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SOC 1E BY NIJOLE BENOKRAITIS CHAPTER 3 - CULTURE Homework Questions
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The term “_____” is often used by Americans to refer to activities such as reading Shakespeare’s sonnets, gourmet dining, and attending the opera. a. values b. society c. culture d. refined e. customs
For sociologists, culture refers to which of the following? a. values b. beliefs c. behaviors d. all of the above e. none of the above because the definition excludes random behavior, which characterizes most people
The terms “society” and “culture” are a. literal opposites. b. mutually dependent. c. independent. d. mutually exclusive. e. legally mandated.
Like the rest of her teammates, Sarah participates in a team rally before each game. This is an example of a. society. b. cremation. c. attitude. d. culture. e. adaption.
Michael Mangin 5. Which of the following is not an accurate sociological statement about culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is similar across cultures. c. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. d. Culture is shared. e. Culture is adaptive and always changing.
The introduction of personal computers into American society influenced the means by which we communicate. This is an example of which of the characteristics of culture? a. Culture is learned. b. Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. c. Culture is shared. d. Culture is adaptive and always changing. e. none of the above
Culture is passed from generation to generation, in both formal and informal settings. This transmission can be characterized as a. cumulative. b. chaotic. c. confusing. d. conflicting. e. comprehensive.
Architecture, hair accessories, and technology are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. tangible culture. c. nonmaterial culture. d. material culture. e. primitive culture.
Symbols, values, norms and beliefs are examples of a. cultural boundaries. b. nonmaterial culture. c. material culture. d. primitive culture. 41
Symbols distinguish one culture from another.Michael Mangin e. 42 . Symbols take many forms. d. values. It provided individual transportation. language. c. Symbols can unify or divide a country. e. and a handshake are examples of a. subversive culture. d. A stop sign. Which of the following is not true of symbols? a. none of the above 11. norms. b. 12. symbols c. It created new laws. sociology 13. Symbols remain constant over time. Symbols affect cross-cultural views. all of the above e. The invention of the car has influenced which of the following aspects of nonmaterial culture? a. norms d. b. It allowed for more privacy. c. 10. a wedding dress. abstractions b. c. symbols. he is using which of the following? a. If Kyle holds up two fingers in the peace sign. culture. d. e. methods e. b.
Sanctions 43 . Values e. they exchanged wedding rings and vows as _____ of their commitment to one another. When Michael and Wendy got married. b.Michael Mangin 14. Mores d. trademarks e. e. a language enables people to communicate with one another b. Many Americans were more agreeable to which of the following wordings in regards to Oregon’s 1994 Death with Dignity law? a. a. Neither of the above statements was agreeable to Americans. a. desirable or undesirable. _____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad. Americans were never asked about this issue. language often reflects cultural lags 16. Doctors should be allowed by law to “assist the patient to commit suicide” if the patient and his or her family requests it. symbols d. values 15. moral or immoral. signs b. Languages b. Both of the above statements were equally agreeable to Americans. Norms c. Doctors should be allowed by law to “end the lives” of patients if the patient and his or her family requests it. c. language controls our behavior d. status markers c. Which one of the following statements about language is not correct? a. d. children grasp the essential structure of their language when they enter kindergarten c. language and thought are interrelated e. 17.
e. b. language c. c. none of the above 22. thirteen of which are identified in the textbook. health care e. more. b. b. language. values d.S.Michael Mangin 18. equality and democracy are examples of a. c. more. sanction. d. culture. 21. norm. Specific rules of right and wrong are called a. freedom d. culture 20. norm. 44 . Which of the following is not a core U. c. norms b. norms. folkway. d. In a hallway. democracy c. values. conformity 19. most people walk on the right side. allowing others to pass as needed. Raising your hand in class is an example of a a. folkway. This is an example of a a. e. Sociologist Robin Williams identified a number of core U. symbols e.S. symbols. value as identified in the textbook? a. Progress. achievement and success b. values.
