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1. When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons: too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, and impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help. 2. During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons built their railroads with government assistance. 3. The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with land grants. 4. James J. Hill ± Great Norther Cornelius Vanderbilt ± New York Central Leland Standord ± Central Pacific 5. The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the Great Northerner. 6. One by-product of the development of the railroads was the movement of people to cities. 7. The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was the railroad network. 8. The United States changed to standard time zones when the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep their schedules to avoid wrecks. 9. Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called pools. 10. Early railroad owners formed ³pools´ in order to avoid competition by dividing business in a particular area. 11. Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by the Supreme Court. 12. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the Interstate Commerce Commission. 13. One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business. 14. After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States helped to build the nation into an industrial giant. 15. One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was increased competition.
the South remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural. pursuing a policy of rule or ruin. 27. Pierpont Morgan ± interlocking directorate 17. and using highpressure sales methods. 28. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of railroad corporations. Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century. Andrew Carnegie ± vertical integration John D. 24.´ which associated godliness with riches encouraged many millionaires to help the poor. 26. J. . the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment.´ 31. Rockefeller ± trust J. The South¶s major attraction for potential investors was cheap labor. industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to all of the following: economical swings and depressions. The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of Henry Bessemer. The Fourteenth Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments. 33. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry: employing spies. tax benefits and cheap. The first major product of the oil industry was kerosene. America¶s first billion-dollar corporation was United States Steel. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. 21. so as to avoid corporate regulation by the states.16. nonunion labor especially attracted textile manufacturing to the ³new South. 30. 23. 34. extorting rebates from railroads. Rockefeller ± oil J. 20. John D. In the late nineteenth century. This method was known as an interlocking directorate. Andrew Carnegie ± steel John D. To help corporations.P. One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock. 25. 19. The ³gospel of wealth. During the age of industrialization. 29. Pierpont Morgan ± banking James Duke ± tobacco 18. 22. 32. which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves. The oil industry became a huge business with the invention of the internal combustion engine. The group most affected by the new industrial age was women. Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as the only steady jobs and wages available.
and a political climate favoring business. The image of the ³Gibson Girl´ represented a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic ³new woman. shorter working hours. 46. blacklist and company town. 43.employers¶ whims.´ 36. 42. 48. American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. 44. and better working conditions 40. an abundance of natural resources. American ingenuity and inventiveness. Generally. 45. the National Labor Union won an eight-hour day for governing workers. By 1900. A closed shop is least similar to lockout. 39. 38. organized labor in America had begun to develop a more positive image with the public. One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its lack of class-consciousness. In its efforts on behalf of workers. the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor corporations. The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the American Federation of Labor. sudden unemployment. 37. and illness and accident. Posted by Alexander at 7:13 PM 16 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: APUSH . All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion: a large pool of unskilled labor. the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor. By 1900. The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies by strengthening the economical and political independence of the workers. The people who found fault with the ³captains of industry´ mostly argues that these men built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers. One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was Chinese. Nevertheless. 49. 35. yellow dog contract. National Labor Union ± a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s Knights of Labor ± the ³one big union´ that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration American Federation of Labor ± an association of unions pursuing higher wages. 50. Most women works of the 1890s worked for economic necessity. 41. 47. Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because America has greater social mobility than Europe has. The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when labor would own and operate businesses and industries.
Stalwarts B. The Compromise of 1877 resulted in the withdrawal of federal troops from the South. ³Spoilsmen´ was the label attached to those who expected government jobs from their party¶s elected officeholders. One cause of the panic that broke in 1873 was the construction of more factories than existing markets would bear. those political candidates who campaigned by ³waving the bloody shirt´ were reminding voters of the ³treason´ of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War. One result of Republican ³hard money´ policies was the formation of the Greenback Labor party. The sequence of presidential terms of the ³forgettable presidents´ of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland¶s two nonconsecutive terms) was Hayes. A. extravagance. 8. debtors suggested inflationary policies. 22. Ferguson. Grant was reelected in 1872 because his opponents chose a poor candidate for the presidency. In the late nineteenth century. At the conclusion of the Civil War.Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age Advanced Placement United States History Review for Test Chapter 23 Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age 1. Roscoe Conkling . . Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually party loyalists. 14. Jay Gould. Harrison. In the presidential election of 1868. and Louisiana. 18. 12. 3. leader of New York City¶s infamous Tweed Ring. During the Gilded Age. 20. Ulysses Grant ±Regular Republicans 11. 13. ³Black Friday´. Grant owed his victory to the votes of former slaves. 5. 19. 7. ³Ohio Idea´and Wall Street gold market 6. Arthur. 21. General Ulysses S. 10. the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was political patronage. Grant accepted gifts of houses and money from citizens. Garfield. The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved railroad construction kickbacks. and graft reduced the moral stature of the Republic. the Democrats and the Republicans had few significant economic differences. the Supreme Court ruled that ³separate but equal´ facilities were constitutional. speculation. in jail was the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast. As a result of the Civil War. Cleveland. Horace Greeley ± Liberal Republicans D. One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties. Ulysses S. 2. James Blaine ± ³Half-Breeds´ C. In an attempt to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings. Match each politician below with the Republican political faction with which he was associated. 15. Cleveland. The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s aroused great interest among voters. 17. 4. Jim Fisk is least related to. 9. As a solution to the panic or depression of 1873. the owners of Crédit Mobilizer distributed shares of the company¶s valuable stock to key congressmen. 23. 16. President Ulysses S. In the 1896 case of Plessy v. waste. South Carolina. During the Gilded Age. One weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed. The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida.
48. poll taxes. The railroad of 1877 started when the four largest railroads cut salaries by ten percent. Grover Cleveland had a different political affiliation than other Gilded Age presidents. 31. In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California. 38. 40. One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the United States was to dig for gold. 50. The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to take a competitive examination. When he was president. Labor unrest during the Hayes administration stemmed from the collapse of the steel industry. 25. The 1884 election contest between James G. 26. the second was James Garfield. President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of borrowing $65 million in gold from J. Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in the use of federal troops during strikes. Idaho. 41. Garfield was assassinated by a deranged. and Nevada. With the passage of the Pendleton Act. 32. 47. 30. Hayes opened with scenes of class warfare. The four states completely carried by the Populists in the election of 1892 were Kansas. The Chinese word tong means meeting hall. The following were internal developments in China.P. 51. Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office. 36. Morgan¶s banking syndicate. 34. The greatest political beneficiary of the backlash against President Cleveland in the Congressional elections of 1894 was the Republicans. President James A. Which of the following was not among the platform planks adopted by the Populist Party in their convention of 1892? Government guarantees of ³parity prices´ for farmers 46. 42. 35. the United States Congress passed a law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers to America.24. economic intimidation and grandfather clauses. 29. . 39. politicians now sought money from big corporations. The presidency of Rutherford B. 37. The major campaign issue of the 1888 presidential election was tariff policy. Colorado. Grover Cleveland¶s hands-off approach to government gained the support of businesspeople. 44. disappointed office seeker. Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader William Jennings Bryan. 27. President Grover Cleveland advocated a lower rate. 28. The political developments of the l890s were largely shaped by the most severe and extended economic depression up to that time. In the latter decades of the nineteenth century. 49. the intrusion of European powers and internal political turmoil. that led to Chinese immigration into the United States: the disintegration of the Chinese Empire. The ³Billion-Dollar Congress´ quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by expanding pensions for Civil War veterans. The early Populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South. 43. 33. On the issue of the tariff. Southern whites disenfranchised African-Americans with literacy requirements. the seizure of farmland by landlords. it was generally true that the locus of political power was Congress. The legal codes that established the system of segregation were called Jim Crow laws. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for its personal attacks on the two candidates. 45. At the end of Reconstruction.
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