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SOC 1E BY NIJOLE BENOKRAITIS CHAPTER 3 - CULTURE Homework Questions
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The term “_____” is often used by Americans to refer to activities such as reading Shakespeare’s sonnets, gourmet dining, and attending the opera. a. values b. society c. culture d. refined e. customs
For sociologists, culture refers to which of the following? a. values b. beliefs c. behaviors d. all of the above e. none of the above because the definition excludes random behavior, which characterizes most people
The terms “society” and “culture” are a. literal opposites. b. mutually dependent. c. independent. d. mutually exclusive. e. legally mandated.
Like the rest of her teammates, Sarah participates in a team rally before each game. This is an example of a. society. b. cremation. c. attitude. d. culture. e. adaption.
Michael Mangin 5. Which of the following is not an accurate sociological statement about culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is similar across cultures. c. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. d. Culture is shared. e. Culture is adaptive and always changing.
The introduction of personal computers into American society influenced the means by which we communicate. This is an example of which of the characteristics of culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. c. Culture is shared. d. Culture is adaptive and always changing. e. none of the above
Culture is passed from generation to generation, in both formal and informal settings. This transmission can be characterized as a. cumulative. b. chaotic. c. confusing. d. conflicting. e. comprehensive.
Architecture, hair accessories, and technology are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. tangible culture. c. nonmaterial culture. d. material culture. e. primitive culture.
Symbols, values, norms and beliefs are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. nonmaterial culture. c. material culture. d. primitive culture. 41
12. b. Symbols affect cross-cultural views. If Kyle holds up two fingers in the peace sign. e. subversive culture. b. It created new laws. language. none of the above 11. Symbols remain constant over time. all of the above e. e. The invention of the car has influenced which of the following aspects of nonmaterial culture? a. he is using which of the following? a. 42 . norms d. c. norms. It allowed for more privacy. d. Symbols distinguish one culture from another. symbols. symbols c. It provided individual transportation. Which of the following is not true of symbols? a. abstractions b. c. sociology 13. d. Symbols can unify or divide a country. b. a wedding dress. 10. Symbols take many forms. c. values. culture. d.Michael Mangin e. A stop sign. and a handshake are examples of a. methods e.
c. Mores d. Americans were never asked about this issue. moral or immoral. Norms c. values 15. Doctors should be allowed by law to “assist the patient to commit suicide” if the patient and his or her family requests it. a language enables people to communicate with one another b. language controls our behavior d. they exchanged wedding rings and vows as _____ of their commitment to one another. Many Americans were more agreeable to which of the following wordings in regards to Oregon’s 1994 Death with Dignity law? a. Sanctions 43 . children grasp the essential structure of their language when they enter kindergarten c. status markers c. language and thought are interrelated e. trademarks e. a. a. e. desirable or undesirable. d. When Michael and Wendy got married. Which one of the following statements about language is not correct? a. _____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad.Michael Mangin 14. Both of the above statements were equally agreeable to Americans. language often reflects cultural lags 16. signs b. 17. Languages b. Neither of the above statements was agreeable to Americans. Doctors should be allowed by law to “end the lives” of patients if the patient and his or her family requests it. symbols d. b. Values e.
norm. b. allowing others to pass as needed. more. d.Michael Mangin 18. value as identified in the textbook? a. most people walk on the right side. 44 .S. Which of the following is not a core U. b. achievement and success b. Progress. folkway. c. c. norms b. d. language. e. more. sanction. freedom d. norms. In a hallway. Sociologist Robin Williams identified a number of core U. c. 21. none of the above 22. This is an example of a a. equality and democracy are examples of a. folkway. culture. values. symbols e. norm. democracy c. culture 20. language c. b. thirteen of which are identified in the textbook. health care e. Raising your hand in class is an example of a a. values. values d. Specific rules of right and wrong are called a. symbols. e. conformity 19.S.
