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# Civil Engineering Design (1

)

Civil Engineering Design (1) Prestressed Concrete

2006/7

Dr. Colin Caprani, Chartered Engineer

1

Dr. C. Caprani

Civil Engineering Design (1)

Contents

1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2. Background...................................................................................................... 3 Basic Principle of Prestressing ........................................................................ 4 Advantages of Prestressed Concrete ............................................................... 6 Materials .......................................................................................................... 7 Methods of Prestressing................................................................................. 10 Uses of Prestressed Concrete......................................................................... 15

Stresses in Prestressed Members ..................................................................... 16 2.1 2.2 Background.................................................................................................... 16 Basic Principle of Prestressed Concrete ........................................................ 19

3.

Design of PSC Members ................................................................................... 29 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Basis............................................................................................................... 29 Minimum Section Modulus ........................................................................... 32 Prestressing Force & Eccentricity ................................................................. 37 Eccentricity Limits and Tendon Profile ........................................................ 49

4.

Prestressing Losses ............................................................................................ 56 4.1 4.2 4.3 Basis and Notation......................................................................................... 56 Losses in Pre-Tensioned PSC........................................................................ 57 Losses in Post-tensioned PSC ....................................................................... 60

5.

Ultimate Limit State Design of PSC ................................................................ 66 5.1 5.2 Ultimate Moment Capacity ........................................................................... 66 Ultimate Shear Design................................................................................... 71

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Dr. C. Caprani

Civil Engineering Design (1)

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The idea of prestressed concrete has been around since the latter decades of the 19th century, but its use was limited by the quality of the materials at the time. It took until the 1920s and ‘30s for its materials development to progress to a level where prestressed concrete could be used with confidence. Freyssinet in France, Magnel in Belgium and Hoyer in Germany were the principle developers.

The idea of prestressing has also been applied to many other forms, such as: • Wagon wheels; • Riveting; • Barrels, i.e. the coopers trade; In these cases heated metal is made to just fit an object. When the metal cools it contracts inducing prestress into the object.

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Dr. C. Caprani

C. In an ordinary concrete beam the tensile stress at the bottom: 4 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. Concrete Concrete is very strong in compression but weak in tension.2 Basic Principle of Prestressing Basic Example The classic everyday example of prestressing is this: a row of books can be lifted by squeezing the ends together: The structural explanation is that the row of books has zero tensile capacity. Therefore the ‘beam’ of books cannot even carry its self weight. Caprani . Now they can only separate if the tensile stress induced by the self weight of the books is greater than the compressive prestress introduced. To overcome this we provide an external initial stress (the prestress) which compresses the books together.

C. which is due to both bending and shear: In prestressed concrete. because the prestressing keeps the concrete in compression. 5 Dr. Caprani . This is often preferable where durability is a concern. no cracking occurs.Civil Engineering Design (1) are taken by standard steel reinforcement: But we still get cracking.

with far greater durability. This greatly improves the long-term durability of structures. 6 Dr. Durability Since the entire section remains in compression. especially bridges and also means that concrete tanks can be made as watertight as steel tanks. Caprani . Increased Spans The smaller section size reduces self weight.3 Advantages of Prestressed Concrete The main advantages of prestressed concrete (PSC) are: Smaller Section Sizes Since PSC uses the whole concrete section. Hence a given section can span further with prestressed concrete than it can with ordinary reinforced concrete. no cracking of the concrete can occur and hence there is little penetration of the cover.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. C. the second moment of area is bigger and so the section is stiffer: N A N A RC PSC Smaller Deflections The larger second moment of area greatly reduces deflections for a given section size.

• A larger elastic modulus is needed to reduce the shortening of the member. Caprani . You can see the importance creep has in PSC from this graph: 7 Dr. • A mix that reduces creep of the concrete to minimize losses of prestress. • A high early strength is required to enable quicker application of prestress. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1.4 Materials Concrete The main factors for concrete used in PSC are: • Ordinary portland cement-based concrete is used but strength usually greater than 50 N/mm2.

The different forms the steel may take are: • Wires: individually drawn wires of 7 mm diameter. 8 Dr. • Tendon: A collection of strands encased in a duct – only used in posttensioning.7 mm diameter (but with an area of 150 mm2)7-wire super strand which has a breaking load of 265 kN. Prestressed concrete bridge beams typically use 15. Caprani . C. • Strands: a collection of wires (usually 7) wound together and thus having a diameter that is different to its area. • Bar: a specially formed bar of high strength steel of greater than 20 mm diameter.Civil Engineering Design (1) Steel The steel used for prestressing has a nominal yield strength of between 1550 to 1800 N/mm2.

Caprani . C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 9 Dr.

In Stage 1 the wires or strands are stressed.5 Methods of Prestressing There are two methods of prestressing: • Pre-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel strands before casting concrete. Pre-tensioning This is the most common form for precast sections. in Stage 2 the concrete is cast around the stressed wires/strands.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. once it has sufficient strength: 10 Dr. Caprani . C. • Post-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel tendons after casting concrete. and in Stage 3 the prestressed in transferred from the external anchorages to the concrete.

Caprani . This is to keep the stresses within allowable limits where there is little stress induced by self with or other loads: 11 Dr. the strand is directly bonded to the concrete cast around it. at the ends of the member. C. there is a transmission length where the strand force is transferred to the concrete through the bond: At the ends of pre-tensioned members it is sometimes necessary to debond the strand from the concrete.Civil Engineering Design (1) In pre-tensioned members. Therefore.

the concrete has already set but has ducts cast into it. C. A lot of ordinary reinforcement is often necessary. The strands or tendons are fed through the ducts (Stage 1) then tensioned (Stage 2) and then anchored to the concrete (Stage 3): The anchorages to post-tensioned members must distribute a large load to the concrete. A typical tendon anchorage is: 12 Dr. Caprani . and must resist bursting forces as a result.Civil Engineering Design (1) Post-tensioned In this method.

Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) And the end of a post-tensioned member has reinforcement such as: 13 Dr. C.

the prestress force gradually reduces over time to an equilibrium level. In post-tensioning. • The concrete shrinks as it further cures. that is. that is. • The concrete creeps. The sources of these losses depend on the method by which prestressing is applied. there are also losses due to the anchorage (which can ‘draw in’ an amount) and to the friction between the tendons and the duct and also initial imperfections in the duct setting out. In both methods: • The member shortens due to the force and this relieves some of the prestress. Caprani . the steel stress reduces over time. losses will just be considered as a percentage of the initial prestress. continues to strain over time. For now. C. • The steel ‘relaxes’. 14 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Losses From the time the prestress is applied.

