Types of Theories In Nursing Leonore Ann Dumlao I.

PHILOSOPHY OF NURSING Philosophy According to Meleis (2007), philosophy is a distinct discipline in its own right, and all disciplines can claim their own philosophical bases that form guidelines for their goals. It is concerned with the values and beliefs of a discipline and with the values and beliefs held by members of the discipline. It focuses on providing the framework and worldview for asking both ontological and epistemological questions. Philosophy helps in defining or questioning priorities and goals. Philosophy of Nursing Philosophies present the general meaning of nursing and nursing phenomena through reasoning and logical presentation of ideas (Alligood, 2010). Each philosophy provides a unique view of nursing practice. Philosophies address questions such as the following: y What is nursing? y What is the nature of human caring? y What is the nature of nursing practice? y What is the social purpose of nursing practice? Nightingale¶s Philosophy of Nursing According to Alligood (2010), Nightingale provides an answer to the question ³What is nursing?´ in her work Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not. In that work, Nightingale 1) distinguishes nurses from the household servant of her day, 2) contrasts the differences between nursing and medicine, and 3) specifies the concern of nursing to be involved with health as well as illness. Also within this work includes directives for her unique perspective that is focused on the relationship of patients and their surroundings. Watson¶s Philosophy of Nursing As proposed in Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring, Watson provides a unique approach to nursing. Her work states that nursing is ³a human science that addresses the nature of human caring´. Watson also introduces theoretical propositions for the human-tohuman relationships of nursing and specifies 10 carative factors to guide application of her work in nursing practice. Transpersonal caring is the proposed approach to achieve connectedness in which the nurse and the patient change together. Benner¶s Philosophy of Nursing Benner¶s philosophy of nursing emphasizes the nature of nursing practice, specifically on 1) how knowledge of practice is acquired, and 2) how it develops overtime. According to Alligood (2010), her interpretative research led to a description of the progress of nurses from novice to expert.

According to Barnum (1994). Context refers to the environment to which nursing act takes place. and assumptions intended to explain a set of fact. According to Function 1) Descriptive (Factor. Theories may be derived from a philosophy. or phenomena. laws and principles III. In short. Characteristics: y can correlate concepts to generate a different way of looking at a certain fact or phenomenon y logical in nature y simple but generally broad in nature y source of hypotheses that can be tested y contribute in enriching the general body of knowledge y used by practitioners to direct and enhance their practice y consistent with other validated theories. nursing and other concepts that contribute to the development of a body of knowledge specific to nursing concerns. 2) explaining relationships between phenomena. TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF NURSING THEORIES A. a more abstract theory. and process. theory is a supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon. as well as for answers related to significant nursing phenomena. (Octaviano. 2008) According to Kozier (2008). content refers to the subject of the theory. nursing theory is defined by Octaviano (2008) as a group of interrelated concepts that are developed from various studies of disciplines and related experiences.II. 2010). or 4) prescribing nursing care. event.Isolating) . THEORY Definition A theory is an organized system of accepted knowledge that is composed of concepts. or another model or framework (Alligood. They serve as a reservoir in which findings are stored that are related to nursing concepts. They reflect particular views of person. a nursing model. and process refers to the method by which nurse acts in using nursing theory. a complete nursing theory is one that has context. propositions. environment. definitions. NURSING THEORY Definition Meleis (2007) defined nursing theory as a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing reality communicated for the purpose of 1) describing phenomena. health. IV. 3) predicting consequences. content.

