47m

Provide 12 spans of 5.5m each , to give a total lineal waterway of 12 x 5.x =

66.0m

iv) Thickness of pier at the springing level of the arch:

This can be calculated by t = 0.552 x s

1/2

= 0.552 x (5.5)

1/2

= 1.294 = 1.3

m

Where s = span of arc (m); t = thickness (m)

A batter of 1 in 15 is given to the pier

v) Total height of the pier

Height of pier above the drainage bed = 1.0

The springing level of the arch will be at H.F.L.

To determine the depth of pier below the bed level of the drainage, the scour

depth is worked out.

Scour depth as per Lacey’s formula

R1 = 1.35 (q

2

/f)

1/3

Where R1 = scour depth (m), q = discharge per metre width of the drain (m

3

/s /m);

f = Lacey’s silt factor, taken as 1.6

R1 = 1.35 {(190/66)

2

x 1/1.6}

1/3

= 2.4 m

Road

H.F.L

CULVERT LENGTH

DRAIN

Canal

TYPE II AQUEDUCT Masonry wall

190

The pier must be taken 1.5 times the scour depth below the bed of drain,

which is 1.5 x 2.4 = 3.6 m.

therefore total height of pier hp = 3.6 + 1.0 = 4.6 m

vi). Total length of the aqueduct between the abutments LAB.

The pier pose the obstruction to the flow of water and reduce the waterway.

Hence, clear waterway must be increased. This is increased by 20% or the total

thickness of all the piers, whichever is more.

a) 20% of waterway = 20.100 x 66.5 = 13.3 m

b) Total thickness of piers = 11 x 1.3 = 14.3 m (12 spans, so there are 11

piers)

Hence we take 14.3 m for compensating for reduction of waterway by piers.

Therefore, total length of aqueduct between the abutments LAB = 66 + 14.3 =

80.3 m

vii) Rise of arch:

Rise of arch r = span / 5 = 5.5 / 5 = 1.1 m

viii) Radius of arch

Considering the triangle AOB, AO = (R-r); AB = s/2 where s is the span and OB

= R

Therefore using the Phytagoras theorem

AO

2

+ AB

2

= OB

2

(R-r)

2

+ (s/2)

2

= R

2

Knowing r = 1.1 and solving the equation, R = 4.0 m

ix) Thickness of the arch at the springing level. By Trantwine’s formula;

ta = 0.22R + 0.11r + 0.5 = 0.22 x 4.0 + 0.11 x 1.1 + 0.5 = 1.5 m

The water face of the abutment may be kept vertical while the back face (earth

face ) may be given a slope or batter of 1:5 (1 horizontal to 5 vertical).

The canal over the drain is flumed with a fluming ratio of 1:2

Hence, bed width of the canal over the drain bc/d = 10 x ½ = 5.0 m

r

A

B

O

R

s/2

191

The section over the drain will be rectangular and is to be built in R.C.C. The

height of side walls is kept 0.5 m higher than the full supply discharge F.S.D

x) Transitions

Upstream transition is done in 2:1 splay in contraction

Therefore length of contraction transition = (10 – 5)/2 x 2 = 5 m

Upstream transition is done in 3:1 splay expansion

Length of expansion = (10 – 5)/2 x 3 = 7.5 m

xi) An inspection path of 3.0 m width is provided on both sides of the aqueduct.

FLUMING OF THE CANAL

The reduction in waterway of the canal at the aqueduct is known as fluming of

the canal. Fluming reduces the barrel length or the width of aqueduct, and

thereby makes it economical. Fluming is only done for aqueduct type III.

The maximum amount of fluming is dictated by the velocity which can be kept in

trough, because it must not exceed the critical value.

After fixing the canal section and the flumed canal section, the designing of the

transition is done for making smooth entry and exit, and avoiding the formation of

eddiesThe slope of the upstream side should not be more than 30

o

(ie 2:1 splay)

and that of the downstream side must not be more than 22.5

o

(i.e 1:3 splay). The

normal canal section is trapezoidal, whereas flumed section is rectangular.

Design of Channel Transition

Any of the following methods may be applied for the design:

1. Chaturvedi’s method (when the water depth remains constant)

2. Hind’s method ( when the water depth may or may not vary)

3. Mitra’s method (when water depth remains constant).

1. Chaturvedi’s Method:R. S. Chaturvedi (1963) proposed the following

equation for the design of transition with constant water depth.

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3

1

.

x

f

f o

o

B

B

B B

B L

x

--------------------- ( )

where Bx = channel width at any section X-X at a distance x from the flumed

section.

L = length of transition

Bo = Bed width of the normal channel section

Bf = bed width of the flumed section.

192

ii) Hind’s Method.

This method can be used when the water depth in the trough and the normal

section of the canal vary.

Let V1, V2, V3, and V4 be the velocities of the canal at sections A, B, C. D. Let y1,

y2, y3, y4 be the depths of canal at different sections.

Step I. Let the bed level and cross-section of the canal at section DD be known.

Water surface level (W.S.L.) at section DD = Bed level at section DD + y4)

Total energy line (T.E.L) at section DD = (water surface elevation at DD + V4

2

/2g)

Step II. The energy loss due to expansion of section between section CC and

DD may be taken as equal to 0.3(V3

2

-V4

2

)/2g

Step III. Total energy line at section CC = {T.E.L. at section DD + 0.3(V3

2

– V4

2

) /

2g}

Water surface elevation at section CC, = {T.E.L. at section CC – V3

2

/2g}

Bed level at section BB = {T.E.L at section BB – V2

2

/2g}

Step IV The channel section in the trough from section CC to BB remains

constant. The only loss of head in this section is due to pipe friction, which can

be computed by the Manning’s formula

Q = i/n . A R

2/3

(I)

1/2

Therefore T.E.L at section BB = (T.E.L at section CC + loss of head)

W.S.E at section BB = (T.E.L at section BB – V2

2

/2g)

Bed level at section BB = (W.S.E. at section BB – y2)

B

f

B

o

B

x

Contraction

Transition

Expansion

Transition

C

B

B

v

1

2

/2g

y

1

y

2

v

2

2

/2g v

3

2

/2g

v

4

2

/2g

y

4

L

PLAN

SECTION

A

A

D

D

C

193

Step V. The loss of energy between section AA and BB due to contraction

= 0.2(V2

2

– V1

2

) / 2g

T.E.L at section AA = [T.E.L. at section BB + 0.2(V2

2

– V1

2

) / 2g]

W.S.E at section AA = [T.E.L at section AA – V1

2

/2g]

Bed level at section AA = W.S.E. – y1]

Step VI After calculating the T.E.L and W.S.E and bed levels of all sections, the

total energy line may be drawn and the bed line also.

Step VII. The drop in the W.S.L. between the two adjacent sections is due to:

i)drop in the energy line between the two sections’

ii) increase velocity head for contraction and decreased velocity head for

expansion.

Step VIII) When the water surface profile has been plotted over the whole length,

the velocity head can be determined by measuring the vertical distance between

the T.E.L and the water surface line at any point.

The velocity head can be converted into equivalent velocity by V = (2gh)

1/2

Step IX. Discharge at any point,

Q = A.V.

With the velocity known, and the flow also available, the dimensions of the

section can easily be calculated.

If the section is rectangular, then A = b x h

If the section is trapezoidal, A = (b + mh)h, where m = side slope =cot θ; θ =

angle of drain.

SIPHON AQUEDUCT

In siphon aqueduct, the difference between the bed level of the drainage and the

bed level of the canal is not much so the bed level of the drainage is depressed

at the site of the crossing so that there is sufficient clearance between H.F.L of

the drainage and the bed of the canal. The drainage water passes below the

canal through the depressed portion which makes it works like siphon.

Design consideration for a siphon aqueduct

Siphon aqueduct is a bit different from ordinary aqueducts. Therefore in addition

to the design considerations of ordinary aqueduct, the following additional

considerations become necessary:

1. Discharge through the siphon: The head causing flow through the siphon

portion of the barrel can be obtained by Unwin’s formula as follows:

g

V

g

V

R

L

f f h

a

2 2

. . 1

2 2

2 1

−

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

194

where h = head causing flow of the loss of head in the barrel

L = length of barrel,

V = velocity of flow through the barrel.

Va = approach velocity,

R = barrel radius

f1 = entry loss coefficient of barrel; = 0.505 for unshaped mouth and 0.08

for bell

mouth.

f2 = pipe friction loss coefficient given by f2 = a(1 + b/R) where the values

of a and b for different materials may be taken from the table below

Nature of barrel surface Value of “a” Value of “b”

1. Smooth iron pipe 0.00497 0.025

2. Encrusted pipe 0.00996 0.025

3. Smooth cement plaster 0.00316 0.030

4. Brick work 0.00401 0.070

5. Rubble masonry or stone

pitching

0.00507 0.250

After fixing the velocity through the barrel of the siphon the head ‘h’ required to

generate that much velocity can be determined by equation above. As the

downstream H.F.L of the drain remains unchanged, the upstream H.F.L. can be

obtained by adding ‘h’ to the downstream H.F.L. ‘h’ is known as the afflux.

2. Uplift Pressure on the floor of the barrel:

d/s H.F.L u/s

F.S.L

Cross – section of typical siphon aqueduct

u/s H.F.L

d/s H.F.L.

Retaining walls

Canal banks

F.S.L

Arch thickness

195

Since the barrel is depressed below the bed level of the drainage, it will be below

the normal water table in the surrounding area. Due to this, a static uplift

pressure will be exerted on the barrel.

3.Uplift Pressure on the roof of the barrel:

When the barrel is running full, the water in the barrel exerts an upward thrust on

the roof of the barrel. The pressure head on the downstream side of the barrel

will be equal to the height of the water level above the roof of the barrel. The

pressure head on the upstream side of the barrel will be equal to the sum of the

loss of head in the barrel and the pressure head on the downstream side.

Worked Example: Design a siphon aqueduct with the following data:

i) Canal discharge = 30 cumecs

ii) Canal bed width = 22 m

iii) Water depth = 1.5 m

iv) High flood drainage discharge = 420

cumecs

v) Bed level of drainage = 92.50 m

vi) Bed level of canal = 94.50 m

vii) Ground level = 94.50 m

viii) High flood level of drainage = 94.50 m

ix) Canal bank side slope =1.5 : 1

Solution:

The flow is large and therefore the drainage size is assumed large and therefore

we choose type III aqueduct which might be economical. The canal at the

aqueduct shall be flumed and taken in concrete trough.

1. Design of drainage water-way:

Wetted perimeter of the drainage P = 4.75 (Q)

1/2

= 4.75 x (420)

1/2

= 97.35

m

Provide 12 spans of 6.5 each, separated by 11 No. piers of 1.5 m thick.

Length of clear water way = 12 x 6.5 = 78 m

Length occupied by piers = 11 x 1.5 = 16.5 m

Total length of water way = 78 + 16.5 = 94.5 m

Keeping velocity through siphon barrel = 2.0m/s (concrete material)

Height of barrel required H = Q/(V x B) = 420/(2 x 78) = 2.69 m

Provide size of barrel 6.5m x 2.7 m

Actual velocity through barrel, = 420/(6.5 x 2.7 x 12) = 1.99m/s

Design of Canal Water-Way.

Bed width of canal = 22m

Let the width be reduced to 12 m in trough

Providing a splay of 2:1 in contraction, the length of contraction transition

196

= (22 – 12)/2 x 2 = 10 m

Providing a splay of 3 : 1 in the expansion the length of the expansion transition

= (22 – 12) /2 x 3 = 15 m

Length of the flumed portion from abutment to abutment

= total drainage water-way = 94.5 m

Design of Levels at Various Sections {refer to diagram on page (8)}

a) Section DD. Cross-section area A = B + 1.5h)h = (22+1.5x1.5)x1.5

=36.75 m

2

Canal velocity = Q/A = 30/36.75 = 0.82m/s

Velocity head = V

2

/2g = (0.82)

2

/2x9.81 = 0.034m

Therefore Relative level (R.L) of water surface

= R.L of bed + water depth = 94.5 +1.5 = 96.0 m

Relative level of the Total Energy Line (T.E.L) = 96.0 + 0.034 = 96.034 m

b) Section CC. Cross section area of canal = 12 x 1.5 = 18 m

2

Velocity = Q/A 30/18 = 1.67 m/s

Velocity head = V

2

/2g = (1.67)

2

/2 x 9.81 = 0.142 m

Loss of head in expansion from section CC to DD

= 0.3(V3

2

– V4

2

)/2g = 0.3(0.142 – 0.034) = 0.032

Therefore Level of T.E.L at section CC = T.E.L at section DD + Head loss

= 96.034 + 0.032 = 96.066 m

R.L of water surface at CC = T.E.L – velocity head = (96.066 –

0.142)=95.924 m

Therefore R.L. of canal bed for constant depth,

= R.L. of water surface – water depth = (95.924 – 1.5) = 94.424 m

c) Section BB. Hydraulic mean depth in trough

R = A/P = 18/(10 + 2 x 1.5) = 1.384 m

From Manning’s formula, S = V

2

n

2

/R

4/3

Where V = velocity in the trough

S = required slope

N rougosity coefficient = 0.016

S = (1.67)

2

(0.016)

2

/(1.384)

4/3

=4.63 x 10

-4

Length of flumed portion of the trough = 94.5 m

Head loss in trough = 94.5 x 4.63 x 10

-4

= 0.044 m

Therefore R. L. of T.E.L at section BB = R.L. of T.E.L. at CC + Head loss in

trough =

96.066 + 0.044 = 96.11 m

.. of water surface at BB = (96.11 – 0.142) 95.968

R.L. of bed for maintaining constant depth = (95.968 – 1.5) = 94.468 m

d) Section AA

Loss of head in contraction transition from section AA to BB

= 0.2(V2

2

-V1

2

)/2g

where V1 = V4

and V2 = V3

= 0.2[(1.67)

2

– (0.82)

2

]/2 x 9.81 = 0.0215 m

R.L of T.E.L at section AA

197

= R.L of T.E.L at BB + head loss = (96.11 + 0.0215) = 96.325m

R.L. of water surface

= R. L. of T.E.L – V1

2

/2g = 96.325 – (0.82)

2

/2 x 9.81= (96.325 – 0.034) = 96.291 m

Design of Contraction Transition: The design of the transition will be done on the

basis of Chaturvedi’s formula

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3

1

.

x

f

f o

o

B

B

B B

B L

x

here Bo = 22 m; L = 10m; Bf = 12 m

or x =

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3

12

1 74 . 16

12

1

) 12 ( ) 22 (

) 22 .( 10

x x

B B

The values of x for various values of Bx are calculated from the above equation,

and are tabulated below. The distance x is measured from flumed section BB as

shown in page 8.

Bx 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

x 0 1.89 3.38 4.76 5.86 6.81 7.62 8.34 8.96 9.5 10

Design of Expansion Transition

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3

1

.

x

f

f o

o

B

B

B B

B L

x

here, L = 15m; Bf =12; B0 =22

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

·

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3 2 / 3

2 / 3

12

1 11 . 25

12

1

) 12 ( ) 22 (

) 22 ( 15

x

x

B

x

B

x

x

The values of x, for various values of Bx are calculated in the table below.

Bx 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

x 0 2.84 5.18 7.14 8.8 10.21 11.44 12.5 13.44 14.26 15

Design of Trough Aqueduct:

Flumed water way of canal = 12.0m

198

The trough shall be divided into two equal compartments by 30 cm thick concrete

wall. The road way 6.0 m wide shall be carried over one of the compartments

The height of trough = 1.5 + 0.5 m free board = 2.0 m.

The entire trough section shall be constructed in monolithic RCC by usual

structural methods. The outer and flow slab of the trough may be made

tentatively equal to 40 cm thick.

The outer width of the trough = 2 x 6 + 2 x 0.4 + 0.30 = 13.1 m

Loss of head through Siphon Barrel.

The loss of head through the siphon barrel by Unwin’s formula

g

V

R

L

f f h

2

. 1

2

2 1

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

V = velocity through barrel ( = 1.99m/sec)

f1 = coefficient of loss of head at entry ( 0.505)

f2 = a(1 + b/R) a and b are picked from table given above.

a = 0.00316 and b = 0.030

The hydraulic radius, R, = A/P = (6.5 x2.7)/2(6.5 +2.7) = 0.953m

f2 = 0.00316( 1 + 0.030/0.953) = 0.00415

L = 13.1m

Substituting into head loss equation,

H = [1 + 0.505 + 0.00415 x 13.1/0.953](1.99

2

)/2 x9.81 = 0.311 m

Downstream H. F. L. = 94.5 m,

Therefore upstream H.F.L = d/s H.F.L + head loss = 94.5 + 0.311 = 94.811

Uplift pressure on the barrel roof

R.Lof trough bottom = R.L. of canal bed – thickness of slab = 94.5-0.40= 94.10m

Loss of head at entry of barrel = 0.505 V

2

/2g = 0.505 (1.99)

2

/2x9.81 = 0.10 m

Therefore uplift on the roof = 94.811 – (94.1 +0.10) = 0.611m

Uplift pressure = 0.611 ton/m

2

Dead weight of slab = 0.4x 24 = 0.96 tons/m

2

As the dead weight is greater than the uplift pressure, nominal reinforcement is

required in the slab..

When the water leveling the drainage is low, the trough slab is to be designed for

full water load of the canal.

Uplift pressure on the floor of the barrel

a) Static Head

Barrel floor R. L.

= R.L. of bottom of trough slab – height of barrel = 94.1 – 2.7 = 91.4 m

Assuming tentative thickness of the floor = 0.90 m

R.L. of bottom of the floor = 91.4 – 0.90 = 90.5 m

Bed level of drainage = 92.5m (given)

199

Assuming the subsoil water level is up to the bed level of the drain, the static

uplift on the floor, will be = (92.5 -90.5) = 2.0 m

To be continued on 475

200

Chapter 10

DESIGN OF CHANNELS

Channels must be designed with non-silting and non-scouring velocity. Why?

- When channel is silted up, its carrying capacity is reduced and therefore will

irrigate less area

- If channel sides and bed are eroded away, the cross-section increases and the

full supply depth decreases which reduces its command area.

- Bed and side erosion also causes various types of damages to the canal

structures on it as well as neighbouring areas.

Aim of channel design: is to arrive at a cross-section, which can carry the design flow

without either scouring or silting problems.

Design Parameters

For the design of channels, the following data shall be available:

i) Design discharge Q; ii) Surface and soil properties (roughness coefficient); silt factor f

The design: consists of determining the following four factors:

i) Area of cross-section, A of the channel

ii) Hydraulic mean depth or hydraulic radius R

iii) Velocity of flow, v

iv) Longitudinal slope of the bed, S.

To begin the design, the following two equations are considered (available)

a) Q = Av - continuity equation

b) V = f(n, R, S) – Flow equation, Manning, Chezy, Kutter.

In the above, there are four unknowns and therefore to solve them, we require two

additional equations.

To get the additional two equations, the following procedures may be adopted

i) By providing a channel of best discharging section, an equation between area

A and hydraulic mean depth may be obtained.

ii) Based on consideration of scouring and silting, a limiting equation for velocity

of flow may be obtained.

iii) Fixing the longitudinal slope based on available ground slope.

iv) Based on experience, fixing a suitable width-depth (B/D) ratio not necessary

that which gives best section.

KENNEDY’S THEORY (METHOD)

1) To keep silt in suspension, the silt supporting power is directly proportional to the

bed width of the stream and does not depend on the wetted perimeter.

2) The limiting velocity which does not produce silting or scouring may be called

critical velocity. The relation between critical velocity and depth is

v

c

= 0.55xD

0.64

And after modification we will arrive

v = 0.55 x m x D

0.65

where m = v/v

c

201

v - velocity of flow in channel, m = critical velocity ratio (C.V.R.), m varies from 0.7

for fine sand to 1.3 for very coarse sand

To determine the mean velocity of the flow in the channel, Kennefdy used the Kutter’s

formula: v = C (RS)

1/2

where

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

+ +

·

R

n

S

S n

C

00155 . 0

23 1

00155 . 0 1

23

The difficulty with Kennedy’s formula is that he did not give any formula to fix the slope

S but has to be fixed based on the natural ground slope which makes it difficult to obtain

the best section for the given discharge.

Design of channel by Kennedy’s Method.

The design procedure:

i) Assume a trial value of depth, D, in metres and determine Kennedy’s velocity

v = 0.55 x m x D

0.64.

----------- (K-1)

ii) Calculate the cross-sectional area, A, from the continuity: A = Q/v

iii) Calculate the bed width, b, since A and D are known. For eg for a trapezoidal

channel, one selects the side slope of channel based on material of channel. Eg. Assume

1/2H:1V; then the cross-sectional area is given by:

A = bxD + 1/2xD

2

from this, b can be determined.

iv) Calculate the wetted perimeter and the hydraulic radius:

The wetted perimeter, P = b + 2x[D

2

+ (D/2)

2

]

1/2

= b + D(5)

1/2

The hydraulic radius R = A/P = (bD +1/2D

2

)/(b + D(5)

1/2

v) Calculate the actual mean velocity by using the Kutter’s formula;

i.e v = C(RS)

1/2

where C is computed by the formula above. ----- (K-2)

The value of v in (K-2) must tarry with the v in (K-1) for the assumed depth. If the

two values do not tarry, the trial D must be changed and the whole steps repeated till

the two values of v are the same.

The design is done for a given value of S.

Worked example

Design an irrigation channel to carry a discharge of 50m

3

/s at a slope of 1/5000. Take

Kutter’s n = 0,0225 and m = 0.9.

Solution: i). Assume a depth of 2.0 m and determine Kennedy’s velocity

v = 0. 55mD

0.64

= 0.55 x 0.9 x 2

0.64

= 0.77m/s

ii) Determine the cross-sectional area; A = Q/v = 50/0.77 = 65m

2

iii) Assume side slope of 0.5H:1V

then A = bxD + 1/2D

2

by putting D = 2.0, b = 31.5m

iv) Determine the wetted perimeter P = b + D(5)

1/2

= 35.97m

202

v The hydraulic radius R = A/P = 65/35.97 = 1.806m

The Kutter’s constant

63 . 49

806 . 1

0225 . 0

5000

1

00155 . 0

23 1

5000

1

00155 . 0

0225 . 0

1

23

·

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

+ +

· C

vi) The actual velocity v = C (RS)

1/2

= 49.63(1.806 x1/5000)

1/2

=

0.94m/s

The actual velocity is far greater than the Kennedy velocity. Hence we assume a new

depth of 2.6 and repeat the whole procedure.

Kemmedy’s velocity v = 0. 55mD

0.64

= 0.55 x 0.9 x 2.6

0.64

= 0.91m/s

ii) Determine the cross-sectional area; A = Q/v = 50/0.91 = 54.94m

2

iii) Assume side slope of 0.5H:1V

then A = bxD + 1/2D

2

by putting D = 2.6, b = 19.83m

iv) Determine the wetted perimeter P = b + D(5)

1/2

= 25.65m

v The hydraulic radius R = A/P = 54.94/25.65 = 2.14m

05 . 51

14 . 2

0225 . 0

5000

1

00155 . 0

23 1

5000

1

00155 . 0

0225 . 0

1

23

·

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

+ +

· C

The actual velocity v = C (RS)

1/2

= 51.05(2.14 x1/5000)

1/2

= 1.06m/s

This value is near to the Kennedy’s critical velocity, however more accuracy could be

achieved by choosing another trial depth. The channel dimensions may be taken as

Bed width = 19.83; Depth D = 6.6

USE OF GARRET’S DIAGRAM FOR DESIGN OF CHANNEL BY KENNEDY’S

METHOD.

The computation that were done previously could be done by using Garret’s

diagrams, which give a graphical solution for Kennedy’s and Kutter’s equation.

Garret’s diagram has discharge plotted as abscissa. The ordinates on the left side

indicate the slope and those on the right side, the depths in the channel and critical

velocity v

c

. Bed width lines are shown as dotted.

The procedure for using the Garret’s diagrams is as follows:

A) Follow the discharge curve for a given discharge and note its point of intersection

with the given slope line (which are horizontal).

203

B) From this point of intersection, draw a vertical line. This will intersect many bed

width curves.

C) For any bed width, consider the point of intersection of the vertical line and read

out the correspoiding water depth D and critical velocity v

c

on the right end of

diagram.

D) Calculate the velocity of flow v for the assumed bed width and its corresponding

water depth.

E) Determine the critical velocity ratio (C.V.R = v/v

c

)

F) The value of C.V.R should be the same as one given. Otherwise, the procedure

must be repeated with other values of bed widths got by the intersection of the

vertical on the bed width curves for the given slope, till the value of C.V.R. is very

near the given value

Garret’s diagram are drawn for side slopes of ½:1. The curves can be used for any

other value of roughness n by making use of the small nomogram provided at the top

of curves. When any other value of n is to be made use of, see whether the value is to

the left or right of the arrow shown on the nomogram and note the shift. When the

vertical line is drawn through the intersection of the slope line and discharge curve, it

is with respect to n = 0.0225 which corresponds to the arrow on the nomogram. The

vertical line has to be shifted either to the left or to the right by the same amount as

the required value of n is shifted on the nomogram, and then the intersection points on

the bed width curves considered.

Example of the use of the Garret’s diagram

Determine the channel dimensions by using Garret’s diagrams. The following data

are available. Discharge in the channel Q = 2.5 m

3

/s; slope S = 1/5000; n = 0.0225;

critical velocity ratio m, = 0.99.

Solution:

Refer to the Garret’s diagram. For a slope 1/5000, it corresponds to 0.2 as the slope is

marked in 1/1000 units.

The horizontal from slope 0.2 cuts the discharge curve for 2.5 m

3

/s at some point.

From that intersection point, draw a vertical line to cut many bed widths curves. Let

us consider the bed widths curves of b = 6.0; b = 7.0m; b = 8.0m; b = 9.0m;

b = 10m. From these points of intersection, horizontal lines to the right may be

drawn and the corresponding values “D” and v

c

read out. The rest of the computation

are done in the table below.

No. Discharge

Q (m

3

/s)

Bed

width

B (m)

Channel

depth

D (m)

Area A

=bD+D

2

/2

(m

2

)

Actual

velocity

v=Q/A

V

o

(m/s)

v/v

0 =

CVR

Remarks

1 2.5 6 0.77 4.917 0.508 0.485 1.05 Large

2 2.5 7 0.74 5.454 0.458 0.470 0.974 Large

3 2.5 8 0.67 5.58 0.448 0.455 0.985 Suitable

4 2.5 9 0.62 5.772 0.433 0.44 0.984 Less

5 2.5 10 0.58 5.97 0.418 0.43 0.97 Less

204

From the table, we see that No. 3 gives very near value to the one given. Hence

channel dimensions should br: B = 8.0m; D = 0.67m

SILT SUPPORTING CAPACITY OF FLOW (FROM KENNEDY’S THEORY)

The amount of silt held in suspension according to Kennedy’s theory is proportional

to the upwards force of vertical eddies, as it varies as the bed width, b and some

power of the velocity of flow in the channel. This can be formulated as:

Q

t

α b v

c

n

or

Q

t

= a . b . v

c

n

-------------------(A)

Where Q

t

= quantity of silt transported by channel; a = constant.

Now Q

t

/Q = p = % of silt in water.

Assuming a trapezoidal channel; Q = b . D. v

c

Therefore Q

t

= p .Q = p . b . D .v

c

----------(B)

Equating (A) and (B)

A . b . v

c

n-1

= 1/a . p .D

Therefore v

c

= (p/a)

1/(n-1)

. D

1/(n-1)

or

V

c

= C . D

1/(n-1)

where C = const. -----------©

Compare equation © to Kennedy’s critical velocity

V

c

= C . D

0.64

-----------------------(D)

Equating the indices in © and (D)

1/(n-1) = 0.64

from whence n = 2.56 ≈ 5/2 = 2.5

therefore silt quantity Q

t

= a . b . v

c

5/2

.

205

LACEY’S REGIME THEORY

If for Kennedy’s theory, a channel is said to be in regime, when there is neither

scouring nor silting, then for Lacey, a different view was held.. Lacey observed that

even when there is neither silting nor scouring, the channel may or may not be in

regime. Lacey defined two regime conditions:- i) initial regime and ii) final regime.

i) Initial Regime: refers to the state of the channel that has formed its cross-

section but not formed its longitudinal slope. Such a channel appears to be in

regime outwardly, as there may be no visible silting or scouring. Lacey’s

regime theory does not apply to such channels.

ii) Final Regime: when a channel is constructed with an improper slope, it tries to

remove the incoherent silt on its bed and increase its slope. It first forms its

section and then it forms its final slope so that a stable condition is

established. When the channel has finished its task of forming a stable cross-

section and stable slopes, it is said to be in “final regime”.

iii) Permanent Regime: This condition exists in a channel which is protected both

on its slopes by suitable protecting materials. Due to these protections, the

channel cannot change its cross-section or slope. Lacey’s regime theory is not

applicable to channels in permanent regime.

iv) True regime conditions: A channel will be in regime only when there is no

silting or scouring. To satisfy this condition, the silt load in the channel water

must be efficiently transported by the channel cross-section. There can be only

one channel with a particular cross-section and slope for a particular silt load,

which can produce regime conditions. For a channel to be in true regime, for

any sediment load brought to it, it must adjust its cross-section and slope to be

able to transport the given load.

v) However artificially constructed channels with fixed cross-section and slope

can attain regime conditions when the following conditions are satisfied::

i) flow in channel is uniform

ii) discharge in the channel is constant

iii) channel is flowing through incoherent alluvium. Incoherent alluvium

is that type of soil which can be scoured and deposited with equal ease.

Also the material (silt) transported by the channel should be the same

as the material through which the channel is flowing.

iv) The amount and type of silt in the channel (silt charge and grade) are

constant.

Since all the above conditions cannot usually be satisfied by artificially constructed

channel, it follows that it cannot be in “true regime”. Either in initial or final regime

SHAPE OF REGIME CHANNELS

There is always only one cross-section and one slope for a channel with a particular

discharge carrying a particular grade of silt. Natural silt transporting channels assume a

semi-elliptical cross-section. The coarser the silt particles, the flatter will be the semi-

ellipse and the larger will be the width of water surface. As the grade of silt becomes finer

206

and finer, the shape of the section becomes narrower. Therefore when a channel is

constructed with small cross-section, and steeper slope than necessary, scour starts and

continues till final regime is established. Similarly, in a channel with a bigger cross-

section and flatter slope, silting starts and continues till final regime is established.

LACEY’S REGIME EQUATIONS

According to Lacey, silt is kept in suspension by vertical forces, which are the vertical

component of the forces generated by eddies from the bed and sides of the channel. As

such the hydraulic radius R becomes a variable.

Lacey gave two equations, one of which relates velocity to the hydraulic radius and the

other which relates velocity to area. Silt grade is considered important and therefore

becomes a function in both regime equations.

Lacey’s regime equations:

) 2 ( 0 . 140

) 1 ( .

5

2

5 2

− − − − − − − − − − ·

− − − − − − − − − − − ·

L v Af

L R f v

where A = area of cross-section (in m

2

)

f = silt factor

R = hydraulic radius (in m)

v = velocity of flow (m/s)

Perimeter – Discharge (P-Q) Relation

From equation (L-1) v

4

= (4/25) x f

2

x R

2

or

f

2

= (25/4) x (v

4

/R

2

) ---------------(L-3)

By putting (L-3) into (L-2) we obtain

A[(25/4) x (v

4

/R

2

)] = 140 v

5

Or (25/4R

2

) x A = 140v ----------------(L-4)

By multiplying (L-4) by A, we have

(25/4R

2

) x A

2

= 140 v x A = 140Q.

Also (A

2

/R

2

) =P

2

-------wetted perimeter of section

(25/4) x P

2

= 140Q

hence P

2

= (4 x 140/25) Q

P = 4.75 (Q)

1/2

----------------------(L-5)

Relation between velocity, discharge and silt factor

From equation (L-2) Af

2

= 140 v

5

By multiplying by v, A x v xf

2

= 140 v

6

f

2

xQ = 140 v

2

or

v = (f

2

Q/140)

1/6

---------------(L-6)

Lacey gave a relation between v, R and S as follows

v = 10.8 R

2/3

S

1/3

--------------(L -7)

Regime Slope Equations

207

By using equation (L-1), (L-2) and (l-7) ie the fundamental Lacey’s equations, we shall

obtain

S = (f

3/2

)/(4980R

1/2

) ---------------(L-8)

S = 0.000178 (f

5/3

)/q

1/3

------------(L-9)

S = (f

5/3

)/(3340Q

1/6

) ---------------(L-10)

Regime –Scour Depth Relations

From equation (L-1)

v = (2/5 xf x R)

1/2

v

2

= 2/5 x f x R

R = 5/2 (v

2

/f) -----------------------(L-11)

From equation (L-6)

v = (f

2

Q/140)

1/6

v

2

= (f

2

Q/140)

1/3

---------L*

By putting L* into (L-11) we obtain

R = 5/2(f

2

Q/140) x 1/f

R = 0.47 (Q/f)

1/3

-------------------------(L-12)

Similarly

q = 0.21 Q

1/2

where q silt load, Q flow rate -----------(L-13)

R = 1.5 (q

2

/f)

1/3

-------------------------(L-14)

Silt factor – Grain Relationship

If m

r

= mean diameter of the silt particle (in mm), then the silt factor f = 1.76x(m

r

)

1/2

No. Type of material Size of grain

(mm)

Silt factor (f)

1 Silt

a) very fine

b) fine

c) medium

d) coarse

0.052

0.120

0.158

0.323

0.40

0.60

0.70

1.0

Sand

a)medium

b) coarse

0.505

0.725

1.25

1.50

Gravel

a) medium

b) heavy

7.28

26.10

4.75

9.00

Boulders

a) small

b) medium

c) large

50.10

72.50

188.80

12.00

15.00

24.00

208

Design of Channels by Lacey’s Theory

The following formulae shall be employed:

a) Data necessary

i) Channel discharge

ii) the silt factor

b) Formulae to be used

i) v = (f

2

Q/140)

1/6

ii) R = 5/2 (v

2

/f)

iii) Q = v.A

iv) P = 4.75 (Q)

1/2

v) S = (f

5/3

)/(3340Q

1/6

)

Procedure for design

1). Calculate the velocity from (i) above

2. Calculate the hydraulic radius R from (ii) above

3. Calculate A

4. Calculate wetted perimeter (P)

5. Calculate b and h

6. Calculate longitudinal slope.

Example: Design a regime channel for a discharge of 50m

3

/s, with silt factor f = 1.0

using Lacey’s theory.

Solution: Given: Q = 50m

3

/s, f = 1.0

1) Calculate velocity , v = (f

2

Q/140)

1/6

= {50 x (1.0)

2

/140}

1/6

= 0.842 m/s

2. Calculate the hydraulic radius, R = 5/2 (v

2

/f) = 5/2(0.842

2

/1.0 = 1.774

3. Calculate the area A = bxD + ½ xD

2

= Q/v = 50/0.842 = 59.38 m

2

therefore A = b x D + 0.5 D

2

= 59.38 (**)

4. Calculate the wetted perimeter P = 4.75 (Q)

1/2

= 4.75 (50)

1/2

= 33.6

But P = b + 2D [1 + (1/2)

2

]

1/2

= b + (5)

1/2

D =33.6 (***)

Solving equations (**) and (***)

B = 29.34 and D = 1.968m

5. Slope S = (f

5/3

)/(3340Q

1/6

) = (1

5/3

)/[3340(50)

1/6

] = 1/6409

S = 1: 6409

Therefore channel parameters: b = 29.34m; D = 1.97m; Q = 50 m

3

/s

V = 0.842m/s; S = 1:6409

209

Design of channel by use of Lacey’s diagram

Example: determine the channel dimensions and slope for a channel with a discharge of

53m

3

/s and silt factor of 1.0 using Lacey’s diagram

Solution: Given: Q = 53m

3

/s; f = 1.0

Referring to plate 16.5, there are discharge curves for 50 m

3

/s and 55m

3

/s. By

interpolation, the discharge curve for 53 m

3

/s can be drawn. This curve intersects the

curve for silt factor f = 1.0 at some point. For that point, the abscissa will be 30.0m. This

gives the bed width b = 30.0m

The ordinate for the intersection point = 2.0m. This gives the depth.