. • Communications poles.g. • Pre-tensioned precast “hollowcore” slabs.6 Uses of Prestressed Concrete There are a huge number of uses: • Railway Sleepers. 16 m span for car parks). Caprani . • Pre-tensioned precast portal frame units.post-tensioned PSC. • Precast segments are joined by post-tensioning. • This is “glued segmental” construction.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. • In-situ balanced cantilever construction . C.for very long spans (e. • Pre-tensioned precast inverted T beam for short-span bridges. • Barges. 15 Dr.precast segments post-tensioned together on site. • And many more. • Pre-tensioned precast PSC piles. • PSC tank . • Pre-tensioned Precast Double T units . • Post-tensioned ribbed slab. Tendons around circumference of tank.

If there is insufficient capacity. 16 Dr. in addition to the prestress and self weight. Since we deal with allowable stresses. At service stage. The ultimate capacity at ULS of the PSC section (as for RC) must also be checked. Caprani .e. the concrete has its full strength but losses will have occurred and so the prestress force is reduced. The concrete is less strong but the situation is temporary and the stresses are only due to prestress and self weight. at any section in a member. For the SLS case. This often does not govern. At Service The stresses induced by the SLS loading. you can add non-prestressed reinforcement. only service loading is used. Most of the work of PSC design involves ensuring that the stresses in the concrete are within the permissible limits. i. C. there are two checks required: At Transfer This is when the concrete first feels the prestress. the SLS case. Stresses in Prestressed Members 2.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2.1 Background The codes of practice limit the allowable stresses in prestressed concrete. must be checked.

Allowable compressive stress ain service. Allowable compressive stress at transfer. The applied moment in service. Allowable tensile stress at transfer. top fibre = I yt . (transfer). bottom fibre = − I yb (taken to be negative). The applied moment at transfer.Civil Engineering Design (1) Notation For a typical prestressed section: We have: Section modulus. Section modulus. C. Allowable tensile stress in service. Caprani . The ratio of prestress after losses (service) to prestress before losses. Zt Zb ftt ftc f st f sc Mt Ms α 17 Dr.

C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Allowable Stresses Concrete does have a small tensile strength and this can be recognized by the designer. there are 3 classes of prestressed concrete which depend on the level of tensile stresses and/or cracking allowed: Stresses Class 1 2 Class 2 Class 3 At transfer Tension: ftt 0. Caprani .36 f ci for post-tensioned members 1 N/mm Compression: ftc 0.36 f ci (post) Compression: f sc 0.5 f ci * In service Tension: f st 0 N/mm 2 0.45 f ci (pre) See code table 0. In BS 8110.33 f cu * there are other requirements for unusual cases – see code 18 Dr.45 f ci for pre-tensioned members 0.

Caprani .2 Basic Principle of Prestressed Concrete Theoretical Example Consider the basic case of a simply-supported beam subjected to a UDL of w kN/m: w A VA C L B VB In this case. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. if we assume a rectangular section as shown. we have the mid-span moment as: b wL2 MC = 8 d Also. we have the following section properties: A = bd bd 2 Zt = 6 bd 3 12 bd 2 Zb = 6 I= Therefore the stresses at C are: σt = MC Zt σb = MC Zb 19 Dr.

then. as no tensile stress can occur. but with centroidal axial prestress as shown: w P A VA C L P B VB Now we have two separate sources of stress: P A MC Zt + P MC + A Zt + P A + = MC Zb P MC − A Zb 20 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Case I If we take the beam to be constructed of plain concrete (no reinforcement) and we neglect the (small) tensile strength of concrete ( ft = 0 ). Caprani . C. no load can be taken: wI = 0 Case II We consider the same beam.

just prior to failure. we will normally take Z b to be negative to simplify the signs. Case III In this case we place the prestress force at an eccentricity: w e P A VA C L B VB e P Using an equilibrium set of forces as shown. Caprani . Also. the moment caused by the load must induce a tensile stress greater than P .A. Hence. e = P M = Pe P 21 Dr. we now have three stresses acting on the section: N. C. we have: A M C P wL2 = = Zb A 8Z b wII = 8Z b P L2 A Note that we take Compression as positive and tension as negative.Civil Engineering Design (1) For failure to occur.

then: d 6 wIII = 8Z b ⎛ P P d 6 ⎞ 16 Z b P = 2 × wII ⎜ + ⎟= 2 L2 ⎝ A bd 2 6 ⎠ L A So the introduction of a small eccentricity has doubled the allowable service load. C. we take e = .Civil Engineering Design (1) Thus the stresses are: P A Pe Zt - MC Zt + + = P M C Pe + − A Zt Zt + P A + + Pe Zb MC Zb P M C Pe − + A Zb Zb Hence. for example. for failure we now have: M C P Pe = + Zb A Zb wIII = 8Z b ⎛ P Pe ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ L2 ⎝ A Z b ⎠ If. 22 Dr. Caprani .

For a rectangular section 650 mm deep. 300 wide and 650 mm deep. I. C. Zt = bh2/6 which gives the same answer). the centroid is at the centre and this is: 6866×106/325 21. is I/x.12×106 mm3 Zt = = (some people use the formula for rectangular sections. Caprani . Losses between transfer and SLS = 20%. P = 2500 kN.Civil Engineering Design (1) Numerical Example – No Eccentricity Prestress force (at transfer). First calculate the section properties for a 300×650 beam: A = = 300×650 195 000 mm2 h x=h/2 Second moment of area. Permissible stresses are: f tt = -1 N/mm2 f st = 0 N/mm2 f tc = 18 N/mm2 f sc = 22 N/mm2 The section is rectangular. 23 Dr. Check stresses. It is simply supported spanning 12 m with dead load equal to self weight and a live load of 6 kN/m (unfactored). The prestress force is applied at the centroid. is bh3/12: 300×6503/12 6866×106 mm4 I = = Section modulus for the top fibre. Zt.