Conventional Model . Writings of the following are considered philosophies by Tomey and Alligood: y Florence Nightingale.Relating) These are the type that present relationships among concepts and propositions. B. They aim to provide information on how or why concepts are related. 2002) 1) Philosophies Theorists had developed philosophies that were derived through ³analysis. and not explain the relationship of concepts of the phenomenon. including cause and effect relationships. descriptive theories identify and describe major concepts of phenomena. According to Scope (Tomey & Alligood. reasoning and logical arguments´. and health.Considered as the primary level of theory development. Example: A research study about the factors affecting newborns in failing to thrive. This type of theory is commonly used in testing new nursing interventions. Their main purpose is to present a phenomenon.The Philosophy and Science of Caring y Patricia Benner.Stages of Nursing Expertise 2) Conceptual Models or Grand Theories These are less universal than the philosophies. Example: Laurente¶s (1996) theory validates and explains the different nursing management in the emergency room in relieving anxiety among its clients. Example: A descriptive research about the Filipino nursing practices like the use of herbal medicines and other alternative forms of treatment. 4) Prescriptive (Situation. and test the validity and certainty of a specific nursing intervention. and that the theorists provided the meaning of nursing phenomena. but are comprehensive in that they provide structure for all the views that interest nurses. This is generated and tested using experimental research. 2) Explanatory (Factor.14 Basic Needs y Faye Glenn Abdellah. environment.Self-Care Theory y Myra Levine.Environmental Theory y Ernestine Wiedenbach.Three Interlocking Circles Theory y Jean Watson.human.The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing y Virginia Henderson.Producing) This deals with nursing actions.´ Tomey and Alligood consider the following as grand theories: y Dorothea Orem.21 Nursing Problems y Lydia Hall. and ³propositional direction for the profession in a scientific field. Example: A Theoretical model based on the observation of the effects of unsanitary environmental condition on the recovery of the post-operative patients. 3) Predictive (Situation-Relating) This type of theory is achieved when the relationships of concepts under a certain condition are able to describe future outcomes consistently.

Health as Expanding Consciousness C.Nursing Process Theory y Joyce Travelbee. According to Nursing Domains (Meleis. They relate more clearly to nursing situations that can be placed within the model from which each theory was derived. Examples of theorists are the following: y Hildegard Peplau.Psychodynamic Theory y Ida Jean Orlando. considered.Goal Attainment Model 3) Middle Range Theories These theories are more limited in scope. irreducible. Callista Roy.Environment Interactions The major points in this domain were that human beings and environments are unitary. they are interrelated in an irreducible way. y Imogene King.Human-to-Human Relationship Model y Katherine Kolkaba.Nursing Process Theory y Joyce Travelbee.Adaptation Model Betty Neuman.System Model in Nursing Practice 2) Client.Goal Attainment Theory y Ida Jean Orlando.y y y y y Martha Rogers.Human-to-Human Relationship Model y Ernestine Wiedenbach.Adaptation Model y Betty Neuman.Human Becoming Theory y Margaret Newman. y Dorothy Johnson. or understood in isolation from the other.Transcultural Nursing y Rosemarie Rizzo Parse.Behavioral System Model y Sr. including those often classified by others as grand or as practice and middle range theories.The Science of Unitary and Irreducible Human Beings 3) Interactions The theories that were included in this category are those that consider Nursing as a process of interaction. 2004) 1) Nursing Clients The major influence on each of the theorists was the client and the client¶s need for nursing. Humans and their environment cannot be discussed.Health Care System Model Imogene King. Callista Roy.The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing 4) Nursing Therapeutics .Science of Unitary Human Beings Dorothy Johnson. y Martha Rogers.Comfort Theory y Madeleine Leininger.Behavioral System Model Sr. and pandimensional energy fields that are identifiable by patterns.

human health and caring are understood through their component parts or activities. The interrelationships among parts and the probabilistic nature of change are assumptions that guide the way phenomena are conceptualized and studied. humans) are viewed as reducible. and both objectivity and subjectivity are viewed as desirable. and knowledge development progresses to uncover these causal relationships. and embedded in. 2008) y Patterson . in whatever way the theory defines environment. These paradigms are conceptualized as evolving.Human Becoming Theory y Martha Rogers.Self-Care Theory y Sr.g.The Science of Unitary and Irreducible Human Beings y Margaret Newman. subjective. 2008) y Florence Nightingale y Dorothea Orem y Ida Jean Orlando y Hildegard Peplau b) Interactive-Integrative Objectivity and control are still important but reality is seen as multidimensional and contextual. (Smith & Liehr. (Smith & Liehr.Health as Expanding Consciousness 2) Newman¶s Categorization a) Particulate-Deterministic This paradigm is characterized by the positivist view of the theory of science and stresses research methods that demanded control in the search of knowledge.Adaptation Model y Dorothy Johnson. The stance of the theorist and the substance of the theory dictate the design and type of interventions. which are energy systems in simultaneous.Behavioral System Model b) Simultaneity Paradigm This includes the theoretical perspectives in which humans are identified as unitary beings. Reduction and causal inferences are characteristics of this paradigm. This paradigm acknowledges contextual. From the perspective of the theories within the particulate±deterministic paradigm. y Dorothea Orem. Callista Roy. continuous. Entities (e.theory was concerned with the conservation of client¶s energy y Dorothea Orem. y Myra Levine. According to Paradigms 1) Parse¶s Categorization a) Totality Paradigm This includes all theoretical perspectives in which humans are biopsychosocial-spiritual beings.theory focused on returning clients to self-care D. y Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. and change is viewed as linear and causal. there is an underlying order and predictable antecedents and consequences. the more complex paradigms encompass but extend the knowledge in a previous paradigm.This category is defined by the type of activities and interventions nurses design to assist actual or prospective clients or people who are vulnerable. adapting to their environment. mutual process with. the universal energy system. and multidimensional relationships among the phenomena central to the discipline.