Now to determine the regime slope, refer to plate 16.6. Get the intersection point of the

curve for silt factor f = 1.0 and the discharge curve for Q = 53 m

3

/s. The ordinate of the

intersection point represents the slope.

The ordinate in this case = 0.15 representing a slope of 0.15 in 1000. t

Therefore S = 0.15/1000 = 1/ 6667

Channel parameters Q = 53m

3

/s; f = 1.0; b = 30.0m; D = 2.0; S = 1: 6667

210

Chapter 1;

Hydraulic Structures

Hydraulic Structures Hydraulic structures are engineering structures constructed for the purposes of harnessing and using water resources (groundwater, surface water, lakes, sea, etc) or for the prevention of the negative and destructive actions (floods, shore erosion, etc) of water on the surrounding environment. There are a large variety of hydraulic structures to serve the many purposes for which water resources are put to use. There are several classifications of hydraulic structures, however, the most important is the classification by function as given below.

2

Table 1. Classification of Hydraulic Structures by function Type 1. Storage structures 2. Flow control structures 3. Flow measurement structures 4. Division structures 5. Conveyance structures 6. Collection structures 7. Energy dissipation structures 8. Shore protection structures 9. River training and waterway stabilization structures 10. Sediment and quality control structures 11. Hydraulic machines Purpose To store water To regulate the quantity and pass excess flow To determine discharge To divert the main course of water To guide flow from one location to another To collect water for disposal To prevent erosion and structural damage To protect banks To maintain river channel and water transportation To control or remove sediments and other pollutants To convert energy from one from to another Structure Dams, tanks Spillways, outlets, gates, valves Weirs, orifices, flumes Coffer dams, weirs, canal headworks, intake works Open channel, pressure conduits, pipes, canals and sewers Drain inlets, infiltration galleries, wells Stilling basins, surge tanks, check dams Dikes, groins, jetties, revetments Levees, cutoffs, locks, piers, culverts Racks, screens, traps, sedimentation tanks, filters, sluiceways Pumps, turbines, rams.

1. Storage structures - Dams Dam: Dam is any artificial barrier and its appurtenant works constructed for the purpose of holding water or any other fluid. There are three common classification schemes for dams. According to the function performed, dams are classified into: i) ii) iii) storage dams for impounding water for developmental uses. Diversion dams for diverting streamflow into canals or other conveyance system and Detention dams to hold the water temporary to retard flood flows

From hydraulic design considerations, dams are classified as: i) overflow dams to carry discharge over their crests, and

3

ii) ii) non-overflow dams, which are not designed to be overtopped. The most common classification is one based on the materials of which dams are made. This classification makes further sub-classification by recognizing the basic type of design, such as concrete gravity or concrete arch dams. Types of dams include: i) ii) iii) Earthfill dams Rockfill dams Concrete dams a) concrete gravity dams b) concrete arch dams c) concrete buttress dams Stone masonry a) stone-masonry gravity dams b) stone-masonry arch dams Timber dams Steel coffer dams

iv) v) vi)

SELECTION OF TYPE OF DAM There are many factor involved in the selection but at the beginning, physical factors play important role. Topographically, a narrow stream section with high rocky walls suggest a suitable site for a concrete dam. Where the wall are strong enough to resist arch thrust, a concrete arch dam is adaptable. Low-rolling plains suggest an earthfill or rockfill dam. When the geologic characteristics of foundation are comprised of solid rock, any type of dam can be constructed, although concrete gravity or arch dams are favourable. Gravel foundation are suitable for earthfill, rockfill, and low concrete gravity dams. Silt and fine sand foundations are used to support earthfill and low concrete gravity dams but not suitable for rockfill dams. Availability of certain materials close to the sitewill effect considerable reduction in cost if the type of dam selected utilizes these materials in sufficient quantity. Size, type and natural restrictions in location of a spillway influence the choice of dam. A large spillway requirement indicates the adoption of a concrete gravity dam. A small spillway requirement favours the selection of rockfill dam. When the excavated material from a site channel spillway can be used in a dam embankment, an earthfill dam is advantageous. Apart from the above factors, others, such as the cost of diverting the stream, availability of labour, and traffic requirements on top of the dam will favour one type or the other.

4

They are designed as a non-overflow section with separate spillway. General view of an Earthfill dam Figure 2: General view of an Earthfill dam Classification of earthfill dams Earthfill dams are classified by many factors. 1. Based on mechanical characteristics of earth materials making the section of the Dam Homogeneous earth dams Non-Homogeneous (zoned) earth dams i) non-homogeneous with inclined impervious zone (ekran) of artificial material ii) with impervious zone of soil with low permeability iii) with central core soil material of low permeability iv) with a central thin diaphragm of impervious material Rolled Fill Earth dams • • 5 . Based on the method of construction • • Rolled fill earth dams Hydraulic fill dam 2.Chapter 2: EARTHFILL DAMS Earthfill dams Earthfill dams are the most common type of dam built to any height. Most earth-moving machines can be used Fig. 1. The reason for such wide spread use of earthfill dams are: • • • • • The foundation requirements are not as rigorous as other dams Local available soil is the main construction material High skill not required No special plants are required.

Outer edges of the embankments are kept slightly higher than the middle portion of each layer. only then is the next layer laid. It is suitable for low height dams (up to 10m). Fine particles are deposited in the central portion to form a water tight central core. These dams are usually constructed with soil and grit mixed in proper ratios. compaction is not required. therefore. for safety in case of rapid drawdown. the upstream slope is kept relatively flat (3:1) Homogeneous section is modified by constructing rock toe at the downstream lower end and providing horizontal filter drain. This slurry of excavated materials and water consists of coarse and fine materials. the construction. successive layers of moistened or damp soils are laid one over the other. while the finer materials move to the middle and settle there. Hydraulic Fill dams In this type of dams. excavation. transportation of the earth is done by hydraulic methods. During construction. the coarser materials settle first at the edges. The seepage action of such dams are not favourable. In this method. When it is discharged near the outer edges. Homogeneous Earthen Dam These dams are constructed with uniform and homogeneous materials. 6 . Each layer not exceeding 20 cm in thickness is properly consolidated at optimum moisture content. a mixture of excavated materials in slurry condition is pumped and discharged at the edges.In this type of dams.

7 . with a thin impervious diaphragm in the central part to prevent seepage of water. The thickness of the diaphragm is not more than 10 m.Zoned Earth Dams These are dams with the central portions called core or hearting made from materials which are relatively impervious. The thin impervious diaphragm may be made of impervious clayey soil. The main difference in zoned and diaphragm type of dams depend on the thickness of the impervious core or diaphragm. Dam with a Diaphragm This type of dam is constructed with pervious materials. The thickness of the core wall is made sufficiently thick to prevent leakage of water through the body of the dam. cement concrete or masonry or any impervious material The diaphragm can be constructed in the central portion or on the upstream face of the dam.

In this respect. Seepage flow through the embankment is controlled so that the amount lost does not interfere with the objective of the dam and there is no erosion or sloughing of soil. 3. The slopes of the embankment are stable under all conditions of reservoir operation. borrow areas containing impervious soils more than about 2 to 5 percent wet of optimum water content (depending upon their plasticity 8 . (2) If a fine-grained soil can be brought readily within the range of water contents suitable for compaction and for operation of construction equipment. and the downstream face is protected (counter-booms. 5. In other cases. Uplift pressure due to the seepage underneath is not enough to cause piping 4. typical rock flours and clays with liquid limits above 80 should generally be avoided. and the reduction of moisture content would be impracticable in some climatic areas because of anticipated rainfall during construction. The term “soil” as used herein includes such materials as soft sandstone or other rocks that break down into soil during handling and compaction. Earth-fill materials. it can be used for embankment construction. soils may require additional water to approach optimum water content for compaction.The criteria for the design of earth dams are: 1. The upstream face is properly protected ((stone pitching. The use of fine-grained soils having high water contents may cause high porewater pressures to develop in the embankment under its own weight. turfs) against the action of rain Embankment Materials a. 6. riprap. seepage line should remain well within the downstream face of the dam and the portion of the dam on downstream side of the impervious core should be well drained. Even ponding or sprinkling in borrow areas may be necessary. revetment) against erosion caused by wave action. Sufficient spillway capacity and freeboard are provided so that there is no danger of overtopping of the dam 2. including rapid drawdown and during steady seepage under full reservoir. (1) While most soils can be used for earth-fill construction as long as they are insoluble and substantially inorganic. The stresses imposed by the embankment upon the foundation are less than the strength of material in the foundation with a suitable factor of safety. Some slow-drying impervious soils may be unusable as embankment fill because of excessive moisture. (3) As it is generally difficult to reduce substantially the water content of impervious soils. Moisture penetration into dry hard borrow material can be aided by ripping or plowing prior to sprinkling or ponding operations.

earth dams may fail due to faulty design. and less compressible. this depends upon local climatic conditions and the size and layout of the work. improper construction and poor maintenance practices. and if a choice is possible. and fine-grained material is in short supply. Some causes of failure of earthfill dams Like most of engineering structures.. as in some flood control dams not used for storage. since the former usually are stronger. less impervious material may be used in the impervious zone. the material used in the core should have a low permeability. when the reservoir is used for long-term storage). However. soils having a wide range of grain sizes (well-graded) are preferable to soils having relatively uniform particle sizes. and liquefaction. and must be assessed for each project on an individual basis. Other factors being equal. Embankment soils that undergo considerable shrinkage upon drying should be protected by adequate thicknesses of non-shrinking fine-grained soils to reduce evaporation. etc The various causes of failure may be classified as: a) Hydraulic failure b) Seepage failure c) Structural failure a) Hydraulic failure: Hydraulic accounts for over 40% of earth dam failure and may be due to one or more of the following: 9 . erosion. Cobbles and boulders in soils may add to the cost of construction since stone with maximum dimensions greater than the thickness of the compacted layer must be removed to permit proper compaction. When water loss must be kept to a minimum (i. less susceptible to piping.characteristics) may be difficult to use in an embankment. resulting in a thin zone. The cost of using drier material requiring a longer haul should be compared with the cost of using wetter materials and flatter slopes. except in the impervious zone of an embankment. (4) Most earth materials suitable for the impervious zone of an earth dam are also suitable for the impervious zone of a rock-fill dam.e. Clay soils should not be used as backfill in contact with concrete or masonry structures. Where seepage loss is less important.

When the toe of downstream is eroded.L Body of dam after failure Fig. iii) Erosion of upstream surface: During winds. the side wall of the spillway should have sufficient height and length to prevent possibility of cross flow towards the earth embankment. the flood water will pass over the dam and wash it downstream. Erosion of downstream toe: The toe of the dam at the downstream side may be eroded due to i) heavy cross-current from spillway buckets. F. the waves developed near the top water surface may cut into the soil of upstream dam face which may cause slip of the upstream surface leading to failure. it will lead to failure of dam.. For preventing against such failure. the flowing rain water over the downstream face can erode the surface. 10 . which could lead to failure. Dam failure by overtopping i) By overtopping: When free board of dam or capacity of spillway is insufficient. Berms could be provided at suitable heights and surface well drained. To prevent such failures. the dam surface should be properly maintained. This can be prevented by providing a downstream slope pitching or a riprap up to a height above the tail water depth Also.W. or ii) tail water. creating gullies. all cuts filled on time and surface well grassed. ii). Erosion of downstream face by gully formation: During heavy rains. the upstream face should be protected with stone pitching or riprap iv).

it will lead to failure of the dam. the channels glow bigger and bigger which could lead to wash out of dam .L . Beginning of downstream failure b). it may not harm the stability of the dam.F. if seepage is concentrated or uncontrolled beyond limits. Channel formation Failure of dam due to piping through dam body 11 . small channels are formed which transport material downstream. H. However. Following are some of the various types of seepage failure. If the magnitude is within design limits.Figure 3. Seepage failure: Seepage always occurs in the dams. When seepage starts through poor soils in the body of the dam. i) Piping through dam body. As more materials are transported downstream.

or shale exist below the foundation. which also becomes saturated due to seepage and also slumps again and forms more unstable surface. or similar soft soil. leading to failure of dam. If seams of fissured rocks. ii) Foundation slide: When the foundation of an earthfill dam is composed of fine silt. causing small slump or slide of the dam. such as soft clay. clay. which is mainly due to shear failure causing slide along the slopes. c) Structural Failure: About 25% of failure is attributed to structural failure. it may lead to heavy seepage. The process of saturation and slumping continues. which is critical for the upstream side because of the development of extremely high pore pressures. the dam will settle or sink leading to failure. The small slide leaves a relative steep face. The downstream side can also slide especially when dam is full. This might happen when there is a sudden drawdown. As a result. Upstream embankment failure is not as serious as downstream failure. which decreases the shearing strength of the soil. The failure may be due to: i) Slide in embankment: When the slopes of the embankments are too steep. the whole dam may slide due to water thrust.ii) Piping through foundation: When highly permeable cavities or fissures or strata of gravel or coarse sand are present in the dam foundation. the embankment may slide causing failure. the side thrust of the water pressure may shear the whole dam and cause its 12 . The concentrated seepage at high rate will erode soil which will cause increase flow of water and soil. Failure due to piping piping iii) Sloughing of downstream side of dam: The process of failure due to sloughing starts when the downstream toe of the dam becomes saturated and starts getting eroded.

2.55(H)1/2 + H/5 For dams higher than 30m. 6.failure. The crest width of the dam if road is not envisaged should not be less than 3m for low and medium head dams and 6m for high head dams. Some elements of earthfill dams 1. Failure of slope pitching. iii) Faulty construction and poor maintenance: When during construction. In such failure the top of the dam gets cracked and subsides. Shear slide of dam 7. when the reservoir is full. Fault movement in the dam site reducing reservoir capacity and causing overtopping. 13 . The sand below foundation may liquefy 8. it may lead to failure. the lower slopes moves outward and forms large mud waves near the dam heel. settlement of dam which may reduce freeboard causing failure by overtopping 4. causing leakages and piping failure. slidding of natural hills causing damage to dam and its appurtenant structures 5. Top width could be determined by the following recommended formulae: a) For very low dams top width is given by B = H/5 + 3 b) For dams lower than 30m B = 0. and dam may fail due to overtopping 3. then the width of the dam is determined according to the class of road and determined by the road code. slow waves may set up due to shaking of reservoir bottom. 1 cracks may develop in the core wall.Crest of dam: The crest width of dams should be sufficient to keep the seepage line within the dam. the compaction of the embankment is not properly done. iv) Earthquake may cause the following types of failure to earthfill dams. If road is envisaged.

2. However.5:1 2. Rosanova) Slope Upstream Downstream With filter Downstream without filter Material of dam Clayey Sandy Clayey Sandy Clayey Sandy Side slopes depending on height of dam Less than 5m From 5m From 10-15m 10m 2 2.5 1. P. (Taken from “hydraulic structures” –N.5)1/3 B = 1.25 In low head dams.5 3 1. Berms: Berms are constructed at both the upstream and downstream side of the dam for the purposes of observing the conditions of protections at the slopes and their repairs and also for increasing the width of dam at the base 14 .65(H + 1.5 3 2.25 2 2. Initial slope could be taken from the tables below.5 – 2 3 – 2. Side slopes of dam: side slope of dams must satisfy the static stability.5:1 3:1 2.B = 1.25 2.5:1 Downstream slope (H:V) 2:1 2.5:1 2:1 4 5 3.75 2 2. it becomes necessary to give an initial side slopes. different side slopes are usually adopted to reduce the volume of the dam.75 1.67(H)1/2 Balustrades are provided at the end of the roads to prevent car falling off the slopes.75 2 2 2 1.5:1 3:1 3:1 2. since the stability computations can be done only after defining the profile of the dam and determining the seepage line.5:1 2:1 2. however in medium and high head dams. usually one and constant side slope is used. Side Slope According to the recommendations of Terzaghi No. Type of material 1 2 3 Well graded homogeneous soil Homogeneous coarse silt Homogeneous silt clay: i) for dam height less than 15m ii) for dam height more than 15m Sand or sand and gravel with clay core Sand or sand and gravel with reinforced concrete core wall Upstream slope (H :V) 2.

with aim of increasing seepage length. It is also done when constructions coffer dams are made part of the body of the dam. At the downstream side, berms are done at an interval of 10 – 15m high. Width of berm is taken between 1 – 2 m.

4. Free Board Normal freeboard is the vertical distance between the normal pool level and the crest of the dam. Minimum freeboard is the vertical distance between the high flood level and the crest of dam. The minimum height of freeboard is taken as 1.5 hw where hw is given by: hw = 0.032 (V.F)1/2 + 0.763 – 0.271(F)1/4 for F, 32 km -----------(X) and hw = 0.032 (V.F)1/2 for F . 32km -------------------------------------(Y) where hw = wave height ( height of water from top to trough of waves in meters) V = velocity of wind in km/hr F = fetch or straight length of water expanse in km. Free board values as recommended by U.S.B.R are given in table below. Free Board by USBR Spillway Type Free spillway Controlled spillway Controlled spillway Dam Height in m Minimum freeboard over M.W.L Any height 2 m to 3 m Up to 60 m 2.5 m above top of gate s More than 60 m 3.0 m above top of gates

5. Slope Protection (Revetment)

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Upstream side protection: For protecting the upstream slope from deterioration and damage from wave action, the slope is covered with different protective material. Rock riprap, either dry dumped stone boulders or hand-packed stone boulders can be made. Stone pitching provided at slope of 1.5 : 1 to 2 : 1 for ordinary soil material of dam and 3 : 1 for poor soil material. The revetment stones are fixed at the toe of the dam to prevent slipping of the embankment. The thickness of the

Figure 3. Upstream protection with handlayed rip-rap

Figure 4. Upstream protection

stone pitching is usually more than 60 cm. In most cases the stone pitching is placed over gravel then sand cushion. Big sizes stones with their broader face downwards are packed with each other by means of hammer. Concrete, reinforced concrete slabs, steel plates, bituminous material pavement, brick tile pavement could also be used. However, extensive survey done by US Corps of Engineers in the 1940s o over 100 dams show that dry dumped riprap stone pitching has the best efficiency in terms of failure rate.

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Downstream protection One of the cheapest, simple and effective methods of protecting the downstream from rainfall and wind action is by planting green grass (turfs) on the slope. Counter-boom could also be done.

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Figure 4. Downstream protection

6. Drainage: Drainage in earth dams is meant for lowering the seepage curve; prevent seepage water from flowing onto the downstream slope, and conveying seepage water through the body of the dam to the downstream part of the dam. By its function, dam drainage must have two parts; an intake structure (drainage trench) that allows seepage water from the body and foundation of the dam, while at the same time preventing deformation due to seepage and conveyance structure that transports the seepage water from the dam. However, in most drainage, it is difficult to see clearly these two parts.

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a stone prism is used. vi) Horizontal stone drainage: a type of horizontal piped drain in which instead of the pipe. laid parallel to base of the slope of dam. Such drainage system is used when there could be rise of the tail water above the crest of the prism.Hydrotechnical construction practice has work out many drainage systems depending on the type of dam. Among some of the most commonly used drainage systems are: i) Drainage prism: with many positive sides (advantages) but requires the use of large quantity of stones ii) A type of drainage prism in which the filter material of the drainage system is laid to extend to a certain height on the downstream side. iii) Flat horizontal drainage: It requires much smaller quantity of stones and simplifies construction. It has the advantage of draining both the foundation and body of dam and it is used mainly when the foundation is made up of saturated material iv) Combination of horizontal drain with the prism. v) Horizontal piped drainage: consists of a pipe (tube). 19 . materials of the foundation and body of dam.

The emergence of seepage lines on the downstream slope tends to make the downstream slope unstable. The diagram below shows the seepage lines for a homogeneous earthfill dam with a horizontal gravel filter on the base of the dam at the downstream side. The pattern is the same irrespective of the material (sand. The second alternative is favoured because it is economical. though the rate of seepage will depend on soil type. The flow lines 20 . Either the downstream slope has to be made very flat or the seepage must be diverted away from the downstream slope.Seepage through dam Filtration (seepage) computation through dams are carried out with the aim of: • determining the position of the seepage depression curve • finding the value of the gradient and velocity of filtration • determine the filtration flow (discharge) The seepage pattern through a dam is shown above. clay. loam) of the dam.

The parabola Seepage through a homogeneous dam with horizontal drainage blanket (filter) Insert drawing 21 . Cassagrande (1937) has shown that the phreatic line. which is the topmost seepage line.enter the blanket vertically. quite closely approximates a parabola.

Near the upstream face. AB = 0. draw an arc to cut the water surface at J. Consequently. Every point on the parabola with origin at the focus F can be given by x= 2 y 2 − y0 2 y0 ----------------1 At the point A. With A as the centre and AF as radius. The phreatic line can be drawn by equation (1). The side slopes are 1V: 2. the phreatic line diverges from the parabola and join B perpendicularly. x = d and y = H.5ft and CA = 157. the total seepage through the length L of the dam is given by: Q = K(y0)(L) ------------------------------(7) Worked example A homogeneous earthfill dam has a top width of 30ft and a height of 100ft with a freeboard of 10ft. Determine the seepage through the dam. It has a horizontal drainage blanket at the base that extends from the downstream toe to a distance of 100ft.5 x 10-5 ft/sec. (2) How to get the point D graphically. D is the directrix. The embankment has a permeability of 1. which is also the distance FD. Locate the mid-point of FD at E which is the vertex of the parabola. For an approximate estimate of seepage.5H. Substituting in equation 1 yields y0 = H 2 + d 2 − d ------------(2) y0 .3 CB. The focus of the parabola is at F and the directrix passes through D. per unit length of dam dy q = KiA = K y 0 -------------. CB = 90 (2.3(225) = 67.(3) dx dy From eq. is determined from eq. x= 0. From J drop a perpendicular to the base at D.5 ft d = base length – blanket length – CA 22 .5) = 225ft . and y = y0 then dy/dx = 1 ------------------------------(5) Hence q = K (1) (y0) ------------------------------(6) The flow through the section at G is the same as at any other section. (1) dx = y0 2 2 xy 0 + y 0 --------------------(4) Since at G. Solution H = 90 ft . the Darcy’s law at point G .intersects the water surface at A such that AB = 0.

the focus point F of the parabola is at the downstream toe of the dam.= 530 -100 – 157.18 0.32 0.36 0.5)2]1/2 -272. The seepage line emerges out at point C meeting the downstream face tangentially.14 0.10 0. Then from Darcy’s law of flow through porous medium.5) (1) = 2. The portion DC (Δa) and CF (a) are inter-related as follows: 180 0 − α ∆a = ( a + ∆a ) 400 0 The table below gives the values of Δa/(a + Δa) for various values of α (angles which the discharge face makes with the horizontal) as per Cassagrande α in degree 30 60 90 120 135 150 180 Δa/(a + Δa) 0. The base parabola cuts the downstream slope of the dam and extends beyond the dam. (2) y 0 = H 2 + d 2 − d = [(90)2 + (272.5 ft. The portion CF of the dam is known as the discharge face and always remains saturated.0 Seepage rate calculation from flow net Flow net is a network form by streamlines (flow lines and equi potential (head lines) which are mutually perpendicular.18 x 10-4cfs or 18.5 = 272.8ft3/day per foot of dam.26 0. considering unit thickness.5 x 10-5)(14. the portion between any two successive flow lines is called flow channel and the portion between any two successive equi potential lines called flow field.1) l --------------------a) 23 .5 ft From eq. Seepage line of a homogeneous dam without filter For a homogeneous dam without filter. From eq. ∆q = k . In the network.5 = 14. ∆h ( b. 6 q = K (1) (y0) = (1.

we obtain ∆q = k . 24 . This phenomena is known as piping and can result in the sliding of the toe or the settling of the whole dam. ----------. Or Total flow q = ∑ ∆q = k .N t = kh t . When the flow field is square. If the upward seepage pressure of water near the toe is greater than the effective weight of the soil.d) Nd l Nd l Where Nt = total number of flow channels in the net. h = total head causing flow Δq = discharge passing through the field If the total number of potential drops in the flow net = Nd Then Δh = h/Nd ----------------------b) Putting b) into a). then b = l and the discharge becomes q = kh Nt Nd ---------------------f) Seepage under the Dam If the foundation material is alluvial sand or gravel. h b ------------c) Nd l N b h b .equipotential lines b l Flow lines If Δh = drop of head through a field. seepage could occur underneath the dam. the surface of the soil will rise at a point of least resistance. and water and soil will start flowing away from dam.

This should be less than unity. 2. Prevention of Seepage through Foundation i) By providing drainage trenches ii). An empirical approach. i= Measures against seepage. When the two forces are in balance. (Z) is known as the critical gradient and equal to unity. Seepage Control.The submerged unit weight soil is given by G −1 γ sub = s γw ----------(Y) 1+ e where Gs = specific gravity of soil. 1. e = void ratio. The actual gradient at the downstream end of the dam is evaluated from the flow net by dividing the head difference between the lst two potential lines by the distance between these potential lines. This ratio is kept at 4 for gravels and 18 for sand and silt. For a seepage line at a gradient. By providing downstream seepage berms iii). the upward seepage force per unit volume is iγw . By providing impervious cutoff. By providing impervious blanket layer on upstream slope iv). L/H is computed. I. the creep ratio. Prevention of Seepage through Embankment (Dam) i). here L is the length along the surface of contact between the soil and the base of the structure. The following are some common measures for controlling seepage through the dam and embankments. Gs − 1 -----------------(Z) i+e Eq. A gradient of slightly higher than unit value will cause piping or sand particles to be in an unstable condition known as quicksand. By providing horizontal drainage filter 25 .

The last layer of the filter is made of gravels. By providing filter downstream of toe iv). The perforations (openings in the pipes drains should be adequate to admit all seeping water safely. also throughout the filter. The thickness should be adequate to provide safety against piping. so that filter material is not lost in the drains. By providing chimney drains extending upwards into the embankment Chimney drain Design of Filter The design of filters should be done in such a way that all the seepage water through the dam is effectively drained off. The filter consists of several layers. iv) The thickness of filter material should be sufficient to provide a good distribution of all particle sizes. Washington 1960 recommended the following for materials to be used for filters. 26 . By providing toe filter iii). The filters of filter drains are known as reverse or inverted filter.S. i) Filter material should be fine and poorly graded so that the voids in the filter are small and thus prevent base material from entering the filter ii) The filter material should be coarse and pervious in relation to the base material. Subsequent layers of filter are made of sand of increased fineness. This aspect facilitates rapid removal of seeping water without building up any seepage forces within the filter. The U. By providing downstream coarse section v). Terzaghi has recommended the following two requirements which should be fulfilled by the filter: a). The soil of the earth dam and the foundation material surrounding the filter are known as the base material. Bureau of reclamation. The first layer of the filter which comes in contact with the seeping water consists of fine sand material. The D15 size of the filter material must not be more than 4 to 5 times the D85 of the base material. iii) The filter material should be coarser than the perforations of openings in the drain pipes.ii). This prevents the foundation material from carrying through the pores of the filter material.

The above criteria can be expressed as follows: D15 of filter < 4 to 5 < D85 of base material D15 of filter D15 of base material. The D15 size of the filter material should be at least 4 to 5 times the D16 of the base material. Earthfill dams usually fail due to the sliding of large soil mass along a curved surface. Stability of Earthfill dams Stability computation for earthfil dams are done to check on the following: 2. The grain size curve of the filter material should be about parallel to the curve of the base material. Stability of foundation against shear. = 2 or more Max opening of perforations of pipes d). the failure of the embankment surface is assumed to be cylindrical. which is the ratio of average shearing stress as determined by the Coulomb equation s = (c + σ tan φ) to the average shearing stress determined by statics on a potential sliding surface. The above criteria has been modified by USBR in “ Design of small Dams ” as: a) a) D15 of filter material = 5 to 40 D15 of base material b). For testing the stability of a slope. c). It is necessary first to locate the centre of the Critical Circle to locate the Centre of Critical Slope. stability of upstream slope during drawdown 4. The factor of safety against sliding. Fellenious has given the following method to locate the locus on which the probable centre line may lie. stability of downstream slope during steady seepage 3. This keeps seepage forces within the filter to permissible levels. Swedish slip Circle Method (Slide Method) In this method. The most common method used for examining the stability of earthfill dam embankment slopes is the Swedish slip circle or (the slice) method. 6. the centre of the possible arc is assumed. D15 of filter material = 5 or less D85 of base material D85 of filter materials . stability of downstream and upstream slopes during and immediately after construction 5. 27 .b).

3 18. The location of point P is done with the help of directional angles i. Draw angle i from the toe of dam to cut the surface of fluid at S.8 45 60 Slope 5:1 3:1 2:1 1.5 : 1 1:1 0. each slice is assumed to act independently as a column of soil of unit thickness and width. we obtain the line on which the centre of critical slip centre lies. the centre of critical slip centre lies on the line PQ. The earth mass above the arc is divided into a number of vertical segments known as slices.58 : 1 Directional angles α 25 25 25 26 28 29 β 35 35 35 35 37 40 First extend the surface of the fluid WL.6 33. Now by joining QP. Slope angle (i)o 11.4 26. The weight is resolved into two components N and T (ie. normal 28 .5 H i S Q For a homogeneous soil. Neglecting the forces between slices. From S draw the angle β and from the toe draw angle α to intercept angle β at the point P.P β WL α H T R 4. Now on line QP we assume point O and an arc AB is drawn with radius OA.5 H horizontal away from toe as shown above. α and β given in the table below. The coordinates of point Q is H downwards from toe and 4. The number of slices may be from 6 to 12. The weight of each slice is assumed to be acting at its centre.

. The driving moment MD = R x ∑T …………………... A R O R O N B T α W Let thew slices be numbered 1. W2… W6 Now N = W cos α and T = W sin α From Coulomb’s equation.S = F ...1) where c = unit cohesion . φ = angle of internal friction of soil..length of arc AB The factor of safety against sliding F .... and will not cause any driving moment on the slice. some of the slices may cause resisting moment and in such cases. 29 .. the resisting force FR = c x ΔL + N tan φ ………. But the tangential component T causes a driving moment of T x R).S = M R R c ∑ ∆L + tan φ ∑ N = MD R∑ T [ ] [c∑ ∆L + tan φ ∑ N ] ..2) The resisting moment MR = R[c∑ΔL + tan φ x ∑N ∑ΔL = sum of curved length of all components = 2πθ/360 . 2...(3) ∑T The values of ∑N and ∑T are generally calculated in a tabular form. ΔL = curved length of slice . T is negative....component passing through the centre of the arc O. …6 and their weights be numbered W1. Near the toe of the dam..

c x ΔLn c x ∑ ΔL = c x 2πθ/360 The factor of safety is computed for the point O with equation (3). the soil pores remain filled with water causing 30 . then ∑N = cos α (∑w) and ∑T = sin α∑(w) No.. n Weight of slice w1 w2 w3 w4 .S.. = c∑ΔL + tan φ (∑N . The centre corresponding to the lowest factor of safety is the required centre of critical slip circle. Different points on the line QP are chosen and the procedure gone through to deyermine the factor of safety. Nn ∑N T = w x sin α T1 T2 T3 T4 . it may cause critical conditions for the stability of the upstream slope. . wn N = w x cos α N1 N2 N3 N4 ... . . . w2. Slope Stability during Sudden Drawdown If dam is suddenly emptied. Tn ∑T c x ΔL c x ΔL1 c x ΔL2 c x ΔL3 c x ΔL4 . In this condition..wn are the weight of slices. of slice 1 2 3 4 . calculated on the buoyant unit weight γ’=(ρs – ρw)g of the dam.. Downstream Slope Stability during Steady Seepage The critical condition for downstream slope occurs when the reservoir is full and seepage is at its maximum rate. The net shear strength of the affected slice is c x ΔL = (N –U) tan φ ………………(5) where U = the pore pressure The factor of safety (F. . Various factor of safety so obtained are plotted as ordinates on the corresponding centres and a smooth curve of F.∑U) ∑T = c∑ΔL + tan φ ∑N’ ∑T ……. The seeping water below the phreatic surface exerts a pore pressure on the soil mass.. …….S) for the entire slip circle is F. Therefore...S drawn. the shearing strength of the slices of the critical arc within the range of pore-pressure is reduced.(6) where N’ = normal components.Now if w1. Values of ∑T is calculated on the basis of its saturated weight..

the embankment slopes are flattened or berms are added on both sides of the dam. this initial excess pore pressure gets gradually dissipated. 8excess pore pressure is developed in the air and water entrapped in the pore space. Therefore. loose cohesionless material that form the foundation may have good imperviousness. The factor of safety can be calculated by the formula (6) above.4B h1 h2 Firm stratum J L h Toe Foundation material B The method for determining the factor of safety. which would produce the same shear stress as the material will develop itself. For increasing the shear area and keeping the shear stress within permissible limits. The water weight within the soil tends to slide the upstream slope along a circular arc. Stability of Foundation against Shear. With time. but are weak in shear and always require checking. The hydrostatic force acting along the upstream slope when reservoir is full is also removed with the sudden drawdown. 0. At dam site. This is due to the fact that the soil mass undergoes a change in volume during compaction during and after construction. which is approximate is based on the assumption that earthfill materials have an equivalent liquid weight.the water level to remain the same as before the sudden drawdown. The horizontal shear on left is given by: 31 . the silt and clay or fine. The shear resistance is considerably reduced due to development of pore pressure on the likely slip surface. the tangential component of the saturated weight is the main force causing disturbance to the upstream slope. Stability of Upstream and Downstream Slopes during and immediately after Construction During construction of the dam and embankment with relatively impervious soil.

.S..5 for stability of foundation against shear..h1 where to the depth of each. so obtained must be more than 1. h2 tan φ The unit shear strength at point J S2 = c + γf . h1 tan φ Therefore the average shear strength S = (S1 + S2)/2 The factor of safety against shear F.0. γf = density of foundation material The average unit shear = Sav = P/b Hence the maximum unit shear = Smax = 1.h2 h1 where γd = density of the dam.. h2)/(h + h2) And factor of safety (F...4 B from point J........equivalent.. point L.. Chapter 3 GRAVITY DAMS 32 .. h + γf ...) = S/Smax For stability the value of F.(7) 2 2 φ ' where γ m ..... tan 2 45 o − ...h . φ = angle of repose of foundation material c = unit cohesion of foundation material γm = mean unit weight of the dam and foundation weighted in proportion γm = γ d ( h1 − h2 ) + γ f .S... tan φ + c ) tan φ ' = m 1 …………………(8) γ m . let S = c + γav .... tan φ = (γd . The unit shear strength below toe K S1 = c + γf ... at maximum shear...weight 2 φ’ = equivalent angle of friction ( γ .liquid ..4 x Sav The maximum unit shear occurs at 0.γ m tan 2 45 o − .. The F..S.. h .2 h12 − h2 φ' P= ..S... = S/Sav The factor of safetyso obtained must be more than 1...unit.

maintains good workability during placement. they are constructed on a straight axis. Vibration is generally performed by large one-man. Conventional concrete dams. etc. curing. curing. a. (1) Conventionally placed mass concrete dams are characterized by construction using materials and techniques employed in the proportioning.to 10-foot depths. and high-pressure air-water jet. or a combination of these methods. Transportation from the batch plant to the dam is generally performed in buckets ranging in size from 4 to 12 cubic yards carried by truck. cooling. galleries. within the structure. impermeability.. 3) The heat generated as cement hydrates requires careful temperature control during placement of mass concrete and for several days after placement. cableways. The cement hydration process of conventional concrete limits the size and rate of concrete placement and necessitates building in monoliths to meet crack control requirements. mix proportions are selected to produce a low-slump concrete that gives economy. cranes. and transportation. placing. air-driven. Uncontrolled heat generation could result in excessive tensile stresses due to extreme gradients within the mass concrete or due to temperature reductions as 33 . mixing. and durability. (2) Construction procedures include batching and mixing. and produces important properties such as strength. The maximum bucket size is usually restricted by the capability of effectively spreading and vibrating the concrete pile after it is dumped from the bucket. Construction incorporates methods that have been developed and perfected over many years of designing and building mass concrete dams. develops minimum temperature rise during hydration. but may be slightly curved or angled to accommodate the specific site conditions. Gravity dams typically consist of a non-overflow section(s) and an overflow section or spillway.Basically. placement. wet sandblasting. located at or within an economical distance of the project. Generally using large-size coarse aggregates. rail. The two general concrete construction methods for concrete gravity dams are conventional placed mass concrete and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). and preparation of horizontal construction joints between lifts. vibration. penstocks. Methods of cleaning horizontal construction joints to remove the weak laitance film on the surface during curing include green cutting. Each lift consists of successive layers not exceeding 18 to 20 inches. and requires an aggregate source of adequate quality and quantity. and temperature control of mass concrete. gravity dams are solid concrete structures that maintain their stability against design loads from the geometric shape and the weight and strength of the structure. The large volume of concrete in a gravity dam normally justifies an onsite batch plant. spud-type vibrators. The concrete is placed in lifts of 5. They are constructed with masonry or concrete but of late conventional concrete or roller-compacted concrete are popular. Generally. Dam construction with conventional concrete readily facilitates installation of conduits.

