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Giles. a History of Chinese Literature (1909)

Giles. a History of Chinese Literature (1909)

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Cornell University Library


3 1924 023 356 441

Cornell University Library


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Short Histories of the Literatures
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Edited by






Edited by EDMUND QOSSE Hon. M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge

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By Herbert A. Giles, M.A., LL.D. (Aberd.), Professor of Chinese in the University of Cambridge, and late H. B. M. Consul at Ningpo. $1.50.

SANSKRIT LITERATURE. By A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Deputy Boden Professor of Sanskrit, University of Oxford.

RUSSIAN LITERATURE. By K. Waliszewski. $1.50. JAPANESE LITERATURE. ByW. G. A.ston, C.M.G., M.A.,

Acting Secretary at the British Legation at Tokio.


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By Gilbert Murray,

M.A., Professor of Greek in the University of Glasgow.


D.C.L., LL.D., Professor of English Literature at the University of Dublin. $1.50.

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Columbia University.

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Hungarian Literature
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A. GILES, M. A., LL. D. (Aberd.)









that the reader may be . Gosse. The foreign student. and has run on uninterruptedly until the present date. Chinese. I have devoted a large portion of this book to translation. Acting upon the suggestion of Mr. of achieving even comparative success in a general historical survey of the subject. here and there. so far as translation will allow. The volu- minous character of a existence literature which was already in some six centuries before the Christian era.PREFACE This attempt made in any language. do not seem ever to have contemplated anything of the kind. I have also added. from a Chinese point of view. including produce a history of Chinese literature. to speak for himself. a work which would be inadequate to the requirements of a native public. the utter hopelessness. remarks by native critics. with their endless critiques and appreciations of individual works. realising. to is the first Native scholars. to whom I am otherwise indebted for many valuable hints. may properly be submitted to English readers as an introduction into the great field which lies beyond. no doubt. however. may well have given pause to writers aiming at completeness. is on a totally It may be said without offence that different footing. thus enabling the Chinese author.

October 1900. with the exception of a few passages from Legge's are "Chinese Classics. GILES. It only remains to be stated that the translations." my own. . in each case duly acknowledged.vi PREFACE which the able to form an idea of the point of view from Chinese judge their own productions. A. HERBERT Cambridge.





the other passive . into Two Principles. After countless ages. or whatever one siasts may please to call it. an Aura. Thus there was a Great Monad. represented by a point at the centre of a circle.269. The interPrinciples resulted in the production see them in the universe around us. a First Cause. Such is the cosmogony of the . There was first of / a period when Nothing existed. light and darkness action of these of all Two we things. this tive Monad split . the other negamale and female. a Zeitgeist.BOOK THE FIRST THE FEUDAL PERIOD CHAPTER (b.381 years ago. 2. . Chinese in a nutshell. one active. though some 1 enthu- have attempted to deal with a period antecedent even to that. spent apparently in doing nothing. 600-200)' I LEGENDARY AGES— EARLY CHINESE TION—ORIGIN OF WRITING The all CIVILISA- calculated date of the beginning of all things has been nicely by Chinese chronologers. Gradually Nothing took upon itself the form and limitations of Unity. as one positive.c.

It appears indeed to be an ethnological axiom that every race must . China was then confined to a comparatively small area. For reasons which will presently be made plain. the China of the eighth century B. No one knows where the Chinese came from. ruled by nobles owning allegiance to a Central State. however. consisted of a number of Feudal States. the allegiance must have been more nominal than real. of the reach the eighth century B. are con- tent to begin with a sufficiently mythical emperor.4 CHINESE LITERATURE The more sober Chinese historians. who reigned only 2800 years before the Christian era. lying for the most part between the Yellow River on the north and the river Yang-tsze on the south. is a convenient starting-point for the student of Chinese literature. However that may be. that anything like history can be said to begin. the invention of wheeled vehicles. numerous rulers whose names and dates appear in the chronology of the succeeding two thousand years. : we know very little about it. at the head of which was a king. No one seems to think they can possibly have originated in the fertile plains where they are now found. The outward tokens of subjection were homage and tribute but after all.C. . each State being . Some hold the fascinating theory that they were emigrants from Accadia in the ancient kingdom of Babylonia others have identified them with the lost tribes of Israel. The practice of agriculture. and the simpler arts of early civilisation are generally referred to this period but to the dispassionate European student it is a period of myth and legend in fact. have come from somewhere outside its own territory.C. the sixth century B. Neither do we know much.C. . It is not indeed until we in the historical sense.

They measured time by the sundial. for certain modifications of among other form brought about of paper and a camel'shair brush for by the substitution . With these trees growing in the courtyard. and what was the month of the year. the Chinese were also in possession of a written language.. enjoyed a reasonable security of life . representations of which have come down to us in sculpture. . . They lived in well-built houses they dressed in silk or homespun they wore shoes of leather they carried umbrellas they sat on chairs and used tables they rode in carts and chariots they travelled by boat and they ate their food off plates and dishes of pottery. and often one an- of bloody warfare. In the sixth century B. considerable physical civilisation in the ancient States of those early days. . coarse perhaps. several of the States hating other quite as cordially as Athens and Sparta at their best. I so.D. it was possible to say at a glance what was the day of the month. This condition of things was the cause of much mutual jealousy. allowing. and the species became extinct. yet still superior to the wooden trencher common not so very long ago in Europe. and in the Golden Age they had the two famous calendar trees. fully adequate to the most varied expression of human thought. . dating from about A. The other put which a forth a leaf once a leaf fell off month for half a year. One of these trees put forth a leaf every throats. and indeed almost identical with their present script. notwithstanding. day for fifteen fifteen days.C. when not employed in cutting each other's and property. Their citizens. things. after monthly for a similar period. But civilisation proved unfavourable to their growth. . practically an independent kingdom. after which a leaf fell off daily for more days. There was.

of fire. moon. from which point the rapid development of a written language such as we now find would be an easy matter. . As to the origin of the written language of China. How far they went in this direction we can only surmise." while the picture-symbols were still comparatively few. and stars.M. at any rate. began to make rude pictures of the sun. the Chinese. invention is altogether out of the question. Consul. It seems probable that in prehistoric ages. of trees. of rain. some master-mind reached at a bound the phonetic principle. . Upon the achievement of his task the sky rained grain and evil spirits mourned by night. There are comparatively few obviously pictorial characters and ideograms to be found even in the script of two thousand years ago but investigations carried on for many years by Mr. China has her Cadmus in the person of a prehistoric individual named Ts'ang Chieh. L. and to have taken the idea of a written language from the markings of birds' claws upon the sand. It is. of man himself.6 the CHINESE LITERATURE bamboo tablet and stylus of old. H. The actual stages by which that point was reached are so far unknown to us. like other peoples. Previous to this mankind had no other system than rude methods of knotting cords and notching sticks for noting events or communicating with one another at a distance. C. Hopkins. and they appear to have followed these up by ideograms of various kinds. who is said to have had four eyes. Chefoo. point more and more to the fact that the written language will some day be recognised as systematically developed from pictorial symbols. certain that at a very early date subsequent to the legendary period of " knotted cords " and "notches. and now approaching completion.

office as a During his years Government servant and his years of teaching and wandering as an exile. Many utterances. 5S I Confucius was born.C. and to produce at least one original work of his own. We read how the former . of early. are regarded as the Golden Age of China.CHAPTER II CONFUCIUS—THE FIVE CLASSICS In of B. He may be regarded as the founder of Chinese literature. not to say legendary. however. They or is Book of History. instance. give us glimpses of an age earlier than that of Confucius. whose reigns. and such of these as were still extant were diligently collected and edited by Confucius. rulers had been committed to writing at one time or another. refer to the Emperors Yao and Shun. forming what is now known as the Shu Ching The documents of which this work composed are said to have been originally one hundred in all. he found time to rescue for posterity certain valuable literary fragments of great antiquity. 2357 to 2205. The first two. It is impossible to assert that before his time there was anything in the sense of what we understand by the term general literature. extending from B. The written language appears to have been used chiefly for purposes of administration.C.C. for if not actually so early as is claimed. and they cover a period extending from the twenty-fourth to the eighth century B.

" How grand was the achievement of Yii. and all along the hills hewed down the woods. boats. I deepened the channels and canals. which has been loosely identified with the Noachic Deluge. so that concord reigned among the He abdicated in favour of Shun. and in their vast extent embraced the mountains and overtopped the hills. and an arrogant half-brother. and sincere. and. successfully coped with a devastating flood. during the reign of the Emperor Shun. sledges. We next come to a very famous personage. and showing the multitudes how to procure the food of toil in addition to flesh meat. and in reference to which it was said in the Tso Chuan. and spiked shoes). are further told that Shun was chosen because of his great filial piety.C. so that people were bewildered and overwhelmed. a shifty stepmother. to effect by his example a comparative reformation of black-haired people." The following is his own account (Legge's translation) " The inundating waters seemed to assail the heavens. showing the multitudes how to get flesh to eat. 2205. moreover. described as being profoundly wise. at the same time. along with Yi. along with Chi." who is We their several characters. how far-reaching his glorious energy But for Yii we should all have been fishes. I mounted my four conveyances (carts. It was he who. and conducted them to the sea. I opened passages for the streams throughout the nine provinces. intelligent. which enabled him to live in harmony with an unprincipled father. at the same time. and is known as the Great Yu. and conducted them to the streams.— 8 CHINESE LITERATURE monarch " united the various parts of his domain in bonds of peace. I urged them further ! : . who founded the Hsia dynasty in B. sowing grain.

Shang sovereigns had similarly lapsed from the kingly qualities of their founder to even a lower level of degradation and vice. was seized and thrown into prison. the pleter. The palace a wildfor lust.C. And the result can only be ruin'' — From son. The country a wildfor hunting. Rich wine. The people are the root of a country. At length the Emperor." A small portion of the Book of History verse : " The people should be cherished. Then arose one of the purest and most venerated heroes of Chinese history. carved walls. seductive music^ Lofty roofs. 1 122. The fourth division of the Book of History deals with the decadence of the Hsia rulers and their final displacement in B. the date of the foundation of the Hsia dynasty the throne of the empire was transmitted from father to and there were no more abdications in favour of virtuous sages. founder of the Shang dynasty. to which we shall presently return.— BOOK On HlSrORY to exchange 9 not. 1 He 144 he was denounced as dangerous to the throne. way the people got grain to eat. He was hereditary ruler modern province of Shensi. and the States began to is in come under good rule. what they had for what they had In this all and all to dispose of their accumulated stores. backed up by the present of a beautiful concubine and some .C. and in of a principality in the B. 1766 by T'ang the ComBy B. popularly known by his canonisation as W6n Wang. And if the root is firm. Given any one of these.C. where he passed two years. And should not be downtrodden. occupying himself with the Book of Changes. yielding to the entreaties of the people. the country ivill be tranquil.

the king of Shang. Shou. On this account I. Great Heaven was moved with indignation. the myriad people.— lo . does not reverence Heaven above. and the great sovereign is the parent of the people. and reckless in lust. sincere. and all other extravagances. He has made it his pursuit to have palaces. Fa. ponds. He has dared to exercise cruel oppression. reverently to display its majesty . He has put men on the hereditary principle. siding against the House of Shang. and inflicts calamities on the people below. set to make war upon the frontier tribes. It was reserved for his son.C. But now. The following is a speech by the latter before a great assembly of nobles who were fine horses. He has been abandoned to drunkenness. which was to last for eight centuries to come. to the most painful injury of you. He has burned and roasted the loyal and good. known as Wu Wang. who am but a little child. pavilions. and charged my deceased father. It is preserved among others in the Book of History. W6n. He has ripped up pregnant women. towers. but he died before the " work was completed. CHINESE LITERATURE him at liberty and commissioned him To his dying day he never ceased to remonstrate against the cruelty and corruption of the age. embankments. and is assigned to the year B. to overthrow the Shang dynasty and mount the throne as first sovereign of the Chou dynasty. . have. Along with criminals The he has punished into office all their relatives. and perspicacious among men becomes the great sovereign. 1133 (Legge's translation): " Heaven and Earth of all creatures are the parents of is all creatures and man the most highly endowed. intelligent. and his name is still regarded as one of the most glorious in the annals of the empire.

how dare I give any allowance to my own wishes ? " Where the strength is the same. measure their righteousness. but they have one mind. become the prey of wicked robbers and still he says. . He abides squatting on his heels. I have received charge from my deceased father. ' . who am a little child. earl)' and late am filled with apprehensions. If I did not comply with Heaven. made for them : and made for them instructors. The iniquity of Shang is full. that they might be able to be aiding to God. the one man. The people are mine the decree is mine. . and not sacrificing in millet all ' it. " I.BOOK OF HISTORY by means StateSj II of you. and secure the tranquillity of the four quarters of the empire.' Shou has hundreds of thousands and myriads of ministers. Do you aid me. Now Heaven. to cleanse for ever all within the four seas. the hereditary rulers of my friendly . but they have hundreds of thousands and myriads of minds I have three thousand ministers. Now is the time it may hot be lost. Heaven gives command to destroy it. to protect the inferior people. my iniquity would be as great. . ! — . measure the virtue of the parties where the virtue is the same. neglecting also the temple of his ancestors. .' never trying to correct his contemptuous mind. W6n I have offered special sacrifice to God I have performed the due services to the great Earth and I lead the multitude of you to execute the punishment appointed by Heaven. victims and the vessels of ." rulers. not serving God The or the spirits of heaven and earth. Heaven will be found to give effect to. What the people desire. Heaven compassionates the people. In regard to who are criminals and who are not. contemplated the government of Shang but Shou has no repentant heart.

the Son of Heaven.12 CHINESE LITERATURE documents which form the Book of History are directed against luxury and drunkenness. ardent spirits distilled from rice) should only be used on sacrificial occasions. {d) Panegyrics and sacrificial odes. {b) Odes sung at ordinary entertainments given by the suzerain. They are arranged under four (a) Ballads commonly sung by the heads. . who were able to judge from the nature of such compositions what would be the manners and customs prevailing in each State. and to advise the metres. culminating in the downfall of a dynasty. The latter had enacted that wine (that is to say. the abuse of wine. to both of which the people seemed likely to give way even within measurable distance of the death of W6n Wang. or Book of Odes." and are said by some to have been selected by Confucius from no less than 3000 pieces. {c) Odes sung on grand occasions when the feudal nobles were gathered together. may be safely ascribed to The Shih Ching. The ballads were then submitted to the Imperial Musicians. composed between the reign of the Great Yii and the beginning of the sixth century B. principle. almost as a general Two of the . usually four : — suzerain accordingly as to the good or evil administration of each of his vassal rulers. and then under strict supervision and it is laid down.C. is another work for the preservation of which we are indebted to Confucius. as follows people in the various feudal States and forwarded periodically by the nobles to their suzerain. that all national misfortunes. are popularly known as the " Three Hundred. It consists of a collection of rhymed ballads in various words to the line. which now number 305. These.

immediately told the youth that until he did so he would be unfit for the society of intellectual men. and at the same time unable to ignore the deliberate judgment of the Master. and to the excuses of the former for not visiting the latter with swift and exemplary punishment. Early commentators. set to work to read into countryside ditties deep moral and political significations. and on receiving an answer in the negative." — commentators promptly discover that the piece refers to a feudal noble whose brother had been plotting against him. But alack-a-day ! what would my parents say f And love you as I may. please ! Don't break my willow-trees ! Not that that would very much grieve me .— Confucius himself attached the utmost importance to his labours in this direction." And it was probably this appreciation by Confucius that gave rise to an extraordinary literary craze in reference to these Odes. that he who should be allowed to make a nation's " ballads need care little who made its laws. Every single one of the immortal Three Hundred has thus been forced to yield some hidden meaning and point an appropriate moral. " Have you learned the Odes?" he inquired upon one occasion of his son." namely. which have furnished endless household words and a large stock of phraseology to the language of the present day. . Confucius may indeed be said to have anticipated the apophthegm attributed by Fletcher of Saltoun to a " very wise man. I cannot bear to think what that would be. incapable of seeing the simple natural beauties of the poems. sir. If a maiden warns her lover not to be too rash " Don't come in.

" The muddiness of the Ching river appears from the (clearness of the) Wei river.— 14 — CHINESE LITERATURE Another independent young lady may say " If you will love me dear. up my skirts and cross the ford. I'll pick my lord. according to the accepted commentary. saddled. Native scholars are. of course. Ching was really clear and the Wei muddy. sent a viceroy The latter reported that the to examine the rivers. you're not the only . like all the rest." The following is a specimen of one of the longer of the Odes. hide-bound in the traditions of commentators. There is one famous line which runs. silliest lout! — about. but European students do well to seek the meaning of the Odes within the compass of the Odes themselves. of which nothing more need be said : . silly. Chinese who are in the front rank of scholarship know it by heart. commentaries are not wanting to show that these straightforward words express the wish of the people of a certain small State that some great State would intervene and put an end to an existing feud in the ruling family. with an impossible political interpretation. dissatisfied with this interpretation. man " You Still silly. ." In 1790 the Emperor Ch'ien Lung. so that the wording of the line must mean " The Ching river is made muddy by the Wei river. and each separate piece has been searchingly examined. until the force of exegesis can no farther go. will Possibly the very introduction of these absurdities may have helped to preserve to our day a work which would otherwise have been considered too trivial to merit the attention of scholars. But iffrom your heart you turn me out Well. .

you ' declared.! THE ODES You seemed a guiUless youth enough. O tender dove. medium . ^ . I do not wish delay. Three years have slipped away from Since first I shared your poverty . Oh. I would advise. Butfriends mustfix our wedding-day. I was the silk you had in view. With you I crossed the ford.' " watch and wait through the gate. linen. and while We wandered on for many a mile I said. do not let my words give pain. List lightly not to lover^ vows / O maiden fair. I laughed and cried aloudfor joy. Offeringfor silk your woven stuff. My tears would flow like falling rain. not yet undone By autumn Beware chill. the fruit that tempts thy eyes ! not yet a spouse. . Back through * alas the day the ford I take my way. me And now again. A woman who has lost her name Is doomed to everlasting shame. A man may do this wrong. And then I used to see you passing To The fortune-tellers. And sometimes. and time Willfling its shadow der his crime. shines in the sun. when I watched in vain. Had all pronounced us duly paired. ' IS Sut silk was not required by yoic. But when I saw my darling boy. 'And ril away Then bring a carriage^ I replied. to be your bride' " The mulberry-leaf. " The mulberry-tree upon the ground Now sheds its yellow leaves around. Bui with the autumn come again. . used as a circulating Supposed to have been stamped pieces of before the invention of coins.

and with . For three long years I was your a toilsome life. one speaker going so far as he were a tree without consciousness. I little thought the vows we swore Would some day bind tcs two no more. and without family.y hair Ungathered.6 — CHINESE LITERATURE My Mart is still unchanged. And led in truth Early to rise and late to bed. as we lingered there. The words we spoke. Each day alike passed o'er my head. But you do not trail them. and repine is That such a wretchedfate mine. The hours ofgirlhood. Andyou have left me to deplore A " love that can be mi?ie no more. O for the river-banks ofyore j for the much-loved marshy shore . Andyou— well. But you do not ride in them. with m. The old-time theme of " eat. So all the more their gibes willflow. the separation of wives from their husbands agriculture ing. others. I turn a bitter page. . that seemed so true. without home. drink. You have chariots and horses. and be merry " is brought out as follows the harshness of to wish : " You have coats and robes. with marriage and The ordinary sorrows of hfe are fully i-epresented. hand in hand to face old age ! — Instead. but you Have uttered words 1 now proved untrue. wife." Many of the Odes deal with warfare. 1 little thought that I should rue. and to these may be added frequent complaints against officials. in silence I honestly fulfilled my part. my heart. have broke The truth my brothers will not know. you I grieve " Ah. with feast- and with the chase.

But they are not sprinkled and swept You have bells and drums. Not keeping to their proper paths. " You have courtyards and halls. All through the kingdom there is no proper government. The following lines are from Legge's rendering of this Ode : " The sun and moon announce evil. but as an improper combination of the dual forces of The rainbow was nature. Now that the sun has been eclipsed.C. and customs. B. . For the moon to be eclipsed Is but an ordinary matter. A nd another will take your place" Why The Odes are especially valuable for the insight they give us into the manners. And another will possess " them. By and by you will die. An eclipse "an event of evil omen. and this eclipse has been verified for that date. 775 . not as a portent of evil. How bad it is ! " regarded. That you may enjoy yourself now And lengthen your days / By and by you will die. You have wine andfood not play daily on your lute. and beliefs of far the Chinese before the age of Confucius. How back in they extend of the sun. — 17 THE ODES And another will enjoy them." is mentioned one of the Odes as a recent occurrence on a certain day which works out as the 29lh August. But they are not struck. it is quite impossible to say. Because the good are not employed. j .— By and by you will die.

" Here will he live. here will he talk. as some writers on China have done. where he will awake. A tile was used in the early distinction thus is The quite unnecessary to . is much what at the present day. here will he sit." — rainbow in the east. upon the chief diviner to interpret his dream bears and serpents. we are conducted through the rooms. think. and is applied figuratively to position of women who form improper connections.8 — : : — 1 CHINESE LITERATURE " There is a And no one dares point at it. The interpretation (Legge) is call : we come as follows " Sons shall be born to him They will be put to sleep on couches. between the tile and the sceptre. Only about the spirits and the food will they have to And to cause no sorrow to their parents!'' It will be theirs neither to do drawn is severe enough. They will be resplendent with red knee-covers. Here will he laugh. wrong nor to do good. Their cry will be loud. The very women it generally seems to have been In an Ode which describes the completion of a palace for one of the ancient princes. as though the former were but a dirty potsherd. They will be clothed in robes j — They will have sceptres to play with. good enough for a girl. " Daughters shall be born to him They will be put to sleep on the ground." — until and of to the bedchamber. — They will have tiles to play with. and it make a comparison. They will be clothed with wrappers. The future princes of the land.

swallow.— Itib. UDiLS is 19 here used merely ages as a weight for the spindle. pepper. the drum. ceros. and wolf of insects. melon. and to indicate the direction take. chestnut. and wagtail. indigo. carp. dodder. tiger. which a girl's activities should Women are further roughly handled in an Ode which lie traces the prevailing misgoverninent to their interference in affairs of State and in matters which do not within their province : "A A clever clever man builds a city. medlar. For disorder does not comefrom heaven. woman lays one low. bear. scallions. in- and wheat about thirty kinds of cludmg the cedar. spider. Odes are found and the Pandaean . monkey. hemp. about ten kinds of fishes. beans. the lute. cherry. . egret. millet. oriole. sowthistle. and willow . and wasp. trees. Among those who cannot be trained or taught Are women and eunuchs" About seventy kinds of plants are mentioned in the Odes. badger. cicada. leopard. pluni. including the crane. elephant. the musical instruments of the Among the flute. plantain. fox. and about twenty kinds . and tench . sorrel. dolichos. magpie. mulberry. including the ant. peony. including the antelope. woman with a long tongue Js a flight of steps leading to calamity. boar. including the bamboo. about thirty kinds of animals. glow-worm. the bell. rhino- about thirty kinds of birds. that clever A an ill-omened bird. eagle. rat. locust. liquorice. pear. woman With Js but all her qualifications. date. oak. hazel. including the barbel. bream. peach. But is brought about by women. convolvulus. barley. tribulus.

" Also. swords. " Ifow mighty is God. halberds.— 20 pipes . The Ruler of mankind ! How terrible is His majesty /" He is apparently in the form of man.arrows. armour. towers on wheels for use against besieged cities. He hates the oppression of great although in another passage " we read " Behold Almighty God. Who is there whom He is is hates ? comforts the afflicted. grappling-hooks. And the rainfalls softly down. His offended by He : " We fill the sacrificial vessels with offerings. Oh. sin. — — CHINESE LITERATURE — among the metals are gold and . He "Way" is hard to follow. our private fields / . in last. Ruling in majes/y. and those of earthenware. The in the idea of a Supreme Being is brought out very fully Odes " Great is God. Both the vessels of wood." quotation. deference to space must be the " exhibits the : husbandman of early China in a very pleasing light The clouds form in dense masses. States. ironj with an and copper and among the arms and munitions of war are bows and. for in one place we read of His footprint. may it first And then come to water the public lands. and gags for soldiers' mouths. Cod smells the savour and is pleased. which. spears. to prevent them talking in the ranks on indirect allusion to silver the occasion of night attacks. One more limits. He can be appeased by sacrifice He free from error. Then when the fragrance is borne on high.

mostly of a moral. And there some neglected ears These are for the benefit of the widow. These so-called diagrams are said to have been invented two thousand years and a divided line . each made up of six lines. either active or passive. Thus there may be three lines or sovereign of a long extending from —— above or below two lines a divided line between two lines and so on.C. and political character.'' The next oldest of It is of the pre-Confucian works. social. on important themes. whose son. is the famous / Ching. some of which are whole and the others divided. matically . Wu Wang. three divided lines == .C. Here some handfuls shall be dropped. or Book ascribed to Wen Wang. either one or other of which is necessarily repeated twice. enig- and symbolically expressed. earth. It contains a fanciful system of philosophy. such as fire. water. and possibly the of Changes. line. and in two cases three times. became B. Here some sheaves unbound. and based upon the same number of lineal figures. the first 1122 to B. the virtual founder of the Chou dynasty. all. thunder. on the permutations of which are based the philosophical speculations of the Book of Changes. Each diagram represents some power in nature. He subsequently increased the above simple combinations to sixty-four double ones. in the same combination. iSUOK OF CHANGES 2i Here shall some corn be left standing. eight in all. and so on. . The text consists of sixty-four short essays. 249. more before Christ by the monarch Fu Hsi. The text is followed by commentaries.. who copied them from the back of a tortoise. deduced originally from Eight Diagrams consisting of triplet combinations or arrangements of a line and a divided line.

shows its subject treading his accustomed path. The first line. All this indicates ill-fortune. shows its subject tread- ing on the " of of a tiger. probably ascribed to of called the a later date and commonly fifty Confucius. shows its subject treading the path that is level and easy a quiet and solitary man. The second line. there will be great good fortune. If he go forward.— 22 CHINESE LITERATURE Ten Wings. who life declared that were a hundred years added to his of he would devote : them to a study of the is The following / Ching. a specimen (Legge's translation) " TcYf This suggests the idea of one tread- ing on the tail of a tiger. which does not bite him. — . a lame man who thinks he can walk well one who treads on the tail of a tiger and is bitten. shows a one-eyed man who thinks he can see . "4. undivided. divided. and The fifth its subject. acting the part of a great ruler. there will be no error. " 3. undivided. in the He becomes full of apprehen- sive caution. " Wing. undivided. " I. undivided. The sixth line. — . line. There will be progress and success. undivided. We have a mere bravo . and examine the presage which that gives. to whom. " 2. there will be "6. tells us to look at the whole course that is trodden. end there will be good fortune. If it be complete and without failure. shows the resolute tread Though he be firm and correct. The third line. peril. 5. The fourth tail line. In this hexagram we have the symbol of weakness treading on that of strength. if he be firm and correct. there will be good fortune.

The late Terrien de la Couperie took a bolder flight. said to have emanated from Confucius and his disciples. upper indicating strength. there will be progress and success.' " The fifth line is strong. and so forth. Legge declared that he had found the key. its who nevertheless hold tenaciously to the belief that important lessons could be derived from stand them. pages if we only had the wit to underForeigners have held various theories on Dr. centuries B. or Book of Rites. known as the Elder and the Younger Tai. The Younger Tai reduced Later scholars. Hence it is said.D. unaccompanied by any native commentator. The Li Chi. and discovered in this cherished volume a vocabulary of the language of the Bdk tribes. the Elder Tai prepared a work in 85 sections on what may be roughly called social rites. 3 . with the result already shown. in the centre. A third writer regards it as a calendar of the lunar year. who flourished in the 2nd and ist From existing documents.C. such as Ma Jung these to 46 sections. no one really knows what is meant by the apparent gibberish of the Book of Changes. This is freely ad- mitted by all learned Chinese. and place. seems to have been a compilation by two cousins. falls into no distress or failure ." As may be readily inferred from the above extract. and it was not until near the close of the 2nd century A.and responds indicates pleasure and satisfaction. his action will be to the " The lower trigram — brilliant. which does not bite him . ' He treads on the tail of a tiger. left their mark upon the work. the subject. and Chang Hsuan. and in its correct Its subject occupies the God-given position.

When a great officer is on a mission. not said. he travels while he can see the sun. an- other and a much older work. we do know whether it will pass would not have been better away quickly or not. At sundown he halts and presents his offerings (to the spirit of the way). Now a bier does not set forth in the early morning.' Other specimens will be found in Chapters iii. 'Ch'iu. When light again rule. 24 that finality in this was achieved. ' returned and completed the burial. I we will proceed.' He said that this was the When said to we had him. known as the Chou Li. became known as a Chi = (Legge's translation) Confucius said : " Formerly. to me. I was assisting at a burial in the village of Hsiang. In the progress of a bier there should be no re- turning. and dealing more with . When there it is an eclipse of the sun. nor does it rest anywhere at night but those who travel by starlight are only criminals add those who are hastening to the funeral rites of a the prince of a state is 'When parfent. 1368. A. he travels while he can see the sun. the latter term being reserved by the orthodox solely for such books as have reached us direct from The following is an extract the hands of Confucius. and : when we had Lao Tan said on the till got to the path the sun was eclipsed. and then let it us wail and wait is the eclipse pass away. and at sundown he halts. and iv. let the bier be stopped- left of the road . Until the time of the Ming dynasty. Lao Tan to go on ? ' going to the court of the Son of Heaven." — CHINESE LITERATURE direction . along with Lao Tan. not as a Ching = Text. It then Record.D. or Rites of the Chou dynasty.

was always coupled with the and formed one of the then recognised Six There is still a third work of the same class. and Mencius considered it quite as important an achievement as the draining of the empire by midnight. B. and comprise notices murders. matters. defeats. This is a chronological record of the chief events in the State of Lu between 722-484. at shower of stars like rain. including summer. day. the Northern Yen State made peace with the Ch'i State. " In the 7th year of Duke Chuang (B. treaties.C. the sun was eclipsed. in summer. of incursions." The Spring and Autumn owes its name to the old custom of prefixing to each entry the year.C. on the chia shin day of the 4th month (March nth. We now Autumn come to the last of the Five Classics as at present constituted. the CKun CKiu. It was the work which Confucius singled out as that one by which men would know and commend him. and is generally regarded as the work of Confucius. " In the 3rd month the Duke visited the Ch'u State. there was a . The following " In are a few illustrative extracts the 7th year of Duke Chao. whose native State was Lu. and season when the event recorded took place . month. " In summer. Its contents treat mostly of the ceremonial observances of everyday life. called the I Li.— THE SPRING AND AUTUMN constitutional 25 Li Chi.C. or Spring and the years B. and natural : phenomena. deaths. 594). Annals. The entries are of the briefest. and also of considerable antiquity. in the 4th moon. in spring. as a commentator explains. 685). and autumn winter. victories. spring. Classics.

and their deaths. so to speak. just as in the case of the Odes. For bound up. next to nothing is known. their battles. and if that were all . did was this. with the Spring and Autumn. "Confucius completed Spring and Autumn. is and likely to people. and rebellious ministers and terror. CHINESE LITERATURE The latter said. He took the dry bones of and clothed them with life and reality by adding a more or less complete setting to each of the events recorded. Circumstances of apparently the most trivial character are expanded into . one of the most precious heirlooms of the Chinese narrative remains. and blame life-withering like autumn. The critics of the Han dynasty even went so far as to declare the very title elliptical for "praise life-giving like spring. is a commentary known as the Tso Chuan or Tso's Commentary. Of the writer himself. except but his glowing that he was a disciple of Confucius . and to whose pen has also been attributed the Kuo Yu or Episodes of the States. who has been canonised as the Father of Prose. continue to remain. But it not there a saving clause. all." Such difficult is the CKun CKiu ." the bad sons were strudk with read into the bald text Consequently. their feastings. it is to say how the boast of is Confucius could is ever have been fulfilled. native wits set to ^york to all manner of hidden meanings. their efforts resulting in what is now known as the praise-and-blame theory. and often approaches to grandeur. their treaties. in a style which is always effective. each entry being supposed to contain approval or condemnation.26 the Great Yu. He describes the loves and hates of What Tso these annals the heroes. and forming as it were an integral part of the work.

and at last the chariot was extricated. Under the 21st year of Duke Hsi. : not affect the drought. and every now and again some quaint conceit or scrap of proverbial literature is throAvn in to give a passing flavour of its own. and curtail your expenditure . a war-chariot of the Chin : State stuck in a deep rut and could not get on. There- upon a man of the Ch'u State advised the charioteer to take out the stand for arms. ' Ah. however. what have will 'That witches to do in the matter slain. but again the horses turned round.— — —— 27 THE TSO CHUAN interesting episodes.' said the . practise strict economy." Under the 12th year of Duke HsUan the Spring and make Autumn says " In spring the ruler of the Ch'u State besieged the Ch^ng State. One of his officers. from which the following typical paracapital of the graph is extracted " In the rout which followed. it was not very severe. she can cause a drought. eat less. said to him. although there was famine. That is the essential . burning her will only things worse." Thereupon the Tso Chuan adds a long account of the whole business. This eased it a little. The man then advised that the flagstaff should be taken out and used as a lever. it ? If God wishes her to be would have been better not If to allow her to be born." To this the Tso Chuan adds " In consequence of the drought the Duke wished to burn a witch.' The Duke took this advice. and during that year. the Spring and Autumn has the following exiguous entry " In summer there was great drought. Rather repair your city walls and ramparts . and urge the people to help one another.

and not to delight his heart. where some men in possession of boats were trying to prevent others from their hair short. we are told that the fingers of the assailoff in chopped could be picked up in such large numbers that they double handfuls. One hero. of his Republic." "The receiver is as bad as the thief . read that "the ancient rulers Also that " the superior man will not listen to lascivious or seductive airs " " he addresses himself to his lute in order to regulate his Apropos of regulated we all things by music. which was regarded by Confucius as an imwell-known views of Plato portant factor in the art of government." j conduct. practical and unpractical. disease." people of your worthy The Tso Chuan contains several interesting passages on music." . " One day's leniency to an enemy entails trouble for many generations." he was quoting the phraseology of the Tso Chuan. " " It is better to attack than to be attacked. 'we don't the know so much about running away as State. Another made each of his men carry into battle a long rope. recalling the in Book III. scrambling ants were in. for he would take good care not to hear the gong sounding the retreat. and expressing a kindly desire to " sleep on their skins. seeing that the enemy all wore In a third case. on going into battle. told his friends that he should only hear the drum beating the signal to advance." When the rabid old anti-foreign tutor of the late Emperor T'ung Chih was denouncing the barbarians. are to be found scattered over the Tso Chuan." "Propriety forbids that a man should profit himself at the expense of another." 28 CHINESE LITERATURE man of- charioteer to the Ch'u. Many maxims. such as.

of Ku-liang does the text first then "there fell. Why said. — " In : spring. They are by Ku-liang and KuNGYANG. six fish-hawks flew backwards. birds were The Ian- of what was heard. but generally regarded as inferior. the first them. On examination it was found there were five of them.C. Back from the field. guage has respect to the seeing of the eyes. " does the text say "six." and The yang commentary of it Kungand "Why ? says. but not his shield. back from the field His brought his beard. put first. to the Tso Chuan. the capital of Sung. it was seen to be stones. day of the moon. fish fall- then " stones " " and then the "six There fell stones " is a record In -hawks is flying backwards past the capital of indicating collected Sung. a local wit at once adapted a verse of doggerel found in the When Tso Chuan: — " See goggle-eyes and greedy-guts Has left his shield among the ruts ." There are two other commentaries on the Spring and Autumn. The following are specimens (Legge's translation. there fell stones in Sung — five of The commentary says. similar. There was heard a noise of something falling. On looking at what had fallen. "How ? is that the text first says "there fell. say " stones " ing." The Master Stones are and then " fish-hawks " ? . in the king's first month. being repulsed in a shore attack at Tamsui.? and for days every Chinaman was muttering the refrain " YU sat." There was the stones. past In the same month. yii sat Ch'i chiafu lai." the number that the together. omitting unimportant details) Xext.— KU-LIANG AND KUNG-YANG — 29 after the French fleet returned to Shanghai in 1885. both of the fifth century B.

having no intelligence. takes quite a different view. 893 of an ancestor. His expressions about stones and fish-hawks being thus exact. who was boiled to death at the feudal metropolis in consequence of slander by a contemporary ruler of the Chi State. the population being wiped out by the ruler of another State in revenge for the death in B. the text s3ys that in B. 689 the ruler of the Chi State State. and the fishhaving a little intelligence. however. they were flying backwards.C. they examined them. there were six. are mentioned along with the month when they appeared. He explains the passage in the sense that the State in question was utterly destroyed. are objects. as they are frequently called upon to " discuss " such points. When mentioned along with the day fell. For instance. is things without any intelligence. when they hawks. how much more will they be so about men V Sometimes these commentaries are seriously at variance with that of Tso.c. and is quite different from the story told by Tso in reference to the same passage : . and fish -hawks creatures that have a little intelligence. The -hawks backwards a record of what was When they looked at the fish stones. always with the object of establishing the orthodox and accepted interpretations. The following episode is from Kung-yang's commentary. Kung-yang." "made a great end of his to Tso's commentary explains the words mean that for various urgent reasons the ruler abdi- cated. mined them leisurely. It is important for candidates at the public examinations to be familiar with these discrepancies.— 30 CHINESE LITERATURE "Six flew" seen. The superior man (Confucius) even in regard to such things and creatures records nothing rashly. they were When they exafish -hawks.

31 —" In summer. He therefore sent his general to climb the ramparts and spy out the condition of the besieged. . so I And superior man . What a spirit is yours To this the officer replied. ' ' ' ' . who speak the truth. kept some fat ones for exhibition to strangers. and retired to is man filled with joy. ' The latter said. and if these were exhausted before he could take the city. the Sung State the Ch'u State. How is your State getting on ? officer of the ' inquired the general. and if we do not conquer you in that time. and bones are chopped up for . and the two met.' ' Be of We too have only seven good cheer.' King Chuang was greatly enraged at this but the general said.' replied the fuel.' the general I told the officer we had only rations for seven days. but the general threatened to leave him.' KONG." officers ' . It chanced that at the same time an " In B. 'We their are reduced to exchanging children for food. seeing in their ! ' ' another's misfortune. while the ignoble in you I recognise the have told you our story. is filled with pity. He had only rations for seven days. we shall withdraw.' said the general I had heard. King Chuang of Ch'u was besieging the capital of Sung. and thus peace was brought about between the two States. days' rations. We must now Not so. 587 made peace with Sung army came forth upon the ramparts. while feeding horses with mouths. 'If a small State like Sung has report to his master.' replied capture the city before we withdraw.' He then bowed. 'Oh. however. badly.' officer. I too have heard that the superior man. in the 5th month. their the besieged. should not the State of The king still wished to Ch'u have such men also ? remain. he meant to withdraw.YANG CHUAN Text.C.' said the general. ' 'That is bad that bits indeed.

certain actions in regard to yourself. its pages perhaps. that is. retailing the views of Confudus on a variety of subjects.CHAPTER III THE FOUR BOOKS— MENCIUS No Chinaman memory The is thinks of entering upon a study of the Five Classics until he has mastered and committed to a shorter and simpler course known as The Four Books. do not unto them !" It has been urged by many. as generally arranged for students. a mere silhouette moralist whose mission on earth : was to teach duty towards one's neighbour to his fellowmen. and expressed so far as possible in the very words of the Master. But of course the two are logically identical. of the great From some idea. which practically conveys the positive injunction. as may be shown by the simple insertion of the word " abstain " you would not that others should abstain from . first of these. . and who formulated the Golden Rule " What you would not others should do unto you. the Lun Yii or Analects. really It tells us nearly all we know about we seem the Sage. a work in twenty short chapters or books. who should know better. and to gather may possibly have been put together within a hundred years of his death. that the negative form of this maxim is unfit to rank with the positive form as given to us by Christ.

" and that interpretation is accepted by "Man live. that He laid man the greatest stress is upon filial piety." ? No : return good for good . however. calculated ." it is better to be sincere than punc- is born to be upright." " I do not murmur against Heaven. iv. and suggested that our duties are towards the living rather than towards the dead. yet : Confucianists at the present day. has explained that by " Heaven " is meant " Abstract Right. and afterwards of his environment. for evil." When. His greatest commentator. He was necessity of truth never tired of emphasising the beauty and " A man without truthfulness I : ! know not how that can be. 33 a disciple asked Confucius to explain charity of he replied simply. of the every-day of the Lun Yil gives some singular details life and habits of the Sage. At the same time. and he is lucky to have escaped. he replied. however. tilious." "Riches and honours are what men desire. and taught absolutely pure at birth. Confucius strongly objected to discuss the supernatural. becomes depraved only because Chapter x.THE LUN YU When heart. " What then will you return for good justice. whom he vaguely addressed as Heaven " He who has offended against Heaven has none to whom he can pray. " Love one another. Chu Hsi." " Let loyalty and truth be paramount with you. unseen and eternal.). If he be not so." Confucius undoubtedly believed in a Power." and so on. yet except in accordance with right these may not be enjoyed." "In mourning. as already enunciated by Lao Tzu (see ch. he was asked concerning the principle that good should be returned for evil.

When in bed. The following are extracts : (Legge's translation) from this famous chapter " Confucius. He did flavour. He did not eat what was discoloured. but received with loving gravity from the by the Chinese people at large. nor anything which was not in was not cut properly. " Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable . he seemed its to bend his body as if he were not able to bear weight. " When he was carrying the sceptre of his prince. in his village. " He did not use a deep purple or a puce colour in ornaments of his dress. he did not speak. When he was in the prince's ancestral temple or in the court. He did not eat meat which not eat much. he did not converse. " When he entered the palace gate. Even in his undress he did not wear anything of a red or reddish colour. holding up his robe with both his hands and his body bent . or what or was of a bad season. holding in his breath also. and as if he were not able to speak. " He ascended the dais. he spoke minutely on every point. looked simple and sincere. as if it were not sufficient to admit him. nor what was served without its proper sauce.— 34 CHINESE LITERATURE among those with first to provoke a smile whom reverence for Confucius has not been a principle cradle upwards. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat damp and turned sour. " He was never without ginger when he ate. the "He " required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body. as if he dared notbreathe. nor fish or flesh which was gone. "When eating. he seemed to bend his body. but cautiously.

on his return he said. or a blind person.' MENOUS soup. "When he saw any one in a mourning dress. he did not put on any formal deportment. the result being that he began to reproduce in play the solemn Next in educational known scenes which were constantly enacted before his eyes. little 35 of it in sacrifice with a grave straight. he did not lie like a corpse. though it might be a carriage and horses. dress. On a sudden clap of thunder or a violent wind. The only preIf his " mat was not "The stable ' which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice. he did not sit on it. As a child he lived with her at first near a cemetery. 372. Has any man been hurt ? He did not ask about the horses. At home. he would change countenance when he saw any one wearing the cap of full sent for . " When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him. whose name is a household word even at the present day.C. "When a friend sent him a present. he would change countenance and rise up. he did not bow. though it might be an acquaintance. being burned down when he was at Court. cording the sayings and doings of a man to whose genius and devotion may be traced the final triumph of Confucianism. Mencius was brought up under the care of his widowed mother. His mother accordingly removed to another house near . he would salute them in a ceremonious manner. Born in B." order follows the work briefly This consists of seven books reas Mencius. he would change countenance. he would offer a respectful air. though he might be in his undress. a little over a hundred years after the death of the Master. "In bed.

but his teachings were on a lower plane. 311 he once more felt himself into constrained to private life. He In B. and he vainly tried to put into practice at an epoch of blood and iron the gentle virtues of the Golden Age. and abode there until the monarch's death in B. then visited Prince Hui of the Liang State. Thence he forty-five. became. and retired finally occupying himself during the remainder of his days in teaching and in preparing the philosophical record which now passes under his name. dealing rather with man's well-being from the point of view of political economy. and once more she changed her dwelling this time to a house near a college. but making no very prolonged stay.36 CHINESE LITERATURE little boy forgot all about funerals and played at buying and selling goods. Later on he studied under K'ung Chi.C. and before long the . Once more his mother disapproved. He was an uncompromising defender of the doctrines . He was therefore justly named by Chao Ch'i the Second Holy One or Prophet. . After that event he returned to the State of Ch'i and resumed his old position. under Prince Hsiian of But the latter would not carry out his and Mencius threw up his post. 319. resign office. Minister wandered away to several States. He lived at a time when the feudal princes were squabbling over the rival systems of federation and imperialism. the Ch'i State. a title under which he is still known. to the great joy and satisfaction of his mother.C. age of about principles. His criterion was that of Confucius. the grandson of Confucius and after having attained to a perfect apprehension of the roms or Way of Confucius. at the the market-place. advising their rulers to the best of his ability. where he soon began to imitate the ceremonial observances in which the students were instructed.

' Human nature is like rushing water. To develop charity and duty towards one's neighbour out of human nature is like making a bowl out of a block of wood. And by you would do violence to human nature in the process of developing charity and duty towards one's neighbour. Can you. which flows east or west according as an outlet is made For human nature makes indifferently for good for it. .— MENCIUS of Confucius. From which it follows that all men would come to regard these rather as evils than stitution in the process of parity of reasoning otherwise. precisely as water makes indifferently for the east or for the west. you may indeed cause it to fly over your head and by turning its course you may keep it for use on water. is a specimen of the logomachy of the which Mencius is supposed to have excelled. without interfering .' " Mencius replied. By splashing . ' Water will indeed flow indifferently . Human nature may be compared The following day. wood wooden bowl. The subject is a favourite one human nature " Kao Tzii said. just as water flows naturally downwards. all Every man has this bias tovrards good. will it flow indifferently and the tendency of human the tendency of water to flow is like down. in — : ' with a block of with a duty towards one's neighbour. or for evil. ' with the natural constitution of the wood.' " Kao Tzii said. make out of it a bowl ? Surely you must do violence to that con- making your bowl. towards the east or west up or down ? It will not nature towards good but . 37 and he is considered to have effectually "snuffed out" the heterodox schools of Yang Chu and Mo Ti.' " To this Mencius replied.

' ' it is when the nature of man diverted towards " " Kao Tzu Mencius said. And evil. Charity a subjective objective is duty towards one's neighbour For instance. is recognise him is as a white man I because he so objectively to me.' Tzii said. ' " In that case. ? or the whiteness of snow as the whiteness of jade " I do.' ' ' 38 the hillside . replied. of a force majeure.' retorted Mencius. The cases are not analogous. ' ' the nature of a dog of an ox the is the same as that of an ox. Does our duty to our senior begin and end with the fact of his seniority ? Or does it not rather consist in the necessity of deferring to him as such ? .' answered Kao Tzii again. Consequently. but same way that see an albino. is " 'Just. CHINESE LITERATURE but you would hardly speak of such results as the nature of water. objective or say that duty towards one's neighbour ' acquired. That which comes with life is nature. 'Eating "Kao and reproduction is is of the species are natural instincts.' continued Mencius. just as there in the abstract ? is whiteness " ' I do. is They so are the results. there is man who my and innate. of course. is The as whiteness of a white horse the whiteness of a white undoubtedly the same . man but the seniority of a horse is not the same as the seniority of a man. and acquired. for instance. senior.' answered Kao Tzu. and I in the defer to him if I as such.' " Mencius replied. and the nature same as that of a man. 'as the white- ness of a feather the same as the whiteness of snow. Not because any I abstract principle of seniority exists subjectively in me.' Do you mean that there is such a ' thing as nature in the abstract.

That men and women when passing things from one to another may not let their hands touch is a rule for general application. The distincwithout ' . But tion tive I defer to a stranger to defer to a senior who is my senior. objective and acquired. ' I love my own The call it love another man's brother. that a man's sister-in-law were drowning.' said Mencius. 'would have the heart of a wolf. therefore I subjective or innate. To save a drowning sister-in-law by taking hold of her hand is " altogether an exceptional case. but I Kao Tzii said. just as I among my own people. The following .' replied Mencius.' — " MENCIUS " 39 brother. " Now suppose. 4 of Mencius abound. " 'Is it a rule of social etiquette that when men and women pass things from one to another they shall not allow their hands to touch ? "'That is the rule.' ' ' The works Analects." " Mencius retorted. saying. could he take hold of her hand and save her ?' "'Any one who did not do so. We enjoy strangers just as much as food food cooked by cooked by our own Yet extension of your principle lands us in the conclusion that our appreciation of cooked food is also people.' continued the sophist. comes me from therefore I call it objec- or acquired.' The following is a well-known colloquy between Mencius and a sophist of the day who tried to entangle the former in his talk : The sophist inquired. like the Confucian in sententious utterances. distinction arises do not from within myself .

— the people. "The men of old knew that with life they had come but for a while. not seeking for a name beyond the grave." . he is a disciple of the latter. and did not deny themselves pleasures to which they felt naturally inclined. They were thus out of the reach of censure . these gave them no concern whatever. or length or shortness of life. which means that they lost the confidence of . while Mo Ti's universal altruism leaves out the claim of a father. Fame tempted them not . the sovereign is of lesser weight. - And he who recognises is the claim of neither sovereign nor father beast.— 40 CHINESE LITERATURE : examples illustrate his general bias in politics " The people are" of the highest importance the gods come second . but led by their instincts alone. they took such enjoyments as lay in their path." a brute Yang Chu seems to have carried his egoism so far that even to benefit the whole world he would not have parted with a single hair from his body. But Yang Chu's egoism excludes a is man the claim of a sovereign. Therefore they followed the desires of their own hearts. while as for precedence among men. confidence. and that with death they would shortly depart again." This is how Mencius snuffed out the two heterodox : philosophers mentioned above " The systems of Yang Chu and empire." "Chieh and Chou lost the empire because they lust the people. If Mo Ti fill the whole not a disciple of the former. and the The way to gain the people is to gain their way to do that is to provide them with what they like and not with what they loathe.

altruistic 41 Mo showed that under the which men bring upon disappear. one of the most famous of his disciples. treatise. grand' CAk." and Yung means "course. and really means we have a short politico-ethical is authorship of which unknown.— TA HSUEH AND CHUNG YUNG on the other hand. and that the Golden Age would be In the Ta Hsiieh. the Book of Rites." One more short treatise. which in turn was preceded by cultivation of their own selves. began with good governin the various States./^ means "middle." Its authorship is assigned to K'UNG Chi." is the former being defined by the Chinese as "that which latter as without deflection or bias." the " that which never varies in its direction. Julien rendered the term by lated in various ways. Ti. brings us Its title has been transto the end of the Four Books. following upon sincerity of purpose which comes from extension of knowledge. system all calamities one another would altogether peace and happiness of the renewed. xxxix. this last being derived from due investiga- ment tion of objective existences. known as the Chung Yung. in their desire to manifest great throughout the empire. which forms Ch. but is usually attributed partly to Confucius. of the learning for adults. of the Book of Rites." . In the former portion there occurs the following well- known climax "The men virtue : of old." Legge by "The Doctrine of the Mean. it was necessary first to order aright their own families. or Great Learning. xxviii. and that again by rectification of the heart.^ " L'Invariable Milieu. which forms Sect. and partly to TsEng Ts'an. To achieve this.

Wherever ships and waggons can go. or the strength of man penetrate . He seizes the occasion to pronounce an impassioned eulogium upon Confucius. He seems to have done little more than enlarge upon certain general principles of his grandfather in relation to the nature of man and right conduct upon earth. or frosts and dews fall. and reaches the barbarians of north and south. wherever there is heaven above and earth below wherever the sun and moon shed their light. Wherefore it may be said that he is the peer of God. all who have blood and breath honour and love him." : . concluding with the following words " Therefore his fame overflows the Middle Kingdom. — .— 42 CHINESE LITERATURE son of Confucius.

CHAPTER IV MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS Names who belong to this period. whereby hangs a strange tale. chiefly of the first and second centuries of our era. curiously enough. 200. all the Thereupon Sun Tzii. Accordhe divided them into two companies. and others are gross forgeries. without girls burst out laughing. He is said to have written the Ping Fa.C. in thirteen sections. B. would fill a long list." upon the bade Sun ingly know Sun if you could apply in its principles to Tzti replied the affirmative. When he was discoursing one day with Prince Ho-lu of the Wu State. where- Prince took 180 girls out of his harem and Tzu deal with them as with troops. There was Sun TzC of the 6th century B. 600 and of the works on a variety of subjects attributed to them. want to women.C. an epoch which. the latter. is remarkable for a similar wave of forgery on the other side of the world. Many of the latter have disappeared.C. caused the two concubines in com- . As to the authors. a moment's delay. and at the head of each placed a favourite concubine of the Prince. or Art of War. But when the drums sounded for drill to begin. " I have read your book and of the authors to B. it will be seen later on that the Chinese even went so far as to create some of these for antiquity and then write up treatises to match. said.

. The Erh Ya. "If their arms are not good. and cognate subjects.ost The following " If is : soldiers are not carefully ten well-drilled men. W^n Tzu. or of Kuan Tzu. They will not respond to the call of the gong and drum.— 44 CHINESE. unless able to make might as well shoot with headless These are the oversights of incompetent generals. The same remark applies equally to Chinese medical literature." It is notwithstanding very doubtful if we have any genuine remains of either Sun Tzu. an extract from the Art of War chosen and well drilled to obey. This at once restored order. set. one half fighting while the other is running away. They will not act in concert. They will miss success for want of unanimity. Bows that will not carry are no more use at long distances than swords and spears. and several other early writers on war. to stand the application of the simplest test. is a work which has often been assigned to the 12th century B. and ultimately the corps was raised to a state of great efficiency. some of it nominally dating back to legendary times. Wu Tzu. Bad marksmen might as well have no arrows.C. their movements will be irregular. political philosophy. but always failing their arrows pierce. LITERATURE mand to be beheaded. One hundred such as these will not hold their own agai. the soldiers might as If the cuirass is not stout and close the breast might as well be bare. or Nearing the Standard. Even good marksmen. the bulk of which is enormous. well have none. shafts. It is a guide to the correct use of many miseel- . Five such soldiers are no match for one. Their retreat will be disorderly.

for wood k'o (to carve) .. A man who is pleased will show it in his He will get excited. his The : three following extracts will give an idea of scope I. too." etc. He will sing. There are some interesting remains of a writer named T'AN KuNG. for bone c/tteA (to cut).C. birds. at once upon undue emotion and a guarantee Siniply is against any lack of proper the feelings the to gjve vent to way of barbarians. 'the mourning is monial. and whose work has been included iji the Book of Rites. a man who vexed will will look sad. respect. served. "One day Yu-tzu and Tzu-yu saw a child weeping Thereupon the former obfor the loss of its parents. who flourished in the 4th and 3rd centuries B. The following will give an idea edited with of the text " For metal : we say /ou (to chase) . It was commentary by Kuo P'o. But the whole question is involved in mystery. etc.. He will danCc.' replied Tzu-yu. He will beat his breast.' feeling. including names of animals. Now here you have an honest expression of should ever be. face. and some Chinese critics would have us believe that the illustrations we now possess were then already in existence. and that is all there cere- '"My a check friend. He will sigh. ' I never could understand why mourners should necessarily jump about to show their grief. is So. " ' Consider.— — laneous terms. etc. to first which are added numerous illustrations. He jump about.. plants. of whom we shall read later on. and would long ago have got rid of the custom. with all its material accompaniments. The due . That is not our way.

"When Tzu-chii died. loathing.' From that then the duty time forth will the custom fell into desuetude. in consequence. cease to loathe. when . his wife and secretary took interred with him. a shroud .' replied Tzii-heng. and the latter addressed the . The deceased requires some one to attend upon him in the nether world. counsel together as to All who should be was settled before the arrival of his brother. who better fitted than his and secretary ? If this contingency can be avoided _ altogether. because. saying. I am willing . What you may is censure in who perform itself. We rnust ask you to go down with his body into the grave. He thereupon sent one of his disciples to ask what was the matter. Therefore. rites. ' dead. funeral cortege about to is after burial there yet another. established to attend as not in accordance with you say some one is wanted 'is wife upon the deceased. is another and Yet no one ever saw the spirit of the departed come to taste of the food. " ' These have been our customs from remote antiquity." 46 CHINESE LITERATURE is regulation of these emotions the function of a set ceremonial. Still. They have not been men no more shun in those discarded.' 'Burial of the living with the . and other paraphernalia of burial. "'Further. A man dies and becomes an object is of A dead body shunned.' the ceremonial no blemish the ceremonial 2. Tzuheng and then they informed him. At the death there is a sacrifice of wine is and meat there .'' 3. he overheard a woman weeping and wailing beside a grave. "When Confucius was crossing the T'ai mountain. is prepared. if not. in order that the survivors may start. the dead. devolve upon you two.

do you not go away ?' The government is not harsh. The following passage.'' .' inquired Confucius. conformity with man's natural disposition leads to all kinds of violence. Bad government is worse than a tiger. then. "From these premisses it seems quite clear that by and that if a man is good. and ultimate barbarism. influenced all he can without consideration for his strives to get neighbour.' But why. Hence he seeks the ruin of others. ' ' ' ' . Secondly. Hence he commits excesses. being directly opposed to the Confucian doctrine warmly advocated by Mencius. artificial result. man is evil. from the path of duty and right.' answered the woman. that is an nature man is evil .C. Hence he first of all by a desire for gain.— HSUN TZO ' " 47 woman. turning to his disciples remember that. Only under the restraint of law and of lofty moral : influences does man eventually become fit to be a mem- ber of regularly organised society. " Thus. saying. 'There!' cried the Master.' it is so. Some great sorrow must have come upon you that you give way to grief Hke this ?' Indeed ' was killed here husband and now my son by a tiger . ' My my father-in-law . which hardly carries conviction. has perished by the same death. that is an For his condition being what it is. If a man is good.' repHed she. he is a slave to his animal are set aside. he is artificial result. after that. is known for his heterodox views on the nature of man. and loyalty and truth Thirdly. disorder. and wanders passions. contains the gist of his argument " By nature. he is liable to envy and hate. widely so The philosopher HsiJN TzC of the 3rd century B.

It contains a great deal about the early history of China. 256. of Confucius. but how far the later work is indebted to it. is usually thought by native scholars to have been composed by Wang Su. and not one of them greater than being unfilial. vii. There appears to have been an older work under this same title. some of which is no doubt based upon fact. 235 and was the putative sire of the First Emperor (see ch. or Classic of Filial Piety. is a work which has been ascribed by some to the immediate disciples of Confucius. but which. Another discredited work is the Lii Shik CKun Cltiii. 48 The Hsiao it assigned date. a learned official who died A.D. Lastly. tract will suffice: " The Master said. it is disappointing to find nothing more on the subject than a poor pamphlet of common- place and ill-strung sentences.C. constraint is put upon a ruler. or Family Sayings with a fascinating title.' which gives the impression One short exof having been written to fill a void. is . though to a very more probably belongs much later Considering that filial piety is admittedly the keystone of Chinese civilisation. the sages is disallowed. partly to Confucius and partly to TsfiNG Ts'an.' These three things pave the way The Chia Yu." — CHINESE LITERATURE Ching. or based upon it. that is the when the authority of disowning of his superiority is "'When . who died B.). seems likely to remain unknown. there ' There are three thousand offences against which the five punishments are directed. that the disowning of the principle of affection. to anarchy. among spurious books may be mentioned the . or Spring and Autumn of Ltj Pu-WEI. that piety is is the disowning of is all law when filial put aside. as it now exists.

C. . The sovereign is unfortunately spoken of by his posthumous title.D. an account of a mythical journey by a sovereign of the Chou dynasty.MU AIu 1 'icii T'lEN TZO CHUAN 49 TzU Chuan. supposed to have befen taken about 1000 B. and the work was evidently written up in the 3rd century A. to suit a statement found in Lieh Tzu (see chapter vi.) to the effect that the ruler in question did make some such journey to the West.

" Of these three canons only the last can be said to have survived to the present day. illumines art. Their poetry was prose run mad.CHAPTER V POETRY— INSCRIPTIONS The poetry which is representative of the period between is the death of Confucius and the 2nd century B.. and that the reader should have to think it out. and now. But in the fourth century B. Ch'ii Yiian and his school indulged in wild irregular metres which consorted well with their wild irregular thoughts." " Poetry.C." And again. Ch'u Yuan full is joyed the the type of a loyal Minister. much of it would be quite unintelligible." they say." a definition perhaps not more inadequate than Wordsworth's " impassioned expression. There is nothing It like it in the whole range a native pro- of Chinese literature.C. many nouncement on the poetic otherwise remain obscure. It was allusive and allegorical to a high degree. "The men of old reckoned it the highest excellence in poetry that the meaning should lie beyond the words. " knows no law. the drift of which would For poetry has been defined by the Chinese as "emotion expressed in words. . He enconfidence of his Prince until at length the jealousies and intrigues of rivals sapped his position in the State. • Then it was that he composed the Li Sao. but for the commentary. a thing apart.

Discouraged by failure. and amid the music of tinkling ornaments attached to his car. " the true sage does not quarrel with his environment. peror (chapter ii.). If. he seeks out a famous magician. So I am dismissed. Overwhelmed by further disappointments. whereupon. and I alone am clean. saying. "is foul. while I alone am sober. up to the very palace of God. There he met a fisherman who accosted him. Unable to gain admission here. but adapts himself to it. why not leap into the tide and make it clean ? If all men are drunk. still There they are all drunk. and carry him in search of his ideal away beyond the domain of mortality." replied Ch'ii Yiian. but without having discovered the object of his search. the chariot of the Sun moving slowly to light him longer on the way.LI SAO 51 or Falling into Trouble." " Ah ! " said the fisherman. who counsels him to stand firm and to continue his search. as you say. he starts from the Milky Way. " Are you not his Excellency the Minister ? What has brought you to this pass ? " " The world. why not drink with them and teach them to avoid . Beginning from the birth of the writer. and dragons appear. Before long he is once again in sight of his native land. the Moon leading and the Winds bringing up the rear. his earnest it describes his cultivation of virtue and endeavour to translate precept into practice. and sinking more deeply into disfavour. surrounded by gorgeous clouds and dazzling rainbows. so that he cared no longer to live. he visits the grave of the Em- and gives himself up to prayer. and passing the Western Pole. the world is foul. Shun until at length a phoenix-car — — reaches the sources of the Yellow River. he went forth to the banks of the Mi-lo river. the first section of which extends to nearly 400 lines.

plunged into the river and was seen no more. Such is the origin of the modern Dragon-Boat Festival. riding on the red pard. culling the perfume of sweet flowers to leave behind a memory in the heart.52 excess ? " CHINESE LITERATURE After . I hate amid the chaos him who has made me I an outcast. while the clouds float beneath my feet. me. Alone I stand on the hill-top. of rock and tangled vine. The path thither is dangerous and difficult to climb. and all around is wrapped in gloom. shade mvself . as above. " Gently blows the east wind . This took place on the fifth of the fifth moon and ever rowed away . " Methinks there is a Genius of the hills. with banners of cassia. decline would honour me now ? " I pluck the larkspur on the hillside. cloaked with the orchid. have been classed under the general heading. clad in wistaria. with smiling lips. softly falls the rain. clasping a large stone in his arms. when offerings of rice in bamboo tubes were cast into the river as a sacrifice to the spirit of their great hero. mien. wild cats galloping in the reclining in a chariot. " I who has now no leisure to think of drink from the rocky spring. A good specimen of his style will be found in the following short poem. of witching rear. In my joy I become oblivious of home for who in my . Li Sao. No light of day reaches it ever. entitled " The Genius of the Mountain. which is supposed to be a search for the body of Ch'u Yiian. together afterwards the people of Ch'u commemorated with a number of other pieces in a similar strain." It is one of "nine songs" which. But dark is the grove wherein I dwell. some further colloquy. the day by an annual festival. girdled with ivy. the fisherman and Ch'u Yiian. girt with azalea.

for I cannot lay Another leading poet of the day was Sung Yii. so too it is with manj . amongfishes holds the chiefest place Cleaving the crimson clouds the phanix soars apace. While the depth of a puddle by a humble minnow as the depth of the sea is reckoned. with aflame that never grows dim. And the leviathan rises in to go to rest in one ocean a second. full of nervous thought. : SUNG recall YiJ S3 beneath the spreading pine. The following extract exhibits him in a mood not far removed from the lamentations of the Lz Sao — "Among birds ihephasnix. Behold the philosopher. . Even though he were to me to him. The gibbons howl around me all the long night. " Now booms the thunder through the drizzling rain. Dwelling complacently alone. " say.. and like his uncle both a statesman and whom we know little a poet. Andjust as with birds and with fishes. I could not fall to the level of the world. what can the vulgar herd know of him 1 . The gale rushes fitfully through the whispering trees. And I am thinking my grief. But the grandeur of heaven and earth is as naught to the hedge-sparrow race. Here soars aphcenix. there swims a leviathan ." of my Prince. the leviathan With only the blue sky above. of beyond the fact that he was nephew of Ch'ii Yiian. far into the realms of space. but in vain .

but and Tung-fang So. Several other poets. on a somewhat lower plane. and formed into convenient collections. such as Chia I who cultivated this particular vein. which enlarges : upon the national happiness of those halcyon days " Work. carried away as he is by flow of language and rapid succession of poetical imagery. Of such is a verse known as " Yao's Advice. . to suit the exigency of his thought. is never conscious of any want of art." Yao being the legendary monarch mentioned in chapter ii. Similarly. belong to the second century B... I for the powers that be ? " .C. . poems of this school are they are only approximately metrical.— ^4 As has been — ' CHINESE LITERATURE stated above. who is associated with Shun in China's Golden Age old : — have — " Wiih trembling heart and cautious steps Walk daily in fear of God . but lengthens or shortens irregular in metre in fact. thus overlapping a period which must be regarded as heralding the birth of a new style rather than occupied with the passing of the old. The poet never ends his Hne in deference to a prescribed number of feet. however. It may here be mentioned that many short pieces of doubtful age and authorship some few unquestionably been rescued hy Chinese scholars from various sources. Though you never trip over a mountain. You may often trip over a clod" There is also the husbandman's song. The reader. And jneat and drink both co7ne to So what care me. work J—from the rising sun Till sunset comes and the day is done Iplough the sod And harrow the clod. he may rhyme or he may not. the .

1766. the metre often irregular and the rhyme a mere jingle. poetical articles for daily use. rather than sink in the worlds foul tide I -would sink in the bottomless mainj For he who sinks in the world's foul tide In 'noisome depths shall for ever abide. according to the canons of the stricter prosody which came into existence later on.C. " Man combs his hair every morning why not his heart ? And the following lines are said to be taken from an ancient wash-basin in B. an old metal mirror bore as its legend. too. But he who sinks in the bottomless main \ May hope to float to the surface again. let him do so every day. . founder of the was said to have been written these words " If any one on any one day can make a new man of himself. to all sorts of On : the bath-tub of T'ang." Similarly." is In this class of verse.— INSCRIPTIONS It " 55 attach inscriptions. there Shang dynasty — : : " Oh. seems to have been customary in early days to and otherwise.

Lao Tzu was born." of this chapter hoped. or that which has gathered around what is known as the Tao or Way of Lao TztJ. This branch consists of the literature of Taoism. 604. According to Lao Tzu himself. some glimmering of the meaning of Tao may have reached the minds of those who have been patient enough to follow the argument. it only remains to say that we really know next to nothing about him. that by the time the end is reached. that is to say. according to the weight of evidence.C. Omitting all reference to the supernatural phenomena which attended his birth and early years. It seemed advisable to get that well off bur hands before entering upon another branch. those who tell do not know. of or belonging to or based uponthe Confucian Canon. scarcely indeed as important. however. but much more difficult to handle. growing and flourishing alongside of. So far we have dealt almost exclusively with what may be called orthodox literature.C.CHAPTER VI TAOISM—THE "TAO-TE-CHING" reader is now asked to begin once more at the sixth century B. though in direct criteria The antagonism to. in the year B. There is a short biography of Lao It is 56 . " Those who know do not tell . quite impossible to explain at the outset in what this Tao actually consists. that which is founded upon the Unfortunately it is and doctrines of Confucius.

