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API RP 2T 2nd Ed

API RP 2T 2nd Ed

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  • 1 Scope
  • 2 References
  • 3 Definitions and Terminology
  • 4 Planning
  • 5 Design Criteria
  • 6 Environmental Forces
  • 6.4.4 Force Calculation Method Guideline
  • 6.5 ICE LOADS
  • 7 Global Design and Analysis
  • Maximum Tendon Tension Up Wave Leg
  • 8 Platform Structural Design
  • 9 Tendon System Design
  • 10 Foundation Analysis and Design
  • 11 Riser Systems
  • 12 Facilities Design
  • 13 Fabrication, Installation, and Inspection

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Tension Leg Platforms


COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services, 2000

One of the most signiÞcant long-term trends affecting the future vitality of the petroleum industry is the publicÕs concerns about the environment. Recognizing this trend, API member companies have developed a positive, forward looking strategy called STEP: Strategies for TodayÕs Environmental Partnership. This program aims to address public concerns by improving our industryÕs environmental, health and safety performance; documenting performance improvements; and communicating them to the public. The foundation of STEP is the API Environmental Mission and Guiding Environmental Principles.

The members of the American Petroleum Institute are dedicated to continuous efforts to improve the compatibility of our operations with the environment while economically developing energy resources and supplying high quality products and services to consumers. The members recognize the importance of efÞciently meeting societyÕs needs and our responsibility to work with the public, the government, and others to develop and to use natural resources in an environmentally sound manner while protecting the health and safety of our employees and the public. To meet these responsibilities, API members pledge to manage our businesses according to these principles: ¥ To recognize and to respond to community concerns about our raw materials, products and operations. ¥ To operate our plants and facilities, and to handle our raw materials and products in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of our employees and the public. ¥ To make safety, health and environmental considerations a priority in our planning, and our development of new products and processes. ¥ To advise promptly, appropriate ofÞcials, employees, customers and the public of information on signiÞcant industry-related safety, health and environmental hazards, and to recommend protective measures. ¥ To counsel customers, transporters and others in the safe use, transportation, and disposal of our raw materials, products, and waste materials. ¥ To economically develop and produce natural resources and to conserve those resources by using energy efÞciently. ¥ To extend knowledge by conducting or supporting research on the safety, health, and environmental effects of our raw materials, products, processes, and waste materials. ¥ To commit to reduce overall emission and waste generation. ¥ To work with others to resolve problems created by handling and disposal of hazardous substances from our operations. ¥ To participate with government and others in creating responsible laws, regulations, and standards to safeguard the community, workplace, and environment. ¥ To promote these principles and practices by sharing experiences and offering assistance to others who produce, handle, use, transport, or dispose of similar raw materials, petroleum products and wastes.

COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services, 2000

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Tension Leg Platforms
Exploration and Production Department API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T SECOND EDITION, AUGUST 1997

COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services, 2000

or otherwise. Washington. mechanical. 20005. and others exposed. Generally. Copyright © 1997 American Petroleum Institute COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.C. where an extension has been granted. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent. or product covered by letters patent. D. API Publishing Services.C. the manufacturer or supplier of that material. This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate notiÞcation and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API standard. reafÞrmed. stored in a retrieval system. Washington. D. local. or guarantee that such products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard. The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way to inhibit anyone from using any other practices. or the material safety data sheet.C.SPECIAL NOTES API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. electronic. N. and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. state.. No part of this work may be reproduced. without prior written permission from the publisher. by implication or otherwise. upon republication.. API standards are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven. American Petroleum Institute. 1220 L Street. apparatus. N. This publication will no longer be in effect Þve years after its publication date as an operative API standard or. for the manufacture. D. recording. 2000 . nor undertaking their obligations under local.W. state. All rights reserved. API standards are reviewed and revised.W. or transmitted by any means. photocopying. 20005. 1220 L Street. API does not represent. or use of any method. With respect to particular circumstances. Washington. Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer. Contact the Publisher.W. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and updated quarterly by API. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers. Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review cycle. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or comments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was developed should be directed in writing to the director of the Authoring Department (shown on the title page of this document). 20005. Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. N. or federal laws. Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or any part of the material published herein should also be addressed to the director. manufacturers. warrant. These standards are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these standards should be utilized. sound engineering and operating practices. Status of the publication can be ascertained from the API Authoring Department [telephone (202) 682-8000]. or withdrawn at least every Þve years. sale. concerning health and safety risks and precautions.. 1220 L Street. or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip their employees.