Usually. (2) The topography is an important factor in the selection and location of a concrete dam and its appurtenant structures. concrete mix design. drainage. During the feasibility studies. (1) A concrete dam requires a sound bedrock foundation. water quality.the concrete approaches its annual temperature cycle. It is important that the bedrock have adequate shear strength and bearing capacity to meet the necessary stability requirements. General. RCC has similar properties to conventional concrete. achieve the necessary compaction of the RCC and prevention of undesirable segregation and voids. Site Selection a. and details of the appurtenant structures. Construction at a site with a narrow canyon profile on sound bedrock close to the surface is preferable. The foundation permeability and the extent and cost of foundation grouting. flood damage reduction. hydroelectric power generation. monoliths are approximately 50 feet wide. and other heavy equipment. RCC is a relatively dry. RCC must be dry enough to support the weight of the construction equipment. but have a consistency wet enough to permit adequate distribution of the past binder throughout the mass during the mixing and vibration process and. or other seepage and uplift control measures should be investigated. The design of RCC gravity dams is similar to conventional concrete structures. the preliminary site selection will be dependent on the project purposes. thus. Reduction in the cement content and cement replacement with pozzolans have reduced the temperature-rise potential. b. and recreation. water supply. dozer. Control measures involve precooling and postcooling techniques to limit the peak temperatures and control the temperature drop. Construction of an RCC dam is a relatively new and economical concept. Purposes applicable to dam construction include navigation. In the hardened condition. b. Economic advantages are achieved with rapid placement using construction techniques that are similar to those employed for embankment dams. Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dams. lean. as this 34 . Selection factors. The feasibility study will establish the most suitable and economical location and type of structure. For effective consolidation. zero slump concrete material containing coarse and fine aggregate that is consolidated by external vibration using vibratory rollers. Crack control is achieved by constructing the conventional concrete gravity dam in a series of individually stable monoliths separated by transverse contraction joints. The differences lie in the construction methods. fish and wildlife enhancement.

(5) Earth and silt pressures. (6) Ice pressure. (11) Reaction of foundation. (4) Temperature. and lowers risk and delay if overtopping should occur. The resultant of all these downward forces is thus found by talking moments of the component forces which constitute the total weight of the dam acting at its centre of gravity. etc. b. Forces on Gravity Dams 3-3. (10) Wave pressure. (Headwater and tailwater). The following forces may affect the design: (1) Dead load. powerhouse. powerlines. 35 . (7) Earthquake forces. relatively small voids such as galleries are normally not deducted except in low dams. General. (8) Wind pressure. Extensive and costly relocations should be avoided. (2) Water Pressure (Headwater and tailwater pressures). Dead load comprises the major resisting force. Water Pressure. (4) Additional factors of lesser importance that need to be included for consideration are the relocation of existing facilities and utilities that lie within the reservoir and in the path of the dam. Weight of each triangle and rectangle and their points of application at respective centre of gravity are computed. (3) Uplift. highways. Dead load. In the design of concrete gravity dams. The cross section of the dam is divided into several triangles and rectangles. In the computation of the dead load. and appurtenances such as gates and bridges.location would minimize the concrete material requirements and the associated costs. superimposed backfill. towns. Included in these are railroads. c. Loads a. where such voids could create an appreciable effect upon the stability of the structure. The relationship and adaptability of these features to the project alignment will need evaluation along with associated costs. The dead loads considered should include the weight of concrete. it is essential to determine the loads required in the stability and stress analysis. (9) Subatmospheric pressure. and the other project appurtenances will play an important role in site selection. (5) The method or scheme of diverting flows around or through the damsite during construction is an important consideration to the economy of the dam. Unit weight of concrete and masonry is taken as 2400kg/m3 and 2300kg/m3. (3) The criteria set forth for the spillway. A concrete gravity dam offers major advantages and potential cost savings by providing the option of diversion through alternate construction blocks.

it exerts horizontal pressure on the dam. 36 . Max. Uplift Pressure. Vertical pressure Ww = weight of water on slanted side and acting at centre of gravity of volume of water.D. and stands against the body of the dam. the water pressure is resolved in two components: Horizontal oressure P = ½ γh2 and acting at h/3 from base. G. G.Water pressure is the major external force acting on the dam. flow level h P=1/2γh h/3 Dam Fig. When the upstream face is slanted. It is the second major external force acting upwards on the dam. 1 Headwater pressure with vertical upstream face Head water h P1 Tail water P2 Ww Ww Fig. the water pressure P = ½ γh2 and acting at h/3 from base. 2 Water pressure for slanted upstream face and water at tailrace When the upstream face of the dam is vertical.D. As the water is stored in the reservoir.

This pressure is present within the cracks.D. size. the character of the 37 . seams. The uplift pressure at any point under the structure will be tailwater pressure plus the pressure measured as an ordinate from tailwater to the hydraulic gradient between upper and lower pool.D. and spacing of the drains. where applicable.3 Uplift distribution without foundation drainage (b) Without drains. (a) General. Uplift pressure is an active force that must be included in the stability and stress analysis to ensure structural adequacy. as a straight line. Uplift pressures at the base or below the foundation can be reduced by installing foundation drains. from headwater at the heel to zero or tailwater at the toe. G. jointing. Determination of uplift. is demonstrated in Figure G. at any point on or below the foundation. The pressure distribution along the base and in the foundation is dependent on the effectiveness of drains and grout curtain.3 above. and seams in the concrete and foundation material. and within the foundation below the base. The uplift pressure will be considered as acting over 100 percent of the base. The effectiveness of the drainage system will depend on depth. (1) Along the base. A hydraulic gradient between the upper and lower pool is developed between the heel and toe of the dam. at the interface between the dam and the foundation. These pressures vary with time and are related to boundary conditions and the permeability of the material. the hydraulic gradient will be assumed to vary. (c) With drains. pores. and geologic features such as rock permeability. and faulting.Uplift pressure resulting from headwater and tailwater exists through cross sections within the dam. Fig. joints. Where there have not been any provisions provided for uplift reduction.

as shown in Figure G.D. to the reduced pressure head at the line of drains.5 If the drainage gallery is above tailwater elevation. This condition is illustrated in Figure G. This effectiveness will be assumed to vary from 25 to 50 percent. Along the base. which would be the case if the drains were exactly at the heel.foundation.D.4 Figure G. the pressure of the line of drains should be determined as though the tailwater level is equal to the gallery elevation. the uplift pressure will vary linearly from the undrained pressure head at the heel. 38 .D. and the design memoranda should contain supporting data for the assumption used. and the facility with which the drains can be maintained. the uplift may be assumed to vary as a single straight line. to the undrained pressure head at the toe. 4 Uplift distribution with drainage gallery Where the line of drains intersects the foundation within a distance of 5 percent of the reservoir depth from the upstream face.

the depth of the grout zone should be two-thirds to three-fourths of the headwater-tailwater differential and should be supplemented by foundation drain holes with a depth of at least two-thirds that of the grout zone (curtain). zero compression zone not extending beyond drains (3-4) Where the foundation is sufficiently impervious to retard the flow and where grouting would be impractical.6. Uplift on any portion of any foundation plane not in compression shall be 100 percent of the hydrostatic head of the adjacent face. the uplift will be as shown in Figure G. Under average conditions. In a relatively impervious foundation. Uplift distribution cracked base with drainage. When the zero compression zone does not extend beyond the location of the drains. an artificial cutoff is usually unnecessary. A grouted zone (curtain) should be used wherever the foundation is amenable to grouting. For drainage to be controlled economically.D.D. should be provided to relieve the uplift pressures that would build up over a period of time in a relatively impervious medium. Uplift distribution with foundation drains near upstream face (d) Grout curtain. (e) Zero compression zones.6. however. retarding of flow to the drains from the upstream head is mandatory. Figure G.Figure G. except where tension is the result of instantaneous loading resulting from earthquake forces. Drains. This uplift condition is shown in Figure G. drain effectiveness shall not be considered. For the condition where the zero compression zone extends beyond the drains.D.D. Grout holes shall be oriented to intercept the maximum number of rock fractures to maximize its effectiveness. drain spacing will be closer than in a relatively permeable foundation.5.7 39 . This may be accomplished by a zone of grouting (curtain) or by the natural imperviousness of the foundation.

at the downstream face. and the treatment for watertightness at the upstream and downstream faces. Wave Pressure 40 . Uplift within the body of a conventional concretegravity dam shall be assumed to vary linearly from 50 percent of maximum headwater at the upstream face to 50 percent of tailwater. A porous upstream face and lift joints in conjunction with an impermeable downstream face may result in a pressure gradient through a cross section of the dam considerably greater than that outlined above for conventional concrete. When an existing dam is being investigated. zero compression zone extending beyond drains(3-5) . (a) Conventional concrete. Cracking at the upstream face of an existing dam or weak horizontal construction joints in the body of the dam may affect this assumption.7. compaction methods. the design office should submit a request to CECW-ED for a deviation if expensive remedial measures are required to satisfy this loading assumption. or zero. (b) RCC concrete. the placements. The determination of the percent uplift will depend on the mix permeability. (2) Within dam.D. lift joint treatment.Figure G. techniques specified for minimizing segregation within the mixture. This simplification is based on the relative impermeability of intact concrete which precludes the buildup of internal pore pressures. Uplift distribution cracked base with drainage. as the case may be.

hw) x 5/3 .271(F)1/4 and hw = 0. Total force due to wave pressure Pw = ½(2. h2 = 2 . F = fetch or straight length of water expanse in km V = velocity of wind in km. w . hw = 0.F)1/2 where for F<32 km -------.hr The maximum pressure intensity due to wave pressure is given by Pw = 2.032(V.4γh Figure G.The portions of the dam is subjected to the impact of waves. hw = 2 .(A) for F>32 km ---------(B) hw = height of wave in metres from top of crest to bottom of trough. The fill material may or may not be submerged. Silt pressures are considered in the design if suspended sediment measurements indicate that such pressures are expected. which is produced in water surface during wind Water surface Pw 5/3hw hw 2. 41 .hw2 kg/m This force act at 3/8hw above the still water level of the reservoir. 8 The wave pressure is tdetermined by the following formula developed by D.032(V. Molitor Wave height.763 – 0.F. 1000 . Wind Load Wind load in stability analysis is usually ignored Earth and Silt Earth pressures against the dam may occur where backfill is deposited in the foundation excavation and where embankment fills abut and wrap around concrete monoliths.D. A.4 x γ x hw and act at hw/2m above still water.4 w.)1/2+0. Whether the lateral earth pressures will be in an active or an at-rest state is determined by the resulting structure lateral deformation.

The magnitude of the inertia forces is computed by the principle of mass times the earthquake acceleration. The seismic coefficient method of analysis is commonly known as the pseudostatic analysis. and in no case can it be related directly to acceleration from a strong motion instrument. the analysis should be performed for the most unfavorable direction. it is a dimensionless unit. (a) The earthquake loadings used in the design of concrete gravity dams are based on design earthquakes and site-specific motions determined from seismological evaluation. As a minimum.Earthquake Forces (1) General. The seismic coefficient is a ratio of the earthquake acceleration to gravity. vertical acceleration. (c) Earthquake loadings should be checked for horizontal earthquake acceleration and. a seismological evaluation should be performed on all projects located in seismic zones. 42 . (b) The seismic coefficient method of analysis should be used in determining the resultant location and sliding stability of dams.9). (2) Seismic coefficient. In strong seismicity areas. The coefficients used are considered to be the same for the foundation and are uniform for the total height of the dam. a dynamic seismic analysis is required for the internal stress analysis. Earthquake loading is treated as an inertial force applied statically to the structure.D. Inertia forces are assumed to act through the center of gravity of the section or element. if included in the stress analysis. While an earthquake acceleration might take place in any direction. The loadings are of two types: inertia force due to the horizontal acceleration of the dam and hydrodynamic forces resulting from the reaction of the reservoir water against the dam (see Figure G.

The inertia of the reservoir water induces an increased or decreased pressure on the dam concurrently with concrete inertia forces. Seismically loaded gravity dam. This force may be computed by means of the Westergaard formula using the parabolic approximation: Pew = 2/3 Ce (α) y (hy)1/2 where Pew = additional total water load down to depth y (kips) Ce = factor depending principally on depth of water and the earthquake vibration period.D. nonoverflow monolith (a) Inertia of concrete for horizontal earthquake acceleration. The force required to accelerate the concrete mass of the dam is determined from the equation: Pe = Max =( W/g)αg = W α Where Pex = horizontal earthquake force M = mass of dam ax = horizontal earthquake acceleration = g W = weight of dam g = acceleration of gravity a = seismic coefficient (b) Inertia of reservoir for horizontal earthquake acceleration.9 shows the pressures and forces due to earthquake by the seismic coefficient method. t . 9. FigureG. in seconds e h = total height of reservoir (feet) 43 .Figure G.D.

COMBINATION OF FORCES FOR DESIGN The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interative process involving a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. they should also be analyzed. If weak seams or planes exist in the foundation. 44 . The following basic loading conditions are generally used in concrete gravity dam designs (see Figure G. in pound-second feet units is: Ce = 51 h 1 − 0. which is sufficiently accurate for all usual conditions.72 1.000t e 2 where t is the period of vibration. Basic Loading Conditions Dams are designed for the most adverse combination of load conditions as have reasonable probability of simultaneous occurrence. If the structure fails to meet criteria then the layout is modified and reanalyzed.D 10). This process is repeated until an acceptable cross section is attained. Analysis of the stability and calculation of the stresses are generally conducted at the dam base and at selected planes within the structure.Westergaard's approximate equation for Ce.

(d) Uplift. (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration in downstream direction. if applicable. (f) Silt pressure. (c) Uplift. (a) Operating basis earthquake (OBE). (d) Ice and silt pressure. (b) No headwater or tailwater. 2 .probable maximum flood. 3 . (c) Tailwater pressure. on the average.(1) Load Condition No.extreme loading condition . if applicable.unusual loading condition . 4 . (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration in downstream direction. 45 . 5 and 6. if applicable.flood discharge.unusual loading condition . (2) Load Condition No. 6 . (b) Minimum tailwater. b. (d) Tailwater pressure. (d) No headwater or tailwater. (a) Maximum credible earthquake (MCE).normal operating with maximum credible earthquake.normal operating with operating basis earthquake. (b) All gates open and tailwater at flood elevation. (b) Gates at appropriate flood-control openings and tailwater at flood elevation. the selected pool elevation should be the one judged likely to exist coincident with the selected design earthquake event.extreme loading condition . (7) Load Condition No. (c) Usual pool elevation. (a) Operating basis earthquake (OBE). (e) Uplift at pre-earthquake level. (e) Silt. (f) No ice pressure.construction. This means that the pool level occurs. (c) No water in reservoir. (g) No ice pressure. (d) Minimum tailwater. 1 . 5 . (a) Pool at standard project flood (SPF). (g) No ice pressure. (c) Usual pool elevation. (d) Minimum tailwater. (6) Load Condition No.normal operating. 7 . (a) Dam structure completed. In Load Condition Nos.usual loading condition . (e) Uplift at pre-earthquake level. (a) Pool at probable maximum flood (PMF). if applicable.construction with operating basis earthquake (OBE).unusual loading condition . relatively frequently during the course of the year. (f) No ice pressure. (e) Silt. (b) Horizontal earthquake acceleration in upstream direction. and at spillway crest where spillway is ungated.extreme loading condition . (3) Load Condition No. (5) Load Condition No. if applicable. (a) Pool elevation at top of closed spillway gates where spillway is gated. (4) Load Condition No. (c) Uplift. (f) Silt pressure.

then. The stability criteria for concrete gravity dams for each load condition are listed in Table G.D -1. Overturning Stability a. The overturning stability is calculated by applying all the vertical forces (SV) and lateral forces for each loading condition to the dam and. (2) That it be safe against sliding on any horizontal or near-horizontal plane within the structure at the base or on any rock seam in the foundation. The resultant location along the base is: Resultant location = ∑M ∑V b. Stability criteria. The basic stability requirements for a gravity dam for all conditions of loading are: (1) That it be safe against overturning at any horizontal plane within the structure. summing moments (SM) caused by the consequent forces about the downstream toe. b.Stability Considerations a. at the base. Criteria. the resultant must remain sufficiently within the base to assure that base pressures are within prescribed limits. the resultant must remain within the middle half of the base. When the resultant of all forces acting above any horizontal plane through a dam intersects that plane outside the middle third. a noncompression zone will result. General requirements. Large galleries and openings within the structure and upstream and downstream slope transitions are specific areas for consideration. or at a plane below the base. For unusual loading conditions. For the extreme load conditions. 46 . Resultant location. Characteristic locations within the dam in which a stability criteria check should be considered include planes where there are dam section changes and high concentrated loads. (3) That the allowable unit stresses in the concrete or in the foundation material shall not be exceeded. For usual loading conditions. it is generally required that the resultant along the plane of study remain within the middle third to maintain compressive stresses in the concrete.

Loading conditions 1. tan φ = coefficient of internal friction of material. w = total weight of dam. the ratio of the shear strength (tF). and the applied shear stress (t) along the failure planes of a test specimen according to Equation 4-2: F .2 1. 47 .5 1. = τ F ( σ tan φ + c ) 1 ( w − u ) tan φ CA = = + τ τ P Fφ Fc where tF = s tan f + c. Sharma) Sl. Sharma & T.6 4.2: Partial factors of safety against sliding (taken from Textbook of Water and Power Engineering.0 Safety against Crushing Safety against crushing is ensured if the compressive stresses produced are within the allowable stresses. The horizontal components of the loads acting on a dam are resisted by frictional or shearing forces along horizontal or nearly horizontal planes in the body of the dam.4 2. (1) The sliding FS is conceptually related to failure. on the foundation or on horizontal or nearly horizontal seams in the foundation. 2.5 (i) (ii) (iii) 1.S .35 1.K. The sliding resistance is a function of the cohesion inherent in the materials and at their contact and the angle of internal friction of the material at the surface of sliding. R. No. A = area under consideration for cohesion.7 3.D. 7 Fφ Fc For dams and the For foundation contact plane with Thoroughly Others foundation investigated 3. General. It follows that the total magnitude of the forces tending to induce sliding shall be less than the minimum total available resistance along the critical path of sliding.Sliding Stability a. Fφ =partial factor of safety in respect of friction. Definition of sliding factor of safety. c = cohesion of the material at the plane considered. Table G. u = total upthrust force. The sliding stability is based on a factor of safety (FS) as a measure of determining the resistance of the structure against sliding. 5 6.0 1.2 1. 3 4.5 2.K.0 4. according to the Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion. Fc = partial factor of safety in respect of cohesion and P = total horizontal force.

where the pressure is zero and maximum at the base.. will be triangular in section as shown below. where the pressure is maximum. It is the maximum possible inner-most position of the resultant so that no tension develops and provides the maximum possible stabilizing force against overturning without causing tension at toe under empty dam condition.e 1 − .h P h/3 x W P e R B 2 B 2 Maximum compressive stress = Direct stress + Bending moment Bending moment MB W 6.e 1 + .W .at.. its weight will act closer to the upstream face to provide a higher stabilizing force but will cause tension to develop at the toe. When the reservoir is empty.e W 6..B A B where W = weight of dam. Thus the shape of the elementary profile is the same as that of the hydrostatic pressure distribution. the only force acting is self weight (W) of the dam acting at a distance B/3 from the heel. The width of the profile will be zero at the water surface.toe A B W 6.. forces acting on elementary profile will be: 48 . Vertical stresses developed when dam is empty will be: Pmax = Pmin = W 6..at. e = eccentricity = ELEMENTARY PROFILE OF A GRAVITY DAM The elementary profile of the gravity dam to bear only the water pressure...heel A B Now when reservoir is full and downstream empty. A = area of dam section. If any triangular profile other than the right-angled is provided.e + = 1 + A A.

B/3 =0 Multiplying both sides by 6/ γw. there is no tension in the dam. γw . Uplift pressure u = 1/2. for no tension.h h 3 P W P R B 3 B 3 K J γh u Uplift pressure a) Dam weight W = ½ B.B. a) Stress criteria. the resultan must pass at outer 1/3rd point K. h. γw where sg = specific gravity of dam material (for concrete. When the reservoir is empty.h where c = uplift pressure intensity coefficient. ‘B’ of the elementary profile is determined by the following two vriteria: a) Stress criteria b) Stability or sliding criteria.h2 acting at 1/3 from the base.h h2 + c.81 x 1000 kg/m3) b). ½.h.c. Now taking moment of all forces about point K. . the resultant is acting at the inner 1/3rd point J. c).h/3 + ½.c.B2 – B2 sg = 0 or B2(sg – c) = h2 from whence B = h/( sg-c)1/2 ------------------------------------.sg.γw.4) γw = unit weight of water (9. γw h2. sg. The base width. γw. Water Pressure. = 2. P = ½.B.B.(B) 49 .B/3 .h. γw.½. When the reservoir is full.

B.sgγ w − 1 / 2c. using similar triangles.h h 2 2 = 1 2 B γh 2 or 2 2 B ( sg − c ) = h h B= ( sg − c ) When the uplift force is not considered.c. γw.h. the horizontal forces causing sliding should be equal to the frictional forces.© The base width ‘B” of the elementary profile should be greater of the widths obtained in equation (B) or (C) Stresses in the elementary profile The normal stressing the dam is given by: W − u 6e p= 1 + − − − − − − − − − −( D) B B when the reservoir is full.B.( sg − c ) − − − − − −( E ) B The corresponding stress at the heel is: 50 . c = 0 or B = h/ (sg)1/2 Stability or Sliding Criteria For no sliding of the dam.B.e. γw – 1/2. i. B = h/μsg ----------------------------------------------.B.By considering the force triangle.h2 = μ(1/2.sg. we have: (W –u )/P = (h/3)/(B/3) 1 1 Bhsgγ w − γ . P = μ(W – u) or 1/2γw.h] = γ w . c.h. the normal stress at toe is 2(W − u ) W − u p= (1 + 1) = B B 2 p = [1 / 2 B.h.h B = h/μ(sg –c) And neglecting uplift pressure.γ w .

free board above the high flood level must be provided. this will create tension in the toe. The addition of the above will cause the resultant force to shift towards the heel. when the reservoir was empty. ii) for wave action. the resultant was passing through the inner middle third.D. For meeting the practoical requirements certain changes have to be made namely: i) for communication. the only force acting on the elementary profile is its weight. The above changes will shift it towards the heel. To prevent this tension. Earlier. a Free board h Dam a 16 Figure G. crossing the inner middle third point. some concrete is added in the dam body towards upstream side. This profile is only theoretical one. In this case. : Practical dam profile 51 . the maximum compressive stress at the heel = W/B(1+1) = 2W/B and the corresponding normal stress at toe is W/B(1-1) =0 The Practical Dam Profile The elementary profile of a gravity dam is a triangle with maximum water surface at its apex. road has to be provided and therefore a top width. acting through J.W − u p= (1 − 1) = 0 − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −( F ) B When the reservoir is empty.

and let p = be intensity of water pressure σ1 = principal stress on plane AB τ = shear stress Now considering unit length of the element ABC of the dam.cosα ----------------.dr. AC and BC respectively. the vertical direct stress is the maximum at the toe as the resultant is near the toe.cosα and ds = db. pv. the normal forces on the planes AB.sin 2 α + σ1. Resolving all the forces in the vertical direction.sin 2 α)/cos 2 α 52 .dr σ1.ds sinα + σ1.dr. ds and db be the lengths of AB.sin 2 α + σ1. The maximum normal stress in the dam is the major principal stress which will be generated on the major principal plane.ds. When the dam is full. AC and BC are σ1.db and p.Principal and Shear Stress in Dam Need to redraw Check drawing from main notes The figure above shows the dam with possible pressure distribution on it.db = p.(G) But dr = db. The principal stresses near the toe is shown on the second diagram with a small element ABC. Let dr.sinα Therefore Or Therefore pv .cos 2 α σ1 = (p v –p.db.ds sinα respectively. p v.cos 2 α pv = p.db = p.

’) tan 2 α In the same way.p) tan α STABILITY ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY DAMS The stability analysis of a gravity dam section can be done by any one of the following methods: a) b) c) d) Gravity method of two-dimensional method Slab analogy method Trial load twist method Lattice analogy method Gravity Method or Two-dimensional Method.sin α or τ = (p v .tan 2 α ---------------------.p) tan α The shear stress for the upstream side has the same value but with reversed direction For the upstream side. sec 2 α –(p – pe.σ1 = p v.cos α. Being an approximate method. τ = . it is used for the preliminary calculations.considering the hydrodynamic pressure for the upstream side. in the horizontal direction. (H) τ = (p v sec 2 α . For the downstream side the worst condition will be when there is no tail water. and hence p will be zero. which is applicable to both upstream and downstream faces.sin α.(H) Equation (H) is known as the principal stress relationship.sin α + p. The gravity method can be carried out by: i) Graphical method or 53 .sin α(dr/db) + p.db = σ1.(p v .dr. Now substituting the value of σ1 from eq..p. Τ.(ds/db)cos α τ = (σ1-p). sec 2 α -----------------------------(I) If pe’ is the intensity of hydrodynamic pressure of tail water due to an earthquake. the principal stress at the downstream is given by: σ1 = p v.ds cos α τ = σ1. In this case the major principal stress σ1 is given by σ1 = p v.sec 2 α) cos α . sec 2 α –p.

p) tan α i) The factor of safety against overturning is calculated by: 54 .e ∑M = ∑MR . sec 2 α -----------------------------(I) τ = . For the analytical method.e − − − − − − − − − − − − − ( L) B B g) The normal stress at the heel is determined by N σH = ∑V 1 − 6. all vertical loads are determined the algebraic sum of all vertical forces ∑V is calculated b) Considering unit length of the dam. all horizontal forces are determined and their algebraic sum ∑H calculated. The difference between the algebraic sum of the overturning and righting moments is determined i.(p v .ii) Analytical method. the following steps are carried out: a) Considering unit length of the dam.∑MO d) The location of the resultant force FR from the toe of the dam is also calculated by the following: xe = ∑ M − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − (J ) ∑V e) Now the eccentricity of the resultant force is determined by: B e = − x e − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −( K ) 2 f) The normal stress at the toe of the dam is determined by: N σT = ∑ V 1 + 6. c) The sum of the righting moments (∑MR) and the sum of overturning moments ∑MO) at the toe of the dam are calculated. We shall consider only the analytical method.e − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − (M ) B B h) The principal and shear stresses at the toe and heel are determined from σ1 = p v.

S ) = µ ∑ V + B. f = permissible compressive stress of material. 55 .( F . γw = 9.S ) = µ ∑V ∑H Shear. c = coefficient of uplift pressure.99m 9.) = ∑M ∑M R O j) The factor of safety against sliding is calculated by: Sliding .S . to avoid excessive stresses the resultant is maintained still near the centre of the base for which purpose the downstream slope is flattened and the upstream slope is also provided with a batter.e σ1 =γwH(s-c+1) = fc H= or limiting height H= f − − − or γ w ( s. factor − ( F .g + 1) The limiting height.4 + 1) s = Specific gravity of material. the allowable stress are often exceeded if the resultant of all the forces were to pass through the middle third. friction. for the usual stress of dam material i.81x1000( 2.81 x1000 kg/m3.g − c + 1) f γ w ( s. e.q ∑H LOW AND HIGH GRAVITY DAMS Low Dam: is one of limiting height such that the resultant of all forces passes through the middle third and the maximum compressive stress at the toe does not exceed the permissible limit i. factor − ( F . In a high dam. ρ = 2. γw = specific weight of water. High Dam: A dam the height of which exceeds the limiting height of low dams is termed as high.4 and f = 30 kg/cm2 (or 300tonnes /m2) gives: 300 x1000 H= = 8.

: Low dam and high dam Design of Gravity Dams Before starting. 56 .Reservoir level Limiting height of low dam H1 Height of high dam Upstream batter B Figure G. .D.D. one must establish whether it is low or high dam using the above relationship. 13. Economic section of Low Gravity Dam Top width is chosen according to Creager must be about 14%of the dam’s height. a h1 = 2a S s − c h J K S O Q h B1 = S −c s B Figure G.

Vertical forces i) Self weight of dam = (12 + 2.Free Board: is provided on the basis of height of waves and other practical considerations. A.000kg 57 .5 kg D A B 15m α β D 1 8. In practice a free board of between (3 – 5)% of dam height is used h Ss − c h B1 = Base width B1 I is given by B1 = WORKED EXAMPLES − − − or µ ( S s − c) The diagram below shows the cross section of a masonry dam. density of water 1000 kg/m3 and the permissible shear stress of joint = 15 kg/cm2.75 SOLUTION Stability of dam is tested assuming no free board. Take unit weight of dam material as 2250 kg/m3. Assume value of coefficient of friction μ = 0.5 C 2.5)/2 x 15 x 1 x 2250 = 244. Determine the stability of the dam.5 ii) Weight of water in column DD’A = (1 x 15)/2 x 1000 = 7500 kg iii) Uplift force on dam =(15 x 12)/2 x 1000 = 90. Also determine the principal stress at the toe and heel of the dam.687.

5 + 7500 – 90.28/12) = 509.268.5 + 8.228 < 2 unsafe.406. (eccentricity.5 = 1.500) xi) Factor of safety against sliding = μ∑V = 0.374.000 kg-m (-ve) ix) Moment due to horizontal water pressure 112. e) e = B/2 – xav = 12/2 – 1.25 = 1.0 safe ∑H 112.423.5] + [(8.7 > 50kg/cm2 unsafe 58 .187.5 kg v) Horizontal water pressure = (γw x h2)/2 = (1000 x 152)/2 = 112.500 xii) Shear friction factor =μ∑V + b.124.9kg-m (+ve) vii) Moment due to weight of water in DD’A 7500 x (1 +2.187.08 >1.423.656.72 = 4.500 kg-m (-ve) Therefore ∑M =1. (660.5x15)/2](2/3x8.500 g Calculation of moments due to various forces about toe of dam vi) Moment of self weight [(1x 15)/2](1 + 2.9 kg-m Factor of safety calculation x) Factor of safety against overturning = Resisting Moments = Overturning Moments (1423124.000 + 562.5x 15 x 2250)[(2.5 + 822.5) = 78.5 Distance of resultant force from centre of dam.25+ 406.iv) Therefore ∑V = 244687.500 Stress calculation Let the resultant be acting at xav from the toe Xav = ∑M = 279.72m ∑H 162.9 = 1.124.q = 0.5) = 194.750kg-m (+ve) viii) Moment due to uplift force 82.187.5 + 12 x 15 x 104 = 17.187.9 + 78750-660000-562500 = + 279.75 x 162.08 ∑H 112.28 Compressive stress at toe ft =∑V(1+6.187.e/B)=162.5(1+6x 4.5) + (2.500 x 2/3 x 12 = 660.500 x 1/3 x 15 = 562.374.5/2)+ 8.062.5 + 8.9 + 78750) = 1.000 = 162.75x 162.

33) = 15402.8 kg/m2 Example 2: From the data given below.28/12)= -15407.0m Specific gravity of masonry = 2.16 kg/m2 Shear stress at heel = . 59 .5 + 1.71m γ w ( S s + 1) 1000( 2.B 12 Tensile stress at heel. tan β = 8.567 Sec α = (1 + 152)/15 = 1.149 = 672.5m R.336 kg/m2 Shear Stress at toe Τ = pn tan β = 509.5 .149 tan α = 1/15 = 0.81 – 10.5 x height of wave = 1.5m Limiting height of dam = fc 125 x1000 = = 35.54 kg/cm2 unsafe B 12 In masonry dams.m2 Principal stress at heel σh = pn sec2 α – p.187.5 + 1 Therefore the dam is a low gravity dam. there should not be any tensile stress. fh = ∑V(1– 6.[ .5/15 = 0.(pn-p) tan α = . Calculation of principal stresses From the diagram.5 x1.L of HFL Wave height = 1155.755 kg.e/B)=162. Ground level.67.81 =-1.5(1–6x4.7 x 1.5m = 1.000] x 1/15 = -(25407.52 + 152)/15 = 1. tan 2 α = -15407.067)2 = (15469.5 Permissible compressive stress for stone masonry 125t/m2 Solution Free board height = 1.002)2 -1000 x 15 x (0. R.L = 1130. design a stone masonry gravity dam of practical profile.268.7 x 0.5 m Therefore required level of top of dam = 1155.0 1.5 = 1157m Height of dam = 1157 – 1130.268.002 Sec β = (8.15407.5 = 26.81 x (1.067 Principal stress at toe σ = pn sec2 β = 509.567 = 288. therefore the sectionis not safe.81)/15 = 1693.

4.5 – 1130.3 S B1 = 16m R P K DAM N O The design of the dam can be done with respect to the details.5 m Therefore provide top width MN of dam = 4.23 assume 14m Vertical distance LR = 3.5 1157. Determine the base width also.71m Assume a roadway width of 4.5 − 0 ( Ss − c ) = = 15.5 = 14. Determine H and B if uplift intensity factor is 0.5/16 = 0.5 2.5 1.3m) Vertical distance LK = 2a Ss = 2 x 4.281m (assume 0. assume 16m Extra width JS = MN/16 = 4.5 2. Assume weight of masonry 2.5 = 3. it the safe limit os stress on the masonry should not exceed 350 tonnes/m2. Depth of water = 1155.1x 4.0 1155.5 J 0.5 M L 14m 25m 22m Q 1130.5m Base width of dam PS = B1 = h 25 2.4 tonnes/m3.81m .1a Ss = 3.67 and factor of safety is 2 Solution: The limiting height of elementary profile of a masonry dam 60 .5 = 25m Top width of dam = 14% height of dam = 14?100 x 26.5 = 22m Example 3 What should be the maximum height of elementary profile of a dam.

