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Michael Mangin


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The term _____ is often used by Americans to refer to activities such as reading Shakespeares sonnets, gourmet dining, and attending the opera. a. values b. society c. culture d. refined e. customs


For sociologists, culture refers to which of the following? a. values b. beliefs c. behaviors d. all of the above e. none of the above because the definition excludes random behavior, which characterizes most people


The terms society and culture are a. literal opposites. b. mutually dependent. c. independent. d. mutually exclusive. e. legally mandated.


Like the rest of her teammates, Sarah participates in a team rally before each game. This is an example of a. society. b. cremation. c. attitude. d. culture. e. adaption.


Michael Mangin 5. Which of the following is not an accurate sociological statement about culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is similar across cultures. c. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. d. Culture is shared. e. Culture is adaptive and always changing.


The introduction of personal computers into American society influenced the means by which we communicate. This is an example of which of the characteristics of culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. c. Culture is shared. d. Culture is adaptive and always changing. e. none of the above


Culture is passed from generation to generation, in both formal and informal settings. This transmission can be characterized as a. cumulative. b. chaotic. c. confusing. d. conflicting. e. comprehensive.


Architecture, hair accessories, and technology are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. tangible culture. c. nonmaterial culture. d. material culture. e. primitive culture.


Symbols, values, norms and beliefs are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. nonmaterial culture. c. material culture. d. primitive culture. 41

Michael Mangin e. subversive culture.


The invention of the car has influenced which of the following aspects of nonmaterial culture? a. It allowed for more privacy. b. It provided individual transportation. c. It created new laws. d. all of the above e. none of the above


A stop sign, a wedding dress, and a handshake are examples of a. values. b. culture. c. symbols. d. language. e. norms.


If Kyle holds up two fingers in the peace sign, he is using which of the following? a. abstractions b. symbols c. norms d. methods e. sociology


Which of the following is not true of symbols? a. Symbols take many forms. b. Symbols distinguish one culture from another. c. Symbols affect cross-cultural views. d. Symbols can unify or divide a country. e. Symbols remain constant over time.


Michael Mangin 14. When Michael and Wendy got married, they exchanged wedding rings and vows as _____ of their commitment to one another. a. signs b. status markers c. symbols d. trademarks e. values


Which one of the following statements about language is not correct? a. a language enables people to communicate with one another b. children grasp the essential structure of their language when they enter kindergarten c. language controls our behavior d. language and thought are interrelated e. language often reflects cultural lags


Many Americans were more agreeable to which of the following wordings in regards to Oregons 1994 Death with Dignity law? a. Doctors should be allowed by law to end the lives of patients if the patient and his or her family requests it. b. Doctors should be allowed by law to assist the patient to commit suicide if the patient and his or her family requests it. c. Neither of the above statements was agreeable to Americans. d. Both of the above statements were equally agreeable to Americans. e. Americans were never asked about this issue.


_____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, desirable or undesirable. a. Languages b. Norms c. Mores d. Values e. Sanctions


Michael Mangin 18. Sociologist Robin Williams identified a number of core U.S. values, thirteen of which are identified in the textbook. Which of the following is not a core U.S. value as identified in the textbook? a. achievement and success b. democracy c. freedom d. health care e. conformity


Progress, equality and democracy are examples of a. norms b. language c. values d. symbols e. culture


Specific rules of right and wrong are called a. values. b. symbols. c. language. d. culture. e. norms.


Raising your hand in class is an example of a a. norm. b. more. c. folkway. d. sanction. e. none of the above


In a hallway, most people walk on the right side, allowing others to pass as needed. This is an example of a a. norm. b. more. c. folkway. 44

Michael Mangin d. sanction. e. none of the above


Which of the following is not true regarding norms? a. Most norms are unwritten and passed down through generations. b. Most norms are shared by only small groups of people. c. Most norms vary depending on the situation. d. Norms change over time. e. Norms serve a specific purpose.


Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are a. folkways. b. mores. c. laws. d. sanctions. e. rules.


On a hot summer afternoon, Mark wore a pair of boots and a parka to the public swimming pool. This is a violation of which type of norm? a. folkway b. more c. law d. sanction e. commandment


The expansion of the Internet has changed how Americans communicate. The development of netiquette is an example of evolving a. laws. b. mores. c. folkways. d. sanctions. e. rules.


Michael Mangin


Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior are called a. folkways. b. sanctions. c. mores. d. law. e. cultures.


In most societies, murder and infidelity are considered violations of a a. norm. b. more. c. folkway. d. culture. e. sanction.


