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itinuturing na Banal na Kasulatan sa Kristiyanismo. Bagaman isinulat lamang ito ng mga tao, itinuturing din itong "mismong salita ng Diyos." Inilalarawan ang Bibliya bilang isang napakalaking aklat, naglalaman ng ilang maituturing na mga nakalilitong mga pananalita, may mga gawing pambihira ang mga tauhan ng Bibliya kung ihahambing sa mga gawi ng mga mamamayang nabubuhay sa pangkasalukuyan, partikular na ang sa ika-21 daantaon. Isang aklat ng sarisaring mga bagay ang Bibliya na kinalalagakan ng Lumang Tipan, Bagong Tipan, at Apokripa. Isang tala ng isang "sinaunang pangako" ng Diyos sa Israel o mga Hudyo ang Lumang Tipan. Tinatalakay naman sa Bagong Tipan ang "katuparan" ng Kristiyanismo sa pamamagitan ng katauhan at mensahe ni Hesus. Sa gitna ng Luma at Bagong mga Tipan, nagsasalaysay ng kasaysayan at mga diwa ang Apokripa. Bagaman hindi isang pangunahing aklat na pangkasaysayan, nagbubunyag ang Bibliya ng mga kalinangan at mga kaganapan sa kasaysayan na nakaapekto sa Jerusalem, ang tinaguriang Banal na Lupain, mula sa ikatlong milenyo bago dumating si Hesukristo magpahanggang sa pagkawasak ng Jerusalem noong 70 A.D. Katulad na lamang ng Aklat ng Genesis na nagpapatanaw ng pamumuhay ng mga Sumerio ng Mesopotamya, na isa sa mga pinakamaagang kabihasnan sa mundo. Nagpapahiwatig naman ang salaysay hinggil sa Tore ng Babel ng kung anong uri ng mga templo ang itinatayo noong mga panahong iyon. Sa ilang mga bahaging aklat ng Bibliya, nasaksihan ng mga manunulat ng Bibliya ang mga pangunahing mga pangyayari sa bayan ng Israel, Ehipto, Asiria, at iba pang mga pook, mga kaganapang itinuring ng mga manunulat na ito bilang mga "gawain ng Diyos." Isang kalipunan ng mga aklat ang Bibliya - nasa mga animnaput' anim - at naisulat sa loob ng mahabang panahon. Bagaman nagsasalaysay ito ng mga kuwento kung paano gumawa ang Diyos ng mga hakbang upang itama ang mga kamalian sa mundo, hindi ito lubos na basahin lamang bilang mga pangkaraniwang mga salaysay, tulad ng ibang mga kuwento. Sapagkat sinulat ang mga aklat ng Bibliya sa ibang kapanahunan, na naiiba sa pangkasalukuyang panahon. Nararapat na isaalang-alang ng bumabasa kung ano ang ipinapaliwanag ng mga orihinal na may-akda ng bawat aklat, at dapat unawain ng mambabasa kung ano ang kahulugan nito ngayon, ang kaugnayan sa kasalukuyan. Sinasabi pa ri na ang puso at kaluluwa ng Bibliya ay ang sarili nitong kasaysayan o salaysay. Bilang dagdag, isa itong tunay na mahabang salaysayin hinggil sa isang partikular na mamamayan, kung paano tinawag ng Diyos ang mga taong ito, at ang layunin ng Diyos para sa mga ito: ang pagdadala ng biyaya at pagbabasbas ng Diyos sa lahat ng mga tao sa mundo. Isang sinaunang kuwento tungkol sa Diyos, sa mundo, at sa mga mamamayang tinawag ng Diyos ang Bibliya. Nasagip ang Bibliya mula sa nakaraan, at naisulat, upang mabasa ng mga tao ng kasalukuyan at makapagbigay ng kahulugan sa kanilang mga buhay at pamumuhay. Nagkakaisa ang lahat ng mga bahagi ng Bibliya bilang magkakaugnay at iisang paglalahad lamang. Bagaman hindi ito isang aklat na madaling basahin, sapagkat may mga pangungusap o talataang mahirap unawain, nagsisilbing isang gabay sa pagiging malapit sa Diyos ang Bibliya. Sinasabi pa rin na mauunawaan ang Bibliya kung aalamin ng isang tao ang mga tauhang nasa mga pahina nito, kung uunawain ang tagpuan at kapanahunan nito, at kung susundan ang banghay o balangkas nito. Nahahati ang Bibliya sa tatlong pangunahing pangkat: ang Lumang Tipan (o Matandang Tipan, Matandang Testamento, at Lumang Testamento), ang Bagong Tipan (o Bagong Testamento), at ang Apokripa (o Apocrypha). Sa Ingles, tinatawag na testament ang salitang tipan kaya't may saling Old