laws. 24. laws. Norms serve a specific purpose. commandment 26. b. Norms change over time. This is a violation of which type of norm? a. Which of the following is not true regarding norms? a. b. Most norms are shared by only small groups of people. sanction e. 45 . folkways. law d. d. mores. sanctions. The expansion of the Internet has changed how Americans communicate. folkways. d. mores. Most norms are unwritten and passed down through generations. e. Mark wore a pair of boots and a parka to the public swimming pool. b. sanctions. rules. more c. e. rules. folkway b. Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are a. c. The development of “netiquette” is an example of evolving a. Most norms vary depending on the situation. d. e. none of the above 23. On a hot summer afternoon. e. c.Michael Mangin d. c. 25. sanction.
a. e. folkway c. The most rigid norms are _____. folkways. laws e. law e. mores. mores c. gifts. law. norm. c. and praise are examples of a. d. 28. commandments 30. a. cultures. e. more d. more. Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior are called a. c. d. In most societies. negative sanctions. folkway. norm b. Violation of a _____ is punishable by a political authority. b. folkways b. d. sanctions d. formal rules about behavior. norms. sanction. rule 31. smiles. c. b. sanctions. 29. 46 . murder and infidelity are considered violations of a a. culture. positive sanctions. folkways. b. Hugs.Michael Mangin 27.
none of the above 32. cultural confusions. e. none of the above 33. cultural differences. Model culture d. e. and modesty are examples of George Murdock’s a. cultural universals. b. medicine. folkways. Real culture 34. c. none of the above 47 . b. education. e. cultural competencies. d. Which of the following statements best describes George Murdock’s study of culture? a. norms. Principle culture e. negative sanctions. Hitting. Approximately half of all known societies share more than a dozen cultural universals.Michael Mangin e. frowning and imprisonment are examples of a. Fake culture b. _____ includes the norms. and religion. cultural changes. a. 35. b. Cultural universals are common to all societies and the specific behaviors are similar across all societies. All known cultures share expectations about the family. d. values and beliefs that people say they hold. positive sanctions. Ideal culture c. Marriage. c. d. c. All known societies share only a dozen cultural universals.
b. confused about the new environment. c. He participates in chat rooms and sometimes plays online games for money. Nick is a member of a a. culture adaptation c. College students represent a 48 . culture confusion. disorientation. b. cultural universal. culture adaptation. subculture. culture shock b. A sense of confusion. culture adjustment e. the confusion that accompanies exposure to another culture. metaculture. Connie was experiencing a. culture adaptation. Connie visited her new in-laws in rural China. transculture. uncertainty. e. c. common culture. a subculture. or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment is (a) a. culture shock. culture change 39. Connie spent the first night crying. b. counterculture. d. Her in-laws’ house had dirt floors and the family slept on torn cots in the front room. culture confusion d. counterculture. Nick is a member of an online gaming community. c. subculture. a. 37. d. e. culture shock. The water was dirty and there were no windows in the house. e. a counterculture. 40. 38. When persons visit other cultures they may experience _____.Michael Mangin 36. d.
d. Kentucky Republicans b. southeastern United States c. television shows. Cultural relativism 49 . Counterculturism b. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center. e. Which of the following is not an example of a subculture? a. b. Subculturism c. e. 41. Pennsylvania Amish c. subculture. Michigan Militia d. counterculture. northwestern United States e. the emergence of the Internet and other forms of technology. California Teachers 42. Superculturism d. such as The Simpsons. d. metaculture. where are active hate groups concentrated? a. southwestern United States b. people believing that they cannot achieve their goals within the existing society. common culture.Michael Mangin a. transculture. _____ is the belief that one’s culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups. all of the above 43. Countercultures emerge as a result of a. c. b. Minnesota Farmers e. northeastern United States d. mentally ill persons forming dysfunctional groups. Ethnocentrism e. midwestern United States 44. c. a.