The most rigid norms are _____, formal rules about behavior. a. folkways b. mores c. sanctions d. laws e. commandments


Violation of a _____ is punishable by a political authority. a. norm b. folkway c. more d. law e. rule


Hugs, smiles, gifts, and praise are examples of a. norms. b. folkways. c. positive sanctions. d. negative sanctions. 46

Michael Mangin e. none of the above


Hitting, frowning and imprisonment are examples of a. norms. b. folkways. c. positive sanctions. d. negative sanctions. e. none of the above


_____ includes the norms, values and beliefs that people say they hold. a. Fake culture b. Ideal culture c. Model culture d. Principle culture e. Real culture


Marriage, medicine, and modesty are examples of George Murdocks a. cultural changes. b. cultural differences. c. cultural universals. d. cultural competencies. e. cultural confusions.


Which of the following statements best describes George Murdocks study of culture? a. Approximately half of all known societies share more than a dozen cultural universals. b. All known cultures share expectations about the family, education, and religion. c. Cultural universals are common to all societies and the specific behaviors are similar across all societies. d. All known societies share only a dozen cultural universals. e. none of the above


Michael Mangin 36. A sense of confusion, uncertainty, disorientation, or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment is (a) a. cultural universal. b. culture adaptation. c. subculture. d. counterculture. e. culture shock.


Connie visited her new in-laws in rural China. Her in-laws house had dirt floors and the family slept on torn cots in the front room. The water was dirty and there were no windows in the house. Connie spent the first night crying, confused about the new environment. Connie was experiencing a. a counterculture. b. a subculture. c. culture shock. d. culture adaptation. e. culture confusion.


When persons visit other cultures they may experience _____, the confusion that accompanies exposure to another culture. a. culture shock b. culture adaptation c. culture confusion d. culture adjustment e. culture change


Nick is a member of an online gaming community. He participates in chat rooms and sometimes plays online games for money. Nick is a member of a a. counterculture. b. common culture. c. metaculture. d. subculture. e. transculture.


College students represent a 48

Michael Mangin a. b. c. d. e. counterculture. common culture. metaculture. subculture. transculture.


Which of the following is not an example of a subculture? a. Kentucky Republicans b. Pennsylvania Amish c. Michigan Militia d. Minnesota Farmers e. California Teachers


Countercultures emerge as a result of a. mentally ill persons forming dysfunctional groups. b. television shows, such as The Simpsons. c. the emergence of the Internet and other forms of technology. d. people believing that they cannot achieve their goals within the existing society. e. all of the above


According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, where are active hate groups concentrated? a. southwestern United States b. southeastern United States c. northeastern United States d. northwestern United States e. midwestern United States


_____ is the belief that ones culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups. a. Counterculturism b. Subculturism c. Superculturism d. Ethnocentrism e. Cultural relativism 49

Michael Mangin


The anti-immigration laws of the 19th and 20th century serve as examples of a. assimilation. b. bullying. c. cultural relativism. d. Darwinism. e. ethnocentrism.


Which of the following statements about ethnocentrism is true? a. Ethnocentrism is always dysfunctional, often creating tensions between social groups. b. Ethnocentrism is based solely on prejudice and discrimination. c. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one ethnicity is better than another. d. Ethnocentrism is sometimes functional. e. Ethnocentrism encourages positive group interaction.


According to the textbook, the opposite of ethnocentrism is a. cultural acceptance. b. cultural relativism. c. cultural identity. d. cultural competence. e. none of the above


_____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards. a. Darwinism b. Ethnocentrism c. Cultural relativism d. Subculturism e. Multiculturalism


As a discipline, sociology promotes a. ethnocentrism. 50

Michael Mangin b. c. d. e. cultural relativism. countercultures. subcultures. all of the above


When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, Theyre primitive people who eat roast dog, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast. Harrys reply is as an example of a. ethnocentrism. b. cultural relativism. c. cultural diffusion. d. the self-fulfilling prophecy. e. the relativist fallacy.


_____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another. a. Ethnocentism b. Cultural relativism c. Multiculturalism d. Metaculturalism e. Popular culture


By encouraging multiculturalism, many supporters hope that a. ethnocentrism and discrimination will decrease. b. higher education will be better funded. c. international relations will be improved. d. racial/ethnic identification will decrease. e. national traditions will decline in significance.


Many researchers and medical professionals have identified _____ as the root cause of obesity in American children and teens. a. multiculturalism b. ethnocentrism c. subcultures d. popular culture 51

Michael Mangin e. countercultures


A ____ refers to the beliefs, practices, activities, and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life a. subculture. b. counterculture. c. popular culture. d. common culture. e. media culture.