rules. laws. Norms change over time. 45 . Norms serve a specific purpose.Michael Mangin d. sanction e. b. d. e. sanctions. more c. laws. folkway b. c. e. Most norms vary depending on the situation. commandment 26. e. 25. This is a violation of which type of norm? a. mores. The expansion of the Internet has changed how Americans communicate. On a hot summer afternoon. b. The development of “netiquette” is an example of evolving a. d. Which of the following is not true regarding norms? a. law d. 24. none of the above 23. Mark wore a pair of boots and a parka to the public swimming pool. Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are a. sanctions. folkways. sanction. d. c. Most norms are shared by only small groups of people. e. rules. folkways. mores. Most norms are unwritten and passed down through generations. c. b.
folkway c. gifts. d. laws e. murder and infidelity are considered violations of a a. a. rule 31. Violation of a _____ is punishable by a political authority. c. law. b. d.Michael Mangin 27. more. 29. commandments 30. c. norms. positive sanctions. a. negative sanctions. folkways. The most rigid norms are _____. Hugs. In most societies. folkways. folkway. more d. b. culture. law e. norm. sanctions. folkways b. sanction. b. mores. norm b. and praise are examples of a. mores c. c. cultures. d. formal rules about behavior. 28. e. smiles. sanctions d. Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior are called a. 46 . e.
cultural confusions. cultural universals. c. b. _____ includes the norms. Which of the following statements best describes George Murdock’s study of culture? a. none of the above 47 . e. folkways. Ideal culture c. education. none of the above 33. c. d. Real culture 34. positive sanctions. 35. Hitting. d. and modesty are examples of George Murdock’s a. frowning and imprisonment are examples of a. cultural competencies. Cultural universals are common to all societies and the specific behaviors are similar across all societies. d. and religion. Marriage. cultural differences. e. Principle culture e. b. Fake culture b. All known cultures share expectations about the family. negative sanctions. Model culture d. a. e. All known societies share only a dozen cultural universals. b. Approximately half of all known societies share more than a dozen cultural universals. c. cultural changes. none of the above 32. medicine. norms. values and beliefs that people say they hold.Michael Mangin e.
Connie was experiencing a. 38. counterculture. College students represent a 48 . e. culture change 39. Connie visited her new in-laws in rural China. culture shock. When persons visit other cultures they may experience _____. The water was dirty and there were no windows in the house. Her in-laws’ house had dirt floors and the family slept on torn cots in the front room. a counterculture. A sense of confusion. culture adaptation. d. Nick is a member of an online gaming community. confused about the new environment. culture confusion. culture shock b. 40.Michael Mangin 36. cultural universal. d. transculture. a subculture. c. subculture. c. culture adaptation. Connie spent the first night crying. c. b. disorientation. the confusion that accompanies exposure to another culture. He participates in chat rooms and sometimes plays online games for money. counterculture. culture adjustment e. common culture. b. culture adaptation c. a. or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment is (a) a. Nick is a member of a a. subculture. uncertainty. metaculture. b. 37. e. e. culture confusion d. culture shock. d.
all of the above 43. Subculturism c. Superculturism d. Counterculturism b. transculture. television shows. b. e. d. Pennsylvania Amish c. Kentucky Republicans b. subculture. counterculture. a. northwestern United States e. Minnesota Farmers e. Which of the following is not an example of a subculture? a. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center. such as The Simpsons. common culture. e. Cultural relativism 49 . c. people believing that they cannot achieve their goals within the existing society. Michigan Militia d. d. _____ is the belief that one’s culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups. southeastern United States c. midwestern United States 44. where are active hate groups concentrated? a. northeastern United States d. metaculture. b. California Teachers 42. 41. Ethnocentrism e. mentally ill persons forming dysfunctional groups.Michael Mangin a. Countercultures emerge as a result of a. c. southwestern United States b. the emergence of the Internet and other forms of technology.