Sa pangkalahatan.C. Hinango ang testament ng Ingles at ang testamento ng Tagalog at Kastila mula sa testamentum ng wikang Latin.102 talata ang Saling Haring James) ay hindi ginawa ng orihinal na mga manunulat.wikipedia. Apokripa ang taguri sa 14 pang mga aklat na natitira. Naidagdag ang ilang sagradong mga isinulat sa pagtatapos ng 443 B.E nang nakompleto nina Nehemias at Malaquias ang kanilang aklat. at tinatawag ding inter-testament sa Ingles (inter-testamento o nasa gitna ng mga tipan o testamento) sapagkat nalalagay sila sa pagitan o nasa gitna ng Lumang Tipan at Bagong Tipan ayon sa pagkakahanay na kronolohikal o pangkapanahunan. Hinati ng mga Masoret ang Ebreong Kasulatan sa mga talata.E. and consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of God. literally the recitation ) is the central religious verbal text of Islam. Binubuo ang Lumang Tipan ng 39 na mga aklat. mula Henesis hanggang Apokalipsis (o Aklat ng Pahayag). Most of Muhammad's companions. na nangangahulugang "kasunduan". Al-Coran or Al-Qur n." o "tipan". hanggang sa naisulat ng apostol na si San Mateo ang kaniyang makasaysayang dula.Testament para sa Lumang Tipan at New Testament para sa Bagong Tipan.C. Daniel 2:4b 7:28). na ginagamit pa magpasahanggang ngayon. Nang dakong huli.189 kabanata at 31. Qur n. tens of thousands. may kabuuang 1. beginning in 610 CE. at noong mga ika-13 siglo ng Karaniwang Panahon (C. Jeremias 10:11. Samakatuwid. recited and written down by Muhammad's companions after every revelation dictated by Muhammad. inilathala ni Robert Estienne ang edisyong Lating Vulgata (Latin Vulgate sa Ingles). Arabic: al-qur n. Bilang karagdagan.610 mga taon ang sangkot sa pagkakagawa ng Bibliya. learned the Qur an by heart.E. Halos 60 mga taon nang dakong huli nang ibahagi ni San Juan ang kaniyang aklat at tatlo pang mga sulat para makompleto ang kanon ng Bibliya. tinatanggap naman sa Kristiyanismo ang dagdag pang 27 mga aklat na nasa Bagong Tipan. magkakaiba ang pagtanggap ng mga Kristiyano sa bahaging ito ng Bibliya. Muslims believe the Qur an to be the verbal book of divine guidance and direction for mankind. ngunit nakatulong ng malaki ang bagay na ito makalipas ang ilang daantaon. the year of his death. Tatlumput-siyam ang Ebreo at 27 naman sa wikang Griyego kasama na ang iilang bahagi na isinulat sa Aramaiko (Ezra 4:8 6:18. Ang paghahati sa Bibiya na may mga kabanata at talata (may 1. 7:12-26. Walang ibang aklat tulad ng Bibliya na matagal ang lumipas bago nakumpleto. and concluding in 632 CE. ang bumubuo sa itinuturing na mga banal na panitikan ng Hudaismo: ang Tanakh. "mataimtim na kasunduan. Koran. SOURCE: http://tl. Nagkaroon ng pagitan ang pagsulat ng Bibliya nang halos 500 taon. also sometimes transliterated as Quran. idinagdag naman ang paghahati-hati pa ng mga kabanata. animnaput-anim na aklat ang bumubuo sa Bibliya. noong 1555. Sa mga panapanahon. repeatedly recited in front of Muhammad for his approval or the approval of other Sahabas Muhammad .). at naglalarawan ng uri ng ugnayang mayroon noon ang Diyos at ang mga sinaunang mga Israelita at unang mga Kristiyano. lahat-lahat. Followers of Islam further believe that the Qur an was memorized. Islam holds that the Qur an was repeatedly revealed from Allah to Muhammad orally through the angel Jibr l (Gabriel) over a period of approximately twenty-three years. ang kauna-unahang Bibliya na may kumpletong mga kabanata at mga talata. Pinasimulan ni Moises ang pagsulat ng Bibliya noong 1513 B. when he was forty.org/wiki/Bibliya QUR AN The Holy Qur an (pronounced [qur a n].