often creating tensions between social groups. Ethnocentrism c. cultural relativism. d. c. e. cultural relativism. ethnocentrism. the opposite of ethnocentrism is a. sociology promotes a. cultural competence. b. Cultural relativism d. Darwinism b. Darwinism. e. b. e. The anti-immigration laws of the 19th and 20th century serve as examples of a. b. Ethnocentrism is sometimes functional. a. none of the above 48. Subculturism e. Ethnocentrism is always dysfunctional. Multiculturalism 49. assimilation. cultural identity. d. cultural acceptance. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one ethnicity is better than another. Ethnocentrism is based solely on prejudice and discrimination. As a discipline. Which of the following statements about ethnocentrism is true? a. bullying. c. 46. c.Michael Mangin 45. According to the textbook. d. _____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards. 47. Ethnocentrism encourages positive group interaction. ethnocentrism. 50 .
and talk very fast. national traditions will decline in significance. ethnocentrism. subcultures.Michael Mangin b. 53. ethnocentrism c. Harry replied.” Harry’s reply is as an example of a. cultural diffusion. Popular culture 52. all of the above 50. without any one culture dominating another. higher education will be better funded. 51. c. c. cultural relativism. cultural relativism. e. Cultural relativism c. d. popular culture 51 . By encouraging multiculturalism. drive wildly around town on motor scooters. subcultures d. the relativist fallacy. c. b. _____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area. d. a. Ethnocentism b. multiculturalism b. countercultures. a. When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City. b. international relations will be improved. racial/ethnic identification will decrease. his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Multiculturalism d. d. ethnocentrism and discrimination will decrease. e. “They’re primitive people who eat roast dog. the self-fulfilling prophecy. e. Many researchers and medical professionals have identified _____ as the root cause of obesity in American children and teens. many supporters hope that a. Metaculturalism e. Vietnam.
common culture. b. The mass media controls much of our popular culture through newspapers. b. countercultures 54. marketing culture. the mass media d. educators e. e. historical figures 52 . media culture. common culture. techno-culture. entertainers and sports figures c. and how they express themselves. c. a. e. c. practices. c. popular culture. Big Brother. politicians b. b. Which one of the following statements is not true regarding popular culture? a. 57. and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life a. A ____ refers to the beliefs. d. d. media culture. d. American Idol. None of the above – all of the statements are true. and television. subculture. America has laws forbidding the use of popular television characters on children’s products. wear. Survivor. and other reality television shows are examples of a. Americans are highly influenced by popular culture and incorporate popular culture into many facets of everyday life. popular culture. activities. 56. _____ has/have significant control over shaping public opinions and perceptions. counterculture. magazines. According to the text. e. Americans can influence popular culture by what they buy.Michael Mangin e. 55.
Cultural change c. Cultural integration e. One of the criticisms of cultural imperialism is that it a. requires sophisticated thought processes. Cultural adaptation d. When cultural values. b. borrowing. e. c. Carmen attended an English-speaking school and participated in American sports on the weekends. cultural imperialism. displaces local and authentic culture. d. c. d. All of the above are criticisms of cultural imperialism. adaptation. Cultural imperialism b. d. culture. the cultural values and products of one nation influence or dominate those of another nation. c. a society experiences a. cultural persistence e. b. Carmen and her family moved to the United States when she was six. e. none of the above 61. Carmen and her family spoke Spanish and celebrated Mexican holidays. promotes U. b. cultural relativism b. cultural change d. At their family home. a. 62. popular culture c. cultural diffusion. cultural imperialism 59. and/or beliefs spread to another society. 60. In _____. cultural change. None of the above is a criticism of cultural imperialism.S. language. a. cultural integration. 53 . _____ promotes order and stability.Michael Mangin 58. culturing. diffusion. This is an example of a. cultural competence. However.
