Chapter 2 - Introduction to Function | Variable (Mathematics) | Function (Mathematics)

# QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 44

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Ali invested RM100 at a bank and earns simple interest rate at an
annual rate of 6%. The interest I (output) depends on how long that
the money have been invested, t (input). Then it can be shown that
interest and time are related by the formula:

I = 100 (0.06) t

Where I is in RM and t is in years. For example; in the first year Ali will
earns: I = 100 (0.06)(1)
= RM 6 from his investment.

How much will Ali earns if he invested his money for 10 years??

As we can see, the interest I (output) depends on the length of time t
(input) that Ali’s money is invested. To express this dependence, we say
that I “is a function of” t. Functional relations like this are usually
specified by a formula that shows what must be done to the input to
find the output. We can think of formula as defining “rule”:
multiply t by 100(0.06)
The rule assigns to each input number t exactly one output number I,
which we symbolize by the following arrow notation:

t Æ I or t Æ 100(0.06)t
output input
Example 1:
Function
First year:
t = 1
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 45
A function is a rule that assigns to each input
number exactly one output number
2.1 INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTION

Independent variable - a variable that represents input numbers for
a function . Eg : t in example 1
Dependent variable - a variable that represents output numbers
for a function. Eg: I in example 1

Given 2 + = x y . Determine whether y is/isn’t a function of x ?

Solution
• if 1 = x

• if 4 − = x

Therefore

Example 2:
∴ The rules define/not define y as a function of x .
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 46

Consider: x y =
2

Try to input 9 = x into the given function
Then,

Therefore

2.1.1 FUNCTIONAL NOTATION
Usually the letters G F h g f , , , , and so on are used to represent
function rules. For example, the equation y = x + 2 defines y as a
function of x, suppose we let ƒ represent this rule ( add 2 to the input).
Then we say ƒ is the function. To indicate ƒ assigns the output 3 to the
input 1, we write
ƒ (1) = 3, which is read “ƒ of 1 equals 3”.

Generally, if x is any input, we have the following notation:
ƒ (x)
(read as : “ƒ of x”)
means the output number that corresponds to the input number x.
Example 3
∴ The rule define/ do not define y as a function of x .?
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 47
thus the output of ƒ (x) is the same as y. Therefore we may write the
equation y = x + 2 as:
y= ƒ (x) = x + 2
or simply
ƒ (x) = x + 2

a) Given a function ( ) 7 + = x x f . What is the output
corresponds to the input x =1 or ( ) 1 f ?
Solution:

b) Find the value ( ) 3 f for the function ( ) 1 2 − = x x f
Solution:

c) Given ( )
u
u
u h
4 +
= , find ( ) ( ) 4 , 5 − h h and
( ) 4 − u h
Solution:

Example 4:
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 48
Domain : is a set consist of all valid input for a
function
Range : is a set of all valid output for a
function (produce by the values in
the domain)
d) Given ( ) 4 = x f , find ( )
|
.
|

\
|
100
1
, 4 f f and
( ) 4 + x f
Solution:

2.2 & 2.3 DOMAIN AND RANGE

For a function f defined by an expression with variable x, the implied
domain of f is the set of all real numbers variable x can take such that
the expression defining the function is real.

The range of f is the set of all values that the function takes when x takes
values in the domain.

• There are two ways to determine the domain and the range of a
function :
a) from the graph sketches
b) Using Algebra

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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 49
2
4
3
5
-1
a) Domain and range from the graph sketches.

Example 5: Example 6 :

y
Domain : { x Є R } Domain : {x >2}
Range : { y Є R} Range : {y >4}

Example 7: Example 8 :

y

x x

Domain = { 2 ≤ x ≤ 4 } Domain = { x ≤ -1 }
Range = { 3 ≤ y ≤ 5 } Range = { y = 1, y > 3}

x
x
4
2
Å

r
a
n
g
e

Æ

ÅdomainÆ
y
y
1
3
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 50
Example 9 : Example 10 :
y y

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }

2.2.1 & 2.3.1 TYPES OF FUNCTION AND ITS DOMAIN & RANGE
A. Constant Function : y = k @ x = h

4
2
x
6
2
1 2 3
0
4
8 0
4
x

Example 10: y =5 Example 11: x = 50
y y
x = 50

5 y = 5

0 x 0 50 x

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 51
4
B. Linear Function : y = mx + c

C. Quadratic Function : y = ax
2
+ bx + c

Example 12 : y = 2x + 4 Example 13 : y = -5x + 10

y y

4 10

-2 0 x 0 2 x

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }
2
Example 14 : y = x
2
+ 2x - 8 Example 15 : y = -x
2
+ 10x -21

y y
4

x

x

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }
2
-9
-1 -4
3 5 7
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 52
D. Polynomial/Cubic Function d cx bx ax y + + + =
2 3