presenting alternative accounts and interpretations of events. Along with the Odyssey. the Iliad mentions or alludes to many of the Greek legends about the siege. Historical events are related to outline general moral lessons. regarded in Islam as the first prophet. and often emphasizing the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Muslims regard the Qur an as the main miracle of Muhammad. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon. the third Caliph.700 lines. The Qur'anic verses contain general exhortations regarding right and wrong and the nature of revelation. sometimes offering detailed accounts of specific historical events. The present form of the Qur an text is accepted by most scholars as the original version compiled by Abu Bakr. was entrusted with that Quran text after the second Caliph Umar passed away. The Odyssey (Greek: . a sequel to the Iliad. The Qur'an assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in Jewish and Christian scriptures. and continued with the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham). Odýsseia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The authorship of the poem is disputed. Indeed it is the second the Iliad being the first extant work of Western . the Qur an was still established textually into a single book form shortly after Muhammad's death by order of the first Caliph Abu Bakr suggested by his future successor Umar. the Tawrat (Torah or Pentateuch) of Moses. in some cases. SOURCE: http://en. These started. the other work traditionally ascribed to Homer. It combines the horridness and sometimes mundaneness of war into a epic poem filled with art. in part. as proof of his prophethood. also attributed to Homer. and a myriad of wonderful literary images. the ten-year siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states. the Zabur (Tehillim or Book of Psalms) of David. summarizing some. Although the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war. When Uthman. The Iliad (Ancient Greek: . beautiful. illustrious descriptions. it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. the Quraish dialect aka Fus'ha (Modern Standard Arabic). and. and as the culmination of a series of divine messages. Uthman immediately made several thousands of copies of Abu Bakar's Qur anic compilation and ordered all other texts to be burned. started noticing differences in the dialect of the Qur an. according to Islamic belief. IPA: [i liás]) is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters. and its written version is usually dated to around the eighth century BC. The Iliad contains approximately 15. traditionally attributed to Homer. This process of formalization of the orally transmitted text to Abu Bakar's Qur'anic text is known as the "Uthmanic recension". dwelling at length on others. and awe-inspiring work of ancient Greece. The Qur'an describes itself as a book of guidance.org/wiki/Qur%27an#Content ILIAD AT ODYSSEY The Iliad is a powerful. Muhammad's widow and Umar's daughter. and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus. he requested Hafsa to allow him to use the Qur an text in her possession to be set as the standard dialect. Iliás. Set in the Trojan War. Before returning that Qur'an text to Hafsa. The "Odyssey" is a magnificient piece of literature that we find absolutely spectacular in the fact of its potential for helping us understand pre-history of many ancient cultures. the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature. It is. with the messages revealed to Adam. Muslim tradition agrees that although the Qur an was authentically memorized completely by tens of thousands verbally.approved and also compiled it in written form while he was alive. Hafsa.wikipedia. and is written in a literary amalgam of several Greek dialects. and because of the fact that it is so well written and perhaps one of the first "books" (epics) ever written down.