innovation e. Which of the following statements is true about discovery and invention? a. but invention does not. he a. Invention. colonization) or indirect pressure (threat of embarrassment) from the dominant culture. b.Michael Mangin e. this is called a. but only occasionally. c. discovery. d. diffusion. d. stole the blueprints. _____ is turning inventions into mass-market products. external pressures. dimensions. b. b. took someone else’s invention and created an automobile. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation. Invention. When cultures change as a result of direct pressure (war. but discovery does not. Invention. Neither discovery nor invention requires exploration and investigation. all of the above 64. d. c. such as the Internet. c. manufactured the automobile only. e. When Henry Ford produced the Model T. e. innovation b. none of the above 66. internal pressures. a. delivery. c. encourage a. 63. Invention requires exploration and investigation. Forms of communication. discovery d. b. _____ is the process of creating new things. Diffusion. e. diffusion 65. empathy. diffusion c. Discovery requires exploration and investigation. Discovery. invented the technology for the automobile. Both discovery and invention require exploration and investigation. 67. interior pressures. 54 .
b. exterior pressures. none of the above 71. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. d. c. e. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the symbolic interactionist perspective on culture? a. Material culture. none of the above 70. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the functionalist perspective on culture? a. especially the media. creates inequalities specifically for women. Cultural lag refers to a. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. e. the tendency of material culture to change more slowly than nonmaterial culture. and the political structures of a society. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the feminist perspective on culture? a. d. e. Material culture. especially the media. especially the media. the slow pace of cultural change. c. none of the above 72. dominant pressures 68. creates inequalities specifically for women.Michael Mangin d. b. b. the lack of laws to protect against new material culture. 69. and the political structures of a society. the tendency of nonmaterial culture to change more slowly than material culture. Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability. Material culture. Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture? a. b. education. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. e. education. c. e. b. d. c. d. education. the slow pace of change in developing countries. and the political structures of a society. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another. education. Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media. creates inequalities specifically for women. and 55 . Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.
d. creates inequalities specifically for women. 74. feminist theories d. c. Some U. such as seeing premarital sex as wrong. haven’t changed much since the 1970s/ FALSE 3. cultural attitudes. none of the above 73.S. Cultural lag often creates uncertainty and ambiguity about what’s right and wrong. Values are concrete guidelines for how to act in specific situations. b. Material culture. d. Sociologists study both material and nonmaterial cultures. conflict theory c. this criticism is true of all of the major sociological perspectives TRUE AND FALSE QUESTIONS 1. TRUE 2. c. 56 . Cultural lags have always existed. Laws rarely keep up with technological changes. Culture determines a society’s total way of life. Children’s language development is dependent upon instruction from adults. TRUE 5. e. functionalism b.Michael Mangin the political structures of a society. Which one of the following sociological perspectives is often criticized for overlooking diversity and social change in explaining culture? a. symbolic interactionism e. Technology plays a minor role in cultural lags. e. Which one of the following statements about cultural lag is not true? a. but they are typically more interested in nonmaterial culture. Cultural lags can be viewed as opportunities to make positive changes in society. especially the media. TRUE 4. Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.
and practicing the dominant religion. Anthropologist George Murdock identified more than 600 cultural universals. TRUE 12. TRUE 7. but differ in their size and composition. FALSE 9. some subcultures have assimilated into the dominant culture by changing their language clothing. Any group can be ethnocentric. All societies change over time.Michael Mangin FALSE 6. Cultural relativism means evaluating another culture according to the standards of your own culture. Subcultures and countercultures share the same values and beliefs. FALSE 11. FALSE 13. TRUE 14. To avoid conflict. Mores define behavior that must be followed. TRUE 8. TRUE 57 . FALSE 10. Cultural integration promotes order and stability. Sanctions for mores are stricter than sanctions for folkways. folkways define behavior that should be followed.