Washington. this document will be updated to reßect the latest accepted design and analysis methods.C. The recommendations are based on published literature and the work of many companies who are actively engaged in TLP design. As TLP technology develops. The main body contains basic engineering design principles which are applicable to the design. buoyant. A TLP system consists of many components. and operation. and the glossary. In many cases these equations represent condensations of more complete analysis procedures. Equations for analyses are included where appropriate. equipment layout and space allocation. are given in the commentary. This Recommended Practice has three parts: the main body. state. but they can be used for making reasonable and conservative predictions of motions. Consequently the design is a highly interactive process which must account for functional requirements. The uniqueness of a TLP is in the systematic inßuence of one component on another. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the director of the Exploration and Production Department. the commentary. component size and proportion. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them.. construction. describing the logic basis and advanced analytical concepts from which they were developed. All disciplines involved in the design process should anticipate several iterations to achieve proper balance of the design factors. This document summarizes available information and guidance for the design. and bring forth to the Institute any newfound principles or procedures for review and consideration. compliant structural system wherein the excess buoyancy of the platform maintains tension in the mooring system. The designer and operator are encouraged to use the most current analysis and testing methods available. 20005. fabrication and installation of a TLP system. warranty. D. forces or component strength. DeÞned herein are guidelines adapted from successful practices employed for related structural systems in the offshore and marine industries. structural detail. 1220 L Street. the Institute makes no representation.W. American Petroleum Institute. and Constructing Tension Leg Platforms incorporates the many engineering disciplines that are involved with offshore installations. Designing. however.FOREWORD This Recommended Practice for Planning. or municipal regulation with which this publication may conßict. each of which has a precedent in the offshore or marine industry. etc. hydrodynamic reaction. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. A Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is a vertically moored. weight and centers of gravity. or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any federal. N. More detailed discussions of these engineering principles. iii COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. It is considered particularly suitable for deep water applications. A TLP may be designed to serve a number of functional roles associated with offshore oil and gas exploitation. 2000 . either ßoating or Þxed.

COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 2000 .

. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. 7. . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .4 Wave Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Seaßoor Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .10 Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Systems Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Stability Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DeÞnitions . . . . . . 6. . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY . . 4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Materials and Welding. .5 Static and Mean Response Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Page 1 2 3 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Safety and Reliability . . . . . . . . . .3 Operational Requirements. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Earthquakes . . . . .2 Extreme Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .3 Current Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Equations of Motion and Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Environmental Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Hydrodynamic Model Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. . . . 3 PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 DESIGN CRITERIA . . . . . . .7 Random Process Statistics. . . .2 The Design Spiral . . . . . . .4 Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .5 Design Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . GLOBAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .8 Accidental Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 REFERENCES . . . . .9 Fire and Blast Loading . . . . . . . . .7 Fabrication and Installation . 7. . . . . . . .6 Wave Impact Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hydrodynamic Loads For Hull Design. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Operating and In-Service Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Responses For Fatigue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12 12 12 13 14 16 16 16 18 19 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 29 30 30 32 37 37 39 4 5 6 7 v COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Operational Requirements. . . . . 4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. .5 Ice Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Wind Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . .7 Fire Protection Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Design of Shallow Foundations . . . . . 11 RISER SYSTEMS. . . Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Inspection and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .7 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Material Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Interacting Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Structural Design . . . . . 12 FACILITIES DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Design of Piled-Template Structures . . . . . .6 Special Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Foundation Requirements and Site Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 8 PLATFORM STRUCTURAL DESIGN . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Design Loading Conditions. . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . .9 Fabrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Structural Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENDON SYSTEM DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 39 39 40 40 42 44 44 44 46 49 50 52 52 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 61 61 61 63 67 67 71 71 71 71 72 74 75 76 79 80 80 9 10 FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN . . 9. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Design Cases . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Riser Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Operational Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Structural Analysis Methods .2 General Design . . . . . . .5 Operating Procedures . . . . . . .6 Fabrication Tolerances. . and Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . 10. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . .10 Corrosion Protection . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Structural Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Personnel Safety Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Riser Analysis Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . 9. . . . 12. . . .4 Component SpeciÞcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Design of Piles. . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .2 General Structural Considerations .5 Hull System Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Production Systems Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . .3 Loading . . . . . . 10. . . 8. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Drilling Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Load Analysis Methods. . . . .