The name Lao Tan occurs in four by it is are expressly told that passages in the Book of Rites." clear from Ssu-ma Ch'ien's account that he himhad never seen the book. a subject which Lao Tzu held in very low esteem. was deemed necessary by pious enthusiasts to interpolate work of Josephus a passage referring to Christ.^ tioned by Tso of the famous commentary. the Warden. and no one knows where he died.. but we not meant the philosopher Lao Tzu. points to embroidery laid in the it on by other hands. on Tao and T6. . Ssu-ma Ch'ien. but when he saw that the State showed signs of decay. said to him. as Confucius is made to visit Lao Tzu with a view to information on Rites.^ extending to over 5000 words. which has been inserted very much apropos de bottes : the more so.— LAO TZO Tzu to be 57 found in the history of II. nor by Ts^ng Ts'an. He then went away. This biography ends with the following extraordinary episode : " Lao Tzu abode for a long time in Chou. nor by the editors of the Confucian Analects. named Yin Hsi. in two parts. though a dwindling minority still believe that we possess that book in the It is self well-known Tao-Ti-Ching. On reaching the frontier. It must now be stated that throughout what are generally believed to be the writings of Confucius the name It is not menof Lao Tzu is never once mentioned.' Thereupon Lao Tzu wrote a book.. to be but internal evidence Just as it dealt with in Book chapter iii. he left. ' So you are going into retirement. so would appear that the original note by Ssu-ma Ch'ien has been carefully touched up to suit the requirements of an unauthenticated meeting between Lao Tzu and Confucius. I beg you to write a book for me. ' ' Te is Ihe exemplification of Tao.

" is By many words wit exhausted it is better to pre- serve a mean. in order to make them good. Shen Jo-shui. a doctrine inseparably associated with ." "Abandon wisdom and discard knowledge. Chu Hsi. energies to the exposition ing of Lao Tzu. and you shall be put in front. declare emphatically against the genuineness of the Tao-Ti-Ching." " Put yourself behind. but it has long since been laughed out of court as a pious fraud by every competent Chinese critic. To the not-good I would also be good.58 CHINESE LITERATURE Chuang Tzii. were it not for the attention paid to it by several more or less eminent foreign students of the language. but make no " display of it to the world. and many others. sandwiched however between thick wads of padding from which little meaning can be extracted except by enthusiasts who curiously enough disagree absolutely among " The themselves." These last maxims are supposed to illustrate Lao Tzii's favourite doctrine of doing nothing. A : Tzii will now be given — few examples from the real Lao Way (Tao) which can be walked upon is not the eternal Way. never once drops even a hint that his Master had written a book. and scant allusion would indeed have been made to it here. It is interesting as a collection of many genuine utterances of Lao Tzu. and the people will be benefited an hundredfold. own heart." " Recompense injury with kindness. or. In his work will now be found an account of the meeting of Confucius and Lao Tzu." " Follow diligently the Way in your . who devoted all his and enforcement of the teach- nor by Mencius. as it has been termed. Inaction." "To the good I would be good.

we may take a paragraph which now passes as chapter : Chalmers — "The Spirit (like perennial spring) of the call the call the valley never dies." To turn to the padding." One more example from Chalmers' translation will perhaps seal the fate of this book with readers who claim at least a minimum of sense from an old-world classic. It was openly enunciated as follows :-^ " Do nothing. from. which atfirst titey issuedforth. aye the same. The female mystery thus do we name. In speaking. not. Used gently.Tzu who about the time indicated. Is called the rootfrom which grew heaven and earth. cannot possibly be doubted. it is goodforfidelity" That there was such a philosopher as Lao." " I do nothing. and the people become good of their tion over the own accord.— TAO-TE-CHING his 59 name. and without the touch ofpain. Chalmers and Legge. " Where water abides. Ceaselessly it seems employed without effort. root of heaven it and earth. as rendered vi. and whose sayings have come down to us first by tradition and later by written and printed record. and is —" The valley spirit dies Its gate. it is goodfor adaptability. The great work of Chuang Tzu would be sufficient to establish lived . : by the late Drs. This (Spirit) I The passage of the abyss-mother I abyss-mother. In its heart. and all things will be done. Long and unbroken does its power remain. it is goodfor benevolence. it is goodfor depth. and one which has ever exerted much fascinamore imaginative of his countrymen. In giving." Legge : to endure.

C. But a sable robe." says the historian Ssu-ma Ch'ien. of the seventeenth century. says the Chinese proverb. But he. is work is much originality of thought. definite use. Chuang Tzii has not come down that now passes under his name be regarded as genuine. all things posterity a also a it would be done. But he bequeathed to work which. idealistic. at its . His teachings are like an overwhelming flood. indeed. The appears chiefly as a disciple insisting upon the principles of a Master. hands have added. neither can all by Lao Tzu. . while at the same time it forms a handy guide to a nearer appreciation of this elusive Tao.6o CHINESE LITERATURE ' this beyond cavil. and carry his own speculations into writer. which spreads own sweet will. a brilliant critic out with dogs' tails. cannot. . be eked many Lin Hsi-chung. has shown with unerring touch where the and the jackals began. the former a practical system for everyday And Chuang Tzu was unable to persuade the use. Chuang TzO was born held a petty official post. vainly passages and several entire chapters. has contrived to extend the field. true. ministers downwards. Alien. and " He wrote. in the fourth century B. . "with a view to asperse the Confucian school and to glorify the mysteries of Lao Tzu. to whose edition all students lion left off should turn.. regions never dreamt of The whole work of to us. of It literary beaufy. calculating Chinese nation that by doing nothing. by reason of its marvellous has always held a foremost place." Consequently. from rulers and none could apply them to any Here we have the key to the triumph of the Tao of The latter was Confucius over the Tao of Lao Tzu.

indeed. is it it is not Tao. spoken. and the manuscript was Kuo Hsiang. By following nothing. interrupted his labours before he had He was work on Chuang Tzu. That which imparts form is itself formless Tao cannot have a name (as forrn precedes name).. So far as it is possible to deduce anything definite from the scanty known. by according in nothing. . 'Tao cannot be seen to . Death. Tao may be By resting in nothing. Before attempting to illustrate by extracts the style and scope of Chuang Tzu.D. its boundless capacity. In his most famous chapter. without end." " Tao canfinished his purloined by : not be heard." In these and many like passages Lao Tzu would have been in full sympathy with his disciple. entitled Autumti Floods. is not Tao. heard. howevei". volatile spirit of the third century A. nor too great for the smallest. Tao may be attained." "Tao is not too small for the greatest. Chuang Tzu writes as follows " Tao is without beginning. 6i of the first edition really belongs to a named Hsiang probably the founder. 312. " There is nowhere where it is not. . by no cogitations.D. forms it not Tao. and with some additions was issued by the latter as his own. a scholar who died A. Thus all things are embosomed therein its wide. it will be well to collect from his work a few passages dealing with the attributes of Tao.— CHUANG TZU The honour Hsiu. unfathomable depth. of a small club of bibulous poets who called themselves the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove." ''By no thoughts. ." Elsewhere he says. Tao may be approached. seen. therefore Tao cannot be spoken. a name by which he himself is sometimes spoken of. by pursuing nothing. at any rate a member.

returned after transitory By ignoring the distinctions of contraries embraced in the obliterating unity of God. and the Infinities converge.). Positive and and that. Take no heed of time. right and wrong. omnipresent law (Tao). such as a drunken man falling out of that thus a cart and not injuring himself among fore in sailors —because —a common superstition unconscious and there- he is environment. " When subjective and objective are both without their correlates. he will thereby attain to a vague condition Beyond this the teachings of Lao of general immunity* Tzu would not carry us. In his marvellous chapter on The Identity of Contraries. and that if he is in harmony with his environment. this Tao all things are One. and this infinite absolute represented by One. assigned by later Taoist writers to the pole-star (see Book on IV. The One became God. somewhere *and nowhere. make your final are .62 traditions of CHINESE LITERATURE the teachings of Lao Tzu. Chuang Tzii. were too concrete even for Chuang Tzu. ch. however. nor of right and wrong but passing into the realm of the Infinite. here and there. from simple problems." Centre. subjective and objective. he maintains that from the his harmony with standpoint of negative. And when that axis passes through the centre at which all an and negative alike blend into This localisation in a Centre. and he will become in perfect harmony with his environment. become indistinct. that man should remain impassive under the operation of an eternal. that is the very axis of Tao. we seem to obtain this. positive infinite One. became the source life of all its life and the haven to which such stay earth." . slides easily into an advanced mysticism. "we rest therein. as water is in water. vertical and horizontal. i.

Those who dream of lamentation and sorrow. — but a dream myself. Now I do not know whether I was lay. By and by comes the Great Awakening. and then we find out that this life is really a great dream. Fools think they are awake now." He delights in Chuang Tzu is fond of paradox. Butterfly I am Chuang "Once upon a : butterfly. and that a hunchback can not only make a good living by wash- ." The chapter closes with a paragraph which has gained for its writer an additional epithet. or whether I am now a butterfly dreaming I am a man. Some will even interpret the very dream they are dreaming . fluttering hither I was a and thither. I awaked.U 63 was familiar indefinite future state mind of Chuang Tzii may be : gathered from many passages such as the following " How then do I know but that the dead repent of having previously clung to life ? "Those who dream of the banquet. I was conscious only of following my fancies as a butterfly. then a man dreaming I was a butterfly. you are both dreams . and there I dividuality as a man. Chuang Tzu. dwelling on the usefulness of useless things. and I who say you are dreams. wake to lamentation and sorrow. and flatter themselves they know if Confucius and they are really princes or peasants. wake to join the hunt. I. to all intents and purposes a butterfly. that diseased pigs are not killed for sacrifice. they do not know that they dream. and was unconscious of my inSuddenly. He shows time. and only when they awake do they know it was a dream. myself again. While they dream.— (^nuAiNU That the idea of an to the — iz. dreamt that ill-grown or inferior trees are allowed to stand.

Every stream (i. heard but part of the truth thinks no one equal to himself. although heterodox justly in the eyes of a Confucianist. — the creature of : You cannot speak of ice to a summera season. But now that I have looked upon your inexhaustibility alas for me had I not reached your abode. for CHINESE LITERATURE which a bent body is no drawback. but escapes the dreaded press-gang in time of war. poured into the river.' 64 ing. You cannot speak of Tao to a that now pedagogue his scope is too restricted. the creature of a ' — narrower sphere. " When formerly I heard people detracting from the learning of Confucius. has always been esteemed for his pointed wit and charming style.) " It was the time of autumn floods. I should have been for ever a laughing-stock to those of comprehensive enlighten' — ment ! " To which the Spirit of the Ocean replied. The banks receded so far from one another that it was impossible to tell a cow from a horse. I did not believe. Down with the stream he journeyed east. And 'as he gazed over the expanse. which swelled in its turbid course. leave of With a few illustrative extracts we must now take Chuang Tzu. You cannot speak of ocean to a well-frog. his countenance changed. 'A vulgar proverb says. a writer who. or underrating the heroism of Po I. until he reached the There. "Then the Spirit of the River laughed for joy that all the beauty of the earth was gathered to himself. insect. looking eastwards and seeing no limit to its waves. And such a one am I. he sighed and said to the Spirit of the Ocean. that he who has ocean. But you have emerged from your narrow sphere .

the trade-winds. or tadpoles I see around me are my match. And for one whose knowledge does not reach to the positive-negative domain. nor a thousand fathoms its depth. so it shrank back and begged to be excused. to attempt to understand me. me leg a visit ? ' ^ tjie eastern sea had not got its left had already stuck fast. against all the water of Ocean !] Why do you not come. and not one of the cockles. little may have become but does the minnow under- stand the ocean tides and periodic currents. It then described the sea. [Fancy pitting the happiness of an old well. I gather the water under my arms and shut my mouth. native creek every cranny and pebble and quality and accident of its familiar . there were nine years of flood out of ten but this did not add to its bulk. not to be affected by volume of water. and pay Happy indeed am rest in the well.' (2. " Now the turtle of down ere its right . ! I I hop on to the rail around the hollow of some broken brick. In the days of the Great Yii.' "At this the well-frog was considerably astonished. I plunge into the mud. CHUANG TZU insignificance. Not to be affected by duration of time. you know your own and I can speak to you of great well ' ? —The I "Have you never heard of the frog in the old frog said to the turtle of the eastern sea. Chuang Tzu. 'A thousand li would not measure its breadth. Swimming. In the days of T'ang. and moon's eclipses . Natural Supernaturalism. and monsoons. crabs. . is like a ' "To the minnow.) 65 and have seen the great ocean. ? " Sartor Resartus. there were seven years out of eight of drought but this did not narrow its span. sir." — — . principles. saying. • . such is the great happiness of the eastern sea. ejaculates Chuang Tzu. and knew not what to say next. burying my feet and toes .

and perished in the fray ? some wretch who left behind him a legacy of shame ? some beggar who died in the pangs Or didst thou reach this state by of hunger and cold ? — — the natural course of old age ? he had finished speaking. sir but all you say has reference to the life of mortals. "When . or an ant to swim a river. and wagging its tail in the mud. ' You speak well.) ' whose inordinate yearnings brought him to this pass ? some statesman who plunged his country in ruin. Would you like to hear about death ? . or be alive and wagging the " ' its tail in mud ' ?' would rather be alive." ' ' — 66 CHINESE LITERATURE mosquito trying to carry a mountain.) "Chuang Tzu was fishing in the P'u when the prince of Ch'u sent two high officials to ask him to take charge of the administration of the Ch'u State. Striking it with his riding whip. and without turning his head said. 'I too will wag my It tail in the mud. and said. he said. In the night. he took the skull. Wert thou once some ambitious citizen (4. Now would this tortoise rather be dead. "Chuang Tzu went on fishing.' replied the two officials. and to mortal troubles. and have its remains venerated.' "Chuang Tzu one day saw an empty skull. I have heard that in Ch'u there is a sacred tortoise which has been dead now some three thousand ' years. In death there are none of these. he dreamt that the skull appeared to him." — (3._' "'Begone!' cried Chuang Tzu. they cannot succeed. and placing it under his head as a pillow. bleached. went to sleep. but still preserving its shape. And that the prince keeps this tortoise carefully enclosed in a chest on the altar of his ancestral temple.

" ' . there is no sovereign above.' added he. in his ceremonial robes. and no subject below. I shall discipHne myself for ten days and fast for three. It is better perhaps after all to live on bran and ' : ' ' escape the shambles. Does not this satisfy you ? " Then speaking from the pigs' point of view. and said. so that you could return to your parents. to your wife. The happiness of a king among men cannot exceed that which we enjoy. and your bones and flesh to be renewed.' " So he rejected the pigs' ppint of view and adopted his own point of view. and place you bodily upon a carved sacrificial dish.' ' . he continued. his disciples expressed a wish to give him a splendid funeral. and to the friends of your youth would you be willing ? " At this. however. .' — ' CHUANG TZO " 67 Chuang Tzii : began In death. In what sense then was he different " from the pigs ? (6. I shall strew fine grass.) proached the shambles and thus addressed the pigs " How can you object to die ? I shall fatten you for three months.) " When Chuang Tzii was about to die. the eternity. was not convinced. The workings of the four seasons are unknown. and mingle once again in the — toils and troubles of mortality ? " " The Grand Augur. But But then. Our existences are bounded only by skull ' — having replied in the affirmative. ' Were I to prevail upon God to allow your body to be born again. the skull opened its eyes wide and knitted its brows and said. ' How should I cast aside happiness greater than that of a king. . to enjoy honour when alive one would readily die on a war-shield or in the headsman's basket. ap(5. speaking from his own point of view.' " Chuang Tzu.

'Above ground I shall be food for kites. him is curious enough to deserve on a lower level of thought and style than the work of Chuang Tzu still. though his name was less broadly allegorical than those of All-inExtremes. whose minds no its suspicion of their real character seems to have found Gradually the work came to be looked upon as doubtful. . and of Do-Nothing-Say-Nothing. The scholar for he certainly was one who took the trouble to forge this work.D. . and now it is known to be a forgery.' argued the disciples. may be procured at any Chinese book-shop. ' The works of LlEH TzO. was himself the victim of a strange delusion. like — — many others of Chuang Tzu's characters. ' Chuang and With heaven and earth for my coffin with the sun. to whom Chuang Tzii devotes a whole chapter." — 68 CHINESE LITERATURE Tzti said. and students. These volumes profess to contain the writings of a Taoist philosopher who flourished some years before Chuang Tzu. possibly of the first or second century A. moon. ' ' ' to which Chuang Tzu replied. into for a long time they received considerable attention at the hands of European way. But he was in reality nothing more than a figment of the imagination. and others. and with all creation to escort me to the grave. He thought that Lieh Tzu. in two thin volumes. it contains much traditional matter and many allusions not found elseattributed to It is The book attention. Why rob one to feed the other ? should eat the body of our Master ' . had been a live philosopher of flesh and blood. lest the carrion kite shell. are not my funeral paraphernalia ready to hand ? " We fear. and stars as my burial regalia. then spurious . below I shall be food for mole-crickets and ants.

and was jeered at by the boys as an impostor. he forgot the place where he had put it. saying.' replied his wife. The latter. Now I have got the deer so his dream was a reality. But of all this work perhaps the most attractive portion its To author we owe apocryphal. and went and got the deer. when he came across a startled deer. 69 the famous. It is therefore of little importance whether the woodman dreamt the deer or I dreamt the woodman. then.' It is you. Fearing lest any one should see him. he set off towards home. and therefore nearer than at dawn. Did he get the deer ? and is there really such a person ? It is you who have got the deer how. can his dream be a . acted upon them. and must consequently be much nearer . thinking he must have been dreaming. when he reached his house. ' that I have got the deer. rejoicing excessively at good fortune. story of on Dream and Reality Ch^ng was one day gathering fuel. but he did not know where if was. By and by. Confucius confessed himself unable to decide between them. 'A woodman dreamt he had got a deer. but of course Confucius meeting two boys quarrelling about the distance of the sun from the earth. which he pursued and killed. ' : reality ? ' ' It is true. 'who have been dreaming you saw a woodman. he hastily concealed the carcass in a ditch and is a short story : " A man of the State of covered his it with plaintain leaves. told his wife.' . but the other retorted that at noon the sun was much hotter. a man who had overheard his words.' assented the husband. humming over the affair on his way. " Meanwhile.— LIEH TZO where. and. One of them said that at dawn the sun was much larger than at noon.

which from an original teacher. He then possession and when the steps to recover it. He now comes forward with a real dream and an alleged deer. took legal case So next morning he proceeded to the and there it was. such as Lao Tzii is supposed to have been. came : judgment The plaintiff began with a real deer and an alleged dream.' ' — on. he came much annoyed at the loss of the deer and in night he actually dreamt where the deer then was. and partly for the quaint illustrations he gives of the meaning of the sayings themselves. which you had better divide between you. showing how this book was pieced together from Ching. both the woodman and the deer are but the figments of a dream. " Now when the woodman reached his home. And what is more. partly for the light they throw upon the connection between the genuine sayings of Lao Tzu and the Tao-Ti-Ching." 70 CHINESE LITERATURE bethe . and obtained favour in the eyes of the First ch.). i. and he committed suicide in prison. We cannot imagine that he had before him the Tao-Tiits best sayings. the magistrate delivered the followiiig Han Fei TzC. He deals with many of may well have come originally . and who had got place indicated in his dream. 233. according to his wife. Emperor (see Book II. here is a deer. The defendant really got the deer which plaintiff said he dreamt. who died B. so that no one got the deer at all. but misrepresentations of rivals brought about his downfall. while. He was deeply read in law.c.. but quite at random and not as if he took them from an orderly work. — . portions of his own commentary have actually slipped into the Tao-Ti-Ching as text. and is now trying to keep it . has left us fifty-five essays of considerable value. However.

the Court capital out of the cure." To this Han Fei Tzu adds. and to end in downfall and death. " The wise man takes time by the foreand detailed lock.' remarked. that the tide of luxury had set in. affection of the Take care. Take care. but after ten days more the physician once more observed. and ten days later. he observed to his courtiers. when the tyrant Chou Hsin (who died B. or it may become serious.' Again the Duke paid no heed . or it may become serious.' and when the physician was gone. TZU 71 found in the Tao-Ti-Ching. and departed without saying The Duke sent some one to inquire what anything. 'Doctors dearly love to treat patients who are not ill. the trees would be badly off for foliage.' 'Oh no. " Leave all things to take their natural course. or it may have become serious. simple saying as " To of sight. when the physician came.C. he simply looked at his royal patient. "A man spent three years in carving a leaf out of ivory. Your Grace has an affection physician again ' Take care. 'I nothing the matter with me . has an affection of the viscera. 6 . to bring licentiousness and cruelty in its train. But Lieh Tzu said. 'If God Almighty were to spend three years over every leaf. 11 22) took to ivory chopsticks. and then make Ten days afterwards. "One day the Court physician Duke Huan.HAJN FEl various sources." he quotes sentences not to be He illustrates such a see small beginnings is clearness by drawing attention to a man who foresaw. 'Your Grace of the flesh." said to Han Fei Tzii adds. Agaiin.' The Duke took no notice of this. of such elegant workmanship that it would lie undetected among a heap of real leaves. Lao Tzii said. 'Your Grace is suffering from an muscular system.' replied the Duke.'" Lao Tzii said.

it is interesting enough in itself and what is more important. . wrote an esoteric work in twenty-one chapters. which we are supposed still to possess. cauterisation might have been tried. became Prirace of of the founder Huai-nan. that known to the Chinese until between two and three will perly belongs to the next period. So it is that the skilful doctor attacks disease while it is still in the muscles and easy to deal with. the Duke felt pains all over his body. it marks the transition of the pure and simple Way of Lao Tzu. Lao Tzu urged his fellow-mortals to guard their vitality by entering into harmony with their environment. besides many exoteric works." . but now it is in the bones and marrow. such as a treatise on alchemy. As when it was introduced from the West. book which passes under his name. to the . and to him the physician said. the Philosopher He of that ilk. alchemy was not It is fairly certain. it is difficult to assign to it any exact date. and naught will avail. that he is known to the Chinese people. to the grosser beliefs of later ages in magicians and life. however. Like the work of Lieh Tzu. acupuncture might have been employed and as long as it was in the viscera. etherealised by Chuang centuries later. " to pass the elixir of . To it clear off finally this school of early Taoist writers. and it is as HuAi-NAN TzO. As long as the disease was in the muscles. it might have been met by fomentations and hot applications . a grandson of the Han dynasty.' Five days later. when it was in the flesh. and sent to summon his physician but the physician had fled. none of which are extant. and the Duke died. Chuang Tzu added a motive. 72 CHINESE LITERATURE ' was the matter. be necessary to admit here one whose life proLiu An.. Tzii.

" in which. He went by night into the enemy's camp. His retainers were aghast . and then we will renew the attack. he deals with the sayings of Lao Tzii after the fashion of Han Fei Tzu. The same night our master-thief stole the general's pillow." said he in reply to the remonretreat at once. This was returned next morning with a message that it had been found by one of the soldiers who was gathering fuej. " If you do not quarrel. that when a certain ruler was besieging an enemy's town. value his story of of sur- abilities. ." This noble behaviour so delighted the enemy that they tendered allegiance on the spot.HUAI-NAN TZO into the realm of the Infinite therein. Lao Tzii said. strances of his officers. " Do not value the man. Huai-nan Tzii begins with a lengthy disquisition " On the Nature of Tao. which was restored with a similar message . and then. as elsewhere. when fortune was adverse and all was on the point of being lost. the master-thief begged to be allowed to try his skill. and stole their general's bed-curtain. whereupon the former gave orders to beat a " For. a large part of the wall fell down . and the following night he stole the long pin used to secure the hair. " a gentleman never hits a man who is down. no one on earth will be able to quarrel with you. but shortly afterwards their State was attacked by the Ch'i State." a general Whereupon Huai-nan Tzu tells a of the Ch'u State who was fond rounding himself with men of ability. and once even went so far as to engage a man who represented himself as a master-thief." To this Huai-nan Tzu adds. Let them rebuild their wall. Thus Lao Tzii said." 73 final rest and make one's From which it is but a step to immortality and the elixir of life.

and immediately sailed up to heaven after The end of this philosopher him ! . he dropped the vessel which had contained this elixir into his courtyard. " they will have of the Ch'i State my head next.— 74 " CHINESE LITERATURE ! Good heavens " cried the general at a council of war. in his excitement. and that after drinking of it he rose up to heaven in broad daylight. zodiacal signs. Upon which the army Among passages of general interest the following : may well be quoted the the Duke of Lu-yang was at war with and sunset drew near while a battle was still fiercely raging. which forthwith went back three "Once when Han State. and shook it at the sun." was withdrawn. He seems to have mixed himself up in some treasonable enterprise. says that he positively discovered the elixir of immortality. and was driven to commit suicide." was a tragic one. and that his dogs and poultry sipped up the dregs. however. Also that. the Duke held up his spear. Tradition.



found himself in B. This catastrophe was by no means unexpected. closely Never bound up with The feudal spirit had long since declined. after gradually vanquishing and absorbing such of the other rival States as had not already been swallowed up by his own State. and forthwith proclaimed himself its Emperor.C. and the whole fabric of feudalism melted easily away. Then came the opportunity and the man. The Chou dynasty. with its eight hundred years of sway. Some was named Su Tai. forty years previously a politician. 221 master of the whole of China. 200) CHAPTER «' I THE FIRST EMPEROR"—THE BURNING OF THE BOOKS—MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS has the hterature of any country been more the national history than was that of China at the beginning of the period upon which we are now about to enter.C. . was a thing of the past. 200-A. and the bond between suzerain and vassal had grown weaker and weaker until "at length it had ceased to exist.BOOK THE SECOND THE HAN DYNASTY (B. The ruler of the powerful State of Ch'in.D.

'there will be a 'And if you don't get out of this by to-day or to-morrow. medicine. tablets who at considerable risk set concealed the by which they possible the discoveries of and thus made the following century and the such store. then in process of building. Many valuable works perished." said he. and the Confucian Canon would have been irretrievably lost but for the devotion .' cried the oysterdead mussel. 13. I saw a mussel open Immediately an oyster.' catcher. was enacted against all who refused to surrender their books for destruction. All existing literature was to be destroyed. with the exception only of works relating to agriculture. This plan was carried out with considerable vigour. But a single decree has branded his name with infamy. thrust in his bill to eat the mussel. is In B. a trusted Minister.' retorted the mussel. ' there will be a dead oyster-catcher.catcher its shell to sun itself.C. and civilisation made considerable advances during his short reign. and divination and a penalty of branding and four years' work on the Great Wall. fear lest the Ch'in State should be our fisherman." The new Emperor was in many senses a great man. 'If it or to-morrow.78 CHINESE LITERATURE one day advising the King of Chao to put an end to his ceaseless hostilities with the Yen State. but the latter promptly closed doesn't its shell rain to-day and held the bird fast. " This morning. " when crossing the river. to lettered people. by which the claims of antiquity were to be for ever blotted out and history was to begin again with the ruling monarch. thenceforward to be famous as the First Emperor. last so long as the Chinese remain a Li Ssu. .' Mean- while up I came a fisherman and carried off both of them. of scholars. named said to have suggested an extraordinary plan.

was put to death in 207. literati are said to have been put to death for dis- obedience that melons actually grew in winter on the spot beneath which their bodies were buried. Ll SstJ was a scholar himself. of 79 tlie restoration of the sacred text. in beadle. An An in Chapter account of the mausoleum built to receive his remains will be found iii. no distinctions of nationof the script : . The following is from a memorial of his against the proscription of nobles and others from rival States " As broad acres yield large crops. and. For him. thus bringing their line to an end. of this Book.C." The First Emperor died in B. The four seasons enrich him . no boundaries of realm. and the reputed inventor known as the Lesser Seal. like our rulers of old. Not a single clod was added to T'ai-shan in vain hence the huge mountain we now behold. House The vacant throne was who established the glorious memory of which Chinese of the still present day. won by a of quondam Han. . the Second Emperor. are proud to call themselves Sons of Han. The merest streamlet is received into the bosom of Ocean hence the Ocean's unfathomable expanse. no man's hand against him. : : ality exist.1 and his feeble son. chiefly in the north.— LI SSO So many. And wise and virtuous is the ruler who scorns not the masses below. So soon as the empire settled peace. so for a nation to be great there should be a great population and for soldiers to be daring their generals should be brave. indeed. 210. a mighty effort down to comparative at least was made to undo the mischief sustained by the national ' some of literature. which was in vogue for several centuries. the Gods is bless him .

books were brought out of their hidingplaces. a descendant of Confucius in the twelfth degree. and war For in the twinkling of an eye the is a dread thing.D. added to the triumphs of the sword the invention of the camel's-hair brush. when paper was invented by Ts'ai Lun. which the Chinese use as a pen." " But arms. popularly known as Wisdom-Bag. who in point of food and skill are closely allied to the Huns. He deciphered the text of the Book of History. He wrote on the military operations against the Huns. the form of the written character underwent a corresponding change to suit the materials employed. the materials of writing had undergone a radical change. and strips of cloth or silk came into general use. and transcribed large portions of script. However that may be. Ch'ao Ts'o (perished B. which had been discovered when pulling down the old house where Confucius once lived. 155). named M^ng T'ien. Some say that brickdust and water did duty at first for ink. The clumsy bamboo tablet and stylus were discarded. if we can believe tradition.. and the strong may be brought . plead^ ing for the employment of frontier tribes. and have been preserved accordingly.C. was a statesman rather than an author. Meanwhile. " barbarians. mighty may be humbled. Still. " are a curse. A general. set to work to restore the that lost classics. it from the ancient into the later He also wrote a commentary on the Analects Filial and another on the Piety Classic. many of his memorials to the throne were considered masterpieces. and scholars like K'UNG An-kuo. and were so employed until the first century A.So extra impetus CHINESE LITERATURE under the was given to this movement by the fact First Emperor." he says.

C. levies light taxes. honesty and shame depart. poverty in insufficiency insufficiency of food in neglect of agriculture. When cold and hunger come upon men. can subdue this roving spirit that is strong within him.— CHAO TS'O— LI low. gathered around him ? "The wise ruler knows this. Without Such tie he readily leaves his birthplace and his home." when their resources The name is of Li Ling (second and first centuries B. He is like unto the birds of the air or the beasts of the field. nor cruel punishments. high command and was again employed against these troublesome neighbours. to provide for his subjects at times fail." In an essay : LING 8i "On the Value of Agriculture" he * writes thus of food "Crime begins . nor harsh laws. With a force of only 5000 . He was a military official who was sent in command of 800 horse to reconnoitre the territory of the successful from this expedition. in poverty. or hunger he must wear clothes. he must eat twice daily. " He who is cold examines not the quality of cloth . Therefore he concenHe trates the energies of his people upon agriculture. And if the stomach cannot get food and the body clothes.) a familiar one to every Chinese schoolboy. . man has no tie to bind him to the soil. he who is hungry tarries not for choice meats. Neither battlemented nor deep moats. Huns and returning he was promoted to a . the love of the fondest mother cannot keep her children at her How then should a sovereign keep his subjects side. or be cold. As man is constituted. Without agriculture. cities. He extends the system of grain storage.

Li Ling remained some twenty years. Hun envoys to return had been imprisoned in China. With the renegade Li Ling is associated his patriot contemporary. subsequently slew a Chinese renegade and then when it was found that he was not to be forced into submission. who also met with strange adventures among the Huns. and in A. who gave him his daughter to wife. . when he heard that Li Ling was' training the Khan's soldiers in the art of war as then practised by the Chinese. . He kept himself alive by sucking snow and gnawing a and at length the Huns.D. with the Huns. sent him away north and set him to with his some hours. . and later on. and on the strength of this an attempt was made to persuade him to throw off his allegiance and enter the service of the Huns upon which he tried to commit suicide. thinking that he was a felt rug supernatural being. Several Chinese envoys had been imprisoned by the latter.82 CHINESE LITERATURE Hun territory as far as infantry he penetrated into the Mount Ling-chi (?). He own hand . But a new Khan had recently sent back all the imprisoned envoys. and wounded himself so severely that he lay unconscious for troops had exhausted all their arrows. At this the Emperor was furious . where he was surrounded by an army of 30. and children to be put to death. and was highly honoured by the Khan. he caused his mother. he was thrown into a dungeon and left without food for several days. wife. Whilst at the Court of the Khan his fellow-envoys revolted. 100 Su Wu was despatched upon a mission of peace to return the Hun envoys who had been detained by the Chinese. and not allowed and by way of reprisal. Su Wu.000 of the Khan's soldiers and when his . until his death. . he was forced to surrender.

He had gone away in the prime of life he returned a white-haired and broken-down old man. Some doubt has been cast upon the genuineness of one of those attributed to Li Ling. To Huns replied that he but a former assistant to Su Wu . but not by the greatest of modern critics. and still a common model for students. who declares that its pathos is enough to make even the gods weep. but all was in vain. and that it cannot possibly have . Lin Hsichung. brilliant critic of the twelfth century. would at that date have been taboo. being part of the personal name of a recent Emperor. from which he had learnt the whereabouts of his missing envoy.C. is a Jetter written by Li Ling to Su Wu. and in B. that a certain word was used poem. This story so astonished the Khan that Su Wu was released. peace was made with the Huns. in reply to an affecin the tionate appeal to him to return also. LI LING 83 tend sheep. and if he died he would never forget her. It was pointed out by Hung Mai. and the Emperor asked for the return of was dead bade the new envoy tell the Khan that the Emperor had shot a goose with a letter tied to its leg. after the latter's return to China. a this the Su Wu. Li Ling and Su Wu are said to have exchanged poems at parting. Its genuineness has been questioned by Su Shih of the Sung dynasty. In the year 86. which. which has been preserved.. who further gave to his wife a parting poem. Then Li Ling was ordered to try once more by brilHant offers to shake his unswerving loyalty. No such stigma attaches to the verses by Su Wu. But most famous of all. 81 returned to China after a captivity of nineteen years. promising her that if he lived he would not fail to return. and these are to be found published in collections under their respective names.

"Born within the domain of refinement and justice. Thy return was to honour and renown. Such is the divergence of man's destiny. In the morning I sit up and listen still. of ? what I stuff am I. The whole country is stiff with black ice. far-off — happy in the enjoyment happy in the prospect of an there is no misery like exile in a friend. Skins and felt protect me from wind and With mutton and whey I satisfy my hunger and rain. kinder than a brother's words for which my soul thanks thee. . O my of a glorious reputation. home thirst. " Ever since the hour of my surrender until now. destitute of all resource. O Tzu-ch'ing. my . Companions with whom to while time have none. while I remained behind with infamy and disgrace. All day long I see none but barbarians around me. I turn and listen to the distant sound of Tartar pipes. I am no"w an object of pity to all. bidding me of good cheer. to the whinnying of slake my I away. With may well rest content. : come from any Here " is this verdict the foreign student the letter O Tzu-ch'ing. while tears course down my that I cheeks. I hear naught but the moaning of the bitter autumn blast. I cannot sleep at night. ! the I heart brimful of longing thoughts of have thy kindly letter. Tartar steeds. aged mother butchered upon the I thought of my innocent wife and child.— 84 CHINESE LITERATURE other hand save that of Li Ling. beneath which all vegetation has disappeared. imperishable name. foreign land. should do aught but grieve The day of thy departure left me disconsolate indeed. I thought of threshold of the grave. Deserving as I might have been of Imperial censure. I have sat alone with the bitterness of my grief. condemned to the same cruel fate.

With rations for a long march. There were not wanting those who mistook my attitude for compliance. But to kill myself would have been of no avail I should only have added to my shame. my former tale. missioned me. I left me obligations to sovereign and family for life amid barbarian hordes and now barbarian children behind . to carry on operations in a distant country. and captured their standards. " O Tzu-ch'ing. and when I pause to think of these things. Yet we slew their leaders. With them. grief. I had no fair hearing . And yet my merit was great. We obliterated their very traces we swept them away like dust we beheaded their general. Five brother generals missed their way I alone reached the theatre of war. and entered the territory of the fierce Huns.: 1. theirs horsemen fresh from the stable. I passed beyond the limits of the Celestial Land. leading on my men. carry on the line of my forefathers. and urged me to a nobler course . With five thousand men I stood opposed to a hundred thousand mine jaded foot . I therefore steeled myself to obloquy and to life. to die in battle was to : : : complete the halfHis late Majesty comthousand infantry under my 1 will : . ignorant that the joys of a foreign land are sources only of a keener : . A martial spirit spread abroad among my men. with five command.1 LING 85 passed into an environment of vulgar ignorance. told record of O my friend. my guilt of small account. and drove them back in confusion towards the north. will I ask to what end I have lived ? With a thrust I could have cleared myself of all blame my severed throat would have borne witness to my resolution and between me and my country all would have been over for aye.soldiers.

in P'ing-ch'eng. and — : pointing towards the foe. O TzuTi. without a foot of steel in their hands. Still my tired veterans fought. they dismissed the cavalry like a rabble rout. Tartar even when their arms were gone. thinking that we should not yield. so unequal in strength. But a false traitor told him all the battle was renewed. and ^vith his army surrounded my little band. The Hun chieftain himself appeared.86 return to their I CHINESE LITERATURE homes . with 300. they still rushed.000 men at his back. The plain was strewed with the dying and the dead barely a hundred men were left. covered with wounds. Yet he remained seven days without food. Then the Hunnish chieftain. New levies were trained to the use of arms. while my warriors drank tears of blood. How much more then I. like drops of rain. while I — I venture to think that had already accomplished something. would have drawn off his forces. " This victory was speedily followed by a general rising of the Huns. foot-soldiers opposed to horse. and at length another hundred thousand barbarians were arrayed against me. each eager to lead the way. Yet. when I waved my hand and shouted to them. ch'ing. as. the sick and wounded arose. one and ail struggled bravely to the fore. each man worth a thousand of the foe. yelling. and then barely escaped with life. like clouds counsellors. now blamed on all sides that I did not die ? This was my crime. their arrows spent. Generals he had. " The Emperor Kao was shut up . But. and : we were lost. and these too weak to hold a spear and shield. canst of death ? Am thou say that I would live from craven fear I one to turn my back on my country . Brandishing their blades. to gather And The very heavens and the earth seemed round me. onward.

and Tou Ying paid the penalty with his life. and it would ill beseem thee to say other words than these. and thus I too had hoped to prevail.was beheaded. the misfortunes of Fan Li and Ts'ao Mo command the sympathies of all. to my prince. Ch'ao Ts'o. allured by sordid thoughts of It was not indeed without cause that I did not die. And now.- Yet. fearing the animosity of an Imperial favourite. Yet Hsiao and Fan were bound in chains . perish. ? Can this be the reward of which thou speakest 7 . Others. of many a brother-hero. Of live and to establish my was better to achieve something than to old. Han and P'eng were sliced to death. as explained in prove my loyalty to die to no purpose. "O my never fails to fame of his exploits —the bravest of the brave. ih disgust. shed tears of blood. have also succumbed to the intrigues of base men.LI LING 87 and gain elect all ? those dear to me. and beating my breast. Why then was I overtaken with punishment before the plan was matured ? Why were my own flesh and blood condemned before the design could be carried out ? It is for this that I raise my face to Heaven. neither did Tsao Mo die after the ignominy of three defeats. But thou art thyself a servant of the House. Fan Li did not slay himself after the It battle of Hui-chi. Chou Po was disgraced. great in their generation. he slew himself in a distant land. his death being followed by the secession. I to longed. and have been overwhelmed beneath a weight of shame from which they were unable to emerge. " My grandfather filled heaven and earth with the friend. thou sayest that the House of Han reward a deserving servant. my former Rather -than good name. Revenge came at last . I chose to letter.

Even the savage barbarian respected thy loyal spirit : how much more the under the canopy of the sky ? many-acred barony should have been thine. It was said of old. sent on that mission to the robber race. 'A loyal subject. while sate of ten Not a foot of soil repaid thee for some cringing courtier gets the marquithousand families. what could I expect ? Thou I have been heavily repaid for that I did not die. I would die but the stain of my prince's ineven now gratitude can never be wiped away. hast been meanly rewarded for thy unswerving devotion to thy prince. they tell me of two paltry millions. though not a hero. thy wife gone from thee to another. Indeed. "Thou O my friend. "And so it is that I do not now regret the past. Then years of miserable captivity. Seldom has the like of this been known. the past. and the chancellorship the Tributary States. will rejoice to die for his country. but must die like a dog in a barbarian land. when fortune failed thee even to the last resource of the dagger. all but ended by death among the wilds of the far north. thy old mother dead. and each greedy parasite of the Imperial house is gratified by the choicest offices of the State. who will be found to crook the back and bow the knee before an Imperial throne. the ruler lord of all fief ! A of a thousand-charioted 'twas but Nevertheless. Thou left us full of young life. If then thou farest thus. the State was wanting also in gratitude towards me. if the brave man is not to be allowed to achieve a name. to return a graybeard. This is barely that which should attract the absent servant back to his fatherland. Wanting though I may have been in my duty to the State. where the bitter pens of courtiers tell their lying tales ? .' joyfully .88 CHINESE LITERATURE too. an envoy with a slender equipage.

He became an assistant in a prison. Speak for me to my old acquaintances. : prevails. I shall live out my life as it were in another sphere my spirit will find its home among a strange people.). and separate us for ever. write me once again in reply. " Under the Ch'ins learning was at a discount it. in which capacity he he was sent by seems to have his father formed sheets of writing material by plaiting rushes. " Li Ling salutes thee : . Lu Wen-shu century The son to tend of a village gaoler. one still survives in the maladministration of justice which . the throne the following well-known memorial " May it please your Majesty. and fin^illy took his degree.C." — 89 LU w£n-shu "O my friend. (first to be B. be happy in the bosom of thy family. look for me no more. O Tzii-ch'ing. 67 he submitted to to the rank of governor. Strive to take all care of thyself and when time and opportunity are thine. attracting the notice of the governor. brute culti- force carried everything before Those who vated a spirit of charity and duty towards their neigh- . Accept my last adieu. he was still further advanced. sheep. and bid them serve their sovereign well. O my friend. described later on. ! One the of the Chinese models of self-help alluded to in Tzii Ching. what shall I say ? A thousand leagues lie between us. and there the knowledge of law which he had picked up stood him in such good stead that he was raised to a higher position and then. . and otherwise to have succeeded in educating himself. ultimately rising In B. "Of the ten great follies of our predecessors.C. the is San famous school primer. and think of me no more.

And so the rod of empire fell from their grasp for ever. prizes coveted by all. Father and son. and loyal words of good advice to the sovereign remained locked up within their bosoms. and he who strove to expose abuses was set down as a pestilent fellow.' Such. from the calamities of hunger and cold. whereas leniency entails naught but trouble. With them. We are free from the horrors of war. while hollow notes of obsequious flattery soothed the monarch's ear and lulled hour were despised. his heart with false images. "At the present moment the State rests upon the immeasurable bounty and goodness of your Majesty. oppression and severity are reckoned to be signs of magisterial acumen and lead on to fortune. Consequently all who acted up to the precepts of our ancient code found themselves out of place in their generation. are united in their happy homes. The dead man can never come back to life that which : once cut off cannot be joined again. Therefore their chief aim is to compass the death of their victims . but simply that this is is the shortest cut to their own personal advantage. Thus. to the exclusion of disagree- able realities. and many thousands annually suffer . not that they entertain any grudge against humanity in general. is not the view of our judicial authorities of to-day. however.90 CHINESE LITERATURE Judicial appointments were the He who spoke out the truth was stigmatised as a slanderer. this is the greatest and most sacred. 'Rather than slay an innocent man. Nothing is wanting to make this a golden age save only reform in the administration of justice. husband and wife. our market-places run with blood. it were better that the guilty escape. our criminals throng the gaols. "Of all trusts.

while among those who break the law. The officials profit by the opportunity. his thoughts turn towards death. " Man enjoys life only when his mind is at peace . They are the bane of the people. who choke the ti-uth. Chalk out a prison on the ground. . Do not punish for misguided advice. build its there will the phoenix come and nest.LU WEN-SHU death. Set up a gaoler of wood. he would declare that death still left a margin of unexpiated crime. who violate family ties. and care not ' for the welfare of the State. eVen were from the dead. and he seeks to escape by speaking falsely. ^ . when he is in distress. there are none to be compared in iniquity with the officers of justice themselves. " Where you let the kite rear its young undisturbed. Hence the saying now runs. Contrary to what was actually the case in the Golden Age. This. and by and by valuable 1 A famous Minister of Crime in the mythical ages. when Kao Yao^ himself the record to rise the establishment of guilt.' ^ Imprisonment has become the greatest of all misfortunes. and he will be found standing there alone. and no one would remain within. and cause him to say what will best confirm his guilt. Beneath the scourge what is there that cannot be wrung from the lips of the sufferer ? His agony is overwhelming. fearing lest the conviction be quashed by higher courts. And then. Truly they are the worst criminals of the age. because of the refining process adopted to ensure case. " Our magistrates indeed think of nothing else. They keep in view their own ends. they dress the victim's deposition to suit the circumstances of the is complete. so that. 91 These things are injurious to pubHc morals and hinder the advent of a truly golden age.

' But I would have your Majesty exempt from vituperation. and compiled Biographies of Eminent Women.92 CHINESE LITERATURE in. 80-89) was a descendant of the beadle founder of the great Han dynasty. he sought to curry favour with the reigning Emperor by submitting some secret works on the black art. and open to the advice of all who have aught to say. to the utter confusion of those who now pervert its course. he was thrown into prison. and the people would move ever onwards in peace and happiness boundless as the sky itself. . He also revised . was a precocious boy. Surely then the ruler of an empire should put up with a little abuse. Then indeed would the golden age be renewed over the face of the glad earth. The results not proving successful. but was soon released that he might carry on the publication of the Autumn by the Spring and and re-arranged the historical episodes known as the Chan Kuo Ts^i.c. I would sweep away the errors which brought the downfall of our predecessors. I would have reverence for the virtues of our ancient kings and reform in the administration of justice. ' Hills and jungles shelter many noxious things rivers and marshes receive much filth even the finest gems are not wholly without flaw. I would have freedom of speech in the advisers of the throne." Liu Hsiang (b. wrote treatises on government and some poetry. commentary on Ku-liang. Entering into official life. who early distinguished himself by wide reading in all branches of He worked with his father upon the restoraliterature. towards which his Majesty was much inclined. of old said. suggestions will flow The men . the first work of its kind. His son. Liu Hsin.

D. a wealthy merchant of the province was so struck by its excellence that he offered to give 100.YANG HSIUNG tion of 93 the classical texts. Yang Hsiung wrote on acupuncture. teaching that the nature of man at birth is neither good nor evil. Besides composing some mediocre poetry. and later on was chiefly instrumental in establishing the position of Tso's Commentary on the Spring and Autumn. On completion of this last. and in conjunction with his father discovered some say compiled the Chou Ritual. 18). and philology. He catalogued the Imperial Library. He propounded an ethical criterion occupying a middle place between those insisted upon by Mencius and by Hsijn K'uang. Liu Hsin. especially of the Book of Changes. upon environment. — — Chinese literature is Yang As a boy he was fond of straying from the beaten track and reading whatever He stammered badly^ he could lay his hands on. pen or an ox in a cage would not be more out of place phasise than the name of a man with nothing but money to recommend him in the sacred pages of a book. In glorification of the Book of Changes he wro^e the T^ai Hsiian Ching. however. and consequently gave much time to meditation. . in HsiUNG S3-A. and that development in either direction depends wholly A well-known figure (B. his most famous work. music. and to emthe value of the Confucian Analects he produced a philosophical treatise known as the Fa Yen.D. but a mixture of both.000 cash if his name should merely be mentioned But Yang answered with scorn that a stag in a in it.C. both between A. i and 6. sneeringly suggested that posterity would use Yang Hsiung's work to cover pickle-jars.

When the body decomposes. perishes with it. already mentioned in Chapter short work of his claims. 27-97). with the aid of a superbly retentive memory. as the Confucian lore was profound. and exposes even Confucius and Mencius to free and searching criticisms. and it was by a knowledge of this fact that a clever critic of the T'ang dynasty was able to settle the spuriousness of an early edition of the Tao-Te-Ching with double-column . using for that purpose smaller characters cut in double columns . In these he tilts against the errors of the age. of this Book. He is consequently ranked as a heterodox thinker. not suffice to contain the countless shades of the men and creatures of all time.94 There is CHINESE LITERATURE little doubt that he did not write the Fang words and phrases used in various parts of the empire. a vocabulary of until him Hung Mai. Only one of his works is extant. a phenomenon inseparable from vitality.d. and he taught upwards of one thousand pupils. consisting of eighty-five essays on a variety of subjects. He further argued that if the souls of human beings were immortal. which was steadily attributed to Yen. those of animals would be immortal likewise and that space itself would . the soul. I. 79-166) was popularly known Universal Scholar. made A his brilliant writer who attracted much attention in day was Wang Ch ung (A. He is said to have picked up his education at bookstalls. He introduced the system of printing notes or in His learning comments in the body of the page. Ma Jung (a.D. the Lun Hing. He showed that the soul could neither exist after death as a spirit nor exercise any influence upon the living. a critic of the twelfth century.

and interlarded their conversation with quotations from the Odes. an instance of the general respect in which he was held. Consequently.C. 200 Confucius apforward by another route. marching In a.D. He lived for learning. The most famous of the pupils who sat at the feet of HsiJAN (A. With red ink he wrote these out on forty-six tablets for the workmen to cut. peared to him in a vision. it is recorded that at his request the chief of certain rebels spared the town of Kao-mi (his native place). The very slave-girls of his household were highly educated. 127-200). a writer of the second century B. indeed upon the journey. Ma Jung was Ch^nG Though each one wandered into by-paths of his own. the common . and he knew by this token that his hour was at hand. and is said to have been able to take three hundred cups at a sitPerhaps it may be as well ting without losing his head. is chiefly remembered in connection with literature as superintending the work of engraving on stone the authorised text of the Five Classics. He was nevertheless fond of wine. Ts'ai Yung (a. As to add that a Chinese cup holds about a thimbleful. He is one of the most voluminous of all the commentators upon the Confucian classics. but died on the way. he was very loth to respond to a summons sent to him from Chi-chou He set out in Chihli by the then powerful Yiian Shao. whose tippling propensities earned for him the nickname of the Drunken Dragon. representatives of a class.TS'AI YUNG— CHENG HSOAN 95 commentary. and fragments of them are said to be still in existence. The tablets were placed in the Hung-tu College. It is difficult to bring the above writers. which had been attributed.d. *i33-i92).d. to Ho Shang Kung. individually to the notice of the reader.

classics are not usually by the Chinese. .96 lode-star CHINESE LITERATURE was Confucianism elucidation of the Confucian For although. with us. commentaries upon the regarded as literature. who place such works in the very highest rank. they are — Canon. and reward successful commentators so regarded with the coveted niche in the Confucian temple.

which came as it were Mei Sheng to his {d. however. From him modern poetry may be said to date.— CHAPTER POETRY At was II the beginning of the second century still B. A Opens lady in a glistening gown the casement and looks do3t)n . has the honour of being the first to bring home fellow-countrymen the extreme beauty of the fiveword metre. 140). a gay Lothario line.C. His poems. 160). and seven words to a Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju (d. Poems were written in metres of four. have not survived. 199-168). But gradually. Many specimens of (i. who eloped with a young widow. and appointed by the Emperor to high office. and others. five..C. who formed his style on Ssu-ma. Tung-fang So {b.C. and we to are in possession of a number of works assigned Chia I (B. poetry composed on the model of the Li Sao. lines of Ch'u with the call more definite establishment of classical influence.) his workmanship are extant : " Green grows the grass upon the bank.C. B. B. made such a name with his verses that he was summoned to Court. The willow-shoots are long and lank. what we may went back to find their Poetry. Liu Hsiang. poets exemplars in the Book of from the very hand of Confucius himself. all of which follow on the Yiian's great poem.C. 117). B.

Alas that hearts which beat as one Should thus be parted and undone ! " Liu Heng (d. the founder of the Han 157) was the son by a concubine of dynasty. is Her rounded arm dazzling white j life. He is one of the twenty-four classical examples of filial piety. 180 For over twenty years as fourth Emperor of the line. All these I gather as /stray." The following is a poem which he wrote on the death of his illustrious father. . And I am leftfriendless. Of solace bereft. having waited on his sick mother for three years without changing his clothes. b. alone.C. H^ IIfind some day the (2. " The deer on the hillside caressingly bleat. mind his own. While birds of the air to their nestlings bring meat . and there is the mat on the floor These things I behold.— 98 . was himself also a poet : " / look up. and succeeded in B. but the man is no more. " To the infinite azure his spirit has flown. the curtains are there as ofyore. uncared-for. And offer the grass for their young ones to eat. CHINESE LITERATURE The roses on her cheek blush bright. As though for one now far away.c. and was canonised after death by a title which may fairly be rendered " Beauclerc. He was a scholar. I look down. . who.) bird has flown/" reed. A singing-girl in early Ah. I strive to pierce with straining eyes The distance that between us lies. save to weep and to moan. if we can accept as genuine the remains attributed to him. he ruled wisely and well. " The red hibiscus and the The fragrant flowers of marsh and mead. if he does not And now a careless roui's wife. .

still so young. skill in poetry : " The autumn blast drives the white scud in the sky. ait off in his pride / Alas that no more I may stand by his side / Oh. My heart. In the river the barges for revel-carouse Are lined by white waves which break over their bows. 140 as sixth Emperor of the who Han He was an enthusiastic patron of literature. . which all men allow. dynasty. 156-87). where were the gods when that great hero died?" The literary fame of the Beauclerc was rivalled. and for many years the Huns were held in check.C. be reformed by his grand astrologer. by his grandson. devoted great attention to music as a factor in He national life. the historian SstJ-MA Ch'ien.— LIU h6nG— LIU CU't 99 " Bu^ I a poor orphan must ever remain. My heartfull of thoughts of the lady I love. succeeded in B. from which date accurate chronology may be almost said to begin. overburdened with pain For him I shall never set eyes on again. and wild geese sweeping south meet the eyey The scent of late flowers ^lls the soft air above. and he encouraged the numerous quacks who pretended to have discovered The following are specimens of his the elixir of life. Notwithstanding his enlightened policy. if not surpassed. Leaves fade. "'Tis a well-worn old saying. it is silvery now ! my father. the Emperor was personally much taken up with the magic and mysteries which were being gradually grafted on to the Tao of Lao Tzu. That grief stamps the deepest of lines on the brow : Alas for " Alas for my hair. LiU CH'fe (B. He established important religious sacriHe caused the calendar to fices to heaven and earth. His generals carried the Imperial arms into Central Asia.C.

Fallen leaves in heaps block up the door. For she. .C. yet his tears lifetime Wouldfill a of a thousand years" of this period. were written upon the death of a harem to whom he was fondly attached lines : " The sound of rustling silk is stilled. And I am left. and some of these contain here and there quaint and pleasing conceits. . while brass and stone can still outlast. Yet joy is as naught Alloyed by the thought That youth slips away and that old age is coming. The next favourite. my lovely one. . a poor traveller on earth below. Man. is lost. as. Beneath my feet lie the forgotten dead. the author of The which following is is : a poem unknown " Forth from the eastern gate my steeds I drive. 7 he road is fringed with fir and pine and yew. With dust the marble courtyardfilled. . No footfalls echo on the floor. Is gone. Wrapped in a twilight of eternal gloom . for us from the instance " A Man reaches scarce a hundred.— 100 — CHINESE LITERATURE — Their oarsmen keep time to the piping and drumming. Howfast the lights and shadows come and go ! Like morning dew our fleeting life has passed. Down by the Yellow Springs their earthy And everlasting silence is their doom. . Aspens around in wild luxuriance thrive.. mypiride. bed. .^ . And lo ! a cemetery meets my view. in hopeless anguish tossedP good many anonymous poems have come down to first century B.

Andyet Ifear. And dress in silk and satin every Oh. The Lady Pan was for a long time chief favourite of the Emperor who ruled China B.'' The phraSe the language. but never that they drove out with wonien by their side. .— THE LADY PAN Time is inexorable. . whereupon she forwarded to the Emperor one of those fans. 32-6. lOI and in vain Against his might the Can we By holiest mortal strives. abroad. ' " autumn is fan " has long since passed into wife.C.. day /" Women now his Majesty that begin to appear in Chinese literature.^ which in this country inscribed with the following are called " fire-screens.D. ah me ! that autumn chills. Stirring at every move the grateful gale. bright as the winter snow See / friendship fashions out of thee a fan." Hues : " OJair white silk. At home. Round as the round moon shines in heaven above. rather quaffgood liquor while we may. until and used figuratively of a deserted The folding fan. Clear as the frost. All thought of bygone days. Cooling the dying summer's torrid rage. . strange elixirs to prolong our lives ? . fresh from the weaver's loom. So devoted was he even wished her to appear alongside him in the Imperial chariot. was not known in China it was introduced through Korea. Upon which she replied. " Your handmaid has heard that wise rulers of old were always accompanied by virtuous ministers. a close companion thou. round or octagonal frames of bamboo of with silk stretched over them." She was ultimately supplanted by a younger and more beautiful rival. then hope this precious boon to gain. invented the eleventh century A. like them bygone. — Will see thee laid neglected on the shelf. when by the Japanese.

and he stepped into the hereditary post of grand astrologer.C. arranged under five headings. . Economy . (4) Annals of of the Feudal Nobles and (5) Biographies of many which covers nearly three thousand years. the art of writing history have been created during the period under review. and Political . and at twenty set forth upon a round of travel which carried hinl to all parts of the empire.500 in all. In B. : — . was born about B. the Pitch-pipes. he now took up the historical work which had been begun by his father. no his father died. Watercourses. and which was ultimately given to the world as the Historical Record. At the age of ten he was already a good scholar. and found It must be borne in mind to number 526. Music. In such estimation is this work justly held that its very words have been counted. men . as follows (i) Annals of the Emperors (2) Chronological Tables (3) Eight chapters on Rites. 145. in one hundred and thirty chapters. After devoting some time and energy to the reformation of the calendar. Imperial Sacrifices. It is a history of China from the earliest ages down to about one hundred years before the Christian era. the so-called Father of History.CHAPTER III HISTORY— L EXICOGR APHY So far as China is may be said to concerned. Astrology. the eminent of the period. SstJ-MA Ch'ien. the Calendar.C.

off to the wars. buying largely. the coinage in use was so heavy and cumbersome too that the people themselves started a new issue at a fixed standard of value. and comprehensive plan in fact. his Majesty Kao Tsu gave orders that no trader 8 .) "When the House of Han arose. The Twenty-four Dynastic Histories of China were produced in 1747 in a uniform series bound up in 219 large volumes. Since the Historical Record. and the people at large knew not where predecessors had not passed away. and together show a record such as can be produced by no other country in the world. and money became scarce. scratched with a stylus on bamboo tablets. But the laws were lax. that even the Son of Heaven had not carriage-horses of the same colour the highest civil and military authorities rode in bullock-carts. local annals in the style of the style : (i. and it was impossible to prevent grasping persons from coining largely. So much so. to lay their heads. The consequence was that Rice sold at 10. The following are specimens of Ssu-ma Ch'ien's .— SSO-MA CH'IEN 103 that these characters were. and then holding against a rise in the market. The old and the . " At this epoch. and that previous to this there was no such thing as a history on a general nothing beyond mere Spring and Autumn.000 cash prices went up enormously. their works in all cases being formed upon the model bequeathed by Ssii-ma Ch'ien. Production was almost at a standstill. every dynasty has had its historian. a horse cost 100 ounces of silver. the evils of their Husbands still went young were employed in transporting food. in all probability. But by and by. when the empire was settling down to tranquillity. per picul.

. 104 CHINESE LITERATURE . Later on. until the country was flooded with the coinage of the rebels. whereupon another issue followed. while those who broke the laws were allowed to commute their penalties by money payments. and it became necessary to enact laws against any such . and soldiers were massed there in large bodies in consequence of which food became so scarce that the authorities offered certain rank and titles of honour to those who would supply a given quantity of grain. however. official rank was again made a marketable commodity.' But at length the system of private issues led to serious abuses. the descendants of traders were disqualified from holding any office connected with the State. drought ensued in the west. And now horses began to reappear in official frontier. by all officials. resulting first of all in vast sums of money accumulating in the hands of individuals finally. Some years later these restrictions were withdrawn still. from the Emperor downwards. each piece being marked ' half an ounce. certain levies were made on a scale calculated to meet the exigencies of public expenditure while the land-tax and customs revenue were regarded . should wear silk nor ride in a carriage besides which. " Meanwhile. as their Grain was forwarded by the quantity did not water to the capital for the use of the officials there. the imposts levied upon this class were greatly increased. in order to keep them down. issues in the future. own personal emolument.. in rebellion. and in order to meet necessities of the moment. "Gradually the coinage began to deteriorate and light coins to circulate . "At this period the Huns were harassing our northern . but amount to more than a few hundred thousand piculs every year.

until the very strings rotted. The people. under lax laws. In the . and human food. The grain in the Imperial storehouses grew mouldy capital. " At length. so that became necessary Village elders ate to prohibit the public use of mares. For a long time there had been neither flood nor drought. while from the highest to the lowest. and were thronged with horses belonging to the on the highroads whole droves were to be it seen. "Then followed extensive military preparations in . Such is the everlasting law of the sequence of prosperity and heirlooms. every one vied with his neighbour in lavishing money on houses. spirit of self-respect decay. The empire was then at peace. the higher offices of State were treated For there had gone abroad a and of reverence for the law.SSO-MA CH"IEN stables. until in palace were piled in myriads. while a sense of charity and of duty towards one's neighbour kept men aloof from disgrace and shame. and apparel. Petty government clerkships and the like lapsed from . and hall signs of an ampler luxury once more. and their tale could no longer be told. The public granaries were well stocked the Government treasuries were full. was in the early days of the dynasty. altogether beyond the limit of his means. Members of the Imperial family received grants of land. and a season of plenty had ensued. the wealthy began to use their riches for evil purposes of pride and self-aggrandisement and oppression of the weak. 105 and were visibly "Thus it some seventy years after the accession of the House of Han. father to son as family meat and drank wine. strings of cash year by year. and appointments. lay about until streets It burst from the it became unfit for crammed granaries.

and brought them down upon our northern frontier. signifying that reach the goal. From this period must be dated the rise and growth of official venality. in fact.io6 CHINESE LITERATURE . There were his descendants practising the old rites in . Money was con. again. The its financial stability of the empire was undermined. by which we forfeited their alliance. his robes. but the result was to swamp the inhabitants in hopeless ruin. Wealth had been frittered away. went to Shantung I actually beheld his carriage. Shame and scruples of conscience were laid aside. and the material parts of his ceremonial usages. Those who brought money in their hands received appointments under government. but wars and rumours of wars from day to day. although we cannot hope we may push on thitherwards fancied I " While reading the works of Confucius. its transformation into an Imperial dependency with other troubles nearer home. Then. for which purpose mountains were hewn through for many miles. The object was to open up the resources of those remote districts. Merit had to give way to money." We may gaze up to (2. Those who could pay escaped the penalties of their guilt. various parts of the empire the establishment of a tradal route with the barbarians of the south-west. stantly leaving the country. and impoverished people were driven thereby into crime.) " The Odes have it thus : — ' the mountain's brow still : we may travel along the great to in road. Laws and punishments were administered with severer hand. there was the subjugation of Korea . I have always I could see the man as he was in life and when . and its renewal was sought in corruption.' spirit. Nothing. There was the ambush laid for the Huns.

remains among us after many generations. until water was reached). He may indeed be pronounced the divinest of men. would immediately With the aid of quicksilver. discharge their arrows. the metal being poured from one into the other by machinery.) "In the 9th moon the First Emperor was buried in Mount Li. Many are the princes and prophets that its the world has seen in time.il 107 home. "The Second Emperor concubines of ' said. the Yang-tsze. glorious in forgotten But Confucius. the Hoang-ho. and I hngered on. By all. when he had consolidated the empire. rivers were made.SSU-MA CH'IEN their anceatr. which in the early days of his reign he had caused to be tunnelled and prepared with that view. and were carried thither and stored in vast quantities. and the great ocean. though only a humble member of the cotton-clothed masses. the supremacy of his principles is fully and freely admitted. which. calculated to last for a very long time. on the floor the geographical Candles were made from the fat divisions of the earth." (3. he employed his soldiery. . a foundation of bronze was laid Artificers were ordered to construct mechanical crossbows. Then. He is the model for such as would be wise. from the Son of Heaven down to the meanest student. and there ^ and the sarcophagus placed thereon. Rare objects and costly jewels were collected from the palaces and from the various officials. to bore down to the is.e. who was are . of the man-fish (walrus). to the Three Springs (that number of 700. 'It is not fitting that the my late father i. unable to tear life. in death. On the roof were delineated the constellations of the sky. if any one were to enter.000. myself away." firmly laid.without children Variant " firm.

whose that scholarship was extensive and pro- found. and of many poems and essays. who had been all along his assistant. and by her it was brought to completion down to about the Christian era. his gifted sister. before its completion he became involved in a political intrigue and was again thrown into prison. the outside gate at the entrance to this path was let fall. ambition of died while son. and the mausoleum was effectually closed. " When the interment was completed. he continued his work however. so that not one of the workmen escaped.io8 CHINESE LITERATURE now . but was impeached on the he was altering the national records at his and was thrown into prison." The history before Christ. . but he collecting materials for his task. where the occupancy of the throne by a usurper divides the Han dynasty into two distinct periods. This lady was also the author of a volume of moral advice to young women.D. still His Pan KU. The Emperor handed the unfinished history to Pan Chao. 3-54). so soon as the ceremony was over. took up the project. ' and accordingly he ordered monarch to the next world. by Ssii-ma Ch'ien stops about loo years To carry it on from that point was the a scholar named Pan Piao (A. where he died. some one suggested that the workmen who had made the machinery and concealed the treasure knew the great value of the latter. . and that the secret would leak out. Therefore. ground own discretion. that the spot might look rest of the like the mountain. those who thus perished being many in number. Released on the representations of a brother. and the path giving access to the sarcophagus had been blocked up at its innermost end. Trees and grass were should leave him to them accompany the dead then planted around.

was called into being by a famous {d. . 540 radicals or classifiers. of all the characters about ten thousand which were to be found in Chinese literature as then existing. But it is by his Shuo Win that he is now known. and has hitherto formed the It is arranged under basis of all etymological research. so widely cultivated by the Chinese. lies the sense of the whole to exhibit the pictorial and its chief object was features of Chinese writing. He was a deep student of the Five Classics. with short explanatory notes. written in what is now known as the Lesser Seal style. Entering upon he soon retired and devoted the rest of his life to books. It is the oldest Chinese dictionary of which we have any record. and wrote a work on the discrepancies in the various criticisms of these books. A. — — selected portions of characters which indicate to some extent the direction in which character.Hsij sh£:n 109 Lexicography.D. This was a collection. that is to say. specially scholar named HsiJ Shen an official career. which has since been. 120).

and a great rival to Taoism was about to appear on the scene. accompanied by two Indian Buddhists named Kashiapmadanga and Gobharana. coming to China. until the it is said. These two settled at Lo-yang in Honan. At any rate. another Indian Buddhist. sent off a mission to India to see what could be learnt upon the subject of this barbarian religion. and others. seed had been sown. which consisted of eighteen persons. and proceeded to translate into Chinese the Sutra of Forty-two Sections the beginning of a long Soon afterwards the former died. he threw them into prison.d. especially under Shih-li-fang literary aspect. The " First seems to have looked upon them with susEmperor" picion.D.C. 67. from which. So early as B. they were released in the night "by Nothing more was heard of a golden man or angel. The mission. Buddhism sequence. in condream in which a foreign god appeared to him.CHAPTER BUDDHISM The introduction of IV Buddhism its into China must now be considered. Towards the close of the second century A. but the line of such. translated the sAtra known as the Lotus of the — . we are told. of a Emperor known as Ming Ti. who had come to reside at Ch'ang-an in Shensi. returned about a. 217 we read of Buddhist priests. which was then the capital.

Gazing on all sides. as far as the eye can reach. In A.D." hot winds. 399 Fa Hsien started on his great pedestrian journey from the heart of China overland to India. and nearly by him have been identified. he took passage on a merchant-ship. and effecting the object of his journey. still in existence. which difficult style. The narrative of his adventurous journey. and Buddha-Gaya. and he finally reached India with only one companion. such as Magadha. Patna. all the places mentioned the travellers had to cross : many evil spirits and Those who encounter the latter perish to a man. whence. The following passage refers to the desert of Gobi. There he found a large junk which carried him to Java. in order to mark the track. and monasteries were endowed for their reception. and reached Ceylon. starting either turned coast of Shantung. " In this desert there are a great . who settled there and never returned to China. as told is himself.D.— FA HSIEN III Good Law. disembarking in A. Those who accompanied him at back or died on the way. his object being to procure copies of the Buddhist Canon. and Buddhist temples were built in various parts of China. 414 with all his treasures at the point now occupied by the German settlement of Kiao-chow. By the beginning of the fourth century Chinese novices were taking the vows required for the Buddhist priesthood. written in a by crabbed and His itinerary has been traced. he made his way on board another junk to the statues. after surviving many perils of the sea. After visiting various important centres. Benares. it would be impossible to succeed but for the rotting bones of dead men which point the way. There are neither birds above nor beasts below. and relics.

over three feet in length. still. From this point going west a mile. It is very woody. was visited by Fa Hsien. the east. they proceeded . equable . 'This past is not the place where attain and future Buddhas have attained and should perfect wisdom. they reached the place where Bodhisatva formerly passed six years in self-mortification. the scene of recent interesting exploraconducted by the late General Cunningham. sitting it. Two-thirds of a mile to the north of this is the place where Buddha. Then heaven and earth quaked mightily. having entered. and is plainly visible to this day. and reflected as folIf I attain perfect wisdom. saying. ate the latter on a stone under a great tree and facing The tree and the stone are both there being about six feet in length and breadth In Central India the climate by over two is feet in height. From this point going north-east half a yojana. and even so much as ten thousand years. and is described by him as follows tions : " The pilgrims now arrived at the city of Gaya.— 112 CHINESE LITERATURE Buddha-Gaya.' the gods had uttered these words. Also. the pilgrims arrived at the cave where the Bodhisatva. tree. there should be some lows : ' miracle in token thereof. pull him out lay-sisters presented Buddha with congee made with milk. by going two-thirds of a mile farther north. they reached the place where the two to bathe.' Whereupon the silhouette of Buddha appeared upon the stone. also a its complete waste within walls. they arrived at the spot where Buddha entered the water and a god pressed down the branch of a tree to of the pool. sat down crosslegged with his face to the west. trees will live several thousand. and the gods who were in space cried out. Journeying about three the more miles southwards. less When The proper spot is beneath the B6 than half a yojana to the south-west of this.