Don’t just sit back and conform to what the rest of the group is doing. then you aren’t equal. certain norms like raising my hand. then you don’t have to conform to be accepted. Teachers are occupationally diverse from the dominant culture forming their own subculture because they have their own talk and language. teachers. they do the same job. freedom. individuals want to change themselves to be accepted. and I notice someone had changed their appearance to fit in. and I still stay true to these norms to this day. or steal. They also work on something as a team. They are a bit contradictory. then they view themselves as not equal to others.e. They perform different activities and have different interests than most of the dominant culture. For instance. each other. they are all teachers. If they weren’t an outcast. . Consider the thirteen core U. These were things I was taught as a child. What norms did your learn growing up? Have the norms changed over the years for you? If so. or standing in line was taught in school as a child. I have always been respectful and will continue to be respectful because I want people to respect me. Some values that complement each other are individuality. The two values of equality and conformity contradict. why? 3.Michael Mangin CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. Many norms like “don’t question authority”. When you are equal. then they would be equal. Stand up and be recognized. Of course.. and have their own political views. if I am at school. They hold truths. They can discuss the same things. for example. and catch myself raising my hand when I don’t need to.S. you obviously are not equal. These values all represent. 2. someone doesn’t come by me and force me to buy something. When conformity occurs. but if you aren’t accepted. This is because I have freedom and individuality. Freedom represents the freedom of thought and individuality. and conflict. essentially. You are already accepted. I have sort of lost. musicians) and explain why how a group of individuals is a subculture within the dominant culture. cheat. I still do this. For example. values identified on pages 44 and 45. doctors. There are many different norms people learn over the years as they grow up. They had to change because society made them an outcast. and so on. 58 . Which of the values conflict with one another? Which complement one another? Identify examples from your own life when these values conflicted and when they complemented one another. and democracy. They learn not to lie. Democracy represents the idea of individuality. People can’t and don’t force me do believe in something or do something. I lost this particular norm because I believe it is the duty of a citizen to ask questions. They know certain things that students and others might not know. because in a conformity situation. while making a decision on something in the store. To explain further. Identify an occupation-based subculture (i. which ones? And why? If not.
The problem comes down to which one is the dominant one? WRITING ASSIGNMENTS 1. but really they hate you. America is known for being acceptable of other cultures. For example. After a while. especially in school. as I call it. then the more it weakens. we lose our original language roots. I will try to point this behavior out. they will start to challenge other religions. from health care to liking teachers. We add several religions to our culture. Between 1969 and 2007. show up everywhere you go. Several experiences can occur. It is how society is. how do you react when there’s a clash between ideal and real culture in your life? People can be hypocritical. and advancement. Also. community activities. Another example would be of Hispanic immigrants who speak no English and refuse to speak English. Why was it important? The patterns and trends of society have changed. Most of it is because people do not stand up for their beliefs. they now have many different brands and kinds of 59 . English will go away. I believe it comes from when you were raised. but mostly that is between them. increases. Most cultures have discarded this way of teaching because they felt it didn’t have much of an effect. religions. We allow them to practice their religion. as technology. workplace. Do you think that multiculturalism strengthens or weakens America’s identity? Explain why and provide some specific examples to support your answer. or college? Give some examples. It keeps our identity neutral. Our original religion roots will start to diminish. Some possible social changes of this idea could be held in the multiculturalism of our society. etc. but after a while. or applies to me. There are advantages. That “ideal culture” is only in their mind. but also disadvantages of multiculturalism. then don’t say anything at all. Then. ethnicities. Why are people hypocritical? It probably just lies in their nature to believe in something but do the total opposite. They couldn’t see the insight of the topic. but the more we try to diversify our nation. The cultures will begin to influence all of America to accommodate for them. if it affects me. 5. Americans have become more accepting of premarital sex. People are starting to think more on their own versus what government. and each religion is diverse. Of course. and Spanish will take over. and with everyone you meet.” This behavior is what makes the discrepancies worse. Identify possible social changes that have influenced this significant change in American attitudes. What discrepancies between ideal and real culture have you experienced personally—in your family. “If you don’t have something nice to say.Michael Mangin 4. Each culture is diverse. so does reliability in sexual behavior. Consider Figure 3. and then the rest of our roots will diminish. or the media tell them. These discrepancies or hypocritical behavior.1. Someone could act like they like you.