C.88(12)2/8 = transfer moment. Mt = 87. Caprani .8 kNm w wl2/8 l The total loading at SLS is this plus the imposed loading.65) self weight = = 4.8 N/mm2: P 24 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Similarly. i.12×106 mm3 (sign convention: Zb is always negative as the measurement to the bottom fibre is negative).e. Zb = -21. Ms = The prestress causes an axial stress of P/A = 2500×103 / 195 000 = 12. Hence: 25(0.88 + 6)(12)2/8 = 195.88 kN/m The maximum moment due to this loading is: 4. The only applied loading at transfer is the self weight which is (density of concrete) × (area).8 kNm SLS moment.: (4.3 × 0.

12×106 = 4.12×106 = ±9.9 Total Self Weight 25 Dr.2 N/mm2.2 + -9. Hence the transfer check at the centre is: 12. after the beam is lifted.2 Prestress 4.8×106/21.2 = 17. Hence the SLS check is: 10.Civil Engineering Design (1) 12.3 N/mm2.3 Prestress 9.5 0. the stress due to prestress applies and. the stress due to self weight.6 Total Self Weight At SLS. The top and bottom stresses due to applied load (Ms) are ±195. the prestress has reduced by 20%.3 = 19.8 + -4. C. Caprani .0 8.8 At transfer. The self weight moment at the centre generates a top stress of: Mt/Zt = 87.8×106 / 21.

1m P This is equivalent to: P 0. C.1P 0. An eccentric force is equivalent to a force at the centroid plus a moment of force × eccentricity: P 0.7 26 Dr. but the prestress force is P = 1500 kN at 100 mm below the centroid.Civil Engineering Design (1) Numerical Example – With Eccentricity As per the previous example.7 N/mm2 7.1P P Hence the distribution of stress due to prestress at transfer is made up of 2 components: 7. Caprani .7 P/A = 1500×103 / 195 000 = 7.

12 × 106 -7..1 0.8 Prestress = -4.2 4.1 21. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) And + Pe/Z. Similarly the stress at the bottom fibre is +7. i.8 + 14. C.6 4. this is - (1500 × 103 )(100) = -7. negative.2 Dead Load 10. At top fibre.6 Hence the total distribution of stress due to PS is: Hence the transfer check is: 14.6 Total 27 Dr. the stress at the top is tension.8 0.1 As the moment is hog.1 - + 7.e.

The stress distribution due to applied load is as for Example 1. Hence the SLS check is: 0.8 Prestress = -9.5 Total 28 Dr. C.3 9. Caprani .8 2.3 Applied load 9.Civil Engineering Design (1) At SLS.48 + 11. the prestress has reduced by 20% (both the P/A and the Pe/Z components are reduced by 20% as P has reduced by that amount).

Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 3. • Stress: Positive compression. we now have: P A Pe Zt - MC Zt + + = σt + P A + + Pe Zb MC Zb σb Thus the final stresses are numerically given by: 29 Dr. With this sign convention. Design of PSC Members 3.1 Basis Sign Convention In order to derive equations that enable design. • Eccentricity of prestress: Positive above centroid. • Section Modulus: Negative for the bottom of the member. C. we maintain a rigid sign convention: • Moment: Positive sag.

and. • the Pe Z term is negative for Z t since Z t is positive and e is negative and the term is positive for Z b since now both Z b and e are negative. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Top fibre: Bottom fibre: σt = σb = P Pe M C + + A Zt Zt P Pe M C + + A Zb Zb Note that the sign convention means that: • the P A terms is always positive. and noting that the losses are to be taken into account. as they should. the stresses are limited as: Transfer Top fibre – stress must be bigger than the minimum allowable tensile stress: σ t ≥ ftt P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt (1) Bottom fibre – stress must be less than the maximum allowable compressive stress: 30 Dr. Caprani . These signs of course match the above diagrams. Governing Inequalities Given the rigid sign convention and the allowable stresses in the concrete. • the M C Z term is positive or negative depending on whether it is Z t or Z b .

all stresses must be less than the allowable compressive stress. any allowable tension is a negative quantity. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) σ b ≤ ftc P Pe M t + + ≤ f tc A Zb Zb (2) Service Top fibre – stress must be less than the maximum allowable compressive stress: σ t ≤ f sc α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≤ f sc ⎟+ ⎝ A Zt ⎠ Zt (3) Bottom fibre – stress must be bigger than the minimum allowable tensile stress: σ b ≥ f st α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≥ f st ⎟+ A Zb ⎠ Zb ⎝ (4) In these equations it must be remembered that numerically. C. ideally a positive number indicating the member is in compression at the fibre under consideration. Similarly. that is. 31 Dr. Therefore all permissible stresses must be greater than this allowable tension.

it is difficult to check stresses.Civil Engineering Design (1) 3. Therefore we use the governing inequalities to help us calculate minimum section modulii for the expected moments. Top Fibre The top fibre stresses must meet the criteria of equations (1) and (3). Caprani . Hence. C.2 Minimum Section Modulus Given a blank piece of paper. This is the first step in the PSC design process. from equation (1): P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt + ≥ α f tt ⎟ +α A Zt ⎠ Zt ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt ⎤ − ⎢α ⎜ + ⎥ ≤ −α f tt ⎟ +α Zt ⎦ ⎝ A Zt ⎠ ⎣ If we now add this to equation (3): ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M ⎤ α⎜ + ⎟+ − ⎢α ⎜ + + α t ⎥ ≤ f sc − α f tt ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ Zt ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ A Zt ⎠ Zt ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ A Zt ⎠ Ms M − α t ≤ f sc − α f tt Zt Zt Hence: Ms − α Mt f sc − α f tt Zt ≥ (5) 32 Dr.

Caprani . 33 Dr. However. from equation (2): P Pe M t + + ≤ f tc A Zb Zb α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt + ≤ α f tc ⎟ +α A Zb ⎠ Zb ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M ⎤ − ⎢α ⎜ + + α t ⎥ ≥ −α f tc ⎟ Zb ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ A Zb ⎠ Adding equation (4) to this: ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M ⎤ α⎜ + ⎟+ − ⎢α ⎜ + + α t ⎥ ≥ f st − α f tc ⎢ ⎥ ⎟ Zb ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ A Zb ⎠ Zb ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ A Zb ⎠ Ms M − α t ≥ f st − α f tc Zb Zb Hence: Ms −αMt α ftc − f st Zb ≥ (6) Note that in these developments the transfer moment is required. Therefore a trial section or a reasonable self weight must be assumed initially and then checked once a section has been decided upon giving the actual Z t and Z b values.Civil Engineering Design (1) Bottom Fibre The bottom fibre stresses must meet equations (2) and (4). C. Thus. this is a function of the self weight of the section which is unknown at this point.