FA HSIEN to lead the thither. and the three women became old. under the Bo tree for seven days where the gods produced a jewelled chamber and worshipped Buddha where the blind dragon Muchilinda for seven days enveloped Buddha for seven days where Buddha sat facing the east on a square stone beneath the nyagrodha where the four tree. he went on fifteen paces farther. whereupon the infernal army the ground retreated in confusion. The Bddhisatva went on to the Bo tree. . called by Fa Hsien the Land of the Lion. where he converted the brothers Kasyapa with their disciples to the number of one thousand souls on all these spots stflpas have been raised. Singhala. to the king of the devils. and departed. Where Buddha. men of after ages have built pagodas and set up images.. east and west. ." The following passage refers to Ceylon. contemplated the tree for the south with the approach from he himself approaching from women seven days. having all of which are still in existence. attained perfect wisdom. 113 thirty way with singing in order to conduct him The B6dhisatva got up and followed. sent three beautiful the north . when Having accepted this. and Brahma came to salute him where the five their alms-bowls heavenly kings offered hundred traders gave him cooked rice and honey .. and when paces from the tree a god gave him the kus'a grass. experiencing the joys of emancipation where Buddha walked backwards and forwards. — . Then Mara. five hundred dark-coloured birds came and flew three times round him. . that is. At the above-mentioned place where Buddha suffered mortification for six years. from . and laying down his kus'a grass. The Bddhisatva pressed with his toes. sat down with his face to the east. and on all these other spots. . and tempt him same object.

the devils and spirits did not appear in person. He also wrote a shastra on Reality and Appearance. cultivation nation. according to the prices. The temperature very agree- able in this country The of is no distinction of summer and plants are always green. also went there. which has done more to popularise Buddhism with the educated classes than all the material instruction parts of this religion put together. with whom the merchants of neighbouring countries came to trade. work might now almost be Here are two short after thy wit. Then the merchants. When the exchange of commodities took place. who . only and spirits and dragons lived in it. can : a man see the Buddha said." Meanwhile.D. but set out their valuables with the prices attached. and thus is it became a great and winter. and the soil is carried on as men please. one of the Four Suns of Buddhism.—— 114 the CHINESE LITERATURE name : of a trader who first founded a kingdom there devils "This country had originally no inhabitants. the attractions of the place became known to the inhabitants of the neigh- bouring countries. O Subhuti. and the as a classed extracts (i. forwards and stopping on their way. bought the things and carried them But from the merchants going backwards and off. the Indian Kumarajiva. Chinese poets and philosophers have drawn inspiration and from its pages. there trees without regard to seasons. had been occupied between A. and translated the Diamond Sutra.) " national classic. tell me Buddha in the flesh ? . 405 and 412 in dictating Chinese commentaries on the Buddhist Canon to some eight hundred priests.

) " lect the Buddha said. and had remained two Kandahar. In A. like like lightning. that flesh has no objective "Then Buddha see clearly that told Subhuti. were to become with the spirit. O World. came to China. last I say unto you that the happiness of this far man would exceed the happiness of that other man.KUMARAJIVA— HSUAN TSANG " 115 : He cannot. virtuous filled and bestow all these in charity. and for this reason The Buddha has declared existence. saying. O Subhuti." a dream. If a man can they are then can he see the Buddha. returning with 175 volumes. and to absolute quiescence of the individual. and held fast by this sfitra. HstJAN Tsang set out for India with the same object. and another man. He came back in 645. Because every external phenomenon is like and should be regarded as such. or virtuous woman. preachever so little ing it for the conversion of mankind. 520 B6dhidharma received with honour. in 629. like shadow. " Conversion to what ? To the disregard of objective ? existences. and was He had been the son of a king He taught that religion was not in Southern India. like a vision. like a bubble. Then. All objective existences are unsubstantial and unreal.D." (2. bringing with him 657 Buddhist books. if one man were to colseven precious things from countless galaxies of worlds. and also to visit the holy places of Buddhism. Just before his Sung Yiin had been sent to arrival India to obtain years in more Buddhist books. so. And why dew. besides many images and pictures . to be learnt from books. but that man should seek and find the Buddha in his own heart.Honoured.

wrote This brings us dynasty.ii6 CHINESE LITERATURE relics. of his travels. like Fa Hsien. down to the beginning of the T'ang when Buddhism had acquired. and 150 He spent the rest of his life translating a narrative these books. in spite of much opposition and even persecution. what has since proved to be a lasting hold upon the masses of the Chinese people. and also. .



196 and 221. : " O floating clouds that swim in heaven above. Alas ! you float along nor heed my pain. which witnessed the downfall of the House of Han.— BOOK THE THIRD MINOR DYNASTIES (a. Still the work was carried on. They were all poets. There was Hsu Kan. 200 and 600 were not favourable to the development and growth of a national literature. were illumined by the names of seven writers. now jointly known as the Seven Scholars of the Chien-An period.d. and few patrons to encourage it. who fell under the influence of Buddhism and translated into Chinese the PranyamAla shdstra tikd of Nagirdjuna. And leave me here to love and long in vain / "9 . . .D. During a great part of the time the empire was torn by civil wars there was not much leisure for book-learning. and many great names have come down to us. aoo—600) CHAPTER I POETRY— MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE The centuries which elapsed between A. The following lines are by him . The dark years between A. Bear on your wings these words to him I love. .D.

he replied. " If my halls are full of guests.. " My ancestor Confucius and your ancestor Lao Tzu were friends engaged in the quest for truth. "You. he told the doorkeeper to inform Li Ying that he was a connection. Andfor his coming shall not I too yearn 1 my lord left —ah me. where Li Ying. like running water. but he incurred the displeasure of the great Ts'ao Ts'ao. : " The wanderer reaches home with joy absence of a year and more : His eye seeks a beloved boy //is wife lies weeping on the floor. he rose to be Governor of Po-hai in Shantung . so that you and I may be said to be of the same family. and thus succeeded in getting in. — I20 I see Since CHINESE LITERATURE other dear ones to their homes return. "Cleverness in youth does not mean brilliancy in later life. the Dragon statesman." The following is a specimen of his poetry in the twentieth degree. unhappy day !— My mirror's dust has not been brushed away My heart. I am happy." he would say. From — ." Li Ying was astonished. sir. a descendant of Confucius and a most precocious child. and fond of good company. " and my bottles full of wine. must evidently have been very clever as a boy." Entering official life. When Li Ying asked him what the connection was. He was an open-hearted man. and was put to death with all his family. but Ch'en Wei said." upon which K'ung Jung remarked. Unable from the press of visitors to gain admission. At ten years of age he went with his father to Lo-yang. knows nopeace^ But bleeds and bleedsforever without cease" There was K'uNG Jung. was at the height of his political reputation.

although the times were most unfavourable to success. Where wildflowers bloom on every J/is bones are in the Yellow Springs. that all Chinese poetry is pitched in the key of melancholy . He was forced by political disturbances to leave his home at the capital and seek safety in flight. with more or less truth. " Wolves and tigers work finds their own sweet will" On the " way he Naught but bleached bones covering the plain ahead" . 177-217). . in of great promise.KUJNG JUNG— WANG TS'AN 121 " They whisper he is gone. His flesh " ' like dust is scattered wide. Ere long thy wandering ghost shall tire Offlittingfriendless and alone. with substitution of the unknown for the known. as he tells us.d. . . verse. For ever now to be unknown. and soon His breast was wet with rolling tears. ' O child. A youth he excelled as a poet. With thee I bury hopes andfears! He bowed his head in grief. close !" But oh for this untimely There was Wang Ts'an (a. never knew thy sire. " Forth to the mound heflingSf side. The glooms Of eveningfall. There. who " O son. Wang Ts'an had good cause for his lamentations. " Lif^s dread uncertainty he knows. It has been alleged. that the favourite themes of Chinese poets are the transitory character of life with its partings and other ills. however. maris greatest earthly boon. not. beyond the gate A lonely grave in outline looms To greet the sire who came too little late. and the inevitable approach of death. a learned man who wrote an Ars Poetica.

The lapels of my robe are^drenched with dew. I arise and seize my guitar." But music cannot make him forget his kith and kin " Most of them.— 122 — CHINESE LITERATURE and he comes across a famine-stricken woman who had thrown among the bushes a child she was unable to feed. With all the joyous spots in the empire. wrote a poem with a title which By the last line he tends to may be stand interpreted as " Regret that a Bucephalus should idle. While a deeper shade falls upon the steep slopes. And weeping will be my portion to the end. Why must I remain in this place? Ah. like the grub in smariweed. Arriving at the Great River. I am growing insensible to bitterness^ communion means to hint "how much a long make us what we are. Along the banks the gibbons scream and cry. My sleeves arefluttered by the whistling gale. The fox makes his way to his burrow. ever in sympathy with man's changing moods. the setting sun brings his feeUngs to a head : " Streaks of light still cling to the hill-tops. Now sounds responsive to my grief. Clear sound the ripples of the rushing waves. virtual founder of the House of Wei. alas I are prisoners. Which. To these seven names an eighth and a ninth are added to cast an eye . who. ." There was Ying Yang. Ch'£n Lin and Yuan Yij complete the tale. The livelong night I cannot close my eyes. when his own political career was cut short." There was Liu Cheng. Birds fly back to their homes in the wood. who was put to death for daring upon one of the favourites of the great general Ts'ao Ts'ao.

He managed. Sorrows are hard to forget. raised a volunteer force purge the country of various powerful chieftains threatened the integrity of the empire. the poet. let us sing. however. What will make us forget them? Wine. it is said that he once condemned himself to death for having allowed his horse to shy into a field of grain. For tnaiis life is short. and. to graduate at himself the age of twenty. accordance with his own severe regulations against any injury to standing crops. was a wild young man much given to coursing and hawking. Like the morning dew. As an instance of the discipline which prevailed in his camp. after distinguishing himself in a campaign against insurgents. His large armies are proverbial. His father had been adopted as son by the chief eunuch of the palace. The following lines are from a song by him. and at one time he is said to have had so many as a million of men under arms. Ts'aoChih.— TS'AO by courtesy : TSAO 123 those of Ts'ao Ts'ao above mentioned. But though we would rejoice. However. he was persuaded to satisfy his sense of justice by cutting off his hair. and he caused the weak Emperor to raise his daughter to the rank of Empress. and The former played a remarkable part in Chinese history. and he of his third son. written in an abrupt metre of four words in to the line : " Here is wine. in lieu of losing his head. Its best days gone by. to who By degrees the supreme power passed into his hands. and only wine!' After Ts'ao Ts'ao's death came the epoch of the Three . He is popularly regarded as the type of a bold bad Minister and of a cunning unscrupulous rebel.

The beans in the pot were allfuming andfritting. why should these hurry to finish off those?" The following extract from a poem of his contains a very well-known maxim. I should have one. "were represented by ten. And avoids giving cause for suspicion. Ts'ao Ts'ao's eldest son became the first Emperor of one of these. At ten years of age he already excelled in composition. probably with mischievous intent. constantly in use at the present day :— " 77^1? superior man takes precautions. " If all the talent of the world. Ts'ao Chih would have eight. and difficulties disappear^ . and sisters-in-law may not join hands. He will not pull up his shoes in a melonfield. The beanstalks. elder brother. an object of suspicion and dislike. Oh. Brothers- Nor under a plum-tree straighten his hat. he composed an impromptu stanza while walking only seven steps. Elders and youngers may not walk abreast. aflame. the poet." said a contemporary poet." There is a story that on one occasion. and Ts'ao Chih. the romantic story of which is told in the famous novel to be mentioned later on. It has been remembered more for its point than its poetry : " A fine disk of beans had been placed in the pot With a view to a good mess ofpottage all hot. By toil and humility the handle is grasped. Yet the beans and the stalks were not bom to be foes.— 124 CHINESE LITERATURE Kingdoms. and the rest of mankind one between them. Moderate your brilliancy. at the bidding of his . the Wei Kingdom. occupied an awkward position at court. a fierce heat were begetting. so much so that his father thought he must be a plagiarist but he settled the question by producing off-hand poems on any given theme.

and he was actually plucked for his degree in consequence of an. he being able to consume a gallon at a sitting and requiring a quart to sober him again. and whole centuries The sun and moon are the the cardinal points are the house boundaries of his domain. who declared that to a drunken affairs of this man "the world appear but as so much duckweed on a river. He : is never for a moment without the other. for she speaketh not truth. essay extolling the hetero- dox doctrine of Inaction. himself). a wine-flask in one hand. so that he might be buried where he fell. a friend of mine (that is. The canopy of heaven is his roof his resting-place is the lap of earth." Thereupon he drank up the sacrificial wine." He wished to be always accompanied by a servant with wine. and was soon as drunk as ever. His bias was towards the Tao of Lao Tzu. a hard drinker. windows of his . . Among these was Liu Ling. The following skit exhibits : this Taoist strain to a marked degree "An old gentleman. a goblet in is His only thought naught beyond. On one occasion. . He follows his fancy in all things. also seven in number. formed themand became widely famous as the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. "O God. A.— LIU LING During the third century selves into a club. regards eternity as but a single day." and bade her prepare the usual sacrifices of wine and meat. listen not to the words of his wife. followed by another with a spade. as but an instant of time. he promised to " swear off. -wine he knows of . saying. who didst give to Liu Ling a reputation through wine. he prayed. yielding to the entreaties of his wife. 125 another and more mer- curial set of poets.D. When all was ready. He wanders unrestrained and free he dwells within no walls.

and condemned to death. until at length he . however.a. he could not have seen a mounHeat and cold existed for him no more. and gnashing of teeth. lapsed into a semi-inebriate state of placid enjoyment. His ears were beyond the reach of thunder tain. His favourite study was alchemistic research. "When they began. who was married doubtful boon into the Imperial family. fierce scowls. the world appeared but as so much duckweed on a river. own mind. 126 CHINESE LITERATURE respectable philanthropists. Another was Hsi K'ang. a handsome young man. Three thousand disciples offered each one to take the place of their beloved master. but their request was not granted. he was denounced to the Emperor as a dangerous person and a traitor. to offend by his want of ceremony one of the Imperial princes. To him. "Two hearing of my friend's weakness. while the two philanthropists at his side looked like two wasps trying to convert a caterpillar" (into a wasp. the old gentleman filled himself another bumper and sitting down. seven feet seven inches in height. varying his toil with music and poetry. varied by intervals of absolute unconsciousness or of partial return to mental lucidity. and practising the art of breathing with a view to securing immortahty. quietly stroked his beard and sipped his wine by turns. and sent his faults buzzing round his head like a swarm of bees. and he passed his days sitting under a willow-tree in his courtyard and experimenting in the transmutation of metals. who was also a student of alchemy. as the Chinese believe is done). proceeded to tax him on the subject and with many gestures of disapprobation. Happening. He not even the workings of his affairs of this — — . He knew . preached him quite a sermon on the rules of propriety.

and then exchanged his post for one where he had heard there was a better cook. who is. explaining to a friend that he was a victim to the tyranny of custom. lived on one side of the road. while a wealthier branch of the family lived on the other side. The allusions in forked . . both rity on the theory of music. a wild harum-scarum fellow. calmly watching the shadows thrown by the sun and playing upon his lute. The third was HsiANG Hsiu. poverty-stricken. He entered the army and rose to a high command. whereupon YUan Hsien on his side their up a pair of the short breeches. was carried welcomed with the pupils. paid no attention to him) along with him a jar of wine and a guitar. The fourth was Yuan Hsien. worn by the common coolies. On the seventh of the seventh moon the latter put out all grand fur robes and fine clothes to air. such concealment being absolutely necessary for the protection of the author in the troublous times during which he wrote. Yet when Chi Hsi went to condole with him. who also tried his hand at alchemy. called calf-nose drawers. as has been already stated. whose harpsichords became the "Strads" of China. His best-known work is a political and allegorical poem in thiity-eight stanzas averaging about twelve lines to each. The fifth was Yuan Chi. another musician. by Kuo Hsiang. and when his mother died he wept so violently that he brought up several pints of blood. but a performer on the guitar and a great authoHe and his uncle.HSIANG HSIU—YUAN CHI 127 met his fate with fortitude. He was a model of filial piety. as is customary on that day . he showed only the whites of his eyes (that while Chi Hsi's brother. and whose commentary on Chuang Tzii was stolen. this are so skilfully veiled as to be quite unrecognisable without a commentary.

who could look at the sun T'ao. or T'ao Yiian-ming as he was called in early life. after a youth of poverty obtained an appointment as magistrate. comes Fu Mi. was We now "length of years and depth of wine. 365-427)." Later on.d. of as without being dazzled. and lastly there a follower of Taoist teachings. And though clouds and though darkness my presence should hide." He only held the post for eighty-three days. to quote his own prayer. was Shan who was spoken "uncut jade" and as "gold ore. But he was unfitted by nature for official life . especially chrysanthemums. O wanderer. and the culture of flowers. in the fourth century.— I2S CHINESE LITERATURE sixth The was Wang Jung. of whom nothing is known beyond his verses. music. Would I were thy shadow ! — rdfollow thee well. himself with poetry. all he wanted. objecting to receive a superior officer with the usual ceremonial on the ground that " he could not crook the hinges of his back for five pecks of rice a day. and Ifret And long for the lover T n^er can forget." such being the regulation pay of a magisHe then retired into private life and occupied trate. which are inseparably asso- . In the bright light of day I would stand by thy side ! " reach a name which is still familiar to all students of poetry in the Middle Kingdom. bound in far countries to dwell. T'ao Ch'ien (a. of which the following is a specimen : " Thy chariot and horses have gone.

in point of style. ! my ships to distract for me hence. children take cluster at the gate. my gardens. speeds my boat along. From afar I grudge the slowness of the dawning day. but it is rarely opened. " Lightly. I I loll against the window my favourite branches. and what have to seek from men? In the . Home once more raise . and I pour out in brimming cups. which.— T'AO CH'IEN 129 ciated with his name. but there I the old pine-tree little my chrysanthemums. His retireinent from office is the subject of the following piece. I feel that I am on the right track once again. Clouds rise. and pass in. I inquire my route as I go. and joyfully press onwards in servants rush forth to meet my haste. is The and place is a wilderness. lightly. look at the sweet children my new-found freedom. the in full ones by the hand. of the is : poetical-prose class. I and contemplate the lovely scene. "And now take my pleasure in my garden. who worked in the back garden while he worked in the front. Shadows vanish. There out at in I is I a gate. waste no grief upon the past . are led a I choked with weeds should I not go ? My soul has bondsman's life why should I remain to pine ? But : : energies to the future. The me my . I will devote my I have not wandered far astray. will I descry my old home. my garments fluttering to the gentle breeze. con- sidered one of the masterpieces of the language " Homewards I bend my steps. I lean on my staff as head wander about or sit down to rest. on my knee. Wine is brought I gaze jars. from the bottom of the hills the weary bird seeks its nest again. My fields. but still I linger around my I'll have no friendlonely pine. I The times are out of joint me. In the latter pursuit he was seconded by his wife. unwilling.

tell cliff. through which he pushed his boat. how short a time it is that we are here Why then not set our hearts at rest." The "Peach-blossom Fountain" of Tao Ch'ien is a well-known and charming allegory. ceasing What boots it to to trouble whether we remain or go ? wear out the soul with anxious thoughts ? I want not wealth I want not power . It tells how a fisherman lost his way among the creeks of a river. So he made fast his boat. of rich fields. Glad is this renewal of Hfe in due season. hill and sing my song. Ah. a form of literature much cultivated by Chinese writers. but for me. him into a through a narrow new world of level country. my spirit free from care. Then let me stroll through the bright hours as they pass. Thither I by cart or by boat. or I will mount the ! . or weave will I my verse beside the limpid brook. over the dizzy trees bursting merrily into leaf. I rejoice that my journey is over. content with the appointments of Fate.lio CHINESE LITERATURE cheering pure enjoyment of the family circle I will pass my idle hours with lute and book. ended where the water began. and came upon a dense and lovely grove of peach-trees in full bloom. the its streamlet swelling from tiny source. heaven is beyond my hopes. and crept in entrance. through the deep gorge. and when work in the furrowed fields. my days. of fine and of. " He found that the peach-trees . anxious to see how far the grove extended. at the foot of a hill and there he espied what seemed to be a cave with light issuing from it. in my garden among my flowers . luxuriance of mulberry and bamboo. My hus- bandmen will there will be shall repair me when spring-time is nigh. of fine houses. which shortly ushered pools. Thus Work out my allotted span. .

the heart is drunk. while his body was content with leisure and repose. and the Governor sends out men to find this strange region.— T'AO CH'IEN . His workmanship was so exceedingly fine as to appear natural . What need to callfor wine ? " . but the fisherman is never able to find it again." He is told that the ancestors of these people had taken refuge there some five centuries before to escape the troublous days of the "First Emperor. the dress of the people who passed along or were at work in the fields was of a strange cut ." Another says. and his thoughts were real. On his returning home the story noised abroad. His emotions were real. his adze and chisel (labor limae) left no traces behind. and bristles with is which are now forgotten. One critic speaks of T'ao Ch'ien as "drunk with the fumes of spring. while young and old alike appeared to be contented and happy. his facts were real. " His heart was fixed upon loyalty and duty. when he describes meeting with an old friend in a far-off land. mixed up with thoughts and phrases which are„ greatly admired by his countrymen. such a passage as this would be heavily scored by editor or critic with marks of commendation Much of his poetry allusions to events : " Ere words be spoke. 131 Highways of traffic ran north and south sounds of crowing cocks and barking dogs were heard around. The gods had permitted the poet rest of the is to go back for a brief span to the peach-blossom days of his youth." and that there they had remained." political. cut off completely from the human race. Thus. his scenery was real.

. : A scholar lives on yonder His clothes are rarely whole to view. .^. nursing her grief That in her life joy rarely comes to bring relief. Oh. . She draws the blind.Longing to know what like was he. . A lady on a lonely embroidering Fair flowers which seem to smell as sweet as buds in spring. the white clouds dozed. a goblet takes And now she sits in tears. with thee until The winter winds again blow chill J" let me rest Pao Chao was an preserved : official and a poet who perished. . A. in a rebellion.— 132 ! . her thoughts to drown. A — . — CHINESE LITERATURE following " is The one of his occasional poems hill. At dawn my steps a path unclosed^ left the passage free Where dark firs And on the eaves But he. . an4 shiningfloor. Seized his guitar and swept the strings Up flew a crane towards heaven bent. And now a startledpheasant springs. or hums. as spying iny intent. Some of his poetry has been " What Where do these halls ofjasper mean. wretched lot and yet the while He ever wears a sunny smile.D. 466. a zephyr shakes the plum-blooms down. Once in ten years his hat is new. tapestries of satin screen window and door f seat. Swallows flit past. Nine times a month he eats his fill.

in 527 and 529.— noiAu Oh. To amuse a party of friends Hsieh Tao-h6ng had written impromptu. He was a devout Buddhist. living upon priestly fare and taking only one meal a day and on two occasions. by writing better verses than his Majesty. Of the fish in the river some dive and some float. was HsiAO Yen. ritual in ten books. shalt not kill" in its strictest sacrificial victims to The following short poem is be made of from his pen : " Trees grow. the second Emperor of the Sui dynasty. placed himself . He offended Yang Ti.D. Birds sing in the forest with varying note. He also wrote a Buddhist sense. its author being unknown.^' Another well-known poet who lived into the seventh century is Hsieh Tao-heng. upon the throne as first Emperor of the Liang dynasty. by the mound and the moat. not alike." . putting in him to death. Interpreting the Buddhist commandment "Thou he caused the dough. in A. and an excuse was found for most admired couplets name though not actually by him. my mate and I. he 502. is One of the the language associated with his " A week in the spring to the exile appears Like an absence from home of a couple ofyears. Not the lone crane far out of sight beyond the sky ! " The original name of a striking character who. actually adopted the priestly garb. But the why and the wherefore we never can know. for the humble iJLiN 133 turtle^s flight. The mountains rise high and the waters sink low.

The Emperor T'ai Tsung once got hold of a Tartar priest who could "charm people into unconsciousness. and declared that hell was made for such men as Fu I. and immediately wrote down the following : '' If home. The result was that severe restrictions were placed for a short time upon the teachers of Buddhism. the priest completely failed." was Fu I (A. " You were not born in a hollow mulberry-tree yet you respect a religion which does not recognise the tie between father and son " He urged that at any rate priests and nuns should be compelled to marry and bring up families. and wrote his He was the originator own. At the same time he presented a memorial asking that the Buddhist religion might be abolished . and when Hsiao Yii. epitaphs. questioned him on the subject. ! . a descendant of Hsiao Yen (above). he said. At this Hsiao Yu held up his hands. adding that Hsiao Yii by defending their doctrines showed himself no better than they were." and spoke of his powers to Fu I. "He will not be able to charm me " and when put to the test. He had a strong leaning towards Taoism. Our hearts will be off ere the springflowers are blowing. wire going.D. An official who became of the Sui dynasty . and not escape from contributing their share to the revenue. under the first Emperor of Historiographer the T'ang dynasty. and then charm them back to life again. 554-639).— 134 — CHINESE LITERATURE A " southerner " who was present sneered at the shallowness of the conceit. The latter said confidently. and edited the Tao-Ti-Ching. with the wild geese of autumn. as follows : of .

* Here the poet makes a mistake. and scaly creatures. A. 1 35 " Fu I loved the green kills and the white clouds Alas! he died of drink!' Wang for wine. hate. there being neither night. slow of gait. Chi of the sixth and seventh centuries spirit. " There are no villages nor congregations of persons. . and know They inhale the neither love. His was boundless. weapons.. nor cold. the government of which seemed to him but paltry trifling with knotted cords. The following is accounts of strange outlandish nations "This country is many thousand miles from the Middle Kingdom. and sank. eating none of the five cereals. . was a wild and unconventional capacity for liquor with a fatal fondness which caused his dismissal from office. The Calm in repose. and when he came back. which may still be read from an account of his visit to Drunk-Land. lo . " Yiian Chi. nor day. inhabitants are ethereal in disposition. boundless plain.D. without mountains or undulations of any kind. beasts. and he was known as In his lucid intervals he wrote verse. " The Yellow Emperor went on a visit to the capital of Drunk-Land. the story of which is told with all due gravity and in a style modelled upon that which is found much beautiful prose and with pleasure. breeze and sip the dew. joy.— WANG CHI . It is a vast. fishes.* and some others. chariots. These two were not contemporaries. the Five-bottle Scholar. made a trip together to Drunk-Land. ignorant of boats. T'ao Ch'ien. The manners and customs are everywhere the in ordinary : same. The climate is equable. he was quite out of conceit with the empire. nor anger. nor heat. or implements in general. they mingle with birds. about ten in all.

" The period closes with the name of the Emperor known as Yang Ti.D.d. . Yang Ti prided himself upon his literary attainments. medical. The trees in his park were supplied in winter with silken leaves and flowers. 605. first of his elder brother and then of his father. He set one hundred scholars to victim to assassination. a collection of classical. already mentioned in connection with the poet Hsieh Tao-h^ng. I could not bear that the pure and peaceful domain of Drunk-Land should come to be regarded as a preserve of the ancients.136 never to CHINESE LITERATURE rise again. that the examination for the second or "master of arts" degree was instituted. and now of Wine. work editing treatises . 606. After reigning fell for thirteen years this unlikely patron of literature a Yet in spite of his otherwise disreputable character. and other it and was under his reign. So I went there myself. The murderer. in a. Middle Kingdom they are dubbed Spirits "Alas. he in A. in the They were buried where they fell. mounted the throne and gave himself up to extravagance and debauchery. and birds were almost exterminated cient supply of to provide a suffi- down for his cushions.

CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP In the domains of classical and general literature HUANGFU Mi (a.d. His work on the Spring and Autumn Annals had also considerable vogue. which had just been discovered in Honan. 215-282) occupies an honourable place. and also wrote on music. by perseverance he became a fine scholar. and adopted literature as a profession. In spite of severe rheumatism he was never without a book in his hand. Kuo HsiANG {d. took a leading part in editing the Bamboo Annals.CHAPTER II. and several important biographical works. 312) occupied himself chiefly with the philosophy of Lao Tzu and with the writings »S7 . He was called the Book-Debauchee.D. Sun Shu-jan. A. and became so absorbed in his work that he would forget all about meals and bedtime. He produced essays. of about the same date. poetry. his Majesty sent him back a cart-load to go on with. Beginning life at the ploughtail. and wrote on the Erh Ya. whose proffers of office he had refused. and once when he wished to borrow works from the Emperor Wu Ti of the Chin dynasty. A. provided a preface to the Mu T^ien TzU Chuan. Hsun Hsu id. 289) aided in drawing up a Penal Code for the newly-established Chin dynasty. distinguished himself by his works on the Confucian Canon.D.

was like the sation was said of him that his convercontinuous downflow of a rapid. he is said to have spent the night in repeating what he had learnt by day.D. Poor and studious. limited his supply of oil and fuel. 441-513)." The Ti of the Liang dynasty one day said to . Personally. Yo (a.d. from which he retired in ill-health. Kuo P'O {d. He was the author of the histories of the Chin. Entering official life. is chiefly famous for his history of the Han dynasty from about the date of the Christian era. another famous scholar. whose execution in A. ing two pupils to his left eye. as his mother. and Ch'i dynasties. Shen. executed for treason in A. loaded with honours. universally practised in geomancy China as applied at the present day. and lived most austerely.D. anxious on account of his health. He was a strict teetotaller. down to the final collapse two hundred years later.D. by a usurper. he was remarkable for hav-. as has been stated. 445. never hit upon this plan. or the rush of water from a sluice. 453 caused him to go for a time into hiding. In his autobiography he writes. was the son of a Governor of Huai-nan. he was a brilliant exponent of the doctrines of Taoism and the reputed founder of the art of to graves. during the past thousand years. He is said to have been the first to classify the four tones. he rose to high office. Fan Yeh. when the dynasty was interrupted. I Emperor Wu alone discovered its advantages. A. divination. 324) was a scholar of great repute. He had a library of twenty thousand volumes. He was also learned in astronomy. Liu Sung.138 of CHINESE LITERATURE It Chuang Tzu. and natural philosophy. Besides editing various important classical works. "The poets of old.

To his father he was most respectful. notably in verse-making. When the price of grain in 526. A lover of nature. and wrote to him when he himself was almost at the last gasp. and spent large sums in burying Against forced labour on public the outcast dead. he delighted to ramble with scholars about his beautiful park. whom he predeceased. skilfully selecting for answer four characters which illustrated. 501-531) was the eldest son of Hsiao Yen. 139 tones?" his "Come. and his later years were marked by great literary ability. Hsiao Tung (a. for it was only at the earnest solicitation of his father that he consented either to eat or drink during the period of mourning. In 527 he nursed his motheir through her last illness. being distributed by trusty attendants who sought out all cases He even emptied his own wardrobe for of distress." replied Shen Yo. Handsome and of charming manners. in the hope of concealing his danger.HSIAO T'UNG him. the founder of the Liang dynasty. Learned men were sure of his patronage.d. the benefit of the poor. and in the usual order. rose in consequence of the . works he vehemently protested. mild and forbearing. tell me. the four tones in question. But he is remembered now not so mucli for his virtues as for his initiation of a new department in war with Wei . to which he declined to add the attraction of singing-girls. what are these famous four "They are whatever your Majesty pleases to make them. he was universally loved. and his grief for her death impaired his naturally fine constitution. Before he was five years old he was reported to have learned the Classics by heart. and his palace contained a large library. he lived on the most frugal fare and throughout his life his charities were very large and kept secret.

and many books which might otherwise have perished have been preserved for grateful posterity. memorials. inscriptions. . and prefaces. funeral orations. Huge col- works have from time to time been reprinted in uniform editions. CHINESE LITERATURE A Wen Hsuan. The idea thus started was rapidly developed. The Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms by Fa Hsien may be quoted as an example. of a large number of authors. These were classified under such heads as poetry of various kinds. epitaphs. the year before his death he completed the first published collection of choice works. whole or in part. and has been continued lections of down to modern times. essays.I40 literature.



into three poetical periods. with wealth. extravagance. called Early. and refinement. contains 48. but most of all with poetry. and filling thirty goodSome Chinese writers divide the dynasty sized volumes. arranged in 900 books. China's best efforts in this direction were chiefly produced within the limits of its three hundred years' duration. and dissipation.900 poems of all kinds. " Poetry." The " Complete Collection of the Poetry of the T'ang Dynasty.BOOK THE FOURTH THE TANG DYNASTY {x." says a modern Chinese critic. Glorious. with frivolity. culture. burst forth and reached perfection under the T'angs. " came into being with the Odes. and . but language inadequate to its expression. Some good work was indeed done under the Han and Wei dynasties . the writers of those days seemed to have material in abundance.u. and they have been carefully preserved as finished models for future poets of all generations." published in 1707. 600-900) CHAPTER POETRY The T'ang dynasty is I usually associated in Chinese minds with much romance of love and war. developed with the Li Sao.

fulness. the reader to grasp the sense. without inflection. spondees. and they profess to detect in the works assigned each the corresponding characteristics of growth. In a stanza of the ordi- nary five-character length the following tonal arrangement would appear : Sharp Flat Flat sharp flat flat flat sharp flat flat sharp sharp flat sharp sharp flat. syntactical arrangement of the words. For. again. the poet is hampered not only by rhyme but also by tone. A Chinese poem is at best a hard nut to crack. Sharp sharp sharp flat . the connection between which has to be inferred by the reader from the logic. as to flats and these occupy fixed positions just and anapaests in the construction of Latin verse. As a consequence. agglutination. as though responsive to the demands of art. however. expressed as it usually is in lines of five or seven monosyllabic rootideas. and the structural arrangement more uniform and more polished. and as dactyls. that since the age of the Hans the meanings of words had gradually come to be more definitely fixed.— 144 Late CHINESE LITERATURE . or grammatical indication of any kind. the natural order of words is often entirely sacrificed to the exigencies of tone. and least perhaps of all from the Then. trochees. For purposes of poetry the characters in the Chinese language are all ranged under two tones. and decay. thus making it more difficult than ever for sharps. it is only necessary to state. and the language to flow more easily and more musically. Others insert a Middle period between the last two. from the context. Imagination began to come more freely into play. making four periods in all. general purposes.

is the epigram. it may is very unsaid. and this is the limit set to candi- dates at the great public examinations at the present day." so called because abruptness. poem. there are many pieces extending to Brevity is indeed the soul of several hundred lines. but for its extreme difficulty. there is as much artificiality about a stanza of Chinese verse as there is about an Alcaic stanza in Latin. many of them of course being no longer rhymes at all. who The ideal in each case may be styled an impressionist. the student in his admittedly difficult task. and often makes up for the faultiness of the rhymes. Thus. and seem to be necessary aids and adjuncts Many works have been published to guide to success. " it is . in There no such thing as an epic the language. which is valued not so much for what a Chinese As in painting. A long is poem does not appeal to the Chinese mind. or "stop-short. so in poetry suggestion is the end and aim of the artist." . which are simply the rhymes of the as heard 2500 years ago. It runs thus " Discard commonplace form discard commonplace further ideas . . the Chinese holding that if a poet cannot say within such compass what he has to say well be left favourite. as the critics explain. rule in The as to first one of these seems so comprehensive . leilgth is twelve lines. though. though. discard monplace words commonplace phrasing discard comdiscard commonplace rhymes. make : perusal quite unnecessary. of the art. The eight-line poem also a four-line of its and so. of course.— POETRY The I4S effect produced by these tones is very marked and pleasing to the ear. it says as for what it suggests. But in the hands Odes most gifted this artificiality is altogether concealed and the very trammels of tone and rhyme become by transfigured.

to develop. to conclude his theme in accordance with certain established laws of composition. but was dismissed for satirising the cock-fighting propensities of the Imperial princes. Although consisting of only twenty or twentyeight words. according to the measure employed. The latter form of verse was in use so far back as the Han dynasty. in fact. by an anonymous writer. but only reached perfection under the Tangs. better " "Omne epigramma English dress : sit known in its The qualities rare in a bee that we meet In an epigram. 648-676). And a sting should be left in the tail. enough and for the poet to introduce. and was employed in the Historical Department. reminded of the old formula. instar apis. He took his degree at sixteen. He filled up his leisure by composing many beautiful poems. The body should always be little and sweet.d. the last line should contain a "surprise" or denouement.— 146 — CHINESE LITERATURE only the words which stop. never shouldfail. Are pure andperfectjoys indeed. He never . We are. the sense goes on. The stream beneath the breezis touch. line is The third considered the most troublesome to produce." — Turning now to the almost endless list of poets from which but a scanty selection can be made. Butfew are they who think them such." is The following an early specimen." some train of thought having been suggested to the reader. of the four-line " poem : The bright moon shining overhead.. a precocious boy who wrote verses when he was six. we may begin with Wang Po (a." &c. it is just long to embellish. some poets even writing it first .

and then let it be known that on the following day he would perform upon it in public. still cast. 656-698).— CH'fiN TZCr-ANG 147 meditated on these beforehand. who adopted somewhat sensational means of bringing himself to the notice of the public. of his Save the plash of the stream rolling ceasflessly by." received so many it presents of valuable silks for his writing these odes. meaning that his drafts. he would drink himself tipsy and lie down with his face covered up. were all prepared inside. but when Ch'en arrived he informed his auditors that he had something in his pocket worth much more than the . but after having prepared a quantity of ink ready for use. : The clouds der the water their shadows Things change like the stars how few autumns have passed And yet where is thatprince f where is he ? — No reply. or rough copies. The hill-mists of morning sweep down on the halls. But its music and song have departed long since . not a word in which needed to be changed whence he acquired the sobriquet of Belly-Draft." A still more famous contemporary was Ch'en TztJ-ANG (A. And he mind. . At night the red curtains lie furled on the walls. This attracted a large crowd . He purchased a very expensive guitar which had been for a long time on sale. that These lines was said " he spun with are from his pen : " Near these islands a palace was built by a prince. On waking he would seize his pen and write off verses.D.

mountain and dale. and forthwith began handing round copies of his own writings. by the bridge were all covered with flower. A man. was himself indicted for murder. fraught With gold and silver. gems. And I have heard the faith by Buddha taught Why then these Lauded as pure andfree from earthly taint j carved and graven idols. CHINESE LITERATURE guitar. shall pass away . . are present to his mind. Thereupon he dashed the instrument into a thousand pieces. No fairy palaces beyond the Rewards to come. to relieve the His doom of humankind sky.D. andjade. Ch'en Tzu-ang once gained great kudos by a truly Solomonic decision. having slain the murderer of his father.— 148 — . Ch'^n Tzu-ang caused him to be put to death. directed against the Buddhist worship of idols. any rate to his good. andpaint ? The heavens that roof this earth. 71P). the " Prophet" representing any divinely-inspired teacher of the Con- fucian school " : On Self the Prophet never rests his eye. but at the same time conferred an honorific distinction upon his village for having produced so filial a son. Not much at is known of Sung CHiH-wiN {d. All that is great and grand. On one occasion the Emperor was so delighted with some of his verses that he took off the Imperial robe and placed it on the poet's shoulders. Shall man's poor handiwork escape decay f Fools that ye are ! In this ignoble light The true faith fades and passes out of sight" As an official. And if the art of gods may not prevail. This is one of his poems : " The dust of the morn had been And the trees laid by a shower. Here is a sample. A.

and was one day conversing with his famous contemporary. when suddenly the Emperor was announced. tall bamboos I hear. I deem. 699-759).JAN (a. Clear dripping drops from. WANG Wei life. lotus-scent the breeze sweeps by. MENG HAO-JAN a while palfrey passed with a saddle of gold.d. And although not a light-o'-love reckoned. Wang Wei. the while before mine eyes Dear friends of other days in dream-cladforms arise!' Loaded with Equally famous as poet and physician was (a. The following is a specimen of his verse : " The sun has set behind the western slope. the result being a his writings pleasant interview with his Majesty. And stretch my limbs out to enjoy the cool. vision like It was hard that this should pass a aream. After a short spell of official he too . At the age of forty he went up to the capital. 149 And a damsel as fair But she veiled so discreetly her charms from my eyes That the boy who was with her quite feltfor my sighs. He hid under a couch." M£ng Had. The eastern moon lies mirrored in the pool j With streaming hair my balcony I ope. Alas. but Wang Wei betrayed him. I gaze upon my idle lute and sigh.d. He then became a poet of the first rank. and were eagerly sought after. and retired to the mountains as a recluse. 689-740) gave of the genius that no sign in his youth was latent within him.— When . He failed at the public examinations. as the fairest of old. no sympathetic soul is near And so I doze.

there is Wang Wei. 'lam sick oflifis And I long for repose on the slumbering hills. No ear to hear me. we see that his mind had merely passed into sub: — jective relationship with the things described. me. and sit and croon . however. When. who introduces bananas into a snow-storm. save mine own : No eye to see me save the moon'' I seize my — Wang Wei has been accused of loose writing and incongruous pictures. tell ' ' Dearfriend. in which he was a firm believer. But oh seek not to pierce where my footsteps may stray : The white clouds will soothe me for ever and ay' The accompanying "stop-short" by is the same writer generally thought to contain an effective surprise in : the last line " Beneath the bamboo grove.— ISO — " ' CHINESE LITERATURE retired into seclusion and occupied himself with poetry and with the consolations of Buddhism. when the latter was seeking refuge on the mountains. lute alone. 'Alas ! he replied. and a wine-bibber and gambler to was Ts'ui Hao. . whither away ? ills. are as follows " : Dismounted. His lines on bidding adieu to M^ng Hao-jan. skilled poet. 730." A boot. we come to examine such points by the light of scholarship. der wine we had said our last say j Then I whisper. who graduated about A. Fools say he did not know heat from cold.D. A friendly critic defends him as follows " For instance.

but he gave up the idea so soon as he had read these lines by Ts'ui Hao Christian era. who had attained immortality. breeze. and its foam'' By general consent Ll Po himself (a. willfor ever remain. And twinkle near the moon—a star? " II Oh why notfly to heaven afar. At the early age of ten he wrote a " stop-short " to a firefly " : Rain cannot quench thy lanteriis light. His wild Bohemian life. went heaven in broad daylight six centuries before the The great Li Po once thought of writing on the theme.d. 705-762) would probably be named as China's greatest poet. : " Here a mortal once sailed up to heaven on a crane^ Yellow-Crane Kiosque. And the Away to From Yet the east lie fairforests of trees. Beyond the broad River. But the birdjlew away and will come back no more. Though the white clouds are there as the white clouds ofyore. his gay and dissipated career at Court. and was put up to mark the spot where until quite recently stood Wang up to Tzu-ch'iao. its waves. all combine to form a most effective setting for the splendid flow of verse which he never ceased to pour forth. the flowers on the west comes a scent-laden my eyes daily turn to their far-away home. and his tragic end.— TS'UI — 151 HAO He wrote a poem on the Yellow-Crane pagoda which on the bank of the Yang-tsze near Hankow. his exile. . Wind makes it shine more brightly bright.

but I will do my best. however. with five other tippling poets. the fairest of all. . of favourite. until Idlers of at length. On one occasion.— 152 Li CHINESE LITERATURE Po began by wandering about the country. With a lady of the seraglio to hold his ink-slab. and in a very short time he had thrown off no less than ten eight-line stanzas. His talents. which the following." There•\vas . the Emperor. he retired to the the their hearts' capital. After some delay the poet arrived. " I have been drinking with the Prince and he has made me drunk. mountains. the joy ofyouth spent in a gold-fretted hall." with open arms. supported between two eunuchs. describing the is one : life of a palace " Oh. called for Li Po to commemorate the scene in verse. only after having his face well mopped with cold water that he was fit for the Imperial presence. For some time these Six Bamboo Grove drank and wrote verses to content. he dashed ofif some of his most impassioned lines at which the Emperor was so overcome that he made the powerful eunuch Kao Li-shih go down on his knees and pull ofif the poet's boots. upon two of the ladies of the harem held up in front of him a pink silk screen. On another occasion. By and by Li Po reached the and on the strength of his poetry was introduced to the He was received Emperor as a "banished angel. he was found lying drunk in the street and it ." he said. who was enjoying himself with his favourite lady in the palace grounds. In the Crape-flower Pavilion. and soon became the spoilt child of the palace. did not fail him. when the Emperor sent for him. " Please your Majesty.

Li Po left fell a victim to intrigue. " It was then that he wrote long rope. " Though the moon cannot swallow her share of the grog. he was drowned on a journey. and the Court in disgrace. . 1 But the dance and the song will be der by and by. Just previously he had After indited the following lines : " An arbour of flowers Alas kettle of wine : bowers no companion is mine." As time went on. Carnations arranged o'er my jacket and skirt Then to -wander away And return in the soft-scented air. — Yet theirfriendship PII borrow and gaily carouse. And we shall dislimn like the rack in the sky. My whitening hair would make a long. . And laugh away sorrow while spring-time allows.— LI ! — I PO S3 My tresses for head-dress with gay garlands girt. . and a ! in the And my shadow betrays we're a party of three. And my shadow mustfollow wherever Ijog. Yet would notfathom all my depth of woe. from leaning one night too far over the edge of a boat in a drunken effort to embrace the reflection of the moon. by the side .'' more wanderings and much adventure. of his Majestys chair ^ . Then the moon sheds her rays on my goblet and me.


" ^if^ the moon,



—how she glances my song; ^See my shadow, — dances
response to

so lightly along.'

While sober Ifeel

you are


my goodfriends

When drunken I reel,

our companionship ends. But w^ll soon have a greeting without a good-bye. At our next merry meeting


in the sky."

His control of the "stop-short"


considered to be


" The birds have all flown to their roost in the The last cloud has justfloated lazily by s But we never tire of each other, not we.


As we sit there together, — the mountains
and I."




/ wake, and fnoonbeams play around my
Glittering like hoar-frost to


Up towards

the glorious

Then lay me down,

—and thoughts of

my wondering eyes; moon I raise my head.


following are general extracts

(i.) "


The river rolls crystal as clear as the sky, To blendfar away with the blue waves of ocean; Man alone, when the hour of departure is nigh. With the wine-cup can soothe his emotion.

" The birds of the valley sing loud in the sun, Where the gibbons their vigils will shortly be keeping:

I thought that with tears I had long ago But now I shall never cease weeping."







Homeward at dusk

the clanging rooher^ eagerflight; Then, chattering on the branches, all are pairing for the night. Plying her busy loom, a high-born


is sitting near.

And through the silken


their voices strike her ear.


and thinks of the absent spouse may never see again;

And late in

the lonely hours of night her tears flow down like rain!'


What is life after all but a dream 1 And why should such pother be made f
Betterfar to be tipsy, I deem, And doze all day long in the shade.


When I wake and look out on the lawn, I hear midst the flowers a bird sing; T ask, Is it evening or dawn f

The mango-bird whistles, "Tis


" Overpower' d with the beautiful sight,

Arwtherfull goblet Ipour.

And would sing till the moon
But soon I'm

rises bright as drunk as before."

" You ask what my soul does away in the sky, I inwardly smile but I cannot reply; Like the peach-blossoms carried away by the stream, I soar to a world of which you cannot dream."


One more extract may be given, chiefly to exhibit what held by the Chinese to be of the very essence of real

suggestion. A poet should not dot his «"s. Chinese reader likes to do that for himself, each The according to his own fancy. Hence such a poem as the following, often quoted as a model in its own particular





" A tortoise I see on a lotus-flower resting: A bird 'mid the reeds and the rushes is nesting; A light skiffpropelled by some boatman's fa:'r daughter,

Whose song dies away
o'er the fast-flowing


Another poet

of the

same epoch,

men are He failed
tions, at

also justly proud,

of whom his countryTu Fu (A.D. 712-770).

to distinguish himself at the public


which verse-making counts so much, but had nevertheless such a high opinion of his own poetry that he prescribed it as a cure for malarial fever. He finally obtained a post at Court, which he was forced to vacate in the rebellion of 755. As he himself wrote in
political allegory
" Full with the freshets of the spring the torrent rushes on; The ferry-boat swings idly, for the ferry-man is gone."

After further vain attempts to make an official career, he took to a wandering life, was nearly drowned by an inundation, and was compelled to live for ten days on roots. Being rescued, he succumbed next day to the effects of eating roast-beef and drinking white wine to excess after so long a fast. These are some of his jDoems


" 7^« setting sun shines

low upon



Ere dusk enwraps the riverfringed with spring; Sweet perfumes rise from gardens by the shore.

And smoke,

where crews their boats


anchor bring.

" Now twittering birds are roosting in the bower.

Andflying insects fill the air around.




who gave

to thee thy subtle power ?


thousand cares in one small goblet drowned! "





A petalfall's — the spring begins to fail,

And my

heart saddens with the growing gale.

autumn spoils bestrew the ground, notforget to pass the wine-cup round. Kingfishers build where man once laughed elate. And now stone dragons guard his graveyard gate ! Who follows pleasure, he alone is wise; Why waste our life in deeds of high emprise
then, ere




" My



girdled by


limpid stream.

And there in summer days life's movements pause,
Save where some swallow flits from beam to beam. And the wild sea-gull near and nearer draws.
" The goodwife rules a paper boardfor chess; The children beat a fish-hook out of wire; ailments call for physic more or less. What else should this poorframe of mine require?"



" Alone

I wandered der

the hills

hermits den. While sounds of chopping rang around
to seek the

the forests leafy glen.

Ipassed on

ice across the brook,

which had not ceased to freeze.


the slanting rays of afternoon shot sparkling through the trees.

" I found he did not joy to gloat derfetid wealth by night. But, farfrom taint, to watch the deer in the golden morning light. mind was clear at coming; but now I've lost my guide. And rudderless my little bark is drifting with the tide I







the Court every eve to the pawnshop Ipass. To come back from the river the drunkest of men j As often as not I'm in debtfor my glass;


Well, few of us live to be threescore

and ten.



The butterfly flutters from flower to flower. The dragonfly sips and springs lightly away. Each creature is merry its brief little hour. So let us enjoy our short life while we may."

Here is a specimen of his skill with the "stop-short," based upon a disease common to all Chinese, poets or



" White gleam the gulls across the darkling


green hills the redflowers seem to burn; Alas! I see another spring has died. . . . When will it come the day of my return ? "

Of the poet Chang Ch'ien not much is known. He graduated in 727, and entered upon an official career, but ultimately betook himself to the mountains and lived as a hermit. He is said to have been a devotee of Taoism. The following poem, however, which deals with dhydna, or the state of mental abstraction in which all desire for existence is shaken off, would make it seem as if his leanings had been Buddhistic. It gives a perfect picture, so far as it goes, of the Buddhist retreat ,often to be found among mountain peaks all over China, visited by pilgrims who perform religious exercises or fulfil vows at the feet of the World-Honoured, and by contemplative students eager to shake off the " red dust




" The clear


creeps into the convent old.
tips its tall trees

with gold. As, darkly, by a winding path I rea^h Dhydnds hall, hidden midstflr and beech. Around these hills sweet birds their pleasure take. Maris heart asfree from shadows as this lake; Here worldly sounds are hushed, as by a spell.

The rising sun

Save for


booming of the altar bell"

There can be


doubt of the influence of Buddhism


upon the poet Ts'en Ts'an, who graduated about as witness his lines on that faith


A shrine whose eaves in far-off cloudland hide
I mount, and with the sun stand side by side. The air is clearj I see wide forests spread


And mist-crowned heights where kings of old lie dead. Scarce o'er my threshold peeps the Southern Hill;
The Wei shrinks through my window to a rill. thou Pure Faith, had I but known thy scope. The Golden God^ had long since been my hope /"
. . .

took the highest degree in 775, and rose be Governor of a District. He managed, however, to offend one of the Imperial clansmen, in consequence of which his official career was abruptly, cut short. He wrote a good deal of verse, and was On terms of intimacy with several of the great contemporary poets. In the following lines, the metre of which is irregular, he

Wang Chien

alludes to the extraordinary case of a soldier's wife


her time on a hill-top looking do^vn the Yangspent tsze, watching for her husband's return from the wars.

At length

Where her husband she



the river's long track.

Into stone she was wrought. And can never com.e back;

'Mid the wind and the rain-storm for ever and ay.
She appeals
to each

home-comer passing that way"

The last line makes the stone figure, into which the unhappy woman was changed, appear to be asking of every fresh arrival news of the missing man. That is the skill of the artist, and is inseparably woven into the

Alluding to the huge


images of Buddha to be seen

in all temples.


poets equally well
of those already cited,

Passing over


we reach


known with name undoubtin

edly the most venerated of

those ever associated

any way with the great mass of Chinese literature. Han Yij (a.D. 768-824), canonised and usually spoken of as Han Wen-kung, was not merely a poet, but a statesman of the first rank, and philosopher to boot. He rose from among the humblest of the people to the highest offices of State. In 803 he presented a memorial protesting against certain extravagant honours with which the Emperor Hsien Tsung proposed to receive a bone of Buddha. The monarch was furious, arid but for the intercession of friends it would have fared badly with the bold writer. As it was, he was banished to Ch'aochou Fu in Kuangtung, where he set himself to civilise the rude inhabitants of those wild parts. In a temple at the summit of the neighbouring range there is to be seen at this day a huge picture of the Prince of Literature, as he has been called by foreigners from
his canonisation, with the following legend attached

"Wherever he passed, he purified." He is even said to have driven away a huge crocodile which was devastating the watercourses in the neighbourhood; and the denunciatory ultimatum which he addressed to the monster and threw into the river, together with a pig and a goat, is still regarded as a model of Chinese composition. It was not very long ere he was recalled to
but he had been and had grown prematurely old, and was thus unable to resist a severe illness which came upon him. His friend and contemporary, Liu Tsungyiian, said that he never ventured to open the works of Han Yii without first washing his hands in rose-water.

the capital and reinstated in office;





His writings, especially his essays, are often of the very highest order, leaving nothing to be desired either in originality or in style. But it is more than all for his pure and noble character, his calm and dignified patriotism, that the Chinese still keep his memory green. The following lines were written by Su Tung-p'o, nearly 300 years after his death, for a shrine which had just been put up in honour of the dead teacher by the people of Ch'ao-chou Fu

"He rode on the dragon to the white cloud domain; He grasped with his hand the glory of the sky j
Robed with the effulgence of the stars, The wind bore him delicately to the throne of God.

He swept away the chaff and husks of his generation. He roamed oz'er the limit's of the earth. He clothed all naiui e with his bright rays.
The third in the triumvirate ofgenius.^ His rivals panted after him in vain,

Dazed by

the brilliancy of the light.

He cursed Dudiha ; he offended his prince He journeyedfar away to the distant south; He passed the grave of Shun, and wept over the
The water-god went before

daughters of Yao.

and stilled the waves.


drove out the fierce monster as

were a lamb.

But above, iw heaven, there was no music, and God was And summoned him to his place beside the Throne. And now, with these poor offerings, I salute him; With red lichees and yellow plantain fruit.
Alas ! that

did not linger awhile on earth.
the great

But passed so soon, with streaming hair, into




wrote a large quantity of verse, frequently

on an immense variety of subjects, and under his touch the commonplace was often transmuted into wit. Among other pieces there is one on his teeth, which seemed to drop out at regular intervals, so that he


other two were Li

Po and Tu Fu,



could calculate roughly what span of life remained to him. Altogether, his poetry cannot be classed with that of the highest order, unlike his prose writings, extracts from which will be given in the next chapter. The



a specimen of his lighter vein
the river-bank


To stand upon

and snare the purple fish.

My net well cast across the stream,
all that

I could wish.



concealed and shoot the geese

And pay my
Then home

that scream and pass apace. rent and taxes with
the profits of the chase.

to peace and happiness, with wife and children gay. Though clothes be coarse andfare be hard, and earned from day to day. But now I read and read, scarce knowing


And, eager


all about.


my mind,

I wear tny body out. T draw a snake and give it legs,
to find I've

wasted skill.

And my hair grows daily whiter
as I hurry towards the hill} I sit amid the sorrows I have brought on my own head. Andfind myself estrangedfrom, all, among the living dead.

I seek



tny consciousness

in wi?ie, alas ! in vain

Oblivion passes quickly

Old age comes

and my griefs begin again. on, and yet withholds the summons to depart.




I'll take

another bumper
to ease



aching heart"


Graves are placed by preference on some

The rising sun breaks on to me. they are swept away" The following lines were written on the : way to his place of exile in Kuangtung ^^ Alas ! the early season flies.— HAN YU Humane rally — 163 is treatment of the lower animals not gene- supposed to be a characteristic of the Chinese. worthy to be mentioned even Han Yu. 772-846). They have no Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. was Po Chu-i (a. Like you. Behold the remnants of the spring! My boat in landlocked water lies. and although the following piece cannot be taken seriously. Let a partition stop their flight. But stop ! All care we lay aside When once they close the coffin lid!' after Another famous poet. spare the : busy morningfly. which may perhaps account for some of their shortcomings in this direction. — A prisoner longing to be free. " Their span is brieffrom birth to death . " Then. And thrills me with a fleeting hope. Han Yii was above all things of a kindly. through clouds lingering on the slope. they bite their little day. Spare the mosquitos of the night t And if their wicked trade they ply. Though care clings closer than it did. As a child . At dawn I hear the wild birds sing. humane nature. with aittuinTis earliest breath. And then. it affords a useful index to his general feelings " Oh. ^^ My flowing tears are long since dried. Like you.d. too.

he was transferred to be Governor of Chung-chou and on the accession of Mu Tsung in 821 he was sent as Governor to Hangchow. he Hsiang-shan. built a retreat sometimes called speculations officialdom. and ridiculed its preposterous claims as " ' know. each one pointed out only once by his nurse. which tells . by which name he is and there. To escape recognition and annoyance. and finally rose in 841 to be President of the Board of War. and rose to high office in the State. though at one period of his life he was banished to a petty post. speak not. he gave himself up to poetry and upon a future life. after having had.— i64 CHINESE LITERATURE he was most precocious. To console himself. who speak. and the party was generally known as the Nine Old Gentlemen of Hsiang-shan. which were set up in a garden he had made for himself . still known as Po's Embankment. together with eight con- genial companions. which somewhat disgusted him with at . know naught} Are words from Lao TzHs lore. This reaching the ears of the Emperor. There he built one of the great embankments of the beautiful Western Lake. all names were dropped. follows He : disbelieved in the genuineness of the Tao- Ti-Ching. in imitation of his former beloved retreat at Hsiang- shan. What then becomes of Lao Tzu^s own Five thousand words and more f " ' ' Who Here is a charming poem from his pen. He graduated at the age of seventeen. He was subsequently Governor of Soochow. knowing a considerable number of the written characters at the early age of seven months. His poems were collected by Imperial command and engraved upon tablets of stone.

came words of cold farewell beneath the bright moon. Now softly. was heard.— PO CHC-I Ihe story of a poor lute-girl's sorrows. now slowly. Host had dismounted to speed the parting guest. as mentioned above. but no answer given. and At length. and declares that such workmanship raises the reader to that state of mental ecstasy known to the Buddhists as samddhi. betrayed emotion ere her song was sung. while with bent head and rapid finger she poured forth her soul in melody. and asking who the performer might be. At this. adieus were spoken beneath the maple's flower-like leaves. who points out how admirably the wording is adapted to echo the sense. after preparations for festivity renewed. but no flute. and the musician was invited to join the party. all was hushed. ere the heart was warmed with wine. . wondering whence the music. And so. from a point about half-way thither. hiding her face behind much pressing. A boat approached. glittering over the bosom of the broad stream . setting out a second time for his place of banishment. i6s This piece is ranked very high by the commentator Lin Hsi-chung. . Then every note she struck swelled with pathos deep and strong. . at the riverside. forth. Cups were refilled. Then a stirrupcup went round. no guitar. when suddenly across the water a lute broke forth into sound. as though telling the tale of a wrecked and hopeless life. lamps trimmed again. she came her lute and twice or thrice sweeping the strings. her plec: : . Host forgot to go. The " guest" is the poet himself. where he had been struck down by illness " By night. blooming amid autumnal decay. guest lingered on. and can only be produced once in a thousand autumns. already on board his boat.

I learnt the guitar. and with died. And so I laughed on from year to year. in a passion too deep for sound. loudly. while the spring breeze and autumn moon swept over my careless head. like the patter of pearls and pearlets dropping upon a marble dish. stilled by the grip so for a moment was the music lulled. like the torrent. . : women my Golden ornaments and silver pins were smashed. The maestro himself acknowledged my skill the most ' : The youths of the neighbourhood vied with each other to do me honour a single song brought me I know not how beauteous of envied lovely face. now trickling. The autumn moon shone strings silver athwart the tide. in oft-times echoing applause. and my name was enrolled among the primas of the day. but few cavaHers remained.1 66 to CHINESE LITERATURE and . trum sped fro . like the warbling of the mango-bird in the bush course. At thirteen. ' : many . as with a sigh the musician thrust her plectrum beneath the and quietly prepared to take leave. " Silence on all sides not a sound stirred the : air. My doors were no thronged . in my home near the hills. as clash the arms upon the mailed horseman. ' My childhood. costly bales. was spent at the capital.' said she. Or liquid. . as the murmur whispered words loud and soft together. So I longer He was took a husband and became a trader's wife. like the streamlet on its downward of And then. so fell the plectrum once more upon the strings with a slash like the rent of silk. now this air. frost. them my beauty began to fade. now that . " Then my brother went away to the wars my mother Nights passed and mornings came . as bursts the water from the broken vase. Then. of with the crash of falling rain softly. blood-red skirts of silk were stained with wine.

the Hill songs I gibbon's mournful wail.' " The sweet melody of the lute had already soul to pity. and fever . who him- deserves a passing notice. off Last month he went to to buy tea. and need no ceremony to be friends.' " Grateful to lute-girl sat me (for she had been standing long). Prithee sit down awhile and sing to us yet again. while I commit thy story to writing. At 685-762). no flute or guitar is heard. he was called upon to face an attempt . O lady. Last year I quitted the Imperial city. cold boat on moon-lit thinking of the happy telling my reddened eyes of tearful dreams. unlike the song of just now. sad and all . until my bosom was wet with weeping. her hearers melted into tears unrestrained and none flowed more freely than mine.stricken reached this spot.d. listen to have. where in its desolation. we are companions in misfortune. lonely over the days gone by. and village pipes with their harsh discordant twang. and little recked of separation from me. moved my and now these words pierced me to the heart again. I live by the marshy river-bank. and I remained behind. methinks 'tis the music of the gods. Day and night no sounds reach my ' ' ears save the blood-stained note of the nightjar. Z2 his accession to the throne in 712. But now that I thy lute's discourse. from year's end to year's end." Perhaps the best known of all the works of Po Chii-i is song.' I cried. a narrative poem It of some length entitled " The Everlast- ing Wrong. nights wander in my wave." refers to the ignominious downfall of the Emperor known self as Ming Huang (a. the down and quickly broke forth into another Then soft. surrounded by yellow reeds and stunted bamboos.PO CHU-I all 167 for gain.

— 1 68 CHINESE LITERATURE of his aunt. conupon what promised siderable quantities of which were actually burnt. He published an himself a edition of the Classic of Filial Piety. and his Majesty sought safety in flight to Ssuch'uan. he founded a cqjlege for training youth of both sexes in this art. Eunuchs were appointed to official posts. however. The accompanying poem describes the rise of Yang . and caused the text to be en- graved on four tablets of stone. His love of war. but this he succeeded in crushing. Gradually the Emperor .Kuei-fei. and the grossest forms of religious superstition were encouraged. The Emperor was a patron of literature. her tragic hands of the soldiery. and his growing extravagance. Fond of music. and poet of no mean capacity. and schools were established in every village. but afterwards for their readiness to participate in scenes of revelry and dissipation provided for the amusement of the Imperial concubine. at first for their talents alone. the ever-famous Yang Kueifei. left off concerning himself with affairs of State a serious rebellion broke out. The administration was improved.D. led to increased taxation. and entered He began to be a glorious reign. A. 745. Until 740 the country was fairly prosperous. Women ceased to veil themselves as of old. welcoming such men as the poet Li Po. returning only after having abdicated in favour of his son. to dis- on the part place him. and her subsequent communication with her heart-broken lover from the world of shadows beyond the grave fate at the : . closing the silk factories and forbidding the palace ladies to wear jewels or embroideries. He surrounded himself by a brilliant Court. the empire was divided into fifteen provinces. the T'ai-p'ing Princess. with economy.

Amid the delights of the Hibiscus Pavilion she passed the soft spring nights. Her sparkling eye and merry laughter fascinated every beholder. she bathed in the Hua-ch'ing Pool. But nature had amply endowed her with a beauty hard to conceal. Spring nights. face like a flower. headdress which quivered as she walked. 169 longedfor a " subverter of empires . Then. Laving her body in the glassy wavelets of the fountain perennially warm. . by Imperial mandate. her delicate and graceful movements Finally gainedfor her gracious favour. of spring. two glances an empire. Revelry. —Hair like a cloud. " For years he had sought in vain to secure such a treasure for his palace. too short alas ! for them. chosen for the nightly carouse. . — His Imperial Majesty.' PO CHU-I Ennui. helped by attendants. ever without a break. andfeasts ' would overthrow Referring to a famous beauty of the Han dynasty. albeit prolonged till From this time forth dawn. one glance from a city. She chosen always for the spring excursion. a slave to beauty. whom . . In the chills captivating his Majesty's heart. — Revels in quick succession.— />»/« Yangfamily came a maiden. And one day she was summoned to a place at the monarch's side. And among the powder andpaint of the harem her loveliness reigned supreme. when she came forth. just grown up to womanhood. Reared in the inner apartments. Beautx. the altogether unknown to fame. no more audiences in the hours of early morn.

is spread around on all sides Of song and the dance to the guitar andflute. Referring to A-chiao. in. thousand war-chariots and ten thousand horses move towards the south-west." said the latter to when a boy. leaving behind them the city walls." would have a golden house keep her . Divine music. one and all.. Her sisters and her brothers. I70 CHINESE LITERATURE Three thousand peerless beauties adorned the apartments of the monarch's harem. Breaking rudely upon the air of the " Rainbow Skirt and Feather Jacket Flight. one of the consorts of an Emperor of the Han I dynasty. But suddenly comes the roll of the fish-skin war-drums. Passing her life in a ''golden house" ' with fair girls to wait on her. A ' onwards and then a halt. "Ah. In the gorgeous palace piercing the grey clottds above. — Clouds of dust envelop A the lofty gates of the capital. For thus it came about that fathers and mothers through the length and breadth of the empire Rejoiced no longer over the birth of sons. were raised to the rank of nobles. but over the birth of daughters. All through the live long day. hundred li beyond the western gate. Yet always his Majesty reserved his attentions for her alone. "if I could only get A-chiao. his Majesty never tires. Feathers andjewels among the throng. She was daily wafted to ecstasy on the wine fumes of the banquet-hall. Alas ! for the ill-omened glories which she conferred on herfamily. borne on the breeze.

Eastward they depart and hurry on to the capital at full speed. But from the clods of earth at the foot of the Ma-wei hill. golden birds. —Across vast stretches ofyellow sand with whistling winds. And there he lingers on. and hairpins of costly jade. tears and bloodflow mingled together: Exile.ake their way. Across cloud-capped mountain-tops they m. Kingfisher wings. . powerless to save. Dark the SsUch uan waters. And the sound of a bell through the evening rain severs his viscera in twain. days goby. unable to tear himself wholly away. And as he turns to look back. On the ground lie gold ornaments with no one to pick them up. The monarch covers his face. The eyes of sovereign and minister meet. Return. dark the SsucKuan hills j Daily and nightly his Majesty is consumed by bitter grief. and once again he is there at the well-known spot. — Time passes. No sign of her lovely face appears. Few indeed are the travellers who reach the heights of Mount Omij The bright gleam of the standards grows fainter day by day.PO CHU-I The advance. nothing remains to be done Until she of the moth-eyebrows soldiers refuse to 171 perishes in sight of all. the very brightness of the moon saddens his heart. only the place of death. and robes are wet with tears. Travelling along.