8 Cement Grout and Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Misalignment of Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Elastomeric Materials . . . . . . 62 Subsea Completion Riser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Inspection and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Riser Design Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Figures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Tension Leg Platform Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Structural Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Design Spiral For a Tension Leg Platform . . . . 55 Components of a Shallow Foundation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Restoring Force With Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 13 FABRICATION. . . 54 Components of an Integrated Template Foundation System . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Simple Model For TLP Response Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Manufactured Steel . . .5 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . AND INSPECTION. . . . . . . . . 96 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Components of an Independent Template Foundation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 82 82 85 87 88 89 93 14 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 APPENDIX B REFERENCES. . . . 24 Surge Motion Spectrum . . .6 Structural Welding . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Inertial CoefÞcient Found By Equating the MacCamy-Fuchs Solution to the WFE Inertia Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Corrosion Protection . . . . . . . .2 Steel ClassiÞcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Platform Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 APPENDIX A COMMENTARIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Wave Force Calculation Method and Guideline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Special Applications for Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Installation Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Design Analysis Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General. . . 13. . 98 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 TLP Motion Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Typical Tendon Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Minimum Tendon Tension Down Wage Leg . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Net Section and Local Bending Loads On a Cylindrical Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Tendon Design Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Maximum Tendon Tension Up Wave Leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Stress Distribution Across Section A-A For Axisymmetric Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Tendon System Fabrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 vii vi COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Fracture and Fatigue Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Deck-Level Completion Production Riser . 53 Combined Net Section and Local Bending Stress Linear Interaction Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 84 Girder Deßections . . . . 2000 . . Structural Steel Plates and Shapes . . . 84 Beam Column Deßections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Truss Deßections . . . . . . .Page 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A-33 A-34 A-35 Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 Misalignment of Cruciform Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Testing Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Arc Length For Determining Deviation From Circular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Data List For Analysis of Risers . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Design Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Major Activities and Options For Installation Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Stiffened Plate Deßections . . . . . . . . . 85 Maximum Permissible Deviation From Circular Form. . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 TLP Global Design Process . 90 Options For Tendon Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Riser Governing Differential Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 64 66 97 98 98 viii vi COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural Steel Pipe . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Limits For Riser System Design and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Residual Pile Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. including natural and synthetic rubbers.1.1. 2000 . 3.1. 1 2 References References for this Recommended Practice are listed by section in Appendix B. Guidelines.9 design life: Maximum anticipated operational years of service for the platform. the period of time from commencement of construction until removal of the structure.1. 3. 3. development. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 3.1. 2. 3.11 extreme offset: An estimated maximum offset of the platform corresponding to given environmental conditions.Recommended Practice for Planning.1. 3.1 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Recommended Practice the following deÞnitions apply: 3. 3 Definitions and Terminology 3. 3.6 connectors: 1.1. tendons.5 buoyancy equipment: Devices added to tendon or riser joints to reduce their weight in water. 3.2 bluff body: An opaque object located in a fluid flow stream and developing a high drag force because it lacks streamlining. 3. Designing.17 intermediate columns: Vertical.1. i.23 low frequency motion: Motion response at frequencies below wave frequencies typically with periods ranging from 30 to 300 seconds.1. 3. Figure 2.10 elastomer: Any of the class of materials. Tendon devices used to latch and unlatch tendons to the foundation system and to connect the tendon to the platform.8 deck plate: Flat plate or grating spanning between deck beams. Iteration of design through the design spiral. and Constructing Tension Leg Platforms 1 Scope This Recommended Practice is a guide to the designer in organizing an efÞcient approach to the design of a Tension Leg Platform (TLP).21 load: Any action causing stress or strain in the structure. and installation. beams and plate elements.13 flex element: Any of a variety of devices that permit relative angular movement of the riser or tendon in order to reduce bending stresses caused by vessel motions and environmental forces. submersibles.. cylindrical. 3. construction. etc. 3.19 intermediate girders: Primary deck elements spanning between main girders.15 heave: Platform motion in the vertical direction.1.14 guidance equipment: Guidance equipment is used to direct and orient risers or tools to the seafloor template. intermediate decks: Deck levels between lower deck and upper deck consisting of girder.1.3 braces: Structural members that serve to stiffen the hull structure and provide deck support. beam and plate elements. Riser devices used to latch and unlatch risers and lower marine riser packages to subsea equipment.1. 3.1. 3.1.4 bulkhead: Stiffened vertical or horizontal load bearing diaphragm. 3.20 jumper hoses/fluid transfer system: System for transmitting fluid flow between the top of the risers to the platform mounted manifold.1. 3. 3.1. design.7 deck beams: Secondary structural elements spanning between intermediate girders and/or main girders. Emphasis is placed on participation of all engineering disciplines during each stage of planning. can be used for this purpose. 3. 3.16 hydrodynamic damping: Component of hydrodynamic force proportional to the velocity of the body and 180 degrees out of phase with the velocity. or multifaceted buoyancy members of the hull structure which primarily assist in deck and/or pontoon support. is recommended.1.1 added mass: Effective addition to the system mass which is proportional to the displaced mass of water.1.1. 3.12 flat: Horizontal stiffened bulkhead. thereby reducing top tension requirements.22 lock-in: Synchronization of vortex-shedding frequency and structural vibration frequency producing resonant flow induced vibration..1. Jumper hoses or an articulated system of hard piping may be used to accommodate the relative motion between these points. 3. The devices normally used for risers take the form of syntactic foam modules or open-bottom air chambers.e. 3. which return to their original shape after being subjected to large deformations.24 lower deck: Lowest primary deck level consisting of girders.