Taking the losses to be 25% and: • permissible tensile stresses are 2. To determine an approximate initial transfer moment. Hence. M t . • permissible compressive stresses are 20 N/mm2 at transfer and at service.0 N/mm2 in service. simply-supported beam shown below carried the loads as shown. we estimate the section depth based on a span depth ratio of.5 N/mm2 at transfer and 2. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem The single-span. say. C. which is a practical minimum. the sefl weight load is: 34 Dr. 15: dtrial = 9000 = 600 mm 15 Try this with a width of 250 mm. Determine an appropriate rectangular section for the member taking the density of prestressed concrete to be 25 kN/m3. Solution We will check the requirements at the critical section which is at mid-span.

Therefore: wL2 3.75 + 5 + 20] × 9 Ms = = = 291 kNm 8 8 2 Check the section modulus at the top fibre: Ms −αMt f sc − α f tt 291 − 0. C.5 ) Zt ≥ Zt ≥ Z t ≥ 12.Civil Engineering Design (1) wsw = 25 ( 0.4 × 106 mm3 35 Dr.75 ( −2. Caprani .25 ) = 3.75 kN/m At transfer only self weight is present.0 ) Zb ≥ Zb ≥ Z b ≥ 15.75 × 38 0.75 × 38 20 − 0.75 × 92 Mt = = = 38 kNm 8 8 At service the moment is: wL2 [3.0 × 106 mm3 And at the bottom: Ms −αMt α ftc − f st 291 − 0.6 × 0.75 ( 20 ) − ( −2.

C.Civil Engineering Design (1) If the section is to be rectangular. Caprani . Verify This 36 Dr. Note that this changes the self weight and so the calculations need to be performed again to verify that the section is adequate.4 × 106 6 h≥ 6 (15. However. then Z b = Z t and so the requirement for Z b governs: bh 2 Z= ≥ 15.4 × 106 6 Keeping the 250 mm width: 250h 2 ≥ 15. the increase in self weight is offset by the larger section depth and hence larger section modulii which helps reduce stresses. These two effects just about cancel each other out.4 × 106 ) 250 h ≥ 609 mm Thus adopt a 250 mm × 650 mm section.

Civil Engineering Design (1)

3.3

Prestressing Force & Eccentricity

Once the actual Z t and Z b have been determined, the next step is to determine what combination of prestress force, P and eccentricity, e, to use at that section. Taking each stress limit in turn:

Tensile Stress at Transfer

Taking the governing equation for tensile stress at transfer, equation (1), we have:

P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt ⎛1 e P⎜ + ⎝ A Zt ⎞ Mt ⎟ ≥ f tt − Zt ⎠ f − M t Zt since e Z t is negative P ≤ tt 1 A + e Zt

1 1 A + e Zt ≥ P f tt − M t Z t

Hence:

⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 Zt 1A ≥⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f tt − M t Z t ⎦ ⎣ f tt − M t Z t ⎦

(7)

This is a linear equation in 1 P and e. Therefore a plot of these two quantities will give a region that is acceptable and a region that is not acceptable, according to the inequality.

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Dr. C. Caprani

Civil Engineering Design (1)

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Dr. C. Caprani

Civil Engineering Design (1)

Compressive Stress at Transfer

Based on equation (2) which governs for compression at transfer, we have: ⎛1 e ⎞ M P ⎜ + ⎟ ≤ f tc − t Zb ⎝ A Zb ⎠

Which leads to:

⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 Zb 1A ≥⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f tc − M t Z b ⎦ ⎣ f tc − M t Z b ⎦

(8)

Another linear equation which gives the feasible region graphed as:

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Dr. C. Caprani

Civil Engineering Design (1) Compressive Stress in Service Equation (3) governs for compression in service and so we have: ⎛1 e + A Zt ⎝ ⎞ Ms ⎟ ≤ f sc − Zt ⎠ α P⎜ From which we get another linear equation in 1 P and e: ⎤ ⎡ α A ⎤ 1 ⎡ α Zt ≤⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f sc − M s Z t ⎦ ⎣ f sc − M s Z t ⎦ (9) This equation can again be graphed to show the feasible region. A simple way to remember this is that the origin is always not feasible. when the slope is positive. C. When the slope is negative. 1 P must be over the line. Caprani . Both possible graphs are: 40 Dr. However. 1 P must be under the line. this line can have a positive or negative slope.

Caprani . C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 41 Dr.

Caprani . This gives: ⎛1 e ⎞ M + ⎟ ≥ f st − s Zb ⎝ A Zb ⎠ α P⎜ Which gives: ⎤ ⎡ α A ⎤ 1 ⎡ α Zb ≤⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f st − M s Z b ⎦ ⎣ f st − M s Z b ⎦ (10) And this is graphed to show the feasible region: 42 Dr. we have equation (4) which governs for tension at the bottom fibre during service.Civil Engineering Design (1) Tensile Stress in Service Lastly. C.

C. 43 Dr. As can be seen. The geometric quantities Z t A and Z b A are known as the upper and lower kerns respectively. They will feature in laying out the tendons. a feasible region is found in which points of 1 P and e simultaneously satisfy all four equations. Any such point then satisfies all four stress limits.Civil Engineering Design (1) Magnel Diagram A Magnel Diagram is a plot of the four lines associated with the limits on stress. Caprani . when these four equations are plotted. For economy we usually try to use a prestressing force close to the minimum. Added to the basic diagram is the maximum possible eccentricity – governed by the depth of the section minus cover and ordinary reinforcement – along with the maximum and minimum allowable prestressing forces.

35 ) = 1. Therefore: wL2 1. Draw the Magnel diagram for the mid-span section and determine an economic prestressing force and its corresponding eccentricity.9 kNm 8 8 At service the moment is: 44 Dr.083 × 106 mm3 6 6 At transfer only self weight is present.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem A beam. The member is to be a Class 1 member. The concrete is grade 40 and the prestress is transferred at 32 N/mm2 cube strength.75 × 102 Mt = = = 21.2 × 0. Solution The self weight is: wsw = 25 ( 0. Take prestress losses to be 20%. C. 200 mm wide × 350 mm deep spans 10 m and carries 3 kN/m live load in addition to its dead weight. Caprani .75 kN/m The section properties are: A = bh = 200 × 350 = 70 × 103 mm 2 bh 2 200 × 3502 Zt = Zb = = = 4.