And brightly shine the constellations. ' ' A fancy name The is for the women's apartments roof.2 CHINESE LITERATURE is the pool Home. he sits in silent grief . is chill. there are the willows of the palace. The hair of the Pear-Garden musicians is white as though with age. as though dawn would never come. But never once does her spirit come back to visit him in dreams. is the hibiscus of the pavilion. Cold settles upon the duck-and. the lamp-wick burnt out. in the willow he sees her eyebrows How in the presence of these should tears notflow. In autumn rains when the leaves of the wu t'ung falll To the south of the western palace : — are many trees. In spring amid the flowers of the peach andplum.drake tiles^ and thick hoar-frost. for the nights are now too long. — There There and there are the flowers. in the palace. In the hibiscus he sees herface. fidelity. no one now sweeps them away. And when their leaves cover the steps. The guardians of the Pepper Chamber^ seem to him no longer young. Where fireflies flit through the hall. The kingfisher coverlet with none to share its warmth. mandiirin duck and drake are emblems of conjugal to The allusion ornaments on the . as of old. Slowly pass the watches. he is still unable to sleep. Parted by life and death.i. Alone. time still goes on.

seeking everywhere. This magician receives orders to urge a diligent quest Borne on the clouds. — A Taoist priest of Lin-cKung. he -rushes with the speed of lightning to heaven. hearing of this embassy sent by the Son of Heaven. He bids a fair waiting-maid announce him Among to her mistress. Above. she arises in haste. he searches the empyrean. High up But nowhere At in these vast areas can her place be found. And begins to adorn herself with pearls andjewels. Starts up from her dreams among the tapestry curtains. There gaily decorated buildings rise up like rainbow clouds. Grasping her clothes andpushing away the pillow. below. And there many gentle and beautiful Immortals pass their days in peace. them is one whose name sounds upon lips as Eternal. 173 of the Hung-tu school. She. charioied upon ether. low down to earth.PO CHU-I spirit-Land. . Anxious to relieve the fretting mind of his sovereign. dimly to be descried. Lying in realms of vacuity. to summon the spirits of the dead. length he hears of an Isle of the Blest away in mid-ocean. Was able. And by her snow-white skin andflower-likeface he hnows that this is she. fairer still. the Yellow Springs. Knocking at the jade door at the western gate of the golden palace. by his perfect art.

. and dividing the enamel in two. And then in heaven or on earth below we two may meet once more" At parting. Saying how since they parted she has missed his form and voice And how. .. tokens of undying love. One half of the hairpin she and one half of the enamel brooch. she confided to the magician many earnest messages of love. sleep. keeps. " to be firm of heart. an enamel brooch. once more she seems to dance to the Rainbow Skirt and Feather Jacket!^ ^'' Her features are fixed and calm. head-dress awry. The days and months among the Blest are still of long duration. she passes into the hall. although their love on earth has so soon come to an end. though myriad tears fall. And now she turns and gazes towards the abode of mortals. restraining her grief she tenders thanks to his Majesty. Among the rest recalling a pledge mutually understood. Then she takes out the old keepsakes. and bids the magician carry these back. Subduing her emotions. A gold hairpin. as it were with the raindrops of spring. Breaking with her hands the yellow gold. dishevelled. sleeves of her immortal robes As are filled out by the breeze. 174 CHINESE LITERATURE Her cloud-like coiffure. Wetting a spray ofpear-bloom. shows that she has just risen from And with The her flowery. as this gold and enamelf. " Tell him" she said. But cannot discern the Imperial city lost in the dust and haze.

At twenty. and has sent you to be his secretary. too. who said to him. Yet until she has smiled. Twenty years later he met a strange man riding on a hornless dragon. when precocious and short-lived popt was Ll Ho. The following is a specimen of his poetry for : " With flowers on the ground like embroidery spread. : ' ' Each bird having only one wing." Shortly after this he died. for ever and ay. long-lasting as they are. " I swear that we will ever fly like the one-winged birds^ Or grow united like the tree with branches which twine together!' ' Heaven and Earth. none were near. " God ninth century. the beauty of which. all these flowers yield no rayj When her tresses fall down the whole landscape is gayj My hand on her sleeve as I gaze in her eyes. of the He began to write verses at the age of seven. he had whispered in her ear. white courser's bit-tassels motionless gleam A While the gold-threaded willow scent sweeps o'er the stream. At midnight. But this great wrong shall stretch out for ever. lies beyond the words was eighty years old when he of close friendship with Han Yii. a vigorous opponent of both Buddhism and Taoism. must always fly with a mate. Such a tree was believed to exist. and has often been figured by the Chinese. My the soft glow of wine in my head. endless. will some day pass away. 175 How on the seventh in the Hall ofImmortality.— — LI HO day of the seventh moon. says a commentator. died. The following is his most famous poem. kingfisher hairpin will soon be my prize" Chang Chi. who also flourished in the ninth century. He was on terms and like him. A Almighty has finished his Jade Pavilion. .

A few specimens. My husband captain in the King's army. torn from their setting. and birds balconies. may perhaps have an interest of their own. Here is a lady complaining of the leadenfooted flight of time as marked by the water-clock : '' // seems that the clepsydra has been filled up with the sea. fair sir. ' The troth of wives is for ever and ay." . And one with wit like thine should say. coldly in I wrapped them my silken vest." Many more poets of varying shades of excellence must here be set aside. the east wind blows. Two pearls And I. long night appear an endless night to me ! " The second characteristic " : line in the next example is peculiarly Dusk comes. costly witHal. "For mine is a household of high degree. their efforts often brightened by those quaint conceits which are so dear to the Chinese reader. till And gutters sadly down dawn appears. like nymphs from to the come tumbling ground'' in a The next refers to candles burning room where two friends are having a parting for a long period " The very : last talk on the night before wax sheds sympathetic tears. pipe forth a mournful sound. my malrimonial thrall.— 176 — — CHINESE LITERATURE " Knowing. seeing that Love thy heart possessed. but which approach so perilously near to bathos when they appear in foreign garb. Petals. thou sentest me.' " With thy two pearls I send thee back two tears : Tears—that we did not meet in earlier years. To make the long.

as would appear from the following by him nevertheless. according to tradition. And then lay tipsy half the day * What oaf is * upon a gilded bed. . 880). . when we ever snuff candles And recall the glad Jiours of that evening of rain / " A especially well popular poet of the ninth century was Li SHfe. But wherefore seek immortal life Noise is by means of wondrous pills f not in the market-place. content with human lot?' And bade me to the worldget back and call myself a sot. : called sample of his art. When from the leafy forest glades the brigand daggers gleam. thisj the Master cried. . A ndyet there is no need to fear.D. a hostile sense. nor quiet on the hills. as well as a poet. . a friend at a distance again. For more than half the world consists of bigger rogues than they J " which nvas A popular physician in great request. for a The chief knew him by name and lines. Ma TztJ-JAN (d. "Ah. He studied Taoism in poem . he was ultimately taken up to heaven alive : " /« youth at I went its to study Tao livingfountain-head.—— LI SHfe This last is — 177 : from a friend shall to. nor step from out their way. known for the story of his capture by highwaymen. eliciting the following immediately secured his release ''The rainy mist sweeps gently tfer the village by tfie stream. A.

( The sweet maid next door to me. And I feel a gentle thrill be chill." following lines by Tu Chin-niang. only for the following " When the Bear athwart was lying. And the night was just on dying. And I know that it is she.— 178 — CHINESE LITERATURE The secret is ofperpetual youth already known to me : Accept with philosophic calm whatever fate may be" Hsu An-ch£n. " But doors and locks between us So effectually screen us That I hasten from the street And in dreamland pray to meet. But I would have thee grudge the hours ofyouth which glide away. And the moon was all but gone. How my thoughts did ramble on ! " Then a sound of music breaks From a lute that some one wakes. place piece : of the ninth century. pluck the bloomingflower betimes. Go. are included in a collection of 300 the gems of the T'ang dynasty The : " / would not have thee grudge tho':e robes which gleam in rich array. if is entitled to a among the T'ang poets. " And as the strains steal o'er me Her moth-eyebrows rise That her fingers must before me. a poetess of ninth century. lest when thou conist again Alas ! upon the withered stem no blooming flowers remain ! " .

" It dwells in quietude. scholar: Athwart the mighty void. 834-908) was a secretary in the Board of Rites. but he threw up his post and became a hermit. Watered by the eternal harmonies. He is commonly known as the Last of the Tangs his poetry. Beyond the ra7ige of conceptions. Soaring with the lonely crane. Fedfrom an inexhaustible supply" ii. Spiritual existence means inwardfulness. SstJk'ung T u (a.— Energy— Absolute. Hoarding up strength for Energy.— Tranquil Repose.d. Returning to Court in 905. where he ultimately starved himself to death through grief at the murder of the youthful Emperor. he accidentally dropped part of his official insignia at an audience. " Expenditure offeree leads to outward decay. The following philosophical poem. time perhaps to bring to a close the long which might be almost indefinitely lengthened. Freighted with eternal principles. speechless. Imperceptible in the cosmos. ranking correspondingly high in the estimation of Chinese is critics. con- sisting of twenty-four apparently unconnected stanzas. and was allowed to retire once more to the hills. Let us gain the Centre. Let us revert to Nothing and enter the Absolute. Where cloud-masses darken. which is excessively difficult to under- — — . .— SSO-K'UNG T'U It is 179 list. And there holdfast without violence. And the wind blows ceaseless around. an unpardonable breach of Court etiquette. stand. admirably adapted to exhibit the form under which pure Taoism commends itself to the mind of a cultivated i.

. Whose sweetness we wouldfain make our own. " Lo the Immortal. Beneath the moonbeams the eyots stand revealed^ And sweet words are exchanged Though the great River rolls between" the days V. Across the water dark clouds are whirled. Seeking. Listening to the song of birds. air. His hand grasping a .— Slim— Stout. " Gathering the water-plants From the wild luxuriance of spring. I take No wild geese fly hither. It is like the note of the bamboo flute. The breeze blows gently along the stream. . lotus flower. 'Tis the eternal theme Which. though old. Softly bellying the flowing robe. With green leaves the peach-trees are loaded. Away in the depth of a wild valley Anon I see a lovely girl. " Green pines and a rustic hut. Ever shifting in semblance. Willows shade the winding path. Darting orioles collect in groups." iv.— Concentration. . borne by spirituality. And she is far away. it seems easy of access. Meeting by chance. As in Height—Antiquity. is ever new. But my thoughts make her present gone by. Eagerly Ipress forward As the reality grows upon me. The sun sinking through pure off my cap and stroll alone. It shifts from the grasp and is gone!' iii.— i8o CHINESE LITERATURE // is like a gentle breeze in spring. we find it hard to secure.

peerless. Emblems of purity. Now passed beyond the bounds of mortality. Our yesterday. . Below. are his models.^ Let your song be of the hiding hermit j ' Like flowing water is our to-day. Andfrom it sounds a clear-toned bell. Like a clear pool in spring. With its wondrous mirrored shapes. Vacantly I gaze after his vanished image. And birds flitting in the depths of trees. Our previous state of ^ Wine which makes man see spring at all seasons. Ah. So purify thy heart. — Wash— As silverffom lead. A The man placid. Mount Hua looms dark. Noting down the flower-glory of the season. like a chrysanthemum. A book well worthy to be read!' Smelt.^' vi. the Yellow Emperor and Yao. Refinement. They. Trackless through the regions of Space! With the moon he issues from the Ladle^ Speeding upon a favourable gale. " A jade kettle with a purchase of spring^ A shower on the thatched hut Wherein sits a gentle scholar. not a word spoken. eiistence at the eternal Centre to which the moon belongs.— SSO-K'UNG T'U Away io i8l Time everlasting. Leaves dropping. With tall bamboos growing right and left.— " As iron from the mines. . vii. revert to the Spiritual. And. waterfall tumbling overhead. ' the bright moon!' * ' * The Great Bear. . . Then pillowed on his ' lute in the green shade. Loving the limpid and clean. So make for the spotless and true. Let your gaze be upon the stars of heaven. riding the moonbeam. And white clouds in the newly-clear sky.

ix. racing Among the thousand-ellpeaks of Wu. and there it is. " Stoop. Be like Him in His mighty For this is to preserve your energy.1 82 CHINESE LITERATURE " The viii. And holdfast to them alway. vitality as The though of the rainbow. Take these and be content. One may make light ofjrellow gold. mind as though in the void. Verily I will not snatch it. A flower-girt cottage beneath the moon. A co-worker in Divine transformation. A mist-cloud hanging on the river bank. Be a peer of Heaven and Earth. it will dwindle away. Seek to be full of these. Seek it not right and left. . ' Alluding to the art of the painter. Store them for daily use. without loss of force.— Strength.—The Natural. guard them in your heart. Drink of the spiritual.— Embroideries. clouds. . causes things to be what they are- God. As though gazing upon the new year. . Forced. " If the mind has wealth and rank. . — * The Power who. . All roads lead thither. A friend with his hand on the lute. Simple joys deepen ever. Flying with the with the wind. They will swell thy heart beneath thy robe!' X. . A painted bridge half seen in shadow. Rich pleasures pall ere long. Pink almond-flowers along the bough. A golden goblet brimming with wine." . One touch andyou have spring!^ As though coming upon openingflowers. feed on force.

moon.— Conservation. . let. " Joying in flowers without Breathing the empyrean. As cold turns back the season offlowers. Here dolendum est Primum 13 ipsi tibi. Shallow." * xii. Lofty as the peaks of ocean. and stars. xiii. Si vis . not affect the speaker. " IVithout a word writ down. And there to be wildly free. — You grasp ten thousand. Like duckweed gathered on the stream^ And when emotions crowd upon me. All wit may. be attained. The wide-spreading dust-motes in the air. Before me the sun. Mexico.— Set Free. and Japan. Animal " That they might come back unceasingly. Wide-spreading as the wind of heaven. collected. Filled with a spiritual strength.. The phcenix following behind In the morning I whip up my leviathans And wash my feet in Fusang. All creation by my side. deep. ' following the doctrine of Inaction. . and secure one" Spirits. The sudden spray-bubbles of ocean. Through TaO reverting to ether. They seem inadequate to sorrow? Herein is the First Cause. As wine in the strainer mounts high. me .— SSO-K'UNG T'U hermit on the hill. I will leave them to the harmonies of heaven? like the 183 / will be xi. If words do. With which we sink or rise. Variously identified with Saghalien. . That they might be ever with us! — * ' A creature of chance. scattered..

Hoping some day to be with God. " In all things there are veritable atoms. But be like the green of spring. An important road. the terrace. Oh. Can we not be said to have attained?" ' Each invisible atom of which combines to produce a perfect whole. Nor thought be inept. unfathomable. .— Seclusion " Following our own bent. flowers budding. Water flowing.— Close Woven.1 84 CHINESE LITERATURE The bright river. The cup overflowing with clear wine. Then. Though the senses cannotperceive them. Knowing only morning and eve. — xi v. The rare flower just opening. . Thejiarrot of the verdant spring. free from curb. Like snow beneath the moon. The limpid dew evaporating. Why must there be action f If of our own selves we can reach this point. To build a hut beneath the pines. . With uncovered head to pore over poetry. . The stranger from the dark hills. But not what season it may be. . With no dead ashes of writing. Rich with what comes to hand. Enjoying the Natural. . Struggling to emerge into shape From the wondrous workmanship of God. who can compass itf" ." ^ . stretchingfar. A dark path where progress is slow. . if happiness is ours. Amid the charms of the Natural. for life to be extended. So words should not shock. XV. Ah. . The willow-trees.

in the past. Vegetation like a sea ofjade. Now moving on. But is round and square by tums^ • A xviii. and is Vague.— Fascination. .s SSO-K'UNG T'U xvi. . sound escaped tny lips. Beside the winding brook. " Choosing plain words To express simple thoughts. As though hidden but not concealed.— Actualities. There was one stranger bearing a faggot. Far away to the deep valley. Flower-scent borne far and wide. And she. Suddenly I happened upon a recluse. Overhead the great rukh soars and sails Tao does not limit itself to a shape. Struggling with effort to advance. Fishing-boats in the reach beyond. With the stream eddying below. My mind quits its tenement. Which seemed to be back ere ^twas gone.— In Tortuous Ways. " / climbed the "Tai-hsing mountain By the green windingpath.. now stopping short.. and not to be recalled. as Ifollow through the dark wood. like unto jade. Beneath dark pine-tree^ shade. As though before the glory of autumn" xvii. As though before the glow of the rising fnoon.^ The eddying waters rush to andfro. And seemed to see the heart of Tao. A clear sky and a snow-dad bank. ' Referring to an echo. Slowly sauntering. Another listening to the lute. 185 ^Lovely is the pine-grove.

A hundredyears slip by like water. "Not of the spirituality of the mind. And rain trickles through the old thatch. But as though reached upon white clouds. leaves fall. I asked will not come. The energies offlowers and plants. Skilfully woven into earthly surroundings. it seems at hand. ivhere my fancy led me. Afar. " After gazingfixedly upon expression and substance The mind returns with a spiritual image. As when seeking the outlines of waves. 'tis no longer there. For she whom. Approach. The changing shapes of wind-swept clouds. And tears flow with The wind whistles. The crags and cliffs of mountains. As when painting the glory of spring. To obtain likeness withoutform. endless lamentation. " A gale ruffles the stream And trees in the forest crack j My thoughts are bitter as death.— Form and Feature. I heard the music of heaven.— The Transcendental.1 86 CHINESE LITERATURE And so. Better than if I had sought it. To whom shall we turn for salvation ? The brave soldier draws his sword. Nor yet of the atoms of the cosmos. The rolling breakers of ocean. . Is not that to possess the man f " xxi." XX. . Borne thither by pellucid breezes. . Astounded by its rare strains" xix. Tao is daily passing away. All these are like mighty Tag. . Riches and rank are but cold ashes.— Despondent.

. Like the cloud at the peak of Mount Hua. think upon it. the " Without friends. It shuns the limits of mortality. but will some day be an ancient 1 . Andyet how brief a span. there is the South Mountain in its grandeur ! " * x. . hundred years. Those who hope.— Motion. Those who recognise this have already attained. ' — Th'is remains. And daily visits to the wistaria arbour. 187 In dark mosses. But always on the point of being disclosed. Abstraction. It would seem as though not io be grasped. . The leaf earned by the wind Floats on the boundless sea. In the portrait of the hero The oldfire still lingers. Like rolling pearls. eaves. ''''Life stretches to one Its joys so fleeting. longing to be there. It is in thepiled-up hills. " Like a whirling water-wheel. Like the crane on Mount Hou. . For who of us Ah. in sunlight rays. awayfrom common herd.— — SSO-K"UNG 'PU Sharing the nature of Tao.xiv. Its griefs so many ! What has it like a goblet cluster of wine. . Alone. drift daily farther away. xxiii. Croon over it. To stroll about with staff of thorn." xxii. ." Illumined. Yet how are these worthy to be named? They are but illustrations for fools. Its faint sound eludes the ear. while all other things pass away. Where flowers around the And light showers pass overhead? Then when the wine-cup is drained. in tall trees.

Beyond the bounds of thought. Let us grasp their clue. An orbit of a thousand years. this is the key to my theme!* .1 88 CHINESE LITERATURE There is the mighty axis of Earthy The never-resting pole of Heaven. Circlingfor ever in the great Void. And with them be blended in One. — Yes.

a mirror to you may use the and you may use man as guide one's judgment in ordinary affairs. of military commander. true that the second Emperor founded a College of Learning. and he was. I have lost one 181} have always carefully cherished of them.. " You may use copper as a mirror for the person past as a mirror for politics . but its members were content to continue the traditions of the Hans. . and later on distinguished himself by his defence of Confucianism against both Buddhist and Taoist attacks. At his death the Emperor said. These three mirrors but I now that Wei Cheng is gone. Scarcely less eminent as a scholar was Wei ChSng (581-643). for drawing up the history of the the Commission previous dynasty. CHAPTER CLASSICAL II AND GENERAL LITERATURE The classical scholarship of the T*ang dynasty was It is neither very original nor very profound. in addition. a poet of no mean order. He published a valuable work on the explanations of terms and phrases in the Classics and in Taoist writers. and comparatively little was achieved in the line Foremost among the names of independent research. who also gained great reputation as a He was appointed President." . in the above College stands that of Lu Yuan-lang He had been Imperial Librarian under the (550-625). preceding dynasty.

He lived henceforth a retired and simple life. of the eighth century. glosses Besides this. neglected his work for gaming and drink. and after a short spfell of office he retired. and is credited with Po-YAO (565-648) was so certain portions of the History of is the Sui Dynasty. that his grandmother insisted on naming him Po-yao = Pharmacopoeia. and completed the History of the Northern Ch'i Dynasty. he responsible for comments and onthe Great Learning and on the Doctrine of the Mean. took effect. came very radical much work into vogue. devoted much . he of the Prodigy.igo CHINESE LITERATURE is Yen Shih-ku (579was employed upon a recension of the He 645). Later on he rose once more. Dictionaries on the phonetic system. Classics. Not that the splendid neglect. and a distinguished scholar and public functionary. his ambition was so far wounded Ll that he ceased to be the same man. and swallowed so much medicine. He wrote a commentary on the Book of Odes. Lexicography was perhaps the department of pure scholarship in which the greatest advances were made. as opposed to those on the from system initiated by of the latter Hsu Sh^n. was K'UNG YiNG-TA (574-648). based upon the of the sixth work of Lu Fa-yen century. was allowed to suffer Li Yang-ping. this degradation but his exegesis in the and he was ordered to Although nominally reinstated before j dynasty dissatisfaction. and also upon a new and annotated edition of Another well-known scholar the history of the Han former case caused a provincial post. A descendant of Confucius in the thirty-second degree. sickly a child. while his precocious cleverness earned for him the sobriquet Entering upon a public career.

Defences. — friend offered him a comfortable home instead of his poor boat. Examinations and Degrees. Chang answered and said. 812). he replied." the constitution. but the Mists and Waters. his object not being to catch fish. Liu left TSUNG- YtJAN (773-819) has behind him much that for purity and felicity of expression has rarely been sur- . Chang Chih-ho (eighth century). Among of style writers of general prose literature. was of a romantic turn of mind and especially fond of Taoist speculations. It is divided into eight sections under Political Economy. asked why he roamed about. but got into some trouble and was banished. Government Offices. When used no bait. Rites. calling himself the Old Fisherman of He spent his time in angling. rather than to bury my eternal self beneath the dust of the world. He took office under the Emperor Su Tsung of the T'ang dynasty. . and the four seas my inseparable ^what mean you by roaming?" And when a friends. The latter was a Government official. the bright moon my constant companion. Music. Soon after this he shared in a general pardon whereupon he fled to the woods and mountains and became a wandering recluse. " I prefer to follow the gulls into cloudland. still extant. Geography.CHANG CHIH-HO time and labour to improving and adding to its 191 pages. and when filling a post as magistrate in 763. " With the empyrean as my home. Military Discipline. he is said to have obtained rain during a drought by threatening the City God with the destruction of his temple unless his prayers were answered within three days. author of a work on the conservation of vitality. and National The author of the T'ung Tien. an elaborate treatise on was Tu Yu {d.

There he conspiracy. Han Yii. in its daily race for the seals and tassels of office. scholar. their renunciation of domestic ties. intercourse with men of this religion does not if it necessarily imply conversion. once in a letter by his friend and master. But Han Yii misses the kernel while railing at the husk. with occasional indulgence in the delights of composi- . These few : lines are part of his reply on the latter occasion I admire in Buddhism are those which are coincident with the principles enunciated in our own sacred books. their idleness. "The Buddhist priest. essayist. for which he was often severely censured. I ask myself if I am to reject those in order to take my place among the ranks of these. is a man of placid He is a fine temperament and of passions subdued. The majority of its adherents love only to lead a simple life of contemplation amid the charms of hill and stream. and life generally at the expense of others. Now. and calligraphist. He sees the lode. His only joy is to muse o'er flood and fell. Buddhism admits no envious rivalry for place or power. And I do not think that. where he His views were deeply tinged with Buddhist thought. they would fairly be features "The able to denounce these. I see both . but hence my partiality for this not the ore. faith. Han . So do I. Even did. and was banished to a died. Hao-ch"u. Board of Rites. " Again. in the in a he was a Secretary became involved distant spot. even were the holy sages of old to revisit the earth. Yii objects to the Buddhist commandments. He objects to the bald pates of the priests. their dark robes. And when I turn my gaze towards the hurry-scurry of the age. CHINESE LITERATURE Besides being poet.— 192 passed.

and the reverberations of this sound are audible for some time. A stone thrown in here falls with a splash suggestive of water. will find that the path ends abruptly. through which one gazes into darkness. strange to say. that one must have the genius of Han Yii to condemn Buddhism. where for centuries there has been no one to enjoy its beauty. There is a way round from behind up to the top. elegantly built look-out tower below. . whence nothing is seen far and wide except groves of fine straight trees. the genius of Liu Tsung-yiian to indulge in it. grasping world around us. for about a quarter of a mile. on the other hand. which takes a north-easterly turn. And so. rather than in this out-of-the-way barbarous region. however. The westerly branch leads to nowhere in particular but if you follow the other. I have al\vays had my doubts about the existence of a God. Here is a short study on a great question Over the western hills the road trends away towards the north. as if by an artist's hand. are grouped symmetrically. At the same time. He is independent of all men. forks to enclose a steep pile of of this pile On to it the summit be an were a battlemented wall.— LIU TSUNG-YUAN tion. . and on the farther side of the pass separates into two. which. and no more to be compared with those heterodox sages of whom we make so much than with the vulgar herd of the greedy. while the stream boulders. as centre of civilisation. I began to wonder why He did not place it in some worthy there is what appears . 193 His family follow in the same path. but this scene made me think He really must exist. you : " ." On this the commentator remarks. pierced by a city gate. " Now.

and expel evil And so it came about that the Court physician. exacted from each family a return of two of these snakes every year ." It will give such a rare opportunity. but as few persons were able to comply^ with the demand. he explains. remove sloughing flesh. actually less . when dry. those parts. to touch Yet." One favourite piece is a letter which Liu Tsung-yiian writes in a bantering style to congratulate a well-to- everything in a fire. whose father and grandfather had both perished from It turned out. Deadly fatal. even to the grass and trees it may chance in man. One man. spirits. acting under Imperial orders. Thereupon there ensued a general stampede among the people of . to show the world that there was no connection whatever between worldly means literary do man on having lost especially. the flesh of this snake will soothe excitement. if the victim has been " utterly and irretrievably beggared. it was subsequently made known that the return of snakes was toTae considered in lieu of the usual taxes. in the form of cakes. that snake-catching was deadly than paying such taxes as were exacted from those who dared not face its risks and elected to contribute in the ordinary way. having a black body with white rings. A entitled well-known satirical piece by Liu Tsung-yiian is "Catching Snakes. if caught and prepared. its bite is absolutely incurable. as and literary reputation. he points out. heal leprous sores." and is directed against : the hardships of over-taxation " In the wilds of Hu-kuang there is an extraordinary kind of snake." however.— 194 CHINESE LITERATURE such waste of labour and incongruity of position disposed me to think that there cannot be a God after all.

I I lie down at night in peace. They heap up either too much earth or too . all 195 off he was better than who were ground down and beggared by " Harsh tyrants. : my fellow-villagers. I I only don't spoil the fruit.— LIU TSUNG-YUAN snake-bites. . I have no special trying to make my trees grow." A similar satire . Only twice a year have I to risk my life the rest is peaceful enough and not to be compared with the daily round of annoyance which falls to the share of : on over-government introduces a This man was extraordinarily successful as a nurseryman " One day a customer asked him how this was so to which he replied. . Now in planting trees. luxuriance of growth. and throw everybody and everything. have no way of getting it either early or in abundance. to smooth the earth around them. miethod of cultivation. take care that they are to At be handed in and when that is done. " sweep down upon us. explained. be careful to set the root straight. Other gardeners set with bent root and neglect the mould. I get up in the morning and look into the jar where my snakes are kept and — . I retire to enjoy the produce of my farm and complete the allotted span of my existence. if they are still there. fit the appointed time. and to ram it down well. into paroxysms of terror and disorder. But I. Then. . ' . to use good mould." he the iniquities of the tax-gatherer. no special means for securing deformed gardener called Camel-back. declared that after his neighbours. and nature will do the rest. even to the bi-ute beasts. don't touch them don't think about them don't go and look at them but leave them alone to take care I only avoid of themselves. Old Camel-back cannot make trees He can only let them follow their live or thrive. natural tendencies.

6till.' Thus are we poor people badgered from morn till eve. hasten your planting. How could any one flourish and develop naturally under such conditions ? beats. That's all. in the village where I live. ' In his prose writings Han Yii showed even more His farewell words variety of subject than in his verse. the officials are for ever issuing all kinds of orders. as if greatly compassionating the people. and superintend your harvest. Do not delay with your spinning and weaving. ' the His Honour bids us urge on your ploughing. I only understand nursery-gardening : government is not my trade. We have not a moment to ourselves. sometimes scratching them to make sure they are still alive. are widely known to his countrymen ' " Alas Tzu-hou. and then burnt as a means of communicating them to the deceased. thus constantly interfering with the natural bias of the tree. and turning their affection and care into an absolute bane and a curse. and are for ever running backwards and forwards to see how they are growing . underlings come round and Rear poultry and pigs. or shaking them about to see if they are sufficiently firm in the ground . Morning and night say. I only don't do these things." — ' 196 little. ' Ah replied Camel-back. Come together when the drum Be ready at the sound of the rattle. then they become too fond of and too anxious about their trees. by the side of the bier or at the grave. though ' ! really to their utter injury. according to Chinese custom. read. and hast thou come to this pass ? : ! — .' " ' Can these principles ' you have just now set forth be applied to government ? asked his listener. Take care of your children. CHINESE LITERATURE Or if not this. to his dead friend Liu Tsung-yiian.

'Alas Tzu-hou. weaver of the jewelled words. common ! herd . With these sacrifices by thy coffin's side. though I. I will not betray thy trust. the race of man have not would have long since become extinct." The following passages are taken from his essay on the Way " or Method of Confucianism : Had there been no sages of old. and. "Thou hast gone to thy eternal home. And whose early genius knew no curb. is still ringing sadly in my ears. but when the awakening is at hand. O my friend. "The unskilful bungler hacks his hands and streams with sweat. thou wilt be remembered when the imbeciles of fortune and place are forgot. have found employment in the The excellence of wood thou. by the Gods above. a bungler. fur and feathers and scales to adjust the temperature of Men . Thou thyself hast bidden me to the task . is the bane of the tree. thy work was not for this age . The friendships of the day are those of self-interest alone. he may sorrow or may joy . service of the State. and wilt not return. while the expert craftsman looks on with folded arms. but Thou didst know thyself above the when in shame thou didst depart never to return. But thy last wish. why cling regretfully to the ! ever come ? am is Man it is : past ? '"Twere well for its all things an they had no worth. now thou art no more. live to How ? can I I feel sure that I shall carry out thy behest did not arrogate to myself this duty. the Philistines usurped thy place. that I should care for thy little son. I utter an affectionate farewell.— HAN YU Fool that I 197 not the pass to which mortals have born into the world like a dream what need has he to take note of gain or loss ? While the dream lasts.

The Emperor Yao handed it down to the Emperor Shun the Emperor Shun handed it down to the Great Yii and so on until it reached Confucius. and not merely a method those of Lao Tzu and Buddha. The people produce grain and flax and silk. CHINESE LITERATURE neither have they claws and fangs to aid them as in the struggle for food. . should lose their heads. I reply. fashion articles of everyday use." " it And if I I am is what call the asked what Method is this. the minister who fails to carry out his sovereign's commands. Then followed the heterodox schools of Hsiin and Yang. who fail to produce articles of loses his raison cCitre. In the days after Chou Kung. in order to fulfil their obligations to their rulers. " And now. the grain and flax and everyday use. while the criterion was vaguely formulated.that Method. wherein much that was essential was passed over. the true faith will not prevail. the Sages were themselves rulers hence they were able to secure the reception of their Method. . what is the remedy ? I answer that unless these false doctrines are rooted out. the Sages were all high officers of State hence its duration through a long period of time. : Hence issues their organisation. like . and lastly Mencius. and makes them sovereign known to the people. follows —The minister carries commands. known to the people.198 their bodies . and interchange commodities. The out these commands. it will be asked. . Let us insist that the . In the days before Chou Kung. The sovereign who fails to issue his com- mands loses his raison d'etre. and to make them people fashion silk. who died without transmitting it to any one else. and interchange commodities. fulfil in order to their obligations to their rulers.

the boars. Let us make manifest the Method of our ancient kings. which all Chinese writers have regarded as a real creature. though probably the name is but an allegorical veil. and but the journey of a day. comparatively near to him in age.. And I. the domain alike of the whale and the shrimp. in order to batten thyself and reproduce thy kind. Let us ordinary mortals. will pay due heed to my words." The death of a dearly loved nephew. commission from the Son of warning and thou. the bears. drew from Han YU a long and pathetic live in peace. and deer of the neighbourhood. am bound to give fair . O crocodile.— HAN YO followers of like — 199 Lao Tzu and Buddha behave themselves Let us burn their books. turn their temples into dwelling-houses. the following extract may suffice : thou and I cannot rest together here. Go thither "Still. in order that men may be led to embrace its teachings. — ! cost me my I life. It is " In Memoriam. as mentioned above. There before thee lies the broad ocean. even were it to Crocodile ! " O . The Son of Heaven has confided this district and this people to my charge and thou. These are two short extracts line of 14 "The my noble-'hearted brother has indeed been . am I to bow the knee and yield before a crocoI am the lawful guardian of this place." Of the character of Han Yii's famous ultimatum to the crocodile. if thou art wise. O goggle-eyed. though of weakly frame. and dile ? No I would scorn to decline thy challenge. in virtue of my Heaven. thou art challenging me to a struggle of life and death. by disturbing the peace of this river and devouring the people and their domestic animals." conveyed. to the ears of the departed through the medium : of fire and smoke.

Thy pure intelligence. Buddhism was making vast strides in popular esteem. my strength fail. when shall my sorrow have Henceforth the world has no charms. there was not one which caused anything like the sensation produced by his memorial to the Emperor on the subject of Buddha's bone.— 200 prematurely " ! CHINESE LITERATURE ci. if haply they may grow up. this separation will be but for a while. so will this sorrow little be but for a " while. ? I will get me a few acres on the banks of the Ying. and but for some such bold stand as was made on this occasion by a leading man. the prestige of Confucianism would have received a staggering blow. hope of the continue the traditions of his "house." ye blue heavens. my daughter and thy daughter. or dost thou not hear ? O end — ! Woe me Heaven bless thee Of all Han Yii's writings in is : 1 prose or in verse. Here is an extract from this fiery document. there is not knowledge after death. Unfathomable are the appointments of what men call Heaven inscrutable are the workings of the : family.it off. which sent its author into exile and nearly cost him his life " Your servant has now heard that instructions have : been issued to the priestly community to proceed to . until their day of marriage comes. is how long before If shall follow thee If there knowledge little after death. Physically I and mentally hurrying on ? to decay. love endureth. Dost thou hear. teaching my son and thy son. The fact was. survives not to unseen : unknowable are the mysteries of eternal truth : unrecognisable those who are destined to attain to old age " Henceforth my grey hairs will grow white. Alas though words fail. and there await the end. and then no more sorrow for ever.

they would cry out. and money. the All-Wise. The result would be that by and by young and old. ' See the Son of Heaven. collect together. his people. would spend their time from morn to eve in imitation of your Majesty's example.HAN YO 20I Feng-hsiang and receive a bone of Buddha. ready to cut off an arm or slice their bodies as an offer- Thus would our traditions arid customs be seriously injured. and ourselves become a laughingtruly. there is a desire to fall in with the wishes of the people in the celebration at the capital of this delusive mummery. foolish Now. — ! not the language of China. tearing off their clothes would scattering their . but that in the fulness of our present plenty. that we . commanding that the relic be received with the proper ceremonies. . For how could the wisdom of your Majesty stoop to participate in such ridiculous beliefs ? Still the people are slow of perception and . no small matter stock on the face of the earth " For Buddha was a barbarian. and. His clothes were of an . and that from a high tower your Majesty will view its introduction into the Imperial Palace . His language was ing to the god. easily beguiled ! who are we. they would be found flocking to the temples. though your servant may be. would totally neglect and should your Majesty not the business of their lives prohibit it. seized with the same enthusiasm. should spare our bodies ? Then would ensue a crowds scorching of heads and burning of fingers is a fervent believer ' . and should they behold your Majesty thus earnestly worshipping at the feet of Buddha. he is well aware that your Majesty does not do this in the vain hope of deriving advantages therefrom . also that orders have been sent to the various temples. and in the joy which reigns in the heart of all.

Yet now your Majesty is about to causelessly introduce ' a disgusting object. He did not appreciate the bond between prince and minister. CHINESE LITERATURE He did not utter the maxims of our ancient rulers. implores your Majesty that these bones be handed over for destruction by fire or water. of the censors. And should .' And so. when the princes of old paid visits of condolence to one another. forsooth. but keep them at a distance. with a peach-wand in his hand. without the intervention either of the magician or of his peach-wand. previous to sending him out of the country with an escort of soldiers. the tie between father and son. indeed. Therefore your servant. whereby the root of this great evil may be exterminated for all time. this Buddha had come to our capital in the flesh. raised his voice against it Of the . personally taking part in the proceedings. whereby to expel all noxious influences previous to the arrival of his master. and thereby have avoided any dangerous influence on the minds of the people. But what are the facts ? The bone of a man long since dead and decomposed is to be admitted. nor conform to the custbms which they have handed down. Supposing. then your Majesty might have received him with a few words of admonition. not not one has one has pointed out the enormity of such an act. overwhelmed with shame for the censors.! 202 alien cut. officials. The glory of such a deed will be beyond all praise. it was customary for them to send on a magician in advance. and the people know how much the wisdom of your Majesty surpasses that of ordinary men. within the precincts of the Imperial Palace Confucius said. bestowing on him a banquet and a suit of clothes. Pay all respect to spiritual beings. under an appointment from his own State.

vast. the better to complete the work of .' said he. has an army been overthrown on this spot and the voices of the dead may frequently be heard weeping and wailing being in sight. By and by. without a by a stream and dotted wind moans Shrubs gone grass withered all at the setting sun. a time and oft. beards stiff The hardy is vulture seeks its nest the strength of the war-horse broken. "On — a limitless extent of flat sand. The birds of the chill as the hoar-frost of early morn. as I was informed by the keeper. the chill fall upon them. the startled fast in the deathsand blinds the combatants locked struggle while hill and vale and stream groan beneath . Clothes are of no avail . . knee-deep in snow. with ice. where in the dismal twilight the : : : . flesh cracked. hands frost-bitten. the flash cold shades of night and crash of arms." the infliction of A writer named Li HuA.— LI the : HUA 203 Lord Buddha have power to avenge this insult by some misfortune. girdled human with hills. ' . the site of an old * Many battlefield. has behind him one very much admired piece entitled an Old Battlefield " :— "Vast. who now calls Heaven to witness that he will not repeat him of his oath. then let the vials of his wrath be poured out upon the person of your servant.slaughter begun. in the darkness of the night' " This is how the writer calls up in imagination : the ghastly scene of long ago " And now the cruel spear does its work. air fly past the beasts of the field shun the spot for it is. Even nature lends her aid to the Tartars. of whom little is known left except that he flourished in the ninth century. contributing a deadly blast.

of about this date. arrows spent. The sun rises and shines coldly over the trampled grass. swords two armies fall upon one another in the supreme struggle for life or death. . rated in that heap of rotting bones.— 204 CHINESE LITERATURE : our men succumb have surrendered : their general is dead. . . their bones Along the river-bank lie scattered where they may. have Tartar dust. The following lines by Ch'en T'ao. while the fading moon : . And now Jive thousand. shattered. " No sound of bird now breaks from the hushed hillside. The river is choked with corpses to its topmost banks the fosses of the Great Wall are Ambulance waggons block the way to flank attacks. . if needs they must. bow-strings snapped. To yield is to become the barbarian's slave to fight is to mingle our bones with the desert sand. the Strength exhausted. " Faintly and more faintly beats the drum. the record a patriotic oath of indignant volunteers and the mournful issue of fruitless valour : " They swore the they Huns should perish : . The havoc wrought by the dreaded Tartars is indeed theme of many a poem in prose as well as in verse. But still theirforms in dreams arise to fair ones far away!' . All distinctions are oblite. . would die bit the . : still twinkles sight What upon the frost more horrible than this flakes scattered " ! around. Their officers : swimming over with blood. Ghosts of the dead wander hither and thither in the gloom spirits from the nether world collect under the dark clouds. sable-clad. All is still save the wind whistling through the long night.

the of which has survived in common parlance to this day." so do the Chinese of the more name southern provinces of T'ang." still delight to be known as the " men . an impetus the like of which had never yet been felt. For just as the northerners are proud to call themselves "sons of Han. literature.MEN OF T'ANG Among to their other glories. have witnessed the birth of popular But we must now take leave of this dynasty. the T'angs 205 may be said soon to receive. in common with classical scholarship.




— BOOK THE FIFTH THE SUNG DYNJSTY (a. . Of Chang Pi.d. for instance. we are told. 900-1200) CHAPTER I THE INVENTION OF BLOCK-PRINTING The Tang dynasty was brought to an end in 907. It was not a time favourable to literary effort still production was not absolutely at a standstill. . but the advice contained in it was not These few lines of his occur in many a acted upon. andyou sang the sweet old air. of the later Chou dynasty. and I wanderedyou know where. and during the succeeding fifty years the empire experienced no fewer than five separate dynastic changes. dreams possessed me. much adrfiired. and some minor names have come down to us. poetical garland : " A/ier parting. And we sat in the verandah. except that he once presented a voluminous memorial to his sovereign in the hope of staving The memorial. little is known. was off political collapse.

who at once appointed him grand tutor to the heirapparent. chiefly remembered It as the inventor of the art of block- seems probable. positively asked for a post. on the other hand.2IO CHINESE LITERATURE Then 1 woke.fire-led" was finally established upon forward the printing of House of Sung and thencebooks from blocks became a the throne. at least one name of absorbing interest to the foreign student. and poetry were again filled with enthusiastic workers. classical scholarship. however. it was certainly not applied to the production of books. indeed. he will be served first and last perors of four different . With the advent of this new line. general literature. Six years after his death the ". no money. to " another heaven and earth. but until the date of Feng Tao printing. familiar handicraft with the Chinese people. lexicography. FiNG Tao (881-954) best known to the Chinese as a versatile politician who under no less than ten EmHouses. By foreigners. with no one near me save the moon. as the Chinese fairy-stories say. that some crude this invention had been already known early form of in the T'ang dynasty. and very little brains a statement which appears to have appealed forcibly to the Tartar monarch. still shining on. was a And although there consequent upon the irruption of the ." The various departments of history." He presented himself at the Court of the second Emperor of the Liao dynasty and He said he had no home. And lighting up deadpetals •which like you have passed and gone" There is is. we pass. and gave himself a sobriquet which finds its best English equivalent in "The Vicar of Bray. eagerly encouraged by falling-off a succession of enlightened rulers.

and are justly placed in the very first rank among the builders of Chinese literature. .GOLDEN TARTARS his 211 Golden Tartars in 1125-1127. nevertheless the Sungs managed to create a great epoch. when the ex-Emperor and newly appointed successor were carried captive to the north.

including an exposition of the Book of Poetry. Ou-YANG Hsiu (1007-1072) had been brought up in poverty. an elaborate treatise on the peony. . and later on he came out first on the list was pronounced of candidates for the third or highest degree. and steps were taken to supersede it. a learned first move made nothing less scholar of the later Chin dynasty. anecdotes of the men of his day. poetry and essays without end. he wrote on Besides the kinds of subjects. all dynastic history. The usual scheme had already been carried out by Liu Hsii (897-946). regardless of personal interest. lighter work. By the time he was fifteen his great abilities began to attract attention.CHAPTER II HISTORY— CLASSICAL AND GENERAL LITERATURE The in the department of history was than to re-write the whole of the chronicles of the T'ang dynasty. but on the many grounds result unsatisfactory. The execution of this project was entrusted to Ou-yang Hsiu and Sung Chi. both of whom were leading men in the world of letters. owing to the bold positions he took up in defence of what he believed to public be right. a work on ancient inscriptions. life His was a chequered one. greatly The following is a specimen of his admired for the beauty of its style. grave and gay. his mother teaching him to write with a reed.

by and by to be obscured behind gathering clouds. and was. The theme. A walk of two or three miles on those hills brings one within earshot of the sound of falling water. as the reader will perceive. charming scenery. and the peaks to the south-west are clothed with a dense and beautiful growth of trees. well stricken in years.OU-YANG HSIU and self 213 diligently read by all students of composition. give to this spot the latter . returning with the shades of the night. But it was It was the not wine that attracted him to this spot. and the naked boulders of the lessening torrent. . autumn. over which the eye wanders in rapture away to the confines of Shantung. leaving naught but gloom around. commonly spoken of as the Old Drunkard's Arbour. and although the place presents a different aspect with the changes of the seasons. he gave himself the sobriquet of the Old Drunkard. moreover. the clear frosty wind. :— "The The used to bring his friends hither to take wine and as he personally was incapacitated by a very few cups. The wild-flowers exhaling their perfume from the darkness of some shady dell. " The sun's rays peeping at dawn through the trees. its charms are subject to no . called Deathless Wisdom. and winter. who lived among these hills. which wine enabled him to enjoy. and who received the above name from the Governor. Morning go thither. which gushes forth from a ravine known as the Wine-Fountain while hard by in a nook at a bend of the road stands a kiosque. the luxuriant foliage of the dense forest of beautiful trees. time to summer. —these are the indications of is spring. alternations of morning and night. It was built by a Buddhist priest. is the historian him- district of Ch'u is entirely surrounded by hills.

these are the people of Ch'u. shouts from one. but they cannot rejoice as man rejoices. goblets flash from hand to hand. They. A cast in the stream and a fine fish taken from some spot where the eddying pools begin to deepen . though they know not at what it is that he rejoices. 'Ou-yang Hsiu of Lu-Iing." 214 CHINESE LITERATURE Burden-carriers sing interruption. and a few such dishes of meats and fruits as the hills are able to provide. such is the Governor. old people hobbling along. Among them is an old man with white hair. They rejoice with him. This is the drunken Governor. Then in the growing darkness are heard sounds above and sounds below . who. the commentator proudly points out that in it — . their way along the road. responses from another. — — nicely spread out beforehand. when the evening sun kisses the tips of the hills and the falling shadows are drawn out and blurred. he can discourse with them. and every player wins his partie . the beasts of the field and the birds of the air are rejoicing in at the departure of man. And should you ask who is the Governor. can rejoice in hills and in trees. and a buzz of conversation is heard as the guests move unconstrainedly about. backwards and forwards all day long without a break. I reply. bald at the top of his head. And in the revelry of the banquet-hour there is no thought of toil or trouble. too. children in arms. but continue alway. travellers rest awhile under the trees. So also the Governor's friends. bends his steps homewards company with his friends. a draught of cool wine from the fountain. sober. these. children dragged along by hand. Every archer hits his mark.' Besides dwelling upon the beauty of this piece as vividly portraying the spirit of the age in which it was written. constitute the Governor's feast. Drunk. he can rejoice with them.

' replied the boy on his return. "One night On . autumn autumn comes ? cried. occurs no fewer than twenty times. and its symbol is darkness. when no shouted orders rend the air.— OU-YANG HSIU the Greek 76. to the attack. it ." refers to the 215 the particle yeh. "'Boy. autumn. —autumn. gradually deepening into the plash of waves upon a . I wondered what it could be. surf-beat shore startled . It seemed like the muffled march of soldiers. bit in mouth. at first like the sighing of a gentle zephyr . and then it cold leaps upon us with is a shout. the cruel and the ! autumn. changed. The next piece is entitled "An Autumn Dirge. And is it thus. all All the rich luxuriance of the proud foliage of the forest earth.' ' I O boy. . the season of piercing blasts . autumn. 'what noise is that ? Go forth and see. It has the temper of tioner. ' ' are brightly shining : the Silver River spans the sky. the season of rack and mist . the roaring of huge breakers in the amid howling storm-gusts of wind and rain. night. It burst upon the hanging bell.' said I. hurriedly advancing. came. is upon us. Listening intently. and set every one of its pendants tinkling into tune. : No sound ing of the " ' Alas 1 of man is heard without ' 'tis but the whisper- trees. when suddenly I heard a sound far away towards the southwest. with influences as subtle as those of sudden collapse in the I of and summer. the season of desolation and blight Chill is the sound that heralds its approach.' the moon and stars Sir. but only the tramp of men and horses meet the ear. . so common a phenomenon East : had just sat down to my books. 15 . green. the season of cloudless skies autuinn. that . withered beneath the icy breath swept down to For autumn is nature's chief execuof the destroyer.

As spring the epoch of growth. so autumn is the epoch of is maturity. comes the whitening hair and why not ? Has man an adamantine frame. and brothers. or grieving over his Then ignorance of that which can never be known. A great favourite at Court. his career by beating his elder brother at the graduates' examination. placed instead of first. riding . after all. save himself. . ." The other leading historian of this period was Sung Ch'i (998-1061). by Imperial command. And swifter still he hurries to decay when vainly angel. which fade But stay there is man. away in their due season ? ipan the divinest of all things. what right has man He was fast asleep. . that he should outlast the trees of the — field ? Yet. what is this to plants and trees. . for that which passes its prime must die. to accuse his autumn blast ? " My boy made no answer. And sad is the hour when maturity is passed. He was. who began tenth. until his inmost self is bowed beneath the burden of Ijfe. A hundred cares wreck his heart. his strength ' O boy. whereupon But about a dozen of the girls each offered hers. countless anxieties trace their wrinkles on his brow. however. that steals away ? Tell me. It is the avenging upon an atmosphere of death. No its sound reached me save response to that of the cricket chirping my dirge. and was also a voluin minous writer. who is it. striving to attain the unattainable. He accordance with the precedence of rose to high office. '"Still. it is related that he was once at some Imperial festivity when he began to feel cold. CHINESE LITERATURE and its symbol is a sharp sword.2i6 steel. The Emperor bade one of the ladies of the seraglio lend him a tippet.

dynastic histories. which roused him to wakefulness by its movement every time he began to doze over his work. which he produced in co-operation with Ou-yang Hsiu. It has not.C. Meanwhile another star had risen. in childhood. As a scholar he had a large library. a titl^ bestowed upon it in 1084 by the Emperor. actually superseded the latter work.d. because " to view antiin of his it were in a mirror is an aid in the administragovernment. all bearing upon the subject. But he opposed the great reformer. is generally regarded as a distinct improvement upon the work of Liu Hsii. and was so particular in the hand- quity as tion of .SSD-MA KUANG Sung Ch'i did not like to 217 to favour any one. Wang An-shih." The Mirror of History covers a period from the fifth century B. He seized a huge stone. down to the beginning of the Sung dynasty. In his youth the latter had been a devoted student. in magnitude to be compared only with the effulgent genius of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. On one occasion. and used to rest his arm upon a kind of round wooden pillow. SsC-MA KuANG (1019-1086) entered upon an official career and rose to be Minister of State. and with it cracked the jar so that the water poured out. and was supplemented by several important works from the author's own hand. and stands side by side with its rival. 960. a small companion fell into a water-kong. however. and continued to sit and shiver. The so-called New History of the T'ang Dynasty. He devoted the rest life to the completion of his famous work known as the T'ung Chien or Mirror of History. which is still included among the recognised seem rather than offend the rest. a. and 1070 was compelled to resign. and would have been drowned but for the presence of mind of Ssu-ma Kuang.

and disadvantages. There was a loyal man to another. but made them use the forefinger and second finger of the right hand. ' ' and ' traitor . an institution which still plays a singular part in the administration of China " Of old there was no such office as that of Censor. six officers to undertake these Censorial names were for the first time written out on boards and then. not that of the Censor. every man was free to admonish the Throne. but he had not been many months disciples to turn over leaves in the capital. failures. advantages. There was a in 1045 their . In 1017 an edict was issued : appointing duties. the names were cut on stone. in 1062. before he succumbed to an illness and died. from whom all ideas of fame or gain were indeed far removed. the people within the Four Seas. The sole object in this arrangement was the benefit of the State. ' to a third. successes. apparently for better preservation. Thus posterity can point to such an one and say. From. to Buddha. From the highest statesman down to the artisan« and trader. in order of importance and of urgency. with the weighty responsibility of discussing the government of the empire. uni- versally honoured and regretted by his whom he was affectionately known as the Living countrymen. The following extract from his writings refers to a new and dangerous development in the Censorate. ' There was an upright man . this prerogative was vested in an office. . labouring as usual for his country's good. the time of the Han dynasty onwards.— 2i8 ling of his CHINESE LITERATURE still were as books that even good as new. after many years' use they He would not allow his by scratching them up with the nails. In 1085 he determined to return to public life. ' to .

. whereas the peony is a general favourite with all mankind. He made himself ill by overwork and strict attention to the interests of the people at all hazards to himself. His chief works were written to elucidate the mysteries of the Book of Changes. being in a style which the educated Chinaman most appreciates. How stainHow modestly it reless it rises from its slimy bed! poses on the clear pool an emblem of purity and Symmetrically perfect. ' TUN-I Does not 219 this give There was a scoundrel. and none now love the water-hly like myself. who combined the duties of a small military command with prolonged and arduous study. it has been fashionable to admire the peony but my favourite is the water-lily. and not to be profaned by familiar approach. with commentaries by Chu Hsi. is the flower retirement and culture . — .' ? cause for fear " Contemporaneously with Ssu-ma Kuang hved Chou TUN-I (1017-1073). veiled under the symbolism of flowers. the rank and wealth pareille. something to be regarded reverently from a distance. is very widely known " Lovers of flowering plants and shrubs we have had by scores. the water-lily. — ! " In of my opinion the chrysanthemum . and were published after his death by his disciples.CHOU a fourth. but T'ao Ch'ien alone devoted himself to the chrysanthemum* Since the opening days of the T'ang dynasty." . The following short satire. peony the flower of the Lady Virtue sans "Alas! few have loved the chrysanthemum since T'ao Ch'ien. while there it rests in spotless state. its subtle perfume is truth wafted far and wide.

" a man he was distinguished by his frugality and his He wore dirty clothes and did not even obstinacy. A specimen of his verse will be given in the next chapter. In one of these he says. was a hard worker as a youth. Ch'eng I wrote some interesting chapters on the art of poetry. "Asked if a man can make himself a poet by taking pains." from doing The great reformer and political economist Wang An-shih (1021-1086). Confucius himself did not to abstain make verses. who published a valuable commentary upon the Book of Changes. The old couplet reminds us ' Eer one pentameter be spoken How many a human heart is broken !' There is also another old couplet ' ' Twere sad to take this heart of mine And break it o'er a Jive-foot line.' Both of these are very much to the point. who lived to see all his policy reversed. The elder attracted some attention by boldly suppressing a stone image in a Buddhist temple which was said to emit rays from its head. wash his face. though on the other hand the very fact of taking pains is likely to be inimical to success. and had been the cause of disorderly gatherings of men and women. .— 2 — 20 CHINESE LITERATURE Cheng Hao (1032-1085) and Ch'£ng I (1033-1107) were two brothers famed for their scholarship. and in comAs position his pen was said to " fly over the paper. I reply that only by taking pains can any one hope to be ranked as such. especially the younger of the two. but he did not advise others so. for which Su Hsiin denounced him as a He was so cocksure of all his own views that beast.

and He was the author of a work on political economy. thorough knowledge of the Canon. geography. "Accordingly. and began to study primers of history. wherein expressed a fear you were not progressing with your study of the Canon. He attempted to reform the examination system. taken together. which gained for him the sobriquet of the Obstinate Minister. requiring from the candidate not so much graces of style as a wide acquaintance with practical subjects. 1 Study of the Canon alone does not suffice for a Consequently. " Now a thorough knowledge of our Canon has not been attained by any one for a very long period. been myself an omnivorous reader of books I have . have received several from you. The following is a letter which he wrote to a friend on the study of false doctrines " I have been debarred by illness from writing to you : now you that for all some time." the written characters. with special reference to those which are formed by the combination of two or more. determine the meaning of the compound character." says one Chinese writer. and you are astonished at my recommendation of such pernicious works. the ineanings of which. But how could I possibly have intended any other than the Canon of the sages of China ? And for you to have thus missed the point of my letter is a good illustration of what I meant when I said I feared you were not progressing with your study of the Canon.— WANG AN-SHIH 221 he would never admit the possibility of being wrong. "even the pupils at village schools threw away their text-books of rhetoric. though my thoughts have been with I the while. in all of which you seem to think I meant the Canon of Buddha. " In reply to my last letter.

who made more enemies than petually struggling friends. . you know me not. among us. and was per- against the machinations of unscrupulous opponents. even. moreover. better known by his fancy name as Su Tung-p'o. which on one occasion resulted . Ultimately he to came out on the list. . He hated all books that were not orthodox.222 of all CHINESE LITERATURE kinds. He rose be statesman. " There was Yang Hsiung. Do you not agree with me " ? Su Shih (1036-1101). whose early education was superintended by his mother. By force of education he was enabled to take what of good and to reject what of bad he found in each. dipped into treatises on agriculture and on needlework. Now. Ou-yang Hsiu. Their pernicious influence was altogether lost on him while on the other hand he was prepared the more effectively to elucidate what we know to be the truth. of ancient medical and botanical works. all of Which I have found very profitable in aiding me to seize the great scheme of the Canon itself. Yet he made a wide study of heterodox writers. suspected them a to be work first of a qualified substitute. " No ! the pernicious influences of the age are not to be sought for in the Canon of Buddha. They are to be found in the corruption and vice of those in high places in the false and shameless conduct which is now rife . produced such excellent compositions at the examination for his final degree that the the examiner. I have. For learning in these days is a totally different pursuit from what it was in the olden times and it is now impossible otherwise to get at the real meaning of our ancient sages. for example. do you consider that I have been corrupted by these pernicious influences ? If so.

and his writings are is still an account of a midnight picnic to a spot on the banks of a river at which a great battle had taken place nearly nine hundred years before. A clear breeze was gently blowing. and where one of the opposing fleets was burnt to the water's edge.—— SU SHIH in 223 his banishment to the island of Hainan. where are ye now ? ' " My friend accompanied these words upon its geolet. bumper for joy. lightly as riding on the wind without knowing whither : ' With laughing oars. ' though travelling through space. beating time on the skiff's side. then a barbarous and almost unknown region. the seventh moon just on the I went with a friend on a boat excursion to the Red Wall. On a skiff we took our seats. reddening a wall. without the in the thread of break sound which seemed to wind around . as I filled my friend's cup and bade him troll a lay to the bright moon. We seemed to be moving So I poured out a sailing through air like the gods. and. the delight of the Chinese. singing the song of the Modest Maid. He was also a brilliant essayist and poet. our joyous prow Shoots swiftly through the glittering wave — his fla- My heart within grows sadly graveGreat heroes dead. we were in another sphere. bound. and shot over the wane. wandering between the Wain and the Goat. sang the following verse liquid plain. shedding forth her silver beams. delicately adjusting notes to express the varied slightest emotions of pity and regret. scarce enough to ruffle the river. probably the cliff alongside following : The "In the year 1081. and linking the water with the sky.' " By and by up rose the moon over the eastern hills.

To this he replied. lost her husband. . and asked my friend for some explanation of his art. We have embarked together in our frail canoe we have . where is he to-day ? I gether on the river eyots. The raven southward wings his flight ? '"Westwards to Hsia-k'ou. while the boat- woman. I settled myself into a serious mood. Did not ' Ts'ao Ts'ao say ' The stars are few. I long to be like the Great River which rolls on its way without end. did that hero of his age. His war-vessels stretched stem to stern for a thousand It: his banners darkened the He poured out a libation as he neared Chiangsky. he Yet uttered those words.— 2 ' ! 24 CHINESE LITERATURE The very monsters of the us like a silken skein. and. who had tears. have fished and gathered fuel toWe h&ve fraternis'ed with the crayfish we have made friends with the deer. eastwards to Wu-ch'ang. that I might clasp the bright moon in my arms and dwell with her for aye Alas it only remains to me to enwrap these regrets in the tender I for ever ! ! ! melody of sound. Ah. the moon is bright. him might cling to some angel's wing and roam with Ah. deep yielded to the influence of his strains. — : ling . '"Now you and drawn of from the wine-flask a couple ephemerides launched on the ocean in a rice-husk inspiration together ! — Alas that life is but an instant of Time. sitting in the saddle armed cap-cl-pie. burst into a flood of Overpowered by my own -feelings. where hill and stream in wild luxuriance blend. was it not there that Ts'ao Ts'ao was routed by Chou Yii? he was pushing down Ching-chou was at his feet stream towards the east.' .

in common with matter. and it their enjoyI ment is inexhaustible. absolutely speaking.— SU SHIH j 225 "'But do you forsooth comprehend/ I inquired. Relatively speaking. . the hungry cannot use it as food. the bright streaming over yon hills. to commemorate joy. the cold cannot wear them as clothes Should Heaven rain jade. " The pavilion was named after rain. I. we lay down to rest in the boat : for streaks of light from the east had stolen upon us unawares.' " My friend smiled as he threw " Should Heaven rain pearls. all the longing of "'The objects which you speak ? we see around us are one and the property of individuals. elicited a grateful record of this divine manifestation towards a suffering people. shall exist to Wherefore. 'the mystery of this river and of this moon ? The water passes by but is never gone the moon wanes only to wax once more. Time itself is but an instant : of time all . If a thing does not belong to me." His record concludes with these lines his : enjoying them now. And then. "as a refuge from the business of life. these are sounds and sights to be enjoyed without let or hindrance by all. amid the litter of cups and plates. They are the eternal gifts of — moon God to all mankind. not a particle of it may be enjoyed by me. But the clear breeze blowing across this stream. Hence is that you and are away the dregs from wine-cup and filled it once more to the brim. then. all you and eternity." The completion of a pavilion which Su Shih had been building. The Governor himself refers it to the Son of Heaven. when our feast was over." coinciding with a fall of rain which put an end to a severe drought. It has rained witlumt cease for three days — Whose was the influence at work f Should you say it was that ofyour Governor.

guitar in hand. Your serge-clad master stands. spin ." His account of Sleep-Land is based upon the Drunkof Wang Chi :— "A pure administration and admirable morals prevail there. ordinary they do not distinguish heaven. which he had carefully trained and every morning he would release them westwards through the gap. the whole being one vast level tract.— 226 But . with no Land north. neither do they the sun. and the moon affairs of life . pinions closed. or west." This piece is also finished off with a few poetical . I christen this arbour instead" Another piece refers to a recluse who " Kept a couple of cranes. they toil not. neither are they subject to the influences of the seven affable . At nightfall they would return with the utmost regularity. To gather duckweed in the stony marsh. — : CHINESE LITERATURE the Son of Heaven says 'No ! ' it was God: And Cod says No ! it was Nature? And as Nature lies beyond the ken of man. The inhabitants are quiet and they suffer from no diseases of any kind. 'Tis he that feeds you from his slender store Come back ! come back! nor linger in the west. They . They have no concern with the . to earth. fly westwards now. to fly away and alight in the marsh below or soar aloft among the clouds as the birds' own fancy might direct. To wheel on high and gaze on all below To swoop together. To soar aloft once more among the clouds To wander all day long in sedgy vale. south. but simply lie down and enjoy themselves. passions. earth. lines " : Away ! away ! tny birds. Come back ! come back ! beneath the lengthening shades. east..

'A man who is not commonthis ' . is The following specimen of his epistolary style " Hsi K'ang's verses are at once vigorous and purely beautiful. my nephew." His younger brother. poet and devotion to Taoism. poet and a of his century is Huang who was distinguished as a He has also been placed filial among his the twenty-four examples of ill piety. I send you these poems for family reading. Every student of the poetic art should know them thoroughly. and thus bring the author into his a : mind's eye. the true hero should be many-sided.— HUANG riNG-CHIEN . of the Taoof the Ti-Ching. without a vestige of commonplace about them. One Four Scholars calligraphist.' I replied. . however. are the boundless flights of the imagination.227 have no ships and no carriages their wanderings. Su official. It is impossible to cure that. Upon which one of them asked by what characteristics this It is absence of the commonplace was distinguished. "Those who are sunk in the cares and anxieties of world's strife. He published an edition. with commentary. "As I recently observed to my own young people. that you may cleanse your heart and solace a weary hour by their perusal. but he must not be commonplace. is Cut chiefly known for his (1039-1112). T'ING-CHIEN (1050-1110). hard to say. for when mother was he watched by her bedside for a whole year without ever taking off his clothes. How much more they who penetrate further and seize each hidden meaning and enjoy its flavour to the full ? Therefore. even by a passing glance would gain therefrom enough to clear away some pecks of the cobwebs of mortality.

he is not commonplace.. which. under the T'ung Chien Kang Mu. cut off from human inter- course. of title In addition to his revision the history of of Ssii-ma Kuang. B. was published in 1749 by Imperial command. He — . He was then sent home to copy out his History of China. forty-six The name of Chu Hsi (i 130-1200) is a household word throughout the length and breadth of literary and entered upon a apparently had a strong leaning towards Buddhism some say that he actually became a Buddhist priest at any rate. A fine edition of this work. But he who at moments of great trial does not flinch.C. He also wrote essays and poetry. In 1 149 he was summoned to an audience. which covered a period from about 2800 to A. as usually accepted. and gave himself up comChina. besides a treatise in which he showed that the inscriptions on the Stone Drums. is still regarded as the . than to the tenth or eleventh century B. in large volumes. and received an honorary post. belong rather to the latter half of the third century B. in visiting various devoting himself to searching out marvels. now in Peking. and reading (and re- membering) every book that came in his way. 600. with a preface by the Emperor Ch'ien Lung. highly successful official career. places Then he spent some time of interest.' Ch£ng in Ch'iao (1108-1166) began his literary career all studious seclusion. he soon saw the error of his ways.C. He was a most voluminous writer. pletely to a study of the orthodox doctrine. much like other people. CHINESE LITERATURE under ordinary circumstances. investigating antiquities.C. He graduated at nineteen.D." 228 place is.

as a whole. Chu Hsi adds' a gloss to the effect that children are therefore in duty of themselves.— CHU HSI 229 standard history of China. Han dynasty and hitherto received as thus modifying to a certain extent the pre^ vailing standard of political and social morality. bound to take great care In the preface to his work on the Four Books as 1745. ch'ing (born 1671) has the following passage: "Shao Yung tried to explain' the Canon of Changes by num- explained by Chu Hsi. asked " It M^ng Master sorrow Wu asked filial Confucius concerning filial piety. He introduced interpretations either wholly or partly at variance with those which had been put forth by the scholars of the infallible. The in concerning piety. The consists said. commentator o'erleapt himself." of thinking anxiously about their children's ailments. as interpreted by the rival schools. Confucius Meng Master Wu said. : Chu Hsi. he placed himself first in the first rank of all commentators on the Confucian Canon. The result. however. Hig was simply one of consistency. was undoubtedly to quicken with intelligibility many paiagraphs the meaning of which had been obscured rather than elucidated by the earlier principle interpret scholars of the the Han dynasty. Occasionally. published in Wang — Pu- . He refused to words in a given passage in one sense. and the same words occurring elsewhere in another sense. Here are two versions of one passage in the Analects. of which the older seems great unquestionably to be preferred Han. " Parents have the giving your parents no cause for anxiety save from your natural' ailments." The latter of these interpretations being obviously incomplete.

the "When at a friend's house. J. utter a loud 'Ahem !' If you see two pairs of shoes outside and hear voices. nor step on the mat spread for food but pick up your skirts and pass quickly to your allotted place. and the completed picture unattractive. as the last title to the lower refers not to youthful plane on which the book following extract. Coughtrie." The other best known works of Chu Hsi are bers. When going upstairs. Chu Hsi a metaphysical treatise containing the essence of his later speculations. the young. " Do not bother the gods with too many prayers. when on the top. Do not be in a hurry to arrive. and Ch'eng I by the eternal fitness of things but alone was able to pierce through the meaning. do not call out." Chu Hsi was lucky enough to fall in with a clever portrait painter. " When . do not point with finger . remain outside. Do not trample on the shoes of other guests. learners. and appropriate the thought of the prophets who composed it. you may go in . seems of the compared with the Great Learning. late of Hongkong. however. but if you hear nothing. but is It and the Little Learning. a handbook for has been contended by some that the in word "Httle" written. The to point more to- wards Learning for the Young as the correct rendering title :— mounting the wall of a city. nor in haste to get away. a rara avis in China at the present day according to Mr. The artist lays . Do not seek to know what has not yet come to pass. do not persist in asking for anything you may wish to have.2 30 CHINESE LITERATURE . Do not make allowances for your own shortcomings. who declares that " the style and taste peculiar to the Chinese combine to render a lifelike resemblance impossible. B.

but " catches the very expression. and never by any paper a flat plexion of his sitter." testimonial. making no attempt to obtain roundness or relief by depicting light and shadows. chance conveying the or expression. and the coffin descended gently to the ground. falling on his knees beside the bier.— CHU HSI upon his 231 wash of colour to match the comand upon this draws a mere map of the features. death of Chu Hsi. one large and the other small and it was quite a joke to see how accurately he reproduced my coarse ugly face and my vulgar rustic turn of mind. so that even those who had only heard of. reminded the departed spirit of the great principles of which he had been such a brilliant exponent in life." He then adds the following personal tit-bit " I myself sat for two portraits. taken up a position. esting to among the At the feet know if either of these Chu family heirlooms. the inmost mind of his model. as it were. ground. suspended in the from the — . his pictures still survives coffin is said to have about three Whereupon his son-in-law. knew at once for whom the portraits were intended. air. in slightest suggestion of animation Chu Hsi gave the artist a glowing which he states that the latter not merely portrays the features." It would be inter. : and reproduces. but had never seen me.