org/19300/data/homer. as well as the Ramayana. The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of the Christian afterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church.110 lines of dactylic hexameter. the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. Both Duryodhana and Yudhisthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava and the Pandava.wikipedia. and Paradiso. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (or Ulysses. morality and virtue. as he was known in Roman myths) and his long journey home following the fall of Troy. It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature. The details of the ancient oral performance. the eldest Kaurava. the Mnesteres (Greek: ) or Proci. the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors.org/wiki/Iliad.org/wiki/Odyssey MAHABHARATA The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura. It was probably composed near the end of the eighth century BC. instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right. The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna. The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra.wikipedia. the eldest Pandava. Duryodhana. somewhere in Ionia. SOURCE: http://library. The Odyssey was written in a regionless poetic dialect of Greek and comprises 12. competing for Penelope's hand in marriage. Arshia Sattar states that the central theme of the Mahabharata. In his absence. is respectively Krishna's and Rama's hidden divinity and its progressive revelation. Among the most impressive elements of the text are its strikingly modern non-linear plot. The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship. and the subsequent end of his dynasty and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven. and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature.literature. in which great values and noble ideas have crumbled. and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars.thinkquest.htm. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga). and that events seem to depend as much on the choices made by women and serfs as on the actions of fighting men. Purgatorio. http://en. The original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer). The Divine Comedy (Italian: La Divina Commedia) is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321. On the surface the poem describes Dante's . Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family.org/wiki/Mahabharata#Historical_context DIVINE COMEDY http://en. as well as the converse. is younger than Yudhisthira. It helped establish the Tuscan dialect in which it is written as the Italian standard. it is assumed he has died. It continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world.wikipedia. SOURCE: http://en. the Inferno. It is divided into three parts. the fourth and final age of mankind. perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer). and was intended more to be sung than read. and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action. In the English language as well as many others. the Greek-speaking coastal region of what is now Turkey.
The story told in the poem is based on a historical incident. the Battle of Roncevaux Pass on August 15. or chief general. which mentions that the names of the Frankish leaders caught in the ambush.wikipedia. 778. is that (according to somewhat later historical sources) during William the Conqueror's invasion of England in 1066 a "song about Roland" was sung to the Norman troops before they joined battle at Hastings: .org/wiki/El_Cid THE SONG OF ROLAND The Song of Roland (French: La Chanson de Roland) is the oldest surviving major work of French literature. Prefect of the Marches of Brittany" (Hruodlandus Brittannici limitis praefectus). and Heaven. including Roland. In this engagement. The first printed edition to add the word divine to the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce. At this deeper level. A second indication. especially the teachings of Thomas Aquinas.wikipedia. The oldest of these versions is the one in the Oxford manuscript.004 lines (the number varies slightly in different modern editions) and is usually dated to the middle of the twelfth century (between 1140 and 1170). It exists in various different manuscript versions. a literary form that flourished between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries and celebrated the legendary deeds of a hero. but at a deeper level it represents allegorically the soul's journey towards God. conquered and governed the city of Valencia. was attacked by Basques. published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari. after being exiled. Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy. was a Castilian nobleman. 1099). potentially much closer to the date of the first written version of the epic. a military leader and diplomat who. The epic poem is the first and most outstanding example of the chanson de geste. the poem is understood to be fictional. Rodrigo Díaz was educated in the royal court of Castile and became the alférez. known as El Cid Campeador. which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity in the 12th to 14th centuries. The first indication that popular legends were developing about this incident comes in a historical chronicle compiled about 840. 1040 July 10.org/wiki/Divine_Comedy EL CID CAMPEADOR Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. Originally the work was simply titled Commedia and was later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio. in which the rearguard of Charlemagne's retreating Franks.travels through Hell. At the surface level. among them was "Hruodland. the trapped soldiers were slaughtered to a man. of Alfonso VI. He is considered the national hero of Spain SOURCE: http://en. Purgatory. escorting a rich collection of booty gathered during a failed campaign in Spain. which contains a text of some 4. SOURCE: http://en. recorded by historian and biographer Einhard (Eginhard) in his Life of Charlemagne (written around 830). and his most valuable asset in the fight against the Moors. were "common knowledge" (vulgata sunt).