Caprani .083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡1 70 × 103 ⎤ ≥ e+⎢ ⎥ P ⎢ −6. from the previous table: f tt = −1 N/mm 2 f st = 0 N/mm 2 f tc = 0.37 N/mm 2 Hence: 45 Dr.0385e − 2.9 4.9 −4.37 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡1 4. C.33 N/mm 2 Next we determine the equations of the four lines: • f tt : The denominator stress is: σ tt = f tt − M t Z t = −1 − 21.083 = 21.33 × 40 = 13.243 P • f tc : The denominator stress is: σ tc = f tc − M t Z b = 16 − 21.5 × 32 = 16 N/mm 2 f sc = 0.083 = −6. for a Class 1 member.4 kNm 8 8 2 The allowable stresses are.75 + 3] × 10 Ms = = = 59.Civil Engineering Design (1) wL2 [1.37 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ −6.37 ⎦ 106 ≥ −0.

57 ⎦ 106 ≤ −0.083 = −1.24 ⎦ 106 ≤ −0.57 ⎦ ⎣ 14.4 −4.57 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡ 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1 ⎡1 −4.37 ⎦ ⎣ 21.668 P • f tc : The denominator stress is: σ sc = f sc − M s Z t = 13.8 70 × 103 ⎤ ≤⎢ e+⎢ ⎥ ⎥ P ⎣ −1.8 −4.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡ 0.00135e + 0.24 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡ 0.784 P Notice that the 106 has been brought to the left so that we are working with larger numbers on the right hand sides.4 4.0115e + 0.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡ 0.158e − 9.8 70 × 103 ⎤ ≤⎢ e+⎢ ⎥ ⎥ P ⎣ 14.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡1 70 × 103 ⎤ ≥⎢ e+⎢ ⎥ ⎥ P ⎣ 21.21 P • f st : The denominator stress is: σ st = f st − M s Z b = 0 − 59.083 = 14.8 4.24 ⎦ ⎣ −1. C.37 ⎦ 106 ≥ −0.33 − 59. To plot these lines. Caprani . note that the vertical intercepts are known and the x-axis values are also known to be: 46 Dr.

083 × 10 ) = = +58. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) − Z t −4. we zoom into the area of interest: 47 Dr.083 × 106 = = −58.33 mm 70 × 103 A We plot the lines using these sets of points on each of the axes: ftt 106/P (106/N) 10 8 6 4 2 0 -150 -100 -50 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 50 100 150 Eccentricity (mm) ftc fsc fst For clarity in these notes. Caprani .33 mm A 70 × 103 6 − Z b − ( −4.

4. which is about 2.4 = 416 × 103 N = 416 kN The corresponding eccentricity is about 120 mm below the centroidal axis. 48 Dr. however such exactitude is not necessary as prestress can only be applied in multiples of tendon force and eccentricities are to the nearest 10 mm practically.5 2 1. the minimum prestressing is the highest point in the region (or maximum y-axis value) permissible. Obviously these values can be worked out algebraically. Caprani . C.Civil Engineering Design (1) ftt 106/P (106/N) 3 ftc fsc fst 2.5 1 0.5 Eccentricity (mm) 0 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 So from this figure. Hence: 106 = 2.4 P 106 P= 2.

4 Eccentricity Limits and Tendon Profile Up to now we have only considered the critical location as defined by the position of the maximum moment: the mid-span of the simply supported beam. the stress limits) must apply at every section along the beam. Since the moments change along the length of a beam. However. As we wish to limit possible tensile stresses. we only examine equations (1) and (4) corresponding to tension on the top at transfer and tension on the bottom in service. the governing inequalities (i. which remains essentially constant along the length of the span. we must change some aspect of the prestress also. We have also found a value for the eccentricity at the critical location. C. Thus far we have established an appropriate section and chosen a value for P.Civil Engineering Design (1) 3.e. Caprani . Tension on Top at Transfer We determine an expression for the eccentricity in terms of the other knowns: P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt e≥ Z t f tt ⎛ Z t M t ⎞ −⎜ + ⎟ P ⎝A P ⎠ Hence we have a lower limit for the eccentricity as: Z t Z t f tt − M t + A P elower ≥ − (11) 49 Dr. The only remaining variable is the eccentricity.

Civil Engineering Design (1) Tension on the Bottom in Service Using equation (4): ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≥ f st ⎟+ A Zb ⎠ Zb ⎝ Z f ⎛Z M ⎞ e ≥ b st − ⎜ b + s ⎟ αP ⎝ A αP ⎠ α⎜ Hence we have an upper limit for the eccentricity as: Z b Z b f st − M s + αP A eupper ≤ − (12) Since the upper and lower kerns (the Z t A and Z b A quantities) are constant for constant geometry. Caprani . C. 50 Dr. it can be seen that the cable limits follow the same profile as the bending moment diagrams at transfer and in service. and since P is also constant.

33 mm A −Zb = +58.083 kNm M st = Z b f st = ( −4. C. the kerns were found to be −Zt = −58.083 × 106 ) ( −1) = −4.02 − t . sketch the upper and lower eccentricities given a prestress of 450 kN. x 450 elower = − 51 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem For the beam of the previous example.33 − 1. x = −58.33 + 450 M = −58.35 − t .083 − M t .33 mm A The ‘tension moments’ are: M tt = Z t f tt = ( 4. Solution In the previous example. x 450 M = −59. Caprani .083 × 106 ) ( 0 ) = 0 kNm Hence for the lower limit we have: Z t Z t f tt − M t + A P −4.

33 − s .00 6.00 2. 52 Dr.00 10. we can now plot the eccentricity limits: centroid low er upper 250 Distance from Soffit (mm) 200 150 100 50 0 0.00 8. x 360 eupper = − Knowing the values of the bending moments at positions along the beam.00 4.8 × 450 M = 58. This is because the chosen prestress is very close to the minimum possible from the permissible region.Civil Engineering Design (1) And for the upper: Z b Z b f st − M s + αP A 0 − M s. C. A higher prestress would give ‘looser’ limits.33 + 0. Caprani .00 Distance Along Beam (m) In this figure the upper and lower eccentricities are very close at the critical section.x = 58.