The person± environment unity is a patterned. 2008) y Margaret Newman y Martha Rogers y Rosemarie Rizzo Parse y y 3) Fawcett¶s Categorization This model was synthesized from the analysis of views of mechanism versus organism. She noted that these theorists viewed reality as multidimensional. (Smith & Liehr. change is a mechanism for survival. 2008). c) Simultaneous Action Humans and their environment are constantly interacting. b) Reciprocal Interaction Humans are viewed as holistic. self-organizing ¿eld within larger patterned selforganizing ¿elds. which are self-evolving and self-regulating. typically lack operational definitions. Change is characterized by Àuctuating rhythms of organization. and relative. Change is continuous. The higher the level. Level of abstraction refers to the level of ³complexity´ by which a system is viewed. unpredictable. According to Octaviano (2008). These theories support the study of both objective and subjective phenomena. changing. and are not amenable to testing. Reactions are causal and stability is valued. persistence versus change. They are developed through thoughtful and insightful appraisal of .Sr. and interactive with their environments. grand theories are broad in scope. the more detail. This means that change is probabilistic and a result of multiple antecedent factors. E. complex. dependent on context (the surrounding conditions). there are three categories that relate to the scope of a theory: Grand Theories. and the Parse and Newman and colleagues¶ nursing paradigm structure. and both qualitative and quantitative research. disorganization. According to Scope or Level of Abstraction Scope refers to the qualified level of precision of a certain theory and the accuracy of its concepts and propositions (Octaviano. and therefore require further specification through research. Human beings are characterized by pattern and are in a mutual rhythmic open process with the environment. Subjective experience is primary and reÀects the whole pattern. toward more complex organization. and toward greater complexity and organization. They are simply known to speak about a broad range of important relationships among concepts of a discipline (Octaviano. and evolving. Callista Roy Margaret Jean Watson c) Unitary-Transformative Humans are viewed as unitary beings. the less detail. with the environments returning interactions. Middle-range Theories. (Smith & Liehr. the lower the level. and Micro-range Theories. The interaction changes predictably and controllably as humans survive and adapt. active. 1) Grand Theories According to Potter & Perry (2009). 2008). 2008) a) Reaction Humans are classified as biopychosocial-spiritual beings who react to the environment in a causal way. Grand theories are composed of relatively abstract concepts.