the particular "Song of Roland" that we have in the manuscripts." a local variant of Old Norse "Thorvald). returns to Spain and avenges the deaths of his knights. however. called "Turoldus. the Christian Basques become Muslim Saracens.yahoo. We cannot even be sure that the "song" sung by Taillefer was the same as. Roland becomes. Taillefer. who sang very well. some critics. as is its authorship. SOURCE: http://answers.wikipedia. This book is one of the examples of the Works of Confucius. have held that the real origin of this version of the epic lies much further south. so that the man s warlike example would arouse the fighters." In view of the long period of oral tradition during which the ambush at Roncevaux was transformed into the Song of Roland. is the author. and represents the additions of many generations of school heads. different heads of the Confucian school chose to praise or denigrate different of their predecessors. Due to the changing political. written on bamboo strips from before 55 BCE. Some believe that Turoldus. This work suggests that the text of the Analects as we have received them is heavily accreted. nothing is known about him besides his name. the nephew of Charlemagne. as used to be argued. who is named in the final line.org/wiki/The_Song_of_Roland BOOK OF THE DAYS The Book of the Days by Confucius (Kung-Fu-Tze). likely. and Charlemagne. the version could shed considerable light on the textual tradition of the Analects if its readings were ever fully employed in a critical edition. Although fragmentary. was the "author of the Song of Roland".com/question/index?qid=20081113001504AAbFgeH BOOK OF THE DEAD The "Book of the Dead" is the usual name given to the ancient Egyptian funerary text called the "Spells of Coming (or Going) Forth By Day.Then a song of Roland was begun. rather than marching north to subdue the Saxons. Calling on God for aid. Some traditional relationship is. and cultural environments. and even described very different social practices and ritual environments. rode on a swift horse before the Duke singing of Charlemagne and Roland and Oliver and the knights who died at Roncevaux. The dialect of the manuscript is Anglo-Norman." The Book of the Dead was intended to assist the deceased in . notably the influential Joseph Bédier. social. the dating of the earliest version is uncertain. William's jongleur. they joined battle. This cannot be treated as evidence that Taillefer. The Song of Roland marks a nascent French identity and sense of collective history traced back to the legendary Charlemagne. However." is evidently of Norman origin ("Turold. SOURCE: http://en. was discovered 1970 s. or drew from. As remarked above. A version of the analect. there can be no surprise that even the earliest surviving version of the poem does not represent an accurate account of history. however. especially as the best manuscript is written in Anglo-Norman French and the Latinized name of its author or transcriber. but it is evidence that he was one of the many poets who shared in the tradition. in the poem. The is the book that became the one of the basis of Christian Religion. which suggests an origin in northern France.
spells and instructions to allow the deceased to pass through obstacles in the afterlife. while others include 1. In particular.the afterlife and comprised a collection of hymns. possibly meaning "of noble lineage") and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves.wikipedia. while others begin and end of their own accord. Upon discovering his wife's infidelity. Though the oldest Arabic manuscript dates from the 14th century. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic. The stories proceed from this original tale. cannot find any more virgins. The Book of the Dead was the product of a long process of evolution starting with the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom through the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom. He begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning. are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Haz r Afs n (Persian: . the king. Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature. particularly "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp". Persian: Hez r-o yek ab) is a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. So it goes on for 1. which are often intermingled with real people and geography. Eventually the vizier. Ja'far al-Barmaki. On the night of their marriage. but does not end it. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights. offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. some are framed within other tales. Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's . Some of the best-known stories of The Nights. as soon as she finishes the tale. "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor". The Book of the Dead was most commonly written on a papyrus scroll and placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. were not part of The Nights in Arabic versions. The work as we have it was collected over many centuries by various authors. his vizier. magicians. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights. SOURCE: http://en. meaning "king" or "sovereign") and his wife Scheherazade (from Persian: . while almost certainly genuine Middle-Eastern folk tales. and legendary places. Shahryar. Thousand Tales) which in turn relied partly on Indian elements. eager to hear the conclusion. comedies. has her executed and then declares all women to be unfaithful. The king is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. postpones her execution once again. The main frame story concerns a Persian king and his new bride. The Book of the Dead itself was adapted into The Book of Breathings in the Late Period. but remained popular in its own right until the Roman period. The next night. tragedies. The tales vary widely: they include historical tales. while others. burlesques and various forms of erotica. poems. whose duty it is to provide them. lit. the vizier's daughter. which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment. but were interpolated into the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators. she begins (and only begins) a new one. Persian. many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era. Indian. Numerous stories depict djinn. love stories. About one third of the chapters in the Book of the Dead are derived from the earlier Coffin Texts. Scheherazade. despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Persian Empire in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set.org/wiki/Book_of_the_Dead ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS One Thousand and One Nights (Arabic: Kit b 'alf layla wa-layla. What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryar (from Persian: .001 or more. translators and scholars across the Middle East and North Africa. common protagonists include the historical caliph Harun al-Rashid.001 nights. and the king. not always rationally. especially the frame story. and his alleged court poet Abu Nuwas. Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale. scholarship generally dates the collection's genesis to around the 9th century. from the first English language edition (1706).