c. Which of the following statements about ethnocentrism is true? a. the opposite of ethnocentrism is a. Ethnocentrism is based solely on prejudice and discrimination. e. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one ethnicity is better than another. d. The anti-immigration laws of the 19th and 20th century serve as examples of a. As a discipline. bullying.Michael Mangin 45. cultural identity. b. assimilation. c. Subculturism e. cultural relativism. none of the above 48. Ethnocentrism encourages positive group interaction. ethnocentrism. e. 46. 47. ethnocentrism. cultural relativism. c. d. Ethnocentrism is always dysfunctional. sociology promotes a. According to the textbook. cultural competence. Ethnocentrism c. often creating tensions between social groups. _____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards. Cultural relativism d. Multiculturalism 49. b. b. Darwinism b. cultural acceptance. a. Darwinism. e. 50 . d. Ethnocentrism is sometimes functional.
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City. international relations will be improved. d. Popular culture 52.Michael Mangin b. higher education will be better funded. ethnocentrism c. the self-fulfilling prophecy. Ethnocentism b. popular culture 51 . By encouraging multiculturalism. c. e. c. his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied. e. Cultural relativism c. 53. a. Multiculturalism d. without any one culture dominating another. many supporters hope that a. d. all of the above 50. cultural diffusion. Many researchers and medical professionals have identified _____ as the root cause of obesity in American children and teens. and talk very fast. racial/ethnic identification will decrease. d. cultural relativism. subcultures d.” Harry’s reply is as an example of a. “They’re primitive people who eat roast dog. drive wildly around town on motor scooters. countercultures. _____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area. ethnocentrism and discrimination will decrease. ethnocentrism. e. b. multiculturalism b. cultural relativism. b. national traditions will decline in significance. the relativist fallacy. 51. Vietnam. Metaculturalism e. c. a. subcultures.
55. e. e. magazines. marketing culture. Which one of the following statements is not true regarding popular culture? a. a. b. c. 56. media culture. activities. _____ has/have significant control over shaping public opinions and perceptions. practices. media culture. c. popular culture. Big Brother. e. the mass media d. and how they express themselves. 57. The mass media controls much of our popular culture through newspapers. educators e. and television. and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life a.Michael Mangin e. According to the text. common culture. common culture. Americans are highly influenced by popular culture and incorporate popular culture into many facets of everyday life. subculture. d. b. techno-culture. politicians b. historical figures 52 . America has laws forbidding the use of popular television characters on children’s products. and other reality television shows are examples of a. wear. entertainers and sports figures c. Americans can influence popular culture by what they buy. American Idol. c. countercultures 54. A ____ refers to the beliefs. counterculture. b. d. popular culture. None of the above – all of the statements are true. d. Survivor.
a. Cultural imperialism b. a society experiences a. promotes U. a. d. In _____. popular culture c. None of the above is a criticism of cultural imperialism. culturing. Cultural integration e. 60. cultural change d. culture. cultural competence. e. cultural integration. cultural imperialism 59. When cultural values. All of the above are criticisms of cultural imperialism. borrowing. b.S.Michael Mangin 58. One of the criticisms of cultural imperialism is that it a. d. the cultural values and products of one nation influence or dominate those of another nation. At their family home. language. cultural relativism b. Carmen attended an English-speaking school and participated in American sports on the weekends. requires sophisticated thought processes. d. none of the above 61. Cultural change c. displaces local and authentic culture. Cultural adaptation d. However. b. Carmen and her family moved to the United States when she was six. c. b. Carmen and her family spoke Spanish and celebrated Mexican holidays. cultural diffusion. c. adaptation. _____ promotes order and stability. cultural change. and/or beliefs spread to another society. 62. diffusion. 53 . c. cultural imperialism. cultural persistence e. This is an example of a. e.