3.1.) and buoyancy devices. fatigue life.1.1. 3.50 surface trees: A combination of valves which may be placed on the top of production risers to control pressure and divert flow. When curvature control is necessary. 3.41 riser spider: A device used to support the riser string as a joint is being made or broken during riser deployment/retrieval operations.31 offset: Horizontal distance of the platform at any instant from its static. 3. tapered joints may also be used. 3. 3. production fluid is conveyed from the trees via pipes on the template to a subsea manifold at the base of a production riser.46 springing: The high frequency vertical vibration of the TLP spring-mass system excited by cyclic loading at or near the TLP pitch or heave resonant periods.28 mean offset: The average offset.1. Here.1. The riser spider is used to support the riser string. 3.32 pitch: Platform rotation about the plant east-west horizontal axis. 3.36 primary load carrying subsystem: Structure tying column tops together and supporting deck levels. 3. still air. 3. equilibrium position.25 main columns: Vertical.1. 3.48 subsea manifold: The subsea well template may incorporate a subsea manifold when wells are completed with subsea trees.43 riser sub: A device which latches on to the end of the riser joint permitting it to be connected to the surface lifting device. The riser sub latches on to the end of the riser joint permitting it to be connected to the surface lifting device. It may have provision for supporting integral and non-integral auxiliary lines (flowlines.1. and guidance systems. This structure may consist of either trusses. as a joint is being made or broken. corresponding to the average horizontal forces on the TLP in the given environmental conditions. plate girders or a combination thereof.27 mating joints: Intersection of deck and hull structures on a non-integrally constructed platform.40 riser spacer frame: A purpose designed frame to maintain lateral separation among risers.2 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 3.1. 3.39 riser running/handling equipment: Usually consists of a riser handling sub and a riser spider. 3.1.47 subsea diverter: A piping manifold positioned at the top of the drilling riser to divert formation gas and liquid to an acceptable discharge point.1. 3. choke and kill lines.1.52 sway: Horizontal motion of the platform in the plant east-west direction.1. etc. 2000 . 3.1.1. Production fluid may be commingled at the manifold if the number of subsea wells exceeds the number of production risers available.1.1.1. 3. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 3. they frequently result in an increase in drag forces. 3.30 negative buoyancy: If a body weighs more than the weight of sea water that it displaces.53 telescopic joint: Riser joint designed to permit a change in length of the riser to accommodate platform movements. Tendons are supported by these columns. 3.42 riser spoilers: Used in areas where high velocity currents are encountered to preclude vortex-induced riser vibration. 3.26 main girders: Deck elements spanning between the primary load carrying subsystem. however. riser systems. stillwater.1.51 surge: Horizontal motion of the platform in the plant north-south direction.1. or sealing capabilities.33 pontoons: Horizontal.1.37 ringing: High frequency vertical vibration of the TLP spring-mass system excited by impulsive loading. Various types of spoilers have been effective in reducing these vibrations.29 moment controlling device: Devices such as ball joints or elastomeric joints used to reduce bending stresses induced by relative angular movements at the ends of the riser.1. Cylindrical or multifaceted buoyancy members of the hull structure which provide platform stability and deck support.1.34 preload: Load purposely induced in a component to improve its in-service strength.1. Sometimes called a slip joint. 3. then it is considered to be negatively buoyant.1.1. preventing flow to working areas. box girders. during deployment/retrieval. 3.45 setdown: The increase in TLP platform draft with offset due to tendon system restraint.35 pretension: Tension applied to a tendon in its static.1.49 subsea well template: A structural frame which provides location and anchor points for the subsea wellheads. 3. 3. 3.1. 3. cylindrical or rectangular buoyancy members of the hull structure which interconnect with columns to form a frame below the waterline.1. with couplings on each end. zero offset equilibrium position.38 riser joint: A riser joint consists of a section of pipe. 3. 3.44 roll: Platform rotation about the plant north-south axis. control bundles.1.