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }

E. Absolute Function

Example 16 : y = x
3
+ 7
y
x
7
Example 17 : y = -x
3
- 5
-5
y
x
Example 18: f(x) = | x-1|

The function could be separated into:
f(x) = |x-1|
(x-1) ; x ≥1
=
-(x-1) ; x<1

Graph: only consider the positive value for the output (y)
y

f(x) = 1-x f(x) = x-1

x
0 1

Domain = { }
Range = { }
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 53

Name each function and determine their domain:
a) ( ) 7 = x f (constant function)
Answer: Domain for ( ) 7 = x f is ……

b) 1 3 + = x y (linear function)
Answer: Domain for 1 3 + = x y is …..

c) 9
2
− = x y (quadratic function)
2
− = x y is …..

d) ( ) 1
3
− + = x x x f (polynomial / cubic function)
Answer: Domain for ( ) 1
3
− + = x x x f is …..

e)
1 5 ) ( − = x x f

1 5 ) ( − = x x f
is ……

EXERCISE 1:
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 54
F . Composite Function

Example 19 : Example 20 :
2 ; x ≥ 0 x+3 ; x > 1
f(x) = f(x) = 1 ; -1<x <1
1 ; x < 0 x ; x≤-1

y y

4
2

1
1
x
-1 1
x -1
0

Domain = { } Domain = { }
Range = { } Range = { }

Example 21 :
x+3 ; x ≠ 1
f(x) = 1 ; x = 1

y

Domain = { }

4 Range = { }

1
x
1
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 55

1. Determine the domain for each composite function:

a) f(x) =
3 1
3 4
2
< ≤
=
¹
´
¦
x for
x for
x

Domain = { }

b) h(x) =
2
2
3
3
<

¹
´
¦
− x for
x for

Domain = { }

2. Given the function f(q),

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< ≤
< ≤ −
< ≤ −
=
5 3 , 2
3 0 , 3
0 1 ,
) (
2
q for q
q for q
q for q
q f

determine;
a) f( )
2
1

b) f(0)

c) f(2)

d) f(3)

e) f(4)

f) Domain for the function f(q)
Domain = { q : }
EXERCISE 2
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Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 56
G. Rational Function : f(x) = p(x)
q(x)

2.1.2 JENIS-JENIS FUNGSI DAN GRAF

1. Fungsi Malar
2. Fungsi Linear
4. Fungsi Polinomial Kubik
5. Fungsi Rasional
6. Fungsi Punca Kuasa Dua
7. Fungsi Rencam
8. Fungsi Mutlak

1. FUNGSI MALAR
Persamaan amnya ialah k y =
Misalnya,
3 = y y
Bentuk graf,
y = 3

Example 23: f(x) = 2 Æ p(x) - numerator
x+1 Æ q(x) - denominator

There are two ways to determine the domain for a rational function

1 : From the graph sketches y

-1 0 x

Based on the graph, we can determine the domain and the range for
the given function,
Domain = { }
Range = { }

2 : Using Algebra
In order to produce an output for a rational function, the denominator
cannot be a zero (we cannot divide by 0). Therefore, the domain of a
rational function can take any real numbers as an input EXCEPT the one
that make the denominator equal to 0.
1
2
) (
+
=
x
x f

In order for us to determine the domain for a rational function, we need
to find the values of x that make the denominator equal to zero Æ
these cannot be an input numbers.

Thus we set the denominator NOT equal to 0 and solve for x ,
x + 1 ≠ 0
x ≠ -1

Therefore we have, the domain for the function f is all real numbers
EXCEPT -1 OR can be written as { }
x + 1≠ 0
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 57

Determine the domain for each given function:

a) f(x) =
81
2
2

+
x
x

b) h(x) =
5 2
1 3
+

x
x

c) g(y) =
) 2 )( 1 (
4
− + y y y

EXERCISE 3:
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 58
H. Square Root Function :
) (x p y =
or
2
1
)) ( ( x p y =

Example 23 :
x y + =

1) From Graph Sketches :
y

Domain = { }
Range = { }

0 x

Example 24 :
3 6 ) ( + = x x f

2) Using algebra

3 6 + x
is a real number if
3 6 + x
is greater or equal to 0.
If
3 6 + x
is negative, then
3 6 + x
is not a real number. (It is an
imaginary number).

Since function values must be real numbers, we must assume that,

2
1
3 6
, 0 3 6

− ≥
≥ +
x
x
x

Thus the domain for f is greater or equal to – ½ or can be written as
{ }

6x + 3 ≥ 0
QQM1023 Managerial Mathematics

Chapter 2 : Introduction To Function 59

Determine the domain for each given function:
a) h(x) =
3 − x

b) g(x) =
3 4 + x

c) f(x) =
8 2
6
− x

EXERCISE 4: