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and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005. The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android. Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java. Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Android Market, the app store run by Google. As of October 2011 there were more than 400,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion. Android was listed as the best-selling smart phone platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys with over 200 million Android devices in use by November 2011. History
Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences". Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company. .
to prevent incompatible Android implementations. with the Compatibility Test Suite also free and open-source. Android. the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product. the Motorola Xoomtablet. added SIP support (VoIPcalls). The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices. Samsung Electronics. support for multi-core processors. hardware acceleration for graphics and full system encryption. . . and added support for Near Field Communication.Open Handset Alliance On November 5. Each version is named. after a dessert. in alphabetical order. According to the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users. The compatibility program is also optional and free of charge. Nvidia. On the same day.0 Honeycomb was a tablet-oriented release which supports larger screen devices and introduces many new user interface features." AOSP also maintains the Android Compatibility Program. a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2. defining an "Android compatible" device "as one that can run any application written by third-party developers using the Android SDK and NDK". 2007. The first device featuring this version. Recent releases 2. and is tasked with the maintenance and development of Android. TMobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself.3 Gingerbread refined the user interface. Intel. Marvell Technology Group. Google.6. Sprint Nextel. improved gaming performance. a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation. improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste features. went on sale in February 2011. the Open Handset Alliance. Android Open Source Project The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google. 3. LG. each fixing bugs and adding new features.Qualcomm. Motorola. HTC. Android has seen a number of updates since its original release.
0. and the Google Movies and Books apps. Linux kernel developer Rafael J. 2011. were rejected by mainline kernel developers. loading media files directly from SD card. USB host mode for transferring information directly from cameras and other devices. Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. notably a power management feature called wakelocks.1 was released on November 14. partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code. because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. announced on October 19. The source code of Android 4. brought Honeycomb features to smart phones and added new features including facial recognition unlock. Linux Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle. 3. unified social networking contacts. released in May 2011.2 Honeycomb. network data usage monitoring and control. photography enhancements. offline email searching. said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux. Wysocki added a patch that improved the mainline Linux wakeup events framework. new "zoom-to-fill" screen compatibility mode. Huawei MediaPad is the first 7 inch tablet to use this version 4.1 Honeycomb. Greg Kroah-Hartman. He said that Android device . app folders. Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process". Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel. 3. added optimization for a broader range of screen sizes. and an extended screen support API. However.0. 2011.3 Ice Cream Sandwich is the latest Android version that is available to phones.0 Ice Cream Sandwich. and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android. the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch. released in July 2011. added support for extra input devices. in September 2010. Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community. Android 4. and information sharing using NFC.
accessing the phone book (PBAP). Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. MP3. HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container). H. pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics. magnetometers. accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation.1 offers video calling in Android 2. AVRCP. Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Android. proximity and pressure sensors. and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications. Skype 2. Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by the Flash plugin. gyroscopes. . H. JPEG. dedicated gaming controls. including front camera support. GPS.263. AAC. Ogg Vorbis. GIF. barometers. voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3. Google has since released an update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively. HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). Multi-touch Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. PNG. and by the operating system in Android 3.Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM. ISMA). FLAC. but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it. sending files (OPP).4 and later. WAV. This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers.3. scaling. MIDI.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container). Multitasking Multitasking of applications is available. AMRWB (in 3GP container).3. Keyboard. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2.1+. either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP. thermometers. accelerometers. Additional hardware support Android can use video/still cameras. AMR.0 (Honeycomb). Bluetooth Supports A2DP. BMP. touchscreens. Video calling Android does not support native video calling. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apple's patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Streaming media support RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS. MPEG-4 SP.
hosted on Android Market. The Market filters the list of applications presented by the Market app to those that are compatible .0. navigation.Voice based features Google search through voice has been available since initial release. External storage Most Android devices include microSD slot and can read microSD cards formatted with FAT32. etc. These alternative methods are still available with the latest Android. As of October 2011 there were more than 300. Before Android 2. while 3rd party solutions are required to handle other popular file systems such as NTFS. Voice actions for calling. many Android tablets also include USB 'A' receptacle. To allow use of high-capacity storage media such as USB flash drivesand USB HDDs. Prior to Android 4. and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion.2 onwards. HFS Plus and exFAT. Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall Google's closed-source Android Market app and access the Market. Ext3fs or Ext4fs file system. Storage formatted with FAT32 is handled by Linux Kernel VFAT driver. An application program ("app") called "Market" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers. texting. Tethering Android supports tethering.000 apps available for Android. The operating system itself is installed on 130 million total devices. are supported on Android 2. Android Market Android Market is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices. the only methods of capturing a screenshot were through manufacturer and third-party customizations or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMS developer's tool). Screen capture Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and volume-down buttons at the same time.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations. which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot.