Culture is adaptive because if one thinks. or at least that made it in a popular market. Most people are members of several groups.Michael Mangin condoms. 3. think compared to this other game. disease. This particular game may shape how you learn. John. An example of this is that I only know one person that believes that sex should only happen after marriage. my cousin. has always played video games. and periods of time. you are learning your culture. The culture of gaming is shared among many. When you play these video games. Politics 60 . Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next because fathers might influence their kids to play games. For example. Tensions and relationships with friends and colleagues affect our attitudes. Gamers love to play video games. Irish German English French Lithuanian Religion Christian They Believe in God and Jesus Christ. but it is a fifty billion dollar industry and growing. Gamers share the love of games. and different technology that help prevent births. They have many surgeries. They have way more birth control methods. Gaming has completely evolved from what it once was. I don’t think I would have ever got into gaming. Now we have games such as Fallout: New Vegas coming out and Saints Row 3 in production. feel. and playing them together. a culture that is virtually the same. It is what they like to do. Gamers have a culture. I learned and became interested in games through him. Then. What values do these subcultures have? Is there specific language that is specific to each subculture? How does each subculture differ from the dominant culture? Ethnicity White / Caucasian They tend to be more dominant in society and have more money. Culture is learned through gaming. the first video game was a paddle and a ball. Along with a lot of the foundations within the Bible. and overall attitude. These are trends and patterns that spread among age. The numbers aren’t exact how many gamers there are. If I hadn’t played Grand Theft Auto. The textbook identifies several “building blocks” of culture. Identify and describe the four major building blocks. select any culture that you are familiar with and give examples of each building block. and then we get to liking them. including subcultures and perhaps even countercultures. 2. Friends might play games. Identify the subcultures of which you are members.
They side on issues from both liberals and Conservatives and stand strong against anything that harms the Constitution. chat. see. They play. Social Class Middle Lower Class They have a roof over their head and food to eat. However. when to breath. and brag about video games. There are commercials on drugs to try to prevent teens from doing drugs. The commercials and media is endless. and sex. rappers would raise questions in society. Now. Examples of this are alcohol commercials. masculine. They tell you what you should get for your kids. I stick primarily to the Golden Age of Hip-hop when activists and issues were rising. car commercials. 4. Constitutionalist They defend and uphold the Constitution. Age Youth They are seen as a bunch of rebels who do nothing but cause trouble. In addition to the textbook’s discussion. Recreation Gaming They love to play video games. its all robbing. Commercials and media can literally control your life. and when to sleep. They tell you what to eat. toy commercials. Music and the Arts Rap/Hip-hop/R&B Depends on what type of rap one listens to. trade. killing. RAP stands for Rhythm and Poetry. They remain strong on issues from either side and believe the nation shouldn’t be divided. in what other ways do advertising and commercials influence your life? Commercials influence what you buy. but they a=sure are poor. and the art of music took shape. etc.Michael Mangin Independent They are neither democrats nor republicans. Which is sad. and even what you do. The textbook argues that advertising and commercials have permeated American minds. They have thought of all different kinds of ways to persuade and propagandize everything. They have medicine commercials telling you how to live your life medically. some might even be smarter than the rest. 61 . and how you should raise them. Fighting for rights and oppression. Sex and Gender Male They are opposite sex of female and are seen as more dominant.
Culture is connected to lifestyle. • Often overlooks diversity and social change Conflict Theory • Culture can create inequality. Functionalism • Culture is cement that binds society • Culture can be dysfunctional.Michael Mangin 5. • Low pay work can help people climb out of poverty. and behavior. Your beliefs. • Language shapes mood and behavior. Culture shapes language. • Rich get richer • Technology benefits the rich. • Rich and powerful determine policies and benefit the average person has little status quo. • Different symbols are used to communicate beliefs The one I find most important is the symbolic interactionism perspective. Feminist Theory • Inequality for females occurs • Gender effects cultural experiences • Stereotypes of women can create distortion • Experience is different for females Symbolic Interactionism • Culture influences everyday life. and morals shape who you are as a person. views. Identify the main points for each of the four theoretical perspectives on culture. 62 . mood. I find this important because it relates culture to a more personal level. Identify which of the four perspectives is most compelling to you and explain why.
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