a. b. _____ is turning inventions into mass-market products. innovation b. manufactured the automobile only. discovery. When Henry Ford produced the Model T. d. e. stole the blueprints. he a. _____ is the process of creating new things. When cultures change as a result of direct pressure (war. but only occasionally. interior pressures. invented the technology for the automobile. Diffusion. b. Discovery. took someone else’s invention and created an automobile. 63. internal pressures. Discovery requires exploration and investigation. such as the Internet. c. Forms of communication. d. Which of the following statements is true about discovery and invention? a. d. diffusion. 54 . colonization) or indirect pressure (threat of embarrassment) from the dominant culture. c. but invention does not. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation. Invention requires exploration and investigation. Invention. this is called a. Invention. b. b. c. none of the above 66. e. diffusion c. c. external pressures. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation. but discovery does not. e. delivery. empathy. diffusion 65. innovation e. 67. Neither discovery nor invention requires exploration and investigation. encourage a. dimensions. Invention. discovery d. all of the above 64.Michael Mangin e.
Material culture. b. none of the above 72. especially the media. d. none of the above 71. b. creates inequalities specifically for women. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. the slow pace of change in developing countries. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. none of the above 70. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the functionalist perspective on culture? a. e. c. the lack of laws to protect against new material culture. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. d. Material culture. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the feminist perspective on culture? a. education. and the political structures of a society. especially the media. education. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. d. Material culture. b. c. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. the slow pace of cultural change. e. c. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. d. and 55 . education. creates inequalities specifically for women. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the symbolic interactionist perspective on culture? a. Cultural lag refers to a. dominant pressures 68. education. the tendency of material culture to change more slowly than nonmaterial culture. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture? a. and the political structures of a society. b. e. e. and the political structures of a society. creates inequalities specifically for women. e. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. b. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. the tendency of nonmaterial culture to change more slowly than material culture. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. 69. exterior pressures. c. especially the media.Michael Mangin d.
Cultural lags have always existed. creates inequalities specifically for women. TRUE 5. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. 74. Culture determines a society’s total way of life. Material culture. especially the media. Cultural lag often creates uncertainty and ambiguity about what’s right and wrong. TRUE 4.Michael Mangin the political structures of a society. Sociologists study both material and nonmaterial cultures. e. this criticism is true of all of the major sociological perspectives TRUE AND FALSE QUESTIONS 1. conflict theory c. Which one of the following statements about cultural lag is not true? a. c. d. Laws rarely keep up with technological changes. Technology plays a minor role in cultural lags. functionalism b.S. Which one of the following sociological perspectives is often criticized for overlooking diversity and social change in explaining culture? a. e. haven’t changed much since the 1970s/ FALSE 3. Cultural lags can be viewed as opportunities to make positive changes in society. c. Values are concrete guidelines for how to act in specific situations. cultural attitudes. d. Children’s language development is dependent upon instruction from adults. none of the above 73. TRUE 2. but they are typically more interested in nonmaterial culture. b. Some U. symbolic interactionism e. feminist theories d. such as seeing premarital sex as wrong. 56 .
FALSE 13. Mores define behavior that must be followed. To avoid conflict. some subcultures have assimilated into the dominant culture by changing their language clothing. Cultural integration promotes order and stability.Michael Mangin FALSE 6. Sanctions for mores are stricter than sanctions for folkways. TRUE 57 . FALSE 11. folkways define behavior that should be followed. but differ in their size and composition. TRUE 7. TRUE 8. Anthropologist George Murdock identified more than 600 cultural universals. Cultural relativism means evaluating another culture according to the standards of your own culture. TRUE 14. and practicing the dominant religion. All societies change over time. TRUE 12. Subcultures and countercultures share the same values and beliefs. Any group can be ethnocentric. FALSE 10. FALSE 9.