Top width of dam = 14% of height = 0.0m. c = 0.4. uplift pressure is 100% at heel. Considering only weight. tail water is nil.0m.14 x 84 = 12m 2.0 – 225. specific gravity of concrete is 2. water pressure and uplift. downstream slope 2:3. Bottom width of dam = 12 + (300 – 225) x2/3 = 62m Calculating weight and moments by considering unit length of dam 61 .4 = 66m ii) F.67: H = B= fc 350 x1000 xg = = 64m F .Sxγ w ( Ss − c + 1) 2. upstream face of dam is vertical.H= Base width B = fc 350 x1000 xg = = 103m γ w ( sg + 1) 1000 xg (2. determine i) Maximum vertical stresses at toe and heel of dam ii) major principal stresses at toe of dam and iii) Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near the toe Solution: Height of dam H = 309. downstream face slope starts at required level 300. 50% at line of gallery and zero at toe.0 = 84m Depth of water h = 305.0m. top required level of dam 309.S =2. centre line of drainage gallery is 8m downstream of upstream face. bed level 225.0 – 225.0 = 80m 1.4 − 0.4 + 1) H Ss − c = 103 2.67 + 1) H Ss − c = 64 2.0m.4 − 0. A concrete gravity dam has maximum water level 305.67 = 49m Example 4.0 x1000 xg ( 2.

15/62)= 35 γwN/m2 62 .15/62)= 138 γwN/m2 Normal compressive stress at heel pn’= V/B(1-6e/B)= 5359 γw /62(1-6x6. e = B/2 –xav 62/2 – 24.4 x γw w2=50x75/2x1x2.85=6.33 54 + 4 =58 54x2/3=36 9493 18560 38880 ∑M2= (-) 66933 γw 80 x 1/3=26.4 γw w = w1+w2 Uplift U1=40 x 8 x 1/2 γw U2=40 x 8 γw U3=54 x40/2 ∑u Water pressure P = γwh2/2=80 x80/2 γw Force =2419 γw =4500 γw = 6919 =160 γw =320 γw =1080 γw =1560 γw 3200 γw Moment arm 50 + 12/2 = 56 50 x 2/3 = 33.15m ∑M = M1-M2-M3 = (+) 133172 γw Position of resultant from toe xav = M/V= 133172 γw /5359 γw=24.33 Moment about toe 13546 γw 149985 γw ∑M1=(+)285449 γw 54+2/3x8=59.67 ∑M3= (-) 85344 γw ∑V = W – U = 6919 – 1560 = 5359 γw Eccentricity. w1=12 x84 x 1 x2.85 Normal compressive stress at toe pn=V/B(1+6e/B)= 5359 γw /62(1+6x6.305 W1 α 80 309 300 8 54 40 W2 80 u2 U1 225 8 50 62 u1 Uplift pressure diagram Designation Weight of dam.

tan α = 2/3 sec 2 α = 1 + tan 2 α = 1 +(2/3)2 =13/9 Therefore σ = p n sec 2 α= 138 γw x13/9=199 γw N/m2 Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near toe Τ τo =( pn – p’)tan α = (138 γw – 0)x2/3 = 92 γw N/m2 Example 5.0m.14 x 53 = 7.Principal stress at toe σ = p n sec 2 α – p’ tan 2α p’ = zero because tail wate is zero.5 adopt 3m Dam height h = 50 + 3 =53m Top width a = 14%xh = 0.0m. Compute the hydrostatic thrust and the uplift force per metre length of dam at its base level.0m.05x50= 2.5m 1 W1 50 1 143 α 30 1 30 u2 U3 U4 W2 50 1 1 32 u1 Uplift pressure diagram 40 Designation x γw Force x γw Moment arm Moment about toe X γw 63 . Assume 50 % reduction in net seepage head at the location of the drainage gallery. base level of dam = 100. A concrete gravity dam has maximum reservoir level 150. location of drainage gallery 10m from upstream face which may be assumed as vertical. tail water elevation 110. Solution: Free board = 5% of dam height = 0. base width of dam 40m.5m adopt 7.

5/2=36.64 σ=70.10.1.67 107 ∑M1 (+) 71031 =954 =1677 32.38 = 4. e =B/2-xac=40/2 – 15.64 – 10(40/50)2 =110 γw Intensity of shear stress on a horizontal plane near toe Ττ0 = (pn – p’)tan α τ0 = 70.4 W2 = 32.5 x43/2 x1 x2.67 34583 36341 64 .667 8 x 1/3 = 2.Weight of dam W1=7.5x2/3=21.62m Normal compressive stress at toe.10/2 1250 50 ∑H3= 1200 Position of resultant from toe xav = M/V=25698/1671=15.67 (30 +10/2) = 35 (30/2) = 15 (30 x 2/3) = 20 3667 10500 4500 6000 ∑M2 =24.25 32.10/2 D/S=γwh2/2=γw.10.62/40)= 12.666 100 300 300 300 ∑V2= 1000 30 + 10 x2/3=36.833 (+)167 ∑M3 (-) 20. sec 2 α= 1.38m Eccentricity.73 γw Normal compressive stress at heel p’ =V/B(1 – 6e/B) = 1671/40(1-6x4.5x53x1x2.82 γw Maximum principal stress at toe σ = pn sec2 α – p’ tan 2α p’ = 10 γw tan α = 40/50.73 x 1.73 -10)40/50 = 49 γw 50/3 10/3 (-) 20.4x62/40)=70. pn= V/B(1 + 6e/B) = 1671/40(1 +6.4 Weight of tail water W3 = 8x10/2x1x1 40 ∑V1 =2671 Uplift pressure U1=20 x 10/2 U2=10 x30 x1 U3=10 x30 x 1 U4=20 x 30/2 x 1 Water pressure U/S=γwh2/2=γwx1.5+7.

Terminal structures are energy dissipating devices that are provided to return the flow into the river channel without serious scour or erosion at the toe of the dam. It is also useful when its discharge is to be connected to a narrow discharge channel or tunnel. The channel dimensions are fixed by the hydraulics of channel flow. All small flows exceeding the barrier top level are allowed to pass over the barrier. The flow released from the control structure is conveyed to the streambed below the dam in a discharge channel. Spillways are usually located at the normal flood level and the water just overflows the crest when it gets to that level. but during large flood flows.Chapter 4 SPILLWAYS AND GATES Spillway is a passageway to convey past the dam flood flows that cannot be contained in the allotted storage space or which are in excess of those turned into the diversion systems. The discharge after passing over the crest turns at about 90o before flowing into a trough to be discharged. In some cases the crest of the spillway is extended in 65 . where construction of other types of spillway is not possible. Hydraulic aspects of spillway design relates to design of the three spillway components: control structure. Straight Drop (free overfall) Spillway. depending upon the type of structure as: i) Side channel spillway ii) Straight drop spillway iii) Overflow or Ogee spillway iv) Chute or Trough spillway v) Shaft (Morning glory) spillway vi) Siphon spillway Side channel spillway This type of spillway is most suited for earthfill and rockfill dams. Also when a long overflow crest is required for limiting the surcharge head. The control structure regulates outflows from the reservoir and may consist of a sill. this type is suited. orifice. Spillways function infrequently. when other facilities are inadequate. Types of Spillways Spillways may be classified. which are temporary barriers installed over the permanent crest of the spillway for storing additional water during period of low water seasons. at times of flood or sustained high runoff. weir section. In this type the control weir is kept along the side and approximately parallel to the upper portion of the spillway. a tunnel excavated through an abutment. However its ample capacity is of prime importance for the safety of the dam and other hydraulic structures. Design problems here relate to determining the shape of the section and computing discharge through the section. some spillways are equipped with gates. or an open channel along the ground surface. tube or pipe. water is allowed to fall freely from a low weir and vertical fall structure. However. This can be the downstream face of the overflow section. the barrier is removed and full spillway capacity is used to discharge the flood water. In this type. discharge channel and terminal structure. in narrow canyons.

66 .the shape of overhanging lip which keeps the discharge away from the straight drop section. Ogee (Overflow) Spillway: is a special form of a weir whose shape is made to conform to the profile of lower nappe of a ventilated sheet of water falling from a sharp- Side channel spillway Upstream Earthfill dam downstream crested weir. The profile is so shaped that the discharging water always remains in touch with the spillway surface.

50h r2 = 0.175h b = 0. a Design head h O r2 r1 Origin and apex of crest x a = 0.Spillway spillway With downstream protection Without downstream protection Straight drop spillways Accordingly.85 --------------------------.20h b y Fig. and h is the design water head. The downstream curve of the ogee has the equation: 0.(S-1) x 1.292h r1 = 0.85 = 2 y ( h ) where x and y are the co-ordinates of the crest profile measured from the apex of the crest. the profile of the ogee spillway is made to the shape of the lower nappe of a free falling jet. S-1 Definition sketch of overflow spillway The upstream curve may be approximate to the following 67 .

01 0.02 Table S-3 Abutment Contraction Coefficient (Kp) 1 2 3 Condition of Abutment Rounded abutment with head wall as 90o to the direction of flow. (eg flows beyond H.5Ho and the angle of head wall with direction of flow is <45o Square abutment with head wall at 90o to the direction of flow of water Value of Ka 0.20 68 .724( x + 0.85 ( h ) 0. the nappe may leave the ogee profile and will cause negative pressure resulting in cavitation and increase of discharge. whose value varies from 2.00 0.15h Rounded abutment where r> 0.85 -----------------------.y= 0.Le. when 0.L).1 to 2.27h ) 1.00 0.5h > r > 0.5 depending on various factors.(he)3/2 Where. of piers in the spillway Kp = pier contraction coefficient Ka = abutment contraction coefficient Table S-2 Pier Contraction Coefficient Kp 1 2 3 Condition of Pier Pointed nose piers Round nose piers Square-nose pier with corners rounded on a radius 0. The effect length of the crest is given by the equation: Le = L – 2(NKp – Ka) ---------------------------(S-4) Where L = Total clear length of crest N = No. Discharge over an Overflow Spillway The discharge equation of the ogee-shaped spillway is given by Q = C.F. ------------------------------(S-3) Q = discharge over the ogee spillway Le = effective length of the crest he = h + v2/2g = total water head at crest including the velocity approach C = a variable coefficient of discharge.1 times pier thickness Value of Kp 0.(S-2) For larger discharges.

09 0. having a vertical face. 4.85 or y = 0.95(180 ) from the discharge equation he = 17.0 3. Point of tangency assume a downstream slope of 2:1 (XDT)/h = 0. 3.00 69 . Q 50.18 4.31ft/sec Velocity head = v2/2g = (2.36.485(Kα)1.33. high overflow section Downstream quadrant of the crest shape he3 / 2 = y/12 = ½ (x/12)1. design head. is 180ft long.08 = 17.08 ft Maximum water head = 17. 6.176 (12) = 30 ft 10.0 = 103ft.1 – 0.0 – y)2/(2.1/1.000cfs.36)2 + (2.0 2.485[2(2)]1.0 3. Velocity of approach vo = 50. The spillway.0)2=1 X (selected) ft 1. 7. Assume C = 3. Solution 1.28(12) = 3.39 1.40 9. P = 120 – 17.58 > 1.00 15. 800 and the channel floor is 680.000 = = 70.165 A = 0. 8.36 Y (computed) ft 0.000/120(180) = 2. Since he <30 ft.10 Design an overflow spillway section for a design discharge of 50. 5.165(12) = 2.28.2) = 0.31)2/(32.00ft (x2)/(3.176 where XDT = horizontal distance from the apex to the downstream tangent point α – slope of the downstream face XDT = 0.30 32.85 X (select)ft 5 10 15 20 30 Y (computed) ft 1.06x1. A/h = 0. The upstream water surface is at Elv. Upstream quadrant.95 2.0ft P/hd = 103/12 = 8.10 2.Example 9. B/h = 0. B = 0.42 = 12. hd = 17.25 9.1 Depth of water upstream = 800 – 680 = 120 ft.32 CL 3.0ft Height of crest.

It is preferable that the width of the control section. S – 3 Chute Spillway Section D E Slope of Chute Channel 70 . where a heavy cut is involved. regardless of the control device used at the head of the chute. From C to D it follows the steep slope and ends with an energy dissipating device placed at the bottom of the valley D. and the stilling basin are the same. Entrance cha. It is desirable that from B to C. the velocity of flow ia always greater than the critical. Flow in the chute is maintained at supercritical stage until the terminal structure DE is reached. The axis of the chute is kept as straight as possible. In a chute spillway. The entrance structure is usually an open channel of sub-critical flow. The chute spillway consists of four parts: an entrance channel. otherwise.CHUTE OR TROUGH SPILLWAY Chute spillway is a type of spillway in which the discharge is conveyed fro a reservoir to the downstream river level through a steep open channel placed either along the dam abutment or through a saddle. there is substantial uplift under the lower part of the chute and upstream part of the stilling basin floor. Control structure Chute section A B Terminal Structure C F Fig. To prevent hydrostatic uplift under the chute. the chute. a control structure or crest. When the stilling basin is operating. the chute is placed on a light slope. the sloping chute and a terminal structure. The name chute applies. The critical velocity occurs when the water passes over the control. the floor has to be super-elevated to avoid the piling up high-velocity flow around the curvature. which can be an overflow crest. a gated orifice or a side channel crest. a cutoff wall is provided under the control structure and a drainage system of filters and pipes is provided. The floor must be made sufficiently heavy or anchored to the foundation.

designed as retaining wall. and continues I the direction approximately parallel to the weir crest 71 . Therefore slope should always be above the critical slope. roll waves and air entrainment.mean velocity in chute section under consideration. A review of existing spillways indicate that the actual slopes of the upstream section of the chute are 1 or 2 % or more.( S-5 ) n For a rectangular channel under critical flow conditions. the overflow weir is placed along the side of the discharging channel.0 + 0. Free board or allowance is made for pier end waves.002V h1/3 --------------------. so that the flow over the crest falls into a narrow channel section (trough) opposite the weir.(S-7) where V . the following empirical equation is added to the computed depth of water surface profile Freeboard (ft) = 2. Q= 1 AR 2 / 3 I 1.2 -------------------------. roll waves and air entrainment. turns through a right-angle. SIDE CHANNEL SPILLWAYS In side-channel spillway. The slope to be given to the chute must be greater than this critical slope. Chute Sidewalls Except for the diverging or converging sections. pier end waves. h3 = q2/g ----------------------------------(S-6 ) By putting this into Manning’s formula. should be sufficiently steep to maintain a supercritical flow to avoid the formation of a hydraulic jump. the critical slope could be determined. The height of the walls is designed to contain the depth of flow for the spillway design flood by gradually flows hydraulics equation. commonly of reinforced concrete 30 to 45cm thick. Fro the Manning’s formula. h – mean depth.It is important that the slope of the chute in the upstream section BC chute. chute channels are designed with parallel vertical sidewalls. In view of uncertainties involved in the evaluation of surface roughness.

the rate of change of momentum in the reach dx is equal to the external forces acting in the reach. or where the overflow are most economically passed through a deep narrow channel or a tunnel. Thus the sidechannel design is concerned only with the hydraulic action in the trough upstream of the control section.(A1. If flow rate and velocity in left is Q1 and V1 while those at the right is Q2 and V2. where varied flow takes place. A control section downstream from the trough is achieved by constricting the channel or elevating the channel bottom to induce critical flow. then by applying the momentum equation. the only force acting is the hydrostatic pressure force. h1 – A2h2) = γ(Q1/V1 – Q2V2)dy ---(S-9) 72 . Downstream from the control section functions as a chute spillway. The resultant hydrostatic force Fp1 –Fp2 = γ. The crest is similar to an overflow or ordinary weir section. such as when a long overflow crest is desire but the valley is narrow. The water surface profile in the trough is determined from the momentum equation applied to gradual varied flow. Rate of momentum at left(upstream) = ρQ1V1 Rate of momentum at downstream = ρQ2V2 Change in momentum = ρ(Q2V2 – Q1V1) ------------------------------------------(S -8) Due to smallness of friction forces and weight component in the direction of flow.Side channel trough A Side channel crest A Dam Control section Trough Chute Side-channel spillway: plan and section This type of weir is adoptable to certain special conditions.

Also. Critical depth at the control section. A control section of 10 ft width is placed downstream from the trough with the bottom of the control at the same elevation as the bottom of the trough floor at the downstream end. Worked example: Design a side-channel trough for a spillway of 100ft length for a maximum discharge of 2500 cfs.Crest dy P1 P2 dx Equating equations (S-8) and (S-9) and rearranging dy = Q2 g V1 V2 V1 ( Q2 − Q1 ) + ---------------------------(S-10) Q Q (V1 − V2 ) + Q2 1 2 Equation (S-10) is solved by a trial and error procedure . The side-channel trough has a length of 100ft and a bottom slope of 1ft in 100 ft.44 = 20. yc = (2502/32.27ft 6. assume that the transition loss from the end of side-channel trough to the control section is equal to 0.1)2/2(32. 73 .2 of the difference in velocity heads between the end of the transition.1ft/sec 5. assume a trapezoidal section with 2V:1H slope and a 10ft bottom width. Velocity head. hc = vc2/2g = (20. Solution 1/.2) = 6. q1 = 2500/10 = 250cfs/ft. vc = q1/yc = 250/12. yc = (q12/g) 2. For a side-channeltrough.44ft 4.2)1/3 = 12. 3.

72 19. otherwise. The process is repeated until the upstream end of the channel is reached.20 19. bottom slope = 1 in 100ft given 2.2 389. then A = 376. v = Q/A = 2 500/376.27) = 19.2 119. 4. y100 + h100 = yc + hc + 0.48 8.71 4. A (col.67 19.6 391.17 3.03 4.44 + 1. Thus Eq.(S-11) where the subscript c refers to “critical” and “100” refers to the distance of the trough from the upstream end of the spillway.01 8.82 19. Section 2 is taken at the upper end of a selected increment dx.3 ft2. and h100 = 6.32 120. q = Q/L = 2500/100= 25cfs/ft . A value of the change in water level.10 0.90 10 Q2 – Q1 -625 -625 -625 -625 -625 -375 -375 3 dy (Assume) 1.41 0.24 2.3 = 6. Water level (col.24 0. and dy is computed.96 Note: 1.5 5. all terms of equation (S-10) are evaluated.∑dx).60 0. Assume y100 = 19.64 ft/sec. 8.80 -1.19 1.40 0. 2) = slope x channel length + datum 3.7) = q(L . Bottom level (col.07 0.2h100 = 12. (S-11) is satisfied.57 120. L = crest length 74 . The following energy equation may be written between the trough end and the control section. 6 = area of cross-section of trough computed for depth y in col. The known values above relate to section 1 at the downstream end of the trough.5 387. Q (col.79 2.07 11 v1 + v2 11.62 0.7. a new value is assumed for dy.2 394.41 0.0 100.82 120.6 390.2(hc – h100) or y100 + 1.93 -1.96 -0.6 391.96 --------.2)0.3 398.47 120. dy.2.64 0.59 -0. The assumed and computed values of dy should match.0 0.22 120.95 19.61 0.84 3.25 100.64)2/2(32.35 11.07 7 Q= q(L-dx) 2500 1875 1250 625 250 14 Remarks on assumed dy High Ok High Ok Ok High ok 8 v = Q/A 6.64 6 A 376. is assumed for each reach. 1 dx (selected ) D/S end 25 25 25 15 9 Q1 + Q2 4375 4325 3125 3125 1875 875 875 2 Bottom Level 100. as in table below.2 120.75 100.50 100.50 0.25 0. 4) = final water level at the preceding station (section) + assumed dy.24 4 Water Level 119.57 19. 9.65 -1.3 13 dy computed 0.68.2(6.64 12 v2 – v1 -1. Equation (S-11) is solved by trial and error.64 4.54 5 y (col 4-col 2) 19.63 0.72 19.67 -1. 25 ft in this case.

6. to drop shaft. 2. Q1 + Q 2 (col. Advantages: The main advantage of such type of spillways are as follows: 1. the control shifts from weir crest. 2.(S-15) 75 . 7 at the preceding station (section) MORNING GLORY OR SHAFT SPILLWAYS In this type of spillway.C d = 0..e.(S-13) 2 gH T -----(S-14) Q = A2 ΣK ∑K = loss coefficient through pipe Condition 1: a free-discharging weir prevail as long as the nappe forms to converge into the shape of a solid jet. where Hd is the design head and Rs is the radius of the crest. Condition 2: weir crest is drowned out.. 3) a vertical drop shaft. The U. and then through a horizontal tunnel or conduit. Discharge characteristics of shaft spillway Control Point Weir crest Throat of drop shaft Downstream of outlet conduit Condition Unsubmerged flow Partially submerged Submerged flow Characteristics Discharge relations Weir flow Q = CLh3/2 --------(S-12) Orifice flow Q = c d A1 2 gH a . 9) = Col. 7 + value in col. Thus the design is not recommended under this condition (i. Condition 3: Spillway is flooded out. For sites in narrow canyons. The nearly maximum capacity may be attained at relatively low heads. As the head increases.95 Pipe flow ----------------. For sites where there is inadequate space for locating other type of spillway. under the design head. The US Bureau of Reclamation (1977) indicated that this condition is approached when Hd/Rs >1. Q = C(2πRs)H3/2 ----------------------------. For damsites with steeply rising abutments particularly where a diversion tunnel can be utilized as discharge carrier. 3. 2) a flared transition conforming to the shaft of the lower nappe of a sharp-crested weir. by adjusting the coefficient to reflect the flow conditions. showing only a slight depression and eddy at the surface. the head rises rapidly for a small increase in discharge. and 4) a horizontal or near-horizontal outlet conduit or tunnel. This type of spillway is suitable under the following situations: 1.S. Table S-3. the outlet conduit should not flow more than 75% full). It is ideal for sites where maximum spillway overflow is to be limited. This type of spillway consists of four parts: 1) a circular weir at the entry. Under condition 3. Bureau of Reclamation suggested that the following weir formula may be used for flow through the shaft spillway entrance regardless of the submergence. and to outlet conduit.. water enters over a horizontal circular crest and then drops through a circular shaft.

2) throat.C d = 0. and 3) lower limb. This is the essential characteristics of a siphon.32 SIPHON SPILLWAYS A siphon spillway is a short enclosed duct whose longitudinal section is curved. the entrance is sealed off fro the atmosphere. When flowing full. Hence the crest radius = 7 ft. Ha = 10 + 4 = 14 ft. From equation (S-15) Q = C(2πRs)H3/2 = 1. Siphon spillways can be saddle type or volute type but the volute is not very common. Equation (S-13) can be used to determine the shape of the transition (drop shaft) that is required to pass the design discharge with the maximum head over the crest.43 From the curve of C as a function of Hd/Rs. Depth of the control section from the water surface.14/(Ha)1/4 Ha (select). The siphon has usually three parts. H = head over the weir ( Gupta page 495) Equation (S-15) can be used to determine the crest size (radius). Solution 1. Rs for a given discharge under the maximum head. Air is initially trapped 76 . Determine the minimum size of the overflow crest.. Also determine the shape of the transition if the control section is 4 ft below the crest level. Q = c d A1 2 gH a . ft 14 16 18 20 R (ft) 4.44 4.44(2π) (7) (10)3/2 = 2002cfs This ois practically the same as the required discharged. Worked Example: A shaft spillway is to discharge 2000 cfs under a design head of 10 ft.57 4. assume that P/Rs > 2 and determine Rs by trial and error. Rs = radius to the circular crest.95 R2 = 2000/{0.73 4. we choose C = 1.44 3. 4. and the pressure at that point must therefore be sub-atmospheric.. 1) the inlet or mouth. where Hd = design head and P = crest height from the outlet pipe. As the water rises further. Since the coefficient C is related to P and Rs. The siphon spillway functions as follows: When the water level exceeds the crest level.Where C = discharge coefficient related to Hd/Rs and P/Rs . 5. Try Rs = 7 ft. the highest point in the spillway lies above the liquid level in the upstream reservoir.95π(2gHa)1/2} or R = 9. Hd/Rs = 10/7 = 1. 2. From equation (S-13). the water commences to spill and flows over the downstream slope in much the same way as a simple Ogee spillway.

The cycle (a) to (c) is then repeated.65. a small change in H produces a sharp increase or decrease in the discharge through the spillway. A = L x b L = length of hood (going into the paper) b = height of throat H = operating head H = Reservoir level – downstream tail water level if outlet is submerged H = Reservoir level . Other potential problems encountered with siphon spillway are: i) blockage of spillway entrance by debris ( this problem could be overcome by submerging the inlet of the hood into the water or installing a trashintercepting grid in front of the intake). the siphon is primed and is therefore acting as a simple pipe. then the upstream (reservoir) level must rise. thus interrupting smooth siphon action The discharge of a saddle siphon can be calculated from the following formula. The aerated condition is unstable and is maintained while the siphon begins to prime. but the velocity of flow of water tends to entrain the air (giving rise to aeration of the water) and draws it out through the exit.(S-16) where A = area of cross section at crown. Operational problems with siphon spillways. ii) Substantial foundations required to resist vibrations during operation of siphon. the siphon primes and the spillway discharge increases substantially. \There are thus three possible operating conditions depending on upstream depth. the siphon could go through the following cycle: a) if the spillway is initially operating with gravity flow. When all the air has been expelled.within the spillway.downstream centre of outlet if the outlet is discharging freely. C = Coefficient of discharge. Aerated flow (during self priming) 3. 77 . This obviously can give rise to radical surges and stoppages in the downstream flow. iii) Waves arriving in the reservoir during storms may alternately cover and uncover the entry. In a simple siphon. c) the upstream level falls until the siphon de-primes and its discharge drops. Its average value may be taken as 0. 1. Depending on the discharge entering the reservoir. Gravity spillway flow 2. Pipe flow (after priming). Q = CA 2 gH --------------------------. b) when the upstream level has risen sufficiently.

Air vent De-primer Crown Throat Hood Crest Mouth H1 H2 Figure S. for storing additional water during dry weather season. the spillway gates are opened and the full capacity is used to remove excessive flood water. Spillway gates can be provided on all types of spillways except siphon spillway. Following types of spillway gates are commonly used: a) Flash board gates b) Stop logs or needle gates c) Radial gates d) Drum gates e) vertical lift gates 78 . but in case of large flood.. The small flows in excess above the spillway gates is allowed to pass over the gates. Siphon Spillway SPILLWAY OR CREST GATES Spillway gates are the temporary barrier installed over the permanent crest of the spillway.

Flash Board Piers Rubber stopper Groove Spillway crest Stop log Flash Board Gate Stop logs or needle gates 79 .

with today’s environmental awareness.Chapter 5 RESERVOIRS Reservoirs are the most important man-made storage elements in water systems because their capacity and operational schedules determine the rates and volumes of flow in streams. Storage reservoirs are constructed for the purposes of 1) flood control or 2) conservation of water. Level Active or Live storage HydroPower Buffer Inactive Storage Dead storage period the flow is in excess of the demand for release during the lean period. and small industrial or recreational facilities. farm ponds. Res. many small reservoirs are also in service. Storage is done during the Max. Food Control Normal. it is sometimes not available when needed. Elevation Surcharge storage High flood level Normal full elev. However. reservoirs are sometimes negative symbols of “man taking dominion over nature” and work against sustainable development as they interfere with natural ecosystems. A reservoir is usually created by the construction of a dam across a flowing stream. Storing water is necessary because when water occurs naturally in streams and is not stored. Reservoirs solve this problem by capturing water when it occurs and making it available at latter times. These small reservoirs can have important cumulative effects especially in rural areas A reservoir is created with the impounding of runoff from the catchment upstream by the construction of a dam across a river or stream. While the concept of a reservoir may bring to mind a large body of water. They have enabled humans to make the desert bloom and flourish and provide water supplies for large and concentrated populations. regulating lakes. These include urban water tanks. Reservoir construction may be contemplated under one of the following conditions: 80 .

ii) Some information of over burden. In this case. Final investigations: Is limited to the point that is necessary to confirm the relative merits of few selected options and working out details. it may happen that the investigations made may reveal that the project is not economical or technically sound. In such a case.. vii) Checking of high flood marks and their use to determine spillway capacity. The investigations should include: i) to select the final option. The following factors must be investigated before deciding to put up a reservoir: a) Availability of water b) Availability of suitable site for the construction of a dam to create the reservoir. c) Availability of construction material in sufficient quantity. but running to waste or causing damage. all the labour and resources spent is a waste. etc. an attempt is made to utilize the available water for developmental purposes of the area. iv) A preliminary geological survey of site. Therefore an investigation should be planned and executed such that the soundness of the project will be determined as early and as cheap as possible. will be time consuming and expensive. The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to obtain sufficient data to carry out the office studies and estimate cost sufficiently accurate to select the most economical and suitable site amongst the several options that may be available. labour. iii) to determine availability and quantity of construction materials. Reconnaissance or preliminary investigations: which seeks to collect and analyze the following information: i) A not very precise topographic map of the site. ii) Water is needed all the time either for the generation of hydro-power to meet the requirement of power for development or for irrigation . 2. Sometimes. vi) transport facilities and accessibility to site. it is important to know that it is cheaper to construct a larger reservoir and combine several functions than to construct series of separate dams for each purpose. To achieve this aim. equipment. v) Hydrological studies. pumping and other provisions for dewatering the site. Once it is decided to construct a reservoir. ii) to determine the nature of foundation. vii) suitable site for construction camp and repair of construction equipments. v) requirement for coffer dam. 81 . iii) Characteristics of the foundation (few samples are needed). iv) T obtain all other necessary information useful for the design purpose. however the flow in the stream is unable to meet the demand all the time. investigation may be divided as follows: 1. Investigations if carried out in details.i) Running water is available in sufficient quantity. vi) Investigation of the available construction materials.

the water spread of the reservoir at any elevation may be directly determined by measuring the area at that contour with a planimeter.Investigations for Reservoir Planning 1. 2) Geological Surveys. H(m) V = f(H) A = f(H) Area (Km2) Volume ( Km2 –m) 2. The capacity of the reservoir may be determined by taking contour areas at equal interval and summing up these areas by any of the following methods: Elevation. Hydrological investigation is necessary to 1) have accurate estimate of the runoff pattern at the proposed dam site for the purposes of determining the height of 82 . for laying out the lines of communications and other various works and for estimating quantities of materials and their cost.5 m but at the site of dam an interval of 1. an area – elevation curve can be drawn. 3) Hydrological surveys 1. Area Capacity Curves. 2) the tightness of the reservoir basin and 3) location of quarry sites. Engineering Surveys. Geological Surveys is essential to determine 1) the suitability of foundation. Engineering surveys of the reservoir and work areas are required to determine the capacity and spread of the reservoir at various elevation. The contour interval is 2. From the contour map of the reservoir area.5 m is used and a map on a scale of 1/250 to 1/500. From these measurements.

with maximum run-off. reservoir size. capacity of power house and other installations and 2) to determine the hydrograph of the worst flood to estimate the spillway size. which are constructed to store water for meeting the demand for water supply. As the water is required at varying rate during the day. power generation etc. Classification of Reservoirs a) Storage reservoir b) Flood Control (flood mitigation) Reservoir c) Distribution Reservoir d) Single Purpose reservoir. Flood Control (Flood Mitigation) Reservoir: The main function of such reservoirs is to temporary store flood waters and release it at such a safe rate that it may not flood downstream side. These reservoirs may store raw water for treatment. run-off and catchment area. This will depend on the intensity of rainfall. vi)Site must be close to useful construction materials.dam. Distribution Reservoir: These are small capacity reservoirs used for water supply of towns. Site Selection for Reservoir The storage capacity of site should be sufficient to the meet the requirement for which it is designed. iii) As much as possible. vii) The topography should be favourable for site for spillway. viii) Site should be such that the run-off water has minimum percentage of sediment ix) Site must be free from such minerals and salts. which may make the water unfit for the purpose. Storage Reservoir: are small storage capacity reservoir. e) Multipurpose Reservoir. they permit the water treatment plant to function at a constant rate 83 . irrigation. i) Site where the width of river is narrow but rapidly widening upstream ii) Site where sufficient quantity of water is available. site should be such that water can flow under gravity from reservoir to demand points iv) Site must be close to demand points v) The geological conditions at the site should permit minimum percolation losses. for which the dam built.

Surcharge Storage: It is the storage between the Normal full reservoir level and the maximum possible level in the reservoir. Flood Storage: is the storage contained between the normal reservoir level and the full reservoir level. b) Power generation. and therefore below it. which constitutes useable portion of the total storage. rains and the resulting run-offs. 84 . Storage Capacity and Yield Yield: It is the volume of water that can be supplied from the reservoir I a specific interval of time. This storage is usually difficult to control since it depends on maximum floods. 5. Live (Active or Useful) Storage: It is the storage capacity above the inactive storage. STORAGE ZONES AND LEVELS OF A RESERVOIR 1. The dead storage is equivalent to the volume of sediment expected to be deposited in the reservoir during the design life of the reservoir. Dependable or Firm Yield: The maximum guaranteed supply of water during the worst dry period. f) Recreation. e) Navigation. It is important element in the design of large size flood control reservoirs where it could be a significant proportion in respect to the reservoir storage volume. 3. It is the storage space provided in a reservoir for storing flood water temporary to moderate the releases downstream. 4. Multipurpose Reservoir: In this reservoir. High Flood Level (Maximum Pool Level): The level to which the water will rise during the design flood 7. ii) 90% for hydro. Usually this volume is below sluiceway. The time interval may vary from a day to a year. the reservoir is not susceptible to release water by the built in outlet means. Valley Storage: is the storage in the river in floods after it gas overflowed its banks. d) irrigation. Full Reservoir Level The level to which water will rise during ordinary conditions of operation of reservoir. 6.It is thus the difference of gross storage capacity and the sum of dead storage capacity and inactive capacity Live storage has to be sufficient so that the project is successful for i) 75% of its life period in an irrigation project. Minimum Pool Level: The level to which water from the reservoir in ordinary conditions may be drawn. c) Flood Control.Single Purpose Reservoir: It is a reservoir to serve only one purpose which may be: a) Municipal Water Supply. 2. the storage and release cater for a combination of two or more purposes.power and iii) 100% for water supply. Dead Storage: us about 10 – 25 % of the gross storage and it is provided to cater for sediment deposition by the impounded sediment –laden waters.

performs a sequential reservoir routing of the historical flows. the inflows of the driest year are plotted as ordinates against time as abscissa to get a stepped graph as bar graph. 25 to 30 years are used. The average demand is likewise plotted. deficit STORAGE Bar Graph Method 85 . The area between the two plots indicates either surplus or deficit volume. Average Yield: It is the arithmetic average of safe yield and secondary yield over a long period. Reservoir Storage Capacity Determination The storage capacity of a reservoir to meet the demand of continuous supply is determined with the help of observed discharge data of a stream on which the dam is to be constructed. The area under the bar graph represents total volume of inflow into reservoir. It is usually kept lower than firm yield. comprise mass curve analysis. The area of maximum deficit between the demand and inflow represents the minimum storage required. which will not be treated here. There are two approaches for the determination of the size of reservoir storage. The detail method. eg. by Bar Graph Method. Designed Yield: It is the quantity of water for which the project is designed after ascertaining the availability of water.Secondary Yield: The quantity of water available in excess of dependable yield during the flood period. In this method. which are commonly used in planning stage studies. The flow values for the driest years in as long a period as is available. A third. The simplified method. used at the time of developing reservoir operating plans. Surplus Deficit Surplus Max.

The demand includes prior rights.Simplified Procedure for Reservoir Storage Capacity. There are two methods of analyses: i) the sequential mass-curve method and ii) the non-sequential mass-curve method. Analytical Method: In this method. The slope of a line joining any two points on the mass curve gives the average inflow rate withi the period 4. S = maximum ∑(It –Ot) -------------------------R-1 Ot – outflow (draft) during period dt Where S – required storage capacity It – inflow during period dt. if any. etc. The slope of the tangent to the mass curve at any time gives the inflow rate at that time 3. seepage. The cumulative difference between the inflow and outflow to the reservoir during successive periods are evaluated. The deficit and surplus of water which is the departure of inflow volume from 86 . Dry spells (periods) are indicated as hollows on the curve. the maximum value of which is the required storage. Any point on the curve indicate the total inflow from the beginning of the period up to the given point. the inflow and demand values in each month are determined. 2. Equation (R–1) can be solved either analytically or graphically. Properties of the mass curve 1. which might be a severe drought period. evaporation. Mass curves are useful in reservoir studies since they provide a ready means of determining storage capacity necessary for a particular average drawoff. A sequential mass-curve method (Rippl Method) considers the most critical period of recorded flow.