& Matheney. 2002) y Virginia Henderson. y Dorothea E. She was one of the early writers who referred to ³nursing diagnosis´ during a time when nurses are taught that diagnosis was not a nurse¶s prerogative. Nursing is seen as an art through which the practitioner of nursing gives specialized assistance to persons with disabilities which makes more than ordinary assistance necessary to meet needs for self-care.³Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing´ Abdellah¶s patient-centered approach is considered a human needs theory. it is abstract yet descriptive in nature. The theory was created to assist with nursing education and is most applicable to education and practice. education. y Florence Nightingale. mission. Nightingale¶s philosophy was inductively derived. The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. changing nursing education. and so forth on health and health care delivery.³The Behavioral System Model´ Nightingale¶s philosophical leanings prompted Johnson to consider the person experiencing a disease more important than the disease itself. The major assumption of the theory is that nurses care for patients until patients can care for themselves once again. These relate to change and anticipated changes that affect nursing. Abdellah had six assumptions. the need to appreciate the interconnectedness of social enterprises and social problems. the impact of problems such as poverty. 2005). y Dorothy Johnson. Grand theories are further categorized based on human needs. pollution.existing ideas as opposed to empirical research. and goals.³Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not´ (1860) Nightingale¶s ³basis tenet was healing and secondary to it are the tenets of leadership and global action which are necessary to support healing at its deepest level´ (Dossey.³The Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory´ According to Orem. These theories followed the philosophical school of thought of the time by considering the person to be biopsychosocial being and focusing on meeting the individual¶s needs. Neuman believed that the causes of stress can be identified and remedied through nursing interventions.³ The Neuman Systems Model´ Neuman¶s model uses a systems approach that is focused on the human needs of protection or relief from stress. and unitary process. racism. Tomey & Alligood. 1973). y Betty Neuman. Orem. interactive process. (Dossey. when Nursing was addressing its nature. Nursing diagnoses were a determination of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by individuals receiving nursing care. 1993. 2005a. Abdellah. a) Based on Human Needs Majority of early works were strongly influenced by the needs theories of social scientists (Maslow). She emphasized the need for humans for dynamic . Early theorizations in nursing are considered grand theories. The concept of human was defined as a behavioural system that strives to make continual adjustments to achieve. which focused on patient needs. and the patient is neither client nor consumer. 2000. y Faye G. Beland.³The Principles and Practice of Nursing´ Henderson was educated during the empiricist era in medicine and nursing. Martin. and development of nursing leader from underserved groups (Abdellah. and it is classified as a grand theory or philosophy by most nursing writers. continuing education for professional nurses. Selanders. maintain or regain balance to the steady ± state that is adaptation.

The Roy Adaptation Model is focused on the interrelatedness of four adaptive systems/ modes that constitute the specific categories that serve as framework for assessment. and applicable for individuals form many cultures.´ which is identified by the mutual communication.³Theory of Goal Attainment and Transactional Process´ The Theory of Goal Attainment lists several assumptions relating to individuals.balance that the nurse can provide through identification of problems.³Modeling and RoleModeling. . ³responses to and interaction with the client¶s environment are carried out and adaptation can be observed´. Regarding nurse-client interactions. y Roper. as well as the goals. and priorities of both the client and nurse intrasystems.³Model of Nursing Based on Activities of Living´ The model was developed from the nursing education experiences of the authors as they analyzed data from numerous hospitals and other clinical practicum locations to identify a core of nursing knowledge across specialties. y Myra Levine. The model is universal. nurseclient interactions. there is a differentiation between the human as a system (the intrasystem) and the interactive systems of individuals or groups. The data they gathered from clinical areas were analyzed and they determined that there was a core of common. Her model deals with the interactions of nurse and client. & Mary Ann Swain.³The Roy Adaptation Model´ Like many of the models/ theories. y Imogene King. y Barbara Artinian. and values. which may produce predictable effects using probability as the reality. goals will be attained. and Tierney. Evelyn Tomin. and nursing. Neuman¶s model is one of only a few considered prescriptive in nature. psychological. King believes that perceptions. sociocultural. mutually agreeing on goals. negotiation. abstract. the model was inductively formulated. of the nurse and client influence the interaction process. y Sister Calista Roy. Nursing is specified as ³nursing action. it is a deductive theory based on nursing practice. organization. If transactions are made in nurse-client interactions. everyday living activities. Logan. known as the intersystem. needs. These theorists ascribe to systems theory and agree that there is constant interaction between humans and their environments. and politicoeconomic) along the continuum from dependence to independence. Health refers to how the individual carries out the activities of living in interaction with the five factors (biological. Through the four modes. a Paradigm and Theory for Nursing´ Philosophically. This is accomplished through intersystem interaction.³The Conservation Model´ She state that ³nursing is a human interaction´. It considers multiple factorial interactions. y Helen Erickson. environmental. and using the concept of prevention as intervention. Thus. feedback loops are necessary to produce a mutually determined plan of care. Tomlin. b) Based on Interactive Process Theorists believe that humans are holistic beings who interact with and adapt to situations in which they find themselves. For this reason. their work is considered to be human interaction theory. If the nurse and client make transactions.³The Intersystem Model´ In the Intersystem Model. growth and development will be enhanced. Erickson. and Swain believe ³that Nursing is a process between the nurse and client and requires an interpersonal and interactive nurse-client relationship´. and across the lifespan of the person.