If they weren’t an outcast. Identify an occupation-based subculture (i. You are already accepted. and conflict. and have their own political views. then you aren’t equal. They hold truths. For instance. for example. For example. which ones? And why? If not. They can discuss the same things. each other. They also work on something as a team. or standing in line was taught in school as a child. Freedom represents the freedom of thought and individuality. They know certain things that students and others might not know. and I notice someone had changed their appearance to fit in. To explain further. When you are equal.e. When conformity occurs. values identified on pages 44 and 45. This is because I have freedom and individuality. Stand up and be recognized. but if you aren’t accepted. The two values of equality and conformity contradict. Some values that complement each other are individuality. certain norms like raising my hand. These were things I was taught as a child. they are all teachers. because in a conformity situation. and so on. They perform different activities and have different interests than most of the dominant culture. individuals want to change themselves to be accepted. Many norms like “don’t question authority”. and catch myself raising my hand when I don’t need to. I still do this. and democracy. then they view themselves as not equal to others. then you don’t have to conform to be accepted. and I still stay true to these norms to this day. Teachers are occupationally diverse from the dominant culture forming their own subculture because they have their own talk and language. musicians) and explain why how a group of individuals is a subculture within the dominant culture. Of course. Which of the values conflict with one another? Which complement one another? Identify examples from your own life when these values conflicted and when they complemented one another. or steal. they do the same job. if I am at school. I lost this particular norm because I believe it is the duty of a citizen to ask questions. someone doesn’t come by me and force me to buy something.. Democracy represents the idea of individuality. They had to change because society made them an outcast. teachers. while making a decision on something in the store. They are a bit contradictory. Don’t just sit back and conform to what the rest of the group is doing. you obviously are not equal. freedom.Michael Mangin CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. People can’t and don’t force me do believe in something or do something. doctors. What norms did your learn growing up? Have the norms changed over the years for you? If so. why? 3. There are many different norms people learn over the years as they grow up. Consider the thirteen core U. I have sort of lost. I have always been respectful and will continue to be respectful because I want people to respect me. cheat.S. 2. They learn not to lie. then they would be equal. These values all represent. . essentially. 58 .
as technology. America is known for being acceptable of other cultures. “If you don’t have something nice to say. Then. we lose our original language roots. or the media tell them. how do you react when there’s a clash between ideal and real culture in your life? People can be hypocritical. We add several religions to our culture. I will try to point this behavior out. they now have many different brands and kinds of 59 . Of course. Do you think that multiculturalism strengthens or weakens America’s identity? Explain why and provide some specific examples to support your answer. and advancement. show up everywhere you go. religions. They couldn’t see the insight of the topic. or applies to me. then the more it weakens. from health care to liking teachers. but mostly that is between them. For example. workplace. ethnicities. People are starting to think more on their own versus what government. or college? Give some examples. It keeps our identity neutral.1. We allow them to practice their religion. as I call it. Between 1969 and 2007. but after a while. they will start to challenge other religions. These discrepancies or hypocritical behavior. Some possible social changes of this idea could be held in the multiculturalism of our society. but the more we try to diversify our nation. Most of it is because people do not stand up for their beliefs. Another example would be of Hispanic immigrants who speak no English and refuse to speak English. The cultures will begin to influence all of America to accommodate for them. I believe it comes from when you were raised. and each religion is diverse. Our original religion roots will start to diminish. especially in school. but also disadvantages of multiculturalism. and with everyone you meet. Consider Figure 3. The problem comes down to which one is the dominant one? WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 1. There are advantages. and then the rest of our roots will diminish. Why was it important? The patterns and trends of society have changed. Identify possible social changes that have influenced this significant change in American attitudes. community activities. Americans have become more accepting of premarital sex. What discrepancies between ideal and real culture have you experienced personally—in your family. It is how society is.Michael Mangin 4. Why are people hypocritical? It probably just lies in their nature to believe in something but do the total opposite. Several experiences can occur. increases. 5. etc. Also. then don’t say anything at all. English will go away. Most cultures have discarded this way of teaching because they felt it didn’t have much of an effect. Someone could act like they like you. After a while. so does reliability in sexual behavior. but really they hate you. That “ideal culture” is only in their mind. Each culture is diverse. and Spanish will take over.” This behavior is what makes the discrepancies worse. if it affects me.
Now we have games such as Fallout: New Vegas coming out and Saints Row 3 in production. but it is a fifty billion dollar industry and growing.Michael Mangin condoms. 2. or at least that made it in a popular market. and then we get to liking them. and periods of time. It is what they like to do. you are learning your culture. John. my cousin. Culture is learned through gaming. For example. If I hadn’t played Grand Theft Auto. Along with a lot of the foundations within the Bible. including subcultures and perhaps even countercultures. disease. 3. When you play these video games. I don’t think I would have ever got into gaming. Gamers share the love of games. and playing them together. Friends might play games. These are trends and patterns that spread among age. and different technology that help prevent births. The numbers aren’t exact how many gamers there are. Gaming has completely evolved from what it once was. I learned and became interested in games through him. The textbook identifies several “building blocks” of culture. Most people are members of several groups. select any culture that you are familiar with and give examples of each building block. has always played video games. What values do these subcultures have? Is there specific language that is specific to each subculture? How does each subculture differ from the dominant culture? Ethnicity White / Caucasian They tend to be more dominant in society and have more money. Identify the subcultures of which you are members. Gamers love to play video games. They have way more birth control methods. They have many surgeries. Tensions and relationships with friends and colleagues affect our attitudes. and overall attitude. Culture is adaptive because if one thinks. the first video game was a paddle and a ball. An example of this is that I only know one person that believes that sex should only happen after marriage. feel. think compared to this other game. The culture of gaming is shared among many. Identify and describe the four major building blocks. Politics 60 . This particular game may shape how you learn. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next because fathers might influence their kids to play games. a culture that is virtually the same. Irish German English French Lithuanian Religion Christian They Believe in God and Jesus Christ. Then. Gamers have a culture.
RAP stands for Rhythm and Poetry. see. I stick primarily to the Golden Age of Hip-hop when activists and issues were rising. Social Class Middle Lower Class They have a roof over their head and food to eat. They have thought of all different kinds of ways to persuade and propagandize everything. etc. in what other ways do advertising and commercials influence your life? Commercials influence what you buy. They tell you what you should get for your kids. killing. and how you should raise them. but they a=sure are poor. The textbook argues that advertising and commercials have permeated American minds. and even what you do. They have medicine commercials telling you how to live your life medically. rappers would raise questions in society. and brag about video games.Michael Mangin Independent They are neither democrats nor republicans. They remain strong on issues from either side and believe the nation shouldn’t be divided. In addition to the textbook’s discussion. The commercials and media is endless. There are commercials on drugs to try to prevent teens from doing drugs. Fighting for rights and oppression. They play. Constitutionalist They defend and uphold the Constitution. Recreation Gaming They love to play video games. some might even be smarter than the rest. and the art of music took shape. 61 . Now. They tell you what to eat. Music and the Arts Rap/Hip-hop/R&B Depends on what type of rap one listens to. They side on issues from both liberals and Conservatives and stand strong against anything that harms the Constitution. However. Sex and Gender Male They are opposite sex of female and are seen as more dominant. car commercials. Age Youth They are seen as a bunch of rebels who do nothing but cause trouble. chat. when to breath. Commercials and media can literally control your life. toy commercials. its all robbing. and when to sleep. Examples of this are alcohol commercials. trade. masculine. Which is sad. and sex. 4.
Functionalism • Culture is cement that binds society • Culture can be dysfunctional. Identify which of the four perspectives is most compelling to you and explain why. and behavior. • Rich and powerful determine policies and benefit the average person has little status quo. • Different symbols are used to communicate beliefs The one I find most important is the symbolic interactionism perspective. I find this important because it relates culture to a more personal level. 62 . views.Michael Mangin 5. mood. Culture is connected to lifestyle. Feminist Theory • Inequality for females occurs • Gender effects cultural experiences • Stereotypes of women can create distortion • Experience is different for females Symbolic Interactionism • Culture influences everyday life. • Often overlooks diversity and social change Conflict Theory • Culture can create inequality. • Language shapes mood and behavior. Culture shapes language. • Rich get richer • Technology benefits the rich. Identify the main points for each of the four theoretical perspectives on culture. • Low pay work can help people climb out of poverty. Your beliefs. and morals shape who you are as a person.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?