0600 0.1020 0..1784 0.0165 0.1175 0. Example: In the table below.1378 0.1348 0. (col.1814 0.1585 0.3837 03997 June July Aug Sept.0784 0.1369 0.0863 0.0639 0.0463 0.0515 0.2633 0. percolation.2704 0.1823 0.1562 0.0401 0.1732 0. (col.1415 3 Total Losses 0. Mar.1605 0.0385 0.1482 0.2577 0.4013 0. The maximum value of cumulative excess of demand over inflow represents the minimum storage necessary to meet the demand. The cumulative excess inflow volume starting from each demand withdrawal from the storage is also determined which indicates the filling up of the reservoir and the volume in excess of storage to be spilled over.1895 0.1964 0.1851 0.2830 0.1943 0. Dec.0200 0.0173 0. etc.0597 0.0681 0.2357 0.2983 0.2128 0.4327 0. 2) gices the yield of a river.2460 0.2471 0.0183 0.2085 0. Determine the storage capacity of the proposed reservoir. Jan Feb.1186 0.1550 0.1782 0.1215 0.1551 0.0975 0.4832 0.3156 0.1032 0.1404 6 Surplus (2 – 5) 0.0334 0.demand volume is determined.2151 0. and total estimated consumption of water.0767 0.0845 0.1010 0.0823 0.1684 0.0197 4 Total consumptio n 0.0358 0.2018 0.3247 0.1863 0.0679 0.2746 0.0713 0.3384 0.1513 0.0987 0.0678 0.2218 0. 3 & 4) gives total losses including evaporation.2816 0.2902 0. 1 Month 2 Yield of River 0.2013 0.1337 0.1472 0.0615 0.1883 0. April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb 87 .0195 0.1503 0.3652 0.0482 0. Oct Nov.1181 0.1142 0.1883 0.1114 0.2870 0.2650 0.1703 0.0011 7 Total surplus 1.1790 0.0301 0.1160 0.0257 0.0202 0.1284 0.1207 5 Total (3 + 4) 0.

0286 0.9969 1.0603 0.2361 0. Filling of Reservoir Overflow Overflow Overflow Overflow Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Total deficit = - Cumulative yield 0.0884 0.0097 2.1243 0.Mar April May June July Aug Sept.0108 0.1831 0.1583 0.1525 0.2408 0.5381 0.0312 0.2839 0.0143 0.0887 0.0985 0.0260 - 0.1900 0.1570 0.1013 0.4398 0.0385 0.9535 0.1463 0. Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May 8 Deficit (5-2) 0.2323 0.0613 0.1802 0.4215 0.9998 0.5008 0.9537 2.0195 0.1531 0.8484 13 Carry over Emptying of reserv.4930 Difference (10-11) 0.1810 0.2519 0.0169 3.0515 0.7450 2.0726 0.1738 0.2746 0.1148 0.1799 0.0983 0.1775 0.0587 0.1451 0.2196 0.1621 0.1903 0.9518 0.2019 0.1620 0.2157 0.3588 0.1598 0.1854 0.3967 0.1256 0.7452 1.1137 0.2114 2.3818 0.0945 0.1358 0.2595 0.4565 1.5437 2.1312 0.0695 0.0494 0.1135 0.1361 0.6941 2.0725 0.4183 0.1805 0.3557 1.2361 0.8515 0.5952 88 .1867 11 02046 0.7481 1.048 0.0687 0.8725 1.6692 0.2528 0.1218 0.0688 0976 10 0.3405 1.0495 0.8055 0.2843 12 0.0595 9 0.3080 2.9055 3.2916 0.1933 1.2103 0.5902 1.0882 Cumulative Draft 0.

1854 0.0112 6.8876 0. From A to B. At each high point on the mass inflow curve. Assuming the reservoir is full at A.0093 0.1632 0.8690 5.3483 0.7221 0.0450 3.7238 0.1584 6.3729 6.2499 7.8718 0. For a constant draft rate.3185 6.6573 0.8444 7.8458 0.4990 0.5173 4.3629 0.7577 0.1048 0.5051 7.8625 0.1692 7.0909 0. a line is drawn parallel to the yield curve and extended until it meets the inflow curve. (Mass Curve method).5940 0.5551 6.1242 5. It is accumulated separately as a mass inflow curve and Ot as a mass yield curve.4080 0.3121 6. the inflow is 89 . the draft is more than inflow resulting in a lowering of reservoir.1012 4.5945 0.7800 3.9980 7.5261 0.3230 4.6140 0.5072 3.9850 4.7955 6.0234 0.0105 5.5342 0. from B to C.0036 5.8675 3.4530 3.6498 0. and going from A to F along the inflow curve.5021 3.2952 5.7784 6.1219 4.7090 3.9039 2.7557 7.2604 0.5439 0. The maximum vertical distance between the parallel yield line and the mass inflow curve represents the required storage.2921 3.6987 4.1283 3.2874 5.2838 0.2125 0.9369 7.0.2623 4.3430 7. In the first method.7401 6.8182 4.5547 5.2187 5.7137 0. the yield curve is a straight line having a slope equal to the draft rate.7963 0.4972 6.1583 0.4669 4.7482 0.7197 5.7471 0.2248 0.6409 7.2469 0.3697 Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Emptying Filling Filling Filling Filling Overflow Overflow Overflow Overflow Emptying Emptying Emptying Graphical Method: there are two graphical procedures.6333 6.

Cumulative volume Inflow curve F G E C D Yield/demand Curve Storage A O B Time ∑(I –O) Storage volume Time 90 . thus filling the reservoir at E. The second graphical procedure plots the difference of successive accumulated values of inflow and yield ∑(It . but not enough to refill the reservoir. The maximum vertical difference is the storage. the inflow is very high. from C to D.Ot) against time. the draft is more. however. once again causing a drop in reservoir level.higher than the draft. from D to E.

This is called the top set bed. a special storage is allocated to sediment called the dead storage under the lowest sluice-way. The larger solid particles roll along the bed as bed load. Fore set bed: As the river water enters the relatively calmer waters of the reservoir. Top set bed: The velocity of a river is reduced considerably as it approaches the reservoir even before the river enters the reservoir due to back water effect. 2) Fore set bed. When sediment laden water reaches a reservoir. The deposition of sediments will reduce the water storing capacity of the reservoir and if this process continues for a long time. Smaller particles are kept in suspension by the upwards component of the turbulent forces and will only settle by gravitational force when velocity reduces. the velocity and the turbulence are greatly reduced due to enlarged area of the channel. The larger suspended particles and most of the bed load gets deposited in the head reaches of the reservoir. Density current: is the turbid water which flows under the clear water of the reservoir due to its relative dense nature In reservoir engineering. 1. Very fine particles may remain in suspension for still longer period and some may pass over the dam along with the water discharged through spillway or sluiceways. the heavier water with sediment will flow along the channel bottom towards the dam under the influence of gravity and the clear light water will flow on the upper surface of the turbid water. in the vicinity of a dam. 3) Bottom set bed. Bottom set bed: The fine particles (silt) do not settle till they have moved through a sufficient distance into the reservoir where they may settle and get deposited in thin layers as bottom set bed. 4. Top set bed. and density currents. Due to the reduction of velocity of flow.RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION Every stream (river) carries some sediment load along with the flow. Such particles are called suspended load. 91 . The dead is can be as much as a fourth of the total capacity of the reservoir. If the water stored in the reservoir is clear and the inflow is charged with sediment or is muddy. the coarser particles and most medium size sediment particles settle down at the toe of the top set bed. The process whereby sediments are deposited at the bed of the reservoir due to reduced turbulence and velocity is known as reservoir sedimentation. This condition is known as stratified flow and the under flow of sediment laden water is known as density current. just at the entry into the reservoir. This is called the fore set bed. 3. Mechanism of Sedimentation in Reservoirs Silt deposition in reservoirs follow a typical pattern just like the formation of deltas at the confluence of a river at the sea or lake. 2. There are four patterns: 1. The smaller particles remain in suspension for longer periods and are deposited further down in the reservoir. a stage will be reached when the whole reservoir will be silted and would be rendered useless. the silt carrying capacity of the river reduces and it deposits the heavy sediment particles in the channel above the highest level.

Estimation of the Rate of Sedimentation The amount of sediment load carried by a stream is determined by taking samples of water carrying silt at various depths.076 0. In the absence of any information on sediments.036 million cubic metres. The sediment load per day may be computed by: CxQ tones per day 1000 where Wd = dry weight of sediment Q = mean daily discharge in cumecs C = dry sediment weight in grams per litre of water. 1 2 3 4 Area of watershed (Km2) Under 25 25. km area). A.048 0. Recent studies have shown that Khosla’s value is on the low side. one could use the studies of Dr.250 250 – 2500 Above 2500 No. 92 . On the basis of studies on some catchment areas. The average sediment rate of reservoirs in USA is given below: No. of measurement 650 205 123 118 Average annual sediment rate (in mil m3 per 100 sq. Wd = 86400 x Khosla’s Studies. N.029 TRAP EFFICIENCY AND LIFE OF A RESERVOIR Trap efficiency η of a reservoir is defined as the ratio of sediments retained in reservoir to the total sediment brought in the reservoir by the stream. 0. sediment removed and dried. Khosla suggested the rate of silting per 100 square kilometer of catchment to be 0. Khosla. The samples are filtered.180 0.

Total sediment brought into reservoir by river It has been observed that most reservoirs trap about 95 – 100% sediment brought to it. Trap efficiency (η) = For small reservoirs on large rivers having large inflow rates. From the figure. but actually the useful life of the reservoir is terminated when its capacity is reduced to 20 % of the designed capacity or sediment is so much as to prevent the from serving intended purpose. Hence. 93 . it will be noted that for a given inflow rate. Thus: η trap efficiency(η) = f (Reservoir capacity) Total inflow The figure below shows a graph of trap efficiency and capacity inflow ratio based on observations of existing reservoirs. because the capacity inflow ratio is very small.It is an important factor as detailed observations of reservoir sedimentation has shown that trap efficiency is a function of this factor. Capacity-Inflow Ratio Capacity inflow ratio is the ratio of the capacity (volume) of a reservoir to the total inflow (volume) of water in a given time (usually one year). It is not possible to reduce it below 90 % irrespective of sediment control measures taken. the rate of silting is higher in the initial stages and it decreases as silting takes place. the trap efficiency trap efficiency is low.Sediment deposited in reservoir . Complete filling of the reservoir may take a long time. The silting in such reservoirs is low. because most of the sediments are passed to the downstream. the trap efficiency decreases with age of reservoir as the capacity of the reservoir reduces due to sediment deposition.

0 98 Find the probable life of reservoir with an initial reservoir capacity of 40 million cubic meters and with an annual average flood inflow of 80 million cubic meters.9 97. v) Now the reservoir volume interval ( i. 80%.6 96 0. Cap Inflow Ratio Trap efficiency 0. Examples The following data is available from a reservoir regarding its trap efficiency and capacity inflow ratio. Solution. The total annual sediment collected in the reservoir per year is multiplied with the trap efficiency determined in step (iii) above.The procedure for determination of the life of a reservoir is as follows: i) The capacity of the reservoir is determined.1 87 0. determine the average trap efficiency by taking into account the trap efficiency (η) obtained in the above steps. The annual sediment inflow is found to be 22 x 104 tonnes. Assuming that 10% capacity has been reduced due to deposits of sediments. 20/100 x 40 x 106 = 8 x 106m3 capacity is filled at a time. 10% of the capacity is divided by the sediment deposited per year.5 0.8 97 0.4 95.2 92 0. The specific weight of sediment may be taken as 1. Next.e. i.3 93 0. vi) Now repeat the procedure (i) to (v) above for further capacity intervals i. The sediment quantity so obtained is converted into hectare-meter units deposit per year. The useful life of reservoir may be assumed when its capacity is reduced to 20% of its designed capacity.7 96.5 0. 60%etc of the total reservoir capacity.5 1.e. the capacity inflow ratio and the trap efficiency are determined for the full capacity of the reservoir with the help of the curve. iv) By collecting water samples and drying the sediments. It will give the number of years required to fill this volume interval of 10% capacity. 94 .15 tones per m3. Initial reservoir capacity = 40 x 106 m3 Average annual inflow = 88 x 106 m3 Therefore capacity inflow ratio = 40/80 = 0.5 Average annual sediment inflow = 22 x 104 tonnes Let’s assume that 20%of the initial capacity is filled in the first interval. 70%. The total life of the reservoir will be the total number of years required to fill each of the volume intervals. obtained in step (iv) above. ii) Divide the total capacity into 10 parts. determine the sediment inflow rate.e. iii) For the above 10% interval of capacity.5 96 0. determine the trap efficiency for the reduced capacity (90% of the total capacity) and the inflow ratio.

2107 x 106 tonnes Volume of sediment deposited annually = (0. Below are data regarding trap efficiency and capacity inflow ratio of a reservoir Capacity 0.2107 x 106)/1.5 7.1823 x106 = 43.4 0.0 Sediment Trapped Tonne Volum s e 6 x 10 x 106 tonnes m3 5 6 2. this correspond to a trap efficiency of 95. the capacity of reservoir = (40 – 8) x 106 = 32 x 106m3 At the end of the first interval the C-I-R = 32/80 = 0.75 95.75% Weight of sediment deposited annually = 22 x104 x 0. The 95 .4 0.0 95.1793 0.975 = 0.46 178.5 7.5 0.25 93.5)/2 = 95.15 = 0.For 0.3 0.7 Determine the probable life of the reservoir with an initial reservoir capacity of 25 million m3.4 From the curve.7 0.5 87.5 0.5 6.1831 0.5 C-I-R the trap efficiency is 96%.75 90. 0. Assume the density of the sediment as 1250kg/m3.1722 Incrementa l Volume (x 106m3) Years to fill (Col.8 0.107 2. Similarly.1 Trap Efficiency At indicate d volume 3 96.1823 x 106 m3 Therefore No.0 92. if the annual inflow is 50 million m3 and the average annual sediment inflow is 300.7)/ (Col.3 0.5 95. The rest of the calculations are done in the table below Capacit y x 106m3 Capacit y Inflow Ratio (C-I-R) % 2 0.9 years.61 46.5 Average for incremen t 4 95. the silting period for the other intervals can be calculated.9 179year s 1 40 32 24 16 8 7 8 8 8 8 Example 2.9 1. 0. of years to fill 20% (8 x 106m3) capacity = (8 x106)/0.6 0.0 Inflow ratio 8 1 Trap 85 86 92 94 95 9 96 9 97 9 9 efficiency 5.2 0.2 0.93 44.70 43.98 0.1822 0.5% Therefore the average trap efficiency for the entire period = (96 + 95.062 1.000 tonnes. At the end of the first interval. 6) 8 43.095 2.

2. for the calculation of the years to fill the last 5% capacity is determined by taking 1 = .7 22.2286 0. Determine the life of the reservoir.94 0.7 Total Years to fill col 8 /col 9 1 10 0 80 60 40 20 15 2 25 20 15 10 5 4 3 0.86 0.2052 Incrementa l Vol. Streamflow runoff averages 15.3 0.000 acres.87 94.e.1 0.855 9 21.40 23.93 0.87 years St 0.835 2.04 22.40 4.290 acre-ft 96 .2268 0.4 0. Similarly. = 4. 20% of initial capacity.25 6 7 2.945 0. per year.000.5 0.95 0.000/1250 = 0. Annual inflow I = (49.5/12) = 63. A reservoir has a drainage area of 49.08 4 0.2 0.52 Capacity % Volume x 106m3 Cap. assuming that the life is over when 80% of the original capacity is lost Solution 1.85 5 0.5 x 106 ft3.2232 0.67 2.8575 2.9525 0.5 Capacity 50 x 106 The capacity inflow ratio goes on decreasing as the sediment takes place and trap efficiency also decreases.00 x106 0 (m3) x col(5) =col(6) / 1. The annual sediment production is 9.92 0. Solution: Average annual sediment inflow = 300.79 2.2136 0.58 Example 3.000) (15. 1 .5 in.000 x 1000 kg Volume of sediment inflow = 300.955 0.000 acre-ft.24 x 106 Initial reservoir capacity = 25 x 106m3 Annual inflow = 55 x 106m3 Therefore Initial capacity = 25 x 106 = 0. To obtain the 85% filling of initial capacity the volume interval in last two readings is taken as 5%. The volume of interval chosen is 5 x 106 i. The reservoir has a capacity of 10. x 106 (m3) 8 5 5 5 5 121.useful life of the reservoir will terminate when 85 % of the initial capacity is filled with sediment.89 0.565 0. Inflo w Ratio Trap Efficiency η @ Averag indicate e for d interval Volume Sediment Trapped Tonnes Volum x 106 e =300.

000 acre-ft 4.29 0 3 0. etc.000) = 2.06 0.000 4. the site of reservoir should be such that the catchment area should have firm soil which would not be easily erodable..1 Control of Silting in Reservoirs It is utmost necessary to reduce the depositions of sediments in the reservoir bed for increasing its life.1 12.3 44. Annual sediment production = 9.09 0.74 Sediment Trapped Tonnes Volume Acre-ft =col(5) x 218. it will prevent the erosion of soil particles as well as it will trap large amount of sediments.5 acre-ft 3.88 0. Pre-construction Methods includes: i) Site Selection: For silting control. adequate outlets such as sluices should be provided in the design of the dam.865 0.000 8. large quantity of water will flow out of reservoir and with it large volume of sediment.000 2. if vegetations are grown in the catchment area. grass. I this way. Capacity % Volum e Acre-ft Cap. ii) The ratio of reservoir capacity and drainage size: If the storage capacity of the reservoir is much less than the annual inflow into reservoir.000 9 10. Inflow Ratio =col2 /63.1 10.5 6 7 197 189 180 162 Incrementa l Vol. the silting will be reduced to considerable extent.5 x 106 ft3 or 218. Therefore. 97 .13 0.80 0.90 0.85 0.000 6.6 11.000 2. Sediment control methods may be classified as: Pre-construction methods Post-construction methods. sufficient quantity of sediment may be flashed fro the reservoir.825 0.2.000 2. iv) Vegetation Screen: If the ground around reservoir is covered by vegetation.03 Trap Efficiency η @ indicate d Volume 4 0. 1.000 2.000 Total Years to fill col 8 /col 9 1 10 0 80 60 40 20 2 10.68 Averag e for interval 5 0.16 0. x 106 (m3) 8 2.92 0. The vegetations covering the ground are known as vegetation screens and are the cheap and effective means of silting control. iii) Design of Reservoir: For the release of density currents. Unfilled capacity (20%) = (20/100) (10.

day month or year. where for any time period such as an hour. outflow and change in storage as a function of time. The sediments mixed water is pushed towards the sluices and is flashed out. including fish and wildlife. Recall that the storage equation relates inflow. vegetation is planted to provide a cover to soil.Post-Construction Methods: i) Mechanical Stirring of Sediment: The sediments which are deposited in the reservoir bed are scrapped and stirred by mechanical equipments and kept in moving state. ii) The roots of the plants penetrate deep into the soil and bind soil particles enabling it resist water and wind erosion. Iy is expensive to excavate and also expensive to dispose of excavated material. however. The operator may be a part-time worker who lives near a lake and who occasionally operates a gate. The key person is the operator. Watershed Erosion Control a) By afforestation: In this method. it must be operated correctly. They may also be bound by legal requirements to release water for downstream users. iii) Dredging: It is also expensive as it require the purchase and maintenance of costly machines as dredger. 98 . it is necessary to consider the storage equation both numerically and graphically. which reduces the scoring effect of the soil in three different ways: i) It provides a cushion to the falling rain drops and reduces their impact and consequent damage due to erosion. ii) Excavation: It is a very expensive method. b) Controlling Overgrazing OPERATION OF RESERVOIRS After a dam is built. or a highly trained engineer working at a remote location who makes system decisions based on computer forecast. and change in storage. who makes decisions about when to release or store water. iii) Plants offer resistance to flow and thereby reduces the velocity of flow. It is not uncommon to have a reservoir control center where operators use computers to monitor weather forecasts furnished from satellite data and simulate future demands for water to make decisions about water releases. which provided the operator with simple guidelines about how much water to release and what lake levels to maintain. reservoir operating decisions were made by RULES CURVES. outflows. reservoir operation has become more sophisticated. As the science of forecasting and the use of computers has become more complex. In other words. In the past. Basically what is required in the operations problem is an analytical tool to illustrate the time rate of inflows.

Qi – Q0 = DS Where Qi – is the rate of inflow. The state of the reservoir is determined by comparing the storage to maximum storage capacity. Geopgia 8. When water is in abundance. usually a year. A simple way to view the operation plan is to consider a rule curve such as one shown below. rule curves. and minimum storage capacity.2 Reservoir Operations Reservoir operation in the CRYSTAL model is based on the Snohomish County PUD Jackson Operations model (JKSOPR). Q0 – is the rate of outflow. demands. 99 . Release policies depend on the "state" of both Spada Reservoir and Lake Chaplain. Otherwise. and shows the boundaries within which operations should occur. and relative storage. which is taken fro the corps of engineers operating plan for lake Lanier in Georgia. Rule curve for Lake Lanier. and DS – change in storage. A rule curve illustrates a typical operations time period. releases are functions of instream flows. releases are dependent on the capacity of Jackson Powerhouse transmission line.1.

The hydrograph resulting after passing through the hydraulic system is one with considerably reduced peak and enlarged time base. reservoir. Upper normal rule curve. FLOOD ROUTING Flood routing is the process whereby the shape of a flood hydrograph is modified as it passes through a hydraulic system (such as a river channel. then a variable amount of flow (based on a ratio of storage to lower rule curve and time of year) is conveyed through the Powerhouse pipeline. If storage in Spada is below the Lower normal rule curve (State 4) then minimum flow to meet instream flow requirements and M&I demand is conveyed. The process can be represented as: 100 .”poweroff" storage may be used during extreme conditions (Spada reservoir has yet to reach the poweroff storage). The maximum flow of 1300 cfs is conveyed if the reservoir is above the Upper normal rule curve (States 1&2). 1 (SnoPUD) operates Spada Reservoir using two rule curves based on storage (Figure 8. and Lower normal rule curve determine the state of the reservoir. If reservoir storage is between the rule curves (State 3). lake. In addition. No flow is conveyed if storage is below the "Power off" level. Comparing the reservoir storage to the Full Storage condition (FS). etc).3).Snohomish County PUD No.

Flood routing in fact is a technique of determining the extent of change in the inflow hydrograph as it passes through a hydraulic system and it is done for the purposes of: 1. either both O and S have to be related to a common unknown parameter or S has to be defined in terms of d to a common unknown parameter or S has to be defined in terms of O. In the above equation (1) I.(1) where I and O are the average inflow and outflow rates within the time Δt. and so the routing process is. storage and outflow) are connected by the storage (continuity) equation in the form: [ Inflow volume in time Δt] + [Change in volume of water stored by the hydraulic system during time Δt] = [Outflow volume in time Δt] I∆t + ∆S = O∆t ------------------------. Determining the design elevations of flood walls and levees 3. Determining the site for a spillway 4. Any other flood flow-related objectives. all the components of the routing process (inflow. accordingly classified into two namely: reservoir routing and channel (streamflow) routing. The hydraulic system can be a reservoir (lake) or a section of a river channel. Studying the effect of a hydraulic system on the modification of a flood peak 2. S are unknown parameters.the inflows are known quantities but the outflows. O and the storage. In flood routing. Derivation of unit hydrograph and synthetic hydrographs 5. the numerical solution expressed as numerical approximation can be written as : I 1 + I 2 S1 − S 2 O1 + O2 + = 2 ∆t 2 -----------------. Therefore. the terms in the equation have a form that is not amenable to direct solution.(2) 101 . however. Equation (1) when expressed in the differential form can be integrated. For flood forecasting 6. To solve the equation. The former approach is applicable to reservoir routing whiles the latter to channel routing.

Otherwise. So at time t = 0. Select the time interval Δt for the routing. At the initial time. equation (2) is re-organised to the form: + O2 -------------. so also is the outflow. 5. storage volume and outflow rate corresponding to a particular hydrograph of inflow. With O1 known. just before flood arrives. i) An inflow hydrograph I =f(t) ii) An elevation –capacity curve H =f(S) or elevation – area curve of the reservoir H =f(A) iii) An elevation – outflow curve H = f(O) 2. which can be expressed as a function of elevation. 4. the following quantities are known. the time interval is so chosen so that one does not miss the peak values. In reservoir routing. At the beginning of the routing. t = 0 (start of the routing. O2 and (2S2 + O2) and they will become the quantities at the end of a fictitious previous period. H. Procedure 1. 102 ( I 1 + I 2 ) + 2S1 + O1 − 2O1 = 2S 2 . With H now known. we assume a steady state condition. The flood routing procedure is used in the detention and storage reservoir for studies related to the variations in reservoir levels with inflow and outflow discharge with time with a view to deciding the location and capacity of proposed reservoirs. read off 2S/ Δt +O from the H = f(2S/ Δt + O) curve. so that I1 = I2 = O1 and S1 corresponds to the storage corresponding to elevation of O1. from which elevation can be computed as a function of time. the volume of storage can be expressed as a function of water surface elevation in the reservoir. extent of land submergence in the reservoir area. What is available at the beginning. height of dam. determining the spillway outlet capacities. the storage equation becomes a relation between the known inflow and the unknown elevation. In routing through a reservoir. I1 = I2 =O1. read off H from H =f(O) curve.where subscript 1 and 2 denote beginning and end of routing period Δt RESERVOIR FLOOD ROUTING Reservoir routing is the process of determining the reservoir stage. From the above.(3) ∆t ∆t Since the outflow and the storage are both functions of water surface elevation. This is usually taken as the interval of time given for the inflow hydrograph. the routing curve is prepared and plotted 2S H = f + O ∆t H = f (O) 3.

5 509 Storage data Elevation(ft) 50 Storage(acre-ft) 231 Solution: 50.0 452 545. The crest height of the spillway is 50 ft and the length of the spillway is 35ft Time(days) 0.5 1715.0 277 51.0 3.0 353 3.5 247 1. which is the outflow. 8.5 3.0 0 53.5 1.7 103 .5 313 2.0 165 52. The values in row corresponding to time t = 0. is computed from the given equation Q = 3 x (35) x H2/3 and the storage data are listed in tabular form.0 664.5 day 3/2 H 50 0 231 0 465. being the values at the end of a routing period is transferred to become the initial values on the left hand-side of the routing equation (3) for the next time step of the routing period.4 51. The procedure is repeated until all the inflow values are used up.5 247 37.5 2.0 185 1. Water surface Head on crest Storage Outflow (cfs) (2S/ Δt + O) Elevation (ft) (ft) (acre-ft) Q=3 x (35) x Δt = 0.4 52. 7. The left hand side of the routing equation now has known values that yield a value for (2S2 + O2).3 52.0 1009. The spillway discharge Q = 3LH3/2.5 Flows(cfs) 70 1.5 360 2.3 53. The discharge data. With this known.6 50.0 1.5 53.5 313 192.1 536.9 825.5 300 3.0 1224.0 452 53.5 499 415. H is read from the plot and O is also determined.0 480 51.5 80 52.Time 0 6 16 18 26 30 Inflow I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 (I1 + I2) (2S/ Δt + O) I1+I2 X* -2O1 -2O* (2S2/ Δt+O2) X* X H H* H O O* O 6.0 353 297.0 277 105.5 509 687.4 51. Example: Given an inflow hydrograph and storage vs elevation data for a reservoir below.5 0.5 400 4.0 2.6 1459.

5 x 106 m3 discharge gates are opened and the surface water level is at elevation 63.0 545. Col.58 4.12 56 58 60 62 4.28 4. 6 of the previous routing period iv)Col.22 104 . whose centres are at elevation 54.71 4. The flood hydrograph table below is forecast.19 4.8 and a free overflow spillway 72.8 720.. Column 1 & 2 are the given inflow hydrograph ii) Column 3 is obtained by adding the two successive values in column (2) iii)Column 4 is obtained by transferring col. The dam is equipped with two circular gated discharge ports each of 2.0 1.0 2.5 2 Inflow 0 70 185 360 480 300 165 80 0 0 3 I 1 + I2 70 255.5 at time t=o.45 720.7 m diameter.6 50 535.0 3.5 m long with crest level at elevation 66. 7 is obtained by reading off H from the plot of H = f(2S/Δt + O) vii Col 8 is obtained by reading off O from the plot of H = f(O) 5.6 8 O 0 35 i). Live storage at elevation 54 is 5. Elevation (m) Surface area (km2) 54 4. 8 v)Col. Example: An impounding reservoir enclosed by a dam has a surface area that varies with elevation as given below.The routing is done in the table below 1 Time 0 0.6 535. After the computation.5 2.5 3.5 4.0 4 (2S1+O1) 465.5 1.88 5.36 4.0 4. 6 is obtained by adding columns (3)+(4)+(5) to obtain the right hand side of eq. a plot of the inflow and the outflow hydrographs are made from which the extent of peak reduction can be seen and when the peak occurs. What will the maximum reservoir level be and when will it occur.(3) vi.6 5 -2O1 0 -70 6 7 (2S2+O2) H 465.45 64 66 68 70 72 4.05 5.0. 5 is obtained by transferring 2 times col.6 50.0 with discharge coefficient cd=0.

storage head-work or 2. diversion head-work Storage head-work is constructed to store water for some purpose The main purpose of diversion head-work is to divert the required quantity of water into the off-taking canals for irrigation purpose. Depending on the purpose. A diversion head-works may also serve the following purposes: 105 .Chapter 6 DIVERSION HEAD WORKS The construction work done at the river or canal for diversion of water to the offtaking canal is known as head-work. head-works may be: 1.

106 .1. i). Diversion head-work may serve as silt regulator into the channel. one can resort to run-off-river water supply (Figure 38 and Example 1 in Figure 37). the velocity of the river decreases and silt settles at the bed. Headwork for direct river offtake In rivers with a stable base flow and a high enough water level throughout the year in relation to the bed level of the intake canal. The increase water level helps the flow of water by gravity and results in increasing the commanded area and reducing the water fluctuations in the river. Clear water with permissible percentage of silt is allowed to flow through the regulator into the channel. iii). ii).To prevent the direct transfer of flood water into the channel. 6.i) ii) iii) iv) v) to raise the water level in the river for increasing its command to regulate the intake of water into the canal to control silt entry into the canal to store water for meeting emergency requirements to prevent fluctuations in the level of supply of the river. so that the water level is raised and water is diverted to the channel at required level. Diversion head-work provides an obstruction across a river. Due to the obstruction.1.

as silt tends to settle on the inside of bends. as illustrated in Figure 40. When there is a lot of silt in the system.A simple offtake structure to control the water diversion is sufficient. The offtake should preferably be built in a straight reach of the river (Figure 39). depending on site conditions. erosion usually takes place on the outside of the bend and therefore protection of the bank with. When the water is free from silt. the centre line of the offtake canal could be at an angle to the centre line of the parent canal. 107 . one should select a place on the outside of a bend. concrete or gabions might be needed. If it is not possible to build the offtake in a straight reach of the river. at an angle or parallel to the riverbank. for example. However. the offtake should have a scour sluice to discharge sediments or should be put at a 90° angle from the parent canal. The offtake can be perpendicular.

The functions of the offtake structures are: To pass the design discharge into the canal or pipeline To prevent excessive water from entering during flood

108

Considering these functions, the most important aspect of the structure is the control arrangement, which can be a gate, stop logs, or other structures. When the gate is fully opened, the intake behaves like a submerged weir (Figure41) and its discharge is given by equation 23

Where: Q = Discharge in intake (m3/sec) C = Weir coefficient B = Width of the intake (m) h = Difference between river water level and canal design water level (m) hd = Difference between canal design water level and sill level of the intake (m)

River offtake using a weir Figure 42 shows an example of a river diversion structure, in this case a weir (Example 2 in Figure 37). Structures constructed across rivers and streams with an objective of raising the water level are called cross regulators (see Section 6.4).

109

A weir should be located in a stable part of the river where the river is unlikely to change its course. The weir has to be built high enough to fulfill command requirements. During high floods, the river could overtop its embankments and change its course. Therefore, a location with firm, well defined banks should be selected for the construction of the weir. Where possible, the site should have good bed conditions, such as rock outcrops. Alternatively, the weir should be kept as low as possible. Since weirs are the most common diversion structures, their design aspects will be discussed below. Diversion head-works may be a weir or a barrage. Weirs are solid walls constructed across a river for the purpose of raising the water level Barrage is a structure constructed either to store water or raise the level of water. In case of barrages, no wall is constructed across the river, but there is an arrangement of gates which can be used to store water to the required level. Diversion Head-Works consists of: 1. A weir or barrage; 2. Under sluices; 3. Divide wall; 4. Fish ladder; 5. Canal head regulator; 6. Silt controlling devices; 7. Guide bunds; 8. Approach channel.

River

u/s GUIDE BUND

Divide wall Head Regulator Fish ladder

Weir CANAL Marginal Bunds Under sluices d/s GUIDE BUND

1. Weir (Barrage) may be masonry; rockfill or cement concrete. All weirs normally have the following components: i) body wall usually with shutters; ii) upstream rough stone or boulder pitching; iii) upstream curtain wall; iv) upstream impervious apron; v) crest shutters; vi) downstream impervious apron; vii) downstream curtain wall; vii) downstream apron for channel bed.

110

Shutters

Rockfill

Masonry (or concrete) Rockfill weir

111

General Equation of Weirs. The flow over any type of weir is given by Figure 44. C2 coefficient for different types of weirs in relation to crest shape 112 .

i. the weir dimension across the river or stream (m) H = Head of water over the weir crest (m) 113 .e.Where: Q = Discharge (m3/sec) C1 = Coefficient related to condition of submergence and crest shape (Figure 43) C2 = Coefficient related to crest shape (Figure 44) B = Weir length.

114 .

Bligh has recommended the following: a d H b If b = bottom width of the body wall (to be designed). W. and d = depth of water above the weir crest or height of weir crest wall. P. Weir walls are design as a retaining wall or masonry dam of solid gravity type. then 115 . S = specific gravity of the body wall. for the weir to be safe. a = top width ( to be fixed) H = height of weir above the floor or the height of the body wall. and the self – weight of the weir body wall. The resultant of forces P and W should pass through the middle third of the base of the weir.Design of weir a) Design of Weir Walls. The two main loads to be considered are the horizontal water thrust.

(D. III) Water is passing over weir crest and the weir is discharging with a clear overfall.2) 116 .H -1) and .a = 0..208 CH -----------------------( ) where C = creep coefficient H = head of water stored against the body wall The thickness of this apron is about 30 cm placed over 30 to 50 cm thick concrete foundation. The length of this apron is: Ld / s = 2.H . Design of Impervious Apron Shutter Body of weir u/s apron d/s apron u/s boulder pitching u/s curtains Well d/s boulder pitching a)The upstream Apron The length of the upstream impervious apron according to Bligh is: Lu / s = 2. Downstream Apron.552( H + d ). b).208 C H 13 ---------------. stability are checked under the following conditions: I) The water in upstream is at crest level or the crest of shutter and there is no flow over the weir II) The weir is submerged and water is passing over it. − − − − − − − − − From the above recommendations.b= H +d S −−−−−−−−−−−−− (D..