More regard was paid to form. rude ballads of love. poetry of the Sungs has not attracted so much This is chiefly due to the fact that aUhough all the literary men of the Sung dynasty may roughly be said to have contributed their quota of verse. like Li Po. Poetry now began to be. in modern times. not to fetter and degrade. if any. who could be ranked as professional poets. The ^des collected by Confucius are. as writers of verse and of nothing else. .CHAPTER POETRY The III attention as that of the T'angs. thoughts drawn from a veritable communion with nature. The poetry of the T'ang dynasty shows a masterly combination. although every student "can turn averse" because he has been "duly . that is. unseen. in which art. as we have seen. irrespective of the particle of the divine gale. still there were few. a department of polite education. and war. With the fall of the T'ang dynasty the poetic art suffered a lapse from which it has never recovered and now. what it has remained in a marked degree until the present day. and many others under the T'ang dynasty. borne by their very simplicity direct to the human heart. and tilth. Tu Fu. is employed to enhance. and the license which had been accoVded to earlier masters was sacrificed to conventionality.

self : " For ten long years Iplodded through the vale of lust and strife." While on the mountains some spiritual beings are said to have taught him the art of hibernating like an animal. but to judge by the following poem. and gave himup "to the joys of hill and stream. in consequence of this supernatural nourishment. and was generally inclined to TSoist notions. He wrote a treatise on the elixir of life. there flashed a ray of the old sweet peaceful life.— CU'tN TUAN taught. . child (d. .D. The poet Ch'en T'uan favourable auspices. Then through my dreams I hate the threatening clash of arms when fierce retainers throng. He was summoned several times to Court. drunkards revels and sound offife and song. But I love to seek a quiet nook. exceedingly clever and possessed of a prodigious memory. Grand mansions do not taste the joys that the poor maris cabin knows. so that he would go off to sleep for a hundred days at a time. He was river. and for a whole month a " glory " played around his tomb. A. No scarlet-tasselled hat of state can vie with soft repose. with a happy knack Yet he failed to get a degree. lady in a green robe. and some old volume bring Where I can see the wildflowers bloom I loathe the the and hear the birds in spring" . officialdom seems to have had few charms for him for verse." the 233 poems produced disclose a naked artifi- ciaHty which leaves the reader disappointed and cold. 989) began life under suckled by a mysterious who found him playing as a tiny on the bank of a He became. At death his body remained warm for seven days. .

and birds feel its influence first of all things. denied himself a stove in For thirty years he did not use a pillow. with How moments which pass o'er my head. was unable to speak as a child. his character as " The following specimen of his verse seems. Whilefour mighty rulers have sunk to their rest. shall I keep sober and get home to bed'? " the this Shao Yung was a great authority on natural phenomena. to prevail. the magnetic current flows from north to south when bad government is about to prevail. the explanation of which he deduced from principles found in the Book of Changes. however. Through two generations I've lived unrepining. it flows from south to north. Now hitherto this bird has not been seen at Lo-yang. He immediately became "When good government is about depressed. . wine and these flowers to delight me. He winter and a fan in summer. Yang I (974-1030). nor had he even a mat to sleep on. until one day." Mention has already been made of Shao Yung (ioii1077) in connection with Chu Hsi and classical scholar^ ship.— 234 — CHINESE LITERATURE Another poet. I dare not raise my voice to speak. and an enthusiast in the cause of learning. On one occasion he was strolling about with some friends when he heard the goatsucker's cry. to belie an ascetic : Fairflowers from above in my goblet are shining. he suddenly burst out with the following lines " : Upon this tall pagodcHs peak My hand can nigh the stars enclose. and said. And sweet are But now. For fear of startling God's repose. being taken to the top of a pagoda. . " My body in health has done nothing to spite me. He was a great traveller. And add by reflection an infinite zest.

" The incense-stick is burnt to ash." of Wang An-shih was regarded as a verification of his skill. The peach and plum this famous Thunder has startled insect life and roused the gnats and bees. . The midnight breeze blows sharply and all around is chilled. in full view of the hillside cemetery '. A gentle rain has urged the crops and soothed the flowers and trees. kept from slumber by the beauty of the spring . .^— " trees smile with flowers day of spring. Sweet shapes offlowers across the blind the quivering m. On that. to indulge in Here is his account of a nuit blanche. bones whom no one knows. amid The subsequent appearance economic revolution. .WANG AN-SHIH is is 235 flowing from which I infer that the magnetic current from south to north. the sacred ashes of a patriot repose. a short poem by the classical scholar. " Yet I by.oonbeams fling /" is am Here. the water-clock is stilled. too. visit for Huang T'ing-chien. written on the annual wor- ship at the tombs of ancestors. and that some southerner coming into power. And country graveyards roundabout with lamentations ring. . . with manifold consequences to the State. Perhaps on this side of a wretch lie the . The great reformer here mentioned found time. an excellent example of the difficult "stopshort:"— the cares of his poetical composition.

written probably before monasticism had damped his natural ardour : " Two green silk from ropes. FAN made a name for himself as a poet and but he finally yielded to the fascination of Buddhism and took orders as a priest. I rest me where Iplease. The embroidered ropes flit to andfro amid the willow green. ." In the eleventh and twelfth centuries Hung Chuehcalligraphist. Here is a poem by him. See Yet how the river-banks are nipped beneath the autumn breeze ! what care I if autumn blasts the river-banks lay bare f loss The of hue is the to river-banks river-bank^ affair. verses like the to jest : Sometimes he even condescended " I wander north. an angel in the Strewed thick with fluttering almond-blooms the painted stand is seen. . joined in " beneath the brambles rot f The grave student Ch'eng Hao wrote rest.— 236 — CHINESE LITERATURE But who across the centuries can hope to mark each spot death. leaving an indelible scar. . And there outside the house a maid disports herself in spring. . Where fool and hero. heights aerial swing. Along the ground her blood-red skirts all swiftly swishingfly. with painted stand. I wander south. This is no trifling ordeal. and are allowed to burn down into the flesh. From three to nine pastilles are placed upon the shaven scalp of the candidate. As though to bear her off to be sky.

fly flutteringfar and wide." Better known as a statesman than as a poet is Yeh how- Shih is (i 150-1223). and bars carit quite shut in the spring. like butterflies. poem on the annual spring worship at the tombs is of ancestors to be found in all collections : " The northern and the southern hills are one large burying-ground. You think she is some angel just now banishedfrom the skies. Night comes. The sun sets. and youths and maidens laugh where lamps light up the gloom. wine. referring to the entrance-gate to a beautiful park." ever. when Burnt paper cash. ranked among the best of '"Tij dosed/ its kind : — lest trampling footsteps mar Time the glory of the green. For no man.tim^s beauteous pall A pink-flowered almond-spray peeps out athwart the envious wall! " His Of Kao ChO-nien nothing seems to be known. The following "stop-short. and the redfox crouches down beside the tomb. after tiine we knock and knock j no janitor Yet bolts is seen. And all is life and bustle there the sacred day comes round. can take one drop away I" Mm .— Then when she to : — 237 YEH SHIH— KAO CHU-NIEN stops and out she springs stand with downcast eyes. when the long night comes. Let him wliose fortune brings get tipsy while he may. While mourneri robes with tears of blood a crimson hue are dyed.

. iii. Tai T'ung graduated in 1237 and rose to be Governor Then the Mongols preof T'ai-chou in Chehkiang. who rose to be a Minister of State.d. CHAPTER IV DICTIONARIES—ENCYCLOPEDIAS— MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE Several various dictionaries of importance were the issued by to less scholars during Sung works dynasty. of not mention value. a (a. delight in going back to days when correspondence was carried on by pictures pure and simple and the fact that there is little evidence forthcoming that such a system ever prevailed has only resulted as " the nine-tailed in stimulating invention and forgery. mentioned in chap. partly.." clever courtier.000 The latter was produced by. Sung Ch'i. which contained over 26. He was employed to revise the Kuang phonetic dictionary by some unknown author. their many philological more or students The Chinese have always' been of own far language.. characters. because they have so They never condescended to look at any other. no doubt. This work was to a great extent superseded by the Chi Yiin. popularly known was Ch'en P'eng-nien Yiin. 961-1017). but containing over 53. A fox. in conjunction with several eminent scholars. on a similar plan.000 separate characters.

pleaded and in 1275 retired into private life." may fairly be credited with the production of the earliest work of the kind. 924-995). and forms the foundation of a similar book of reference in use at the present day. but according to others. he was invited to witness the Feast of Lanterns from the On that occasion the Emperor placed Li beside him. destined to occupy later so much space in Chinese literature. bound up in thirty-two large volumes. he turned to his courtiers and said. under categories. Shu (a. arranged. It is curiously written in the poetical-prose style. His Shih Lei Fu dealt with celestial and terrestrial phenomena.d. yet has he never in any a single fellow-creature. From first Wu mineralogy.D. which. was published about A. unwilling to serve them. a Minister of State and a great In the last year of his life favourite with the Emperor. 1250. There he occupied himself with the composition of the Liu Shu Ku or Six Scripts. and natural history. At the head of that commission was Li Fang (a. It was so . the rise of the Sung dynasty may be dated the appearance of the encyclopaedia. for want of an alphabet. 947-1002). botany. Wu Shu was placed upon the commission which produced a much more extensive work known as the Tai P'ing Yii Lan. way injured Truly this must be a virtuous man. an examination into the origin and development of writing." and is The T'ai P'ing Yii Lan was reprinted in 181 2. according to some. Minister of State. not until so late as the year 13 19. FANG 239 and Tai T'ung. and after pouring out for him a goblet of wine and supplying him with various delicacies. " Li Fang has twice served us as palace. whose life wa'fe a good instance of " worth by poverty depressed.d. ill-health.WU SHU— LI vailed.

Appointments. quarian research. He left behind him the Wen Hsien T^ung K'ao. the son of a official. a large encyclopaedia based upon the T'ung Tien of Tu Yu. but he flourished in the thirteenth century. in whose steps he prepared to follow. but much enlarged and supplemented by five additional sections. namely. A list of about three hundred and sixty authorities is given. and Natural Phenomena. which cost its author twenty years of unremitting labour. an encyclopaedia of biographical and other information drawn from general literature. The dates of his birth and death are not known. he gave himself up many disciples from far and and fascinating all by his untiring dialectic skill. As a pendant to this work Li Fang designed the T^ai P'ing Kuang Chi. Bibliography. attracting near. This work. • — — high Another encyclopaedist was Ma TUAN-LIN. A hst of about eighf fills authorities given.240 CHINESE LITERATURE the named because Emperor hundred himself went through all the manuscript. The bound up in twelve thick edition of 1566 a rare work volumes. stands upon the shelves of the Cambridge University Library. which Is . Sung dynasty he disappeared from public and taking refuge in his native place. and the Index four hundred pages. of the Upon the collapse hfe. who have drawn largely upon its ample stores of antito teaching. a task which occupied him nearly a is year. has long been known to Europeans. and the Index fills two hundred and eighty pages. Imperial Lineage. a At the close of the Sung dynasty there was published curious book on Medical Jurisprudence. Uranography.

Female skulls are of six pieces. and sixty-five it responding to the number of days takes the heavens " The skull of a male. eight long and four short." (2. from the nape of the neck to the top of the head. but not the perpendicular suture. There are three long-shaped breastbones. The present work was compiled by a judge named Sung Tz'u.) " Wounds inflicted on the bone leave a red mark and a slight appearance of saturation. and a perpendicular one down the middle. from preexisting works of a similar kind. "Teeth are twenty-four. thirty-two. " Males have twelve ribs on each side. twenty-eight. it became daily more and more exact. as being for official use at the present day. There is a horizontal suture across the back of the skull. that " being subjected for many generations to practical tests by the the recognised handbook officers of the Board of Punishments.) " Man has three hundred to revolve. No magistrate ever thinks of proceeding to discharge the duties of coroner without taking a copy of these instructions along with Ijim. "There is one ' shoulder. and where the bone is broken there will be at each end a halo-like trace of . and have the horizontal nine. cor- to determine its real value : (i. consists of eight pieces of a Ts'ai-chou — man.— THE HSI YUAN LU interesting. or thirty-six in number. and we are told in the preface of a fine edition.well bone and one 'ricespoon bone on each side. dated 1842. Females have fourteen on each side." A few extracts will be sufficient bones. in spite of its 241 manifold absurdities. "There shape and ' is one bone belonging ' to the heart of the size of a cash.

even though the relationship exists. the two bloods will coaguotherwise not." " There are some atrocious villains who. salt water. or husband each cut themselves and let the blood drip into a basin of water. although there is a wound. when (4. the two bloods will mix. — Should the bones have been washed with in. who may have been separated since childhood. burn the body and throw the ashes away. and hold it up to the light if these are of a fresh-looking red. N. the wound was inflicted before death and penetrated to the bone but if there is no trace of saturation from blood. But because fresh blood late into one will always coagulate with the aid of a little salt or vinegar. children in the following manner.) "The bones of parents may be identified by their Let the experimenter himself or herself with a knife.B.) they have murdered any one. but are unable to . inflicted after death. whereas that of two people not thus related will not mix. or buy always a new one from a shop. If they are really brothers. and cause the blood to cut drip on to the bones. . so that there are no bones to examine. then if the relationship is an actual fact. Take a bone on which there are marks of a wound. and wife. to attain their . yet the blood will not soak This is a trick to be guarded against beforehand. Thus the trick will be defeated. bid each one cut himself and let the blood drip into a basin. the blood will sink into the bone. " It is also said that if parent and child. it was . own ends and deceive others therefore wash out the basin you are going to use. are desirous of establishing their identity do so by ordinary means.242 blood. " Where two brothers." (3. otherwise it will not. CHINESE LITERATURE . people often smear the basin over with these as such.

oblique. long. round.THE HSI YUAN LU the 243 In such cases you must carefully find out at what time murder was committed. square. short. you may proceed without further delay to examine the wounds. and wherever there were wounds on the dead man. if the body was actually burnt on this spot." . there on this figure the cil burnt. will be found to have collected together. wounds will be free The parts where there were no from any such appearances. throwing on several pecks of hemp-seed. By and by brush the place clean then. all witnesses agreeing on this point. . Then cut down the grass and weeds growing on this spot. the oil from the seed will be found to have sunk into the ground in the form of a human figure. and where the body was Then. Put up your shed near where the body was burnt. and burn large quantities of fuel till the place is extremely hot. or straight. and make the accused and witnesses point out themselves the exact spot. exactly as they were inflicted. when you know the place. large or small. The mode of procedure is this. .




d. Chao Ping. tmtil 1279 that the patriot statesman. and in 1271 he adopted Yiian as his dynastic style. a Tibetan priest. great literature. paid honour to Confucius. It was not. In 1264 Kublai Khan fixed his capital at Peking. and for the first time in history the empire passed under the rule of an alien sovereign. Kublai Khan. and was a steady patron of In 1269 he caused Bashpa. thus bringing the great fire- led dynasty to an end. and deupon his back the boythe Sungs. to construct 17 an alphabet for the Mongol language . ="•' . however. took Emperor.BOOK THE SIXTH THE MONGOL DYNASTY (a. China was conquered by the Mongols. No exact date can be assigned for the transference of the Imperial power. in 1280 the calendar was revised and in 1287 the Impe. had his retreat cut spairing of his country. 1300-1368) CHAPTER I MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE—POETRY The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries witnessed a remarkable political revolution. and jumped from his doomed vessel into the river. the last of off. who was a confirmed Buddhist.

Majesty's Minister." Accordingly he was executed. " In times of national tranquillity this spirit lies /^.'d''« in the is it harmony which prevails . " I became his I only I cannot serve two masters. it is man it is called spirit and there is nowhere where : .— 248 rial CHINESE LITERATURE Academy was opened. the renowned patriot and scholar. knows neither beginning nor end." W^n Tien-hsiang replied. as though his own sovereign was still reigning in his own capital.n Tien-HSIANG (i 236-1 283). who said to "By the grace of the him. but without success. The foundation of all fhat is great and good in heaven and earth. who had fought so bravely but unsuccessfully against him. not. the sun and the stars. ask to die. above. In 1279 the latter was conveyed to Peking. kept in prison for three years. . The following poem was written by Wen Tien-hsiang while in captivity " There is in the universe an Aura which permeates all things and makes them what they are. and making a final obeisance southwards. At length he was summoned into the presence of Kublai Khan. Bat he could not forgive WI. linked with the sun and the moon. it shapes In forth land and water . on which journey he passed eight days without eating. it is itself born from the everlasting obligations which this for all generations. "What is it you want?" Sung Emperor." historical instances of devotion [Here follow ten heroism.] " Such is and grand and glorious spirit which endureth and which.. are due by man to man. Below. only at some great crisis manifested widely abroad. Every effort was made to induce him to own allegiance He was to the Mongol Emperor. meeting his death with composure.

but record is before me still." " I myself. through the seasons of two revolving years. W£N " Alas ! riEN-HSIANG I 249 the fates were against me. And. gazing at the white clouds floating over " my head. " My dungeon is lighted by the will-o'-the-wisp alone no breath of spring cheers the murky solitude in which I dwell. resource. that Bound with fetters." At the final examination for his degree in 1256. The ox and the barb herd together in one stall. I had many times thought to die and yet. while deadly disease raged around. . the rooster and the phoenix feed together from one dish. and that it is not the verses of Tu Fu alone which can prevail against malarial fever.. And so I remained firm. unhealthy soil to me became paradise itself. Daily I recited this poem several times over. was of those their ! The sun . disease hovered round me in vain. the then Emperor. lay in prison for two years. I open my books and read and lo in their presence my heart glows with a borrowed fire. on looking over the papers of the candidates before the result was announced. and bearing in my heart a sorrow boundless as the sky. Exposed to mist and dew. Wen Tien-hsiang had been placed seventh on the list. from which it is clear that the supremest efforts in literature move even the gods. steal away. was without . dead heroes has long since set. of the seventeenth century. Lin Hsichung. " in consequence of the rebellion in Fuhkien." adds the famous commentator. However. while the wind whistles under the eaves. hurried away towards the north. death would have been sweet indeed but boon was refused. The dank. For there was that within me which misfortune could not . and happily escaped .

Not because of his association with one of China's greatest patriots. and when the list was published. empire. This Three Character Classic. is easily committed to memory. alive to its far-reaching influence. and is still at this moment. including an extensive encyclopaedia. It is an epitome of ail knowledge. It has been called a sleeve edition of of the Mirror of History. to Written in lines is three characters it each. 2 so CHINESE LITERATURE immensely struck by his work. classical literature.. and common objects. the first book put into the hand of every child throughout the for schoolboys. is likely to last for a long time to come. is For six hundred years this primer has been. history." said his Majesty. a rare copy of which is to be seen in the University of Leyden. Protestant and Catholic and even the T'ai-p'ing rebels. Here are a few specimen lines. and known by heart by every Chinaman who has learnt to read. nor because of his voluminous contributions to classical literature. dealing with philosophy. The fame of that examiner. . essay. rhymed to match the original : "Men. has been imitated by Christian missionaries. attributed to his pen. one and all. " shows us the moral code of the ancients as in a mirror . which. but because of a small primer by almost universal consent. the name of W^n T'ienhsiang stood first. as it is called. published an imitation of their own. it betokens a loyalty en- during as iron and stone. and sent for the grand "This examiner to reconsider the order of merit. Their practice wide apart. biography. Wang YiNG-LiN (1223-1296). in infancy Are virtuous at heart Their moral tendencies the same." The grand examiner readily admitted the justice of the Emperor's criticism. and being in doggerel rhyme. — .

and musk though themselves denizens of the water and deer-horns are excellent prophylactics in earthy For if these climates. nutmegs. pen : The following extract is from his " When God made man. and clams are the most whole. went into seclusion. antidotes abound also and in others. where in fact they are produced. climates. in districts where poisons abound. A the clever filial who attracted much attention by piety which he displayed towards his step- was Liu Yin (i 241-1293). All that the latter has to do is to learn the sounds and formation of the 560 different characters of which the Character Classic book is composed. some articles of diet in excessively damp . terrapins. Again. He obtained office. we find such correctives as ginger.but resigned in order to tend his sick mother and when again appointed. his health broke down and he father. and resources within himself. things were unable to prevail against their surroundings. "Thus. He gave him powers to cope with the exigencies of his environment. so that he need not be dependent upon external circumstances. while the fact that they do so thrive is proof positive that they were ordained as specifics against those surroundings. . boy. they could not possibly thrive where they do. fish. thoroughness should be A It never-ceasing care" may be added is that the meaning of the Three not explained to the child at the time. and dogwood.— LIU YIN Without instructiotHs kindly 251 aid Maris nature grows less fair j In teaching. . where malaria prevails.

as under the great native The Emperor Ch'ien Lung published in 1787 a Yuan dynasty. nor of such a high order. genius shall finally prevail against those calamities. and was for some years the trusted adviser of its first ruler. if not. and was poisoned by a rival. though not so much proportionately. to destruction. nor any state of society which man should be unable to put right. reveal a certain sympathy with Buddhism Chi (a. One of the best known poets of this period is Liu dynasties. it is said. exemplifying the use of adversity. the mills of heaven and earth grind him to perfection . The following lines. referring to an early visit to a mountain monastery.. which he helped to establish.' view there can be no living man without his appointed use. with the Emperor's connivance. cosmos is a favourite one with the Chinese and the process by which the tares are separated from the wheat. He first raises up the hero whose said. He lived into the Ming dynasty. collection of specimens of the poetry of this 1311-1375)." this point of From The theory the that every man plays his allotted part in . Classics : " / mounted luhen the cock hadjust begun.d. but are not much read. He lost favour. however. ." A the considerable amount of poetry was produced under Mongol sway. has : been curiously stated by a Buddhist priest of this date " If one is a man. who was also deeply read in the and also a student of astrology. And reached the convent ere the bells were done j A gentle zephyr whispered o'er the lawii Behind the wood the moon gave way to dawn. — — 2 52 " CHINESE LITERATURE Chu Hsi calamities 'When God is about to send down upon us. They fill eight large volumes.

why not reflect upon the past —that past which gave birth to this present ? Your cracked roof and crumbling walls of to-day are but the complement The of yesterday's lofty towers and spacious halls. No sound along the the soft echo of the bonzes' willow pathway dim hymn. . to be found : any poetry primer A centenarian 'mongst Is rare.C." One how a certain noble who had lost all by the fall of the Ch'in dynasty. and was forced to grow melons for a living. straggling bramble is but the complement of the shapely garden tree. which has been said piece tells " smell of antiquity.— LIU CHI And in Save this pure 253 sweet solitude I lay. the divinest of why does he not seek wisdom from within. 206. Stretching my limbs out to await the day. and if one comes. men what thenf The mightiest heroes of the past Upon the hillside sleep at last. like And man." in Here too " is an oft-quoted stanza. B. and went to consult a famous augur on his prospects. " ! what is there that ? Heaven can bestow save that which virtue can obtain is Where is the efficacy of spiritual beings beyond that with which man dead has endowed them . They are but matter things." The prose their writings of Liu Chi are much admired to for pure style. of gilded lamps and painted candles. . rather than from these grosser stufifs ? " Besides. " Alas " cried the augur. The grasshopper and the cicada are but the will-o'-thethe complement of organs and flutes wisp and firefly. ? The divining plant but a all stalk the tortoise-shell a dry bone. sir. ourselves. had recourse to divination.

" and is a light satire on the corruption of his day . hue but inside . . and that I am the only cheat. then. of your once rich robes and fine attire. It is my source of livelihood. Perhaps it never struck you in this light. seated on their tiger skins. — dry as an old cocoon. . long-robed Ministers of to-day pose as pillars but have they the wisdom of our of the constitution . things perish In the space of a day and night the Between spring and autumn cascade a deep pool and are renewed. Beneath the roaring dark valleys lie at the foot is found of high hills. altar or sacrificial ' ' One day I sell . now no more. Do not repine that those who had Do not be not such luxuries then enjoy them now. pose as the martial guardians of the State but what are they compared with the captains of old ? The broadbrimmed. have them dissatisfied that you.' replied the orangeman. asked him.— 2 54 CHINESE LITERATURE Your endive and watercresses are but the complement of the elephant-sinews and camel's hump of days bygone the maple-leaf and the rush. . " and I of a beautiful golden was always fresh-looking. saying. or for show at banquets ? Or do you make this outside display merely to cheat the foolish ? as cheat them you most outrageously do. the world buys. The biton-bearers of to-day. His fruit firm as jade.' Sir. I have carried on this trade now for many years. flower blooms and dies. : Hangchow there lived a costermonger who understood how to keep oranges a whole year without " At letting them spoil. who enjoyed them . These things you know what more can " divination teach you ? Another piece is entitled " Outsides. And I have yet to learn that you are the only honest man about. ' Are your oranges for purposes.

no heed to these things. and batten on the richest fare. ride fine steeds. Which of them but puts on an awe-inspiring look. Was he really out of conceit with the age. and none can them. The people Evil-doers arise.' " I had no answer to make. and none can restrain Laws decay. while you — are very particular about my oranges. and none can renew them. You pay. or only quizzing his fruit?" me in defence of . sir.LIU CHI ancient counsellors ? 255 subdue them. but dry cocoons within. and none can are in misery. relieve them. Our the bread of the State and officials eat know no shame. Clerks are corrupt. drink themselves drunk with wine. a dignified mien ? all gold and gems without. They sit in lofty halls.

Mongol rule the Drama and Thus we read in the Odes : — " Lightly. and the words sung wore more of the nature of songs than of musical plays.CHAPTER II THE DRAMA If the Mongol dynasty added masses it little of permanent value in to the already vast ot poetry. slow. In the Tso Chuan. Going back to pre-Confucian or legendary days. history of the nation. Words to be sung were added. of general literature. The sun shining brightly In the court below" The movements of the dancers were methodical. sprightly. and then gradually the music and singing prevailed over the dance. To the dance I go. we read . and dignified. we find that from time immemorial the Chinese have danced set dances in time to music on solemn or festive occasions of sacrifice or ceremony. gesture being substituted. Long feathers and flutes were held in the hand and were waved to and fro as the performers moved right or left.C. The result was rather an oper^tk tharx a dramatic perjortnance. and of classical exegesis. under B. 545. will ever be remembered connection with two important departures in the literary Within the century covered by the Novel may be said to have come into existence.

and possibly dancers. bearskins being exceedingly fond of music." THE DRAMA of 257 stable- an amateur attempt of the kind. Towards the middle of the eighth century. In the present limited state of our know- . too. the Emperor Ming Huang of the T'ang dynasty. where he was much impressed by a troup of skilled performers attached to the known Palace of Jade which he found there. when suddenly the Drama.D. for Court entertainments.. for training some three There is a hundred young people of both sexes. It is only mentioned here because some writers have associated this practice with the origin of the drama in China. which frightened their horses and caused a stam- pede. however. It was apparently an institution to provide instrumentalists. sprang into being. vocalists. as the Pear-Garden. established a College. although some have held that the " youths of the Pear-Garden were really actors. was the outcome of a visit paid legend that this College by his Majesty to the moon. truly identified with the actor's art seems to have been known until the thirteenth. noble who employed in his ancestral arrogance of a temple the number alone. It is of singers reserved for the Son of Heaven hardly necessary to allude to the exorcism of evil carried out three times a year spirits. mentions the boys. by officials dressed up in and armed with spear and shield. as seen in the modern Chinese stage-play. organised by Confucius. who made a house to house visitation surrounded by a shouting and excited populace. and that this continued for many centuries.jQ£ptury. All we really know is that in very early ages music and song and dance formed an ordinary accompaniment to religious and other ceremonies. which can be dramatic fraternity. and the term is still applied to the Nothing. A.

as in Greece.258 CHINESE LITERATURE it is ledge on the subject. but all visitors must take some refreshment. the Kitans being forced to apologise. performances by public subscription. was sent as envoy to the Kitans. In the country. Plays are acted in the large cities of China at public theatres all the year round. a piece was played in which his sacred ancestor. but may well have been introduced from Tartar sources. and during the period of mourning for a deceased Emperor. was and this so disintroduced as the low-comedy man gusted him that he got up and withdrew. it would seem that the drama is not indigenous to China. this impossible to say how or why cannot trace step by step the development of the drama in China from a purely choral performance. came about. The various Trade-Guilds have raised stages upon their premises. We are simply confronted with the accomplished fact. Altogether. There is no charge for admission. Confucius. But at a theatrical entertainment which followed. At the same time we hear of dramatic performances the Tartars at a somewhat earlier date. except during one month at the New Year. However this may be. generally while a dinner-party are provided going on. In 1031 K'ung Tao-fu. . and take place at temples or on temporary stages put up in the roadway. Mandarins and wealthy persons often engage actors to . a descendant of Confucius in the fortyfifth degree. and was received at a banquet with much honour. We among perform in their is private houses. it is certain that the drama as known under the Mongols is to all intents and purposes the drama of to-day. and give periodical performances free to all who will stand in an open-air courtyard to watch them. and a few general remarks may not be out of place.

musicians. are to be found in books.d. the head thrown back and the wide open in order to strengthen the voice . hence many persons have stated that Chinese plays are ridiculously long. They have to learn all kinds of acrobatic feats. usually between the ages of nine and fourteen. there being no prompter.or five-act plays as found in books. The actors undergo a very severe physical training. At the back of the stage are two doors. a list of perhaps forty being handed round for the chief guests to choose from. and as they are filing out through the exit door. these being introduced freely into " military " plays. carefully regulated according to a fixed system of training. When the piece is over. one for entrance and one for exit. and their diet is mouth finally.THE DRAMA 259 These stages are always essentially the same. Fifty-six actors make up a full company. These do not include the four. The actors who are to perform the first piece come in by the entrance door all together. They have further to walk about in the open air for an hour or so every day. though much longer specimens. and no flies. no woman having been allowed on the stage since the days of the Emperor Ch'ien Lung (a. who sit on the stage. whose mother had been an actress. and the in through the other door. They also have to practise walking on feet bound up in imitation of women's feet. each of whom must know perfectly from 100 to 200 plays. 1736-1796). . such as would last from three to five hours. make no pause . there are no wings. the fact being that half-an-hour to an hour would be about an average length for~llre plays usually performed. Eight or ten plays are often performed at an ordinary dinner-party. those who are cast for the second piece pass There is no interval. There is no curtain.

26o CHINESE LITERATURE down to suit the but either acting editions of these. . farces specially ranged under five classes according to their capabilities. He will wander down a street. robes for Emperors and grandees running into figures which would stagger even a West-end manager. He will gallop across the stage on horseback. Yet he must possess considerable ability in a certain line for inasmuch as there are no properties and no realism. as in ancient Greece. is grossly laid out by supers before the is curtain goes up. or short written. cut requirements of the stage. It is obvious that the actor must be a good contortionist. He will hide in a forest. his part consisting of song and " spoken " in about general absenpe of properties made up extent by the dresses of the actors. dismount. the actor is under a social ban and for three generations his descendants may not compete at the public examinations. There he is indeed supreme. and excel in gesture. and consequently every one knows what part he is expected to take in any given play. Far from being an important personage. Or a servant will . The to some which are of the most gorgeous character. he is wholly dependent for success upon his own powers of idealisation. and pass his horse on to a groom. or fight from behind a battlemented wall. He conjures up by histrionic skill the whole paraphernalia of a scene which in Western countries actors The are . and stop at an open shop-window to flirt with a pretty girl. He must have a good voice. equal proportions. disregard realism. utterly the Chinese need only be stated that dead men get up and walk off the stage sometimes they will even act the part of bearers and make movements as though carrying themselves away. it To show how .

d. Ch'in Kuei. at a certain market-town. and the direction which their great gag takes is chiefly the reason which keeps respectable women away from the public play-house. the very eyes of the audience. however.THE DRAMA step across to a leading performer of tea to clear his voice. General Yo Fei (a. On the stage. losing all selfcontrol. brought about by the treachery of a rival." which terms have often been wrongly taken in the senses of tragedy and comedy. Battles are fought and rivals or traitors executed before . A is not on a level with Chinese audience does not go to hear the play. . Most Chinese plays are simple in construction and weak in plot. but to see the actor. actors are allowed license in gagging. leapt upon the stage and stabbed the unfortunate . and in As they stand Chinese plays are as unobjectionable as Chinese poetry and general literature. They are divided into "military" and "civil. The "civil" plays are life. there was a play performed which represented the execution of the patriot. who forged an order for that purpose. tragedy proper being quite unknown in China. sometimes engaged in single combat. The actor who played Ch'in Kuei (a term since used contemptuously for a spittoon) produced a profound sensation so much so. classical collections or in acting editions. 261 and hand him a cup The merit of the plays performed the skill of the performer. The former usually deal with historical episodes and heroic or filial acts by historical characters and Emperors and Generals and small armies rush wildly about the stage. that one of the spectators. 1 141). In 1678. man to death. sometimes in turning head over heels. concerned with the entanglements of every-day are usually of a farcical character.

and arming himself with a sharp scimitar. . a certain well-known General was occupied day and night in camp with preparations for resisting the advance of the rebel army which ultimately captured Peking. Late that night. anxious to do something to relieve the sufferer. the play as The theatre following abstract will give a fair idea of the pieces to : be found on the play-bill of any Chinese The Three Suspicions. he burst into his wife's apartment He seized the terrified woman by the hair. the tutor engaged for his son fell ill with severe shivering fits. As he was about to retire. and again as it appears in the acting edition to be learnt.— 262 It CHINESE LITERATURE must therefore always be remembered that there is it can be read in the library. These three are often very different one from the other. however. he on the ground a pair of women's slippers. the General unexpectedly returned home. in reply to her protestations. Hastily quitting the still sleeping tutor. to the assembled slave-girls. While thus temporarily absent from home. and told her that she must die producing. which had been accidentally brought in with the quilt. entreaties of the vengeance until He yielded. He sent . the fatal pair of slippers. and heard from a slave-girl in attendance of the tutor's illness and of the loan of the quilt. Thereupon. and at once recognised to whom they belonged. and finally as it is interpreted by the actor. went to his mother's room and borrowed a thick quilt. espied . he proceeded straight to the sick-room. and the boy. but found him fast asleep. and deferred his he had put the following test. At the close of the Ming dynasty. to see how the tutor was getting on.

as commonly performed. But there was no occasion for murderous violence. The tutor again answered from within the bolted door.— THE DRAMA 263 a slave-girl to the tutor's room. but I would at least seek to emulate the virtuous Chao Wen-hua (the Joseph of China). you bad girl. She attempts to commit suicide. " What Go away. " Madam. she too changes hers." The General now changes his tone injured wife. saying. illustrating. Go. as the latter is on his knees. the Chinese emblem of connubial jealousy. the jealous General bade his trembling wife resolving that go herself and summon her paramour if the latter but put foot over the threshold. a slave-girl creates roars of laughter by bringing her master. the slender and insufficient literary art which satisfies the Chinese public. and is only dissuaded by an abject apology on the part of her husband . I may not be a saint. himself following close behind with his naked weapon ready for use. which. ! ! . bearing a message from her mistress to say she was awaiting him in her own room in response to which invitation the voice of the tutor was heard from within. The following is a translation of the acting edition pf a short play. his life should pay the penalty. in the middle of . the verses of the original being quite as much doggerel as those of the English version : 18 . . and leave me in and the peace. but not to exaggeration. or I at this hour of the night ? Still unconwill tell the master when he comes back " vinced. a brimming goblet of vinegar. in mistake for wine.

Servants. • a Suitor. Suitors. Guardian Angel.] The Lady Wang the Flowery Ball will throw. It all depends on destiny Whether or not this Ball strikes me. Dramatis Person." Su. My humble name is Su T'ai-cKin. To the Flowery Ball t Well. . To-day the Lady Wang will throw Flowery Ball to get a spouse. a Suitor. My father is a nobleman. And ifperchance this ball strikes me. It's Hu Mao-yiian : now where go you f Hu.^ Su T'ai-ch'in. dr'c. Hu Mao-yiian. And I'm a jolly roving blade. — Outside the city of CKang-an. I'm going too.. Why. [Walks on towards the A city Enter Hu Mao-yiian. the Beggar's Ping Kuei. don't go so fast. [Sings. I am a lucky man indeed But now I must go on my way. Scene Su T'ai-ch'in. To the Governor's palace to get me a wife. P'u-sa. city At CKang-an Oh ! I reside : My father is a Mandarin j if I get the Flowery Ball. My cup ofjoy will overflow. 264 CHINESE LITERATURE THE FLOWERY BALL. To-day the Lady Wang will throw A Flowery Ball to get a spouse. that looks very like friend Su ! Til call: " Friend Su. Gatekeeper. My humble name is Hu Mao-yiian But as the Ball is thrown to-day I must be moving on my way. daughter of a high Mandarin. Su. Lady Wang. a Beggar. Hu Mao-yiian.

] [sings.] [sings. Why trifle at the garden gate ? Tm bound to go Whether I get the Ball or no : My bowl and my staff in my hands—just so. [Exeunt. Or we shan't be in time for the fun. Though. Ah! Daughter of a wealthy noble. Then come let us go. Ping [sings. . Away let us go. — Andperhaps I'd better say my prayers. At the garden gate she pledged me. Enter P'ing Kuei.] that day within the garden When my lady-love divine. Promised that she would be mine. let us make haste and run. my miserable garret I have just now crept away.. Rank andfortune often come From.] below But who knows who the lucky man will be 1 I think your luck is sure to take you through. THE DRAMA That all the world her chosen spouse might 265 Ha Su [sings.] Hu Su Hu Su [sings. Your handsome face should bring the Ball to you. And as Ipass the city gates Tope my eyes and see crowd of noble youths as As leaves upon a tree. Among the noble suitors down — see. if she spoke me idle words. but dotit be so slow. matrimonial affairs fll think of it all as I walk along Nevertheless. There^s hardly anybody else whdd do. but who knows which The lucky man will be f In vain I strain my eager eyes Alas J 'twill break my heart — — Among the well-dressed butterflies Jfind no counterpart. A thick Forward they press. At any rate it lies between us two. Bidding me come here to-day j From. Let her be faithless or be true I lose the Ball as sure as fate.] [sings.] [sings.

Enter Lady Wang. . The Lady Wang will tire of waiting. Thinking all the time of thee O Heaven. here I'll just I am at the very spot . Gatekeeper. For the Lady Wang he's nearly broken-hearted. spare. And make the old porter clear out of the way I get my poor beggar inside. P'ing. his stopped me ! why. Among the sons of noblemen What can there be for you to see f Begone at once. The Lady Wang is still within the hall Waiting till the Emperor sends the Flowery Ball. Enter P'u-sa [sings. / haven't anything to So come again another day. fulfil a mortaPs longings. Gatekeeper.] In gala dress I leave my boudoir.' walk in. Oh dear ! how cold the wind is I do not see the lady coming. But cruel fate still keeps the lovers parted. Heaven knows 1 It must be my hat and tattered clothes. I'll stay here and raise an infernal din Until they consent to let me in. For a suffering soul has cried otit in woe. " Hebbery gibbery snobbery snay ! " On the wings of the wind Fll ride. Alas ! alas ! what can I do? If I dotit get within the court. Lady Wang [sings. And Heaven has heard his prayer. Gatekeeper.] P'u-sa. Ping [sings.] I say you'll not Oh ! dear. . or Fll soon make you. — And link my love to me. blowing. Gatekeeper. Oh / let me just go in to look. P'ing. By heaven! s supreme command I have flown Through the blue expanse of sky and air. And so I think I'll step inside. Till [Raises the wind.• ! 266 CHINESE LITERATURE PV/iy.

P'u-sa. Which meet 7ny eager eye. THE DRAMA My gorgeous cap is broidered (Per With flocks ofglittering birds : Here shine the seven stars.. 'Tis thus And the I seize it the enviedprize. While my foolish heart is breaking. I carit return till I have done This work in misery begun. And so I take the Flowery Ball And with a sigh I let itfall. The figure of my own true love I cannot yet descry. and there 267 A boy is muttering holy words. His Majesty on me bestowed this Ball. Prince. merchant. . My bodice dazzles with its lustrous sheen : My skirts are worked with many a gaudy scene. Oh ! P ing Kuei. [Throws down th^ ball. And having left my parents and my home. 'J hen take as husband whomsoe'er it struck. Andfrom a balcony he bid me let it fall. The pledge I game him at the garden gate Can he forget? The hour is waxing late. J ope my eyes and see A crowd of noble youths as tree. And give it to my protdgi ril throw in his earthen bowl. Why ask me to be your bride ? He perhaps his ease is taking. ifyou really love me. beggar. Hasten quickly to my side : If the words you spoke were idle. crowds down below Bewilder me so That I am in a most desperate state. As I slowly mount the stairs. Hither to the Painted Tower Pve come. thick As leaves upon a But ah ! amongst the tnany forms. [Throws the ball to Ping Kuei. as m-ight be my luck. [Showing Ball.

Though for the little paltry wench I do not care a straw. Pm off: w^re done for.] Stay] I hear the people shouting— What.j 268 Lady Wang CHINESE LITERATURE [sings. H u.] Sir. which can be bought at any bookstall of the for some- thing like three a penny. It struck a dirty vagrant lout. collections One best of such is the YUan cnil hsUan tsa chi. Even the longer and more elaborate plays are propormakes the drama piquant to a European. and are very seldom. Many collections of these have been published. Gatekeeper. [Exeunt omnes. the Ball some beggar struck ? It must be my own true Ping Kuei— IHlgo home and tell my luck I Maidens I through the temple kindle Incense for my lucky fate. bound up in eight . produced as tionately wanting in all that they stand in print. not to mention the acting editions of each play. Tlie second of the second moon to life The Dragon wakes andpower To-day the Lady Wanghds thrown The Ballfrom out the Painted Tower. or Miscellaneous Selection of Mongol Plays. Come with me to claim your bride. Who'd have thought that this poor vagrant would have got the Ballf [To P'ing Kuei. if ever. and Make the greatest haste you can. Now my true love will discover That I can discriminate. Enter Gatekeeper and Beggar. [Exeunt. Enter Hu Mao-yiian and Su Tai-ch'in. No well-born youth was singled out. [Exeunt.yoi^ve come off well this morning: You must be a lucky man. as you saw. Friend Su. Only one poor beggar now remains within the hall.

plays in all. Then a faithful servant He promptly of the family hid himself on the hills with another child. 269 It contains one hundred. The child was accordingly and by the hand of the Minister himself the ." play in five acts by Chi Chun-hsiang. and are therefore excluded. entitled of the known "The Chao and founded closely upon It is the nearest approach which the Chinese have : made to genuine tragedy A wicked Minister of the sixth century B. when he hears the — and at this point the play proper begins —that wife of the last representative has given birth to a son. sends to find the child. by keeping it for days without food and then setting it at a dummy. Chao was lying hidden. dressed to represent his intended victim. . Ultimately. plotted the all destruction of a rival family. with an illustration to each. marked " anonyEven when the authors' names are given. and of the prologue how he had his vainly trained a fierce dog to kill his rival.. while an accomplice informed the Minister where the supposed orphan of the house of slain. is a brief outline of a very well family. But the real heir escaped. they represent men altogether unknown in what the Chinese call literature. and stuffed with the heart and lights of a sheep. from which the drama is rigorously any mous.C. he had managed to get rid of all the male members of the family. however." to author. to the number of three hundred.— CHI CHiJN-HSIANG thick volumes. He tells in named Chao Tun. and when he grew up he avenged the wrongs of his servant committed suicide. which had meanwhile been carried away to a place of safety. according to the edition of A large proportion cf these cannot be assigned 1615. The following Orphan fact.

and on looking to see what was the moving cause of this extraordinary explosion of merriment. markably good. I beheld to my astonishment a couple of rather seedy-looking foreigners occupying the stage. on and it was clear that these at all. Nor are there even rhetorical flowers to disguise the expression of commonis The Chinese actor can do a great deal with such a text. There was the billy- West were not up for the nevertheless. Roars of laughter resounded on all sides. A moment more My attention was attracted. place thought. too. if somewhat exaggerated. the translator. though doubtless the intention was to caricature or burlesque rather than to reproduce an exact imitation. There much. nothing. and apparently acting with such spirit as to bring the house down at every other word. The following story will give a faint idea of the license conceded to the play-actor. was re- Cock hat. the short cut-away coat and . of a primitive character in the setting of the play. one occasion at Amoy by an unusually large crowd of Chinamen engaged in watching the progress of an open-air theatrical performance. Explanatory prologues are common. men of the foreigners but Chinamen dressed { purposes of the piece. not in the sense in which is — those terms are understood by uz. The get-up. and below it a florid face well supplied with red moustaches and whiskers. and actors usually begin by announcing their clearing the own names and further way for the benefit of the audience. From beginning to end of this and similar plays there apparently no attempt whatever at passion or pathos in the language at any rate.270 CHINESE LITERATURE family by killing the cruel Minister and utterly exter- minating his race.

fit and the latter. it may be as well to give a short outline of the play itself. and At finally by the entreaties of this juncture in rushes the barbarian wife of the general's condemned son. and as on a previous occasion the general himself had been taken prisoner by this very lady. the young man's mother comes and throws herself at the general's feet. This request the stern father steadily refuses to grant. who insisted upon his immediately leading her to the altar. and last. sent his son to obtain a certain wooden staff from an outlying barbarian tribe." and the follows : is called " Slaying a plot. and only ransomed on . but was further taken prisoner by a barbarian lady. 271 but not least. In this expedition the son not only signally. in fact. was got out of this last accessory for with it each one of the two was continually threatening the other. Before going any further. . even though his wife's prayers are backed up by those of his own mother. ever-characteristic walking-stick. runs as A certain general of the Sung dynasty named Yang.— THE DRAMA light trousers. him the Emperor himself. As the soldiers are leading him away. a blue neck-tie. the Half the fun. and implores him to spare her son. which happens to be not uninteresting and is widely known from one end of China to the other. and both united in violent gesticulations directed either against their brother-actors or sometimes against the audience at their feet. in a violent be taken outside the Yam^n gate and be there executed forthwith. It Yamen Gate. being in charge of one of the frontier passes. of a prince of anger. orders to of the Imperial blood. Shortly after these nuptials he failed returns to his father's camp. Son at the or rather story.

and the play is brought to a conclusion with the departure of young General Yang and his barbarian wife to subdue the wild tribes that are then harassing the The two foreigners are the pages frontier of China. His once deprives the father of his command and bestows it upon the son. and accompany her in that capacity his father's when she follows her husband to camp. Majesty. though in a lesser degree. The Emperor now loses his temper. on the occasion of stage gag. therefore. It was .272 CHINESE LITERATURE of a payment that heavy sum of money. not to mention the prince of the blood. and seeing himself bearded in his own Yam^n by a mere barbarian woman. sets him free before the assembled party. the wife and mother of the general. was a mere piece but one which amused the people immensely. The trick of dressing these pages up to caricature the foreigner of the nineteenth century. The Emperor was angry at the slight that had been passed upon his Imperial dignity. there was considerable dissatisfaction in the minds of several of the personages on the stage. But when the barbarian wife had succeeded in rescuing her husband from the jaws of death. and dares any one to lay a hand on him at his peril. and elicited rounds of applause. felt themselves similarly slighted. and is enraged to think that General Yang should have been awed into granting to a barbarian woman at a life that he had just before refused to the entreaties of the Son of Heaven. and the enraged father was still more excited at having had his commands set aside. or attendants of the barbarian wife. he is so alarmed motionless and unable to utter a word while with a dagger she severs the cords that bind her hus- he sits band. when I saw the piece.

It was wheeled across the back of the stage. In 1885 a play was performed in a Shanghai theatre which had for its special attraction a rude imitation of a paddle-steamer crowded with foreign men and women." says a Chinese critic. whom it is regarded more as a novel than as a play. by intrigue. play. and to satisfy the unities of the drama and the cravings of the audience for a sensational finale and this desirable end was attained by an order from the Emperor that at any rate the two foreign attendants might be sacrificed for the benefit of all concerned. The two wretched foreigners were accordingly made to kneel on the stage. all of which are included in the " The dialogue of this collection mentioned above. and moonlight.WANG consequently felt SHIH-FU 273 by all parties that something in the was wanting to relieve their own feelings." which is mistic way of stating that the story . is simply a eupheone of passion and It is popular with the educated cTasses. the one which will best repay reading is undoubtedly the Hsi Hsiang Chi. snow. A lady and her daughter are staying at a temple. surrounding spectators. and wrote thirteen plays. It is by Wang Shih-fu. were all taken prisoners and executed. rooms are flowers. in accordance with common custom. an. or Story o the Weste rn_Payilion. and the women. of whom nothing seems to be known foreigners and their come with designs ^f except that he flourished in the thirte enth centu ry. who were supposed to have upon the Middle Kingdom.d their heads were promptly lopped off by the executioner amid the deafening plaudits of the way of slaughter . Of all plays of the Mongol d ynasty. where. in sixtee n sce nes. "deals largely with wind.

and to journey to a distant part of the country. soon engagement. and set out. are to be ?ound in the A was written by one CHANG Kuo-PIN. is actually adopted into the family. Just as there have always in China. into Eighteen years pass. the chief interest of which play lies perhaps in the sex of the writer. where there is a potent god from whom the wife is to pray for and obtain a son after what has been already an eighteen months' gestation. and then. the new brother pushes and disap- the husband overboard into the Yang-tsze pears with the wife. On the way. so ranks of Chinese playfour-act drama. is lucky enough to succeed in saving the two ladies from the clutches of brigands. bring the story to a happy issue. without further inquiry. entitled " Joining the Shirt. to seek for their . with son and daughter-in-law. who shortly gives birth to a boy. begging their way. A young and handsome student. an educated courtesan of the day. for which service he has previously been promised the hand of the daughter in marriage. are living happily together. and the scholar is left At this juncture the lady's-maid of the daughter manages by a series of skilful manoeuvres to disconsolate. The old couple have sunk poverty.274 let CHINESE LITERATURE priests to ordinary travellers or to visitors by the who may wish to perform devotional exercises. who also happens to be hving at the temple. taking the property they can lay their hands on." been poetesses women wrights. A father and mother. Soon afterwards the new son persuades the elder brother all and his wife secretly to leave home. however. when a poverty-stricken young stranger is first of all assisted by them. repents of her The mother.

and had become a Buddhist priest. prompted by his mother. in come from is Peking. but perform in their own which practically unintelligible to the masses many parts of China. in order to travel so far These actors are. make it worth their while to from home and take the risks to life and property. He now reverts to lay life. and the play is brought to an end by the execution of the villain It is a curious fact that all the best troupes of actors not only dialect. Chance —playwright's chance —throws them into the has graduated as Senior Classic. He had been rescued from drowning by a boatman. very well paid. one of which had always been kept by the old man and the other by the missing son. Recognition is effected company of their grandson. of course. and has also.CHANG KUO-PIN lost 275 son. At this juncture the missing son reappears. who by means of the two halves of a shirt. and after his death by his wife. been on the look-out for them. .

It probably came from Central Asia. S76 . (3) with superstition. as is the case with as many Western plays.CHAPTER III THE NOVEL Turning now to the second literary achievement of the Mongols. wake of the Mongol had then to elapse before the conquest. that the Hsi Hsiang Chi is more suited for private readthe paradise of story-tellers. class will Examples of each be given. anecdotes. and (4) with brigand- age or lawless characters generally. described This. The origin of the Chinese novel is unknown. (2) with love and intrigue. indeed. and even short stories had already been familiar to the Chinese for many centuries. ing than for public representation. highest point of development was reached. or Story of the Western Pavilion. maintained that the novel was developed from the play. the introduction of the Novel. dealing (i) with usurpation and plotting. however. in the Three centuries . simply means in the preceding chapter. Fables. pointing in corroboration of their theory to the Hsi Hsiang Chi. we find ourselves face to face with the same mystery as that which shrouds the birth of the Prama. have not been satisfactorily bridged. but between these and the novel proper there is a wide gulf which so far had Some. The Chinese range their novels under four heads.

Armies and fleets of countless myriads are from time to time annihilated by one side or another. Reaching their destination. all this in an easy and fascinating style.stained warriors. stirring scenes of warfare. and passed the order to retreat. On each ship there were only a few sailors and some real soldiers with gongs and other noisy instruments.— LO KUAN-CHUNG 277 The San kuo chih yen i. the Story of tke Three Kingdoms would indubitably come out first.D. Tsao Ts'ao. Elsewhere we read of an archery competition which . The decks of the ships were apparently covered with large numbers of fighting men. If a vote were taken among the people of China as to the beginning of the third century A. is an historical novel based upon the wars of the Three Kingdoms which fought for supremacy at the It consists mainly of cunning plans by skilful generals. This is how the great commander Chu-ko Liang is said to have replenished his failing stock of arrows. who could just make out the outlines of vessels densely packed with fighting so. the soldiers at once began to beat on their gongs as if about to go into action . as had been carefully calculated beforehand. of greatest among their countless novels. gave latter did and kept on for an hour and more. but these were in reality nothing more than straw figures dressed up in soldiers' clothes. whereupon Ts'ao Ts'ao. him. in the middle of a dense fog. He sent a force of some twenty or more ships to feign an attack on the fleet of his powerful rival. and of doughty deeds by blood . men bearing down upon The orders to his archers to begin scooting. until Chu-ko Liang was satisfied with what he had got. attributed to one Lo KUANCHUNG. which makes the book an endless joy to old and young alike.

then Dr. another shoot-> and equally of course the ing over his own head favoured hero shoots at the twig. distance of one hundred paces the heroes begin to shoot. finished. proceeding to wash the patient's viscera with medicinal liquids. He now takes a sharp knife and opens the abdomen. The washing he sews up the wound with medicated thread and puts over it a plaster. back to the target. is a mighty skilful physician. On inquiry. severs it. without causing him the slightest pain. If the sick man is suffering from some internal complaint and medicines produce no satisfactory result. Hua. Of course each competitor hits the bull's-eye. off the robe. . A target is set up. Hua will administer a dose under the influence of which the patient becomes as it were intoxicated with wine. prize. and at once declared that the cause was indigestion. One day. as he was walking along a road.' explained the officer. Such is his extraordinary skill. a robe. and his use of acupuncture and counter-irritants are always followed by the speedy : ' ' recovery of the patient.— 278 recalls the CHINESE LITERATURE Homeric games. and carries Parthian-like. and the From a is hung upon a twig just above. dealing as it does with the use of anaesthetics long before they were dreamt of in this country. and such a one as is not often to be found. one. with his . and by the end of a month or twenty days the place has healed up. but of hashish. He suffered such agony that one of his stafif recommended a certain doctor who was then very much in vogue " Dr. for instance. he heard some one groaning deeply. following extract will perhaps be interesting. Ts'ao Ts'ao had The b«en struck on the head with a sword by the spirit of a pear-tree which he had attempted to cut down. His administration of drugs.

and two black and white wei-ch'i pips in the other. Hua ordered the sufferer to drink three pints of a decoction of garhc and leeks. one of which was very painful while the other itched unbearably. a his man had a tumour eyebrows.' No one believed this until Dr. Hua opened them with a knife and showed that it was so. after vvhich he could digest food as before. He consulted Dr. Hua. and some medicine administered by him was to cause the invalid to throw up a quantity of red-headed wriggling tadpoles. he took a knife and opened the tumour. would reappear after an interval of three years. However. besides being troubled with a flushing of the face and total loss of appetite. which he did. And sure enough. in the sore lump.LO KUAN-CHUNG this 279 turned out to be the case . when nothing could save him. he said. growing between summon him.' at which everybody laughed. the itching of which was insupportable. another man had had his toes bitten by a dog. and out flew a canary. the effect of and which. Truly he is of the same strain as Pien Ch'iao and Ts'ang Kung of old and as he is now living not very far from this. the Governor of Kuang-ling was very much depressed in his mind. the consequence being that two lumps of flesh grew up from the wound. Ts'ao Ts'ao sen! 19 away messengers who were . There is a bird inside. and accordingly. he died three years afterwards. Again. although temporarily expelled. I wonder your Highness does not ^ ' . Hua. On another occasion.' said Dr. Dr.' " At this. 'There are ten nee. In a further instance.dles. which the doctor told him had been generated in his system by too great indulgence in fish. and vomited forth a snake between two and three feet in length. When Dr. Hua saw it. the patient beginning to recover from that hour.

day and night until they had brought Dr. unable to get out. Hua Has not your Highness heard of Kuan Yii's wound in the right shoulder ? I scraped the bone and removed the poison for him without a single sign of fear on his part. for which there is but one remedy. but to split open Yii my skull is quite another matter. and nothing seems to be known either of the man or of his authorship. Your Highness's disease is but a trifling affair why. then. ' .' 28o to travel CHINESE LITERATURE .' said Ts'ao without much risk It . who had actually terrorised . and declared was a plot aimed at his life to which Dr. strikes me now Kuan that you are this here simply to avenge your friend opportunity. but this name does not appear in any biographical collection. and then with a sharp axe I will split open the back of your head and let the wind out. Drugs are of no avail in your present condition. replied. '"The pain in your Highness's head/ said Dr. and before very long Ts'ao Ts'ao himself succumbed. so much suspicion ? that it . Hua. before from wind. Ts'ao Ts'ao held out his pulse and desired him to diagnose his case. the disease will be exterminated.' upon He thereupon gave orders that the doctor should be seized and cast into prison. Hua him and when he arrived. The story is based upon the doings of an historical." There the unfortunate doctor soon afterwards died.' " Ts'ao Ts'ao here flew into a great rage. You must first swallow a dose of hashish. ' scrape a sore shoulder-bone. band of brigands. '"You may Ts'ao. and the seat of the disease is the where the wind is collected. The Shui Hu Chuan is said to have been written by Shih Nai-an of the thirteenth century. Thus ' arises brain.

He did this on a second occasion and when shut out by the gatekeeper. when he succeeded by a threat of fire in getting the monks to open the gate. "through which no wine or meat may pass. Then. and out of his robe tumbled a half. . 281 a couple of provinces. This he amused himself by tearing to pieces and forcing into the mouth of one of his fellownot stepping priests. and returned one day to the temple. down to his assistance. After a while he reverted to less ascetic habits of life. or Record of Travels in the West. as drunk as a clod. a favourite novel written in a popular and easy style.eaten dog's leg." he fell down in the courtyard. in Chinese phraseology.SHIH NAI-AN early in the twelfth century. has secured it for a position rather beyond its real merits. the chief personage is called by Hsiian Tsang's posthumous title. The Hsi Yu is It Chi. The graphic and picturesque is style in which this book written. There is a ludicrous episode of a huge swashbuckler who took refuge in a Buddhist temple and became a priest. until they were finally put down. though approaching the colloquial. making a great riot and causing much scandal. which he had carried away with him from the restaurant where he hiad drunk himself tipsy. Some of it is very laugh- and all of it valuable for the insight given into Chinese manners and customs. he tried to burst in. and that he travels in search of Buddhist books. and in his drunken fury knocked to pieces a huge idol at the entrance for . the journey and the novel have positively nothing in the Buddhist religion. images. and relics to illustrate but beyond the fact that. is based upon the journey of Hsuan Tsang to India in search of books. able.

— 282 CHINESE LITERATURE The latter is a common. that is. : The text now runs as follows When Buddha heard these words. and heavenly armies are despatched against him. to the supreme deity in the Taoist Pantheon. and accordingly sets forth. At this juncture God places the matter in the hands of Buddha. These he easily puts to flight. Holy One of All the Heavens. and also some elixir of life. tricks again. stealing the must " for the future reign in his stead. who is presently informed by the monkey that God must be deposed and that he. All the minor deities now complain to God of his many misdeeds. after which he becomes Master of the Horse to God. until at length God is obliged to interfere. good sample of the fiction in delight. which the Chinese people to detain us awhile. the monkey. only returning to his allegiance on being appointed the Great He is soon at his old peaches of immortality from a legendary being known as the Royal Mother in the West. both of which he consumes. Throwing up his post in disgust. He is then carried captive to heaven. Even God's nephew cannot prevail against him until Lao Tzu throws a magic ring at him and knocks him down. but in vain. He then determines to travel in search of wisdom. and sends various heavenly generals to coerce him. he carries on a series of disturbances in the world generally. but as he is immortal. His first step is to gain a knowledge of the black art from a magician. no harm can be inflicted on him. and is soon elected to be king of the monkeys. and may be allowed A stone monkey is born on a mysterious mountain from a stone egg. he smiled scorn- .

So after making Buddha promise to carry out the agreement. trained to rule.' I Am not fit to ' ' monkey readily agreed to this.000 li (=6000 miles). had to serve before he could reach this state of perfect wisdom. a somersault to a distance of 18. " Plenty. ' the throne of God. I will request God to depart to the West and leave heaven to you but if you fail.' " Although he is older than I am. and your very existence be imperilled.' replied the monkey. occupy the throne of heaven ? " Well. I'm which was stretched out for him like a lotus-leaf. pointing out that he could easily jump 18. 'that you should claim the divine palace ? . lest evil befall.' aswered Buddha. he grasped his sceptre " The and diminished in size until he could stand in the hand. I will make a wager with you. THE HSI YU CHI fully 28 J and said. You are only a brute beast what mean these boastful words ? Be off. If you can jump out of my hand. Tell him to get out and give up his place to me. that is no reason why he should always have the post.' cried the monkey. But off Buddha's enlightened gaze was ever upon him. . though ' ! ' he turned with the speed of a whirligig. . or I will ' ' know the reason why. he cried. I can change myself into seventy-two shapes I am immortal and I can turn ' ' .' . each of 129. you will go down again to earth and be a devil for another few aeons to come. and in a motrient he was gone. and that Buddha's hand was not even a foot long.' "'What abilities have ' you.000 li. and utter no more such. " In a brief space the monkey had reached a place .600 Think what ages of apprenticeship he .' asked Buddha. years' duration What a devil-monkey like you to seize who from his earliest years has been ! ! and has lived 1750 aeons.

The next moment he was back again in Buddha's hand. thereby giving its adversary a chance of attacking it from inside.' Why. which the pig-bogey unwittingly swallows.: 284 CHINESE LITERATURE five where there were to stop. wrote with it on the middle pillar in large characters. and there he decided had better leave he plucked out a hair. Just bend your head and look here. describing his jump. until at and undertakes to the to escort Hsiian Tsang on length they receive final directions from an Immortal as to the position of the palace of Buddha. he read the following inscription The Great Holy One of All the Heavens reached this ' ' ' some claiming his reward.' "'There is no need to go so far. and have left a mark there which I challenge you to inspect.' said the monkey. The three of them conduct Hsiian Tsang through manifold dangers and hairbreadth escapes safe. These two are joined by a colourless individual. his journey West. red pillars. The scene which follows almost The Pilgrim! s Progress — . said to represent the passive side of man's nature. the monkey is converted to the true faith. however. as the monkey and pig represent the active and animal sides respectively. ! " ' ' ' : point'' Ultimately. and there. on Buddha's middle finger. Reflecting.' "The monkey bent down his head. I have been to the very confines of the universe. that he visit. from which they hope to obtain the recalls coveted books. " Ah said Buddha. The Great Holy One of All the Heavens reached this point. and trace as a proof of his I knew you couldn't do it.' replied Buddha. whom he first vanquishes by changing himself into a pill. In his turn he helps to convert a pig-bogey. and changing it into a pencil.

and seizing Pa-chieh (the pig) So Wu-k'ung by the arm. ' ' . slippery it's too slippery. 'Then I can't be a Buddha. negative. It's too Spare me I can't do it. sir. with not a trace of any living being in sight. The Heavenly Ford. Let us try somewhere else. Our guide must surely have misdirected us. while his companions stood by biting their we can't we can't fingers and crying out. You must cross by this bridge. proceeded on ' .' across without a boat ? cried Wu-k'ung.' THE " Hsiian HSI YU CHI 285 Tsang accordingly bade him farewell and his way.' said Wu-k'ung 'just wait a moment and see me go across.' Now the bridge on which Hsiian itself consisted of a simple plank Tsang remarked.' true path. I am not going to trust myself to that frail and slippery plank to cross that wide and rapid But this is the stream. 'if you want to become a Buddha.' others advanced in the direction indicated. Pa-chieh then threw himself on the ground.' Thereupon he jumped on to the bridge. and turning to Wu-k'ung (the name of the monkey) said. 'which you must cross over in order At this Hsuan Tsang to complete your salvation. Look how shall we ever get at that broad and boiling river There is a bridge over there. began dragging him to the bridge. But he had not gone more than a mile or two before he came to a stream of rushing water about a league in breadth. ' ' ' . all the time calling him a fool for his pains. and ran along the shaky vibrating plank until he reached the other side. We can't ran back. and and the saw by the side of the bridge a notice-board on which was written.' at which Pa-chieh said.' replied spare me Wu-k'ung. where he stood shouting out to the rest But Hsiian Tsang waved his hand in the to come on. roaring out. At this he was somewhat startled. ! ' ! ! ' — ! ! ' ' .

This boat. Steady though storms may rage and seas may roll. ' 286 I CHINESE LITERATURE it : have done with I shall never get across that bridge. lo and behold a boat appeared in sight. from which he was immediately rescued by the ferryman. when. and at once asked the ferryman how he My boat.' And while Hsiian Tsang was still hesitating. ' ' thousand kalpas of A human beings pass over in peace. make it. ferryman. The ferry the ferry At this Hsiian Tsang was overjoyed. and calling out. who dragged him on board the boat. and no wind or sea could ' "When Master..' have ferried over countless hosts of he heard these words Wu-k'ung cried out. with a man punting it along. Hsiian Tsang discovered that the boat had no bottom. is safe enough. . In a moment it was alongside the bank. has been famed since the resolution of chaos into order. and hailed the boat to take them on board. there is no fear so long as the passenger is light.' " While these two were in the middle of their dispute. By his fiery pupil and golden iris.' replied the proposed to take them across. bottomless ship can hardly cross the great ocean I yet for ages past passengers. The rest also managed. Free from the dust of mortality. and under my charge has known no change. the passage is easy enough. Wu-k'ung pushed him forwards on to the bridge but the former could not keep his feet. Wu-k'ung knew that the ferryman was no other than Namo Pao-changkiiang-wang Buddha but he kept his knowledge to ' ! ! . and shouted to his disciples that they would now be able to get across. haste on board. with the aid of Wu- overset . and fell head over heels into the water. Ten himself. although bottomless. to his unutterable horror.

to scramble HSI YU CHI .THE k'ung. Yes. sir. as the ferryman they beheld a dead body floating away down the stream. lo ! . ' ' . 287 on board and then.' " A few moments when they more and the stream was crossed. your old self And all the others and joined in the chorus of It is you. jumped on shore but before they could look round the boat and ferryman had disappeared. . Master shoved off. congratulations. but Wu-k'ung laughed and said. it is you accept my best that dead body ! is ' ' . it is you even the ferryman said." The story ends with a list of the Buddhist sAtras and liturgies which the travellers were allowed to carry back with them to their own country. all . ' Fear not. Hsiian Tsang was greatly alarmed at this .