53 Dr.00 4. By changing the prestress force along the length of the beam. From the previous example the new eccentricity limits are: centroid 250 low er upper Straight Profile Distance from Soffit (mm) 200 150 100 50 0 0. we can find a solution to this problem.00 2.e.Civil Engineering Design (1) Debonding Notice from the eccentricity limits of the previous example that a straight cable/tendon profile will not work. Hence the stresses will be acceptable in this zone also.00 8. the cable force gradually increases in reality due to the transmission zone (i. the bond between the tendon and concrete).00 Distance Along Beam (m) It can be seen that an eccentricity of 85 mm below the centroidal axis works.00 6. Caprani . However.00 10. Note that it appears that there remains a problem at the ends of the beam. C. Yet we know from the discussion on factory precasting of prestressed sections that straight tendons are preferable.

) 54 Dr.00 4. Caprani .00 2. Even thought he extra strand is an added expense. • From 3 to 5 m all 3 tendons are to act (Note that the prestress is symmetrical. C.00 8. each of 200 kN prestress: • From 0 to 1.5 to 3 m 2 tendons are to act. Imagine there to be 3 tendons acting.5 m only 1 tendon is to act.00 6.Civil Engineering Design (1) The straight profile required the following variation of prestress: 700 600 500 Prestress (kN) 400 300 200 100 0 0.00 Distance Along Beam (m) Note that the maximum prestress has been increased from 450 kN to 600 kN. • From 1. it is offset by the constructability of the member. Note that the prestress steps up in units of 200 kN at two points.00 10.

Hence for our beam. C. 55 Dr. all 3 tendons will be present and yet some are not to act. the bending moments. and the prestress all may change along the length of a member: Mt and Ms Sagging Mt = Ms = 0 Mt and Ms Hogging In such beams. the layout will look like: (Note this is slightly unrealistic as vertical symmetry is maintained in reality. the section properties. Therefore the bond between the concrete and tendon is broken by using plastic tubing over the required length. the governing stress limits must be checked at ‘every’ point along the length of the beam.Civil Engineering Design (1) In a factory setting.) Briefly then for post-tensioned members in general. Caprani .

C. Notation fp Ap Ep Ec Ag Ig P Pjack fc = prestress in strand or tendon. Ps = α Pt . The calculation of losses is different for pre. = prestress force applied by jack (prior to before-transfer losses). = strain in concrete due to shrinkage. = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of prestressing steel. Pt . 56 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. Losses can be before or after transfer: • Before-transfer losses are the difference between what is applied by the hydraulic jack. = gross cross-sectional area of concrete member. • After-transfer losses are the difference between the transfer force. = prestress force at transfer. = creep strain per unit of sustained stress. P and the force at SLS.and post-tensioned PSC.1 Basis and Notation Recall that transfer is the moment at which the concrete first feels the prestress. = strain. Pjack and what the concrete feels at transfer. Prestressing Losses 4. = creep strain in concrete an infinite time after prestressing at SLS. Caprani ε ε sh ε∞ φ . = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of concrete. = gross second moment of area of concrete member. = stress in concrete. = cross-sectional area of prestressing tendon.

e Ec Since the strands are bonded to the concrete.Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. Hence: Ap E p ⎛ Pjack Pjack e 2 M t e ⎞ ∆Pε = + + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ Ag Ig Ig ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ The concrete never feels the full jacking force since the strands shorten as the concrete strains. Hence. elastic shortening loss in pre-tensioning is ‘before-transfer’. Therefore.e = f c . 57 Dr. the stress in the concrete at that level is: f c .e = Pjack Ag + Pjack e 2 Ig + M oe Ig And the concrete at the level of the strands has a strain of: ε c . Caprani .2 Losses in Pre-Tensioned PSC 1. they undergo a loss of strain of the same amount. with associated stress and force losses of E pε c . the concrete is subjected to the stress: fc. Elastic Shortening Loss In pre-tensioning.e .e and Ap E pε c . C. y = e . at a level y. after jacking ( Pjack ) has been applied. the strands are stressed before the concrete is cast. Hence. y = Pjack Ag + ( P e) y + M jack o y Ig Ig At the level of the strands. ε c .e .

Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. 58 Dr. as the strands are bonded to the concrete they undergo the same strain. It is due to a realignment of the steel fibres and is the same phenomenon as creep. Once again. Shrinkage Loss Concrete shrinks as it sets and for a period afterwards. Caprani . Hence it is ‘after-transfer’. relaxation losses can vary in the range of 3% to 8%. Stress ε = constant time Relaxation is ‘after-transfer’. C. prestressing strand gradually loses its stress with time (like a guitar going out of tune). 3. The amount of shrinkage depends on the humidity and the surface area to volume ratio. Hence the loss of prestress is: ∆Psh = Ap E pε sh Shrinkage loss is long-term. Relaxation Loss When maintained at a constant strain. Depending on the quality of the steel.

dead load and superimposed dead loads such as such as parapets and road pavement). Caprani . Thus the strands slacken as before.e ⎡ α P α Pe 2 M e ⎤ = Ap E pφ ⎢ t + t + perm ⎥ Ig Ig ⎥ ⎢ Ag ⎣ ⎦ M perm is the moment due to the permanent loads such as the prestress. 59 Dr. C. Creep Loss Creep is the ongoing increase in strain with time. As creep loss contributes to α . Creep is long term.e The creep factor φ depends on a number of things such as concrete quality and its age when loaded. an exact calculation is iterative.Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. and the loss of force is: ∆Pcreep = Ap E pε ∞ = Ap E pφ f c . when stress is kept constant: Strain σ = constant time Creep causes a strain in the concrete adjacent to the strands and over a long time is: ε ∞ = φ f c . hence it is an ‘after-transfer’ loss.