According to Bligh’s theory. This bursting of the floor reduces the effective length of the impervious floor. the total creep length for first drawing: L = B and for second drawing: L = B + 2(d1 + d2 + d3) 117 . This can be achieved by providing deep vertical cut-offs or sheet piles. which will resulting increasing exit gradient. when this erosion continues. However. H = total head causing seepage.Uplift Pressure Rupturing the Floor of the Weir The floor of the weir may burst due to inadequate weight of the weir and the heavy uplift pressure. it begins to dislodge the soil particles and carry them away. a sort of pipe or channel is formed within the floor through which more particles are transported downstream which can bring about failure of weir. The main preventive measure of piping is to reduce the hydraulic gradient by increasing the length of travel of the fluid by either increasing the length of the impervious floor or providing curtains or piles at both upstream and downstream. In due course.3) 3 SG − 1 Where tD/s = is in metres. SG = specific gravity of material of the apron. BLIGH’S CREEP THEORY Water from upstream percolates and creeps (or travel) slowly through weir base and the subsoil below it. d) Downstream Curtain Wall: usually 2. if the hydraulic gradient becomes big. Rapture of floor could be prevented by: i) providing adequate length of impervious floor ii) providing sufficiently thick impervious apron iii) by providing a pipe at the upstream end to reduce the uplift pressure at the downstream end.4 H −h -------------------(D. Thickness of apron: tD / s = c).0 to 2.0 m depth Two major causes of failure of weirs i) Piping (or Undermining): Since there is always a differential head between upstream and downstream.5 to 3.H . 2. greater than the critical value. Upstream Curtain Wall: This is usually 2. The head lost by the creeping water is proportional to the distance it travels (creep length) along the base of the weir profile.5 m in depth. The creep length must be made as big as possible so as to prevent the piping action. then at the point of exist of water at the downstream end. and can cause failure of the weir. h = head lost by the creeping water u to the point where thickness is to be calculated. water is constantly moving form upstream to downstream from under the base of weir.

Coefficient of creep C for various soils. The reciprocal.If H is the total loss of head. Bligh proposes the following two important criteria: 118 . gravel and sand mixed Coarse grained sand Fine micaceous sand Light sand and mud Coefficient of creep 5–9 12 15 18 Design Criteria. . No. (L/H) of the percolation coefficient is known as the coefficient of creep C. H B=L d1 d2 d3 Method of increasing creep length Table D-1. then the loss of head per unit length of the creep © shall be C' = H H = L [ B + 2( d1 + d 2 + d 3 ) ] Bligh called the loss of head per unit length of creep as Percolation coefficient. For design. 1 2 3 4 Type of soil Boulder or shingle.

Because of the divide wall a still pond is created. C = creep coefficient 2. S where t = thickness of the apron floor. Equating the two forces. H1 = upstream head. Now applying a safety factor of 4/3 4 h t= 3 S −1 Divide Wall This is a long solid wall of stone masonry built at right angles to the axis of the body of the weir. S = specific gravity of floor material. the creep length L should be sufficient to provide a safe hydraulic gradient. L = CH Where L =safe creep length. Safety against Uplift: The uplift pressure = γwH! . Safety Against Piping: For safety against. The downward resisting force per unit length of apron FR = t. where H! = the uplift pressure head at any point of the apron.the limiting thickness t= ≅ S −1 S −1 where h is the ordinate of the hydraulic gradient line measured above the top of the floor.1. It is usually built in stone masonry but it could be done in earth with stone pitching or in concrete. Safe creep length. S – t = t(S – 1) H! −t h Or . we determine the limiting floor thickness γw H! = t. It also protects the regulator from the direct turbulence of river flow. γw . H = H1 – H2 Total loss of head for the length of creep. 119 . H2 = downstream head. depending on the type of soil. γw .S H! = t . S Or H! – t = t . This helps the deposition of silt before the water is allowed to pass through the head regulator. Its function is to divide the river channel into two portions and to create a still pond near the canal head regulator end.

A sluice should therefore be incorporated into the diversion structure design. Its seal level is generally placed at the river bed level while the floor to the intake gate should be located higher (Figure 52). During the flood season. the sluice is permanently open or opened at regular intervals so that depositions of sediments can be flushed away. They are operated by 120 . Approximately 70% of all suspended and bed load sediments travel in the lower 25% of the flow profile. They are provided near the wing walls of the weir. Their main function is to prevent the obstructions to the flow of water through the main sluice. They create a clear. While suspended silt can be beneficial to the scheme by adding nutrients to the farmland. This arrangement allows the water to be raised when there are very few or no sediments in the water. in the form of sand. Under Sluices (Scour Sluices): These are openings provided in the body wall of the weir.4. It should be placed in line with the weir near the canal intake (Figure 51). Headworks have to be adapted to these sediment loads to avoid silting of canals and structures. The guide wall prevents lateral movement of sediments deposited in front of the weir and separates the flow through the sluice and the flow over the weir. silt. A properly-designed intake should divert only the relatively clean upper part of the water flow into the canal and dispose of the lower part down the river. coarse sediments usually cause problems once they are blocked by a weir or other diversion structure.5 Stone Masonry Stone pitching Concrete foundation Divide Wall 6. Scour gates for sedimentation control Many rivers carry substantial sediment loads. unobstructed river channel at the approach portion of the head regulator. They also transport deposited silt in front of the head regulator at the upstream side. especially during the rainy season.1.Concrete slab 1. thus preventing the entry of bed silt in the canal. moss and tree leaves. The control arrangement in the scour sluice generally consists of a series of stop logs (timber. concrete) or a sluice gate. They also help to reduce maximum flood level. to the downstream side. weeds.

Canal Head Regulator A canal head regulator (or head sluice) is a structure constructed at the head of an off-take channel of a weir. Their design and construction are similar to earth dams. Their main function is to control the floods and prevent submergence of the areas behind the hydraulic structures. They are located near the approaches of the diversion head works. Marginal Bunds: are earthen embankments constructed parallel to the river along the banks. Guide Banks (or Bell’s bunds): are constructed almost parallel to the flow of the river. They are bunds with a straight length and a curved end at their flanks. near the hydraulic structure. In designing the scour sluices. The head regulator consists of a raised crest with abutments on both sides. 121 . This may consist of a number of spans created by a number of piers and covered by a number of gates. The functions of canal head regulator are: i) to regulate the quantity of water passing into the canal ii) to control the amount of silt entering the channel iii) for shutting out flood flows. Their function is to guide the flow into and protect the hydraulic structure by controlling and regulating the flow of the river. Piers may be constructed on the crest to create a number of spans and to support a roadway and a platform at its top to operate the gates.means of gates provided for this purpose. iii) The downstream portion of the under sluice must be well protected to prevent downstream erosion. the following are to be noted: i) the design flow should be at least twice the discharge in the off-take channel ii) the crest of the under sluice should be one metre lower than the crest of the head regulator. The gates are operated by levers provided at the top of the weir.

Marginal Bunds(embankment) Stone pitching Marginal Embankment 122 .

to ensure that upstream and downstream flow are independent.81 m/sec2) z = Elevation above reference line (m) 123 . can be used as a measuring device.Chapter 7 DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT Discharge measurement in irrigation schemes is important for the following reasons: To ensure the maintenance of proper delivery schedules To determine the amount of water delivered for water pricing. Conservation of mass Conservation of mass leads to the Continuity Equation 12 to be constant: Q = A x V = Constant Conservation of energy Conservation of energy applied along a streamline results in the Bernoulli Equation: Equation 38 Where: P = Pressure (kgf/m2) γ = Density of water (kg/m3) V = Water velocity (m/sec) g = Gravitational force (9. exist. Weirs. Standard structures. only the conservation of mass and energy equations will be dealt with. flumes and orifices are the devices that are normally used for discharge measurement. where it is applicable To detect the origin of water losses and to estimate the quantity To ensure efficient water distribution To conduct applied research Almost any kind of obstacle that partially restricts the flow of water in an irrigation canal and provides a free fall. provided that it can be calibrated. For our purposes. which have already been accurately described and calibrated. energy and momentum.1.6. Discharge measurement equations The three fundamental equations used to solve discharge problems in canals are based on the principles of conservation of mass. 6.

When there is frictional loss along the flow path.Equation 38 sums up the pressure head. velocity head and gravitational head to give the total head. Specific energy The concept of specific energy is used in the analysis of critical flow. the pressure head equals the water depth h. It is derived from the Bernoulli Equation according to the following equation: 124 . the energy with respect to the canal bed is referred to as specific energy. At any cross-section of a canal. For an open canal. an expression for frictional head loss must be included. HL is the frictional head loss. Thus applying the Bernoulli Equation to two successive cross sections along a flow path results in: Equation 39 The numbers 1 and 2 refer to the first and second cross section.

Where: E = Specific energy (m). the specific energy is constant across the section. for a given discharge the specific energy is a function of depth alone Specific energy can be determined for different structures: Rectangular canal 125 . Therefore. force (9.81 m/sec2) V = Water velocity (m/sec) h = Depth of flow (m) g = Gravitational Assuming a uniform velocity distribution. Combining the above equation and the Continuity Equation gives: The cross-sectional area varies with the depth of flow only if the geometry of the canal is constant.

In this case. the velocity of flow exceeds the velocity of propagation. Below this point. the velocity is high and flow is super-critical. while Q remains constant. waves) cannot be transmitted upstream. flow is physically not possible. the mean velocity is less than the velocity of propagation of stream disturbances such as waves. a relationship exists between the minimum specific energy and the critical depth. Fr = > 1 for super-critical flow. For sub-critical flow. Fr = < 1 for subcritical flow If a structure is built in a canal which has sub-critical flow. This means that downstream conditions affect the behaviour of flow.Plotting E against h for different values of (Q/b) gives curves as shown in diagram above. there are two alternate depths of flow. At the lesser depth. At this point flow is critical and it occurs at critical depth and velocity. the velocity is low and flow is sub-critical. stream effects (for example. stream effects can be propagated both upstream and downstream. When flow is supercritical. which coincide at a point where the specific energy is a minimum for a given discharge. the specific energy is a minimum for a given discharge. For critical flow. This means that the state 126 . Consequently. Thus. The curves show that. and downstream conditions do not affect the behaviour of the flow. it may cause the flow to pass through the critical to the super-critical state. This gives: Froude Number The Froude Number is calculated according to: Where: Fr = 1 for critical flow. At a greater depth. for a given discharge and specific energy. This relationship is found by differentiating Equation 41 with respect to h.

ratio without altering the specific energy. The relationship between depths just upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump is found by the application of the momentum theory to the simplified situation shown in Figure 68. which means increasing the (Q/b). For a rectangular canal it can be shown that: Equation 43 6. flow adjusts back to the sub-critical state through a hydraulic jump in which the water level rises over a short distance with much visible turbulence. That is how critical flow is obtained with a measuring device. Weirs FLOW OVER WEIRS AND NOTCHES 127 . super-critical flow is introduced in a canal where the normal flow is sub-critical. This can either be achieved if the structure narrows the canal. as shown in Figure 67. It is undesirable to have a hydraulic jump in an unlined canal because of the risk of scour. which means reducing the specific energy without altering the discharge per unit width. This situation occurs. It is assumed that boundary frictions are negligible over the length of the jump. or if it raises the canal bed.upstream of the structure becomes independent of the state downstream. A control section in a canal is a section that produces a definitive relationship between water depth and discharge. Hydraulic jump If. In such cases.6. downstream of a sluice gate or a flume. through a structure. for example.2. a jump is usually induced over a concrete apron by means of a sill or baffle blocks set in the floor.

128 .measured at the section B-B is called the geometric head which is the rise of fluid above the crest of the weir B – width of weir going into the paper δ – thickness of the wall of the weir z – geometric drop in the level of fluid at the weir. B Head race vo H Ho z P δ Tail race B LB The zone of fluid before the wall of the weir is called the head race while the zone of water after the weir is called the tail race The distance LB from the wall of the weir to the point where a fall in the level of stream is noticeable. known as the drawdown section is given by: LB = (3. zo – total drop in head over the weir which is the sum of the geometric drop plus the velocity head. especially the sharp-crested ones are commonly used for measuring large and small open flows in the field or laboratory. Weirs. vo – approach velocity Ho – The total head which is given by the sum of the geometric head and the velocity head.A weir in general is any regular obstruction over which flow occurs. It is the difference between the head race and the tail race.5)H H .

Classification of weirs 1. the falling nappe is supported on the crest and does not allow the nappe to fall free. The flow of fluid over weirs is extremely complex phenomenon and virtually impossible of exact analytical solution. By form of the opening a) Rectangular b) Triangular c) Trapezoidal d) Circular e) Parabolic f) With inclined crest 2. The width of the nappe is the same as the width of the stream. it is said to be un-submerged.5)H: In sharp-crested weirs. the effect of sides or ends of the weir on contraction of the nappe is eliminated or suppressed. As result. By the thickness of the cross-section of weir wall a) Sharp-crested weir δ ≤ (0. a) Un-submerged weir: . By the level of downstream water level relative to the crest of the weir. By width of obstacle in relation to width of stream a) Suppressed weir: . 4.When the water level on the downstream side of the weir is below the crest of the weir. b) Weirs with end contractions: . c) Weir with practical profile (Orgee weir) 3. all weir formula are derived by making lots of 129 . the nappe springs free as it leaves the upstream face b) Broad – crested weir 2H ≤ δ < 8H: In broad-crested weir.In this case.When the length of the weir is the same as the width of the channel (stream) It is so called because in this case. b) Submerged weir: When the water level on the downstream side of the weir rises above the level of the crest.1 – 0. the weir is said to be submerged. the length of the weir is less than the width of the channel. Therefore there is a lateral contraction of the nappe so that the length of the nappe is less than the length of the weir crest.

As a result. To derive a simplified relationship for a weir. The flow rate through the strip dQ = Bdhcv 2 gh The theoretical flow passing over the weir is obtained by integrating the above equation over the geometric head. the velocity of flow is given by: u = cv 2gh. Simplified flow over weir with the above assumptions After simplification.simplification of the problem which leads to an approximate solution which is somehow rectified by the use of experimental coefficients derived from experimental set ups. turbulence are all neglected v12/2g 1 H 2 1 dh 2 Weir crest h H v1 P B Fig. the following assumptions are made: i) ii) iii) iv) velocity distribution upstream from the weir is uniform all fluid particles move horizontally as they trave pass the weir crest thew pressure in the nappe is zero. 130 .. By considering the weir as a large orifice and by considering an elementary strip of of area Bdh below the free surface. ie atmospheric the influence of viscosity. the sharp-crested weir is considered as a large orifice of rectangular shape placed in the channel such that the head on its upper edge is zero. the upper edge is eliminated leaving only the lower edge or the crest. surface tension.

405 + 0.003/H -----------Basen (2/3 in front of formula absorbed) CD = 0.397 + 0.0). then the length of the nappe will be reduced by 0. In the laboratory. K. CD = 0.2 Q = ∫ Bcv 2 gh dh = Bcv 2 g H 3 / 2 3 0 H To obtained the actual flow rate over the weir due to the above assumptions. R.00015/H3/2 Fteley and Stearn (2/3 in front of formula absorbed) CD = 605 + 0. this could be determined quite easily and accurately. (2/3 in front of flow rate absorbed) CD = 0.1nH and will be equal to (B – 0.1nH ) 2 g H 3 / 2 3 Flow over a Triangular Weir (Notch) A triangular weir (notch) is particularly useful where the discharge is to vary over a large range and the same accuracy is desired for both small and large discharges because of the following advantages: 131 .611 + 0. we introduce an experimental coefficient of discharge Q= 2 CD B 2 g H 3 / 2 3 If the approach velocity vo is appreciable (>1.075H/P -----------taken from A. A few empirical formulae exist for the determination of the discharge coefficient for a rectangular weir. Contracted Weirs For weir with end contractions.40 + 0.1H.1nH) and the discharge equation will then be given as: Q= 2 CD ( B − 0.08H/P + 1/1000H ------Rehbock CD = 0.05 H/P ------------Chugaev R. it becomes extremely difficult to determine this accurately in the field. Thus if there are n end contractions. however. the formula for flow over weir seems simple and easy to use however. then instead of geometric head one has to use the total head Ho As can be seen. Francis observed that the effect of the contraction is to reduce the length of nappe by 0. Jain. the difficulty is with the correct determination of the discharge coefficient.

the head will be greater and clinging nappe will be avoided. iii) When the flow rate is small. But in a rectangular weir. for all heads the ratio of the head to the wetted length of crest is constant. dQ = 2( H − h) tan θ 2 cv 2 gh dh 132 . the ratio of head to the wetted length of crest is not constant. there is the tendency of a clinging nappe in a rectangular notch. b h dh H θ The equation for the discharge over the vee-notch can be obtained just like we did in the rectangular weir by considering an elementary strip of width b and height dh. This is because. the velocity of flow is given by: u = cv 2gh. ii) When the discharge is small. However.i) The coefficient of discharge for a triangular weir is practically independent of the head.. The flow rate through the strip dQ = bdhcv 2 gh But b = 2(H – h)tan θ/2 Putting b into the discharge equation. Considering the notch as a large orifice. for the same flow rate over a triangular notch. Hence head measurement can be done more accurately over the triangular notch than over the rectangular notch. a triangular notch provides a greater head than the rectangular notch.

The actual discharge is obtained by applying the coefficient of discharge CD.60 k = 8/15 x 0.60 x 4. the coefficient of contraction and hence the coefficient of discharge will not be constant for all heads. which forms part of the wetted perimeter remains constant for all heads. the coefficient of discharge is fairly constant in a triangular notch. The wetted perimeter depends on the length of the sides which in turn depend on the head. 133 .42 x tan(θ/2) H5/2 For a right angled Vee-notch. In a triangular notch. The contraction coefficient of a notch depends on the wetted perimeter. θ = 90o and hence Q = 1.43 = 1. the wetted perimeter does not vary with head because the base. Consequently. there is no base and therefore the contraction is due to the sides only.47 The coefficient of discharge is made up mainly of the contraction coefficient and the velocity coefficient.42 H5/2 Empirical formulae 1) By Thompson Q = 1.42 and hence Q = 1. Trapezoidal Weir A trapezoidal weir has an opening of a trapezoidal shape and may be considered as a combination of a rectangular and a triangular weirs.4 H5/2 2.47 By Grave When 22o ≤ θ ≤ 118o Q = 1.Q = ∫ 2 tan 0 H θ 2 cv 2 g Hh1 / 2 − h3 / 2 dh = ( ) 8 θ cv 2 g tan H 5 / 2 15 2 The above equation represents the theoretical discharge without consideration of the contraction of the flow area. By King Q = 1. For a rectangular notch. to obtain: Q= 8 θ CD 2 g tan .343 H2.996 H2.331 (tan θ/2)0.H 2 15 2 5 By representing k= (8/15)CD(2g)1/2 and taking the average value of CD =0. Consequently.

one rectangular with length b and the other a triangular with an apex angle of θ. thus Qtrap = Q1 + Q2 = 2 8 C Db 2 g H 3 / 2 + C D 3 15 2 g tan θ 8 θ 2 H 2 = C D* 2 g H 3 / 2 b + H tan 2 15 2 3 5 Cippoletti Weir The principle behind the Cippoletti weir is based on the fact that in a rectangular weir. gives an increase in discharge. On the other hand. by the addition of side slopes to a rectangular weir.86 b H3/2 Submerged Weir 134 ..H θ/2 θ/2 b Trapezoidal Weir The trapezoidal notch is equivalent to two notches. due to end contractions. Therefore if the side slopes of a trapezoidal weir are so adjusted such that the reduction in discharge due to end contractions is just equal to the increase in discharge due to the addition of side slopes. Q= 2 C Db 2 g H 2 3 3 Cipolletti gave the equation for the discharge through such a weir as: Q = 1. the net effect I discharge is zero and therefore the standard weir formula without end contraction can be used. the effective length of the weir is reduced and consequently the discharge. The total discharge over the trapezoidal notch would be equal to the sum of discharges over the equivalent rectangular and triangular notches. For Cippoletti weir. The Cippoletti Weir is a trapezoidal weir with side slopes 1 horizontal to 4 vertical such that the discharge in effect equal to that of a rectangular weir without end contraction.

Parabolic and proportional weirs showed the results for all types could be represented by the equation: 135 . Villemonte and Mavis on the discharge characteristics of a number of sharp-crested submerged weirs on rectangular. triangular. The discharge over the upper portion behaving as a free weir is given by Q1 = 2 2 3/ 2 C D b 2 g ( H1 − H 2 ) = CD b 2 g H 3 / 2 3 3 and the lower portion acting as an orifice is given by: Q2 =C D bH 2 2 g ( H1 −H 2 ) =C DbH 2 2 gH Therefore the total flow is given by: Q= 2 C Db 2 g H 3 / 2 + C DbH 2 3 2 gH Experimental works by Herschel. A 2 1 H1 H B H2 Flow over submerged weir The flow over such a weir can be obtained by dividing the flow into two portions: i) Flow over the upper part of the section (above line AB) of depth (H1 – H2) may be considered as a free from a weir into the atmosphere and ii) Flow through the lower part of depth (below line AB) may be considered as a discharge through a submerged orifice.A submerged weir (notch) is one in which the level of fluid in the downstream side of the weir is above the crest of the weir.

50 for 90o notch. Broad-crested weirs are characterized by the presence of two drops in the water level over the weir. i) It is cheaply and easily fabricated (can be done in-situ or off-site) ii) It is easy to install iii) It possesses a wide modular range.385 where Q = discharge for submerged condition Q1 = free discharge given by Q = K H1n n = exponent in the free discharge equation n = 1.44 for contracted weir n = 1. Some advantages of broad-crested weirs. These weirs are usually constructed of concrete. have rounded edges. iv) It produces minimum afflux(increases in upstream depth due to weir installation) v) It requires a minimum of maintenance.5 for suppressed weir n = 2. Broad-Crested Weir Broad-crested weirs (long-based weirs) are weirs that have crest lengths that are sufficiently longer (δ > 0.67H) to prevent the nappe from springing free. and are capable of handling much larger discharges than sharp-crested weirs. 1 2 ZB(o) ZB Ho H v P δ h Zc 136 . Flow over a broad-crested weir must pass through the critical depth somewhere near the downstream corner. H n Q = Q1 1 − 2 H1 0.

As can be seen from the above equation. CD ranges between 0. H o cv 2 g H o − H o = 3 3 3 Q = CDb 2 g H o / 2 3 q = CD 2 g H o / 2 4 3 3 bcv 2 g H o / 2 = 0.36. the discharge is only a function of h and the value of h varies between 0 ≤ h ≤ Ho however the discharge goes to zero as h = 0 and as h = Ho Since the function (**) is a continuous function and the function goes to zero at the two limits. the discharge is given by: Q = Av = b x h x v = bhc 2 g ( H −h ) v o ----------(*) ---------------------(**) As can be seen from the above equation.385 Cv . then it follows that there must be a turning point (maximum or minimum) within the limits. the velocity of flow on the weir is obtained as v =cv 2 gZ B0 =cv 2 g ( H o −h ) For a rectangular weir.By taking Bernoulli’s equation in sections 1 and 2 . There are many methods of finding h and Q but the Belanch’s method based on the principle of maximum discharge is much more appealing. there is the need to first find h. With the above postulate. in order to determine the discharge. 137 . the required depth is obtained by: q =hcv 2 g ( H o −h ) = f (h ) dq dh = d c v h 2 g ( H o − h) dh [ ] =0 Neglecting the constants and differeniating d h Ho − h dh ( )= Ho − h − 1 h 2 =0 Ho − h which gives h = 2/3Ho Substituting this value of h into (*) we 2 2 Q = b.385cv b 2 g H o / 2 27 where CD = 0. This is the basis of Belanch’s principle which states that: for a given head Ho on a broad-crested weir. the depth of flow on the weir.32 to 0. the depth that will be established on the weir is such as to result in the maximum discharge on the weir.

Ventilation of Weirs When flow takes place over a suppressed weir with wing walls on the downstream side, the free access of air below the nappe is prevented. The air entrapped between the nappe and the weir face is gradually evacuated by the dynamic action of the flowing fluid. This eventually leads to subatmospheric pressure in the underside of the nappe bringing about increases in the discharge. Investigations by Bazin have shown that if the flow is sufficient to prevent the air having access to the underside of the nappe, it may assume one of the forms shown below

Sub-atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric Pressure Fully aerated nappe Drowned nappe Clinging nappe

Fully aerated (free, ventilated) nappe: In this type, the weir discharges free as the pressure below the nappe is maintained at atmospheric by proper ventilation. Drowned (depressed) nappe: When the underside of the nappe is poorly aerated, the air enclosed between the nappe and the downstream face of the weir gradually mixes up with the flowing fluid and is carried away. This causes the pressure under the napper to fall below atmospheric. The pressure difference on the two sides of the nappe-(the upper side exposed to atmospheric while the bottom side has sub-atmospheric pressure) –causes the nappe to deflect towards the weir. Clinging nappe: This type occurs when there is no ventilation and all the air under the napper has been carried away by the dynamic action of the flowing fluid. The nappe is forced to adhere to the downstream face of the weir by the atmospheric pressure on the upper side. In this type, the discharge is 20 to 30 per cent more than in free nappe. Knowledge of these types of nappes is necessary especially when the weir is used for floe (discharge) measurement. All the discharge formulae have been derived for free nappe

138

and therefore some adjustment in the measured flow must be made when other forms of nappe occurs during discharge measurement. For discharge measurement it is always advisable to ensure that the nappe is fully aerated. FLUMES Although weirs are the cheapest and simplest structures for flow measurement in open channels, however the relatively high losses caused by weirs and the tendency of sedimentation of suspended particles due to reduced velocities in the vicinity of the weir, could in certain cases pose important limitations Flumes provide a convenient alternative to weirs for flow measurement in open channels where high head losses and sedimentation are of concern. Such cases include flow measurement in wastewater treatment plants and irrigation channels with suspended particles Flumes are devices in which the flow is locally accelerated by a streamlined lateral contraction in the channel sides. A flume has: a convergent section, in which the flow accelerates, a throat section and a divergent section, in which the flow returns to normal Flumes are of two types: non-modular or the venturi flume and the modular or the standing wave flume. In the non-modular flume, the velocity at the throat is maintained below the critical value so that no standing wave is produced. However, in the modular type, the flume is designed such that the velocity of flow at the throat is greater than the critical velocity thereby resulting in a standing wave within the flume. Non-Modular Flume (Venturi Flume) 1 2 b2 PLAN 2 v12/2g v22/2g h1 h2 Critical depth

b1

1

ELEVATION

139

When the width of a channel is reduced while the bed remains flat, the discharge per unit width increases. If the losses are neglected, the specific energy remains constant. If the conditions are made such that the free surface does not pass through the critical depth, the arrangement forms a Venturi flume. Referring to the diagram above, for continuity of flow, h1 x b1 x v1 = h2 x b2 x v2 --continuity equation for section 1-1 and 2-2.

Applying Bernoulli’s equation to sections 1-1 and 2-2 h1 + v12/2g = h2+v22/2g Substituting v1 for continuity equation, h1-h2 = v22/2g[1-(h2b2/h1b2)2]

v2 = 2 g ( h1 − h2 ) b h 2 1 − 2 2 h1b 2 g ( h1 − h2 ) b h 2 1 − 2 b h1 .. − − − −Theoretical..disch arg e

Q = v2 A2 = b2 h2

**Introducing the discharge coefficient, CD = (Actual discharge)/(Theoretical discharge)
**

Q = CDb2 h2 2 g ( h1 − h2 ) = CD b h 2 1 − 2 2 b1h1 A1 A2

2 A12 − A2

2 g ( h1 − h2 )

CD = 0.95 to o.99 Therefore to measure the flowrate, water depth are measured at two locations, one at section 1-1 and the other at section 2-2. Modular Flume or Standing Wave Flume (eg. Parshall Flume) As already mentioned, modular flumes are designed to make the flow pass through the critical depth in some section of the throat. By considering a section upstream with depth h1 and another section at the throat with depth h2, then applying Bernoulli’s equation, h1 + v12/2g = h2 + v22 = H

140

**v2 = (2g(H-h2)1/2 Therefore the discharge Q = b2 h2v2 = b2h2[2g(H-h2)]1/2
**

Q =b2

2 2 g Hh2 −h 3

(

) =b

2

2 g Hh2 −h 3

(

)

1/ 2

**For the maximum discharge, the quantity (Hh2-h3)1/2 should be maximum
**

d Hh22 − h3 =0 dh 2 Hh2 − 3h22 = 0 h2 = 2 H 3

(

)

Therefore

Thus for the flow to be maximum, the depth at the throat section should be two-thirds the total energy. For this condition, the velocity

v2 = 2 g ( H − h2 ) = 3h 2 g 2 − h2 = 2 gh2

This implies that for maximum discharge, the depth at the throat must be equal to the critical depth and the velocity critical velocity. Substituting h2 = 2/3H in the discharger expression, we shall obtain

Q = b2 2 g

2 2 H H − H 3 3

1/ 2

=

2 3 3

2 2 gb2 H 3 / 2 = 1.705b2 H 3 / 2 = 1.705b2 ( h1 + v1 / 2 g )3 / 2

Although flat bed modular flume is easier to construct, it is sometimes necessary to raise the invert in the throat to attain critical conditions. For the flat or raised floor, the throat length should ideally be sufficient to ensure that the curvature of water surface is small to make the water surface parallel to the invert. Such ideal flumes become relatively long and expensive. A more compact, short and less expensive groups of flumes have been constructed. However, the surface water profile varies rapidly and as such the theoretical analysis for ordinary flumes is not wholly applicable. Therefore empirical relationship are usually developed for such flumes (e.g; Parshall Flume), which make each such flume standard with its unique calibration curve. The Parshall Flume The Parshall flume is a widely-used discharge measurement structure. Figure 76 shows its general form. The characteristics of Parshall flumes are: i) Small head losses, ii) Free passage of sediments, iii) Reliable measurements even when partially submerged and iv) Low sensitivity to velocity of approach

141

The Parshall flume consists of a converging section with a level floor, a throat section with a downward sloping floor and a diverging section with an upward sloping floor. Flume sizes are known by their throat width and each size has its own characteristics, which is unique (see Table 31). The flow through the Parshall flume can occur either under free flow or under submerged flow conditions. Under free flow the rate of discharge is solely dependent on the throat width and the measured water depth, ha. The water depth is measured at a fixed point in the converging section. The upstream water depth-discharge relationship, according to empirical calibrations, has the following general form: Q = K x (ha)u Where: Q - Discharge (m3/s); ha Water depth in converging section (m); K -A fraction, which is a function of the throat width; u Variable, lying between 1.522 and 1.60 Table 32 gives the values for K and u for each flume size. When the ratio of gauge reading hb to ha exceeds 60% for flumes up to 9 inches, 70% for flumes between 9 inches and 8 feet and 80% for larger flume sizes, the discharge is reduced due to submergence. The upper limit of submergence is 95%, after which the flume ceases to be an effective measuring device because the head difference between ha and hb becomes too small, such that a slight inaccuracy in either head reading results in a large discharge measurement error

142

143 .

The discharge under submerged conditions is: Qs = Q . 9 inch and 1 foot throat width. The correction for the 1 foot flume is made applicable to other sizes by multiplying the correction Qc for the 1 foot by the factors given in Figure 77 (1 foot flume).Q c Where: Qc – Reduction of the modular discharge due to submergence Figure 77 gives the corrections Qc for submergence for flumes with 6 inch. 144 .

145 .

146 .

147 .

148 .

robust and reliable. 71) or broadcrested (Figure 72). 70. Discharge measurement weirs can either be sharp-crested (Figure 69. Weirs are simple to construct. 149 .The weir is the most practical and economical device for water measurement. easy to inspect.

a V-notch weir gives the most accurate results when measuring small discharges and is particularly adapted to the measurement of fluctuating discharges. The conditions and settings for standard weirs are as follows: i. p. The distance from the bottom of the canal to the weir crest. consist of a smooth. causing water to back up behind the weir plate and to flow over the weir crest.Sharp-crested weirs Sharp-crested weirs. measured at a specified distance upstream of the weir plate (about four times the maximum h1). The most commonly used notched ones are: Rectangular contracted weir Trapezoidal (Cipoletti) weir (Figure 70) Sharp sided 90° V-notch weir (Figure 71) The type and dimensions of the weir chosen are based on the expected discharge and the limits of its fluctuation. Thin plate weirs are most accurate when the nappe springs completely free of the upstream edge of the weir crest and air is able to pass freely around the nappe. also called thin plate weirs. Calibration curves and tables have been developed for standard weir types. is called the head h1. The plate obstructs flow. The crest of a sharp-crested weir can extend across the full width of channel or it can be notched. is the crest height. For example. The height of the crest from the bottom of the approach canal (p) should preferably be at least twice the depth of water above the crest and should in no 150 . vertical. flat plate installed across the channel and perpendicular to the flow (Figure 69). The overflowing sheet of water is known as the nappe. The depth of flow over the weir crest.

to measure the head h1. subject to the limitations given in (ii) and (iii). the head (h1) should not exceed 1/3 of the weir length.case be less than 30 cm. This will allow the water to fall freely. the head (h1) should not be less than 6 cm and should not exceed 60 cm. To allow full horizontal contraction of the nappe. amongst which are the following Where: 151 . Many practical formulae have been developed for computing the discharge. iv. Discharge equations for weirs are derived by the application of the Continuity and Bernoulli Equations (Equation 12 and 38 respectively). vi. For the expected discharge. In sediment-laden canals. The thickness of the crest for sharp-crest weirs should be between 1-2 mm. leaving an airspace under and around the jets. located perpendicular to the flow. the bed and sides of the canal must be sufficiently far from the weir crest and sides. Weirs also cannot be used in canals with almost no longitudinal slopes. a discharge coefficient is used in order to adjust the theoretical discharge found by laboratory measurement Rectangular contracted weir A rectangular contracted weir is a thin-plate weir of rectangular shape. iii. a main disadvantage of using weirs is that silt is deposited against the upstream face of the weir. In each case. since the required difference in elevation between the water levels upstream and downstream side of the weir is not available. altering the discharge characteristics. ii. The weir length should be selected so that the head for the design discharge will be near the maximum. v. For rectangular and trapezoidal weirs. At a distance upstream of about four times the maximum head a staff gauge is installed on the crest with the zero placed at the crest elevation.

and water head. The Cipoletti weir is a trapezoidal weir with the sides having an outward sloping inclination of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical (Figure 70). 152 . related to the design water depth. b. and weir length. the base being horizontal.Q = Design discharge over weir (m3/sec) b = Length of weir crest (m) h = Design water depth measured from the top of the weir crest (m) Table 28 gives discharge data related to length of crest. b. This side slope is such that the water depth-discharge relationship is the same as that of a full width rectangular weir. over a weir. Trapezoidal (Cipoletti) weir The trapezoidal weir has a trapezoidal opening. The discharge equation for a Cipoletti weir is: Where: Q = Design discharge over weir (m3/sec) b = Length of weir crest (m) h = Design water depth measured from the top of the weir crest (m) Table 29 shows discharge data. h. h.

The most commonly used V-notch weir is the one with a 90° angle. the weir should be installed so that the minimum distance from the canal bank to the weir edge is at least twice the head on the weir. Department of Interior. and it is as accurate as other types of sharp-crested weirs for discharges from 30 to 300 l/sec (U.V-notch weir A V-notch weir has two edges that are symmetrically inclined to the vertical to form a notch in the plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. particularly for discharges less than 30 l/sec. The general and simple discharge equation for a V-notch 153 .S. To operate properly. the distance from the bottom of the approach canal to the point of the weir notch should also be at least twice the head on the weir (U. The V-notch weir is an accurate discharge-measuring device. 1975). Department of Interior. Other common Vnotches are the ones where the top width is equal to the vertical depth (1/2 x 90° V-notch) and the one where the top width is half of the vertical depth (1/4 x 90° Vnotch) (Figure 71).S. In addition. 1975).