nursing is grounded in view that the human is a unitary being who is free to choose in situations. 2008). Nursing is guiding humans toward ways of being. this theory is one of the most recent nursing theories. Man and environment are continuously exchanging matter and energy with one another. A fundamental proposition in Newman¶s model is the idea that health and illness are synthesized as ³health´.´ Health is described as continuous humanenvironmental interchanges. . embedded in larger. The fusion of one state of being (disease) with its opposite (nondisease) results in what can be regarded as health. and living true presence in the day-to-dayness of the person¶s life. human beings are seen as unitary.³Caring Science as Sacred Science´ Watson called her earlier work a descriptive theory of caring and stated that it was the only theory of nursing to incorporate the spiritual dimension of nursing at the time it was first conceptualized. and predictions are made with the purpose of answering questions about different nursing phenomena. that is. y Martha Rogers. Newman believed that ³the human is unitary. explanations. finding meaning in situations. choosing ways of cocreating their own health. Man is a unified whole possessing integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different from the sum of its parts. 2008). and are considered as the least abstract level of knowledge because they include details specific to nursing practice. the location of practice and the different interventions of the nurse (Octaviano. the patient population. As a student of Rogers. cannot be divided into parts. Based on Source and Development Process: a) Derived from Research &/or Practice The approach is induction through research and practice.³The Science of Unitary and Irreducible Human Beings´ This theory started as an abstract theory that was synthesized from theories of numerous sciences. According to Rogers. Within this group of theories.³Health as Expanding Consciousness´ Built on the works of Rogers and others. y Margaret Newman.³The Theory of Human Becoming´ The theory comes from her experience in nursing and from a synthesis of theoretical principles of human sciences.Jean Watson. y c) Based on Unitary Process This group of theorists believed that humans are unitary beings: energy systems embedded in the universal energy system. They offer a more direct application to research and practice. They emerge at the intersection of research and practice. when theory guides practice. The theory was both deductive and inductive in its origins and was written at an abstract level of discourse. and research creates/ informs understanding of theory and practice. and is inseparable for the larger unitary field´. They specify such things as the health condition. According to Parse. open environmental systems. open and free to choose ways of becoming. One of the basic assumptions of this theory states that ³caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally´ (Octaviano.Range Theories Middle-range theories have a more limited scope. 2) Middle. practice generates research questions. ³whole. y Rosemarie Parse. She saw humans as open energy systems in continual contact with a universe of open systems. Descriptions. Health and disease are the same and not separate in the life of the individual. human systems are open systems.

y Theory of Self-Care (Rew. b) Derived from a Grand Theory The approach is deduction from research and practice or application of grand theories. Many nursing theorists and scholars agree that grand theories are difficult to apply in research and practice. y Public Health Nursing Practice Model (Smith & Bazini-Barakat. 2000). the.developed by ³melding of nationally recognized components´ of public health nursing practice. They are categorized as follows: a) High Middle Range Theories . and Minnesota¶s Public Health Interventions Model.y Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework (Corbin & Strauss. the 10 Essential Services of Public Health. and psychology.1992). 1994).used standards of care for terminally-ill patients Based on their Level of Abstraction: Liehr and Smith (1999) analyzed 22 middle range theories published during the previous decade.employed Neuman Systems Model as basis c) Combining Existing Nursing and Non-Nursing Theories The approach is a combination of existing nursing and non-nursing middle range theories. y Model for Cultural Competence (Purnell.incorporated elements of chaos theory e) Derived from Practice Guidelines or Standard of Care The approach is the derivation from practice guidelines and standards rooted in research. The identified components were the Standards of PHN practice.developed from a series of studies related to management of chronic illness.developed from experiences of homeless youth based on Orem¶s work y Theory of Prevention as Intervention (August-Brady. Combining concepts or elements of multiple theories is very common in middle range theory development. y Theory of Exercise as Self-Care (Ulbrich.Healthy People 2010¶s 10 Leading Health Indicators. including those from the behavioral sciences. 1999). y Theory of the Peaceful End of Life (Ruland and Moore. and characteristics of a population at risk for cardiovascular disease. ergonomics. They suggest the development of middle range theories derived from grand theories. y Theory of Comfort (Kolcaba.developed from practice and working with staff and students in culturally diverse clinical settings. 2003). 2000). 1991.´ d) Derived from Non-Nursing Disciplines The approach is the derivation from theories of other disciplines that relate to nursing. as only a few examples could be found. 2003). sociology. psychiatry. as well as from nursing literature and history. combined with numerous accounts of practice experiences by nurses.reportedly derived from a review of literature from medicine. 2003). physiology and anthropology. A very significant number of middle rang nursing theories are developed from one or more nonnursing theories. y Uncertainty in Illness Theory (Mishel. 1998).developed through ³triangulation of Orem¶s self-care deficit theory of nursing. Practice guidelines or standards appear to be the least common source for middle range theory development.