Sung Lien had vails at He had previously been tutor to the heir apparent. and . in conjunction with other scholars. the great system of competitive examinations which preearly days. He rose to be President of the Han-lin College. to produce the History of the Mongol Dynasty.d. 1310-1381). became mixed up in a conspiracy. under which taxation was regulated. He also published a Penal Code. the life of a simple declined office. so soon as he of the the present day. and was leading student. and drew up a kirjd of Domesday Book. however.d. In 1369 he appointed Sung Lien (a. abolishing such punishments as mutilation. 1368-1644) CHAPTER I MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE—MATERIA MEDICA— ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF AGRICULTURE The first Emperor of the Ming dynasty. grandson. A and for many years enjoyed his master's confidence. in allusion to the poverty of his had extinguished the last hopes Mongols and had consolidated his power. turned He organised his attention to literature and education.BOOK THE SEVENTH THE MING DYNASTY (a. popularly known as the Beggar King.

' " So the two had no alternative but to walk in. according to him. having rather a low opinion of the giant. wild fellow. and began to sing and make a noise. however. Teng Pi took the place of honour himself. but they. they would keep out of his way. And at last. and given to quarrelling in his cups so that when people saw him in this mood.' cried he in a rage. ' if you do not see fit to do as I ask. and a pronouncing dictionary on which he was employed. His sentence was commuted to banishment. In feats of strength he was cock of the walk. saying that it was safer to be at a distance from such a : — . The stone drums of the town. and put his guests on each side of him. Both his eyes had crimson corners.292 CHINESE LITERATURE only the Empress's entreaties saved the old man's life. very fond of liquor. his literary remains fill only three volumes. The following piece is a satire on the neglect of men of ability. and they blinked like lightning flashes. in his two hands. Teng Pi tried to make them join him . which. would not accept his invitation. and he died on the journey. was a man of Ch'in. and once when his neighbour's bulls were locked in fight. ' Gentlemen. was a marked feature of the administration of the Mongols " Teng Pi. I will make an end flight. with a blow of his fist he broke the back of one of them and sent it rolling on the ground. which ten men could not lift. when he was well . "One day he was drinking by himself in a tea-house when two literati happened to pass by. He called for more liquor. whose cognomen was Po-i. I then seek safety in of the pair of you. he could carry about He was. and could not brook this treat- ment at your hands. Apart from the history above mentioned. He was seven feet high.

and jumped about. detaining them. weakness. covering a period of three thousand years but here again . who were aware of his . rose to take leave. Then they tried him on history. crying. What do you I ' ' I too mean by treating me as the spittle of your mouth ? If you don't hurry up and drink. gentlemen.' "To this the two literati agreed. and flung it down with a bang on the table at which the two literati. but to-day.' SUNG LIEN tipsy. Meanwhile. answers were distinguished by accuracy and precision. and left the tea-house. Shall this be so indeed ' ? were men of some reputation. to-day man of you . but Teng Pi was equal to the occasion. and despise the real heroes of the his ' ! ! ' ' ! age. " ' Stop shouted Tdng Pi. know something about your books. and if I can't answer. and hadn't a word to say. and on hearing TSng Pi's words they were greatly shamed. you shall ask me anything you like in the whole range of classical literature. He drew a knife. and forthwith gave him a number of the most difficult allusions they could think of. learning made a floored you. I will imbrue this blade in my blood. but no one had ever seen T^ng Pi at any time with a book in his hand. " Ha ha laughed T6ng Pi. So T6ng Pi shouted for wine. hardly knowing how to put one foot before the other. ' do you give in now ? At which his guests looked blankly at each other. excel with pen and ink. and I have loosed his hair. and repeated the full quotation in each case without missing a word. On arriving home they made further inquiries. 293 he threw off his clothes and began to attitudinise. all you have to do is to don a You care only to scholar's dress and look consumptive. I fear my temper will get the better of me." " Now these two literati . taken from the Classics . Of old.

his gone to Peking. in the gates to the conqueror. rebellion of the fourth son of the first Then came the Emperor and . and disregard combinations which yield no ground for suspicion. who adorned this same period. The following is an extract from an essay on taking too much thought for the morrow : "Statesmen who forecast the destinies of an empire ofttimes concentrate their genius upon the difficult and neglect the easy. and sedition springs out of circumstances which have been set aside as trivial. who ruled under the year-title of Yung Lo. with full by his is grandfather. i 357-1402) is Fang Hsiao-ju another scholar. co- worker with Sung Lien. and afterwards republished.d. he death.— 294 CHINESE LITERATURE (a. and was loaded with honours by the second Emperor. A small collection of his miscellanies was preserved by a faithful disciple. the It is supposed that he left fled to garb of a monk. They provide against likely evils. and by his skill in composition earned for himself the nickname of Little Han Yu. services at the disposal of the Fang Hsiao-ju absolutely refused to place his new Emperor. said to have After nearly forty years' wandering. when Nanking opened its defeated nephew vanished. Yet calamity often issues from neglected quarters. He became tutor to one of the Imperial princes. For this refusal he was cut to pieces in the market-place. and lived in seclusion in the palace until his He was recognised by a eunuch from a mole on left foot. As a child he was precocious. so the story runs. Yunnan. his family being as far as possible exterminated and his philosophical writings burned. directions to him. Must this be regarded as due . who through the death of his father succeeded in 1398 to his grandfather. but the eunuch was afraid to reveal his identity.

" But he who. will sickness carry off the children even of the best doctors. — — . Thus. They simply strove by the force of Truth and Virtue to win for themselves the approbation of God. of the empire with the utmost possible care. although fools were not wanting to their posterity fools able to drag . for ever.— FANG HSIAO-JU to 295 things that No. who succeed in grappling fail in with the cases of others. an empire to the dust still. the writer continues "All the instances above cited include gifted men whose wisdom and genius overshadowed their generaThey took counsel and provided against disruption tion. and devils play their is it How It is that these professors. and they refrained accordingly from vain scheming." •After giving several : striking examples from history. Yet misfortune fell upon every one of them. pranks in the family of an exorcist. "The men of old knew that it was impossible to provide infallibly against the convulsions of ages to come. There was no plan. Thus. too. the evil day was deferred. by which they could hope to prevail. that He. while those that elude his vigilance and overpower his strength ? an absence of care — man are divine. as a fond mother watches over her babes. in reward for their virtuous conduct. always issuing from Some source where its existence was least suspected. This. because human wisdom reaches only to human afifairs and cannot touch the divine. It results because the can provide against are human. This was indeed foresight of a far-reaching kind. yet treating their own ? because in those they confine themselves to the human in these they would meddle with the divine. regardless of the favour of Heaven. might watch over them. no device.

is still in the Han-lin College at . It was never printed because of the cost of the blockcutting but under a subsequent reign two extra copies were taken. writes as follows attempt was made to save the famous Yung Lo Ta Tien. " An 13. and one of these. so the attempt was given up. to encyclopaedia ever known. almost while these words were being written. Not only did this encyclopaedia embrace and illustrate the whole range of Chinese literature. Mr. I secured vol. The writer's youngest son. as On the 23rd June 1900. 103 on philosophy. imperfect to the extent of about 20. Lancelot Giles.343 fofinyseif. but it included many complete works which would otherwise Peking.000 pages. A worthy son of his father as regarded his military and political abilities. Of these. whose nephew. he was a reigning still more enthusiastic patron of literature. no fewer than 66 on the Confucian Canon. is to be compiled what He caused probably the most gigantic Yung Lo Ta Tien. Judging from the account published in 1795. The others perished by fire at the fall of the Ming dynasty. Emperor.— 296 CHINESE LITERATURE the light of his may hope by establish that shall own petty understanding to all which shall endure through be confounded indeed. the : Han-lin College was burnt to the ground." .^ have been lost. the produce which 2169 scholars laboured for about three years under the guidance of five chief directors and twenty sub-directors. who went through the siege of Peking. and 175 on poetry were copied out and inserted in the Imperial Library. but heaps of volumes had been destroyed. 41 on history.000 pages. Many names ' of illustrious scholars must here. it must have run to over 500." third time^he The the Emperor of this dynasty. mounted the throne in 1403. disappeared so mysteriously.

while it satisfies the fastidious claim of the Chinese critic for form in pre- ference even to matter. — My . hoping to prevent Ch'ou Luan from carrying out his design. when the latter sufto a mild punishment fered defeat. honours. between China and menacing the safety of his country. patriot. the is also of sufficient interest for European reader. 297 throughout this volume. Yang CHi-snfiNG (1515-1556) was a statesman and a who had been a cowherd in his youth. His name has no place in literature nor would it be mentioned here except as an Ministers of the . and three years later his head fell. he was condemned only and then. now known as the worst of the Six Traitorous Ming dynasty. Between these two extremes there is always to be found a great deal of general writing. and rank the playwright and the novelist as mere parasites of literature. he impeached a got himself into trouble by opposing the establishment of a horse-market Tartary. He first on the frontier. Because he advised your Majesty against the establishment of a tradal mart. His adversary was too strong for him.— YANG CHI-SHENG indeed silence. introduction to an impassioned memorial which his wife addressed to the Emperor on her husband's behalf " : husband was chief Minister in the Cavalry Department of the Board of War. he was restored to favour and to his former it May please your Majesty. Yang was sent to prison. which. be passed over in Such writers are more than compensated by the honour they receive from their own countrymen. . Restored favour after temporary degradation. who place classical scholarship at the very summit of human ambitions. as to colleague.

I . And should we be fortunate enough to attract the Imperial favour to our lowly affairs. he endured the utmost misery. the sinews of his legs were severed. splashing him from He was head to foot. and I the old habit balance. during which period the Board twice addressed the Throne. and worked hard for the space of three years. he was thrown into prison. that would be joy indeed. forthwith. Confined day and night in a cage. " Then our crops failed. it is hard to think that your Majesty would grudge a pitying glance upon our fallen estate. But now I hear your Majesty has determined that my husband shall die. Blood flowed from him in bowlfuls. His flesh was hollowed out beneath the scourge. He lost his mental He the displeasure of the Throne. share in the national nay. But if my husband's crime is of too deep a dye. while his soul seeks the realms below. uttered wild statements. in accordance with the statutes of the Empire. — — . tranquillity. By and by. I strove to earn money by spinning. he gave ear to some idle rumour of the market-place. his eyes will close in peace with your Majesty. the very trees and shrubs. Several times he nearly died.298 "Thereafter. He would abstain from food. "Yet I know that your Majesty has a humane and kindly heart and when the creeping things of the earth. came strong upon him. and daily food was wanting in our poverty-stricken home. however. Die as he may. beaten . All this saw with my own eyes. CHINESE LITERATURE my husband was for ever seeking to make some return for the Imperial clemency. He would deprive himself of sleep. and again incurred Yet he was not slain His punishment was referred to the Board. receiving on each occasion an Imperial rescript that my husband was to await his fate in gaol.

May — . who. the possession of wealth. My husband was a it please your Censor attached to the Board of Rites. was that of Shen Su. before whose name the word " traitorous " is now always inserted. He was released in consequence of the following memorial by his wife. " the plaintive tones of which. and remained there years. received from the Emperor a handsome silver bowl in which to collect alms but so universally hated was he that no one would either give him anything or venture to buy the bowl. and thus make some return for this act of Imperial grace.— SHfeN SU humbly beg I 299 that my head may pay the penalty. myself brandishing spear and shield. with a happier ending. also denounced the. "for every drop of ink a drop of for fifteen blood " " : Majesty. and that be permitted to die for him. from the far-off land of spirits. Shen Su was thrown into prison." force of language." says the commentator. he deserved indeed a thousand deaths yet under the Imperial clemency he was doomed only to await his sentence in prison. For his folly in recklessly advising your Majesty." he adds. Twelve years the Minister impeached by Yang Chi-sh^ng was dismissed for scandalous abuse of power. " can no farther go. ." was " The never allowed to reach the Emperor. Then. " appeal direct to the heart. and he died of starvation while still in . of which the commentator says. Being reduced to beggary. he property confiscated. same Minister." Yet this memorial. in the discharge of his duties as Censor. I will lead forth an army of fierce hobgoblins to do battle in your Majesty's behalf. A curiously similar case. and had all his later.

I I am If I a lone return woman. He dares Yet can it be that when give no thought to his home. in the wind. but I swallow my grief and live on. some moisten- ing with the father-in-law dew is of Imperial grace. alive I He is like a candle have naught wherewith to nourish him or to honour If I him when dead. face to face with death husband can hardly expect to live I venture to offer body as a hostage. when all is over. I alone remain a lodger at an inn. to If tend the one. working day — and night at my needle to provide the necessaries of life encompassed on all sides by difficulties to whom every day seems a year. that that my my . and await your Majesty's pleasure. but there are no children in his hall.300 CHINESE LITERATURE " Since then fourteen years have passed away. and the wretched man has none on whom he can rely. " Oft. . my husband will die of starvation. He trembles on the brink of the grave. and find ourselves beyond the pale of universal peace ? hour. lose the other. to be bound in prison. as I think of these things. all living things are rejoicing in life under the wise and generous rule of to-day. and the feelings of' father and child will be in some measure relieved. my I father-in-law. Thus I shall give to my father-in-law the comfort of his this — And now now . . Thus my husband will greet his father once again. remain to feed him. my father-in-law may die at any My husband is a criminal bound in gaol. we alone should taste the cup of poverty and distress. he will resume his place father. trusting in Providence for some happy termination. while my husband returns to watch over the last hours of his Then. His aged parents are still alive. the desire to die comes upon me . "My father-in-law is eighty-seven years of age.

which. spondence. Several : sentences of it have quite a Juvenalian ring " I was very glad at this distance to receive your letter. what you are pleased to say in reference to official popularity and fitness for office. in the opinion of the commentator. distinction during this six- by his great beauty. I am utterly unqualified to secure that boon." is from his corre- whose forces he surrender. which quite set my mind at rest. which were said to flash fire even at the sides later on. a coaxing air. If the porter refuses to admit him. and money drawn from the sleeve. L-MiLiN 301 will and tlie duty of a wife towards her husband be fulfilled. So he waits in the stable among grooms. may prevail. I thank you very much for your good wishes. then honeyed words." TsuNG Ch'en gained some teenth century . by in youth. and especially by his eyes. together with the present you were so kind as to add. Of my unfitness I am only while as to popularity with my supetoo well aware "As to . The following piece. The porter takes in his card . enticed into the city by a feint of and then annihilated from the walls. until his clothes are . "verges upon trifling. .— IbUAU son. riors. his successful defence of Foochow against the Japanese. by subscribing to the funeral expenses of the above-mentioned Yang Chi-sheng and finally. and especially for your thoughtful allusion to my father. official " How indeed does an find favour in the present day with his chief ? Morning and evening he must whip up hia horse and go dance attendance at the great man's door. . but the great man does not come out. I am much obliged by your remarks.

. At who has pocketed the money comes forth and says his master is tired and begs to be excused. And the porter. * . our friend springs on his horse. until perhaps the great man comes out and summons him to an audience. he bows to the porter. then he waits again in the stable as before. and will he call again next day.' pleased with his share in the business. many servant instances take . ! ' . It's your master. He sits all night in his clothes. and when he meets an On going all right with . Next time I come you need The porter returns the bow. He implores. in spite of nightfall. At length he goes up to offer his present. long which he arises. So he is forced to come once more as requested. and with five or six ' salutations he takes his leave. 'You are in a fine hurry. the porter cold. timidly towards the foot of the dais steps and when the great man says 'Come!' he prostrates himself twice and remains long without rising. and gallops off and knocks at the entrance gate. .' 303 CHINESE LITERATURE in spite of charged with the smell. At cock- crow he jumps up. gets up and lets him in and . Meanwhile. which the great man refuses. the porter gets still more angry and begins to abuse him. he cringes. performs his toilette. hunger. with " . it. He entreats acceptance but in vain. saying. drawn out " after whereupon the great man bids a Then two more prostrations. in spite of a blazing heat. well make no delay. Who's there ? shouts the porter angrily and when he explains. Now. forth. another fee to the good. but has to swallow his wrath and try to persuade the porter to let him in. you are Do you think my master sees people at this hour ? Then is the visitor shamed. with many an obeisance. saying.

you think me an ass. Even when I pass their ! No doors and cover my eyes. ful to upon which his friends begin to be more respecthim as a protige of His Excellency. for books. Do you think that I could be as one of these ? Beyond sending in a complimentary card at the summer and winter festivals. and came to occupy an honourable place among contemporary writers. So-and-so is a good fellow.— WANG TAO-K'UN 303 acquaintance flourishes his whip and cries out. and he rose He found ample time. ' " ' You gentlemen. I do not go near the great from one year's end to another. according to one critic. which.' And then he goes into detail. His seemed to be all for a soldier's life. His works. and gallop quickly by. no doubt. In consequence of this want of breadth. " Such is popularity with one's superiors in the present day." have been published in a uniform edition. a very good fellow indeed upon which the bystanders of ' ." I stuff my ears . as if some one was after me. and are still read. The great man himself says. He treated me very kindly. to be a successful commander. ' course declare that they think so too. I am of course no favourite with the authorities but what care I ? There is a destiny that shapes our ends. Tao-k'un took his third degree in 1547. very kindly indeed. ' I have just been with His Excellency. are " polished in style and lofty in tone. For which. however. and it has shaped mine towards the path of duty alone.' said he. The following is a cynical skit upon the corruption of his day "A retainer was complaining to Po Tzu that no one instincts : Wang in the district knew how to get on. are like square handles .

but your tongues are too ' short.' answered Po Tzu. " ' (3) Others eschew fur robes. watching in secret and letting fly with care. so that nothing escapes their aim. would be larded over with praise. and seek to anticipate the wishes of their superiors whose enemies. (S) Others make for gain as though bent upon shooting a pheasant. 'But would you bid me cut these tumours away ? A man . were they highwaymen and abuse thieves. " (4) Others respond even before they are called. But you you hardly bend your bow.' " ' You speak this is so. were they the saints above. and approach with bent backs as if their very clothes were too heavy for them but you remain as stiff-necked as planks. : ' why you are at loggerheads with the age. . you stick at facts and express opinions adverse to those of your superiors. there is not one of you which fits. ' . you and impeding your progress of in How much more " ' them !' It is indeed as you state. Consequently. or bend it only to miss the quarry that lies within your reach. but you will not follow it. But you . ' " " to ' One all of these five failings is like a tumour hanging life. kindly explain how " ' There are live reasons/ said the retainer. " (2) Other men's tongues reach the soft places in the hearts of their superiors.' truth/ replied Po Tzu ' . would not escape whose friends. as follows " ' (i) The path to popularity lies straight before you.— 304 — CHINESE LITERATURE which you would thrust into the round sockets of your generation. whom it is your special interest to conciliate.

There is no occasion for place. where kinds of State documents are prepared under the superintendence of eminent scholars. and so beauty the land. beauty tried to look' like is 30s cut it live. However. and strive to make my good man happy.' me to proclaim my ' ugliness in the market- " ' Ah.' said the retainer. a natural gift and the woman who Hsi Shih only succeeded in frightening people out of their wits by her ugliness. so to speak. left ' house by a friend. It came into ordinary use as being unaware that it was an antique. he left behind him the reputation of a cross-grained man." says a commentator. ardently devoted to study. and urged me to preserve it carefully as a at my such. The reader looks in vain for paragraphing in this truly inspired piece " " For some years I had possessed an old inkstand. he would circulate his writings. without seam. Still. the breath of a yawn and : is like heavenly robe. sir.' Hsu HsiEH all graduated as Senior Classic in 1601. better than death v^rithout. He swore that if it were granted to him to acquire a brilliant style. jump into the sea to is The following piece much a admired.— HSO HSIEH may have a tumour and And life with a tumour Besides. off is to die. " It is completed. now I know why little there in are so many " ugly people about. I can always. one day a connoisseur told me it was at least a thousand years old. and received an appointment in the Han-lin College. with whom it was difficult to get along. is To . which make me more loathsome even than that woman. "with (with a single effort). Now it is my misfortune to have these tumours. Dying young. I . stick to my needle and my cooking-pots.

because it has descended to us from a or not. themselves the moderns of The surging crowd around us what is antiquity to us ! thinks of naught but the acquisition of wealth and mate- enjoyment. who in their turn will take pleasure in osten- tatious display of their collections of antiquities. though they make a . for his own gratificawith guitars. in at advancement in their no endeavour to collect the choicest order. is Such but a specious hankering after antiques. Their tastes are those of the common herd after all. arising simply Such men from a desire to eclipse one's neighbours. than they. and books. distant past. persons who aim career will spare rarities. He could not have known that it was destined to survive the wreck of time and to come to be cherished as an antique. but never took any further trouble to ascertain whether such was actually the case For supposing that this inkstand really dated from the period assigned. a —such He lover of the antique. tion. same way. it when antiques. are not genuine lovers of the antique. and. by such gifts.were relics of a still earlier period.3o6 valuable relic. In the olden times. occupied only with the struggle for place Men lift their skirts and hurry through the mire they suffer indignity and feel no sense of shame. amusing his leisure. . And if from out this mass there arises one spirit purer and simpler than the rest. we forget that then. striving to tread a nobler path rial and power. and other relics of man is indeed a genuine can never be one of the common herd. CHINESE LITERATURE This I did. to curry favour with their superiors. could not have been of any value to antiquarians. its then owner must have regarded it simply as an inkstand. And while we prize it now. and pictures. though the common herd always affect to admire whatever is admittedly admirable.

ignorant as they are that what they secure is the name alone without the reality. The illustrated by over iioo introductory chapter passes in review forty-two previous . since a relic in the present is much what it was in the past. that devotion is due. and it to be printed forthwith. in his wanderings up and down the long avenue of the past. who ordered Animals." This chapter able may close with the names of two remark- Ll Shih-CHEN completed in 1578. . and I shall therefore content myself with a passing record of my old inkstand. but rather to men. but the men of old. men. then even I may aspire to be some day an antique. deals (i) with Inanimate substances is and (3) with (2) with Plants woodcuts. Of such enjoyrrient there is no satiety. — energies to trifling with things ? "Such is popular enthusiasm in these matters. love not the things. less. lights upon some choice fragment which brings him in an instant face to face with the immortal dead.LI great in the SHIH-CH^N 307 show and filch the reputation of true antiquarians. It But the theme is endis shadow without substance. is The man whom I call he who studies the writings of the ancients. his great Materia Medica. And so if it is not to things. and foolishly devote my a genuine antiquarian . In 1596 the manuscript was laid before the Emperor. Those who truly love antiquity. after twentysix years of unremitting labour. It . hope of thus distinguishing themselves from their fellows. and strives to form himself upon their model. Who shall say that centuries hence an antiquarian of the day may not look up to me as I have looked up to my predecessors ? Should I then neglect myself. a mere thing. though unable to greet them in the flesh who ever and anon.

enumerating no fewer than 950 miscellaneous publications on a variety of subjects. of rearing silkworms. besides various treatises on mathematical science. of the manufacture of food. written in polished book-style. first published in 1640. still occasionally to be found in old book- . and studied under his guidance to such purpose that he was able to produce works on the new system of astronomy as introduced by the Jesuit Fathers." which supposes that the uses of plants and substances are indicated to man by certain appearances peculiar to them. The famous " doctrine of signatures. of breeding animals.3o8 CHINESE LITERATURE works of importance on the same subject. some few of which are shops. The Jesuit Fathers themselves scattered broadcast over China a large number of propagandist self as among publications. This work is illustrated with numerous woodcuts. figures largely in this work. After graduating the candidates for the second degree in 1597 and taking his final degree in 1604. and even of precautions to be taken against famine. he enrolled hima pupil of Matteo Ricci. He was also author of an encyclopaedia of agriculture of considerable value. Hsu KUANG-CH'l the only influential (1562-1634) is generally regarded as member of the mandarinate who has ever first become a convert to Christianity. and treats of the processes and implements of husbandry.

and written in a simple. has been attributed to the gi-ave scholar and statesman. have not been handed down. anything else. Altogether the book is objectionable. except in a very few cases. but the names of their writers. The Yil Chiao Li is a tale of the fifteenth century which has found much favour in the eyes of foreigners. The story itself refers to is the early part of the twelfth possesses one century. extraordinary characteristic. easy style. The marvellous work known as the CKin P'ing Met. partly because it is of an unusually moderate length. one of which of a which renders such passages unfit for ears polite. The ordinary Chinaman likes his novels long. and would require a translator with the nerve of a Burton. Wang Shih-ch^ng (1526-1593) but this is more a guess than the . . closely It approaching the Peking colloquial.CHAPTER II NOVELS AND PLAYS Novels were produced in considerable numbers under Ming dynasty. as a covert satire upon the morals of the Court of the great Emperor K'ang Hsi. So also is the opinion that it was produced in the seventeenth century. are capable of class Many words and phrases is two interpretations. from the names of three of the chief female characters. and does not mind plenty of repetitions after the style of Homer.

contains much that is without foundation. and then with the fascinating sister of a fascinating friend whose acquaintance the brother's he makes casually by the roadside. and all ally volumes. that the Chinese novel came originon. Hsi Yu Chi. the Shui Hu. in four small we have a charming story of a young graduate who falls in love first with a beautiful and accomplished poetess. as usual. a very lively girl. This is a far simpler matter than it would be in Western countries. . words : introduced to the reader in these not like an ordinary novel. — — . The graduate is madly in love with the two girls. and may be from Central Asia. who appears in male or female dress as occasion may require and what is more.).C. Even the San Kuo Chih. three live happily ever afterwards. Here. Tlius the Fing Shen the (a tale of the twelfth century B. however. is a historical novel dealing with the exciting times of the and covering the period between the It is eighth century B. anonymous Feudal States. the latter young lady turns out to be the much-loved orphan cousin of the first and still cherished young lady. and the union of China under the First Emperor. are pure fabrications. which is "The Lieh Kuo consists mainly of is what not true.— 3IO which CHINESE LITERATURE latter feature seems to point in the direction of of stories told by word mouth and written down later taken in connection with the opinion already expressed. The friend and the sister turn out to be one and the same person. The hero marries both. and they are irrevocably in love with him. and also her intellectual equal. and others.C. Not so the . The Lieh Kuo Chuan. which is very near to truth.

but view to a general massacre of the rival stood in the way between the Ch'ins and their treasona.' " Sounds of assent from the nobles were heard at the conclusion of this speech. And since you nobles are now all collected here in this place. The usual ceremonies over. it is not likely that the writer vi^ould go out of his way to invent.—— THE LIEH KUO CHUAN Lieh Kuo. planned by the scheming State of Ch'in. at the same time setting a number of armed ambuscade." The following extract refers to a bogus exhibition. it is fitting that our several exhibits be forthwith produced and submitted for adjudication. and not as a mere novel. with a view to carry out his ambitious designs and when he heard that the other nobles had arrived. as there is far more to tell than could possibly be told. and the nobles having taken in . he went out and invited them to come in. and forwarded as tribute to our Imperial master. do hereby open exhibition of such valuables as may be Ch'i State. Besides. men their seats according to precedence. conscious that the atmosphere was heavily . having reverently received the commission of the assembly for the brought together from all parts of the empire. but the Prime Minister of the this Son of Heaven. Duke Ai addressed : the meeting as follows " ' I. 311 There every incident is a real incident. Wherefore the reader must look upon the Lieh Kuo as a genuine history. nominally to make a collection of valuables respectful tribute to the sovereign really with a and hand them over as House of Chou. every speech a real speech.ble designs " Duke Ai of Ch'in now proceeded with his various nobles who : officers of State to prepare a place for the proposed exhibition. the same to be subsequently packed together.

and was on the point investing him as arbiter of the when a voice was heard from State. These words were scarcely out of his mouth when up rose Pien Chuang. and in martial prowess I am second to none. exhibition. Duke Ai of called for a golden tablet. Of ability I have little indeed. a tiger need be possessed only of physical courage but how is that a sufficient I Delay awhile. and for that feat this post. stepped forward and said " Of old. myself. and declared that he was ready to undertake the post. I propose. when the nobles were wont to assemble.— 312 CHINESE LITERATURE : if from treacherous ambush.' " Accordingly.' recommendation for this office ? pray. and forthwith inquired might be. I ' him what his particular claim to the post ' I cut the head off a deadly dragon. in the interest of public harmony. Upon this I laden with the vapour of death. loudly urging. Duke Ai then asked him upon what grounds. and immediately demanded of the assembled nobles who among them would venture to accept the office indicated. it was customary to appoint one just and upright member and now that to act as arbiter or judge of the meeting we have thus met for the purposes of this exhibition. he based his claim to which Pien Chuang replied.' claim to Duke Ai thereupon ordered Pien Chuang . as to personal ability. . that some one of us be nominated arbiter in a similar way. generalissimo of the forces of Ch^ng. son of the of Duke Ai had seen that the speaker was Duke of Wei. until I come and take the tablet " By this time K'uai Hui.' " Duke Ai readily agreed to the above proposition. but I have slain a tiger with one blow of my fist. as ' . ' retainers of the Wu among the The slayer of . ' base my claim.

in front of the palace there stands a sacrificial vessel which weighs about a thousand pounds. and of the assembled States. number which to the universe gave birth 1 Whence come the eddying waves of the river's rolling might 1 Where shall we seek the primal germ of the mountain's towering What is the mystic height ? By which of the elements five And of all is the work of Nature done ? the ten thousand things that are. accuracy. contained these eight lines ' : Say -what supports the skyj say what supports the earth. bade his attendants exhibit it among the heroes The theme was in rhyme. Now. that if the tablet was to be taken from him. would necessitate an appeal to force between himself and his rival. The contest continued thus for some time. 313 him the golden tablet . and it He added solved the difficulty in the following terms " ' : The slaughter of a tiger involves physical courage.— THE LIEH KUO CHUAN transfer to — . until at length the Prime Minister of Ch'i rose again. and the slaughter of a dragon is a magician's trick hence. but this he refused to do. And he who can answer them straight and well is the trusty man and true! . then let Let Duke Ai give out a him who replies thereto with theme and most clearness and .' " To this plan Duke Ai assented and writing down a theme. be nominated to the post of arbiter and receive the golden tablet. say which is the wondrous one ? Such are the questions seven which I now propound to you. neither of these acts embraces that combination of mental and physical power which we desire in the arbiter of this meeting. seize the aforesaid round the platform on which the eighteen representative nobles are seated. who it can. and not at all to the present purpose. arguing that the slaughter of a dragon was simply a magician's trick. moreover. and vessel. and carry .

At the same time there arose a great noise of drums and horns. There you have tny replies to the questions set by you. and that consequently he had not earned the appointment which Wu Yiian now contended should be bestowed upon himself. generalissimo of the Ch'u State. passing to the front of the palace. and coming forward. and cried out. . having delivered this answer. no particular And of all the ten thousand things that are thei'e is one. Duke Ai. How can we guess at the number which to the universe gave birth ? From the reaches above come the eddying to look waves of the river's rolling might: How can we tell where towering height? for the germ of is the mountain's By every one of the elements five < the work of Nature done. . what This is but a question of natural philosophy difficulty is there in it ? He thereupon advanced to the front. for which Chi Nien was just about to return thanks. and. seized with both some two feet . "The theme had ' when up started Chi Nien. and all the assembled nobles applauded loudly whereupon Duke Ai personally invested him with the golden tablet and proclaimed him arbiter of the exhibition. his whole face becoming suffused with colour under the effort. . proceeded to tuck up his robe. generalissimo of the Ch'in State. declared in an angry tone that Chi Nien's answer did not dispose of the theme in a proper and final manner that he had not removed the sacrificial vessel from its place. And the arbiter's post I hereby claim " as the trusty man and true! Chi Nien. ' seized a stylus ^ and wrote down the following reply : Nothing supports the sky . nothing supports the earth. having obtained permission to compete. when suddenly up jumped Wu Yiian. and.— 314 CHINESE LITERATURE hardly been uttered. and raised it from the ground. hands the sacrificial vessel.

The answers are clear and straight to the point. the sky supports the earth. man is the wondrous one. however. By truth. so that Duke Ai had no alternative but to invest him with the golden tablet and announce his appointment to the post of arbiter. much as changing colour. Wu Yiian thereupon took a stylus and indited the following lines : ' The earth supports the sky . The nobles gazed at each other in astonishment at this feat. view of his scheme for seizing the persons of the was naturally anxious that the post of arbiter should fall to one of his own officers. and accordingly now bade him show upon the sacrificial vessel. holding robe with it his left hand. and without so it round the platform before the assembled it finally depositing in its original place. the office of arbiter would be his." . can most good work be done. of the elements five. Wu up Yiian immehis diately stepped forward.' There you have my replies to the questions set this day. Down from the sky come the eddying waves of the river's rolling Five might. And of all the ten thoitsand things that are. is the mystic number which to the universe gave birth.— THE LIEH KUO CHUAN in 315 various nobles. and was much the displeased at this attempt on the part of Yiian . seized the vessel with his right. who at once saw that he had in every of the way disposed strength theme with far greater skill than his Chi Nien. In the ICun-lun range we must seek the germ of the mountain's towering height. and with one accord declared him to be the hero of the day . he replied that if the latter could dispose of Wu theme and carry round the sacrificial vessel. and. and given without delay! reply to "As soon as he had finished writing. he handed his Duke Ai. raising up and bearing nobles.

and asked him how it was his nation had become so famous of others . the ' of Gentlemen. over the city gate. T'ang then asked him why this land was called the Country but. set out with a small party on a voyage of exploration. "There. the term Several other persons of whom they inquired that giving similar answers. for politeness and consideration man did not understand the meaning of his question. : T'ang and his companions read the following legend ' Virtue is man's only jewelj' " They then entered the city. a less pretentious the preceding.D. which they found to be all a busy and prosperous mart. this work describes how a young graduate. in consequence of the polite manners and considerate behaviour of these people. the inhabitants the Chinese language. T'ang accosted one of the passers-by. who 684 set aside the rightful heir and placed herself is The Ching Hua Yuan acter. High and low.' to which he likewise rephed that he did not know. disgusted with the establishment of examinations and degrees for women. . in A. talking Accordingly. which she occupied for twenty years. ' For. but of an infinitely upon the throne. to his great astonishment.' said he.— 3i6 CHINESE LITERATURE work than more interesting charDealing with the reign of the Empress Wu. the most curious was the Country of Gentlemen. rich and poor. where they landed and proceeded at once to the capital city. named T'ang. Among all the strange places which they visited. the venerable To remarked had undoubtedly been adopted by the inhabitants of adjacent countries. ' the very labourers in the fields and foot-passengers in the streets step aside to make room for one another.

and was saying to the owner Just reflect a moment. If you will oblige me by doubling the amount. I do not profess to adhere rigidly to marked prices. now. He was holding in his hand the articles he wished to buy. how impossible would be for me to take these excellent goods at the absurdly low price you are asking. sir. whispered T'ang to his friends. ' let us not hurry on.' " By and by they arrived at the market-place. to-day. are trying to raise . Your wish.' cried Tang. should be law to me. ' . but the fact ig. where they saw an official runner standing at a stall engaged in making purchases. sir. Besides. and consequently it should be the aim of every purchaser to make me lower my terms to the very ' smallest figure .' " ' ' How very is Here. I shall do myself the honour of accepting them otherwise. I am already overwhelmed with shame at the high price I " The man have ventured to name.' " In that case. the price to an exorbitant figure and although I fully appreciate your kindness in that respect. 317 mutually respect each other's feelings without reference and this is. you.THE CHING HUA YUAN to the wealth or social status of either all. but ' rather improve ourselves by observing the ways and customs of this people. I must really . I know.' which is a mere trick of the trade. where ! ' funny the buyer invariably tries to beat the seller to run possible. after the essence of what constitutes the true gentleman.' at the stall ' here replied. I cannot but feel that you are unwilling to do business with me of the it stall. on the contrary. and up the price of his goods as high as for others' of This certainly looks like the 'consideration which we spoke just now. quite a different custom from ours. . down the seller.

companions walked on in silence. to ask and then to your interests. but took only half the amount of goods. sir. when the would-be purchaser replied. had just witnessed but they had not gone many steps when they came across a soldier similarly engaged in buying things He was saying. begged me to take them at my own valuation. is indeed a sad breach of etiquette.3i8 CHINESE LITERATURE some other estabIt is ask you to seek what you require at lishment.' "So they went on wrangling and jangHng.' "T'angwas again expressing his astonishment at this extraordinary reversal of the platitudes of trade. the stallkeeper refusing to charge any more and the runner insisting on paying his own price. you. asked the price of these goods. sum turn round and accuse me of over-considering j price but to receive only four-fifths of the goods. "T'ang and . his meditating upon the strange scene they . you complain of the large sum I offer. sir. 'For you. but now that I am willing to do so. Trade could not be carried on at all if all the advantages were on one side and the losses on the other neither am I more devoid of brains than the ordinary run of people that I should fail to understand this principle and let you catch me in a trap. by deciding that the runner was to pay the full such a low for these first-class goods. Of course the stall-keeper would not consent to this. until the latter made a show of yielding and put down the full sum demanded on the counter. quite impossible for me to execute your commands. 'When I at an open shop-window. and they would both have fallen back upon their original positions had not two old gentlemen who happened to be passing stepped aside and arranged the matter for them.

as a to me but to choose inferior articles. howExcuse me. ' ' soldier. my duty is to leave that entirely to you. and the goods are yours. 'Although not in the trade myself.' retorted the shopkeeper. replied the shopkeeper. but if all men were like you there would be a general collapse of trade. And to pay a low price for a good article is simply another way of taking money out of a man's pocket. I can tell superior from inferior articles. let us say half what you are good enough to offer even then I could I feel I shall be taking a great deal too much. I must ask you to take your custom elsewhere.' " The soldier at first stuck to his text. "'Sir.' " Sir. 'as you . sir ? cried the old stock. sir. but you are taking all the bad ones. hot think. You will then find that I am not imposing on you first you. 'to demand a price for my own But the goods fact .' me thus unfairly. is 319 that it is actually very much below Do not treat sir. he laid down the sum named and began to take his goods. if you are such a ' ' stickler f(ir justice as all that. However. ever. and are not even the best of their kind .' '"It is not for me. picking out the very worst he could find. that these goods are . of parting with my goods at your price.' insist on accepting only half the value of the goods.' " What is that you are saying. you would do much better at another shop. but seeing that the shopkeeper was not inclined to give way. If you object to that. ' Here.' replied the soldier. It is doubtless very kind of you to leave the best for me. let us say half the price mentioned. saying. is. there is no course open Besides. sir.THE CHING HUA YUAN whereas the truth their real value. the shopkeeper interposed. and am not likely to mistake one for the other.

lo your pleasing yourself. Sir sir you have paid me by mistake in finer silver than we are accustomed to use here.320 matter of CHINESE LITERATURE fact. so that he ' ! ! right with you. to to ' my " ' a small matter. ' best kind will not answer my ' superior articles. cheat. That trick was played upon me last year by another gentleman. imtil last the soldier tried to all said he was a downright was ultimately obliged to take some of the best kind and some of the inferior kind and put an end to the altercation. and do not command the same rates as . the purpose so well as the second or third best and although I fully recognise your good intentions. and to this day I have buy some more No.' "Thus they went on bandying arguments for a long at time without coming to any definite agreement. but still for my own sake I must ask leave to make it all cried make shame upon him and picked up the things he had chosen and The bystanders. but low-class goods are sold at a low price. Of course this is a mere trifle to a gentleman of your rank and position.' " There is no objection. however. I must really ask to be allowed to please myself.' of your excellent wares. off with them. and was hurrying away with them. " A little farther on our travellers saw a countryman who had just paid the price of some purchases he had succeeded in making. you don't catch old birds with chaff.' said the shopkeeper.' j '"Pray don't mention such the countryman. sir.' answered the shopkeeper. when the shopkeeper called after him. ' .' replied but oblige me by putting the amount credit for use at a future date when I come again no. and I have to allow you a considerable discount in consequence.

' said T'ang..' go and take a Their hosts talked eagerly about their invitation to of ' the first Yet. there is no time like the present might very likely forget what was the exact point until the countryas a set-off against the his goods. The countryman. and wished to hear many particulars nation in the world.' " They continued to argue the man consented to accept a trifle fineness of his silver. but that the present misery of this poor fellow may be retribution for overcharging people in a former ' • life ? " Ah. and so in anger at having been compelled to take more than his due he handed him the difference. and your debt will go dragging on till the life after that. maybe into a horse or a donkey. ' when he had witnessed is the finale of this little drama. looking old men who said they two were and accepted cup of tea together. ' truly this the behaviour of gentle- men " Our travellers then fell into conversation with - respectable brothers. no. though I have every endeavour to find out his w^hereabouts. Just then a beggar happened to pass. I shall have quite enough to do to find him. but if I let you take me in in the same way. As 321 made it is. THE CHING HUA YUAN never set eyes upon him again.' said he. while expressing their ad- . and was positively defrauding him of his money. however. I can only look forward to repaying him in the next hfe . got clear away. and the shopkeeper returned to his grumbling at the iniquity of the age. ' Who knows. now hereafter I No. when the next hfe comes and I am changed. the sum I owed you. China. why. and went away with shopkeeper bawling after him as long as he was in sight that he had sold him inferior articles at a high rate.

poverty-stricken lot ? Surely they would begin by appropriating the very best positions themselves. Translations of many.' said they. Small noses are usually considered more attractive than large ones but what would be said of a man who sliced a piece off his own nose in order to reduce it within proper limits ? "And thus the hours slipped pleasantly away until it was time to bid adieu to their new friends and regain 'that the selection of .' said an auspicious day and a fitting spot for the burial of one's father or mother is certain to bring prosperity to the survivors. they did not hesitate to stigmatise as unworthy a great people certain usages which appeared to them deserving of the utmost censure. It is a collection of forty stories said to have been written towards the close of the Ming dynasty by the members of a society who held meetings for that purpose. or Marvellous Tales. if not The Chin Ancient . their ship. 'If it is true. 'We can see no beauty. and so secure whatever good fortune might happen to be in want of an owner. how can you account for the fact that the gebmancers themselves are always a low." Ku Ch'i Kuan. and Modern. 'in such monstrosities as the feet of your ladies. of F^ng-Shui.favourite with the romance-reading Chinaman. is a great.' " Then again with regard to bandaging women's feet in order to reduce their size. one of them.' 322 CHINESE LITERATURE and miration for the high literary culture of its inhabitants their unquaHfied successes in the arts and sciences. They laughed at the superstitions and wondered how intelligent men could be imposed upon year after year by the mountebank professors of such baseless nonsense.

named Sung. verse-making just now." compose. and his fame will be remembered for ever. "even after drinking. and when writing materials had been produced." said Mr. Sung. but I might become coarse. a wellknown novel in what would be called a high-class literary style. who was a suitor for the hand of Miss LSng. and the verse more the style is more pleasing. to former should set a theme for Miss L6ng instead. being largely made up of stilted dialogue and over-elaborated verse composed at the slightest provocation by the various characters in the story. and so gained a name which will " Of course I could live for a thousand generations. " it was after a gallon of wine that Li Po dashed off a hundred sonnets. been published. On one occasion a pretended poet." rejoined MisS LSng.P'ING all. the uncle proposed retorted Miss LSng. . as usual on such occasions." " Ts'ao Chih. and to of these have feel quite clear in the head. two young poetesses who charmed even more by their literary talent than by their fascinating beauty. which he forthwith suggested. It is better to be fasting. and after dinner the party wandered about in the garden. Sung's confusion. finished. SHAN l£NG YEN 323 The style is easy." "Why. had been entertained by her uncle. hoping in his heart to completely that the . " but I have taken rather too much wine for he replied. and on looking about him caught sight through the open window of a paper kite." to favour the company with a sonnet. two young students in love with Shan and L6ng. Surely occasion has nothing to do with the matter. which he consented." Then "composed a sonnet while taking only seven steps. Mr." In the midst of Mr. very unlike that of the J^ing Shan Leng Yen. Sung was asked " Excuse me. These were P'ing and Yen. Miss Leng was summoned.

or "Twice Flowering Plum-tsees. Written in a simple style. and altogether forms a good panorama of Chinese everyday life." belongs to the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Sung himself and of his personal appearance. and several of the characters are actually historical. you would see only a dry and empty frame" AndJlowers painted on All this was intended in ridicule of Mr. of the four lovely heroines. and just as in the Yil Chiao Li. Blown by the wind it swaggers in the sky. and is by an unknown author. in the time she had thrown off the following lines — " Cunningly made It cheats fools It has a body to look like a bird. it. oj bamboo.324 CHINESE LITERATURE young lady. it contains several dramatic scenes. and little children. . it puzzle the sarcastic that takes to drink a cup of tea. There is a slender thread of fact running through the tale. : However. and duty to one's neighbour in general. Do not laugh at its sham feet. the action of which is placed in the eighth century. If it fell. with no wealth of classical allusion to soothe the feelings of the pedant. being apparently designed to illustrate the beauty of filial piety. and is a fair sample of what the reader may expect throughout. as though somet/wig wonderful. Two heroes are each in love with two heroines. the claims of friendship. each hero marries both. Bound by a string it is unable to move. It is a novel with a purpose. in order to One keep peace be- tween China and the Tartar tribes which are continually harrying the borders. The Erh Ton Met. light and thin. decides to sacrifice herself on the altar of patriotism and become the bride of the Khan.

rather than pass into the power of the hated barbarian. regarded as a great advance in the dramatic art and was at the head of the list. more beautiful than ever. when the plum trees. long passages having been interpolated and many It was first performed in 1704.KAO TS£-CH']6NG The the 325 . had emphatically come to It had caught on. she is escorted back to her own country by a bevy of admiring angels. whether an exotic or a development within the boundaries of the Middle Kingdom. . She herself does not die. The P"i Pa Chi." The trees were then suffered to put forth new buds. of plays for the simple reason that the laughter-loving masses of the Chinese people. was well sustained through Drama. but is touchingly described reached when.maid being dressed up in her clothes and handed over to the unsuspecting Khan. whose flowers had been scattered by a storm of wind and rain> gave themselves up to fervent prayer. and of the the The production Ming dynasty. Caught upon a purple cloud. on arrival at her destination. she flings herself headlong over a frightful precipice. other changes made. and henceforth forms the ideal stay. "The Garden Spirit heard their earnest supplications. as the very finest of all . reflective scholar. pastime of the cultured." stands easily being ranked by some admirers Chinese plays. from which the title of parting at the frontier is cUmax book is derived. and the soon bloomed again. There is also an effective scene. It is variously arranged in various editions under twenty-four or fortytwo scenes and many liberties have been taken with the text. or " Story of the Guitar. and announced them to the Guardian Angel of the town. a waiting. who straightway flew up to heaven and laid them at the feet of God.

and after infinite suffering was appointed Master of a Workhouse. that the lady's The Minister is feet are too large. The Emperor then instructs one of his Ministers to take the Senior Classic as a son-in-law . our hero suggests such songs as " Far from his True Love. leaving thirty. living.." 326 CHINESE LITERATURE upon the early plays of the Mongols. then compelled to put on pressure. at final degree. and comes out in the coveted position of Senior Classic. The author's name was Kao Tsi-CH'ENG. The young man finally decides to do his duty to the Son of Heaven. and his hero is said to have been taken from real rose is life in the from poverty brilliant to person of a friend who actually rank and affluence. the family to the kind care of a benevolent friend. act. on the ground. so it is whispered. Even when he agrees to sing "The Wind through the Pines." and others in a similar style. this part of the play concluding with an effective scene. in which on being asked by his new wife to sing. He undergoes the examination. and the marriage is solemnised. A young graduate and customary. which in the play is turned into ridicule. went to the capital." he drops unwittingly into " Oh for my home once more and then when recalled to his senses." plan. . " study . only to find that his parents had already preceded him thither in the capacity of paupers. The following his beautiful wife are an outline of the plot. and forthwith sets off. is opposed to this and declares that they cannot get along without She tells a pitiful tale of another youth who their son. however." says the old man. . as is The mother. but our hero refuses. with the husband's parents. The father urges the son to go to the capital and take his " At fifteen. he relapses again into a song about a deserted wife.



Meanwhile misfortunes have overtaken the family left There has been a famine, the public granaries have been discovered to be empty instead of full, and the parents and wife have been reduced to starvation.


wife exerts herself to the utmost, selling



jewels to

buy food


and when
tries to


length, after her
in order to

mother-in-law's death, her father-in-law dies too, she
cuts off her hair





a coffin, being prevented only by the old friend


has throughout lent what assistance he could.

The next

tumulus over the grave. This she tries to do with her own hands, but falls asleep from fatigue. The Genius of the Hills sees her in this state, and touched by her filial devotion, summons the white monkey of the south and the black tiger of the north, spirits who, with the aid of their subordinates, complete the tumulus in less than no time. On awaking, she recognises supernatural intervention, and then determines to start for the capital in search of her husband, against whom she entertains very bitter feelings. She first sets to work to paint the portraits of his deceased parents,
to raise a

and then with these for ing alms, and with her

exhibition as a


of obtain-

guitar, she takes her departure.

Before her arrival the husband has heard by a letter, forged in order to get a reward, that his father and mother are both well, and on their way to rejoin him.


therefore goes to a temple to pray


for a safe

conduct, and there picks

up the rolled-up

pictures of his
his wife,

and mother which have been dropped by


has also visited the temple to ask for alms.


wife, in


to his study.

And now

continuing her search, accidentally gains admission to her husband's house, and is kindly received by

the second wife.

After a few misunderstandings the truth



and the second



in full

with the


recommends her

to step into the study

sympathy and

leave a note for the husband.

This note, in the shape

some uncomplimentary


found by the

together with the pictures which have been

hung up

against the wall; the second wife introduces the

an explanation and the curtain, if there was such a thing in a Chinese theatre, would fall upon the final happiness of the husband and his two wives. Of course, in the above sketch of a play, which is about as long as one of Shakespeare's, a good many sidetouches have been left out. Its chief beauties, according to Chinese critics, are to be found in the glorification of duty to the sovereign, of filial piety to a husband's parents, and of accommodating behaviour on the part of the second wife tending so directly to the preservation of peace under complicated circumstances. The forged letter is looked upon as a weak spot, as the hero would know his father's handwriting, and so with other points which it has been suggested should be cut out. "But because a stork's negk is too long," says an editor, "you can't very well remedy the defect by taking a piece off." On the other hand, the pathetic character of the play for, as we are gives it a high value with the Chinese told in the prologue, " it is much easier to make people laugh than cry." And if we can believe all that is said on this score, every successive generation has duly paid

its tribtite

of tears to the

Fi Pa




Ming dynasty shows little mere volume, there are far fewer gteat poets to be found than under the famous Houses of T'ang and Sung. The name, however, which stands first in point of chronological sequence, is one which is widely known. HsiEH Chin (1369-1415) was born when the dynasty was but a year old, and took his final degree before he had passed the age of twenty. His precocity had already gained for him the reputation of being an
the poetry of the
falling off, in point of

Emperor took such a him, that while Hsieh Chin was engaged in writing, his Majesty would often deign to hold the inkslab. He was President of the Commission which produced the huge encyclopaedia already described, but he is now chiefly known as the author of what appears to be a didactic poem of about 150 lines,
Inspired Boy, and, later on, the
faiicy to

which may be picked up at any bookstall. It is necessary to say " about 150 lines," since no two editions give identically the same number of lines, or even the


It is also very doubtful if text to each line. In many Hsieh Chin actually wrote such a poem.

editions, lines

are boldly stolen

from the early Han

without rhyme or reason, poetry and thus making the transitions even more awkward than
pitchforked in



All editors seem to be agreed upon the four opening lines, which state that the Son of Heaven holds heroes in high esteem, that his Majesty urges all to study diligently, and that everything in this

they otherwise would be.



second-class, with the sole exception of bookIt is in


fact the old story that

Learning is

than house or land;

For when house andland are gone and spent.
Then learning is most excellent!'

Farther on we


to four lines often

quoted as enumelife,

rating the four greatest happinesses in

to wit,

A gentle rain after long drought.
Meeting an oldfriend in a foreign The joys of the wedding-day.

name on

the list of successful candidates"

The above



propos of nothing in particular,

and are closely followed in some editions by more precepts on the subject of earnest application. Then

reading that the Classics are the best

fields to


we come upon

four lines with a dash of real

poetry in them

"Man in his youth-times rosy glow,
The pink peach flowering in the glade Why, yearly, when spring breezes blow.
Does each one flush a deeper shade f"
, . .



injunctions to burn

the midnight oil are again

by a suggestion that three cups of wine induce serenity of mind, and that if a man is but dead drunk, all his cares disappear, which is only another
strangely followed


of saying that " The

of life


but intoxication."

Altogether, this


some Here



poem is clearly a patchwork, of which may have come from Hsieh Chin's pen. short poem of his in defence of official

venahty, about which there

no doubt


" In vain hands bent on sacrifice or clasped in prayer

we see;

The ways of God are not exactly what those ways should be. The swindler and the ruffian
lead pleasant lives enough.

While judgments overtake the good and many a sharp rebuff. The swaggering bully stalks along
as blithely as you please.

While those who never miss their prayers are martyrs to disease. And ifgreat God Almightyfails



we hope

keep the balance true. that paltry mortal magistrates will do ? "




to a tragic end.

claim of the eldest prince to be

he made a lasting enemy of in getting him banished on one charge, and then imprisoned on a further charge. After four years' confinement he was made drunk, probably without much difficulty, and was buried under a heap of snow.

By supporting the named heir apparent, another son, who succeeded

The Emperor who reigned between 1522 and 1566


eleventh of his line was not a very estimable personlife, when he sums over palaces and temples, and wasted

age, especially in the latter years of his

spent vast

most of his time in seeking after the elixir of life. In 1539 he despatched General Mao to put down a rising in Annam, and gave him an autograph poem as a send-off.



verses are considered spirited by Chinese critics, and are frequently given in collections, which certainly would not be the case if Imperial authorship was their


only claim


" Southward, in all the panoply

of cruel

war arrayed.

See, our heroic general points

Across the

and waves his glittering blade ! hills and streams

the lizard-drums terrific roll.

While glint of myriad banners
flashes high from pole to pole.
. .


Go, scion of the Unicorn, and prove thy heavenly birth.

And crush

to all eternity

And when thou com'st,


of the earth; a conqueror, from those wild barbarian lands, will unhitch thy war-cloak with our own Imperial hands!"
these insects

of ancient and mediaeval China which now seems no longer to exist. Like the hetaircs of Greece, they were often highly Bioeducated, and exercised considerable influence. graphies of the most famous of these ladies are in existence, extending back to the seventh century A.D. The following is an extract from that of Hsieh Su-su, who flourished in the fourteenth century, and "with whom but few of the beauties of old could compare " "Su-su's beauty was of a most refined style, with a captivating sweetness of voice and grace of movement. She was a skilful artist, sweeping the paper with a few rapid touches, which produced such speaking effects that few, even of the first rank, could hope to excel her work. She was a fine horsewoman, and could shoot


formed a


— —
333 from horseback with a cross-bow. She would fire one pellet, and then a second, which would catch up the first and smash it to atoms in mid-air. Or she would throw a pellet on to the ground, and then grasping the crossbow in her left hand, with her right hand passed behind her back, she would let fly and hit it, not missing once She was also very particular about in a hundred times. her friends, receiving no one unless by his talents he had

made some mark

in the world."


and even

plays, of



these ladies have been

preserved, and


usually published as a supplement to



a specimen

any dynastic colby Chao Ts'ai-chi (fifteenth

century), of


no biography



" The tide in the river beginning to rise. Near the sad hour ofparting, brings tears to our eyes; Alas ! that these furlongs of willow-strings gay Cannot holdfast the boat that will soon be away ! "

Another specimen, by a lady named Chao Li-hua (sixteenth century), contains an attempt at a pun, which is rather lamely brought out in the translation

" Vour notes on paper, rare to see, Two flyingjoy-birds bearj ' Be like the birds andfly to me. Not like the paper, rare /"

These examples sufficiently illustrate this small department of literature, which, if deficient in work of real merit, at any rate contains nothing of an indelicate

A wild harum-scarum young man was FANG


Chinese note-paper


ornamented with


kinds of pictures, which some-

times cover the whole sheet.




who, like many other Chinese poets, often took more wine than was good for him. He was famed for his poetry, and also for his calligraphy, specimens of his art
being highly prized by collectors. In 1642, we are told, "he was ill with his teeth;" and at length got into his coffin, which all Chinese like to keep handy, and wrote a farewell to the world, resting his paper on the edge of the coffin as he wrote. On completion of the piece he
laid himself

down and


Here are the
go ?



"An eternal home awaits me;

I hesitate



struggle for a few more hours




home wherein the clash of arms I can never hear again ! Ami shall I strive to linger in this thorny world ofpain ? The breeze will soon blow cool o'er me, and the bright moon shine overhead. When blended with the gems of earth

I lie in my

last bed.

My pen and ink shall go with me
my funeral hearse.

So that if I've


I may


over there my soul with verse!'




At dawn the bell was struck for the Court to assemble but no one came. have incurred the wrath of I am My Ministers have deceived me. His Majesty then ascended the Wan Sui Hill in the palace grounds. myself ashamed to meet my ancestors and therefore take off my crown. chief with a large army was pressing upon fell. Do not hurt a single one of my 337 people " He then hanged . i 644-1 900) CHAPTER I THE "LIAO CHAI"—THE "HUNG LOU MfiNG" the great Ming dynasty had Misgovernment. and wrote on the lapel " We. slew the eldest Princess. On the 9th April Peking During the previous night the Emperor. poor in virtue and of of his robe a last decree : — contemptible personality. I await dismemberment at the hands of the ! rebels. and the rebel the capital. referred by Chinese writers to the ascendency of eunuchs. . BOOK THE EIGHTH THE MJNCHU DYNASTY (a. commanded the Empress to commit suicide.d. had resulted in rebellion. with my hair covering my face. who had refused to flee. God on high. and sent his three sons into hiding.. and. By 1644 the glories of departed.

which they had openly claimed since 1635. heirs to a glorious literature old. one very notable exception. who had long been consolidating their and were already a serious menace to China. Tartars. however.338 himself. An agreement was hurriedly entered into. which conveniently rendered by "Strange Stories. The Manchus took possession definitively of the throne. and whose literary instincts had still to be developed. except for a few barbarian islands scattered on 'its fringe. Not much was to be expected on behalf of the "humanities" from a people whose own written language had been composed to order so late as 1599. Of this. and imposed the " pigtail " upon the Chinese people. and stretching to the confines of the habitable earth. if not in theory. to which there is in practice. Here then was the great empire of China. It has already been stated that novels and plays are not included by the Chinese in the domain of pure literature. At this juncture the Chinese commander-in-chief made overtures to the Manchu forces. Such is the rule. bounded by the Four Seas. in title more than twenty centui"ies the power of a wild race of had been established by skill in manship. may be P'u SUNG-LANG. whose archery and horse- two Emperors of this dynasty. author of the Liao Chai Chih I. in the next chapter. with its refined and scholarly people." . as did CHINESE LITERATURE one faithful eunuch. The literature of this dynasty may be said to begin with a writer who was after all but a mere storyteller. Yet it may be said without fear of contradiction that no age ever witnessed anything like the extensive encouragement of literature and patronage of literary men exhibited under the reigns of herdsmen. and Peking was retaken.

i thus sang Ch'u Yiian in his Li Sao. and a most polished writer. 339 and took his first degree in 1641. is gathered from his own words. ! . in allusion to their clothes.— PU SUNG-LING was born in . and instantly blew out the light. and began to stare hard at him. It is generally understood that this failure was due to neglect of the beaten track of academic study. they are totally unfit to T'ang dynasty. classes. girdled with ivy. he failed. match myself against the hobgoblins of the age. I cannot. in ridicule of the title under they hold posts which. musician. As for me. playing upon his lute. he laid down his pen upon the completion of a task which was to raise him within a short period to a foremost rank in the Chinese world of letters. to take the higher degrees by which he had hoped to enter upon an official career. Though an excellent scholar : — ' Said of the bogies of the official hills. the stranger's face enlarging all the time. Hsi K'ang. his disappointment was overwhelming. with my poor autumn firefly's light. Here quoted which with reference to the occupy. when suddenly a man with a tiny face walked in. Of ox-headed devils and serpent gods. Z23-262). he of the long nails ^ never wearied to tell.D. The following are extracts from this record " Clad in wistaria. 1622. ^ A poet of the long. from a literary point of view. whose eyebrows met. as many other good men have done. depends upon antecedent causes. At any rate. written when. All else that we have on record of P"u Sung-ling. and alchemist (a. Each interprets in his own way the music of heaven and whether it be discord or not. whose nails were very and who could write very fast.^ I am but the dust in the sunbeam. the celebrated poet. was sitting one night alone. ' This is another hit at the ruling classed. in 1679. " I'm not going to match myself against a devil " cried the musician after a few moments. besides the fact that he lived in close companionship with several eminent scholars of the day.

covered by his his breasts stole. I am rather animated by the spirit of Su Tung-p'o. but failing in his attempt. On one of my found that I. he dreamed that a sickly-looking Buddhist priest. for glee. '' A writer who flourished in the early part of the fourth century. and Ting of the Liang dynasty . was a round waking from piece of plaster like a cash. boy was formerly signalled by hanging a bow at the door by displaying a small towel indicative of the parts that each — wimld hereafter play * who came from India to China. Surely he who sat with his face to the wall * was myself . entered the chamber. and subsequently I dress it up in the form of a story and thus in the lapse of time my friends from all quarters have supplied me with quantities of material. laughing and rubbing its hands " Poverty and wealth are matters of destiny. Our home was chill and desolate as a monastery my ' and working there for my livelihood with was as poor as a priest with his alms-bowl." ." said Liu Chiian. "When the bow^ was hung at my father's door. As a child^ I was thin and constantly ailing. had a similar black patch on my body. just born.e gods . Governor of Wu-ling. Emperor Wu thereon. and unable to hold my own father. he saw a devil standing by his side. Alluding to the priest Dharma-nandi. but half. Often and often I put my hand to my head and exclaimed. I 1 When Liu Chiian. which. has grown into a vast pile. he retired full of mortification to a temple at Sung-shan. from my habit of collecting. The birth of a that of a girl." and accordingly he desisted from his — intention. and in the battle of life. until his own image was imprinted tried to convert the in the drama of life. and com- posed a work * in thirty books. "but to be laughed at by a devil .^ elegant explorer of the records of th. pen. who loved to hear men speak of the supernatural. I get people to commit what they tell me to writing. sleep. where he sat for nine years before a rock.^ those of Yii Pao. entitled " Supernatural Researches.340 CHINESE LITERATURE For my talents are not a fit laughing-stock for devils. determined to relieve his poverty by trade. .

vainly hoping With a to produce a sequel to the Infernal Regions? bumper I stimulate my pen. named Lin during the " I-ch'ing. dreading the winter frost. midnight finds me with an expiring lamp. been already for some time a denizen of the dark land 1 The six g&ti or conditions of existence. Alas I am but the bird that. ' The work of a well-known writer. "coming when the maple-grove was in darkness. demons. Li T'ai-po. men. angels. As it is. was too poor to meet the heavy expense of block-cutting and it was not until so late as 1740." P'U SUNG-LING . The great poet Tu Fu dreamt that his greater predecessor. truly I am an object worthy of commiseration. the autumn insect that chirps to the moon and hugs the door for warmth. while the wind whistles mournfully without. hungry devils. like a flovsrer falling in filthy places . as we are told in a colophon by his grandson to the first edition. the meaning being that he never came at all. when the author must have in ! . For where are they who know me ? They are wrapped in the bosky grove and at the frontier pass ^ in ' my ! ' ' — an impenetrable gloom For many years these "Strange Stories" circulated only in manuscript. ' 341 I in a previous state of existence and thus referred my non-success in viving this life last. yet I only succeed thereby tion are inscrutable indeed. at night. brute beasts. those " who know me (Fu Sung-ling) . but the paths ^ of transmigra- have no right to complain.' and as I thus commit thoughts to writing.. and that " are equally non-existent. to the influence of a destiny surI from the have been tossed hither and six I thither in the direction of the ruling wind. who flourished Sung dynasty. and over my cheerless table I piece together my tales. P'u Sung-ling."— that is. appeared to him. when no one could see him . and tortured sinnprs. and venting my excited feelings. viz. finds no shelter in the tree. and returning while the frontier pass was still obscured.

the meaning of which is so involved in quotations from and allusions term is —which —to use a mild universally accorded to literati of China. that his aforesaid grandson printed and published the collection now so universally famous. Terseness is pushed to its extreme limits . a Salt Commissioner.composition are there in overwhelming force. and every here and there some new and original combination invests perhaps a single word with a force it could never have possessed except undo.342 he so CHINESE LITERATURE much loved to describe. and who in flourished during octavo volumes of about 160 pages each. at expense. an excellent edition in sixteen small who Tao Kuang. The answer is to . Any reader of these stories as transferred into another language might fairly turn round and ask the why and the wherefore of the profound admiration them by the be found in the incomparable style in which even the meanest of them is arrayed. each particle that can be safely dispensed with is scrupulously eliminated. a wealth of metaphor and an artistic use of figures generally. the reign of his own 1842 produced. Since then many editions have been laid before the Chinese public. to which only the writings of Carlyle form an adequate parallel. Sometimes the story runs plainly and smoothly enough.the hands of a perfect master of his art. the best of which is that by Tan Ming-lun. Add to the above copious allusions and adaptations from a course of reading which would seem to have been co-extensive with the whole range of Chinese literature. and the result is a work which for purity and beauty of style is now universally accepted in China as among the best and most perfect models. All the elements of form which make for beauty in Chinese. but the next moment we may be plunged into pages of abstruse text.

though by no means destitute of ability.— PU SUNG-LING to the poetry or history of the past three 343 thousand years other works of as to be recoverable only after dihgent perusal of the commentary. The day before the spring festival of Clear Weather he was strolling about outside the city when he saw a small carriage with red curtains and an embroidered awning. Dazzled by the sight. lovely ' accordingly at Mr. entitled " The Talking Pupils. said to him. Going closer to get a better view. and no village girl that you should stare at her thus. * Let down the screen for me. 'This is the bride of the let down . say to her. and. followed by a crowd of waiting-maids on horseback. and looking angrily Fang. the intention is to " glorify virtue and to censure vice. in according to one editor." may be taken as a fair illustration of the extent to which Premising that.' Then taking a handful of dust she 23 the screen. and much searching reference. Mr. and now before. and this : he beheld a beautifully dressed girl of about sixbeyond anything he had ever seen. By and by he heard the young lady call out to her maid. of most of these stories pledge is redeemed "At Ch'ang-an there lived a scholar named Fang Tiing. Seventh Prince in the City of Immortals going home to see her parents. one of whom was exceedingly pretty and riding on a small palfrey. he could not take his eyes off her. when the latter came alongside. now behind. was a very unprincipled rake. and in the habit of following and speaking to any woman he might chance to meet. who. Fang noticed that the carriage curtain was partly open." the following story. Who is this The maid rude fellow that keeps on staring so ? inside teen. he followed the carriage for many a mile.

and cheer ourselves up a bit. Hearing. Afterwards he heard a voice from one say. telling ]iis beads. about as loud as a fly's. of which he had planted a great number. and as no medicine was of any avail. He rubbed his eyes and looked round. and spent every evening in a posture of devotion. but since the loss of his sight he had never even alluded to them. eye I hadn't seen the garden for a long time the epidendrums are all withered and dead. He sent for a doctor to examine them. He then bethought himself of repenting of his misdeeds. 344 CHINESE LITERATURE threw it at him and blinded him. these words. the sufferer gave himself up to grief and wished for death. and after a while he felt it again as if going the other way. but the carriage and horses were gone.. he at once asked his wife why she had let the ' ' ' .' To this he heard a reply from the right eye. but by degrees he became more composed. Let us go out for a stroll. At first it was very tedious work. This frightened him. On the right pupil there came a kind of spiral. and in a few days was as thick as a cash. and on the pupils was found a small film. It's horridly dark in here. Fang was very fond of these epidendrums. when one day he heard a small voice. the eyes watering incessantly all the time. At the end of a year he had arrived at a state of perfect calm. The film went on growing.' Then he felt a wriggling in his nose which made it itch. he got a copy and hired a man to teach it to him. and hearing that i\\& Kuang-mtng siitra could relieve misery. however. and had been accustomed to water them himself. just as if something was going out of each of his nostrils.' Now Mr. feeling very uncomfortable about the eyes. calling out from his left eye. saying. which had increased by next morning. and he went off home.

and then they knew that the two pupils had taken up their abode in one eye. through which she could see the black pupil shining eye as if out beneath. no bigger than a bean." To take another specimen. and in a moment he found he cquld see the tables and chairs in the room. In a little while they came back and flew up to his face. They were both very much astonished at this. and when his eye was closely examined it was observed to contain two pupils. Fang nests. Fang was still blind of one eye. and acquired in his was more careful of his part of the country the reputation of a virtuous man. wouldn't be at us. 'and then it will do for ' ' Whereupon Mr.cracked peppercorn. and when he told her. She inquired how he knew they were dead. He was delighted at this. Fang felt a pain in his something was being split. My wall is too an easy job. she went out to see. the eyeball itself looking like a ^. Further.' I'll try and eye.' said the both of left left eye answered. this time with a dash of . heard from the left eye. behaviour.' To it this the right thick .P'U SUNG-LING 345 epidendrums die. and found them actually withered away. 'This roundabout road is not at all convenient. although Mr. and told his wife. the sight of the other was From this time he better than that of the two together. where she lost sight of them. By next morning the film had disappeared.' all open mine. like bees or beetles seeking their This went on for some days until Mr. and his wife proceeded to conceal herself in the room. who examined his eye and discovered an opening in the film. The spiral on the right eye remained as before. It would be as well for us to make a door. come down from her husband's nose and run out of the door. She then observed two tiny people.

walls and so on are no obstacle to you. warned Wang that he would probably not be able to stand the training.' ' What I Wang. and then sent him to chop wood. the black who seems so long that. Teach me this. him no magical arts. although he priest. he determined but went to him and said. at any rate. 'I have worked for you a long time. the priest allowed him to join the other novices. The priest. and I'll be satisfied. Teach me some small art. named Wang {anglice Smith). ' art ? asked the priest. managed skill to witness several extraordinary feats of magical performed by the he scarcely felt that he was making progress it himself.346 CHINESE LITERATURE in it. work to which I was never accustomed in my own home. 'that you would never support the fatigue ? To-morrow I will start you on your way home. and not to wait. Well. He was kept at this task at a — — in other words.' said Wang. When he had done so he told him to walk .' 'Did I not tell you. to have had a touch of Squeers in his composition. many long miles for the benefit of your instruction. I travelled If you v/ill not teach me the secret of immortality.' The priest laughingly assented. learn some trifling trick.' rephed the priest. and taught Wang a formula which he bade him recite.' 'Sir. and thus soothe my cravings for a knowledge of your art. humour art A certain man. that my coming here may not have been wholly in vain. out in the morning and back at night. but on the latter insisting. doing nothing but chop firewood. I have now been here two or three months.' answered have noticed that whenever you walk about ' ' anywhere. let me. " After a time he could not stand as the priest taught any longer ' . Sir. decided to study Tao temple of the Taoist persuasion.