154 .Where: Q = Design discharge over the weir (m3/sec) θ = Angle included between the sides of the notch (degrees) h = Design water depth (m) Table 30 gives discharge data for the three common V-notches related to water depth (head) and angle°.

Broad-crested weir A broad-crested weir is a broad wall set across the canal bed. The way it functions is to lower the specific energy and thus induce a critical flow (Figure 72 Flumes Discharge measurement flumes are extensively used in irrigation schemes mainly because they: Can be used under almost any flow condition 155 .

in which the flow accelerates A throat.Have smaller head-losses than weirs. a converging section. The former type is the most simple to construct. in which critical flow occurs A divergent section. A flume has: A convergent section. Furthermore. Critical flow can be achieved by raising the canal bed. trapezoidal flumes such as those shown in Figure 79.1). This occurs due to the development of a hydraulic jump. a throat. major disadvantages of flumes include the relative large sizes and the accurate manufacturing/construction workmanship required for optimum performance (James. Flumes are most commonly rectangular or trapezoidal in cross-section. This latter technique is the one used by flumes. In this case.6. thereby reducing the specific energy. The most commonly used flumes are: Parshall flume Trapezoidal flume Cut-throat flume Trapezoidal flume Whenever the canal section is not rectangular. The flume should normally be put on top of the lining. An additional advantage is the flat bottom. thus are more accurate over a large flow range Are insensitive to the velocity of approach Are relatively less susceptible to sediment and debris transport However. Where there is sufficient head available. which is induced within the divergent section by a sill or other barrier. a diverging and an exit section. the flume should be the better choice. 1988). weirs could also be used. thereby increasing the discharge per unit width (see Section 6. in which the flow returns to normal Super-critical flow passing from the throat will return to sub-critical flow downstream of the flume. especially for measuring smaller discharges. which allows sediment to pass through fairly easily. A canal section that causes flow to pass from sub-critical through critical to the super-critical state forms a control and the discharge is a single valued function of the upstream water level. are often preferred. or by decreasing the canal width. A typical trapezoidal flume has an approach. A minimum transition will be required. but if the canal cross-section is not rectangular there is a risk that unpredictable flow patterns will result from an abrupt change of cross-section. if canals are expected to carry a lot of sediment. the loss in head may be less for comparable discharges. Trapezoidal flumes are particularly suited for installation in concretelined canals. However. thus constricting the flow section to the extent required for free flow conditions over a 156 . the divergent section of the flume could be avoided as the flow could fall freely in a stilling basin.

The range of calibrated water depth is 6-37 cm and the range of calibrated discharge is 1. Cut-throat flume The cut-throat flume has a converging inlet section. a flume with dimensions such as those given in Figure 79 can be located in a canal with a bed width of 0.30 m (1 foot). This will suit most conditions in a typical small-scale irrigation canal. As an example. As a rule of thumb. It is preferable 157 . one can say that the lower the canal gradient the higher the elevation of the flume above the canal bed level. The flow characteristics of the flume can be determined experimentally. throat and diverging outlet section.whole range of discharges up to the canal design discharge.4-169 l/sec. having side slopes of 1:1. This allows for the calibrations of the flume. The flume has a flat bottom and vertical walls (Figure 80).

This facilitates measurements and ensures a high degree of accuracy. K = Flume length coefficient W = Throat width (m) 158 .to have the cut-throat flume operating under free flow conditions. Free flow conditions through the cutthroat flume are described by the following Where: Q = Discharge (m3/sec) C = Free flow coefficient ha = Upstream water depth (m).

159 .

160 .3).Orifices Orifices. they are less sensitive to small fluctuations of the upstream water level. Therefore. However. 45. such as gates and short pipes. they are sensitive to the fluctuations in the upstream water level. Therefore. Under submerged conditions both the upstream and downstream sides of the structure need water level recordings. are also used as water measuring devices (Figure 82). 48). they do not offer any advantage over the use of weirs or flumes. their calibrations are not as accurate nor as stable as other types of measuring devices. 46.1. the discharge is proportional to the head of water above the crest raised to the power 1/2. For weirs the discharge is proportional to the head above the crest raised to the power 3/2 (Equations 44. as shown by Equation 34 (see Section 6. For free flow conditions. For orifices. including gates and short pipes. the discharge is a function of the upstream water depth alone. Furthermore.

The general discharge equation for a free flow orifice is (Equation 34): Where: 161 .

81 m/sec2). in which case they will be acting like submerged orifices (Figure 84). h2 = Water depth downstream of the structure (m) Current meters Current meters are used to measure the velocity in a canal. A = Cross-sectional area of the orifice (m2) g = Gravitational force (9. from where the discharge can be calculated using the Continuity Equation 12 (see Section 5. the number of revolutions per time unit can be read and. For partiallyopened sluice gates and submerged orifices the discharge equation reads: Where: Q = Design discharge through orifice (m3/sec). Most current meters have a propeller axis in the direction of the current.63 for sluice gates and submerged orifices and 0.60) A = Cross-sectional area of the orifice (m2) g = Gravitational force (9. The flowing water sets the propeller turning.Q = Design discharge through orifice (m3/sec) C = Design coefficient (approximately 0. which is 0.85 for short pipes. by means of 162 . forming part of the equipment. C = Discharge coefficient. h1 = Water depth upstream of orifice over reference level (m). On a meter.81 m/sec2) h1 = Water depth upstream of orifice over reference level (m) (Figure 83) Partially-opened sluice gates could be used for discharge measurements.1).

8h depth at each 10 cm (h is the water depth).2h and 0. For example. Then. 163 .5-0. These qs are distributed over the total width (Figure 86b) and the area between the q-line and the water surface gives the total discharge. It is also possible to establish the discharge per section and to consider the sum of the discharges in the sections as the total discharge.8h depth. Propeller meters are reliable and accurate. but rather expensive. for each vertical the flow per unit width can be calculated according to q = v av x h (Figure 86a). 1989). The velocity is the average of the velocity at 0. measurements can be taken at 10 cm horizontal distance over the cross-section and at 0. the quantity of work and the time required should be weighed against the degree of accuracy (Euroconsult.6 m. one reading can be done at 0.6h. In measuring the velocities. the number of points per vertical and the number of verticals per cross-section should be determined.2h and 0.a calibrated graph or table. the velocity can be determined. A well known type of current meter is the Ott instrument C31 for velocities up to 10 m (Figure 85). If the water depth is less than 0. For this purpose.

Manometers. Differential pressure flow meters Differential pressure flow meters create a pressure difference that is proportional to the square of the discharge.Discharge measurement in pipelines Several types of devices can be used to measure the discharge in pipelines. One good example of a differential pressure flow meter is the Venturi tube (Figure 87). Venturi tube The pressure drop between the inlet and throat is created as water passes through the throat. In the section downstream of the throat. The pressure difference is created by causing flow to pass through a contraction. the gradual increase in cross-sectional area causes the velocity to decrease and the pressure to increase. The pressure drop between the Venturi inlet and the throat is related to the discharge. This section will discuss differential pressure and rotating mechanical meters. or pressure transducers are normally utilized to measure the pressure difference. as they are the ones commonly used. as follows 164 . bourdon gauges.

and P1 and P2 in kPa) The flow coefficient C for a Venturi metre is 0. The rotor may be a propeller or axial flow turbine. C = Flow coefficient. Rotating mechanical flow meters There are many types of rotating mechanical flow meters used in pipelines. Calibration tests are usually needed to accurately relate rotor revolutions to the flow. d and D in cm. d = Diameter of contraction (cm) P1 = Pressure in upstream section (kPa).97. or a vane-wheel with the flow impinging tangentially at one or more points. These flow meters normally have a rotor that revolves at a speed roughly proportional to the discharge and a device for recording and displaying the discharge and total volume. P2 = Pressure in contraction (kPa). Head loss through most rotating mechanical discharge meters is moderate.66 for Q in l/min. The lowest discharge that can be accurately measured by a rotating mechanical flow meter depends on the amount of bearing friction that can be tolerated while the occurrence of cavitation often establishes the largest flow rate that can be measured (see Module 5). K = Unit constant (K is 6.Where: Q = Discharge (l/min). D = Diameter of upstream section (cm). 165 .

a low height weir is constructed first and then according to design piers are constructed at regular intervals along the width of the river. and y3 at A B and C. The gaps between the piers are closed by means of gates. then the hydraulic gradient is given by: Hydraulic gradient = H / Lc = head lost per unit length travelled by seepage water. Then the total seepage length (creep length) Lc = L1 + L2 + 2(y1 + y2 + y3) If H is the total head difference downstream and upstream. the shutters are dropped to allow flood waters to pass without causing damage on the upstream side. And L =total length of travel of seepage water (creep length. Length of creep: is the total distance travelled by seeping (creeping) water.Chapter 8 DESIGN OF WEIRS AND BARRAGES. more discharge can be passed by lifting the gates. If H = total head across structure. Usually water flows over the crest of the weir but sometimes shutters 1m or more high are provided on the crest of the weir. In a barrage. y2. Barrage The function of a barrage is the same as that of a weir. Head loss across cut-off A = (H/Lc) x 2y1 166 . Seepage of water below the structure may result in failure due to piping or pressure uplift. seepage will take place as long as differential head exists across the structure. In this case. During the dry period the shutters are raised to raise the water level and during rainy season. BLIGH’S CREEP THEORY Bligh stated that: creep is caused by differential head across a structure and the loss of head is proportional to the length of creep. then the head lost per unit creep length = H/L referred to as hydraulic gradient. THEORY OF SEEPAGE Weir or Anicut It is a solid wall of masonry or concrete constructed along the width of the river from one bank to the other to raise the water level on the upstream side so that proper supplies of water may be assured to the canals. assume that there are three cut-offs down beneath the foundation of a weir with depths y1. which can be lifted or lowered down mechanically or manually or both. When the foundation of a hydraulic structure is pervious. Barrages are preferred now-a-days as they offer greater flexibility in operation and better control. but in case of weirs. water level can be raised many times more than weirs and at will. Referring to the diagram below. the crest is fixed and only a fixed amount of discharge can be passed.

and C = a constant depending on soil type and given by Bligh below. If we let t be the required floor thickness to balance uplift force . Therefore the floor must be of sufficient thickness to provide the necessary resisting force to this uplift force. then 167 . Bligh suggested the following to prevent failure by seepage. This uplift must be balanced by the weight of the floor if uplift is to be prevented. No.H where H is the head across structure. Accordingly Bligh gave the following criteria.B = (H/Lc) x 2y2 C = (H/Lc) x 2y3 Based on the above. Safety against Piping: If sufficient creep length is provided by providing vertical cut-off. Weir or barrage H Hydraulic gradient A B y1 L1 y2 h Q L2 C y3 Lc = C. 1 2 3 4 Type of soil Fine micaceous sand.1/5 1/8 Safety against Uplift The ordinate at any point on the bottom of the floor to the hydraulic gradient represent the uplift at that point. etc Coarse grained sand Sand with boulders and gravel Light sand and mud (silt?) Value of C 15 12 5–9 8 Limiting value of safe hydraulic gradient 1/15 1/12 1/9. 1. alluvial soil. the head causing creep can be destroyed before the water exits on the downstream side and piping (undermining) would be prevented.

A. N. SG. t = γ. Bligh did not explain exit gradient 3. Limitations of Bligh’s Theory 1. Head loss is not directly proportional to creep length. In the limiting condition. Bligh made no distinction between horizontal and vertical creep 2.γ. Bligh did not specify the necessity of providing downstream end sheet pile.h or t = h/SG. .Weight of floor = γ . 6. Khosla’s Theory After studying a lot of dam failure constructed based on Bligh’s theory. Also uplift pressure distribution is not linear. Bligh did not explain any effect of sheet piles length and their distances on exit gradient. SG specific gravity of material of floor. 5. Khosla came out with the following. t Uplift force = γ.h where γ = weight density of water. H1 H2 H2 H1 Uplift pressure on foundation If h’ is the ordinate to the hydraulic gradient line considered from the top of the floor. 168 . then: h = h’ + t And t = h/SG = (h’ + t)/SG Or t = h’/(SG-1) This is the limiting thickness of the floor to withstand uplift. Bligh did not make any distinction between outer and inner faces of sheet piles 4. SG. Seeping water below a hydraulic structure does not follow the bottom profile of the impervious floor as stated by Bligh but each particle traces its path along a series of streamlines.

then the last streamline near the boundary follows the boundary.( ) + 2 =0 dx 2 dz where Q = K . Equipotential Lines. Streamlines h A B C D Equipotential lines Flow network Streamline A streamline is the path traced out by particles of water seeping through the subsoil. This head will be gradually utilize as the particle traces out the streamline and when it emerges at the downstream end.For steady flow.flow potential h = residual head at any point within the soil and K coefficient of permeability as defined by Darcy. Let us consider that there is no water on the downstream side. The first streamline. the entire head h will have been utilized so that the head at the exit end will be 169 . Every particle traces out its own path which represents the streamline for that particle. If an impervious boundary intervenes. If we assume the downstream bed as the datum. seepage in a homogeneous soil obeys the Laplacian equation : d 2Q d 2Q ---------------------. h . All the floor at the upstream side AB and every particle of water entering the subsoil on the upstream side will be having a head h. The others streamlines will be curves as they proceed through the pervious soil. then the on the upstream side is h. immediately below the hydraulic structure follows the bottom profile of the structure and will be almost the same as Bligh’s creep path. The above equation represents two sets of curves STREAMLINES and EQUIPOTENTIAL (VELOCITY POTENTIAL) LINES which intercept each other orthogonally.

It is evident that if the soil particle is not to be dislodged. for the sake of practical convenience and easy interpretation. Flow Nets The streamlines and equipotential lines always intercept at right angles. all characteristics such as flow rate. If all points on all streamline with a residual head of h1 are joined.zero. there will be a downward force W due to the submerged weight of the soil particle. the combination of the two groups of lines form a network in the flow field called the flow net. Thus at that point there will be two forces on the particle. The space enclosed between any two adjacent streamlines and equipotential lines is known as a field. In a flow field. Also at that point. and the other. 170 . at any position will exert a force f. we shall obtain a curve called an equipotential line. which will be tangential to the streamline at any point. By drawing the flow net. then the submerged weight must be greater than the upward vertical component of f. which will be dissipated by the particle while traveling the remaining path on the streamline. the submerged weight. At any intermediate position along the streamline. As the streamlines bend upward. velocity etc can be obtained. the tangential force f will be having a vertical component f1. Thus equipotential line is a line joining points of equal residual head. the particle will be having a head h1 which is the residual head. Though it is possible to draw an infinite streamlines and equipotential lines. Thus every streamline moving from a head of h to a head of zero will pass through a residual head of h1. one upward vertical component of f. Exit and Critical Gradient h Every particle of water while seeping through the sub-soil. only a limited number is usually drawn in such a way that every field becomes an elementary square.

each of which cab be solved mathematically without much difficulty. Hence for stability of the soil and for the prevention of erosion and piping.2 to 0.25 of the critical exit gradient. but without any vertical cut-off.20 for coarse sand 0.25 for shingle Method of Independent Variable of Khosla.17 for fine sand 0. the seeping water when it emerges at the downstream side. If at the exit point at the downstream side.14 to 0. is divided into a number simple profiles.17 to 0. the actual profile of a weir which is complex. For the determination of seepage below the foundation of hydraulic structure developed the method of independent variable. the force f1 should be less than the submerged weight W.20 to 0. H C E H E C b1 b d D b Sheet pile at u/s end Sheet pile at d/s end d D ii) A straight horizontal floor depressed below the bed. at the exit position. Values of safe exit gradient may be taken as: 0. In this method. the exit gradient is such that the force f1is just equal to the submerged weight of the soil particle. 171 .The upward vertical component force at any point is proportional to the water pressure gradient dp/dx. then that gradient is called critical gradient. In other words the exit gradient at the downstream end must be safe. Safe exit gradients = 0. The most useful profile considered are: i) A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness provided with a sheet pile at the upstream end or a sheet pile at the downstream end.

provided the following corrections are effected: i) correction for mutual interference of piles ii) correction for the thickness of floor iii) correction for slope of the floor. The important points to note are: i) Junctions of pile with the floor on either side{E. ii) H d D 1 H E C b1 b d b Depressed floor D Sheet pile at intermediate position 172 . E1. C (bottom). percentage pressures at various key points E. D’) in case of depressed floor The percentage pressures at the key points of a simple forms will become valid for any complex profile. C1 etc) be determined. E1. From the curves.A straight horizontal floor of negligible thickness with a sheet pile at some intermediate point The mathematical solution of the flow-nets of the above profiles have been given in the form of curves. C. C1 (top) } ii) Bottom point of the pile (D). and iii) Junction of the bottom corners (D.

173 .

The correction is applied as a percentage of the head 174 . and D = the depth of the pile line (2).Correction for Mutual Interference of Piles Let b1 = distance between the two piles 1 and 2. the influence of which on the neighbouring pile (1) of depth d must be determined b = total length of the impervious floor c = correction due to interference.

C = 19 For example. correction for pressure at C1 for pile line (1) by the interference of pile line (2) is positive as pile line (1) is to the rear of the interfering pile line (2). Similarly. correction for pressure at E2 for pile line (2) due to the interference of pile line (1) is negative.D d + D x --------------------------.( ) b1 b This correction is positive when the point is considered to be at the rear of the interfering pile and negative for points considered in the forward or flow direction with the interfering pile. because E2 is in the forward or flow direction of interfering pile line (1). The interference effect will not be present on the intermediate pile if: i) the outer pile is equal to or longer than the intermediate pile and 175 .

the junction points of the floor and pile are at the bottom of the floor (E1. C1*) of the floor. However. C1) E1* C1* E1 C1 Depressed floor D1 The pressures at the actual points E1 and C1 are interpolated by assuming a straight line variation in pressures from the points E1* to D1 and from D1 to C1* 176 .ii) if the distance between the intermediate pile and outer interfering pile is less than twice the length of the outer pile 1 2 3 E1 D1 C1 d b1 bs D D2 D3 C3 b D3 Correction for Floor Thickness Standard profiles assuming the floors as having negligible thickness. Hence the values of the percentage pressures computed from the curves corresponds to the top levels (E1*.

The value of correction will be: C.8 2. the correction will be positive. A correction for a sloping impervious floor is positive for the down slope in the flow direction and negative for the up slope in the direction of flow.The corrected pressures at E1 should be less than the computed pressure t E1*. And so also is for pressure at C1. Slope =Ver:Horiz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5 1:6 1:7 1:8 Correction as % of pressure 11.0 The correction factor must be multiplied by the horizontal length of the slope and divided by the distance between the two poles between which the sloping floor exists. =correction factor bs = horizontal length of sloping floor b1 = horizontal distance between the pile lines Exit Gradient H b d 177 .3 2. Correction for Slope of Floor. Therefore the correction for the pressure at E1 will be negative.F. x bs/b1 Where C.5 4.2 6. correction for slope can be applied only to point E2.5 2.5 3. As the point E2 is terminating at the descending slope in the direction of flow. No.3 2.F. In the diagram above.

First consider plate 17. π λ The value of exit gradient GE should be within safe limits as given below.0 Then 1/α = d/b = 6/60 = 0. No. and a vertical cut-off of depth d. 1 2 3 Type of soil Fine sand Coarse sand Shingle Safe exit Gradient 1/7 to 1/6 1/6 to 1/5 1/5 to 1/4 Use of Khosla’s Pressure Curves. This gives pressure curves for φC.0 m and d = depth of u/s pile = 6. the corresponding value of 1 can be read off.For the standard form consisting of a floor of a length b. for any value of α = b/d. When H and d are given.3 ). we read the values of φD = 20 and φE = 28. Values of 1/α = d/b are plotted as abscissa and percentage pressure φ = P/H x 100 are plotted as ordinates. The ratios b1/b are plotted as abscissa and φC = Pe/H x 178 . Next. φD for sheet pile not at end condition.2. There are three curves.1 For this value of 1/α. let us consider plate 17.1. determine the value of φE for the value of 1/α. the exit gradient at its downstream end is given by: exit gradient GE = (H/d) x 1 π λ By referring to plate (17. one for QD and one for QE for sheet piles fixed at the ends of the floor and the last one for φD for depressed floor To find the percentage pressure at the points C1 and D1 of the upstream pile. Then φD1 = 100 – 20 = 80 φC1= 100 – 28 = 72 These percentages pressures must be corrected for mutual interference. calculate Αα = b/d and then 1/α = d/b For this value of 1/α determine the value of φD from the curve Then subtract this value of φD from 100 to get φD1 ΦD1 = 100 – φD Similarly. GE should be easily calculated. Subtract this φE from 100 to get φC1 φC1 = 100 – φE Example: Let b = total length of floor = 60.

0 m α = b/d = 60/6 = 10.87 and α = 2.5m (1) D1 ▼99 ▼105. 1 Total length of floor b = 60 m Depth of u/s pile below the top of floor = 105 – 99 = 6. Calculate the exit gradient and plot the hydraulic gradient line for the pond level on the u/s side with no water on downstream side.0 Solution: 1.1 179 . ▼110 ▼107 ▼104 0.3 = 0. Determine the percentage pressures for various key points shown in diagram below.0 Qc = 20 ΦE = 100 – Qc = 100 – 20 = 80% ΦD can be calculated for values of b1/b less than 0.13 and α = 2. To find φE for any value of α and base ratio b1/b.0 (1 – b1/b) = 0.0 (1 – b1/b) = 1 – 0. Similarly finding φD for b1/b = 0. read φC for base ratio (1-b1/b) for that value and subtract this value from 100. Upstream pile No.0 1/α = 0.0 ▼102. Thus for finding φE for base ratio b1/b = 0.7 for α = 3.0 6 (2) 14 D2 60m D3 45m 2 25 ▼100 6 6 0.100 plotted as ordinates on the left portion of graph and φD = Pe/H x 100 plotted on the right side of graph for different values of α.5.5m (3) ▼94.87 Corresponding to 0.0 value of φD’ = 40 ΦD = 100 – 40 = 60% Example.3 and α = 3.

0-104.6 x0. .From plate 17. φC1 = 100 – φE = 100 – 28 = 72 % ΦD1 = 100-20 = 80 % For these values.00 = 5. therefore the correction will be positive.67 % (+ve) iii) Correction due to slope at C1 As C1 is neither the starting point nor terminating point of a slope.0 m b1 = distance between the two piles = 14.0 m Then the correction = D d +D 5 5+ 5 19 .0 D1 D2 φC1 calculated from curves corresponds to point C1! At the top of the floor.0) = 8/6 x 1 = 1.0 ▼99. for pressure at C1 φC1 is affected by the presence of intermediate pile No. i) Correction for mutual interference of piles.0 = 6. (2). ii) Correction at C1 due to thickness of floor. Hence.0) (105. = 104.9% + 1. But we want the pressure at C1 at the bottom of the floor. Pressure atC1 will be more than that at C1!. (1).0 – 99. corrected pressure at C1 ΦφC1 = 72% + 1.00 = 5. slope correction is zero.1. (2) = 104. (2) Let D = depth of pile No.0 m d = depth of pile No.67% = 75. = 19 = 19 x0. three corrections must be applied .1 = 1.00 – 99. C1! E2! 1.0 m b = total length of floor = 60.57% 180 . Pressure at C1! = φC1 = 72% Pressure at D1 = φD1 = 80% Distance from C1! To D1 = 1050. – 99.00 – 99.9%(+ve) b1 b 14 60 Point C1 is to the rear of the next pile No.0 E1 C1 E2 C2 C2! ▼105.0 m Hence pressure correction at C1 = (80 – 72) x (105. Hence correction is positive.

76 and α = 10. and α = 10.93% Corection for φC2 181 .0 m b1 = distance between the two pile lines = 14m b = Total floor length = 60. (2) which is affected = 104 -99.(1).5 b1/b = 14.76 For b1/b = 0. Pile No. ΦD = 34% and φD2 =100 – 34 = 66%. Corrections for φE2 i) Correction for sheet pile lines at E2.0 = 1.9% .9%(−ve) 14 60 ii) Correction at E2 due to floor thickness Correction = observed value of φE2 – observed φ D2 x Thickness of floor Distance E2D2 = 73 – 66 x 1.1. = 104 – 99.0m Dd + D = 19 b1 b Correction 5 5+ 5 = 19 = 1. the correction will be negative. 2 d = 105 – 99 = 6 m b = 60 m α = b/d = 60 / 6 = 10 b1 = 0.ΦD1 = 80% 2.5 /60 = 0. ΦC2 = 60% For base ratio 0. Intermediate Pile Line No. Hence corrected pressure at E2 = (73% .00 = 5.0 = 7 x 1.0 5. Correction is therefore negative.76.99.17%) = 69. the effect of which on E2 is considered.24 (1 – b1/b) = 1 – 0.1. D = depth of pile No. φC = 27% and 100 – 27 = 73% = φE2 For base ratio 0. Hence.17 % (-ve) 105.24 and α = 10.0 6 Pressure is observed at E2 ! and the direction of flow is from E2! To E2.24 = 0. iii) Correction at E2 due to slope is zero as E2 is neither the beginning nor the end of a slope. As E2 is in a forward direction with respect to pile (1).5 + 14 = 14.0. pressure at E2 will be less than that at E2!. (1) affects the pressure at E2 (φE2).0 m d = depth of pile No.

0 – 99. The amount of this correction is given by: D D+d x Correction = b1 b Where D = depth of pile No.0m b1 = distance between pile (2) and pile (3) = 45m b = total floor length = 60. (2). C2 is at the commencement of a up slope of 3:1 in the direction of flow and the correction will be negative. From the diagram. correction will be positive.133 Referring to curves of plate 17.0m 10 10 + 5 = 19 45 60 Correction 2 15 = 19 = 2.0 – 99.1.00m b = 60m 1/α = d/b = 8/60 = 0. we find ΦD3 = 22% ΦE3 = 32% 182 .17% . Downstream Pile Line. Pressure at C2 is affected by pile line (3) and as C2 is to the rear of pile line (3).i) Correction at C2 due to pile interference.17% iii) 3. d = 102. the effect of which is considered below the level at which the interference is desired = 104.6% (-ve) Hence corrected pressure φC2 = (60% + 2.0 m Correction = correction factor x horizontal slope length distance between piles = 4.5 x 6/45 = 0. The amount of correction is the same as that for E2 and equal to +ve Correction at C2 due to slope.0 = 5. 3.5 (see table of correction for slope above) Horizontal slope length = 6m Distance between the two pile lines (2) and (3) between which the sloping floor exists = 45.85% ii) 1. which is affected = 104. Correction factor 3:1 slope = 4.0.00 = 8.28% + 1.00 – 94.6% = 62.28%(+ve) 9 60 Correction at C2 due to floor thickness. it can be observed that the pressure at C2! is less than that at C2 due to the direction of seepage flow.0 = 10 March 2007 d = depth of pile No.

3. corrected pressure at E3 = φE3=(32%-0.Note that for downstream pile at end. ΦE1 = 100. correction to be applied for φE3 should be negative.0m b1 = distance between the two piles = 45.0 1 + 6 x therefore correction = = = 0.0m b = total floor length = 60 m 1. Value of correction = b1 b where D = depth of pile No.0 – 99. From the direction of flow of seepage water.0% ΦC3 = 0 % .22% x 2. Point E3 is neither starting point nor the terminus of a slope.00 (102. the values of φD and φE are taken directly from the curves for the required value of 1/α.5 Referring to curve of plate 17.0m d = depth of pile No. 2. ΦE3 = 29. maximum head causing seepage H = (110. 3.0-94.85% Downstream pile No. D D+d x correction is negative. 3. 2 which influences point E3 of pile No.5% (-ve) iv) Correction due to slope. it is clear that pressure at E3 at the bottom of the floor is less than that at E3!.0 With no water on downstream. top of the floor which is the value got by Khosla’s curves.238% The corrected pressures at all the key points can be shown in the table below Upstream pile No. 183 Intermediate pile No.93% ΦD2 = 66% ΦC2 = 62.0% ΦC1 = 75. for α = 7. ΦE2 = 69.262%-2.5. Hence.57% Exit Gradient Pond level = 110.0m Depth of downstream cut–off = d = (102. E3 is in the forward direction of flow with reference to pile No.0– 102)= 8. a) Correction for φE3 i) Correction due to mutual interference of pile.0 = 1. Hence. 2.0) = 8.24% ΦD3 = 22.0 – 94. 3 which is affected = 100.0% ΦD1 = 80.2. The point E3 gets affected by pile No.0 – 94. the depth being considered below the level at which interference is desired = 100.5%)= 29.262%(−ve) 45 60 iii) Correction due to floor thickness.0) = (10 x 2)/8 = 2.0m Total floor length = b = 60m α = b/d = 60/8 = 7. 1.0 = 6. slope correction = 0 Hence. Value of this correction = 32% .

exit gradient GE = (H/d) x = (8/8) x 0.16 π λ This exit gradient is safe even for fine sand.1 π λ = 0.16 = 0.16 1 Hence. 184 .

Drain Drain Canal Canal Aqueduct Super passage If the bed level of the canal is not very much higher than that of the drainage. When the canal bed level is higher than the bed level of the river. 2. The selection of any particular type of cross-drainage work depends on the following: 1. such cross-drainage works are known as level crossing. Discharge of the canal and the drainage 3. then the crossdrainage work is called siphon super passage. the cross-drainage work constructed is known as aqueduct 2. The foundation conditions of the site 4. Aqueduct 185 . and the waters of both the canal and natural drainage are mixed up while crossing.Chapter 9 CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS Whenever a canal intercepts a natural or artificial drainage in its passage. the natural drainage being at a higher level. Types of Cross-Drainage Works Three main possibilities may occur when a canal has to cross a natural drainage: 1. then the cross-drainage work is called siphon aqueduct Similarly. cross drainage works have to be provided. When the bed level of the natural drainage is higher than that of the canal. Bed level of canal and bed level of natural drainage. availability of existing modes of communication. the cross-drainage work constructed is called a super passage 3. When the bed levels of the canal and the natural drainage are almost the same. Availability of materials and labour 5. if the difference between the bed level of the canal and natural drainage in not very much.

Irrigation water may be taken through a pipe over the drainage water if the section of the irrigation canal is very small. In this type of aqueduct. In order to select a suitable type. This type becomes necessary where big canals have to cross big natural drainage with large catchment areas. The length of the culvert through which the discharge is passing should be adequate to accommodate the water way of the canal and also the bottom width of the side embankments.An aqueduct is a structure constructed at the position. canal water flows above a natural drainage. The pipe is supported in position at the ends by masonry walls and in between by supports Tail wall Pipe Head wall Support There are three types of aqueducts: Type I. Type III. In this type of aqueduct. where a canal has to cross a drainage at a sufficiently high level. Type II. it is necessary to understand the following terms: 186 . It is very similar to a bridge but instead of a roadway or railway. In this case the length of the culvert is reduced because fluming is done. Type II is very much like type one except that the outer section is reduced by supporting it by masonry or concrete wall. Selection of a suitable type. In this case the original canal section is retained and no fluming of canal section is done. the sides of the aqueduct are completely earthen embankment with full earthen slopes. the canal banks are discontinued at the aqueduct portion and the canal water is transported in a masonry or concrete trough constructed above the drainage culvert.

etc required to connect the regular section of the canal to its modified section over the aqueduct. From hydraulic consideration.. the following are important i) determination of the maximum flood discharge and the high flood level (H. i) Maximum Flood Discharge of Drain: This is determined by any one of the known methods depending on size of catchment and other available data ii) Determination of the Waterway of drain: This can be determined by using Lacey’s regime perimeter equation Pw = 4. Structural design. the type I is suitable when the length of the aqueduct is small and the cost of bank connections would be large in comparison to the saving from the reduction in the width of work if type III were adopted. Therefore. Hence. in type III. Type two is suitable for intermediate conditions. In small drains. Contraction of the canal waterway. Determination of uplift pressure on the roof of trough vi).75 Q ½ where Pw = wetted perimeter of the drain (m) Q = total discharge in drain (cumecs) In large drains. bank connections are not require. the cost of bank connections will be additional. type III is suitable where the length of culvert is large. vii).F. the selection of this type depends on the relative cost of bank connections and that of the aqueduct proper. It is evidently equal to the width of the drain 3. measured along the drain. since the canal is fully in earthen section. \Therefore. Design of Cross-Drainage Works The following are some of the important features of design of cross-drainage works: A.1. Determination of the stable waterway of drain iii). the culvert length is minimum. Hence the cost per unit length of the aqueduct is minimum. On the contrary. a contraction of up to 20% of the waterway is 187 . Bank connection: consist of masonry (concrete) wings. Length of aqueduct: is the length measured perpendicular to the drain.L) ii). However. 1) Design of cross-section of aqueduct trough. Hence the cost per unit length of aqueduct will be maximum. Design of bank connections B. the culvert length is maximum. iv). Design of foundation. Culvert length: is the width of the aqueduct. Design of piers and abutments iii). In the type I. Pw can be taken as equal to width of river. and hence equal to the waterway required. ii). Determination of uplift pressure on the floor. However. In all cases the cost of bank connection is independent of the length of the aqueduct. The culvert depends upon the shape and size of the canal section 2. Discharge and head losses through the cross drainage works v).

Viii). Example. well below the maximum scour depth. Number of Spans: The total width of the culvert or total length of aqueduct already been fixed.0m during maximum flood. Lower velocities may result in silting in the barrel and higher velocities will cause abrasions of barrel surface by rolling grit. They protect and retain the earth in the canal banks. Sufficient margin (free board) should be provided between the H>F>L and the bottom of canal bed. Length of Contraction: This is the horizontal distance in which the normal width of the canal is gradually reduced to the contracted width in the aqueduct portion. Fluming ratio is the ration between the restricted width of canal in the aqueduct portion and the normal width of the canal. Design a suitable cross drainage for the following particulars: a) Drainage particulars: Catchment area for the drain = 20. Bank connections : these consist of two sets of wing walls for the canal called canal wings and two sets of wing walls for the drainage called the drainage wings. iii) Velocity of flow through the barrel. A convergence of 2 horizontal to 1 lateral could be assumed. Iv0.e the length between abutments may be increased by 20% to compensate for contraction of waterway due to the width of the piers. These are to be provided on the upstream and downstream sides of the aqueduct. Contraction of canal waterway: Canal waterway in the aqueduct portion is reduced in type III by fluming. However. More spans may be used in case of arched culverts. Canal wing walls.permissible i. This is taken as ½. Total height of opening = (Depth of flow in barrel + clearance (freeboard) v). Height of Opening: The depth of flow in the barrel can be calculated as the waterway discharge and velocity are fixed. The number of spans for the culvert should be fixed considering structural strength and economy of design. They protect and retain the natural slopes of the drain and increase the seepage path and control the exit gradient. ix). Bed level of drainage = 100.0 m/s. The wings should be constructed on sound foundation. The Drainage wing are provided on the upstream and downstream sides of the barrel. Length of expansion: the expansion ration is assumed as 3 horizontal to 1 lateral. They must be taken back well into the top of the guide banks.0 km2. This decides the length of the expansion downstream side of the aqueduct. vii). This may be taken between 2. The drainage wings should be taken deep into the foundation. this reduction in width should not results in the velocity in the trough exceeding 3m/s or exceeding the critical value bringing the flow to supercritical flow. vi).00m b) Channel Particulars 188 . which could result in the formation of hydraulic jump in trough – not desirable.0 -3. value of “C” in Dicken’s formula = 20 Gauge reading at the site of intersection = 1.