3 Losses in Post-tensioned PSC 1.Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. resulting in a prestress loss in Tendon 1. Hence there is no elastic shortening loss to be allowed for at this stage.2 = P2 ( P2e2 ) y + Ag Ig Note that the actual properties are approximated with the gross properties. as it is jacked until the required prestress force is applied. This causes strain at the level of Tendon 1. C. Tendon 1 is anchored and Tendon 2 is stressed. Caprani . take the following beam with two tendons: Tendon 1 is stressed first. The operator applies prestress until the gauge indicates the required prestress force is applied. is: 60 Dr. in the concrete adjacent to Tendon 1. Two Tendons As a simple example. Ag and I g . The stress due to Tendon 2 is: f c . The beam shortens during this process but this is compensated for. The strain due to the stressing of Tendon 2. Elastic Shortening Loss This loss only occurs in post-tensioning when there is more than one tendon.

stressing the 2nd causes a loss in the 1st. C. stressing the first tendon does not cause any losses.2 = This is the amount of strain lost in Tendon 1. Hence the first tendon has losses due to the stressing of Tendons 2. For 4 tendons: 1. Multiple Tendons Similar calculations can be made for any arrangement of tendons. the second due to the stressing of 3 and 4 and the third due to the stressing of 4 giving: ∆P2− 4 = + Ap1 E p ⎡ P2 + P3 + P4 ( P2e2 + Pe3 + P4e4 ) e1 ⎤ Ap 2 E p ⎡ P3 + P4 ( Pe3 + P4e4 ) e2 ⎤ 3 + + 3 ⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥ Ec ⎢ Ag Ig Ec ⎢ Ag Ig ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Ap 3 E p ⎛ P4 ( P4e4 ) e3 ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ Ec ⎜ Ag Ig ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Elastic shortening loss is ‘before-transfer’. stressing the 3rd causes losses in the 1st and 2nd. stressing the 4th causes losses in the 1st. Hence the loss of prestress force is: Ap1 E p ⎛ P2 ( P2e2 ) e1 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ Ag Ig ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∆P2 = The stressing of Tendon 2 does not cause any losses in Tendon 2 – it only causes losses in tendons that have already been anchored. 2nd and 3rd. Caprani . 2. 3. 61 Dr. 3 and 4.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1 ⎛ P2 ( P2e2 ) e1 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ Ag Ig ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ε c . 4.

Friction Curvature Loss When the jacking force is applied. Relaxation Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss. there is a friction between the tendon and the duct that prevents the interior parts of the beam/slab from feeling the full force: ‘live’ anchor friction dead end anchor Pjack Examining a portion of the tendon. Shrinkage Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss. 4.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. C. 5. Caprani . 3. the loss is: ∆Pfric = Pjack − Pl = Pjack (1 − e − µθ ) 62 Dr. Creep Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss.

63 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) where θ is the aggregate change in angle from the jack (in radians) (the sum of the absolute values of each change in angle) and µ is the roughness (friction) coefficient. C. Friction curvature loss happens between the jack and a-section. Therefore the section never feels the full jacking force and this loss is ‘before transfer’. Pjack θ P1 = Pjacke -µθ Example (jacked from left only) Jack Dead θ2 Pjack Anchor C θ1 A B θ3 At A: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µθ ) 1 At B: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µ (θ +θ ) ) 1 2 At C: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µ (θ +θ +θ ) ) 1 2 3 where θ1 + θ2 + θ3 is the aggregate change in angle from Pjack. Caprani . regardless of sign.

etc. C. and k is a wobble coefficient (function of workmanship. stiffness of duct. 64 Dr.).Civil Engineering Design (1) 6. distance between duct supports. This is a ‘before transfer’ loss. Caprani . Friction Wobble Loss This loss is due to ‘unintentional variation of the duct from the prescribed profile’: wobbly duct tendon friction This loss increases with distance from the jack and is given by: ∆Pwobble = Pjack (1 − e − µ kx ) where x = distance from jack.

C. Draw-In Loss Anchors consist of wedges that ‘draw in’ when the jack ceases to be applied: wedges wedge strand draw in Jack During stressing After jack is The draw in of the wedges can be up to 10 mm but the loss is generally local: Force Pjack Friction losses (curvature + wobble) Draw in Prestress force after friction and draw in losses Distance from live anchor Draw in losses are not transmitted more than about 5-10 m from the live anchor. Formulas are available which give the extent and magnitude of the draw in loss.Civil Engineering Design (1) 7. There is some debate about whether draw in should be considered to be ‘beforetransfer’ or ‘after-Transfer’ but it is safer to take it to be an ‘after-transfer’ loss. Caprani . 65 Dr.

Ultimate Limit State Design of PSC 5. This is similar to the approach for ordinary reinforced concrete. The following diagram shows the strain diagram at three stages of loading: Stage 1 This is the strain diagram at transfer. with magnitude of: 1 ⎛ Pt Pe 2 ⎞ ε ct = ⎜ + Ec ⎝ A I ⎟ ⎠ 66 Dr. The strain in the concrete at steel level is compressive.1 Ultimate Moment Capacity The ULS moment capacity of a PSC section is calculated using the assumption that plane sections remain plane. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 5. There is one difference: • the strain in bonded prestress steel is equal to the strain caused by the initial prestress plus the change in strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level. C.

the change in strain in the prestressing steel is equal to that of the concrete at the steel level. Provided there is a bond between the steel and concrete. ε cpu . Hence the strain in the prestressing steel is now ε pt + ε ct .Civil Engineering Design (1) The stress and strain in the prestressing steel are: f pt = Pt Ap ε pt = f pt Ep Stage 2 The applied moment is sufficient to decompress the concrete at the steel level. the same as ε cpu . 67 Dr. Caprani . C. This can be obtained once a depth of neutral axis is found that balances horizontal forces. it is only ε cpu that is not known. The concrete strain at the steel level. is related to the concrete strain at the top of the section by similar triangles: ⎛ dp − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε cpu = ε cu ⎜ The change in strain in the prestressing steel is. by compatibility. Stage 3 This is the strain diagram at the ultimate load. Final The final strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate load is thus: ε pu = ε pt + ε ct + ε cpu In this equation.

The steel tendon has a transfer prestress of 1200 kN and the area of the strand is 1000 mm2. C. Caprani .00615 ε pt = E p Ap (195 × 103 ) (1000 ) The strain in the concrete caused by the initial prestress is: 1 ⎛ Pt Pe 2 ⎞ ε ct = ⎜ + Ec ⎝ A I ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1200 × 103 (1200 × 103 ) ( 275 )2 ⎞ 1 = + ⎜ ⎟ 29.45fcu Fc s = 0.9x 750 650 Ap Beam Section εcpu Strain Diagram Pu Stress/Force Diagram Solution The initial strain in the tendon due to the prestress is: Pt 1200 × 103 = = 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem Determine the ultimate moment capacity of the section shown.00040 68 Dr. The elastic modulus for the prestressing steel is 195 kN/mm2 and the concrete is 45 N.8 × 103 ⎜ 750 × 350 350 × 7503 12 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 0. 350 εcu x 0.