Alternatively. Maps Editor (for their MyMaps service). Google has participated in the Android Market by offering several applications themselves.. In August 2010. Hanna. Listen for podcasts and My Tracks." The authors then go on to survey overprivileged applications. Sky Map (for watching stars). To address this issue. Gesture Search (for using finger-written letters and numbers to search the contents of the phone). A game may need to enable vibration. Song. al. Overprivileged applications expose users to unnecessary permission warnings and increase the impact of a bug or vulnerability. In Android Permissions Demystified. Vaughan. using their Stowaway tool. Places Directory (for their Local Search). users can install apps directly onto the device if they have the application's APK file or from third party app stores such as the Amazon Appstore.. write messages. an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources. which allows users to search.with the user's device. stating "[the] deviation from least privilege increases the threat from vulnerabilities and malware. an install-time permission system is ineffective if developers routinely request more permissions than they require. and Wagner observe ".. Android Market displays all required permissions." Some Android malware incidents have been reported involving rogue applications on Android Market. named Trojan-SMS. Android has been criticzed for providing an ineffective and too coarse grained permission system. .FakePlayer. comment on the coarse grained permissions. unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. including a Google authored reference implementations. but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook. Before installing an application. Micinski.a. for example. Android applications run in a sandbox. Finance (for their finance service). Kaspersky Lab reported detection of the first malicious program for Android. the user can decide whether to install the application.AndroidOS. and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Hide: Fine-grained security policies on unmodified Android. a jogging application. we present a novel system that can replace existing platform permissions with finer-grained ones. Felt. Google Shopper. including Google Voice (for the Google Voice service). Application security An example of app permissions in Android Market. et. Google launched "Voice Actions for Android". Google Goggles that searches by image. Android and Mr. Google Translate. Jeon. In Dr. and initiate calls by voice. Chin. In August 2010. After reviewing these permissions.
F-Secure. becoming the top-selling smartphone platform. By the end of Q3 2010 Android's U. These databases form electronic maps to locate smart phones. remotely disabling them on infected devices. in some cases. Latitude. encountered as phone users move around. In some cases applications which contained Trojans were hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps. .8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments. as measured by current mobile subscribers.S. as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines. Avast!. Google has responded by removing malicious apps from the Android Market. Privacy Android smart phones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points.4%. NORAD). Several security firms have released antivirus software for Android devices. The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639. By Q4 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market. market share had grown to 21. smartphone market. This estimate includes the Tapas and OMS variants of Android.2% in November 2009. in particular. By Q3 2011 Gartner estimates more than half (52. Kaspersky. AVG Technologies.S. It is only used in the text logo. detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers. to build vast databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. and to deliver location-based ads.0% of the U. an academic research-funded project. and scanning newly-uploaded apps for potentially malicious software. Places. This figure was up from an earlier estimate of 5. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid. Market share Research company Canalys estimated in Q2 2009 that Android had a 2.5%) of the smartphone market belongs to Android. allowing them to run apps likeFoursquare. McAfee and Symantec. Marketing The Android logo was designed along with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation.an SMS trojan which had already infected a number of devices. The custom typeface of Android is called Norad (cf. In February 2010 ComScore said the Android platform had 9. can. Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system.
indicating that Android is taking market share mainly from RIM. Android achieved 25% smartphone sales in the US market.org/wiki/Android_os .S. 550. developers and users Participating in many of the successful open source projects Aims to be as easy to build for as the web Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet Reference http://www.com/search?query=conclusion+for+android+os http://en. with 1.scribd. and still has to compete with heavy consumer demand for new competitor offerings. On December 20. Google said that 550. Based on this number.000 per day a month earlier — and more than 100 million devices had been activated. Google announced that there were 190 million Android devices in the market. 2011.000 new Android devices were being activated every day— up from 400. with 4.000 activations per day back in December 2010. approximately 3. Apple's iOS was up by 11%.com/learning-center/wireless-networking/ http://www. Andy Rubin announced that Google was activating 700. multi-carrier OS. Because its play vital role in present mobile service. On October 13. As of November 16. As of June 2011. 200 million Android devices had been activated. and 46% of the total installed user base of iOS in Europe.vicomsoft. 2011. 2011. Android is open to all industry.000 new Android devices daily. 2011. up 8% from the December quarter.000 Android devices were being activated by Google each day.9% of Android devices being tablets. Furthermore. On the 1st of August 2011.8 million Android Honeycomb Tablets have been sold. during the Google Music announcement "These Go to Eleven".wikipedia. In the second quarter. In Q4 2010 Android had 59% of the total installed user base of Apple's iOS in the U. By July 14.scribd. According to a report by the NPD group. Android's first quarter U.com/doc/48573363/android-os http://www. Conclusion Android is the best mobile operating system compare to other operating system. Canalys estimated that Android had about 48% of the smartphone market share.In May 2010. Android hit 300.S. analysts pointed to advantages that Android has as a multichannel. sales surpassed that of the rival iPhone platform.4% growth per week.
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