A sucking noise was heard. For instance :— " She then became a dense column of smoke curling up from the ground. who told him to be careful in the use of his power. seeing the wall in front of him. he rushed at it full speed ' . finished up in a heap on the floor. Don't go so stopped. and the whole column was drawn into the gourd . in a moment he found himself outside. When Wang got home." Of such points the following story contains another good example : . he went in to thank the priest. but as his wife disbelieved his story. after which the priest corked it up closely and put it in his pouch. stepped back a few paces and went at it full speed and the wall yielding to him as he passed.' So Wang slowly. down but Wang was overwhelmed with rage and shame. SUNG-LING 34. the priest bade him try. at which she roared with laughter . however. Stepping back from the wall. but coming in contact with the hard bricks. he went about bragging of his Taoist friends and his contempt for walls in general . through the wall but Wang. As. he walked quietly up to it and was there The priest here called out." Episodes with a familiar ring about them are often to be found embedded in this collection. Delighted at tfiis. didn't like to walk at it. Put your head down and rush at it. and cursed the old priest for his base ingratitude. when the priest took an uncorked gourd and threw it right into the midst of the smoke. His wife picked him up and found he had a bump on his forehead as big as a large egg.— P'U . or otherwise there would be no response. he set about going through the performance as before. with his head . handing him at the same time some money for his expenses on the way.

filling in the earth as before.' ' ' ' . A Taoist priest in rags and tatters stopped at the barrow and begged one of them. 'Since you have pears yourself why don't you eat those ? Because. A that is niggardly conduct in others. the pip.' replied the priest. sir. 'We who have left our homes and given up all market. you would not feel. are at a loss to understand selfish. The priest said. and every eye was fixed upon him when sprouts were seen shooting up. The countryman told him to go away.' So saying he munched up the pear and when he had finished took a pip in his hand. bystanders for a little one among them who boiling water from a neighbouring shop. I wanted one of these pips to grow them from. the loss of which. and proceeded to make a hole in the ground several inches deep. and gradually growing larger and larger. and loved a joke fetched him some . Now I have some exquisite I shall do myself the honour to put before Here somebody asked. The latter received it with a bow. ' . he began to curse and swear at him. The priest poured this over the place where he had made the hole. By and by there was a tree with branches He then asked the hot water to water it with. and the price he asked was high. but as he did not do so. but this he obstinately refused to do.348 " CHINESE LITERATURE countryman was one day selling his pears in the They were unusually sweet and fine flavoured. vmstrapped a pick from his back. purchased a pear and handed it to the priest. Why then get angry?' The lookers-on told the countryman to give him an inferior one and let him go. finding the commotion too great. and turning to the crowd said. dear to us. You have several hundred pears on your barrow I ask for a single one. wherein he deposited pears which you. Thereupon the beadle of the place.

straining his neck to see what was going on. when he took his pick and hacked away for a long time at the tree. There was also an arbour consisting of three posts with a thatched roof. much to the amusement of the crowd in the market-place. he set out in pursuit of the priest. quite shut in on all Pushing his way sides by the luxuriant vegetation. evidently having been newly cut off. leaves and all. large. Looking more closely at the barrow. being. This he shouldered. Gilbert was a student of Chinese. S. which was of moderate size. and forgetting all about his business. the very pear-tree But there were no traces that the priest had cut down. . W." Here again is a scene. in fact. and fine. the latter part of which would almost justify the belief that Mr. and just as he turned the corner he saw the lost barrow-handle lying under the wall. sweet-smelling pears hanging in great profusion. At the departure of the priest he turned round and discovered He then knew that every one of his pears was gone. finally cutting it down. to the These the priest picked and handed round assembled crowd until all were gone. and had borrowed some of his best points in "Sweethearts" from the author of the Liao Chai — " Next day Wang strolled into the garden. with a weH-kept lawn and plenty of trees and flowers. and sauntered quietly away. Boiling with rage. he also found that one of the handles was missing. that those the old fellow had been giving away so freely were really his own pears. Now from the very beginning our friend the countryman had been amongst the crowd.: P'U SUNG-LING . of the priest. 349 last of sparsely covered with leaves all then flowers.

^ flowers when you go away. and that I have not forgotten you. Ying-ning began laughing again.' 'Why.' said she why do you keep it ? You dropped it. .' did not understand.' said ' Wang.down. Wang heard a noise fi'om one of and looking up saw Ying-ning. I pray you have pity on me. and was obliged to lean against a tree for support. and then drew the flower out of his sleeve and handed it to her. Since that day when we met I have been very ill from thinking so much of you. I'll give orders to supply you with a whole basketful Lanterns. trifle.' I wasn't talking about ordinary relations.! 3SO CHINESE LITERATURE the flowers. giggling all the time. 'you'll fall!' . ' but about ' What's the difference ? asked husbands and wives.' replied Wang. when she was ' Wang. cousin.' replied she. To show my love. This stopped her merriment.' 'You needn't make such a fuss about a and with your own relatives too. she missed her hold and tumbled down with a run. But now that it is my unexpected good fortune to meet you. among the trees. 'husband and wife Ying-ning. it being some time before she was able to stop. and am quite changed from what I was. it was the person ' I didn't care for the who picked the flower. Don't ' don't!' . he said. gently squeezing her hand as he did so. at the Feast of ' . who at once burst out laughing and nearly fell down.' replied ' ' 1. to which he answered. ' ' Then Ying-ning until. ' everybody cares for their you needn't have told me that. Wang waited till she had finished. and when Wang told her she she asked what it was ' she didn't understand.' . relations answered she. and Wang picked her up. 'and so I kept it.' ' Of course.' She then asked him what was his object in keeping it.cried caiiie Wang. It's dead. near the ground. flower itself .

all the time with he thought she was making an assignation. time in rapt astonishment deigning only to smitten with her the -Wall . Then he feels himself borne gently into the In struck painted wall. The gentleman was much and when she smilingly descended side. and exhibited supernatural powers.' she. found that he was grasping only a log of wood which stood against the wall and the next thing he knew was that a scorpion had stung him violently on the finger. " One day the owner saw . and sure enough Ying-ning Seizing her hand to tell his passion.P'U are always together. her. and stands in rapt admiration before it.' The pair were ultimately united. she went so far as to pick from a neighever afterwards. There was an end of his romance. one of the stories a visitor at a temple is much by a fresco painting containing the picture of a lovely girl picking flowers. and gazed at her some however. he was there." . her finger to a spot hard . 'to SUNG-LING 'Just what " I 351 like. laugh. Being very fond of flowers. a la "Alice through the Looking-glass." on her own pointing by. finally marrying the heroine of the picture.' shouldn't cried be always with anybody. she didn't move. So he presented himself at nightfall at the same place. except that he died of the wound during the night. in spite of the fact that the bour's tree. and lived happily young lady subsequently confessed that she was the daughter of a fox." and in the region beyond plays a part in a domestic drama. On one occasion these powers stood her in good stead. man But the presence of a mortal being suspected by "a in golden armour with a face as black as jet.

she had vanished. at some one who was going away. gazing. saying. they noticed that the girl in the picture now wore her hair done up.— 3 — 52 CHINESE LITERATURE .' said she. there at heart choly was F^ng-hsien standing with her back to him. also a story about a Jonah. otherwise I shall not be visible . So soon as the unfortunate victim had collected his senses and could look about him. and Liu went home very melanbut when he looked in the mirror. . and when he was glad to make his way back again he rejoined a friend who had besn waiting for him.as a married woman. Whenever you want to see me. moment as it were. There is a Rip van Winkle story. as the Chinese poet says " City and suburb as of old. and therefore possessed of the miraculous powers which the Chinese associate with that animal : " But ' if you would really like to have something that ' has belonged to me. was transferred by his fellow-passengers to a small boat and cut adrift. with the pathetic return of the hero to find. and a story of a big bird who. in obedience an order flashed by lightning on the sky when their junk was about to be swamped in a storm. he found that the junk had capsized and that every soul had been drowned. But hearts that loved us long since cold!' There or rukh . and about . to The following is an extract from a story in which a young student named Liu falls in love with a girl named Feng-hsien. you must look for me ' in your in a books . 'you shall.' Whereupon she took out a mirror and gave it to him. who was the daughter of a fox. is a sea-serpent story.

a favourite theme It illustrates with P'u Sung-ling. However. . she had her back turned towards him as on the day he received the mirror.' enough she was. in about a month his good resolutions began to disappear. He now knew that it was because he had neglected his studies.P'U a SUNG-LING 353 hundred paces from her. and smiling in every feature. with her face turned towards him.' cried he. in the light of a revered preceptor. and her teeth just showing between arched her lips. he was always taking out the mirror to look at her.' and the next moment F6ng-hsien stood by his side. ' A pretty pair we make. all of a sudden. refusing to receive any visitors and a few days subsequently. she seemed to speak. when. After this. F^ng-hsien's countebut whenever he was getting on nance became sad Night and well her sadness was changed to smiles. whenever anything interrupted his progress. and in three years' lime he took his degree in triumph. with all diligence. with her delicately-pencilled eyebrows. ' Now. and Liu heard her say. regarding it quite . when he happened to look in the mirror. and forthwith set to work again . there was FSng-hsien. I must allow. morning Liu would look at the mirror. month's time she had" Henceforward. and he once more went out to enjoy himself and waste his time When he returned home and looked in the as before." there sure Here is a story of the nether world. and settled down to his studies. the popular belief that . as happy-looking as she could be. Feng-hsien seemed to be crying bitterly and the day after. when he looked at her again. mirror. He then bethought himself of her injunctions. ' And I shall be able to look F^ng-hsien in the face. until in a turned round once again.

head downwards. and they informed him that the priest was suffering thus for collecting subscriptions on behalf ' of his order. He was shrieking with pain and longing for death and when Chang approached. Chang persuaded his escort to let him have a look at Purgatory.. A man named Chang died suddenly. and on proceeding to his brother's room. the leg itself being tied up above him to the wall. and bade them take him back again. pointing out to him the Knife Hill.354 at death a CHINESE LITERATURE man's soul is summoned to Purgatory by spiritual lictors. Nor. by a rope through a hole in his leg. told the lictors they had brought the wrong man. who are even liable to make mistakes. and then privately squandering the proceeds in gambhng and debauchery. he found him laid up with a very bad abscess in his leg. As he went in at the door he heard a loud shrieking. By and by they reached a place where there was a Buddhist priest hanging suspended in the air. and was escorted once by devil-lictors into the Purgatory. will he escape this torment unless he repents him of his misdeeds. In great distress. . and accordingly the devils conducted him through the nine sections. and then. the Sword Tree. presence of the King of His Majesty turned to Chang's record of good and evil. ! he asked his guides the reason of this punishment. this being. and hurried off to the Hsing-fu . lo he saw that it was his own brother.' added they. to which the Litter belonged. Cataleptic fits or trances give rise to to many similar tales after- about persons visiting the realms below and being wards restored " at life. and other objects of interest. he thought his brother was already monastery. the dead. as his brother informed him.' When ' Chang came round. As they left the judgment-hall. in great anger.

. 24 vols. THE HUNG LOU M^NG only bearable position in which he could lie. and devoted himself entirely to religious exercises. enough to give a taste of the the priest writer's quality without too much : boring the reader. These lines are much admired " JVitA wine andflowers we chase the hours In one eternal spring No moon. 355 Chang now told him what he had seen in Purgatory. containing 1 20 chapters. conveniently but erroneously known as "The Dream of the Red Chamber." is the work referred to already as touching the highest point It was of development reached by the Chinese novel. octavo. at which was so terrified that he at once gave up taking wine and meat. to cheer the night Thyself that ray must bring'' — But we have seen perhaps enough "If. the plot worked out with a completeness worthy of of which Fielding. probably composed during the latter half of the sevenof its author is<jin]auisKn. making a grand total of about 4000 pages. No fewer than 400 personages of more or less importance are inteenth century. It The name is usually published in troduced is first and last into the story. The Hung Lou Meng.— ." as of P'u Sung-ling. is knowledge after and widespread esteem in which this work is held by the literati of China must indeed prove a soothing balm to the wounded spirit of the Last Yii exclaimed." the profound of the Immortals. which average at the least 30 pages each. no light." Snatches of verse are to be found scattered about the pages of these stories. "there Han death. and was known ever afterwards as a most exemplary priest. In a fortnight he was well.

almost colloquial. had become as it were spiritualised. which are intended to form a link between the world of spirits and the world of mortals. the novel as a whole Some idea of may perhaps be gathered from the following abstract.501 blocks of precious jade. forthwith noticed the disconsolate stone which lay there. who happened and to be passing that way. in which almost every imaginable feature is submitted in turn to the reader. Of these. effective love story. overshadowed by Reduced simplest terms. " Indeed. As a panorama of Chinese social life. however. full of humorous and pathetic episodes of everyday human life> and interspersed with short poems of high literary finish. So the Goddess of Works set to and prepared 36. existence of an external world. she only used 36.3S6 CHINESE LITERATURE — while the delineation of character —of so many characters altogether without a recalls the best efforts of the greatest novelists of the West. no bigger than the pendant of a lady's fan. sat down for a while to rest. It could expand or It could move.500. however. each 240 feet square by 120 feet in depth. Hung Lou Meng to its is it is an original and most part in an easy. style. the near presence of spiritual influences. This stone. Four thousand six hundred and twenty-three years ago the heavens were out of repair. always. One day a Buddhist and a Taoist priest. It was conscious of the contract. and it was hurt at not having been called upon to accomplish its divine mission. the rival. . The opening chapters. belong to the supernatural after that the story runs smoothly along upon earthly lines. and cast aside the single remaining block upon one of the celestial peaks. written for the . under the process of preparation.

" inquired his companion. you lack an inscription. when to fill the Goddess of Works rejected this stone. you are not wanting in spirituality. tending iis prot^g^e its with the most loving care." said the Buddhist priest to the stone. " your record is not ' ' ! — . the flower changed its form and became a most beautiful girl. but with a record inscribed upon it a record of how it had not been used to repair the heavens. until chance brought it alongside of a lovely crimson flower. " But we cannot be certain that you will ever prove to be of any real use and. used time by roaming about the heavens. Being struck with the great beauty of this flower. 'the moisture thou hast bestowed upon me here I will repay thee in our future state with my tears Ages afterwards. without which your destiny must necessarily remain . moreover. in her new-found ecstasy of life. " Dear stone. with a full description of all it did. in search of light. "to send family it down You it to allotted part in the fortunes of a certain its now up its anxiously expecting arrival. another priest. the stone remained there for some time. unfulfilled. see." Thereupon he put the stone and rose to proceed on his journey. and heard while in that state. " Brother Stone. saw this self-same stone lying in its old place. and how it subsequently went down into the world of mortals. in his sleeve "And what. until at length. and saw." replied the other." said the priest. yielding to the influence of disinterested love. and daily moistening roots with the choicest nectar of the sky. to play its to ask. as he picked it up and laughingly held it forth upon the palm of his hand. if I may "do you intend " carrying away ? earth." THE HUNG LOU MfiNG my 357 friend. do with the stone you are thus "I mean.' cried the girl.

loaded with marks of Imperial favour. It seems to be but a simple tale of the loves of maidens and youths. the world of mortals being what it is. it is : Under a dynasty which the author leaves unnamed. gather over last night's excess. they had been efficient service to the State.— 358 — CHINESE LITERATURE one that deals with the deeds of heroes among men. and its complexion so far determined by the play of human passion." "Sir Priest. the and saw that it bore a plain unvarnished tale of " Beauty stone. if not He a purer conception of man's niission upon earth. The palaces assigned to them were near together in Peking. and there their immediate descendants . my poor story is adorned by no rhetorical flourish nor literary art. hardly important enough to attract the attention of the great busy world. I cannot but think that the tale here inscribed may be of some use. or to aid in dispelling those morning clouds which . if only to throw a further charm around the banquet hour. destroying passion and how from the thrall of a lost love one soul had been raised to a sublimer. and anguish walking hand in hand to The downward slope telling death" had developed into deep. It does not stir us with stories either of virtuous statesmen or of deathless patriots. Still. "what you say is indeed true and what is more. therefore copied it out from beginning to end." replied the stone." Thereupon the priest looked once more at. They had amassed wealth. They had been created nobles of the highest rank. Here a how woman's artless love . two brothers had greatly distinguished themselves by In return.

and. fathers and sons had all four passed away. The son of the second son and first cousin to Tai-yii is the hero. a hale heroine of this tale. is the old lady's Pao-yii. Accompanied by her governess. She had married and gone away south. and reached her destination in safety. many . MlfeNG 359 fruits of ancestral success when this The brothers had each a son and heir but at the date at which we are now. Or if any one. and her daughter. the young lady set out at once It for the capital. He who is mighty to-day shall be lowly tomorrow the rich shall be made poor. Things were in this state when Tai-yii's mother died. more thoughtful than the rest. and the poor rich. Pao-yii's sister had been chosen to be one of the seventy-two wives allotted to the Emperor of China. His name is Tai-yii. The two noble of wealth families were now at the very zenith and power. still alive.. and hearty old lady of about Of her children. THE HUNG LOU were enjoying the story opens. upon her is not necessary to dwell upon her beauty nor genius. and her father decided to place his motherless daughter under the care of her grandmother at Peking. he was fain to hope that the crash would not come. Their palatial establishments were replete with every luxury. though both are minutely described in the original Suffice it to say that during the years which have text. to crown all. No one stopped to think that human events are governed by an inevitable law of change. living with his grandmother. one was a daughter. Feasting and theatricals were the order of the day. elapsed since she 24 first became known to the public. in his own day. did pause awhile in knowledge of the appointments of Heaven. The wife of one of the sons only was eighty years of age. at any : rate.

which she said was very uncertain and variable. in such numbers that the poor girl must have wondered how ever she should remember all their names. by her grandmother." said her grandmother. we will soon cure you here. including her aunt. who shed bitter tears of sorrow over the premature death of Tai-yii's mother. but they other. have not done me any particular good. " We will make you well in no time. you will. a nasty old priest came and wanted my parents to let me be a nun.36o brave CHINESE LITERATURE men are said to have died for love of this entranc- ing heroine of fiction. who . Then they sat down and talked. She was introduced to her aunts and cousins. Especially so Tai-yii was received most kindly by all. I have done nothing ever since replied Tai-yu. They asked her all about her mother. smiling. and cousins and aunts. " What the one with the jade ? " asked Tai-yu." "Oh.'' medicine of some kind or "but take I have also seen all the best doctors. and what medicine she took. asked the old lady. somewhat surprised at this rather unusual warning. He said it was the only way to save me. " But we shall not be together." she immediately added. who warned her against his peculiar temper. her lost and favourite child. " Oh. " He is dreadfully spoilt by his grandmother. When I was only three years of age." said her looking flush. and how she fell ill. and how she died and was buried. until the old grandmother wept " And what medicine do you take. "Oh yes. the mother of Pao-yii." Tai-yu was then taken to see more of her relatives. seeing that Tai-yu herself seemed very delicate. and carried on her clear cheek a suspjciousI could eat. ! aunt. my dear ? " again.

. She felt that somewhere or other she the full . His complexion like morning flowers in spring. a well . — beautifully bright mirror-like tablet. Instead hard at work. I tell you. Around his neck hung a curious piece of jade and as soon as Tai-yii became fully conscious of his presence. had looked upon Pao-yii that face before. and it was agreed on all sides that she was far ahead of her cousins. as he ought to be by now. when suddenly a noise was heard outside. She was already deep in the mysteries of the Four Books. and after the meal was questioned as to the progress she had made in her studies. with a small tablet of jade in his mouth it — for — great respect.see his mother and while he is absent it may be as well to say a few words about the young gentleman's early days. was he saluted his grandmother with and then went off to. thinking only how he can enjoy himself. a thrill passed through her delicate frame.cut shapely nose. bearing a legend inscribed in the quaint old style of several thousand years ago. to the great astonishment of everybody." arrived. he idles away his time with the girls. Pencilled eyebrows.a THE HUNG LOU M£NG allows 361 to have his own way in everything. His face was like autumn moon. Pao-yii. without any idea of making a career or adding fresh lustre to the family name. Beware of him of being him. wearing a cap lavishly adorned with pearls. a name which means Precious Jade. A family consultation resulted in a decision . was so called because he was born. and eyes like rippling waves were among the details which went to make up an unquestionably handsome exterior. and in came a most elegantly Tai-yii The dinner-hour had now dressed youth about a year older than Tai-yii.

to take away the of pain. the purpose of which was not for the moment clear. at once. He was a bright. as he afterwards explained to his cousins. that he could not read at all unless he had as fellow-students a side of him. and this put him had None of his cousins any. Even Tai-yii had heard of it long before she came to take up her abode with the family. while men are mostly made mud. as was frequently the dear girl " all case.362 that this stone CHINESE LITERATURE was some divine talisman." Here some reference was into an angry made mood to his jade tablet. order. in of water. mere lumps of uninformed clay. this. What makes 1 her eyes so red ? Indeed. " Ha " cried he. in fact. Pao-yii's bed and cried pelled capital. we shall have to call you Cry-baby if you cry so much. but was doubtless to be revealed by and by. Pao-chai. are made with pellucid mobile minds. averse to books. he argued. Women. a wilful. to keep young lady 1 on each his brain clear ! And he when his father beat him. And so Pao-yii grew up. and he was not going to wear his any more. but very . By this time he had returned from seeing his mother and was formally introduced to Tai-yii. A family scene ensued. cousin Tai-yii. One thing was certain. during which Tai-yii went off to herself to sleep. Shortly after mother's sister was comthe by circumstances to seek a residence in She brought with her a daughter. wayward boy. The news of this singular phenomenon spread far and wide. " Dear girl ! the time. so it and accordingly should accompany him through life Pao-yii was accustomed to wear it suspended around his neck. would cry out. He declared. he said. " I have seen her before somewhere. . clever fellow and full of fun. As this tablet had come into the world with the child.

the two were invited in the it to settle themselves comfortably down capacious family mansion of their relatives. fascinated by the wit of these two young ladies in particular. of what avail are they to this perishable body of mine ? O wealth O I curse you both. "In what am I better. the inscription. by discontent with his superfluous worldly surroundings. Pao-yii spent most of the time he ought to have devoted to his books. . however. own even against the accomplished ' Pao-yii loved the society of either or both. however." he would say. Pao-ch'ai had and was able to Tai-yii." morbid thoughts. father. with which she read as follows . 2^2 another cousin to Pao-yii. He was always happy so long as he had a pretty girl by his side. It was at a Ute-d-tete with Pao-ch'ai that she made him All these dispelled show her his marvellous piece of jade. but about a year older than he was and besides receiving a warm welcome. He was always running across to see either one or other of these young ladies. became fast educated by her friends. in fact. with whom. fits He varied had. occasional of moody depression. these rich meats and choice wines. or meeting both of them in general assembly at his grandmother's. and was. ye cankerworms of my power ! ! earthly career. moreover. " than a wallowing hog ? Why was I born and bred amid this splendid magnificence of wealth.— THE HUNG LOU M^NG . instead of in some coldly furnished household where I could have enjoyed the pure communion of friends ? These silks and satirts. were speedily by the presence of his fair cousins. Thus was that destiny brought Pao-yii and his two cousins together under the The three soon been carefully hold her same roof.

finds himself daily more and more attracted by the sprightly mischievous humour of the beautiful Tai-yii. or puzzle over conundrums with her mercurial cousin . lot. forget life me not. on his side. and seeing how intimately the two are engaged. She had been already for some time companion when they were joined by She had come to regard the handsome boy almost as a part of herself. Pao-yii's chief Pao-ch'ai. aware that Pao-ch'ai herself possessed a wonderful gold amulet. On it was written " Let not this token wander from thy side." But even in those early days the ring of her voice betrayed symptoms of that jealousy to which later on she succumbed. Meanwhile she almost monopolises the society of Pao-yii. And so it was that although Pao-yii showed an open preference for herself. she still grudged the lesser attentions he paid to Pao-ch'ai. as compared with the quieter and more orthodox Pao-ch'ai does not know what loveliness of Pao-ch'ai. Andyouth perennial shall with thee abided' In the middle of this interesting scene.— 364 CHINESE LITERATURE "^ Lose tne Eternal not. but she never allows her thoughts to is wander towards him otherwise than the strictest maidenly reserve. upon which also were certain words inscribed and of course Pao-yii insisted on seeing it at once. Tai-yii walks in." shall be thy The indiscretion of a slave-girl here let Pao-yii become . As often as riot these same . "hopes she doesn't intrude. and he. jealousy means. exchange verses. though not conscious of the fact until called upon to share his society with another. She too loves to bandy words. consistent with Not so Tai-yii.

On one particular occasion. Tai-yii fell back upon the of course Pao-yii. in the renewal of love. declared that she would die upon which Pao-yii said that in that case he would become a monk and devote his life to Buddha but in this instance it was he who shed the tears and she who had to wipe them away. . a shade of serious thought would darken Tai-yii's moments of enforced solitude and one day Pao-yu surprised her in a secluded part of the garden. Tai-yii . however. yet who stands pitying by ? And wandering threads ofgossamer on the summer-house are seen. She had a handsome gold ornament given her to match Pao-ch'ai's amulet. Tai-yii's father had recently died. quarrels invariably ended. andflyingfill the sky . Pao-yii and Tai-yii were already lovers in so far that they were always quarrelling the more so. who was not by any means wanting in chivalry. All this time Tai-yii and Pao-ch'ai were on terms of scrupulous courtesy. while singing the following lines " Flowersfade : andfly. all ultima ratio of women —^tears and . Andfalling catkins lightly dew-steeped Strike the embroidered screen. as they should end.— THE HUNG LOU MENG 365 attentions originated in an irresistible impulse to tease. As a rule. had no alternative but to wipe them away. wind. . engaged in burying flowers which had been blown down by the . their perfume gone. thinking only how to get most enjoyment out of every passing hour. that their . Sometimes. and the three young people spent their days together. and her fortunes now seemed to be bound up more closely than ever with those of the family in which she lived. Their bloom departs.

But next year. There are willow-sprays andflowers of elm. A skein of sorrow binds my heart. let me sadly bury them One morn beside these steps to-night! Alone. Oh.any a They fall upon the naked stem and stains of blood appear. among the paintedflowers. and beams may go. . I mourn that spring is done. me. each on its thoughtless way. swallows flit among the beams. Cay blooming buds attract the eye. The peach-tree and the plum-tree too next year may bloom again. they'll seek theirfood Next year once more . I care not if the peach and plum are strippedfrom every bough. there is none. unseen.366 CHINESE LITERATURE A girl within the inner rooms. Three hundred days and sixty make a year. and solace Jpass into the garden. bitter tear. tell in the inner rooms. and these have scent enow. shall I remain ? By the third moon new fragrant nests New shall see the light of day. and with them swallow bowers. I seize my hoe. and I turn to use my hoe. faded they're lost to sight. and therein lurk Daggers of wind and swords offrost to do their cruel work. but whither no one knows. How long will last the fairfreshflower which bright and brighter glows f its petals float away. Treading der fallen glories as I lightly come and go. with m. But I may go.

And Mother Earth. Thus those sweetforms which spotless came shall spotless go again. Last night within the garden sad songs were faintly heard. angry thoughts. andpartly from No sound to herald its approach. . Nor pass besmirched with mud andfilth along some noisome drain. shall hide them in her arms. We cannot keep them here with us. the dawn comes on apace. pure Mother Earth. by spirits. as I knew. —that spring comes suddenly. With flower spirits I would seek the confines of the sky. You wonder that with flowing tears my youthful cheek is They partly Regret rise from wet. But high in air What grave is there f ^ No. or warn us that 'tis past. The cold rain pattering oti the pane as I lie shivering there. give me an embroidered bag wherein to lay their charms. They sing butfor a season's space. Ah I would that I on feathered wing might soar aloft andfly. leaving the burying-p lace j But not till sunbeams fleck the wall does slumber soothe my care. . these much-loved birds andflowers.THE HUNG LOU UtNG TAe night-jar now has ceased to mourn. ' These two lines are short in the original. spirits of flower and bird. anger— cannot it last. and bloom a few short hours. Sung. regret. 367 I seize my hoe and close the gates.

Flowers fall. suicide. But now. and robbery happen upon the premises. . not yet divined when I with you shall sink to rest. Nothing the old grandmother liked better than a feasting. Pao-ch'ai's mother gave up the apart- into serious trouble with the authorities. and there seemed to be always occurring some unforeseen drain upon the family resources. \ thus buried as 'twas best. of some kind. In every pot of ointment the traditional fly was sure to make its appearance in every sparkling goblet a bitter something would always bubble up. and lovely maidens die. Various members of one or other of the two grand establishments get picnic or a banquet — plenty of wine . Pao-yii's fathei" had received an appointment which took him away to a distance.36S CHINESE LITERATURE Farewell. See how when spring begins to fail each openingflovf ret fades. the consequence being that life went on at home in a giddier round than usual. somehow or other. for ever now. Money was not so plentiful as it had been. in fact. and Pao-yii and Tai-yii continued the agreeable pastime In this they were further favoured by of love-making. The climax of prosperity had been reached and the hour of decadence had arrived. and both are known no more" Meanwhile. with and mirth. And when the fleeting spring is gone. circumstances. So too there is a time of age I have and death for beauteous maids. and days of beauty der. dearflowers. Murder. I cannot say in days to come what hands shall bury me. Still all went merry as a marriage-bell. little things were always going wrong. I who can bury flowers like this a laughing-stock shall be.

was about to leave and go back again to the south. Day and night she thought about Pao-yii. she flung herself down. entreated home her would rather become a slave-girl at her grandmother's than fail in with the scheme proposed. saying that . She exhausted every argument. and went in 369 to live lodgings in the city. lady was obdurate. and that her stepmother had arranged for her a most eligible match. long ago her faithful slave-girl had whispered into her ear the soft possibility of union with her cousin. Tai-yii was astonished. their hearty congratulations. and finally went away. And she was already deeply in love with him. in consequence of which she was to leave for of tears Tai-yii send her away. tired out under the ravages of the great passion. and was straightway carried off and He bore the departure of Pao-ch'ai with composure. Pao-yii fainted on the spot. feet With floods grandmother not to She did not want to marry. Tai-yii. Some time previous to this. and asked what on earth their congratulations meant upon which it was explained to her that her father had married again. put to bed. and she immediately. But she had hardly closed her eyes ere her grandmother and a whole bevy of aunts and cousins walked in to offer. THE HUNG LOU MEING ments which had been assigned to her. and even invoked the spirit but the old of her dead mother to plead her cause . Long. of course taking Pao-ch'ai with her. a slave-girl had casually remarked to Pao-yii that her young mistress. and bitterly regretted that she had now neither father nor mother on whom she could rely to effect the object that lay nearest to her heart.. as they said. upon a couch to sleep. He could not even hear of separation from his beloved Tai-yii. without undressing. One evening.

" cried she. and plunging it into his body." answered Pao-yii.. it to be myself. ! ! ! . " Well. " can Tai-yii. dear girl?" inquired Pao-yii amazement. starting up and " Now I know you for seizing him rudely by the arm. "he to the ground. "Great heaven. "even into the inmost recesses of my heart. this " ? So Tai-yii waked up and found that she had had a . of the way I have always behaved towards words. and then perhaps you will believe. and with a smile on his face began to offer her his congratulations too." . and crying out. 370 CHINESE LITERATURE Tai-yii would have to be carried out." replied Pao-yii. partly misunderstanding his be you after all ? and do you really wish me to remain with you ? " " You shall see with your own eyes. "Thank you.'' . " Wake up he is dying " is dying wake up !" said " whatever has given you nightmare like Tai-yii's maid " " What ! said it ." "And what lover do you think I could ever care to find now ? " rejoined Tai-yii. the false. fickle creature you are the arrangement ! "What in is the matter. I consider you indeed mine already and you think you ." Thereupon he drew a knife. ripped himself open so as to expose his heart to view. " I should of course wish . With a shriek Tai-yii tried to stay his hand. " I was only glad for your sake that you had found a lover at last. if . my heart is gone!" fell senseless "Help! help!" screamed Tai-yii. Then saw no escape but the one last resource of all when at that moment Pao-yii entered. cousin. and felt herself drenched with the flow of fresh warm blood when suddenly Pao-yii uttered a loud groan.

He was now a young man. already described. 371 bad dream. in fact and shook his head.THE HUNG LOU MENG . the cleverer of the two. and he was once more obliged to make some show of work. Pao-ch'ai and Tai-yii had made themselves equally beloved by all the inmates of these two noble houses. But she had something worse than that. but Pao-ch'ai had doubtedly similar difficulty — both. and the question of his marriage began to occupy a foremost place in the minds of his parents and grandmother. Pao-yii was laid up at the same time. however. which it would get out of a prescription he then and there wrote down. The doctor came and felt her pulse both pulses. he was simply suffering from a fit of temporary — — indigestion. and said that Tai-yii's vital principle wanted nourishment. As to Pao-yii. She had a bad illness to follow and strange to say. Where each was perfection it became invidious to choose. It charming young ladies the hero marries is got over in this way Here. In another famous Chinese novel. but at slave-girl. the family elders were distracted by rival claims. the bar of man's opinion each would probably have Tai-yii was ungained an equal number of votes. one especially by his father but it was finally agreed that it was unnecessary to go far afield to secure . and consequently had fewer hours to spend in the society of his cousin. His father had returned home. . But the difficulty lay precisely there. Several names were proposed. a a fitting bride. By their gentle. from the venerable grandmother down to the meanest Their beauty was of different styles. and Pao-yii recovered his spirits. So Tai-yii got better. was merely a choice between the two who had already shared so much in his daily life. winning manners. and drank a cup of tea.

But none knew that the sickto away another. . " It was all off. " His grandmother would not agree to the young lady chosen by his father. yearning for the love that had already been contracted women. and lay A slave-girl ran to summon her grandmother." said one of them. heard two slave-girls outside whispering confidences. She finds her young mistress in a very agitated state. while several others remained in the room talking about Pao-yii and his intended marriage. to all appearances dying. for she heard them say that Pao-yu was engaged to marry a lady of good family and many accomplishments. " Here's your mistress pour out the tea " which frightened the slavegirls horribly and they forthwith separated. CHINESE LITERATURE and in the judgment of those with whom It the decision rested. She ate nothing.372 better health . This time she was seriously ill. made Various preliminaries would have to be gone through before a verbal promise could give place to formal betrothal. one of them running inside to attend upon Tai-yii herself. she : ! . Just then a parrot called out. one night when Tai-yii was ill and alone in her room. She listened again. health carried the day. but Tai-yii is always ailing now. grew rapidly worse and worse. Even a Chinese doctor could now hardly fail to sec that she was far advanced in a decline. while this one was confided to at least a dozen Consequently. This momentous arrangement was naturally secret. and this time without doubt. and f:mcied she caught Paoyii's name. ness of her One night she body had originated in sickness of the heart. And it is a well-ascertained fact that secrets can only be kept by men. She was racked by a dreadful cough. was in arranged that Pao-yii was to marry Pao-ch'ai.

For the sickness of the soul is not to be cured by drugs. he treated the matter lightly. he had forgotten to put it on. however." argued she. course she was dreadfully upset. and had left it lying upon his table. He was often absent-minded. and. At length he got so bad that it became imperative to do something. and he talked nonsense. At other times his tongue would run away with him. — called for a drink of tea. The result . This was a crushing for its made a move enormous reward an recovery. and offered was that within a few days the reward was claimed. Of . So his grandmother had to be told. Gradually. but she in the right direction. Paoyil lost his jade tablet. an event occurred which for the time being threw everything else into the shade." The dying girl. without success. Meanwhile. and it then flashed across her that after all she must " For if not herself be the bride intended for Pao-yii. heard these words. . A search was instituted high and low. not well. The precious talisman was missing. So Tai-yii got better once more but only better. and of whom we are all very fond. a change came over his demeanour. But when he sent to fetch it. No one dared tell his grandmother and face the old lady's wrath. But in the interval the tablet seemed to have lost much of its striking brilliancy and a closer inspection showed it to be in reality nothing more than a clever imitation. As to Pao-yii himself. After changing his clothes. I. Those who had come expecting to see her die were now glad to think that her youth might ultimately prevail. to the great astonishment of all. it was gone. "who can it possibly be?" Thereupon she rallied as it were by a supreme effort of will.THE HUNG LOU M£NG 373 She had already made her own choice of another young lady who lives in the family.

It how he would Pao-ch'ai. and her influence at Court was gone. who said pretty much what he was wanted to say. receive the in was therefore hardly doubtful news of his betrothal to of health the and as his present state . inconsequent talk delay. like a modest. this was the heir in whom the family hopes were centred. had been greatly shocked at the change which he now saw. Still. little The old grandmother. Among other calamities which had befallen of late. that Pao-yii should marry some one with a golden destiny to help him on. well-bred maiden. for various reasons . Pao-yii's illness was increasing day by day. Pao-yii's father. lack-lustre eyes rambling. one of whom even went so far as to tell his mother that his heart was set upon marrying her whom the family had Pao-yii's felt name. however. So the chief actors in the tragedy about to be enacted had to be consulted at last. with sunken. and it was eminently desirable that Pao-yii's marriage should take place previous to his departure. everything considered. it was deemed advisable to solemnise the wedding without little as he cared for the characonly son. ter of his . haggard face. Pao-yii. and she. commands in submissive Further. The great objection to hurrying on the ceremony was that the family were in mourning. finding that doctors were of had even called in a fortune-teller. With obliged to reject.. from that day she ceased to mention rent thing altogether. received her mother's silence. viz. A worn. avail. the young lady in the palace had died.— 374 CHINESE LITERATURE disappointment to all. especially with the slave-girls. it was a diffeHis love for Tai-yu was a matter of some notoriety. His father had received another appointment in the provinces. They began with Pao-ch'ai.

and the terrified slave-girl who rushed to pick her 25 up found her with her mouth full of blood." " I am he replied and then they both went louder screams of laughter than before. after much more laughing and nodding of She set off to heads. run back to her own room. the laughter of senseless crazy ill. Her whole frame quivered beneath the shock. "What makes you the first cousin ? " asked Tai-yu. and he did not invite her to be seated. She turned to go back to her room. Tai-yu was persuaded to go away. she was seen to fall. In the short time which intervened. and. when burst of their in love with off into dreadful merriment had subsided. At this point the slave-girls thought it high time to interfere. Tai-yii. the news was broken to Tai-yii in an exceptionally cruel manner. So the altar was prepared. and without a word spoken on either side. she almost forced her way in. And the two sat there. Hardly noticing the servants in attendance. and naught remained but to draw the bright death across the victim's throat. and stared and leered at each other. but half unconsciously followed the path that led to Pao-yii's apartments. and sped along with a newly acquired strength. . . She heard by accident in conversation with a slave-girl The in the garden that Pao-yii was to marry Pao-ch'ai. it was resolved to have recourse to stratagem. until they both broke out into wild delirious laughter. the madhouse. Tai-yii sat down without being asked. and he looked up and laughed a foplish laugh when he saw her enter. He was sitting down. poor girl felt as if a thunderbolt had pierced her brain. But just as she was nearing the door. but he did not rise.THE HUNG LbU M£NG 375 consequences could not be ignored. and stood in the presence of her cousin.

One morning she makes the slave-girl bring her all her poems and various other relics of the happy days gone by. The effort is too much for her. . much wished-for hour had arrived. And so it was. It is sometimes weeps. So thither she makes her way assistance. alighted from her sedan-chair at Pao-yii's door. she scarcely knows why life little . She turns them over and over between her thin and wasted fingers until finally she commits them all to the flames. but preparations for the great event of her fortunately. she Tai-yii's back to room. of these unlooked-for circumstances. but of ch'ai been gone through not to be a grand course there must be a trousseau. only. The accompanied by the very slave-girl who had long ago escorted her from the south. Nobody thinks much about her at this juncture when the wedding is over she is to receive a double share of attention. to be still further there. who straightway informs her that it is Pao-yii's wedding-day.376 CHINESE LITERATURE this By time all and the wedding day wedding. and not knowing what to make at finding the is about to run she espies a fellow-servant in the distance. The wedding inarch was the . when to her great relief And now veiled bride. amazed rooms shut up. and no one Utterly confused. as fast as her feet can carry her. for he had been skilfully giveri to understand that the cousin in question was Tai-yii. but for a faithful slave-girl. and. leave her. but a moment's thought reminds her that the old lady is doubtless with Pao-yii. Pao-yii had joyfully agreed to the proposition that he should marry his cousin. Tai-yii is leisure for reflection. and that he had moved into another suite of apartments. alone. very in bed. Paoformalities have is fixed. and the slavegirl in despair hurries across to the grandmother's for She finds the whole place deserted. however.

you are married. your wife . Pao-yii found his voice. dying beyond hope of recall. Thick sobs choked his further utter" Tai-yii. THE HUNG LOU M^NG played. Every now and she lay there quietly waiting for death. was dying." shrieked he. Pao-yii All this time Tai-yii . and the slavegirl. . ! ance. but gradually the light faded out of her eyes.of broth." ! ! you mean Tai-yii is my wife. for the first time. felt that her young mistress's At that moment. "Am I dreaming ?" cried he. lips were seen to move. faithful to the last. Oh. 377 and the young couple proceeded to the final ceremony of worship.. She knew that the hour of release was at hand." Those words heard to say. . it all. Meanwhile. He arranged sions. seemed as . fingers were rapidly growing cold." replied several of those nearest to him. Pao-yii raised his bride's veil." " Who w4s that ? " said Pao-yii. . " O Pao-yu. and save us down altogether. with averted head. " It was Pao-ch'ai. and again she swallowed a teaspoonful. Then.. interrupting them " I want Tai-yii I want Tai-yii Here he broke both " bring us together. were her last. looking round upon his assembled relatives and friends. " No. and she was distinctly Tai-yii's . " Ta4ce care your father is outside. as is customary upon such occaFor a moment he though suddenly turned into stone. with fixed eyes gazing upon a face he had little expected to behold. pointing in the direction of the door through which Pao-ch'ai had disappeared.. as he stood there speechless and motionless. . which made them irrevocably man and wife. until relief came in a surging flood of tears. Pao-ch'ai retired into an inner apartment and then.

and strained her ear to listen . he saw some one advancing towards him. A darkness came before his eyes. and he seemed to be transported into a region which was unfamiliar to him. sounds of far-off music were The slave-girl crept borne along upon the breeze. who had lately died to which the man replied that Tai-yii's soul had already gone back to its home in the pure serene. Looking about. who had heard the news. but she could hear nothing save the soughing of the wind as it moaned fitfully through the trees. " dead " side of his bed. Fulfil your destiny there. cried Pao-yii. " return to your duties upon earth. . stealthily to the door. At that moment he heard himself loudly called by name . Pao-yii was very ill. breaking in upon the hushed moments which succeed dissolution. * ." " but your span of life is not yet comreplied the man plete." struck him over the heart. took upon herself the painful task of telling him she was already dead. saw his mother and grandmother standing by the .8 CHINESE LITERATURE Just then. nourish the divinity that is within you. and you have no business here. and opening his eyes. chasten your understanding.3. until at length Pao-ch'ai. "And if you would see her again." Pao-yii explained that he had come in search of Tai-yii. and you may yet hope to meet her The man then flung a stone at him and once more. " You are on the road to the next world. ? " Dead " ? and with a loud groan he fell back upon the bed insensible." added the man. But the bridegroom himself had already entered the valley of the dark shadow. which so frightened Pao-yii that he turned to retrace his steps. He raved and raved about Tai-yii. and immediately called out to the stranger to be kind enough to tell him where he was.

of prosperous days forgot to call. this. and within the walls which have been so long sacred to mirth and merrymaking. and the voice of flattery unheard. even though it was the unreason. makes the foolish endeavour to be an honest incorrupt official. but succeeds only in getting himself recalled and impeached for maladministration of affairs. as his brother and nephew start for their place of banishment. All this time the fortunes of the two grand families are sinking from bad to worse. and even the servants lived for eighty-three years in deserted at their posts. He tries to put his foot down upon the system of bribery which prevails. The upshot of all this is that an Imperial decree is issued confiscating the property and in Besides depriving the families of their hereditary rank. and treated Pao-ch'ai with marked kindness and respect. " that the fortunes of our family should fall like this Of all. at his new post. And so it came about that the old lady fell ill. The courtiers scarce. She had affluence. and within a few days was lying upon . while his father. perhaps the old grandmother felt the ! blow most severely. same hfe as before. clouded with the great sorrow of For now they could always hope and when they saw him daily grow stronger and stronger in bodily health. consternation now reigns supreme. Pao-yu's uncle is mixed up . The more so that he had ceased to mention Tai-yii's name." cries Pao-yii's father. and were overjoyed at seeing him return to hfe." THE HUNG LOU MENG 379 They had thought that he was gone. it seemed that ere long even his mental equilibrium might be restored. " O high Heaven. the lineal representatives are to be banished . an act of disgraceful oppression . accustomed to the devotion of her children But now money was and the adulation of friends.

great excitement on all sides but the priest refused to. Pao-yti's life depended on it.38o her death-bed. A Buddhist at the outer gate. . There was. The priest. In a few minutes Pao-yii's breathing became more and more distressed. it possible to raise such a sum as and at a moment's notice ? Still it was felt that the tablet must be recovered at all costs. she was unanimously pronounced to be the fairest blossom of all. and he was the sole hope of the family. except to For her she had only a sigh. He is in when a startling announce- ment priest restores is him again to consciousness. in the hope that something might yet be done. that fate had linked her with a husband whose heart was buried in the grave. Then other members of the family die. So she died. and Pao-yii . part with the jade until he had got the promised reward. relapses into a condition as critical as ever. CHINESE LITERATURE She spoke a kind word to all. however. But when Pao-yu clutched it in his eager hand. led by a Buddhist priest. he dropped it with a loud cry and fell back gasping upon the bed. And where now was that. fact at the point of death. So the priest was promised his reward. Just then a voice called out and said that Tai-yii was . Pao-ch'ai. and by this time Paoyii had ceased to breathe. and the jade was conveyed into the sick-room. the spirit of Pao-yii set off on its journey to the Infinite. Paoch'ai appeared in white and among the flowers which were gathered around the bier. and he has brought back Pao-yii's lost tablet of jade. Immediately upon the disunion of body and soul which mortals call death. and there was a splendid funeral. and a servant ran out to call in the priest. of course. had disappeared. paid for out of funds raised at the pawnshop.

and at that 381 familiar faces moment many crowded round him. his Stretching forth his hands. so carefully tended that neither bees nor butterflies were allowed to was a flower. THE HUNG LOU M^NG awaiting him. and is always arguing with Pao-ch'ai upon the advantages of . At length he reached a spot where there was a beautiful crimson flower in an enclosure. awaking as though from a dream. For a time he seems to be under the spell of a religious craze. he talks little. devoting one's life to the service of Buddha. and concentrated every thought upon the great object before him. he appears to have very much lost his taste for the once fascinating society of women. and Pao-yii.. he was mission upon earth. This time he was a changed man. and he fell He was now screen which backwards. He devoted himself to reading for the great public examination. A bamboo hung before the entrance to a room was raised. accompanied by a nephew who is also a candidate. and there before him stood his heart's idol. to speak to her. The priest gave him a shove. But shortly before the examination he burned all the books he had collected which treated of immortality and a future state. and seems to care less. settle upon it. taken to see Tai-yii. had recently returned to the told. prepares to enter the . It which had been to fulfil a and. they changed into grinning goblins. he was about lost Tai-yii. but as he gazed at them in recognition. in the hope of securing the much coveted degree of Master of Arts. Infinite. when suddenly the screen was hastily dropped. Nevertheless. At length the day comes. Once more he had regained a new hold upon life once more he had emerged from the very jaws of death. about the honours and glory of this world and what is stranger than all.

with several thousand other candidates. and the winekettles are put to the fire. night comes and goes. hope. " that I shall now be successful. CHINESE LITERATURE His father was away from home. the two young rnen set out for the examination-hall." he added. Meanwhile. He had gone southwards to take the remains of the grandmother and of Tai. will be happy. and she addresses to him a few parting words. their ancestral burying-ground. and that you. dear mother. In the crush that ensues. But the time passes and he comes not. weary students bursts forth. they are to remain for some time immured. He has disappeared without leaving behind him the faintest clue to his whereabouts. Fears as to his personal safety begin to be aroused. and messengers are sent out Pao-yu is nowhere to be found. . but for the mysterious absence of Pao-yii. expectant friends. and Pao-yii's name stands seventh on the list. So every now and again somebody runs out to see if Pao-yii is not yet in sight. There the feast of welcome is already spread.-yii back to. the list of successful candidates is published. where. and the nephew reaches home first. His nephew has the 130th place. What a triumph for the family. Pao-yii and his nephew lose sight of each other. and what rapture would have been theirs. So Paoyii first goes to take leave of his mother. full of encouragement and Then Pao-yii falls upon his knees. At last the great gates are thrown wide open. The next day and the next day^ and still no Pao-yii. and the vast crowd of worn-out. The in all directions. and implores her pardon for all the trouble he has caused her. " I can only trust. The hours and days speed apace.382 arena. to meet the equally vast crowd of eager." And then amid tears and good wishes. full of arduous effort to those within. of anxiety to those without.




joy was shaded by sorrow, until hope,

springing eternal, was unexpectedly revived. Pao-yii's winning essay had attracted the attention of the Emperor,


his Majesty issued


for the writer to appear

at Court.


Imperial order


not be lightly


and it was fervently hoped by the family that by these means Pao-yii might be restored to them. This, in fact, was all that was wanting now to secure the renewed prosperity of the two ancient houses. The tide of events had set favourably at last. Those who had been banished to the frontier had greatly distinguished
themselves against the banditti

who ravaged

the country

round about. There was Pao-yii's success and his nephew's ; and above all, the gracious clemency of the Son of Heaven. Free pardons were granted, confiscated estates were returned. The two families basked again Pao-ch'ai was about to in the glow of Imperial favour. become a mother ; the ancestral line might be continued after all. But Pao-yii, where was he ? That remained a mystery still, against which even the Emperor's mandate proved to be of no avail. It was on his return journey that Pao-yii's father heard Torn by of the success and disappearance of his son. conflicting emotions he hurried on, in his haste to reach home and aid in unravellirig the secret of Pao-yii's hidingplace. One moonlight night, his boat lay anchored alongside the shore, which a storm of the previous day He was sitting had wrapped in a mantle of snow. writing at a table, when suddenly, through the half-open door, advancing towards him over the bow of the boat,
sharply defined against the surrounding snow, he saw the figure of a shaven-headed Buddhist The priest knelt down, and struck his head four priest.
his silhouette




times upon the ground, and then, without a word, turned to join two other priests who were awaiting him.
three vanished as imperceptibly as they


before, indeed, the astonished father

had come was able to realise

he had been, for the

last time, face to face



the world by his year-title






second Emperor of the Manchu dynasty, known to K'ang Hsi, succeeded to the throne in 1662 when he was only eight years of age, and six years later he took up the reins of government. Fairly tall and well-proportioned, he loved all manly exercises and devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, which was pitted with


Contemporary observers vie in praising his understanding, and liberality of mind. Indefatigable


his love for the

government, he kept a careful watch on his Ministers, people leading him to prefer economy

He was personally frugal, yet on public to taxation. works he would lavish large sums. He patronised the Jesuits, whom he employed in surveying the empire, in astronomy, and in casting cannon though latterly he found it necessary to impose restrictions on their propagandism. In spite of war and rebellion, which must have encroached seriously upon his time, he found leisure to initiate and carry out, with the aid of the leading

scholars of the day, several of the greatest literary enterprises the world has ever seen. The chief of these are
(i) the

K'ang Hsi TzU

Tien, the great standard dictionary

of the Chinese language

(2) the P'ei


Yiin Fu, a
in forty-

huge concordance


bound up




four large closely-printed volumes
P^ien, a similar


the P'ien T^U Lei

work, with a different arrangement, bound up in thirty-six large volumes (4) the Yiian Chien Lei

Han, an encyclopaedia, bound up in forty-four volumes and (s) the Tu Shu Chi CKeng, a profusely illustrated encyclopasdia, in 1628 volumes of about 200 pages to each. To the above must be added a considerable collection of literary remains, in prose and verse, which, of course, were actually the Emperor's own work. It cannot be said that any of these remains are of a high order, or are familiar to the public at large, with a single and trifling exception. The so-called Sacred Edict is known from one end of China to the other. It originally consisted of sixteen moral maxims delivered in 1670 under the form His Majesty of an edict by the Emperor K'ang Hsi. mature age of sixteen. He himself had just reached the had then probably discovered that men's morals were no longer what they had been in the days of " ancient kings," and with boyish earnestness he made a kindly effort to do something for the people whose welfare was destined to be for so many years to come his chief and most absorbing care. The maxims are commonplace
enough, but for the sake of the great Emperor who loved his " children " more than himself they have been exalted into utterances almost divine. Here are the first, seventh, and eleventh maxims, as specimens



great attention to




to brotherly


order to give





" Discard strange doctrines, in order to glorify the orthodox teaching." " Educate your sons and younger brothers, in order to hinder them from doing what is wrong."

K'ang Hsi died
of sixty years as



in 1722, after completing a full cycle occupant of the Dragon Throne. His son and successor, Yung Ch^ng, caused one hundred picked scholars to submit essays enlarging upon the maxims of his father, and of these the sixteen best were chosen, and in 1724 it was enacted that they should be publicly read to the people on the ist and 15th of each month in every city and town in the empire. This law is still in force. Subsequently, the sixteen essays were paraphrased into easy colloquial and now the maxims, the essays, and the paraphrase, together make up a volume which may be roughly said to contain the whole duty of man.


1735 the

Emperor Yung ChSng


and was

succeeded by his fourth son, who reigned as Ch'ien Lung. An able ruler, with an insatiable thirst for knowledge, and an indefatigable administrator, he rivals his grandfather's fame as a sovereign and a patron of letters. New editions of important historical works and of encyclopaedias were issued by Imperial order, and In under the superintendence of the Emperor himself. there was a general search for all literary works 1772 worthy of preservation, and ten years later a voluminous
collection of these



was published, embracing many rare from the great encyclopaedia of the

Emperor Yung Lo.
the four heads


descriptive catalogue

of the

Imperial Library, containing 3460 works arranged under of Classics, History, Philosophy, and

Getieral Literature,

gives the history of each work,

was drawn up in 1772-1790. It which is also criticised.

The vastness

of this catalogue led to the publication

an abridgment, which omits

works not actually
writings of

preserved in the Library.

The personal




Emperor are very voluminous. They consist of a general collection containing a variety of notes on current or ancient topics, prefaces to books, and the like,
and also of a collection of poems. Of these last, those produced between 1736 and 1783 were published, and
reached the almost incredible total of 33,950 separate pieces. It need hardly be added that nearly all are very short. Even thus the output must be considered a record, apart from the fact that during the reign there was a plentiful supply both of war and rebellion. Burmah and Nepaul were forced to pay tribute Chinese supremacy was established in Tibet ; and Kuldja and Kashgaria were added to the empire. In

on completing a cycle

of sixty years of power, the

Emperor abdicated

in favour of his son,

and three years

he died. His Majesty's poetry, though artificially correct, was mediocre enough. The following stanza, " On Hearing the Cicada," is a good example, conforming as it does to all the rules of versification, but wanting in that one feature which makes the "stop-short" what it is, viz., that "although the words end, the sense still goes on "


The season


a month behind

in this land of northern breeze. When first I fuar the harsh cicada



shrieking through the trees. but cannot mark its form

amid the foliage fair, Naught but a flash of shadow

which goes flitting here and there.''

Here, instead of being carried train of thought, the reader " What then ? "



some suggested
entitled to







It is




a song written



somewhat more spirited production. by Ch'ien Lung, to be inserted and a play entitled " Picking up Gold," by a beggar fortunate enough to stumble across a large




A brimless cap offelt stuck on my head; No coat, —a myriad-patchwork quilt instead In my hand a bamboo staff; Hempen sandals on my feet; As I slouch along the street,
Pity the poor beggar^ to the passers-by I call. Hoping to obtain broken food and dregs of wine. Then when nighfs dark shadows fall. Oh merrily. Oh merrily I laugh,

Drinking myself to

sleep, sheltered in

some old shrine.

Black, black, the clouds close round on every side; White, white, the gossamerflakes fly far and wide.


! is' t

jade that sudden decks the eaves



silver tiles meseems the streets are laid.

Oh, in what glorious garb Nature's arrayed. Displaying fairy features on a lovely face ! But stay ! the night is drawing on apace Nothing remains m,y homeward track to guide ; See how the feathered snow weighs down the palm-tree leaves I

I wag my head and clap my hands, ha I ha I clap my hands and wag m.y head, ha I ha There in the drift a lump half-sunken lies; The beggar'' s luck has turned up trumps at last O gold!—for thee dear relatives willpart, Dearfriends forget their hours offriendship past. Husband and wife tear at each other's heart.
Father and son sever life's
closest ties;

For thee,

the ignoble thief all rule

and law


What vten of this world most adore is gold; The devils deep in hell the dross adore; Where gold is there the gods are in its wake. Now shall I never more produce the snake;


the cross-roads meet

Stand begging where

no more;

Or shiver me to sleep in the rush hut, dank and cold; Or lean against the rich orpoor man's door.

Away my yellOTV bolvt, hiy earthen jar ! See, thus I rend my pouch and hurl my gourd afar !

An official hat and girdle I shall wear.
And this shrunk shank in
boots with pipeclayed soles encase;

OnfHe and holiday how jovial I shall be.
Joining my friends in the tavern or the tea-shop der their tea ; Swagger, swagger, swagger, with such an air and grace. Sometimes a sleek steed my ^Excellence' will bear; Or in a sedan I shall ride at ease. One servant with my hat-box close behind the chair. While another on his shoulders carries my valise^




Foremost among the scholars of the present dynasty stands the name of Ku Chiang (1612-1681). Remaining
faithful to the




Mings after their Ku Yen-wu, and

final downfall,

he changed

for a long time


about the country in disguise. He declined to serve under the Manchus, and supported himself by farming. A profound student, it is recorded that in his wanderings he always carried about with him several horse-loads^ of books to consult whenever his memory might be at fault. His writings on the Classics, history, topography, and To foreigners he is poetry are still highly esteemed. best known as the author of the Jih Chih Lu, which
contains his notes, chiefly on the Classics and history, gathered during a course of reading which extended over thirty years. He also wrote many works upon the
ancient sounds and rhymes.

(1617-1689) was delicate as a child, mother made him practise the Taoist art of prolonging life indefinitely, which seems to be nothing more than a system of regular breathing with deep inspirations. He was a native of a town in Kiangsu, at the sack of which, by the conquering Tartars, his father perished

Chu Yung-shun




— anything else. literature. better known as Lan Luchou. and there before the family tablets called the spirits of his forefathers to witness that he had never injured them by word or deed. the Emperor. that is enough. He accompanied his brother to Formosa as military secretary." Three days before his death he struggled into the ancestral hall.• 392 CHINESE LITERATURE rather than submit to the of his father's death new dynasty. he Recommended to became magistrate of P'u-lin. owing as they do much more to literary form than to subject-matter. He who can do this is near indeed. He was the author of commentaries upon the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean. . devoted himself as a youth to poetry. The piquancy of these maxims disappears in translation." " Mind your own business. and gave up his life to study and teaching. by his just and incorrupt administration as by his literary abihties." His own favourite saying was "To know what ought to be known. but none of these is so famous as his Family Maxims. and of other works. Here are two specimens " Forget the good deeds you have done remember the kindnesses you have received. and leave the rest to God. live in accord with the age. He managed. LAN Ting-yuan (1680-1733). and political economy. has often been attributed to the great commentator Chu Hsi. a little book which. and his account of the expedition attracted public attention. follow out your destiny. and distinguished himself as much. and to do what ought to be done. on account of the author's name. In consequence he steadily declined to enter upon a public career. There is no time for : — .

depends upon the divides the wife. forming a convenient peg upon which to hang a moral lesson. some jossstick. an autograph copy of verses. and other coveted marks of Imperial favour. the creation until now. within the writer's purview. If women come the is curtain which too thin to keep the family and from the time of Purification of morals. He died of a broken heart one month after taking up his post. In old days both boys there is nothing like education. has always come from women. But all was in vain. misfortune will to . men from the . bestowing upon him at ihe same time some valuable medicine. Women are not all alike.YUAN 393 however.. who not only set him free. copious extracts being made from the work of the Lady Pan of the Han dynasty.. which fills two of the above volumes. His complete works have been published in twenty small octavo volumes. to make enemies among his superior officers. Personal Appearance. of which works perhaps the best known of all is a treatise on the proper training of women. This is divided under four heads. but appointed him to be Prefect at Canton. some are good and some For bringing them to a proper uniformity are bad. His case was subsequently laid before the Emperor. A few lines from his preface may be interesting "Good government of the empire depends upon morals correctness of morals depends upon right ordering of the family and right ordering of the family ' : . extended education in the intellectual sense not coming The chapters are short. . and within three years he was impeached for insubordination and thrown into prison. to the State. a sable robe.— LAN TING. and many of them are introduced by some ancient aphorism. Speech. namely. them apart. and Duty. an Virtue.

' answered the woman the elder is the son of my husband's first wife.' she replied through a flood of tears. People are usually more fond of the younger. If now I were to let the elder be punished while ' * ' ' ." how one phase of female virtue is illustrated by : "A man having been killed in a brawl. ' . and that the other was innocent. and ask which of them had done the deed. She is. and cannot investigate thoroughly. The education of a woman is not like that which may be said to continue daily all through life. and referred it to the Prince. and I promised I would. . and we know not the details of the . after which she takes upon herself the manifold responsibilities of a household. of her husband.— CHINESE LITERATURE .' observed the judge. When my husband died he begged me to take care of the boy. two brothers were arrested for the murder and brought to trial.girls . 'how is it you wish me to punish him ? He is my own child. or familiarise himself with the works of miscellaneous writers whereas a woman's education does not extend beyond ten years. as it hope of return. . the result being that her learning is not sufficiently ex- tensive to enable her to grasp principles. The Prince bade him summon their mother. For he can always take up a classic or a history. The judge was thus unable to decide the case. . carried away upon a flood.' 394 and were educated but now the books used no longer exist. without education of This is anecdote women is much to be desired. . and it is difficult for her to make any use of the knowledge she has acquired. She is then no longer able to give her undivided attention to books. Punish the younger. system. Each one swore that he personally was the murderer. . Surely then a work on the were.

therefore. was and argued each point with them and deciding ' A Solomonic judge under the Sung dynasty. and the latter. my fair master. appearing to possess some unusual method for worming out the truth so that the most crafty lawyers and the most experienced scoundrels.LAN TING-YUAN the younger escaped. found themselves deserted by their former cunning. whom no logic could entangle and no pains intimidate. cases. . and confessed readily without waiting for the applicaI. will give an idea of the estimation in which these are held " My master's judicial capacity was of a remarkably high order. Now. : — . under the influence of judicial investigations. upon being brought before him. indeed. In very difficult cases he would investigate dispassionately and calmly. that torture is ' three wooden instruments. in investigating fearful only lest his people should not obtain a full hearing ." Two more of the above twenty volumes are devoted to the most remarkable of the criminal cases tried by him during his short magisterial career. I have no alternative. An extract from the preface (1729) to his complete works. astonished at her magnanimity.' what evidence is there which cannot be elicited ? to say nothing of the danger of a mistake and the unutterable injury thus inflicted the — . private feeHngs I 39S should be only gratifying my and wronging the dead. have often wondered how tion of torture. it is in brought into requisition so much For. he. as though the mantle of Pao Hsiao-su^ had descended upon him. Meanwhile the judge reported to the Prince. pardoned both the accused. upon the departed spirits in the realms below.' And she wept on until her clothes were drenched with tears. penned by an ardent admirer.

there would not be a single injured suitor under the canopy of heaven. calling themselves the White Lily or the White Aspen sect. they came back. demned to die died without resenting their sentence the people were unable to deceive him. the Confucian doctrine of respecting popular feeling careful i and were all judicial officers to decide cases in the same and impartial manner. while those who were con. of the Ch'ao-yang district are great on to talk of spirits and love and Buddhas. merits as thus By such means. absconded with their families and remained in concealment. its and then he decided the case upon set forth. Thus did he carry out . . even venture to make the and they did not attempt. came sect. to flourish. and who. I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations" (Legge). with were thoroughly committed no possibility of backing out. I imagine that White ' " In hearing litigations.— 396 quietly CHINESE LITERATURE and kindly until they to a certain position. named Yen and Chou respectively. however. much ghostly and supernatural nonsense gets spread about and hence it was that the Hou-t'ien sect in ." The following is a specimen case dealing with the evil effects of superstitious doctrines : "The people bogies. It I know nothing of the origin of this was started amongst the Ch'ao-yang people by two men. Hence. when an attempt to arrest them was made by a predecessor in office. for had no cause those who were bambooed complaint. forming an unbroken string along the road. but the women generally of the neighbourhood flock crowds to the temples to bum incense and adore Buddha. The gentry and their wives devote themselves to Ta Tien. who said that they had been instructed by a white-bearded Immortal. By and by.

spirting water. and for the two previous days had been availing themselves of the services of some play-actors to sing and perform at their banquets. The whole district was taken in by these people. being assisted in her performances by her paramour. enslave bogies and exorcise spirits. and praying for heirs and he could enable widows to hold converse with their departed husbands. and wines. much protection was afforded by various families of wealth and position that the guilty parties of their succeeded in preventing the arrest of a single one number. I immediately sent spirits off constables to arrest them but the constables were afraid of incurring the displeasure of the and being seized by the while so soldiers of the infernal regions.. as it was. . Their 'goddess' was Yen's own wife. collected several hundred persons together. of Pencil Peak. curing diseases. until one would have said it was market-day in the neighbourhood. a perfect maze of . LAN TING-YUAN Lily 397 in was the real designation. and she pretended to be able to summon wind and bring down rain. and went quite mad about them. Therefore I proceeded in person to their establishment. meats. They had already established themselves in a large building to the north of the district. with many offerings of money. He and. people travelling from afar to worship them as spiritual guides. enrolHng themselves as their humble disciples. whom I subjected to a searching examination as to the whereabouts of her accomplices . knocked at the door. but the interior of the place being. I heard of their doings one day as I was returning from the prefectural city. and seized the goddess. who called himself the Immortal used to aid in writing out charms. a man named Hu. they had opened a preaching-hall. the alteration name being simply made to deceive.

also a copy of their magic ritual. while the Immortal himself. villany. accompanied by the recital of some sUtra . when they heard the name of the Lady of the Moon they would be at first somewhat scared but by and by. they surrendered him over . even if did stumble up before I against any one. Accordingly. after which soporific incense would be lighted. clothes. and ornaments. they were gone in a moment was a veritable nest of secret I felt ought to be searched to the last corner. As to his credulous dupes. fine dresses. had time to see where. to deceive the eyes . At his examination he comported himself in relied. and one which room Lady I brought a wooden seal of ofHce belonging to the of the Moon. torch and seized a made my way along. means upon which he . with his hair dressed out and his face powdered and his skirts fluttering about. and quite put them off the scent as Adjourning now to one of the more to his real sex. besides the soporifics a very singular manner. there would follow worship of Maitr^ya Buddha. and assuming all the airs and graces of a supernatural beauty. wigs. and when his friends and rich supgame was up. from the goddess's bed in a dark and out-of-the-way chamber I dragged forth some ten or a dozen men while out of the Immortal's bedIt . a quantity of soporifics. seeing that the goddess was certainly a woman. they would begin to regain courage. soon convinced the spectators that he was really the Lady of the Moon.398 CHINESE LITERATURE when I I passages ramifying in every direction. I further made a great effort to secure the person of the Immortal himself porters saw the to justice. male and female. remote apartments. of the uses of which I was then totally ignorant. such being indeed the chief and and ears of the public. hovered round the goddess.

one hundred). I ordered the goddess and her paramour to receive their full complement of blows (viz. bambooed. of literature. all the depositions in which names were given. I determined on a plan which would put an end I burnt to the affair without any troublesome esclandre. and took no further steps against the persons named. place. and as for the rest. or 'soul confuser. However. I let the people rail and curse at them. destroyed its disgraceful hiding-places. makes people feel tired and sleepy they are recovered by means of a charm and a draught of cold water. leaf. and to be punished with the heavy cangue . 399 This a deep sleep.. until they passed together into their boasted Paradise. I confiscated the build- changed the and made it into a whole appearance of the literary institution to be dedicated to five famous heroes I cleansed and purified it from all taint. and also that among the large number who had become affiliated to this society there would be found many old and respectable families. reflecting that it would be a great grievance to the people were any of them to find themselves mixed up in such a case just after a bad harvest. The promised heirs and the interviews with deceased husbands are all supposed to be brought about during the period of trance for which scandalous impostures the heads of these villains hung up in the streets were scarcely a sufficient punishment. and. placing them at the yamen gate. is soporific. they were allowed to escape with this one more — chance to turn over a new ing. and on the ist and 15th of each moon I would. tear their flesh and break their heads.LAN TING-YUAN and the victims be thrown into it . or punished in some way. The husband and some ten others of the gang were placed in the cangue.' as otherwise called. when at .

leasing a plot of ground for cultivation.'" fame of so many people deserving of all Although not yet of the same national importance as it was still impossible that the foreign question should have escaped the notice of such an at the present day. and. in fact. the public tone was elevated. they very much commended my action. 400 leisure.. "When the Brigadier-General and the LieutenantGovernor heard what had been done. Chinese statesmen. devoted the returns therefrom to the annual Confucian demonstrations the true doctrine and to the payment of a regular professor. the evil results would have been dire indeed and had you reported the case in the usual way. without selfish regard to your own interests. manner as to lead to Such care for is the fair praise. time when the spread of the He flourished at a Roman Catholic religion to thoughtful was giving grounds for apprehension Accordingly. observant man just as Lan Ting-yiian. a literary club . They are interesting as the un- trammelled views of the greatest living Chinese scholar . praying for the execution of these criminals. Thus was caused to flourish. with the scholars of the district in literai'y formed. and the morality of the place vastly improved. collected works tion of amongst his two short notices devoted to a consideratrade and general intercourse with the various find we nations of barbarians. but now. your merit would undoubtedly have been great . saying Had this sect not been rooted out. indulge CHINESE LITERATURE I recreations. or : ' to expose those doings in such a the suicide of the persons implicated. you have shown yourself unwilling to hunt down more victims than necessary. and these supernatural doings to disappear from the scene .

is one of these notices " To allow the barbarians to settle at Canton was a mistake. the Viceroy of complained that the Western lecture-rooms and schools. preaching their religion and tamperforeigners were ing with the people. and . Hunan. to the great detriment of the that the localities in question . forts all manner of nations have conbuild tinued without ceasing to flock thither. and Yii-su-la [? Islam]. namely. and Kuangsi. which was originally a Malay country the redhaired barbarians went there to trade. So with the Philippines.— LAN TING-YUAN of the date at . French. in the reign of Chia Ching (1522-1567) of the Ming dynasty. spreading over China. and he petitioned Roman Catholic chapels in the various provinces Fuhkien. Kiangsi. There was Singapore. in 1732. all of which nations are horribly Wherever they go they spy around with a view fierce. Ever since Macao was given over. 401 The following which they were written. In the first year Emperor Yung Ch^ng Pao. places whither of the it has not reached. there are very few fortifications ' ' and . Honan. and all the country beyond Hsiang-shan will become a kingdom Red-haired is a general term for the barof devils. to the : red-haired barbarians. Their descendants will overshadow the land. barians of the western islands. the Western foreigners appropriated it in like manner for their own. to seize on other people's territory. Portuguese. Amongst them there are the Dutch. and by and by seized it for an emporium of their own. The Catholic religion is now In Hupeh. tnight be turned into Man [1736]. which were colonised by the Malays because the Roman Catholic religion was practised there. Spaniards. English. Fuhkien. They and dense settlements of houses.