Survivor, Big Brother, American Idol, and other reality television shows are examples of a. techno-culture. b. popular culture. c. common culture. d. media culture. e. marketing culture.


Which one of the following statements is not true regarding popular culture? a. Americans are highly influenced by popular culture and incorporate popular culture into many facets of everyday life. b. The mass media controls much of our popular culture through newspapers, magazines, and television. c. Americans can influence popular culture by what they buy, wear, and how they express themselves. d. America has laws forbidding the use of popular television characters on childrens products. e. None of the above all of the statements are true.


According to the text, _____ has/have significant control over shaping public opinions and perceptions. a. politicians b. entertainers and sports figures c. the mass media d. educators e. historical figures


Michael Mangin


In _____, the cultural values and products of one nation influence or dominate those of another nation. a. cultural relativism b. popular culture c. cultural change d. cultural persistence e. cultural imperialism


One of the criticisms of cultural imperialism is that it a. requires sophisticated thought processes. b. displaces local and authentic culture. c. promotes U.S. culture. d. All of the above are criticisms of cultural imperialism. e. None of the above is a criticism of cultural imperialism.


_____ promotes order and stability. a. Cultural imperialism b. Cultural change c. Cultural adaptation d. Cultural integration e. none of the above


Carmen and her family moved to the United States when she was six. At their family home, Carmen and her family spoke Spanish and celebrated Mexican holidays. However, Carmen attended an English-speaking school and participated in American sports on the weekends. This is an example of a. cultural diffusion. b. cultural imperialism. c. cultural competence. d. cultural integration. e. cultural change.


When cultural values, language, and/or beliefs spread to another society, a society experiences a. adaptation. b. borrowing. c. culturing. d. diffusion. 53

Michael Mangin e. empathy.


Forms of communication, such as the Internet, encourage a. delivery. b. diffusion. c. discovery. d. dimensions. e. all of the above


_____ is the process of creating new things; _____ is turning inventions into mass-market products. a. Invention; innovation b. Invention; diffusion c. Invention; discovery d. Diffusion; innovation e. Discovery; diffusion


When Henry Ford produced the Model T, he a. invented the technology for the automobile. b. took someone elses invention and created an automobile. c. manufactured the automobile only. d. stole the blueprints. e. none of the above


Which of the following statements is true about discovery and invention? a. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation. b. Discovery requires exploration and investigation, but invention does not. c. Invention requires exploration and investigation, but discovery does not. d. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation, but only occasionally. e. Neither discovery nor invention requires exploration and investigation.


When cultures change as a result of direct pressure (war, colonization) or indirect pressure (threat of embarrassment) from the dominant culture, this is called a. internal pressures. b. external pressures. c. interior pressures. 54

Michael Mangin d. exterior pressures. e. dominant pressures 68. Cultural lag refers to a. the slow pace of cultural change. b. the lack of laws to protect against new material culture. c. the tendency of material culture to change more slowly than nonmaterial culture. d. the tendency of nonmaterial culture to change more slowly than material culture. e. the slow pace of change in developing countries.


Which of the following statements best exemplifies the functionalist perspective on culture? a. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. b. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society. c. Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women. d. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. e. none of the above


Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture? a. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. b. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society. c. Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women. d. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. e. none of the above


Which of the following statements best exemplifies the feminist perspective on culture? a. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. b. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society. c. Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women. d. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. e. none of the above


Which of the following statements best exemplifies the symbolic interactionist perspective on culture? a. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. b. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and 55

Michael Mangin the political structures of a society. c. Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women. d. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. e. none of the above


Which one of the following statements about cultural lag is not true? a. Cultural lag often creates uncertainty and ambiguity about whats right and wrong. b. Cultural lags have always existed. c. Technology plays a minor role in cultural lags. d. Cultural lags can be viewed as opportunities to make positive changes in society. e. Laws rarely keep up with technological changes.