acute pain management. and intervention for postsurgical pain.These include concepts such as caring. helplessness. because it describes the evolution of ³excellent caring practices´. Comfort is viewed as an outcome of care that can promote or facilitate health-seeking behaviors. adaptation is the desirable end-state achieved after coping with the uncertainty. and expert. The number of low middle range theories appears to be growing rapidly as nursing researchers and nursing scholars describe phenomena directly related to practice. Nurses may develop nursing interventions that attempt to influence the person¶s cognitive process to address the uncertainty. c) Low Middle Range Theories These include hazardous secrets. or transcendence arising from health care situations that are stressful. and emphasizes the fluid nature of human experience characterized by change and unpredictability. b) Middle Middle Range Theories These include concepts such as uncertainty in illness. theory development and nursing science. y Barker¶s Tidal Model o This describes psychiatric nursing practice. ease. The purpose of the theory is to generate knowledge related to the nursing care of people who value their cultural heritage and lifeways. chronic sorrow. peaceful end of life. resilience. It is a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health. In the theory. and nurse-expressed empathy. Burke. The theory was inductively derived and validated through a series of studies and a critical review of existing research. growth and development. and Hainsworth¶s Theory of Chronic Sorrow o The concept of chronic sorrow describes the grief observed in the parents of children with mental deficiencies. as a first step towards reclaiming control over their lives. Benner¶s work delineates the importance of retaining and rewarding nurse clinicians for their clinical expertise in practice settings. unpleasant symptoms. focused on helping people recover their personal story of distress. advanced beginner. self-transcendence. competent. and psychological adaptation. The theory was developed to integrate existing knowledge about a variety of symptoms to better prepare nurses in symptom management. proficient. y Beck¶s Postpartum Depression Theory . y Kolcaba¶s Theory of Comfort o Kolcaba defined comfort within nursing practice as ³the satisfaction of the basic human needs for relief. y Mishel¶s Uncertainty of Illness Theory o The theory explains how clients cognitively process illness-related stimuli and construct meaning in these events. y Benner¶s Model of Skill Acquisition in Nursing o The model outlines five stages of skill acquisition: novice. women¶s anger. y Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms o This was developed by a group of nurses interested in a variety of nursing issues including symptom management. nurse midwifery care. Increasing comfort can result in having negative tensions reduced and positive tensions engaged. y Leininger¶s Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory o Madeline Leninger has been instrumental in demonstrating to nurses the importance of considering the impact of culture on health and healing. y Eakes. She is credited with starting the specialty of transcultural nursing. cultural brokering.

memory-impaired elders and their caregivers. y Menopausal transition of Korean immigrant women y Learned response to chronic illness of patients with rheumatoid arthritis y Women¶s responses when dealing with their multiple roles . The concepts or stages were defined as 1) encountering terror (anxiety attacks). 3) Micro. micro-range theories are known to be the most concrete and narrow in scope. y Urine Control Theory o The purpose of this model is to ³provide a framework for practicing nurses as well as nurse researchers in addressing urine control problems´. 3) struggling to survive (seeking solace.o The theory provides insight into the experience of postpartum depression. They focus on specific nursing phenomena. and are limited to specific populations or a particular field of practice. The researchers identified significant correlations between incontinence and impaired mobility.Range or Situation-Specific Theories According to Octaviano (2008). praying for relief). and 4) regaining control (recovery). 2) dying of self (isolation). The theory was developed following a research study of 119 incontinent.

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