A — little stream. not being satisfied until they have bought up Is it possible to shut one's eyes the whole province. and seriously injures our national enough make every man of feeling grind his teeth with rage. traditions. precaution may become is a great river. and stop one's ears. to This is a great insult to China. out of mistaken kindness. and there is also a department for women. the Viceroy of Kuangtung. those in Macao are in an inexpugnable How much more needed. but what were the results of it ? At present more than 10. memoThrone that such of the barbarians as were old or sick and unwilling to go away might be permitted to remain in the Roman Catholic establishment at Canton.402 that all CHINESE LITERATURE Western foreigners might be sent to their to Macao.000 men have joined the Catholic chapel at Canton. spread their creed. if not stopped.' is there a general inundation and men's hearts are restless and disturbed ? In Canton the converts to Catholicism are very numerous .' " Now these traders the object of come this immense distance with making money. then. The case by no means admits of teaching before ' punishing. they were at once to be punished and sent away. What then is their idea in paying away vast sums in order to atjtract people to their faith ? Thousands upon thousands they get to join them. when . or chaunted their sacred books. pretending to know nothing about it and making no inquiries whatever ? There is an old saying among the people 'Take things in time. The rialised the scheme was an excellent one. However. on the condition that if they proselytised. where they have similarly got together about 2000. to of send- wait until an opportunity should present itself ing them back own countries.

Chehkiang . granting that they strictly keep their . clearing the country as we go. with a pattern of Imperial virtue on the Throne. they are unable to get free. this foolish design of the barbarians should on no account be tolerated. by the way. quite to were too poor little. or in return and when the children grow Buddhist nuns are also in most cases bought up when children as a means of making a more extensive show of religion. of whom. And thus to condemn thousands and ten thousands of human beings to the dull monofor some act of kindness up. the desire for which is more or less imin marriage planted in every human breast. and Huchow there cannot be fewer than several tens of thousands of them. I cannot say how we should meet it. In the Hangchow." The written following extract from a letter to a friend was by Lan Ting-yiian in 1724. and proves that if he objected to Christianity. may be necessary for us to retire before them. either because keep them. he was not one whit more inclined to tolerate. Wise men will do well to be prepared against the day when it. and are careThey are not given fully prevented from running away. whose power and majesty have penetrated into the most distant regions. and if any trouble like that of the Philippines or Singapore should arise. The others have been given to the priests their parents when .— LAN TING-YUAN fortress. 403 There is a constant interchange of arms between the two. Buddhism " Of all the eighteen provinces. and exists even amongst prophets and sages. Chia-hsing. — tony of the cloister. At the present moment. where Buddhist priests three prefectures of is the one and nuns most abound. not more than one-tenth have willingly taken the vows.

This work. say I people there told me that these atrocities were much practised by the denizens of the cloister.404 religious vows. a Minister and a most learned writer. Thesaurus of Phraseology. terfere CHINESE LITERATURE is more than sufficient to seriously in- with the equilibrium of the universe. Encyclopaedia of Quotations. &c. Hence to nothing of the misdeeds of the nuns • passed through Soochow and Hangchow I saw many disgraceful advertisements that quite took my breath away with their barefaced depravity and the "When •••••• in question. floods. which had been begun in 1689 by a commission of fifty-eight scholars. was laid before the Emperor only in 1742 by of State Chang T'ing-yu (1670-1756). These were followed by Ch'Sn Hung-mou (1695-1771). 1745)." The Ming Chi Kang Mu. or History of the Ming Dynasty. famines. who. the Twenty-four Histories. did not meet with the Imperial approval. the Mongol (d. cloister folk do a great deal of mischief amongst the populace. . and robbing others of their good name. the Concordance to Literature. Ritual of the teen Classics. the Thir- Book of Rites. first published in 1775. . which term is These simply another name for houses of ill-fame. Among the chief collaborators of Chang T'ing-yii should be mentioned O-Srh-t'ai. and the like catastrophes. besides being the author of brilliant State papers. joint editor of the Chou Dynasty. however. and Chu Shih (1666-1736). and for it was substituted the T'ung Chien Kang Mu San Pien. both of whom were also voluminous contributors to classical literature. wasting the substance of some.

however. and when on recoveiy he was sent into Shansi. and at the same time are models of style. was a commentator on the Classics. and presently became magistrate at Nanking. some time unemployed . and soon became an adept at the art. He rose to high office. He was dismissed. : this side of the globe The following are specimens " I have received your letter congratulating me on my present prosperity. Many of the best are a trifle coarse. where he greatly distinguished himself by the vigour and justice A serious illness kept him for of his administration. he was shortly afterwards sent Graduating in 1739. and am very much obliged for the same. so that he might become thoroughly familiar with its geography. from the important post of Viceroy of the Two Kuang for alleged incapacity in dealing with a plague of locusts. he managed to quarrel with the Viceroy. sufficiently so to rank them with some of the the salt of eighteenth-century literature on all loses its savour in translation. are extremely witty and amusing. dealing especially with the Four Books. which have been published under the title of Hsiao Tsang Shan Fang Ch'ih Tu. Kiangnan. At the early age of forty he retired from the official to arena and led a life of lettered ease in his beautiful garden at Nanking. a writer on miscellaneous topics. all question the most popular writer of modern At the early age of nine he was inspired with a deep love for poetry. .— YUAN MEI 405 . Yuan Mei (1715-1797) is beyond times. and was noted for always having his room hung round with maps of the province in which he was serving. His letters. and a most successful administrator.

one of the evil days of the Chous and the Chengs. the prosperity on which you congratulate me would not count for much. when each State took pledges from the other. . viz. while your brother might send me a cloak or a coat. It is probably because you are a military man. how much less upon a tobacco-pouch ? For a tobacco-pouch.. "Did not Mencius forbid us to presume upon anything adventitious ? And if friends may not presume upon their worth or position. however. he offered little and he wanted much. but a small one to heard a single how word ? — . And have you not "Shun Yii-t'an of thousand pieces of silk were given for a two beautiful girls for a stanza ? compared with which your tobacco-pouch seems small indeed. for a hat or a pair of boots at least a you would want ! poem . are the outcome of my intellectual powers. and expect to get a whole epic in return In this way. which shall be sent on Surely this reminds as soon as I forward you a stanza. Why then do you neglect that teaching for the custom of a degraded age ? " If for a tobacco-pouch you insist upon having a stanza. old sacrificed a bowl of rice and a perch to get a hundred waggons full of grain . not in keeping with the teaching of the sages. that friends should be the first to give. It certainly is " At the end of the letter. accustomed to drill soldiers and to reward them with a silver medal when they hit the mark. is but the handiwork of a waiting-maid verses. that you have at last come to regard this as the proper treatment of an old friend. So that to exchange the work of a waiting-maid's fingers for the work of my brain. poor as they may be. pretty as it may while my be.4o6 CHINESE LITERATURE you mention that you have a tobacco-pouch fo"r me. is a great compliment to the waiting-maid.

407 Not so if you yourself had cast away spear and sword. Then.' Not one that the ' 27 . Two ducks and a crab would have been more conventional. had turned me out a tobacco-pouch of your own working. I would freely have given them. the crab arrived by reply : itself. whole family. the following banter in a man to a crab is very pleasant for the but to convey a crab to a man is pleasant for his man. And by some Hence mistake or other. and don't use two sentences where will do [in composition]. wishing you an early success "To convey in life. the fact duck has not yet turned up shows that you understand well how to do one thing at a time." A friend had sent Yiian Mei a letter with the very unChinese present of a crab and a duck. and grasping the needle and silk. of course I can mend your evil ways. crabs and a duck. " In the rhyme no duplicates [that is. or even two his concubines]. had you asked me even for ten stanzas. ill. then hurry up with the tobacco-pouch and trust to your luck for the verse. Besides which. But a great general knows his own strength and it would hardly be proper for me to lure you from men's to women's work. as well as the enemy's. I have amused myself If you take them with these few lines at your expense.e.— YUAN MEI me. in the form of the Chinese salute]. and place on your head a ribboned cap. And I know that this night mytwo sons will often bend their arms like crabs' claws [i. How then do you venture to treat me as Ts'ao Ts'ao [on his death-bed treated by bestowing on me an insignificant tobacco-pouch ? " Having nothing better to do. don't rhyme again same sound]. But if you shall never get the pouch.

a crab. an ardent lover of nature. recalling efforts with the paint-brush. . Chinese poets. Ah ! if they came to every caller. 'Tis clear to me the Gods are made Of the same stuff as wind or shade. And wear their lives out for his sake And bow their heads until they ache. like all father engaged in composition. trust that by and by your fame is will travel aslant the habitable globe. very few. has to travel aslant by which same token I . your crab reminds me of the jewel will infer that you moon. .— 4o8 to — CHINESE LITERATURE mention that you cause an old gobbler like myself to stretch out his neck in anticipation of something else to eome. few. " You remember how the poet Shdn beat his rival. or a gust of wind scattering dead . or sat and watched her He was also." Yiian Mei's poetry He is one of the under Manchu rule. The jewel lamp will follow soon! is like Well. in the presence of the King of the Ocean. even. •him : much admired and widely read. all because of that one verse ' Sigh not for the sinking moon. and a winter in his elegy He plum-tree in flower. and telling how her baby she cut out clothes from paper. . rd be the very loudest bawler !" could be pathetic enough at times. " Again. poets who have flourished Here are some sarcastic lines by " Fve ever thought it passing odd How all men reverence some God. as he showed on a little five-year-old daughter. Shen. while the duck from which we may meet with the same good luck as the sinking lamp .

Yet such is actually the case. to the steward. " Everything. thick with thick.YUAN MEI leaves. just as each man has certain natural characteristics. stands next to France. duck. letter-writer. Two things served toClear should go with clear. in his opening chapter. but in point of goodness two hams be as widely separated as sky and sea. of China] could cook a flavour into will is is a ham . But these chickens. ! . to the cook. pigs. It 409 fibres thrilling again. pig. " has its own original constitution. — cent. not even 1-ya [the it. ducks. and live coals. and mint with chicken or pork " The cooks of to-day think nothing of mixing in one soup the meat of chicken. and in the art of cooking China essayist." says Yiian Mei. and soft with soft. this brilliant would like set all his poetic sounds an anti-climax to add that and composer of finished verse owes perhaps the chief part of his fame to a cookerybook. little it. I have known people mix grated lobster with birds'-nests. And other So that the credit of a good dinner should be divided between the cook and the steward forty per cent. hard with hard. as only such a scholar could write in a style which at once invests the subject with dignity and interest. His cookery-book is a gossipy work. abilities If a man's natural are of a low order. A mackerel a mackerel but in point of excellence two mackerel " A ham . matrimony. Confucius themselves "would teach him to no purpose. and geese have doubtless " Cookery is like gether should match. written. and goose. Yiian Mei was the Brillat-Savarin of China. article of and Mencius And if an Soyer food is in itself bad. and sixty per will differ as much as ice things in the same way.

and frequently washes his hands. pepper to winter. frequently scrapes his board. or smuts from the saucepan get mixed up with the food. food will be made to exhibit its own characteristics. in order to restore the palate. and afterwards food of more negative flavour. . perspiration- drops from his head. frequently changes his cloth. If smoke or ashes from his pipe.. dried and preserved meats. " Let salt fish come first. Too much wine will make the stomach dull. Sour or sweet food will be required to rouse it again Each article of into vigour. yet would men hold their noses and decline. " In winter we should eat beef and mutton. mustard belongs specially to summer. " Don't cut bamboo-shoots [the Chinese equivalent of asparagus] with an oniony knife. Salt flavours must be relieved by bitter or hot tasting foods. Let the heavy precede the light.. Don't over-salt your . Let dry dishes precede those with gravy. . while a drink of water is better than something which tastes of nothing at all. No flavour must dominate. . his stomach will be fatigued.4IO souls. In summer. Those who want grease can eat fat pork. . though he were a very chef among chefs. CHINESE LITERATURE And these souls will most certainly will use file plaints in the next world on the this. As for condiments. " Don't make your thick sauces greasy nor your clear ones tasteless. A good cook frequently wipes his knife. If a guest eats his fill of savouries. Then the palate of the gourmand will respond without fail. insects from the wall. and the flowers of the soul blossom forth. while each made dish will be characterised by one dominant flavour. way they have been treated in A good cook plenty of different dishes.

< and the duck. is a dish of bamboo fish. holding each about four ounces of the plain-boiled article. so a good cook cannot possibly more than four or five distinct plats. is actually nicer than birds'-nest and better than sea-slugs. which . I once dined with a friend who gave us birds'-nest in bowls more like vats. 411 soups for salt can be added to taste. And only a sober man can distinguish good flavours from . by which I mean do not aim at having extraordinary out-of-the-way foods. and not with the mouth. are not first-rate. a man must be sober. For this is to eat with the eyes. delivery "Just as a calligraphist should not overtire his hand nor a poet his brain. if good. Sea-slugs and birds'nests have no characteristic flavours of their own. astonish your guests. used to dine with a merchant friend who would put on no less than three removes [sets of eight dishes served turn out in one day I separately]. The other guests applauded vigorously but I smiled and said. the pig. They chicken. not to take . Bean-curd. felt so hungry. " Don't eat with your ears . " To know right from wrong. for that is to eat with your not with the mouth.YUAN MEI . just to ears. but when I I home used have a bowl of rice-gruel. My to host gloried in all this. so that by the finished we had got through a total of some forty courses. these are the four heroes of the table. but can never be taken away. . time got we had I and sixteen kinds of sweets. by which I mean do not cover the table with innumerable dishes and multiply courses indefinitely. ' 1 came here to eat bird^-nest. . shoots. of it wholesale! "Don't eat with your eyes . the are but usurpers in "The the house.

Cooks are but mean into the and if a day is passed without either rewardfellows ing or punishing them. such neglect will become mere rewards and ." " Well." custom and against the more foolish one of piling up choice pieces on the little saucers used as plates. Now I say eat first and drink afterwards. at me to dinner any more " cried the which the whole party burst into a loud roar ! of laughter. his knees in front of " ? " favour." replied his "Then I must ask of you a " Never to invite guest . into none less than domain of cookery." says Yiian Mei. in silence.412 bad. " Into no department of indifference be allowed life. . what is it ? " inquired his host in astonishment. and even putting them into the guests' mouths^ as if they were children or brides. their minds being preoccupied with their game. a stuttering sot be able to appreciate them " I have often seen votaries of guess-fingers swallow choice food as though so much sawdust. he tells us. There was a man in Ch'ang-an." said the guest. cooked food speedily is swallowed a habit. One day this a guest threw himself said. Yuan Mei themselves. It CHINESE LITERATURE has been well said that words are inadequate to How much less then must ! describe the nuances of taste. You are indeed. who was very fond of giving dinners but the food was atrocious. " and you must grant it before I rise from my knees. that day is surely marked by negligence or carelessness on their part. too shy to help also protests against the troublesome of pressing guests to eat. If badly to creep . be successful in By these means the result will each direction. on I gentleman and " Am not a friend of yours host. Still. " should .

— CH'fiN HAO-TZO 413 punishments are of no use. has his own particular standpoint. of a wine-drinker. and the passionate From my youth upwards and flowers. If bad. attention should be called to the why and the wherefore. it and best as the saying has it. and love of flowers large vases usually have isolate covers perforated so as to each specimen. " I am not much . but this makes : me it all the more of particular. and called himself the Flower Hermit." Ch'en Hao-tzO. however. His best "vases are made to hold a single spray. A primrose by the river's brim would be to him a complete poem. the greater part of which has been spent in poring over old records. The vulgar nosegay or the He plutocratic bouquet would have no charms for him. and the remainder in enjoying myself in my garden among plants and birds. only one flower at a time." It is the type of a class often to be seen in the hands of Chinese readers. save books which prevails among all classes is quite a national characteristic. The top from a fresh-opened the wine-jar. If condemned to a ." The Chinese excel in horticulture. Wine is is like scholarship ripens with age jar. The preface was written by himself " : I have cared for nothing Twenty-eight thousand days have passed over my head. published a gossipy little work on gardening and country pursuits. under the title of " The Mirror of In 1783 at Lake Flowers. an effort should be made to discover the cause of the failure. with satisfaction. who lived beside the Western Hangchow. can see. If a dish is good. the bottom of the teapot. A Chinaman.

the table.



likes to

have a flower by his side on


stop every


He draws enjoyment, even inspiration, from He will take a flower out for a walk, and now and again to consider the loveliness of So with birds. It is a common thing on a

Chinaman carrying his birdcage suspended from the end of a short stick. He will stop at some pleasant corner outside the town, and listen with rapture to the bird's song. But to the preface. Our author goes on to say that in his hollow bamboo pillow he always keeps some work on his favourite
pleasant evening to meet a

and say that I am cracked on and a bibliomaniac but surely study is the proper occupation of a literary man, and as for gsrdening, that is simply a rest for my brain and a relaxation
" People laugh at me,



declining years.


does T'ao Ch'ien say


and rank I do not love, I have no hopes of heaven aiove.'





it is

only in hours of leisure that

devote myself

to the cultivation of flowers."

Ch'gn Hao-tzii then runs through the four seasons,

showing how each has
to the


especial charm, contributing


of those pure pleasures

which are the best

antidote against the
deal with times

of old age.


then proceeds to

and seasons, showing what to do under each month, precisely as our own garden-books do. After that come short chapters on all the chief trees, shrubs, and plants of China, with hints how to treat them under diverse circumstances, the whole concluding
with a separate section devoted to birds, animals, fishes, and insects. Among these are to be found the crane,

peacock, parrot, thrush,



monkey, dog, mentioned by Su Shih,


mainah, swallow, goldfish— first


the bridge the livelong


I stand and watch the goldfish play

glowworm, &c. Altogether there is much from this Chinese White of Selborne, and the reader lays down the book feeling that the writer
bee, butterfly,
to be learnt
is not far astray when he says, " If a home has not a garden and an old tree, I see not whence the everyday

joys of


are to come."
said to

have known several tens three years old, the age at which John Stuart Mill believed that he began Greek. It was not, however, until 1761 that he took his final degree, appearing second on the list. He was really first, but the Emperor put Wang Chieh over his head, in order to encourage men from Shensi, to which province the latter belonged. That Wang Chieh is remembered at all must be set down to the above episode, and not to the two volumes of essays which he left behind him. Chao I wrote a history of the wars of the present


(1727-18 14)


of characters

when only

dynasty, a collection of notes on the current topics of his
day, historical critiques,
a poet, contributing a large

and other works. He was also volume of verse, from which

the following sample of his art



"Man is indeed of heavenly birth.
Though seeming earthy of the earth; The sky is but a denser pall

Of the thin
Just as

air that covers


this air, so is that sky;


call this low,

and call that high ?



The dewdrop sparkles in the cup Note how the eager flowers spring up; Confine and crib them in a room. They fade andfind an early doom. So 'tis that at our uery feet The earth and the empyrean meet.

" The babe at birth points heavenward Enveloped by the eternal blue;

As fishes

in the water bide.

So heaven surrounds on every side; Yet men sin on, because they say Great God in heaven is far away''

The "stop short" was a great favourite with him. His level may be gauged by the following specimen, written as he was setting out to a distant post in the north

" See where, like specks of spring-cloud in the sky. On their long northern route the wild geese fly

Ah ! they go

Together der the River we will roam. , . . towards, and I away from home ! "

another in a more humorous vein
had been raining the whole of the


" The rain

. .

And I had been straining and working away. What's the trouble, O cook ? Votive no millet in store ?
Well, I've written a book which will buy us some more."


altogether, the poetry of the present dynasty,

especially that of the nineteenth century,

must be written


with the art not even concealed, but grossly patent to the dullest A collection of extracts from about 2000 observer. representative poets was published in 1857, but it is very
artificial verse,

as nothing

more than

any thoughts, save the most commonplace, and far between. As in every similar collecbeing few
dull reading,

tion, a place


is assigned to poetesses, of whom Fang Wei-i would perhaps be a favourable example. She came from a good family, and was but newly married to a promising young official when the latter died, and left her a sorrowing and childless widow. Light came to her in the darkness, and disregarding the entreaties of her father and mother, she decided to become a nun, and devote the remainder of her life to the service of Buddha. These are her farewell lines


common talk hoiv partings sadden life : There are no partings for us after death. But let that pass J I, now no more a wife. Willface fat^s issues to my latest breath.


The north wind whistles thro' the mulberry grove. Daily and nightly making moan for me;

I look up

to the shifting


little prattler

sky above. smiling on my knee.

" Life's sweetest boon

after all to die.




My weeping parents still are loth to yield;
Yet east and west the callow fledglings fly. And autumn's herbage wanders far afield.

What will life bring to me an I should stay What will death bring to me an I shouldgo ?

These thoughts surge through


in the light of day.

And make me

conscious that at last

I know."


of the greatest of the

scholars of the

dynasty was Yuan Yuan (1764-1849). He took his third degree in 1789, and at the final examination the aged Emperor Ch'ien Lung was so struck with his talents that he exclaimed, " Who would have thought that, after passing my eightieth year, I should find another such man as He then held many high offices in succesthis one ? " sion, including the post of Governor of Chehkiang, in



which he operated vigorously against the Annamese pirates and Ts'ai Chien, estabhshed the tithing system, colleges, schools, and soup-kitchens, besides devoting himself to the preservation of ancient monuments. As Viceroy of the Two Kuang, he frequently came into collision with British interests, and did his best to keep a tight hand over the barbarian merchants. He was a voluminous writer on the Classics, astronomy, archaeology, &c., and various important collections were produced under his patronage. Among these may be mentioned the Huang- CKing Ching Chieh, containing upwards of 1 80 separate works, and the CKou Jen Chuan, a biographical dictionary of famous mathematicians of all ages, including Euclid, Newton, and Ricci, the Jesuit Father. He also published a Topography of Kuan^tung, specimens of the compositions of more than 5000 poets of Kiangsi, and a large collection of inscriptions on bells and vases. He also edited the Catalogue of the Imperial
Library, the large encyclopaedia


as the T'ai


Lan, and other important works.
religious works, associated with the


Taoism of which have long been popular throughout China, may fitly be mentioned here. They are not to be bought in shops, but can always be obtained at temples, where large numbers are placed by philanthropists for The first is the Kan Ying P'ien, or distribution gratis. Book of Rewards and Punishments, attributed by the


foolish to


Tzii himself.

Its real



quite un-


moderate writers place it but even that seems far too early.

in the

Sung dynasty,

Although nominally
being that Taoism

of Taoist origin, this



usually edited in a very

pronounced Buddhist

setting, the fact




and Buddhism are now so mixed up that it is impossible to draw any sharp Hne of demarcation between the two. As Chu Hsi says, "Buddhism stole the best features of Taoism, and Taoism stole the worst features of Buddhism it is as though the one stole a jewel from the other, and the loser recouped the loss with a stone."

Prefixed to the


Ying P'ien


be found Buddhist




mouth and body

and appeals to Maitreya Married women and girls are advised not to frequent temples to be a spectacle for men. "If you must worship Buddha, worship the two living Buddhas (parents) you have at home and if you must burn incense, burn it at the family altar.'' We are further told that there is no time at which this book may not be read no place in which it may not be read and no person by whom it may not be read with profit. We
beginning to
read the

Buddha and





it when fasting, and not necessarily shout it aloud, so as to be heard of men, but rather to ponder over it in the heart. The text consists of a commination said to have been uttered by Lao Tzu, and

are advised to study

directed against evil-doers of



In the opening

paragraphs attention



to various spiritual beings


the good deeds and crimes of men, and lengthen or shorten their lives accordingly. Then



which will inevitably These include the ordinary offences recognised by moral codes all over the world, every form of injustice and oppression, falsehood, and theft, together with not a few others of a more Among the latter venial character to Western minds.
follows a long

of wicked acts

bring retribution in their train.

are birds'-nesting, stepping across food or human beings, cooking with dirty firewood, spitting at shooting stars



and pointing at the rainbow, or even at the sun, moon, and stars. In all these cases, periods will be cut off from the life of the offender, and if his life is exhausted while any guilt still remains unexpiated, the punishment due will be carried on to the account of his descendants. The second of the two works under consideration is the Yii Li CHao Chuan, a description of the Ten Courts of Purgatory in the nether world, through some or all of which every erring soul must pass before being allowed to be born again into this world under another form, or to be permanently transferred to the eternal bliss
reserved for the righteous alone.
In the Fifth Court, for instance, the sinners are hurried

away by bull-headed, horse-faced demons to a famous terrace, where their physical punishments are aggravated by a view of their old homes

" This terrace
east, west,



in front like a





and south.


from one

extreme to the other. The back part is like the string it is enclosed by a wall of sharp swords. of a bow its sides are knife-blades and the It is 490 feet high whole is in sixty-three storeys. No good shade comes neither do those whose balance of good to this terrace and evil is exact. Wicked souls alone behold their homes close by, and can see and hear what is going on. They hear old and young talking together ; they see their last wishes disregarded and their instructions disobeyed. Everything seems to have undergone a change. The property they scraped together with so much trouble is dissipated and gone. The husband thinks of taking another wife the widow me.ditates second nup; ; ; ;


Strangers are in possession of the old estate



nothing to divide amongst the children.

Debts long





since paid are brought again for settlement, and the survivors are called upon to acknowledge claims upon

Debts owed are lost for want of evidence, with endless recriminations, abuse, and general conthe departed.
fusion, all of




the three families of the
ill of him that is become corrupt and his



in their

anger speak


sees his children

may stroke

the coffin

Some, perhaps, for the sake of bygone and let fall a tear, departing

quickly with a cold smile.
sees her

Worse than

that, the wife

husband tortured in the yamen the husband sees his wife victim to some horrible disease, lands gone, houses destroyed by flood or fire, and everything in
unutterable confusion

—the reward of former



Sixth Court "is a vast, noisy Gehenna,


leagues in extent, and around

are sixteen wards.

"In the
to their


the souls are


to kneel for long

periods on iron shot.

In the second, they are placed


necks in filth. In the third, they are pounded till the blood runs out. In the fourth, their mouths are opened with iron pincers and filled full of needles. In the fifth, they are bitten by rats. In the sixth, they are enclosed in a net of thorns and nipped by locusts. In the seventh, they are crushed to a jelly. In the eighth, their skin is lacerated and they are beaten on the raw. In the ninth, their mouths are filled with fire. In the eleventh, they In the tenth, they are licked by flames. are subjected to noisome smells. In the twelfth, they are butted by oxen and trampled on by horses. In the thirteenth, their hearts are scratched.

In the fourteenth,
In the In the

heads are rubbed till their skulls come off. fifteenth, they are chopped in two at the waist.
sixteenth, their skin

taken off and rolled up into




"Those discontented ones who rail against heaven and revile earth, who are always finding fault either
with the wind, thunder, heat, cold, fine weather, or rain those who let their tears fall towards the north ; who
steal the gold from the inside or scrape the gilding from the outside of images ; those who take holy names in

respect for written paper, who throw and rubbish near pagodas or temples, who use dirty cook-houses and stoves for preparing the sacrificial meats, who do not abstain from eating beef and dog-flesh those who have in their possession blasphemous or obscene books and do not destroy them, who obliterate or tear books which teach man to be good, who carve on common articles of household use the symbol of the origin of all things, the Sun and Moon and Seven Stars, the Royal Mother and the God of Longevity on the same article, or representations of any of the Immortals; those who embroider the Svastika on fancy-work, or mark characters on silk, satin, or cloth, on banners, beds, chairs, tables, or any kind of utensil those who secretly wear clothes adorned with the dragon and the phoenix only to be trampled under foot, who buy up grain and hold until the price is exorbitantly high all these shall be thrust into the great and noisy Gehenna, there to be examined as to their misdeeds and passed accordingly into one of the sixteen wards, whence, at the expiration of their time, they will be sent for further questioning on to the Seyenth Court." The Tenth Court deals with the final stage of transvain,

who show no



migration previous to rebirth in the world. It appears that in primeval ages men could remember their former


on earth even after having passed through Purgaand that wicked persons often took advantage of

and a rice-sack over his shoulder.j — LI . When they have drunk. They are next pushed on to the Bitter Bamboo floating bridge. fiercely he glares out of his large round eyes and laughs a horrid laugh. but are beaten back into the water by two huge devils. an face smeared with bloocj abacus in his hand. 2S . and over his shoulder he carries a sharp sword. they are raised by the attendants and escorted back by the same path. His name is Short-Life. they try to shore. a 423 To remedy shades are Terrace of ObHvion was and are forced to drink the cup of forgetfulness before they can be born again. but to act up to one's responsibilities as suck Yet " to hard. in his hand he holds a paper pencil. Half-way large characters on a red across they perceive written in cliff on the opposite side the following lines : " To be a is man is easy. Instruments of torture hang at his waist. start up. For those who would be difficulty born again in some happy state there is no great It is only necessary to keep mouth and heart in harmony!' " When the shades have read these words. with torrents of rushing red water on either side. His jump on . be a man once again is perhaps harder still. all and now sent thither. THE YU such knowledge. but sometimes there are perverse devils wlio altogether refuse to drink. Then beneath their feet sharp blades and a copper tube is forced down their throats. CH'AO CHUAN this. " Whether they swallow much or little it matters not built. Around his neck hangs a string of paper money. his brow contracts hideously and he utters long sighs. One has on a black official hat and embroidered clothes . by which means they are compelled to swallow some. The other has a dirty he has on a white coat.

424 CHINESE LITERATURE is name They-have-their-Reward. rejoice at the human beings. and thus pass away from the state of mortals for ever. hanker after forbidden flavours. they bring themselves once more to the same that in hfe they did not lay . regardless of consequences. in their new childhood. Then." . and again. Yet they all rush on to birth like an infatuated or drunken crowd. horrid plight. They take no thought as to the end that must overtake them and. they begin to destroy life. and his duty is to push the shades into the red water. finally. and thus forfeit all claims to the mercy and compassion of God. The wicked and foolish prospect of being born once more as but the better shades weep and mourn up a store of virtuous acts.

created points of contact and brought about foreign complications to which the governors of China had hitherto been unused. . and often playing a part fraught with large.CHAPTER IV WALL LITERATURE—JOURNALISM—WIT AND HUMOUR— PROVERBS AND MAXIMS The death of Yiian Yiian in 1849 brings us down to the period five when China began to find herself for the first time face to face with the foreigner. and advertise- ments of all kinds of articles of trade. From much danger to the community at Generally speaking. the literature of the walls covers pretty much the same ground as an ordinary English newspaper. consisting sometimes of human beings. time immemorial wall-literature has been a feature in the life of a Chinese city surpassing in extent and variety that of any other nation. mixed up with notices of lost propert}'. more ports and right of residence in Peking from i860. such as one would naturally look for in the handbill literature of any city. followed by The opening of ports in 1842 to comparatively unrestricted trade. from the "agony" column downFor. and that evils worse than consumption and fevers have followed in its train. A Chinese Horace might well complain that the audacious brood of England have by wicked fraud introduced journalism into the Empire. wards.

go ahead" Qr'c.— 426 there — CHINESE LITERATURE be found announcements of new and remedies for various diseases or of infallible for the cure of depraved opium-smokers. Perfect safety. long lists are to startling pills of the names of subscribers to some coming festival or to the pious restoration of a local temple. they are more written in doggerel verse. is anonymous placard to desist from be pointed out as offensive. and now and then against female infanticide. Official proclamations on public business can hardly be classed as wall literature. as" is not unto appealing common. or Cumming-like warnings of an approaching millennium. at which the wicked will receive the reward of their crimes according to the horrible arrangements of the Buddhist-Taoist pur- gatory. with a view directly to the illiterate reader. and simiofficial will but more rarely. Occasionally an objectionable person will be advised through an a course which larly. except perhaps when. The following proclamation establishing a registry office for boats at Tientsin will give an idea of these queer documents. the action of an criticised sometimes severely or condemned. the only parallel to which in the West might be found in the famous lines issued : by the Board of Trade for the use of sea-captains " Green to green. and red to red. but really to enable the officials to know exactly to lay their hands on boats when required. . The object of this registry office was ostensibly to save the poor boatman from being at unfairly dealt with ser- when impressed where nominal wages for Government vice. sermons without end directed against the abuse of written paper.

" Once your official business done. " Go straightway there. His doubtful shares of weal and woe. " The culprit shall be well deterred In future. The barrack-soldiers' threat'nin^ band. land and water thoroughfare. boatmen. Masts Traders. as thick as clouds. None then dare claim the wicked bribe. And food and clothing getting dear. And. I'll give '' Let out your beats to any one. the runner's cap. as I have heard. in compassion for your woe. Work for yourselves as best you can. The scales ofJustice in 7ny hand. And lest your lot be hard to bear Official pay shall ample be. a pass to every man. your names inscribe And on the books a record raise. Let all who notice aught unfair Report the case at once to me. flock in. Flit past like falling rain or snow. " The services your country claims Shall be performed in turn by all The muster of the boatmetis names Be published on the Yam^n wall. " The officiaPs chair. musing on the boaiman^s hap. Or waste your time in long delays. . for your sokes I give A public register to you. I save you from the YamSnfoe. And. For times are hard. rise in forests everywhere.PROCLAMATIONS " 427 A A busy town is Tientsin. " I note the vagabonds who live On squeezes from his hard-earned due. if his guilt is clear. " Thus.

and of late years the same end has been more effectually attained often by the circulation of abusive and always disgusting. Ye boatmen. and other the aegis of an appeared.. I issue this in hope to awe Such fools as think they will succeed By trying to evade the law. of late revealed. " But lest there be who ignorance plead. For a long time the authorities fought to get rid of this objectionable daily. still a very influential newspaper. " For if I catch them. for posting anonymous placards are very severe. The office only sends away Boats and on orders duly sealed. — " One rule will thus be made for all. Eventually an official organ was started in opposition. no light fate Awaits them that unlucky day So from this proclamation's date Let all in fear and dread obey'' It is scarcely necessary to add that wall literature has been directed against foreigners. And things may not go much amiss . and contained many ably written articles by first-class native scholars. An illustrated Chinese weekly made a good beginning in Shanghai. 'tis on you I call To show your gratitude for this. often pictorial Journalism has proved to be a terrible thorn in the official side. and especially against missionaries. however. 428 CHINESE LITERATURE "No longer will they dare to play Their shameful tricks. It was first introduced into China under Englishman who was the nominal editor of the Shea Pao or Shanghai News. fly-sheets. The penalties. which now and again told some awkward truths. but un- papers have since .

" the very first sentence in which is painfully misrendered the "Adventures of Baron Munchausen. sometimes during the . that the officials took alarm and made strenuous efforts to suppress it." with illustrations. that to satisfy the taste of the educated Chinese reader the very first requisite is style. so much so." in reference to which a translations of noted ." and others. published in 1840 by Robert Thom as rendered into Chinese by an eminent native scholar. As has been seen in the case of the Liao Ckai. They will in which not look at anything emanating from foreign sources this greatest desideratum has been neglected. Recent years have witnessed the publication in Chinese of "Vathek. provided it is set in a faultless frame. but the subject-matter is of no account. and vulgarity. the various characters being in Chinese dress Mr. . and among those which have been produced may be mentioned "The Pilgrim's Progress. Attempts have been made to provide the Chinese with European works." The fact is. intolerance. the Chinese will read almost anything. The exception was a translation of ^sop's Fables. Herbert Spencer's " Education. nor the production of any great original work worthy to be smeared with cedar-oil for the delectation of posterity.— TRANSLATIONS foitunately it 429 soon drifted into superstition. It is customary after the death. In every case save one these efforts have been rejected by the Chinese on the ground of inferior style. the birth of The present age has seen no great original writer in any department of literature. This work attracted much attention among the people generally . literate of standing offered the following criticism : "The style in which this work is written is not so bad.

of silver and ten chariots as offerings of Clii. he was ordered by the Prince his father-in-law. It would be obviously unfair to describe the Chinese people as wanting in tickled humour simply because they are by Few mens of which leave us comparatively unmoved.C. and sometimes their poems.) was the wit already mentioned. chiefly for distribution of for the final some masterpiece among friends. and by the hopelessness of rivalling. recording the astonishment of the writers at the extraordinary social customs which prevail barbarians. and are then used by binders for thickening the folded leaves Successful candidates of antiquity. and still more by the hopelessness of surpassing. On one occasion. Several diaries of Ministers to foreign similar" countries and books have appeared in recent the years. our own most amusing stories will stand conjests version into Chinese terms. being such as might be introduced into any serious biographical notice of the individuals concerned. when the Ch'u State was about to attack the Chi State. those immortals who have gone before. among But nowadays a Chinaman who wishes to read a book does not sit down and write one. who was Chao State . degree usually print their winning essays. of classical The following are speci- humour.an army might be sent to which end the Prince supplied to their assistance him with 100 lbs. He is too much oppressed by the vast dimensions of his existing literature. to proceed to the and ask that .430 life. B. Such have a brief succes d'estime. with possibly a few essays and some poems. CHINESE LITERATURE of his any leading statesman to publish a Collection of memorials to the throne. Cliun-yu K'un (4th cent. who tried to entangle Mencius in his talk. .

" Li Chia-ming (loth cent. Thereupon Li Chia-ming took a pen with and wrote the following lines : — . appeared about to bring rain. and had a little music and some old wine. saying. 902-970) was an eminent official whose the hint.D." The Prince and obtained the assistance he required. " Oh." Orders were replied the wit.D. 431 the ruler of Chao. somewhat pom" pously." the girl replied They just put up a gold-splashed awning. I saw a husbandman sacrificing a pig's foot and a single cup of wine after which he prayed. he said. On one occasion the latter drew attention to some gathering clouds which ing repartee. A. At this Ch'un-yii laughed so immoderately that he snapped the lash of his cap and when the Prince asked him what was the joke. all of whom managed to catch something. to his great chagrin. no. . had not a single bite. he asked her. "the octroi is so high. T'ao Ku (a. "As I was coming along this morning." city. make my upper . whereas he himself. O God. make my fields ! ' bloom with crops and I with grain And little barns burst could not help laughing at a man my who took offered so and wanted so much.WIT AND HUMOUR to . " They may come. is name popularly known in connection with the follow- Having ordered a newly-purchased waiting-niaid to get some snow and make tea in honour of the Feast of Lanterns. ' terraces fill baskets and my lower terraces fill carts." thereupon issued that the duties should be reduced by On another occasion the Prince was fishing one-half. " Was that the custom in your former home ? " they were a rough lot. some of his courtiers. "but they will not venture to enter the "Why not?" asked the Prince." said Li Chia-ming. "Because.) was a wit at the Court of the last ruler of the T'ang dynasty.

about the year 1060. When he was only eight years old. adding these two : " The undergraduate jokes. the Sage. not to be mentioned with the masterpieces of fiction described in this volume.— 432 ' — CHINESE LITERATURE ^ " Tis rapture in the warm spring days to drop the temptingfly In the green pool where deep and still the darkling waters lie. "to let puppies like you run in and out." All things are produced." him Collections of wit and humour of the Joe Miller type are often to be seen in the hands of Chinese readers. who had changed his name to Liu Yiin. and said. and placed first on the list. he found that the first man was Liu Chi. may . When the names were read out.) Liu Chi (nth cent. some one laughed at him for having lost several teeth. When which was much reprobated by the great Ou-yang Hsiu. And among them " This must be Liu Chi. And if the fishes dare not touch the bait your Highnessflings. the latter was Grand Examiner. was a youth who had gained some notoriety by his fondness for strange phraseology. Ou-yang was very much struck by the essay of a certain candidate. lines and ran a red-ink pen through the composition. The examiner ploughs" Later on. and be bought at any bookstall." cried Ou-yang. They ktiow that only dragons are a fitting sportfor kings A. Chang HsiJan-tsu was a wit of the Han dynasty.D. Like many novels of the cheap and worthless class." replied Chang. " What are those dog-holes in your mouth for ? " " They are there. one of the candi: dates sent in a doggerel triplet as follows " The universe is in labour.

in which the stories are under twelve heads. "About forty-five or forty-six. Women. such as Arts. episodes which of the whole. I never !" cried the bride. however. A stated eight . and the consequence is a great falling off from what may be regarded as the is China pure." "Well. Even the Hung Lou Ming contains mar to a considerable extent the beauty One excuse is that it is a novel of real and to omit. "as thirtybut I am sure you are older than that." " I am really fifty- answered the bride. by the by. of it. Accordingly he said. Priests : bridegroom noticing deep wrinl^es on the face of his/ bride." A woman who was entertaining a paramour during the absence of her husband. to which she replied. the authors have no desire to attach their names to such works. the man into a rice-sack." "Your age is on the marriage contract. and her never before heard of rats stealing salt." he rejoined. " Oh. and you may four. and determined to set a trap for her. "Here I've lived sixty-eight years. The work following are a few specimens of in four small dotes taken from the Hsiao Lin Kuang humorous anecChi.— THE HSIAO LIN KUANG CHI tKese collections are largely unfit for translation. was startled by hearing the ' latter knock at the house-door. asked her how old she was. The was not satisfied. I must just go and cover up the salt jar. the ordinary frailties of mortals would be to produce an incomplete and inadequate picture." as well tell me the truth. taken off I guard. therefore. literature in 433 All Novels and stories are not classed as literature . She hurriedly bundled which she concealed in a . a modern classified volumes. or the rats will cat every scrap bridegroom. life. national standard.

and escaped by swimming across a river. "and burn his house and valuables. "if your hate is so deep as all that." " I can draw down fire from heaven." replied the other won't do." A scoundrel who had a deep grudge against a wealthy man. if you can persuade ." cried the would remain so that won't do. "Yes. and asked in a stern voice. but when her husband came in he caught sight of it." said the magician. A portant thing is to learn to swim. sought out a famous magician and asked for his " I can send demon soldiers and secretly cut help. " Only rice." " Even then." said the magician. will utter smash." answered the man." to He thereupon was seen is contain a pen. In the night he managed to free himself. but his sons and " that grandsons would inherit. " What have you got in that sack ? " His wife was too terrified to answer and after an awkward pause a voice from the sack was heard to say. him off. on being opened. . to avail himself of it.434 corner of the CHINESE LITERATURE room . " you evidently do not know magician." the family who had mismanaged a case was seized by and tied up. . "What spiritual ! power " Ah " there in this ? " asked the man." The King bring back of Purgatory sent his skilful lictors to earth to some physician. he found his son. sighed the how many this little have been brought to ruin by the use of thing. " his landed property " Oh. I have something precious here which. which. and said to him. "You must look . him bring him and his to gave to his delighted client a tightly closed package." magician. "Don't be the first and most imin a hurry with your books doctor . who had just begun to study medicine. When he got home.

nothing. was advised by a friend to paint a picture of himself and his wife. " And how have I merited your godplied the spirit. . A point general was hard of pressed in battle a to giving way. "I only picked up an old piece of rope. that is your daughter. " Who is that woman " ? Why." ever. and shortly afterwards his father-inlaw came along. but at the house of every doctor they visited there were crowds of wailing ghosts hanging about. "for merely picking up an or A man who wooden collar." said the 435 King. This he did. "This man is evidently the skilful one we are in search of." replied the " ? artist. howhe had only started practice and on the spirit the day before." The lictors went last off. they discovered that On inquiry. to his rescue ship's came when suddenly and enabled him soldier kind assistance ? " inquired the general. " I am answered the spirit. " at whose door there are no aggrieved spirits of disembodied patients." they asked." again inquired her father. At they found a doctor at whose door there was only a single shade." he replied. who was' doing very little business. Prostrating himself on the ground." A portrait-painter. "sitting there with that stranger had been condemned to wear the cangue. " because in your days of practice you never once hit me. and cried out." THE HSIAO LIN KUANG CHI for one. was seen by some of his friends. grateful to you. What- ever she doing." rethe spirit's name. he asked " I am the God of the Target." they said." the latter " at is length asked. Gazing at the picture for some time. win a great victory. "to deserve this?" "Oh. "What have you been doing. and to hang it out in the street as an advertisement." "And are you to be punished thus severely.

brought after death before the King of Purgatory." The barest sketch of Chinese literature would hardly be complete without some allusion to its proverbs and maxims. classical and popular. Thus the Ming Hsien Chi. and it became necessary to pour in more cold water. These are not only to be found largely scattered throughout every branch of writing. to ." said the King. generally under a metrical form. As for the third. you had better offer your friend a bath A monkey. " As we don't seem likely to get any tea. " In that case." and he ordered the attendant demons to pull them out forthwith. the monkey screeched out. but may also be studied in collections. I wanted to draw it. and at length the boiler was overflowing but no tea had come. " I didn't win the first game." said he. At the very first hair.. Next day a friend asked him how he had come off. Then the man's wife said to her husband. " " how are you to You brute !" roared the King. and my opponent didn't lose the second. " Oh. " all the hairs must be plucked out of your body. however. so a servant Before the latter had reto borrow some. begged to be reborn on earth as a man. This happened several times. turned the water was already boiling." A man was sent fortunately there asked a friend to stay and have tea. become a' man if you cannot even part " ? with a single hair A braggart chess-player played three games with a and lost them all." answered the man.Unwas no tea in the house. "the fact a bullock tied to the other end. and said he ! " could not bear the pain. but he stranger wouldn't agree.436 end is CHINESE LITERATURE of that there rope?" was "Well.

These are a few taken from an inexhaustible supply. omitting to a greaf extent such as find a ready equivalent in English : Deal with the faults of others as gently as with your own. six. By many words wit is exhausted.— PROVERBS take one example. arranged in antithetical couplets of five. you Bend your head Oblige. but no one will think so. bow low. With money you can move the gods can't move a man. . Children are made to learn these by heart. If you take an ox. better than a middling doctor. committed to memory and judiciously introduced. and ordinary grown-up Chinamen may be almost said to think in proverbs. without it. better. consists of thirty pages of proverbs and the Uke. why travel worship the gods A bottle-nosed man may be a teetotaller. It is easier to catch a tiger than to ask a favour. and seven characters to each line. are a great aid to successful conversation. and you if the eaves are low. If you bow at all. If thinks he knows. which can be purchased — 437 anywhere for about a penny. There can be no doubt that to the foreigner a large store of proverbs. . you must give earth a horse. but a woman knows sound ? Words whispered on fortune smiles like thunder in —who doesn't If fortune doesn't who does ? Moneyed men Nature Stay at afar to is are always listened to. A man heaven. home and reverence your parents ? . will be obliged.

Armies are maintained for years. No needle is sharp at both ends. and the rest bark at him. Politeness before force. man. . of. bright. by gold. Draw your bow. what god need you pray to for pardon ? Some study shows the need for more. If you are upright and without guile. Free sitters at the play always grumble most. He knows what they are made We man Half an orange tastes as sweet as a whole one. Better a dog in peace than a man Every one gives a shove to the tumbling wall. Sweep the snow from your own doorstep. but other men's wives. first. One more good man on earth is better than an extra angel in heaven. don't do it. . love our own compositions. Gold is tested by fire . One dog barks at something. to be used on a single day. One kind word will keep you warm for three The highest towers begin from the ground. You can't clap hands with one palm. but don't shoot. He who rides a tiger cannot dismount. gold is dull . In misfortune. ^ Straight trees are felled No image-maker stuff worships the gods.438 CHINESE LITERATURE Don't put two saddles on one horse. It is not the wine which makes a man drunk in war. it is the himself. in happiness. iron is More If trees are upright than you fear that people will men. Long visits bring short compliments. winters. know.

scale. Money makes a blind man Man is God upon a small large scale.PROVERBS 439 Those who have not tasted the bitterest of life's bitters can never appreciate the sweetest of life's sweets. see. God is jnan upon a A near neighbour is better than a distant relation. Without error there could be no such thing as truth. 29 .


History. under the title of Les Mimoires Historiques de Se-ma T^^eK^iie first volume of which is dated Paris. 387). The Cursus Literatura Sinica.. chap. 1895. 44" . under the general title of The Chinese Classics. Shanghai. Ernest Leroux. is a translation by Professor E. which forms the greatest existing monument of Anglo-Chinese scholarship. contains descriptive notices of about 2000 separate Chinese works. 1895. It is still of the utmost value to. Wylie.J. The publication of this work. extended literature well exhibited in the three large from 1861 to 1885. Zottoli. tEmpire chinois. James Legge of Aberdeen. Shanghai. and is designed especially for the use of Roman Catholic missionaries {neo-missionariis accommodatus). JVoies on Chinese LAterature. arranged under Classics. though in need of careful revision. 1878. of the famous history described in Book II. now rapidly approaching completion. Another very important work. by Henri Cordier: Paris. this book is entitled to rank among the highest efforts of the kind. This work is carried out with a fulness and accuracy which leave nothing to be desired. and is essential to all systematic workers in the Chinese field. is an extensive series of translations into Latin from all branches of Chinese literature. Philosophy. Considering the date at which it was written.. by P. as in the Imperial Catalogue (see p. and Belles Lettres. or Diciionnaire Bibliograpkique des Ouvrages rildtifs d. By far the most important of all books mentioned in the above collection is a complete translation of the Confucian Canon by the late Dr.BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE What foreign students have achieved in the department of Chinese from the sixteenth century down to quite recent times is volumes which form the Bibliotheca Sinica. iii. 18791882. with Supplement. Chavannes. the student. by A. 1867. College de France. S.

1898. i. published monthly at Canton from May 1832 to December 1851. Edmund. Thefournal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. IVigan. Variites Sinologiques is the title of a series of monographs on various Chinese topics. Giles. the Library of the British — and Drawings in Museum. but it often contains valuable papers on Chinese literature and cognate subjects. 1900.— 442 The BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE following Catalogues of Chinese libraries in Europe have been : published in recent years Catalogue of Chinese Printed Books.^ in the Biblioth^que Nationale. This is. A. has already appeared. By R.. Manuscripts. published every two months at Hong-Kong from June 1872 to the present date. By Maurice Courant. Haigh Hall. P. 1883. 1895. . The China Review. vii. and since that date issued in fascicules at irregular intervals during each yeat. published annually at Shanghai from 1858 to 1884. which has existed since 1868. and is now published every two months at Shanghai. etc. Douglas. Careens. Catalogue of the Chinese Books and Manuscripts in the Library of Lord 'Crawford. Catalogue of the Chinese and Manchu Books in the Library of the University of Cambridge. strictly speaking.) By Bunyio The chief periodicals especially devoted to studies in Chinese litera: ture are as follows The Chinese Repository. written and published at irregular intervals by the Jesuit Fathers at Shanghai since 1892. There is also the Chinese Recorder. Paris. K. By H. Nanjio. By J. and distinguished by the erudition and accuracy of all its contributors. Catalogue des Livres Chinois. (Fasc. Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka. 1877. a missionary jdurnail. 148. faponais. pp.

403. 9. 274 Chang Pi. 50-53 Chuang TzO. 430 . 122 Cn'iN P'£ng-nien. 115 Book of Changes. Chao Ping. 228 Women. 238 Chia I. 400. 97 Chia Yu. 322 Ch'in Kuei. 204 CrffiN T'uan. 24. 432 Chou Tun-i. 309 Chang Chi. 391 Ch'u YiiAN. l2-2f. 277 Chu Shih. 147. 60-68 CKun CKiu. 10. 43. 247 Beggar King. of the Imperial Library. 4x5 Chad Li-hua. 209 Chang T'lNG-yiJ.INDEX ANiESTHETICS. 41 Buddhism. 137 Barbarians. 12 Book of Odes. 418 Chi Chun-hsiang. 441 Biographies of Eminent Chj^n Lin. Cking Hua Yilan. 175. 7. 316-322 Chou Li. 269 Chi Yun. 404 CKouJen Chuan. 48 Ch'ien Lung. Chang Chih-ho. 9. 110-116. 233 Ch'^n TzO-ang. 418 Chu Hsi. 23. 228-231 Chang Chao Ch'ien. 80 Ch'^n Hao-tzO.pin. 228. 23. 387. 92 C/iin P'ing Mei. 278 Analects. 148 CnfiNG Ch'iao. 32-35 Ch'ao Ts'o. 21-23 Cn'iNG Hag. 247 Chu Yung-shun. 413 Cn'feN Art of War. 220 Chi Hsi. 24 Chang HsUan-tsu. 95 Bddhidharma. 127 Book of History. 219 Chang Kuo. 333 Ch'un-yii K'un. 252. 220. 261 418 176 191 Chan Kuo Tit. 404 Bambqo Anpa^s. Chin JCu C/ii Kuan. 236 Ch'£ng I. 404 Ch'ij 36 333 Chao I. 4f8. 54. 419 14. 443 25 Chao Ts'ai-'chi. 92 Cheng HsiiAN. 44 Hung-mou. 238 Ch'^n T'ao. Catalogue 387. 256 Book of Rewards and Punishjnents. 428 Bashpa. 417 Book of Rites. 158 Chu-ko Liang. 291 Biblic^raphy.

61. loS Five Classics. 404 32-3S. 160-163. 134 Hsieh Chin. 7. 41 I Li. 291 Ho Lan Ting-yiian. 413 Gobharana. Hung Mai. 294-296 Fang Shu-shao. 355 Hsi Yu Chi. 126 395 Dictionaries. 241-243 Hsiang Hsiu.444 Chung Yung. 278-280 Emperor. 12. 137 HsiJN TzO. Hung Chueh-fan. 48. History of the Ming Dynasty. 310 FfiNG Tao. 228. 13. 102 History. Complete collection of Han the Tang dynasty. 137 European works in Chinese. 47 Hua. 119 Hsij Kuang-ch'i. Encyclopaedias. 133 Hsij An-ch£n. 77-79. no / Ching. 392 Family sayings of Confucius. 178 Hsij Hsieh. 41. 417 Fang Yen. 107. 333. 25. 21 Humour. 24. Four Books. 109. 276 Criminal cases of Hsi Hsiang Chi. 386. 44. 281-287. 329-331 Fa Hsien.. 210 First Hsieh Tao-h£ng. 128 I. Hsi K'ang. 21 Great Learning. 240. 238. 127 Hsiao Ching. 83. 385 Doctrine of the Mean. 324 Erh Ya. 239. Shang Kung. 143 Concordances. Classical. 48 Fan Yeh. 235. 41 Drama. 109 Hsiian Tsang. 138 Fang Hsiao-ju. 72-74 Huang-fu Mi. Fa Yen. The. Huai-nan Tzt). 137 Huang CKing Ching Chieh. Fu Fu 134 Mi. 433-436 Hsiao Tsang Shan Fang CKih Tu. 30S Hsu SafiN. 93 111-114 Hsieh Su-su. 256-262. 70-72 160 Classic of Filial Piety. 94 Gardening. 355. 281. 48 Hsiao Lin JCuang Chi. 418 See Barbarians Huang 236 T'ing-chien. 430 236 433 Hung Lou Ming. 133 429 Hsiao YU. 22. 264-268 Foreigners. 32-42 Fu Hsi. 48 Han Wen-Kung. 115. 94 Feng Shin. 305-307 HsiJ Kan. 41 tiie INDEX Han poetry of Fei Tzf5. 102 Confucius. 41 405 Erh Tou Met. 310 Hsi Yiian Lu. 28. Dr. 325 Dream of the Red Chamber. 25 . 334 Fang Wei-i. 385. 332 Family maxims. HsiJN HsiJ. 95 273. 409 History of the Mongol Dynasty. 227. 196-203. 48 Cookery-book. Hsiao T'ung. 355 Historical Record. 284-287 . 139 Hsiao Yen. 386 Yij. 7-31 Flowery Ball.

125. 79 Li Li Li Li Yang-ping. 238 Kublai Khan. 120 K'ung Tao-fu. 190. 251. 61. 428 445 Sh£. 24 Lexicography. 240-243 Mei Sh^ng. 418 Medical Jurisprudence. 41S Li Fang. 94 Tuan-lin. 307 Mathematicians. 252. 252 Liu Yiin. 36. 190 Liu Shu Ku. Liu Yin. 258 K'UNG YlNG-TA. 391 Ku Kuan Tzu. 391 Joining the Shirt. 25. 99-101 Ch£ng. S3. Biographies Ma Ma Ma Jung. 72 no Chiang. Kuo P'o. 9S Hsiang. 151-156 Li Fo-yao. 30 Ku Yen-wu. 385 Liae Chat Chih I.INDEX Jesuit Fathers. 149 Li Sao. 60. 277 Lu W£n-shu. 137 26 Lo Kuan-chung. 37-39 Kashiapmadanga. 89-92 Lu Yuan-lAng. 307 SsO. 204 Li Ling. 165 Little Learning. 308. 392 TztJ. 138 Kuo Yii. 80 Ming Chi Kang Mii. 190 Li Chi. 68-70 Lin Hsi-chung. 94 Lun Yii. 239. 191-196 KUO HSIANG. 30S Jih Chih Lu. 97 Hsin. 122 Chi. 23. 175 Li Hua. Kao Chij-nien. 418 K'ang Hsi. 431 TzO-jan. 190 Matteo Ricci. 41 K'uNG Jung. 248 Kumarajiva. 177 Shih-ch£n. 44 Kuang Yiin. 326 Kao Tzu. 212. 338-355 Lieh Kuo Chtian. s6-6oj Lao Tan. 274 Journalism. 385 X'angHsi Tzii Tien. 21. 23. 32-35 LaN Lao TlNG-YlJAN. 191 Li Ying. 114 Liu Liu Liu Liu Liu Liu Ca'fi. 92. 120 Kan Ying Pien. 310-315 LiEH TzO. 25 Li Chia-ming. 432 H£ng. 29. 432 160. 29-31 K'UNG AN-KUO. 78. 240 of. 80 K'uNG Ghi. 126 KuNG-YANG. 97 M£ng Mencius. 240 Li Ho. 239 Liu Tsung-yuan. 247. 48 Lun Heng. 391 Ku-LIANG. 45. 203. 92 Liu Hsu.7 Liu Ling. 177 Materia Medica. 189 Lu Pu-WEi. 404 . 35-40 Hao-jan. 237 Kao Ts£-CH"fiNG. 230 Liu An. 81-89 Li Po. 51 Meng T'ien. 48 LU Skih Cliiin CUiu.

108 Pan Piao. 132 Pear-Garden. Odes. 12 Shih Lei Fu. 61. The Chinese. 41 Mo Ti. 338-355 Story of the Guitar. 25-31 SsO-k'ung T'u. 57. 268 37. 401 Mongol Plays. Neaking New 217 Sacred Edict. 109 Six Idlers of the Bamboo Grove. 40. Po Chu-i. 310 San TzH Ching. 404 See Book of Odes Orphan of the Chap Family. the Lady. loi. 49 the Standard. 108 Pan Ku. 428 Shao Yung. 257 Fei Wht YUn Fu. 25| Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. 179-188 SsO-MA Ch'ien. 299 Slaying a Son at the Pao Chao. 138 Shih Ching. 432 Shanghai News. 273 "Strange Stories. 44. 125 Nine Old Gentlemen of Hsiang-shan. 43 P'ing Shan Ling Yen. 143-146 Printing. 325 Story of the Three Kingdoms. Invention of.9 446 Ming Hsien Chi. 277- 280 Story of the Western Pavilion. 102-108 Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju." 389 P'ien TzH Lei P'ien. 322-227 . 324 Yamen Gate. 212-216. 83." 413 Mirror of History. 281- Ming Huang. 277-2S0. loi. 7 Shih Nai-an." 338-355 Record of the III-114 Buddhistic Kingdoms. 227 Su Shih. 25P. 163-175 Poetesses. 8 Pan Chao. 234 SAln Pao. 323. Emperor. 28Q Shiu ffu Chuan. 386 Ping Fa.irs of the Chien-An Period. 310 Shun. Su Ch£. 332. 325-328 " Picking up Gold. 128 0-£rh-t'ai. 119^ Shan T'ao. 217. 280. 385 P'i Pa Chi. Emperor. The. 393 Shu Ching. 108 Shuo Win. 164 Novel. 437-439 P'u SUNG-LING. 271-273 Spring and Autumn Antials. 217 Chou dynasty. 299 Sh£n Yo. 276 Seven Schol. 281. 89. 239 Pan. 222. 7. 152 Six Scripts. 269 Ou-YANG Hsiu. 333 Poetry. 297. 97 Sstr-MA KUANG. 45 History of the T'ang Dynasty. 24 Roman Catholic missionaries. ? 1 7-2 1 209 Proverbs and Maxims. 239 Six Traitorous Ministers of the Miijg dynasty. 257 " Mirror of Flowers. Mu Tien TzA Chuan. 428 Shen Su. 386 San Kuo Chih Yen 7. 436 INDEX Record of Travels 287 Rites of the in the West.

^l Tai. 115 Sung Yu. 189 Win Hsien Tung K'ao. 425. 229 Tai P'iug Ktiang Chi. Wht ffsiian. 146. 77 Su Tung-p'o. 316 393 Wu Shu. Tsung CrffiN. 263 Topography of Kuangtung. 431 T'ao Yuan-ming. 159 Tseng Ts'an. Ts'ang Chieh. 124 Women 278-280 as Writers. 228 Tung Chien KangMu San Pien. 217 Tung Chien Katig Mu. 262. 10. 418 Tan Ming-lun. 37. 9. TaHsuek. 191. 386 Tung-fang So. Yang Yang Chu. 149. 21 Ts'ai Yung.0 Twenty-four Dynastic Histories. 41. 148. 240 Tai Ping YU Lan. 94 Wang Jung. 415 Tai T'ung. 297. 240 178 Chi-sh^ng. 273 Su. 97 Su Wu.INDEX Su Tai. 432 Biographies of. 56-74. Shih-cheng. 159 Wang Ch'ung. 227 Tag Ch'ien. 54. 212. 44 Wen Wang. 23 the Younger. 324 241 53 Sung Yun. . 95 Wit and Humour. 342 T'an Kung. 240 140 WfiN T'ien-hsiang. Women. Wall Literature. 277. 301 40 93 Yang Hsiung. The. Women. 23 135 Wang Chieh. 150. 56-60. 150 Wang Ying-lin. 217. 239 T^ai Hsudn Ching. 24. 45-47 T'ang the Completer. 6 92 of. 123. 147 Wang Wang Pu-ch'ing. 48 Tso Chuan. 83 Sun Shu-jan. Tu Fu. 250 Wei Ch^ng. 220-222. 191. TsiN Ts'an. 24S-250 Wen Tzii. 121 Wang Tzii-ch'iao. 238. 9 Taoism. 43. Ts'ao Chih. 418 Ts'ai Ch'ien. 128 Wang Po. i6i. 93 Wang Chien. 128-132 T'ao Ku. 156-158 Tu Yu. 123. 48 Wang Tao-K'un. 151 Wu Tzu. 128 Ten Courts of Purgatory. 137 Sun TzO. 426 Wang An-shih. 149 Sung Lien. 235 Wang Chi. 256 Hag. the Elder. 239. 418 . 216. 291-293 Sung Tz'ii. 120. 420 Three Character Classic. Tung Chien. 404 Tung Tien. 44 Sung Ch'i. 250. 44 Wu Wang. 309 Wang Wang Shih-fu. Ts'ui 8. 103 Twice Flowering Plum-trees. 239 21 26-29. 303-305 151 Wang Wei. 417 Ts AO Ts'ao. 301-303 Tu Ch'in-nianc. Wang Ts'an. 447 222 T'u Shu Chi CKing. 4I9 Taa Tl Ching. Proper Training Women's Degrees. 251 Three Suspicions. 238 Sung Chih-w£n. 82.

95 Yo Yii. 386 Yilan CKU Hsilatt Yuan Hsien. 127 Yuan Mei. 296 Yung Lo Ta Tien. 127 Kuei-fei. 168-175 Ti. 7. 8. 405 Tsa Chi. 26 Cluian. 417 Yung Ch^ng. Fei. 420 Vii Yii Chim Li. 237 Yen Shih-ku. 268 Yao. 190 YiNG Yang.448 Yang Yang Yang I. 309 Li CKao <3) THE END . S Yeh Shih.. 122 Yuan Yuan.Emperor. 261 Yuan Yu. 12. INDEX 234 Yuan Chi. 387 Yung Lo. 122 Yiian Shao. 296 The Great. 136 YMan Chien Lei Han.



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