and the Uncle Tom. In recent years. a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters both fellow slaves and slave owners revolve.wikipedia. a Connecticut-born preacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist. which Chaucer is said to have come across during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372. dark-skinned "mammy". In a long list of works. However. many of which endure to this day. and in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life. focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom. the negative associations with Uncle . While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble. including "Troilus and Criseyde". and that story may have another one told within it. in some other things happen that make the king distracted) but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life. or. The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century. Stowe. Published in 1852.000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the Civil War. so much in the latter case that the novel intensified the sectional conflict leading to the American Civil War.tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own.org/wiki/One_Thousand_and_One_Nights#Synopsis CANTERBURRY TALES The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle-English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. the Canterbury Tales was Chaucer's magnum opus. "House of Fame". Chaucer peoples his tales with 'sondry folk' rather than Boccaccio's fleeing nobles.wikipedia. These include the affectionate. long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife. the "pickaninny" stereotype of black children. the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. also helped create a number of stereotypes about black people. and particularly of the Church. and even more the plays it inspired. Lincoln is often quoted as having declared.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales UNCLE TOM S CABIN Uncle Tom's Cabin. "Parliament of Fowls". the poem bears the influence of The Decameron. "So this is the little lady who made this big war. Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy. following the Bible. He uses the tales and the descriptions of the characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time. and the second best-selling book of that century." The book. or dutiful. SOURCE: http://en. The different versions have different individually detailed endings (in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon. Structurally. In the first year after it was published. 300. resulting in a richly layered narrative texture. SOURCE: http://en. The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature.
or Little Eva. While later critics have noted that Stowe's female characters are often domestic clichés instead of realistic women.wikipedia. is its outrages of feelings and affections the separating of families.Tom's Cabin have. sometimes even changing the story's voice so she could give a "homily" on the destructive nature of slavery (such as when a white woman on the steamboat carrying Tom further south states. which is the exploration of the nature of Christianity and how she feels Christian theology is fundamentally incompatible with slavery. George Shelby eulogizes Tom by saying." Uncle Tom's Cabin is dominated by a single theme: the evil and immorality of slavery. who is seen as the "ideal Christian". such as the moral authority of motherhood and the redeeming possibilities offered by Christianity. Clare to "look away to Jesus" after the death of St. she emphasizes the connections between these and the horrors of slavery. to an extent. Stowe's puritanical religious beliefs show up in the novel's final. Because Stowe saw motherhood as the "ethical and structural model for all of American life. While Stowe weaves other subthemes throughout her text." and also believed that only women had the moral authority to save the United States from the demon of slavery. Stowe's novel "reaffirmed the importance of women's influence" and helped pave the way for the women's rights movement in the following decades. After Tom dies. "The most dreadful part of slavery.org/wiki/Uncle_Tom%27s_Cabin#Major_themes . One way Stowe showed the evil of slavery was how this "peculiar institution" forcibly separated families from each other."). over-arching theme. to my mind." SOURCE: http://en. Clare's beloved daughter Eva. another major theme of Uncle Tom's Cabin is the moral power and sanctity of women." Because Christian themes play such a large role in Uncle Tom's Cabin and because of Stowe's frequent use of direct authorial interjections on religion and faith the novel often takes the "form of a sermon. who escapes from slavery to save her young son (and eventually reunites her entire family). Through characters like Eliza. "What a thing it is to be a Christian. Stowe shows how she believed women could save those around them from even the worst injustices. Stowe pushed home her theme of the immorality of slavery on almost every page of the novel. This theme is most evident when Tom urges St. for example. overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool.
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