5m.L DRAIN CULVERT LENGTH 189 .0m. Bed width = 10. full supply depth = 1. Missing data may be suitably assumed.Full supply discharge = 20cumecs. Bed level of the channel = 103.L = 101.00m.0 – 101.5:1.0m The High Flood Level in the drainage = 1. Determination of flood discharge: by Dicken’s formula Q = C . The canal has to be provided with inspection paths of 3.F.L = 103. M3/4 Where C = is a constant = 20.0m The bed level of the drainage = 100. Side slopes = 1.F. M = catchment area = 20.0 m width on both the banks.0m so that level of H. Good foundation is available at site.0m Hence an aqueduct would have to be designed.0 = 2. The channel is unlined.F.0km2 TYPE I AQUEDUCT Road Canal H.0 The difference between canal bed level and H. Solution: The bed level of the canal = 103.

0m iv) Thickness of pier at the springing level of the arch: This can be calculated by t = 0.0 The springing level of the arch will be at H.2 x 1.6}1/3 = 2.552 x (5.0 vertical ) the bed width of drain b = 65. Scour depth as per Lacey’s formula R1 = 1.75 Q1/2 Pw = 4.5 :1 ( 1.x = 66.TYPE II AQUEDUCT Road Canal Masonry wall H.47m iv) Smaller spans can be adopted. t = thickness (m) A batter of 1 in 15 is given to the pier v) Total height of the pier Height of pier above the drainage bed = 1.F. q = discharge per metre width of the drain (m3/s /m).35 (q2/f)1/3 Where R1 = scour depth (m).552 x s1/2 = 0.35 {(190/66)2 x 1/1. To determine the depth of pier below the bed level of the drainage. the wetted perimeter Pw = 4. the scour depth is worked out.47.3 m Where s = span of arc (m).2cumecs ≈ 190 cumecs Waterway for drainage: By Lacey’s equation.F. as the foundation is good Assuming a trapezoidal drain of side slopes of 1. f = Lacey’s silt factor.47m Provide 12 spans of 5.5)1/2 = 1.L DRAIN CULVERT LENGTH Q = 20 x 203/4 = 189. taken as 1.4 m 190 .5 horizontal to 1.5m each .294 = 1. to give a total lineal waterway of 12 x 5.75 x 1901/2 = 65.L.5 x1= 62.6 R1 = 1.

5 = 0. s/2 r A R O The canal over the drain is flumed with a fluming ratio of 1:2 Hence.5 / 5 = 1.0 = 4.5 = 1.5 = 13.The pier must be taken 1. AO = (R-r). bed width of the canal over the drain bc/d = 10 x ½ = 5. clear waterway must be increased. a) 20% of waterway = 20.1 and solving the equation.5 x 2.0 + 0.5 m The water face of the abutment may be kept vertical while the back face (earth face ) may be given a slope or batter of 1:5 (1 horizontal to 5 vertical).4 = 3.3 m b) Total thickness of piers = 11 x 1. therefore total height of pier hp = 3. This is increased by 20% or the total thickness of all the piers. By Trantwine’s formula.11 x 1.3 m vii) Rise of arch: Rise of arch r = span / 5 = 5. R = 4.6 m.3 m (12 spans.0 m B 191 . total length of aqueduct between the abutments LAB = 66 + 14. The pier pose the obstruction to the flow of water and reduce the waterway. Hence. so there are 11 piers) Hence we take 14.6 m vi).3 = 80. whichever is more. Total length of the aqueduct between the abutments LAB. AB = s/2 where s is the span and OB =R Therefore using the Phytagoras theorem AO2 + AB2 = OB2 (R-r)2 + (s/2)2 = R2 Knowing r = 1. Therefore.11r + 0.0 m ix) Thickness of the arch at the springing level.5 times the scour depth below the bed of drain.22R + 0.6 + 1.3 = 14.3 m for compensating for reduction of waterway by piers. ta = 0.1 m viii) Radius of arch Considering the triangle AOB.1 + 0. which is 1.22 x 4.100 x 66.

Bo / 2 B f --------------------. S.5 m higher than the full supply discharge F.D x) Transitions Upstream transition is done in 2:1 splay in contraction Therefore length of contraction transition = (10 – 5)/2 x 2 = 5 m Upstream transition is done in 3:1 splay expansion Length of expansion = (10 – 5)/2 x 3 = 7.C. Design of Channel Transition Any of the following methods may be applied for the design: 1. the designing of the transition is done for making smooth entry and exit. After fixing the canal section and the flumed canal section. Chaturvedi’s method (when the water depth remains constant) 2. Fluming reduces the barrel length or the width of aqueduct. and avoiding the formation of eddiesThe slope of the upstream side should not be more than 30o (ie 2:1 splay) and that of the downstream side must not be more than 22. The normal canal section is trapezoidal.S. Fluming is only done for aqueduct type III. Mitra’s method (when water depth remains constant). 3/ 2 3 L. 192 . because it must not exceed the critical value. The maximum amount of fluming is dictated by the velocity which can be kept in trough.5o (i. FLUMING OF THE CANAL The reduction in waterway of the canal at the aqueduct is known as fluming of the canal.The section over the drain will be rectangular and is to be built in R. L = length of transition Bo = Bed width of the normal channel section Bf = bed width of the flumed section. and thereby makes it economical. Chaturvedi (1963) proposed the following equation for the design of transition with constant water depth. The height of side walls is kept 0.5 m xi) An inspection path of 3.e 1:3 splay). Hind’s method ( when the water depth may or may not vary) 3.( ) 1 − x = 3/ 2 Bo − B 3 / 2 B x f where Bx = channel width at any section X-X at a distance x from the flumed section. whereas flumed section is rectangular.0 m width is provided on both sides of the aqueduct. 1.C. Chaturvedi’s Method:R.

S.L. y3. V2.S.L at section BB – V22/2g) Bed level at section BB = (W. This method can be used when the water depth in the trough and the normal section of the canal vary.L at section BB – V22/2g} Step IV The channel section in the trough from section CC to BB remains constant.L.3(V32-V42)/2g Step III. and V4 be the velocities of the canal at sections A.S. = {T. V3.E.E. Step I. D. at section BB – y2) 193 . Water surface level (W. Let y1.E.E. Let the bed level and cross-section of the canal at section DD be known.L) at section DD = (water surface elevation at DD + V42/2g) Step II. B.) at section DD = Bed level at section DD + y4) Total energy line (T. C.E.E. Total energy line at section CC = {T. which can be computed by the Manning’s formula Q = i/n .E. at section CC – V32/2g} Bed level at section BB = {T.L at section CC + loss of head) W.3(V32 – V42) / 2g} Water surface elevation at section CC. A R2/3(I)1/2 Therefore T. Let V1.L. y2. The energy loss due to expansion of section between section CC and DD may be taken as equal to 0.E at section BB = (T. The only loss of head in this section is due to pipe friction. at section DD + 0.E.L at section BB = (T.A B Contraction Transition C Expansion Transition D Bo Bx Bf A PLAN L v12/2g y2 SECTION B v2 /2g 2 C v3 /2g 2 v42/2g D y1 y4 ii) Hind’s Method. y4 be the depths of canal at different sections.

the velocity head can be determined by measuring the vertical distance between the T.L at section AA – V12/2g] Bed level at section AA = W. Discharge through the siphon: The head causing flow through the siphon portion of the barrel can be obtained by Unwin’s formula as follows: L V 2 Va2 h = 1 + f 1 + f 2 .E.Step V. SIPHON AQUEDUCT In siphon aqueduct. at section BB + 0. the following additional considerations become necessary: 1.2(V22 – V12) / 2g T. Discharge at any point. The drainage water passes below the canal through the depressed portion which makes it works like siphon.F. then A = b x h If the section is trapezoidal.L at section AA = [T. the total energy line may be drawn and the bed line also. With the velocity known. A = (b + mh)h. – y1] Step VI After calculating the T. where m = side slope =cot θ. between the two adjacent sections is due to: i)drop in the energy line between the two sections’ ii) increase velocity head for contraction and decreased velocity head for expansion. Step VIII) When the water surface profile has been plotted over the whole length.2(V22 – V12) / 2g] W. The velocity head can be converted into equivalent velocity by V = (2gh)1/2 Step IX.E at section AA = [T.L and the water surface line at any point.L.E.E.V.E. Q = A. Therefore in addition to the design considerations of ordinary aqueduct. The drop in the W. the difference between the bed level of the drainage and the bed level of the canal is not much so the bed level of the drainage is depressed at the site of the crossing so that there is sufficient clearance between H. the dimensions of the section can easily be calculated.L. .L and W. and the flow also available.E and bed levels of all sections. If the section is rectangular. θ = angle of drain.S. The loss of energy between section AA and BB due to contraction = 0. − R 2g 2g 194 .S.L of the drainage and the bed of the canal. Step VII.E.S. Design consideration for a siphon aqueduct Siphon aqueduct is a bit different from ordinary aqueducts.E.S.

070 0. Uplift Pressure on the floor of the barrel: 195 .L Canal banks u/s H. Smooth cement plaster 4.L. Encrusted pipe 3. Smooth iron pipe 2. ‘h’ is known as the afflux.L Arch thickness d/s H.00316 0. can be obtained by adding ‘h’ to the downstream H.505 for unshaped mouth and 0.L F.S.L.L of the drain remains unchanged. As the downstream H.030 0.250 After fixing the velocity through the barrel of the siphon the head ‘h’ required to generate that much velocity can be determined by equation above. 2. the upstream H.F.L.00996 0. Va = approach velocity. f2 = pipe friction loss coefficient given by f2 = a(1 + b/R) where the values of a and b for different materials may be taken from the table below Nature of barrel surface 1.00401 0.F. R = barrel radius f1 = entry loss coefficient of barrel.Retaining walls d/s H.F.025 0. V = velocity of flow through the barrel.F. F.F. Brick work 5.F.025 0. Rubble masonry or stone pitching Value of “a” 0.00497 0. = 0.08 for bell mouth.L u/s Cross – section of typical siphon aqueduct where h = head causing flow of the loss of head in the barrel L = length of barrel.S.00507 Value of “b” 0.

1. Due to this.5 = 94. the length of contraction transition 196 .5m x 2.5 : 1 Solution: The flow is large and therefore the drainage size is assumed large and therefore we choose type III aqueduct which might be economical.5 = 16.7 m Actual velocity through barrel.5 m thick.75 x (420)1/2 = 97.0m/s (concrete material) Height of barrel required H = Q/(V x B) = 420/(2 x 78) = 2. Worked Example: Design a siphon aqueduct with the following data: i) Canal discharge = 30 cumecs ii) Canal bed width = 22 m iii) Water depth = 1.35 m Provide 12 spans of 6.5 x 2. it will be below the normal water table in the surrounding area.5 each. Design of drainage water-way: Wetted perimeter of the drainage P = 4. The pressure head on the downstream side of the barrel will be equal to the height of the water level above the roof of the barrel. separated by 11 No. a static uplift pressure will be exerted on the barrel.50 m vii) Ground level = 94. 3. The canal at the aqueduct shall be flumed and taken in concrete trough.7 x 12) = 1.5 m Total length of water way = 78 + 16.Uplift Pressure on the roof of the barrel: When the barrel is running full. The pressure head on the upstream side of the barrel will be equal to the sum of the loss of head in the barrel and the pressure head on the downstream side.5 m Keeping velocity through siphon barrel = 2.5 = 78 m Length occupied by piers = 11 x 1.99m/s Design of Canal Water-Way.50 m viii) High flood level of drainage = 94. piers of 1. = 420/(6.75 (Q)1/2 = 4.50 m ix) Canal bank side slope =1.5 m iv) High flood drainage discharge = 420 cumecs v) Bed level of drainage = 92.Since the barrel is depressed below the bed level of the drainage.50 m vi) Bed level of canal = 94. Bed width of canal = 22m Let the width be reduced to 12 m in trough Providing a splay of 2:1 in contraction. Length of clear water way = 12 x 6.69 m Provide size of barrel 6. the water in the barrel exerts an upward thrust on the roof of the barrel.

67)2(0. of water surface at BB = (96. of T.L at section DD + Head loss = 96.044 = 96.142)=95..034 m b) Section CC.066 – 0.63 x 10-4 = 0.0 m Relative level of the Total Energy Line (T.11 – 0.L of water surface at CC = T.142 m Loss of head in expansion from section CC to DD = 0. S = V2n2/R4/3 Where V = velocity in the trough S = required slope N rougosity coefficient = 0.81 = 0.L.032 Therefore Level of T.5 = 96.5) = 94.2(V22-V12)/2g where V1 = V4 and V2 = V3 = 0.5 m Design of Levels at Various Sections {refer to diagram on page (8)} a) Section DD.11 m .384)4/3 =4.924 – 1.034 = 96.5 x 4.L.5h)h = (22+1.5 = 18 m2 Velocity = Q/A 30/18 = 1.384 m From Manning’s formula. of canal bed for constant depth.032 = 96.066 m R.E.L of T.75 = 0.924 m Therefore R. = R.034m Therefore Relative level (R.0215 m R.5)x1.67 m/s Velocity head = V2/2g = (1.L) = 96. L.5 m Head loss in trough = 94.5) = 94. Cross section area of canal = 12 x 1.468 m d) Section AA Loss of head in contraction transition from section AA to BB = 0.016)2/(1.L. of water surface – water depth = (95.424 m c) Section BB.L of bed + water depth = 94.034) = 0.81 = 0.968 – 1.016 S = (1.0 + 0. Hydraulic mean depth in trough R = A/P = 18/(10 + 2 x 1.81 = 0.L at section CC = T.5) = 1.L at section AA 197 .5x1.E. of bed for maintaining constant depth = (95.L – velocity head = (96.E.67)2/2 x 9.E.L. at CC + Head loss in trough = 96.82)2]/2 x 9.63 x 10-4 Length of flumed portion of the trough = 94.82)2/2x9.142 – 0.034 + 0.L at section BB = R.67)2 – (0.= (22 – 12)/2 x 2 = 10 m Providing a splay of 3 : 1 in the expansion the length of the expansion transition = (22 – 12) /2 x 3 = 15 m Length of the flumed portion from abutment to abutment = total drainage water-way = 94.E. of T.2[(1.L) of water surface = R.75 m2 Canal velocity = Q/A = 30/36.3(0.5 =36. Cross-section area A = B + 1.82m/s Velocity head = V2/2g = (0.3(V32 – V42)/2g = 0.968 R.066 + 0.142) 95.E.L.E.044 m Therefore R.5 +1.

21 11.0215) = 96.76 16 5.(22) 3 / 2 1 − = 16. Bf =12. L.E.0m 198 . Bx x 12 0 13 1.81= (96. The distance x is measured from flumed section BB as shown in page 8.111 − Bx The values of x.96 21 9.Bo / 2 B f 1 − x = 3/ 2 Bo − B 3 / 2 B x f here.38 15 4.325 – (0.62 19 8.325m R.14 16 8.81 18 7.82)2/2 x 9.741 − or x= (22) 3 / 2 − (12) 3 / 2 B x Bx The values of x for various values of Bx are calculated from the above equation.291 m Design of Contraction Transition: The design of the transition will be done on the basis of Chaturvedi’s formula 3/ 2 3 L.89 14 3.L.34 20 8.84 14 5.5 20 21 22 13. for various values of Bx are calculated in the table below.86 17 6.Bo / 2 B f 1 − x = 3/ 2 Bo − B 3 / 2 B x f here Bo = 22 m.8 17 18 19 10. L = 15m.L – V12/2g = 96.= R.18 15 7. Bx x 12 0 13 2.44 14. and are tabulated below.034) = 96. Bf = 12 m 12 3 / 2 12 3 / 2 10. of water surface = R.26 15 Design of Trough Aqueduct: Flumed water way of canal = 12.E.325 – 0. of T.11 + 0. L = 10m. B0 =22 3/ 2 15 x(22) 3 / 2 12 1 − x= (22) 3 / 2 − (12) 3 / 2 B x 12 3 / 2 x = 25.5 22 10 Design of Expansion Transition 3/ 2 3 L.L of T.44 12.L at BB + head loss = (96.

00316( 1 + 0. of canal bed – thickness of slab = 94. The road way 6.0 m wide shall be carried over one of the compartments The height of trough = 1.90 m R.30 = 13. L.5 +2.1 m Loss of head through Siphon Barrel.10 m Therefore uplift on the roof = 94. The entire trough section shall be constructed in monolithic RCC by usual structural methods. = A/P = (6. of bottom of trough slab – height of barrel = 94.4 + 0. R.4x 24 = 0. of bottom of the floor = 91. Uplift pressure on the floor of the barrel a) Static Head Barrel floor R.030/0.953m f2 = 0.1 +0.5-0.1 – 2.L.7)/2(6.10m Loss of head at entry of barrel = 0.5 m Bed level of drainage = 92.811 Uplift pressure on the barrel roof R.953](1.40= 94. the trough slab is to be designed for full water load of the canal.505 V2/2g = 0.99m/sec) f1 = coefficient of loss of head at entry ( 0. = R.96 tons/m2 As the dead weight is greater than the uplift pressure.505 (1.611m Uplift pressure = 0.00415 x 13.1m Substituting into head loss equation. F. When the water leveling the drainage is low.The trough shall be divided into two equal compartments by 30 cm thick concrete wall.L + head loss = 94.7 = 91.90 = 90.L.L = d/s H. = 94.00415 L = 13.992)/2 x9.81 = 0.L.5 + 0.5 m..4 – 0. a = 0.10) = 0.505) f2 = a(1 + b/R) a and b are picked from table given above. The loss of head through the siphon barrel by Unwin’s formula L V 2 h = 1 + f 1 + f 2 .611 ton/m2 Dead weight of slab = 0.030 The hydraulic radius.F.953) = 0. The outer and flow slab of the trough may be made tentatively equal to 40 cm thick.99)2/2x9. H = [1 + 0. Therefore upstream H.811 – (94.Lof trough bottom = R. The outer width of the trough = 2 x 6 + 2 x 0.5 m free board = 2.00316 and b = 0.1/0.0 m.F. L.311 = 94. nominal reinforcement is required in the slab.7) = 0.5 + 0.311 m Downstream H.81 = 0.505 + 0. R 2g V = velocity through barrel ( = 1.5m (given) 199 .4 m Assuming tentative thickness of the floor = 0.5 x2.

the static uplift on the floor. will be = (92.0 m To be continued on 475 200 .5 -90.Assuming the subsoil water level is up to the bed level of the drain.5) = 2.

the following two equations are considered (available) a) Q = Av . we require two additional equations.If channel sides and bed are eroded away. Design Parameters For the design of channels.Bed and side erosion also causes various types of damages to the canal structures on it as well as neighbouring areas. ii) Based on consideration of scouring and silting. Aim of channel design: is to arrive at a cross-section. there are four unknowns and therefore to solve them. an equation between area A and hydraulic mean depth may be obtained. silt factor f The design: consists of determining the following four factors: i) Area of cross-section. its carrying capacity is reduced and therefore will irrigate less area . S. which can carry the design flow without either scouring or silting problems. Why? .55 x m x D0.64 And after modification we will arrive v = 0. v iv) Longitudinal slope of the bed. the silt supporting power is directly proportional to the bed width of the stream and does not depend on the wetted perimeter. a limiting equation for velocity of flow may be obtained.When channel is silted up. The relation between critical velocity and depth is vc = 0. ii) Surface and soil properties (roughness coefficient). Kutter. KENNEDY’S THEORY (METHOD) 1) To keep silt in suspension. . the cross-section increases and the full supply depth decreases which reduces its command area. the following procedures may be adopted i) By providing a channel of best discharging section. R. fixing a suitable width-depth (B/D) ratio not necessary that which gives best section.55xD0. 2) The limiting velocity which does not produce silting or scouring may be called critical velocity.65 where m = v/vc 201 .Chapter 10 DESIGN OF CHANNELS Channels must be designed with non-silting and non-scouring velocity.continuity equation b) V = f(n. A of the channel ii) Hydraulic mean depth or hydraulic radius R iii) Velocity of flow. Chezy. iii) Fixing the longitudinal slope based on available ground slope. To begin the design. To get the additional two equations. S) – Flow equation. iv) Based on experience. the following data shall be available: i) Design discharge Q. Manning. In the above.

A = Q/v = 50/0.64 = 0.55 x 0. i.77 = 65m2 iii) Assume side slope of 0. in metres and determine Kennedy’s velocity v = 0.(K-2) The value of v in (K-2) must tarry with the v in (K-1) for the assumed depth.v .00155 23 + + n S C= 0. Take Kutter’s n = 0. The design procedure: i) Assume a trial value of depth. the trial D must be changed and the whole steps repeated till the two values of v are the same.0 m and determine Kennedy’s velocity v = 0. one selects the side slope of channel based on material of channel.velocity of flow in channel.97m 202 .7 for fine sand to 1. If the two values do not tarry.3 for very coarse sand To determine the mean velocity of the flow in the channel. since A and D are known.64 = 0. Assume 1/2H:1V.(K-1) ii) Calculate the cross-sectional area. 55mD0.77m/s ii) Determine the cross-sectional area. Assume a depth of 2. The design is done for a given value of S. P = b + 2x[D2 + (D/2)2]1/2 = b + D(5)1/2 The hydraulic radius R = A/P = (bD +1/2D2)/(b + D(5)1/2 v) Calculate the actual mean velocity by using the Kutter’s formula. D. from the continuity: A = Q/v iii) Calculate the bed width.0225 and m = 0. A. ----. m = critical velocity ratio (C. Worked example Design an irrigation channel to carry a discharge of 50m3/s at a slope of 1/5000.R. Solution: i). b. then the cross-sectional area is given by: A = bxD + 1/2xD2 from this.5m iv) Determine the wetted perimeter P = b + D(5)1/2 = 35.5H:1V then A = bxD + 1/2D2 by putting D = 2. iv) Calculate the wetted perimeter and the hydraulic radius: The wetted perimeter. Eg. ----------. Design of channel by Kennedy’s Method. b = 31.9 x 20.e v = C(RS)1/2 where C is computed by the formula above.9.64. Kennefdy used the Kutter’s formula: v = C (RS)1/2 where 1 0.V.55 x m x D0.). For eg for a trapezoidal channel.00155 n 1 + 23 + S R The difficulty with Kennedy’s formula is that he did not give any formula to fix the slope S but has to be fixed based on the natural ground slope which makes it difficult to obtain the best section for the given discharge. b can be determined. m varies from 0.0.

63 vi) The actual velocity v = C (RS)1/2 = 49. A = Q/v = 50/0. which give a graphical solution for Kennedy’s and Kutter’s equation. Depth D = 6. 55mD0.05(2. The procedure for using the Garret’s diagrams is as follows: A) Follow the discharge curve for a given discharge and note its point of intersection with the given slope line (which are horizontal). The ordinates on the left side indicate the slope and those on the right side.63(1. The computation that were done previously could be done by using Garret’s diagrams.65m v The hydraulic radius R = A/P = 54.00155 23 + 0.64 = 0. Kemmedy’s velocity v = 0.6.97 = 1.91m/s ii) Determine the cross-sectional area.0225 1 + 23 + 1. Garret’s diagram has discharge plotted as abscissa. 203 .14 x1/5000)1/2 = 1.806 x1/5000)1/2 = 0.806 1 5000 = 49.00155 0.9 x 2.64 = 0.5H:1V then A = bxD + 1/2D2 by putting D = 2. b = 19.91 = 54.83.06m/s This value is near to the Kennedy’s critical velocity.65 = 2.v The hydraulic radius R = A/P = 65/35.6 USE OF GARRET’S DIAGRAM FOR DESIGN OF CHANNEL BY KENNEDY’S METHOD.0225 + 1 5000 The Kutter’s constant C = 0.00155 0.94m2 iii) Assume side slope of 0. The channel dimensions may be taken as Bed width = 19. the depths in the channel and critical velocity vc.60.94/25. however more accuracy could be achieved by choosing another trial depth. Hence we assume a new depth of 2.55 x 0.83m iv) Determine the wetted perimeter P = b + D(5)1/2 = 25.00155 23 + 0.0225 + 1 5000 = 51. Bed width lines are shown as dotted.6 and repeat the whole procedure.14m 1 0.14 5000 The actual velocity v = C (RS)1/2 = 51.94m/s The actual velocity is far greater than the Kennedy velocity.806m 1 0.0225 1 + 23 + 1 2.05 C = 0.

b = 7.5 2. draw a vertical line.97 Actual velocity v=Q/A 0.77 0. The horizontal from slope 0.V. E) Determine the critical velocity ratio (C.0225 which corresponds to the arrow on the nomogram.485 0.5 2.0.74 0.418 Vo (m/s) 0. From that intersection point.0m.05 0. horizontal lines to the right may be drawn and the corresponding values “D” and vc read out. Example of the use of the Garret’s diagram Determine the channel dimensions by using Garret’s diagrams.2 cuts the discharge curve for 2.448 0. it corresponds to 0. the procedure must be repeated with other values of bed widths got by the intersection of the vertical on the bed width curves for the given slope.5 2.58 5.984 0.2 as the slope is marked in 1/1000 units. critical velocity ratio m.43 v/v0 = CVR Remarks Large Large Suitable Less Less 1.5 2. and then the intersection points on the bed width curves considered. For a slope 1/5000. b = 9.V. Solution: Refer to the Garret’s diagram. b = 8.508 0.454 5.B) From this point of intersection.62 0. When any other value of n is to be made use of. see whether the value is to the left or right of the arrow shown on the nomogram and note the shift. = 0. The vertical line has to be shifted either to the left or to the right by the same amount as the required value of n is shifted on the nomogram.772 5. D) Calculate the velocity of flow v for the assumed bed width and its corresponding water depth.917 5. Let us consider the bed widths curves of b = 6. The curves can be used for any other value of roughness n by making use of the small nomogram provided at the top of curves.5 m3/s at some point.58 Area A =bD+D2/2 (m2) 4.R = v/vc) F) The value of C. n = 0. From these points of intersection. The rest of the computation are done in the table below.97 204 .433 0.5 Bed width B (m) 6 7 8 9 10 Channel depth D (m) 0.5 m3/s. consider the point of intersection of the vertical line and read out the correspoiding water depth D and critical velocity vc on the right end of diagram.455 0.67 0.470 0.458 0.0m.R.974 0. till the value of C. is very near the given value Garret’s diagram are drawn for side slopes of ½:1.99. When the vertical line is drawn through the intersection of the slope line and discharge curve. The following data are available.R should be the same as one given.V. b = 10m. draw a vertical line to cut many bed widths curves.0m. C) For any bed width. Discharge in the channel Q = 2. No. This will intersect many bed width curves. it is with respect to n = 0. slope S = 1/5000.0225.985 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Discharge Q (m3/s) 2.44 0. Otherwise.

Now Qt/Q = p = % of silt in water. vc Therefore Qt = p .0m.vc ----------(B) Equating (A) and (B) A . a = constant. vcn-1 = 1/a . as it varies as the bed width. p . Q = b . D1/(n-1) or Vc = C .From the table.56 ≈ 5/2 = 2. vcn -------------------(A) Where Qt = quantity of silt transported by channel. Hence channel dimensions should br: B = 8. b and some power of the velocity of flow in the channel.D Therefore vc = (p/a)1/(n-1) . -----------© Compare equation © to Kennedy’s critical velocity Vc = C . D1/(n-1) where C = const.64 -----------------------(D) Equating the indices in © and (D) 1/(n-1) = 0.64 from whence n = 2. b . This can be formulated as: Qt α b vcn or Qt = a . b .5 therefore silt quantity Qt = a . we see that No. vc5/2.67m SILT SUPPORTING CAPACITY OF FLOW (FROM KENNEDY’S THEORY) The amount of silt held in suspension according to Kennedy’s theory is proportional to the upwards force of vertical eddies. b . 205 . 3 gives very near value to the one given. D. D .Q = p . D0. D = 0. b . Assuming a trapezoidal channel.

Either in initial or final regime SHAPE OF REGIME CHANNELS There is always only one cross-section and one slope for a channel with a particular discharge carrying a particular grade of silt. the channel may or may not be in regime. then for Lacey. which can produce regime conditions. iv) The amount and type of silt in the channel (silt charge and grade) are constant. Incoherent alluvium is that type of soil which can be scoured and deposited with equal ease. v) However artificially constructed channels with fixed cross-section and slope can attain regime conditions when the following conditions are satisfied:: i) flow in channel is uniform ii) discharge in the channel is constant iii) channel is flowing through incoherent alluvium. Lacey’s regime theory does not apply to such channels. The coarser the silt particles..LACEY’S REGIME THEORY If for Kennedy’s theory. Also the material (silt) transported by the channel should be the same as the material through which the channel is flowing. a different view was held. it follows that it cannot be in “true regime”.i) initial regime and ii) final regime. a channel is said to be in regime. it is said to be in “final regime”. i) Initial Regime: refers to the state of the channel that has formed its crosssection but not formed its longitudinal slope. iv) True regime conditions: A channel will be in regime only when there is no silting or scouring. Lacey’s regime theory is not applicable to channels in permanent regime. To satisfy this condition. It first forms its section and then it forms its final slope so that a stable condition is established. Natural silt transporting channels assume a semi-elliptical cross-section. the flatter will be the semiellipse and the larger will be the width of water surface. There can be only one channel with a particular cross-section and slope for a particular silt load. iii) Permanent Regime: This condition exists in a channel which is protected both on its slopes by suitable protecting materials. the channel cannot change its cross-section or slope. As the grade of silt becomes finer 206 . Lacey defined two regime conditions:. for any sediment load brought to it. Since all the above conditions cannot usually be satisfied by artificially constructed channel. Due to these protections. when there is neither scouring nor silting. the silt load in the channel water must be efficiently transported by the channel cross-section. Lacey observed that even when there is neither silting nor scouring. When the channel has finished its task of forming a stable crosssection and stable slopes. ii) Final Regime: when a channel is constructed with an improper slope. Such a channel appears to be in regime outwardly. as there may be no visible silting or scouring. it must adjust its cross-section and slope to be able to transport the given load. For a channel to be in true regime. it tries to remove the incoherent silt on its bed and increase its slope.

which are the vertical component of the forces generated by eddies from the bed and sides of the channel. R and S as follows v = 10. Lacey gave two equations.75 (Q)1/2 ----------------------(L-5) Relation between velocity. Silt grade is considered important and therefore becomes a function in both regime equations. scour starts and continues till final regime is established. A x v xf2 = 140 v6 f2xQ = 140 v2 or v = (f2Q/140)1/6 ---------------(L-6) Lacey gave a relation between v. LACEY’S REGIME EQUATIONS According to Lacey. and steeper slope than necessary. silting starts and continues till final regime is established. discharge and silt factor From equation (L-2) Af2 = 140 v5 By multiplying by v.0v 5 − − − − − − − − − ( L − 2) where A = area of cross-section (in m2) f = silt factor R = hydraulic radius (in m) v = velocity of flow (m/s) Perimeter – Discharge (P-Q) Relation From equation (L-1) v4 = (4/25) x f2 x R2 or f2 = (25/4) x (v4/R2) ---------------(L-3) By putting (L-3) into (L-2) we obtain A[(25/4) x (v4/R2)] = 140 v5 Or (25/4R2) x A = 140v ----------------(L-4) By multiplying (L-4) by A. in a channel with a bigger crosssection and flatter slope. As such the hydraulic radius R becomes a variable. Similarly.8 R2/3S1/3 --------------(L -7) Regime Slope Equations 207 . one of which relates velocity to the hydraulic radius and the other which relates velocity to area.and finer. Lacey’s regime equations: 2 v= f . silt is kept in suspension by vertical forces. Therefore when a channel is constructed with small cross-section. the shape of the section becomes narrower. we have (25/4R2) x A2 = 140 v x A = 140Q.R − − − − − − − − − −( L − 1) 5 Af 2 = 140. Also (A2/R2) =P2 -------wetted perimeter of section (25/4) x P2 = 140Q hence P2 = (4 x 140/25) Q P = 4.

75 9.00 Size of grain (mm) Silt factor (f) 208 .00 12.50 4.0 1.052 0.47 (Q/f)1/3 -------------------------(L-12) Similarly q = 0.10 50.5 (q2/f)1/3 -------------------------(L-14) Silt factor – Grain Relationship If mr = mean diameter of the silt particle (in mm).725 7.60 0.000178 (f5/3)/q1/3 ------------(L-9) S = (f5/3)/(3340Q1/6) ---------------(L-10) Regime –Scour Depth Relations From equation (L-1) v = (2/5 xf x R)1/2 v2 = 2/5 x f x R R = 5/2 (v2/f) -----------------------(L-11) From equation (L-6) v = (f2Q/140)1/6 v2 = (f2Q/140)1/3 ---------L* By putting L* into (L-11) we obtain R = 5/2(f2Q/140) x 1/f R = 0.25 1.40 0.21 Q1/2 where q silt load.80 0. (L-2) and (l-7) ie the fundamental Lacey’s equations.By using equation (L-1).00 24. then the silt factor f = 1.158 0.00 15. we shall obtain S = (f3/2)/(4980R1/2) ---------------(L-8) S = 0.28 26. Q flow rate -----------(L-13) R = 1.70 1.505 0.323 0.50 188.76x(mr)1/2 No.120 0.10 72. 1 Type of material Silt a) very fine b) fine c) medium d) coarse Sand a)medium b) coarse Gravel a) medium b) heavy Boulders a) small b) medium c) large 0.

75 (Q)1/2 v) S = (f5/3)/(3340Q1/6) Procedure for design 1).A iv) P = 4.842m/s.6 But P = b + 2D [1 + (1/2)2]1/2 = b + (5)1/2D =33.97m. Calculate the wetted perimeter P = 4. Slope S = (f5/3)/(3340Q1/6) = (15/3)/[3340(50)1/6] = 1/6409 S = 1: 6409 Therefore channel parameters: b = 29.6 (***) Solving equations (**) and (***) B = 29.842 m/s 2. S = 1:6409 209 .0 using Lacey’s theory. Q = 50 m3/s V = 0.Design of Channels by Lacey’s Theory The following formulae shall be employed: a) Data necessary i) Channel discharge ii) the silt factor b) Formulae to be used i) v = (f2Q/140)1/6 ii) R = 5/2 (v2/f) iii) Q = v. Calculate b and h 6.34m.0 1) Calculate velocity .75 (50)1/2 = 33. Calculate the velocity from (i) above 2. Example: Design a regime channel for a discharge of 50m3/s. Calculate the hydraulic radius R from (ii) above 3.8422/1. Calculate the hydraulic radius. Solution: Given: Q = 50m3/s. Calculate A 4.0 = 1.38 (**) 4. f = 1.968m 5. Calculate longitudinal slope. v = (f2Q/140)1/6 = {50 x (1.75 (Q)1/2 = 4. R = 5/2 (v2/f) = 5/2(0.842 = 59. D = 1.5 D2 = 59. Calculate wetted perimeter (P) 5.38 m2 therefore A = b x D + 0.34 and D = 1.0)2/140}1/6 = 0. with silt factor f = 1.774 3. Calculate the area A = bxD + ½ xD2 = Q/v = 50/0.

0m.0m.0m. S = 1: 6667 210 . refer to plate 16. This gives the depth. D = 2.0 using Lacey’s diagram Solution: Given: Q = 53m3/s.6.0m The ordinate for the intersection point = 2. By interpolation. the abscissa will be 30. The ordinate in this case = 0. Get the intersection point of the curve for silt factor f = 1. f = 1.0 and the discharge curve for Q = 53 m3/s. the discharge curve for 53 m3/s can be drawn. For that point. This gives the bed width b = 30.15 representing a slope of 0. f = 1.0 at some point. Now to determine the regime slope.15/1000 = 1/ 6667 Channel parameters Q = 53m3/s.15 in 1000.0. The ordinate of the intersection point represents the slope. b = 30. t Therefore S = 0. This curve intersects the curve for silt factor f = 1.Design of channel by use of Lacey’s diagram Example: determine the channel dimensions and slope for a channel with a discharge of 53m3/s and silt factor of 1.0. there are discharge curves for 50 m3/s and 55m3/s.5.0 Referring to plate 16.

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