Hence we iteratively try to find this value of x: 69 Dr. C.0035 ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ The force in the concrete is: Fc = ( 0. the concrete strain at the level of the prestressing is: ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε cpu = 0.00655 + 0.0035 ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎤ = 195 × 106 ⎢0.00655 + 0. Caprani .9 x ) = 6379 x At the correct depth to the neutral axis we will have horizontal equilibrium of forces.0035 ⎜ And so the final strain in the prestressing steel is: ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε pu = 0. Pu = Fc .45 × 45 )( 350 × 0.0035 ⎜ And the final force in the prestressing steel is: Pu = Ap E pε pu ⎡ ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎤ = (1000 ) (195 × 103 ) ⎢0.Civil Engineering Design (1) At failure.00655 + 0.

Civil Engineering Design (1) x 350 250 300 315 314 314.4 Fc 2232563 1594688 1913625 2009306 2002928 2005479 Pu 1862250 2369250 2073500 2003083 2007568 2005771 Difference 370312.45 × 314.4 ) = 1020 kNm 70 Dr.917 -4640. C.97 -291.992 Hence the moment capacity is: M u = Pu z = Pu ( d p − 0. Caprani .45 x ) = 2005771 × ( 650 − 0.5 -774563 -159875 6222.

It varies significantly from code to code. C. However. This is the vertical component of the prestress force which can have a significant beneficial effect. Caprani . 71 Dr. there is one issue with PSC that can have a significant influence on shear design. Note that nominal links are required in PSC members.2 Ultimate Shear Design Background The shear design procedure for PSC is quite different from ordinary RC.Civil Engineering Design (1) 5. θ P sinθ P P θ Bearing Also. similarly to ordinary reinforced members. the shear capacity depends on whether or not the section has cracked under the ultimate flexural moments at the section.

Vcr . is the shear width of the web/section.8 f c .79 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ 1. M 0 . is the shear acting at the section.1bv d f cu ⎜ f pu ⎟ M ⎝ ⎠ In which: M V is the moment acting at the section. is the effective depth.55 ps ⎟ vcbv d + o V ≥ 0. C.25 ⎛ f cu ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0.8 of the compressive stress at the level of the prestress: M0 M 0 = 0.25 ⎝ bv d ⎠ 0.e = I e Ps Pe 2 + s Ag Ig f ps f pu is the stress in the tendon at SLS. is the design shear strength of the concrete: 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Capacity for Cracked Sections A section is cracked in flexure if the moment is greater than a design cracking moment. is the ultimate tensile strength of the tendon. Caprani .33 72 Dr.e where: f c . defined below. is empirically give by: ⎛ f ⎞ M Vcr = ⎜1 − 0. is the moment required to remove 0. The cracked shear capacity.33 bv d vc ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 0.

resisting the applied shear. C. Caprani . In such section.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Capacity for Uncracked Sections A section is uncracked if the applied moment is less than M 0 . the principal tensile stress in the web is limited to f t = 0.67bh (f 2 t + 0. Based on a Mohr’s circle analysis. the following equation is derived: Vco = 0. And the remaining variables have their previous meaning.24 f cu . 73 Dr.8 f t f cp ) + Vp In which: f cp is the compressive stress due to prestress at the centroidal axis: f cp = Ps A Vp is the vertical component of prestress at the section.

Vcr ] The shear design is: • V ≤ 0. Caprani . C. dt 74 Dr. is the link spacing.5Vc : no links are required.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Design The design shear resistance at a section is: Uncracked: Vc = Vco Cracked: Vc = min [Vco . is the depth to the furthest steel. ordinary or prestressed.87 f yv • V > Vc + 0.87 f yv dt Where: Asv sv f yv is the link area.4bv = sv 0. from the compression face. • V ≤ Vc + 0.4bv d : Shear links are used: Asv V − Vc = sv 0. is the characteristic strength of the links.4bv d : Shear links are used: Asv 0.

7 × 6.7 2 + 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem A Y-beam. Caprani .2 + 99.6 × 1750 ) = 1893 kN Ps 1893 × 103 = 6.67bh (f 2 t + 0. The concrete is grade 50.8 f t f cp ) + Vp = 0.8 × 1. has rib width of 200 mm and a depth of 1000 mm. Note that the tendon is inclined by 3˚ at the section considered. Check the section for a shear of 400 kN and associated moment of 800 kNm. Its area is 310 × 103 mm2 and its second moment of area is 36 × 109 mm4.3 kN (1.67 ( 200 × 1000 ) = 448.1) + 1893sin 3 75 Dr.1 N/mm 2 f cp = = 3 A 310 × 10 f t = 0. C.24 f cu = 0.7 N/mm 2 Uncracked shear capacity: Vco = 0. Solution First determine the following: Pt = Ap f s = (1803)( 0.24 50 = 1. The area of prestressing steel is 1803 mm2 which has strength of 1750 N/mm2 and is stressed to 60% of its strength in service at an eccentricity of 290 mm. as shown.1 = 547.

3 kN which is greater than the applied 400 kN.4 kN The section is uncracked since M ≤ M 0 and so the design shear strength is 547. 76 Dr.6 )( 0.79 ⎛ 100 × 1803 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 1.4 ≥ 111.25 0.55 ps ⎟ vcbv d + o V ≥ 0. use nominal links.78 N/mm 2 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 790 ⎠ ⎛ 50 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0.78 × 200 × 790 ) + ( 400 × 103 ) ≥ 0.1( 200 × 790 ) 50 800 = 605.8 f c .6 given Ps Pe 2 f c .e = + s Ag Ig 1893 × 103 (1893 × 10 ) ( 290 ) = + 310 × 103 36 × 109 = 10.8 (10.52 N/mm 2 3 2 M 0 = 0.1bv d f cu ⎜ f pu ⎟ M ⎝ ⎠ 1046 = (1 − 0.25 ⎝ 200 × 790 ⎠ = 0.52 ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 290 ⎠ = 1046 kNm 0.79 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ 1.25 ⎛ f cu ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0.33 Hence: ⎛ f ⎞ M Vcr = ⎜1 − 0. we have the following inputs: f ps f pu = 0. Caprani .55 × 0.33 0.33 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 0.33 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) For the cracked shear capacity. C.7 = 605. Therefore.e I e ⎛ 36 × 109 ⎞ = 0.25 ⎝ bv d ⎠ 0.