Which one of the following sociological perspectives is often criticized for overlooking diversity and social change in explaining culture? a. functionalism b. conflict theory c. feminist theories d. symbolic interactionism e. this criticism is true of all of the major sociological perspectives

TRUE AND FALSE QUESTIONS 1. Culture determines a societys total way of life. TRUE 2. Some U.S. cultural attitudes, such as seeing premarital sex as wrong, havent changed much since the 1970s/ FALSE 3. Sociologists study both material and nonmaterial cultures, but they are typically more interested in nonmaterial culture. TRUE 4. Childrens language development is dependent upon instruction from adults. TRUE 5. Values are concrete guidelines for how to act in specific situations. 56

Michael Mangin

FALSE 6. Mores define behavior that must be followed; folkways define behavior that should be followed. TRUE 7. Sanctions for mores are stricter than sanctions for folkways. TRUE 8. Anthropologist George Murdock identified more than 600 cultural universals. FALSE 9. To avoid conflict, some subcultures have assimilated into the dominant culture by changing their language clothing, and practicing the dominant religion. FALSE 10. Subcultures and countercultures share the same values and beliefs, but differ in their size and composition. FALSE 11. Any group can be ethnocentric. TRUE 12. Cultural relativism means evaluating another culture according to the standards of your own culture. FALSE 13. All societies change over time. TRUE 14. Cultural integration promotes order and stability. TRUE


Michael Mangin

CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. Consider the thirteen core U.S. values identified on pages 44 and 45. Which of the values conflict with one another? Which complement one another? Identify examples from your own life when these values conflicted and when they complemented one another. The two values of equality and conformity contradict, and conflict, because in a conformity situation, you obviously are not equal. When conformity occurs, individuals want to change themselves to be accepted, but if you arent accepted, then you arent equal. They are a bit contradictory. When you are equal, then you dont have to conform to be accepted. You are already accepted. For instance, if I am at school, and I notice someone had changed their appearance to fit in, then they view themselves as not equal to others. They had to change because society made them an outcast. If they werent an outcast, then they would be equal. Some values that complement each other are individuality, freedom, and democracy. These values all represent, essentially, each other. Freedom represents the freedom of thought and individuality. Democracy represents the idea of individuality. For example, while making a decision on something in the store, someone doesnt come by me and force me to buy something. People cant and dont force me do believe in something or do something. This is because I have freedom and individuality. 2. Identify an occupation-based subculture (i.e., teachers, doctors, musicians) and explain why how a group of individuals is a subculture within the dominant culture. Teachers are occupationally diverse from the dominant culture forming their own subculture because they have their own talk and language. They also work on something as a team. To explain further, they are all teachers; they do the same job. They can discuss the same things. They know certain things that students and others might not know. They perform different activities and have different interests than most of the dominant culture. They hold truths, and have their own political views. . What norms did your learn growing up? Have the norms changed over the years for you? If so, which ones? And why? If not, why?


There are many different norms people learn over the years as they grow up. They learn not to lie, cheat, or steal, for example. These were things I was taught as a child, and I still stay true to these norms to this day. Of course, certain norms like raising my hand, or standing in line was taught in school as a child. I still do this, and catch myself raising my hand when I dont need to. Many norms like dont question authority, and so on, I have sort of lost. I lost this particular norm because I believe it is the duty of a citizen to ask questions. Dont just sit back and conform to what the rest of the group is doing. Stand up and be recognized. I have always been respectful and will continue to be respectful because I want people to respect me. 58

Michael Mangin


What discrepancies between ideal and real culture have you experienced personallyin your family, workplace, community activities, or college? Give some examples. Also, how do you react when theres a clash between ideal and real culture in your life? People can be hypocritical. It is how society is. Why are people hypocritical? It probably just lies in their nature to believe in something but do the total opposite. Most of it is because people do not stand up for their beliefs. That ideal culture is only in their mind. These discrepancies or hypocritical behavior, as I call it, show up everywhere you go, and with everyone you meet. Someone could act like they like you, but really they hate you. I believe it comes from when you were raised. If you dont have something nice to say, then dont say anything at all. This behavior is what makes the discrepancies worse. Several experiences can occur, especially in school, from health care to liking teachers. I will try to point this behavior out, if it affects me, or applies to me, but mostly that is between them.


Do you think that multiculturalism strengthens or weakens Americas identity? Explain why and provide some specific examples to support your answer. America is known for being acceptable of other cultures, religions, ethnicities, etc. It keeps our identity neutral, but the more we try to diversify our nation, then the more it weakens. We add several religions to our culture. We allow them to practice their religion, but after a while, they will start to challenge other religions. Our original religion roots will start to diminish, and then the rest of our roots will diminish. The cultures will begin to influence all of America to accommodate for them. Another example would be of Hispanic immigrants who speak no English and refuse to speak English. After a while, English will go away, and Spanish will take over. Then, we lose our original language roots. There are advantages, but also disadvantages of multiculturalism. The problem comes down to which one is the dominant one?

WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 1. Consider Figure 3.1. Between 1969 and 2007, Americans have become more accepting of premarital sex. Identify possible social changes that have influenced this significant change in American attitudes. Some possible social changes of this idea could be held in the multiculturalism of our society. Each culture is diverse, and each religion is diverse. Most cultures have discarded this way of teaching because they felt it didnt have much of an effect. They couldnt see the insight of the topic. Why was it important? The patterns and trends of society have changed. People are starting to think more on their own versus what government, or the media tell them. Of course, as technology, and advancement, increases, so does reliability in sexual behavior. For example, they now have many different brands and kinds of 59

Michael Mangin condoms. They have way more birth control methods. They have many surgeries, and different technology that help prevent births, disease, and overall attitude. Tensions and relationships with friends and colleagues affect our attitudes. An example of this is that I only know one person that believes that sex should only happen after marriage. These are trends and patterns that spread among age, and periods of time. 2. The textbook identifies several building blocks of culture. Identify and describe the four major building blocks. Then, select any culture that you are familiar with and give examples of each building block. Gamers have a culture; a culture that is virtually the same. Gamers love to play video games. It is what they like to do. Culture is learned through gaming. When you play these video games, you are learning your culture. This particular game may shape how you learn, feel, think compared to this other game. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next because fathers might influence their kids to play games. Friends might play games, and then we get to liking them. For example, my cousin, John, has always played video games. I learned and became interested in games through him. If I hadnt played Grand Theft Auto, I dont think I would have ever got into gaming. The culture of gaming is shared among many. The numbers arent exact how many gamers there are, but it is a fifty billion dollar industry and growing. Gamers share the love of games, and playing them together. Culture is adaptive because if one thinks, the first video game was a paddle and a ball, or at least that made it in a popular market. Now we have games such as Fallout: New Vegas coming out and Saints Row 3 in production. Gaming has completely evolved from what it once was. 3. Most people are members of several groups, including subcultures and perhaps even countercultures. Identify the subcultures of which you are members. What values do these subcultures have? Is there specific language that is specific to each subculture? How does each subculture differ from the dominant culture? Ethnicity White / Caucasian They tend to be more dominant in society and have more money. Irish German English French Lithuanian Religion Christian They Believe in God and Jesus Christ. Along with a lot of the foundations within the Bible. Politics 60

Michael Mangin Independent They are neither democrats nor republicans. They remain strong on issues from either side and believe the nation shouldnt be divided. Constitutionalist They defend and uphold the Constitution. They side on issues from both liberals and Conservatives and stand strong against anything that harms the Constitution. Sex and Gender Male They are opposite sex of female and are seen as more dominant, masculine, etc. Age Youth They are seen as a bunch of rebels who do nothing but cause trouble. However, some might even be smarter than the rest. Social Class Middle Lower Class They have a roof over their head and food to eat, but they a=sure are poor. Recreation Gaming They love to play video games. They play, chat, and brag about video games. Music and the Arts Rap/Hip-hop/R&B Depends on what type of rap one listens to. I stick primarily to the Golden Age of Hip-hop when activists and issues were rising. RAP stands for Rhythm and Poetry, and the art of music took shape. Fighting for rights and oppression, rappers would raise questions in society. Now, its all robbing, killing, and sex. Which is sad. 4. The textbook argues that advertising and commercials have permeated American minds. In addition to the textbooks discussion, in what other ways do advertising and commercials influence your life? Commercials influence what you buy, see, trade, and even what you do. Commercials and media can literally control your life. They tell you what to eat, when to breath, and when to sleep. Examples of this are alcohol commercials, car commercials, toy commercials. They tell you what you should get for your kids, and how you should raise them. They have medicine commercials telling you how to live your life medically. There are commercials on drugs to try to prevent teens from doing drugs. The commercials and media is endless. They have thought of all different kinds of ways to persuade and propagandize everything.


Michael Mangin 5. Identify the main points for each of the four theoretical perspectives on culture. Identify which of the four perspectives is most compelling to you and explain why.

Functionalism Culture is cement that binds society Culture can be dysfunctional. Often overlooks diversity and social change Conflict Theory Culture can create inequality. Rich and powerful determine policies and benefit the average person has little status quo. Rich get richer Technology benefits the rich. Low pay work can help people climb out of poverty. Feminist Theory Inequality for females occurs Gender effects cultural experiences Stereotypes of women can create distortion Experience is different for females Symbolic Interactionism Culture influences everyday life. Language shapes mood and behavior. Different symbols are used to communicate beliefs The one I find most important is the symbolic interactionism perspective. I find this important because it relates culture to a more personal level. Culture is connected to lifestyle. Your beliefs, and morals shape who you are as a person. Culture shapes language, mood, views, and behavior.