Horizontal motions.. 3.. 3.. Tensioners accommodate these movements.. when assembled with the flex elements.1.1. Foundation template Piles Well template Figure 1—Tension Leg Platform Terminology COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.58 tendon element: Each of the similar or identical but discrete structural components which. 3..2 TERMINOLOGY The following terms used in this Recommended Practice are depicted in Figure 1: 3. usually pneumatically or hydraulically powered.59 tension leg: The collective group of tendons associated with one column of the platform...1.. and any other special components. 3. 3. 3...2..57 tendon coupling: A device which connects one tendon element to another or to a specialty component... 3..1 hull: Consists of buoyant columns. beam and plate elements.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 3 3...55 tendon access tube: A conduit within a platform column between the bottom of the column and the tendon top connector through which a tendon passes.60 tensioner: A device. 3.. 3. while maintaining a nearly constant tension on the risers.2. waves.. pontoons and intermediate structure bracing.1......61 tensioner systems: Tensioner units are used to maintain risers in tension as the platform moves in response to wind.1.. 3.1... and setdown of the platform necessitate changes in length of the risers. used to apply tension to tendons or riser.2.3 platform: Consists of hull and deck structure..... 3..2 deck structure: A multilevel facility consisting of trusses. heave..63 yaw: Platform rotation about the vertical axis.1.. DESIGNING..54 tendon: A system of components which form a link between the TLP platform and the subsea foundation for the purpose of mooring the TLP. comprise a complete tendon. 2000 Tension leg platform Temporary mooring system Pontoon Platform .. and current.. as well as relative angular motion between the platform and riser. 3.. top and bottom connectors. yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ ..1..62 upper deck: Upper or roof deck level consisting of girder. deep girders and deck beams for supporting operational loads...1. Substructure Upper deck Lower deck Drilling deck Skid base Deck Column Hull Mooring system Tendons Risers (drilling production pipeline) yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy .56 tendon connector: A device used to connect a tendon to the platform hull (top connector) or to the foundation template (bottom connector)... PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ ..1..

5 mooring system: Consists of tendons and foundation.1. 4. and pipeline risers. construction and operational life.1 GENERAL 4.2. Both design/construction strategies have their advantages and disadvantages.2.2.2. Figure 2. production. or a gravity system. 4. Traditional shipbuilding practice refers to this stage as the ÒcontractÓ design in which the main structural members are speciÞed but secondary structure and appurtenances are loosely deÞned. 1959) as an iterative process working from functional requirements to a detail design. 4. and subsea well templates.2. the minimum pretension should be chosen to result in positive tension loads at the foundation tendon connections for all loading conditions. The Þnal deÞnition of these items is assigned to the builder with assistance from the designer. mooring system.6 risers: Include drilling. Hydrodynamic model testing should be included in the design process to verify the analytical results.1.7 well systems: Include risers. It embodies technical feasibility studies to determine such fundamental elements as length.1. thus reducing oscillating loads on the tendons. scheduling and manpower requirements is essential.1.2. the distribution of buoyancy between the vertical columns and the submerged pontoon or buoyancy volume is selected to minimize the net vertical oscillating wave force on the hull by taking advantage of the hydrodynamic cancellation effects.1 General 4. with beneÞcial attenuation of surge motion. riser tensioners. draft. 4. all of which satisfy the environmental and functional criteria.4 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 3.2 A weight and center of gravity control procedure for the entire system should be incorporated into the design process at the very earliest stage. Time is needed to evaluate the effects of parameter variations before rational design decisions can be made. This should result in a long natural period in surge.3 It is the designerÕs responsibility to select the most suitable buoyancy distribution and pretension that will complement the functional requirements and the operatorÕs preference for deck and hull conÞguration.1. Experience indicates that a very close designer/operator relationship is required during the entire design process in order to produce a satisfactory design.1.2 Conceptual Design 4. which often determine whether or not to initiate a preliminary design. width. 3. The latter is inßuenced by the selected well system.2 Planning Considerations 4.1 Most TLP designs have certain basic features that are common. depth.2 In planning the design process it is important to recognize the operatorÕs contracting strategy for construction and to identify the stage at which plans and speciÞcations are to be released for construction contracting. The conceptual design includes initial lightship weight estimates and mooring pretension. SpeciÞcally.2.1 Configuration Selection 4.1. 4. This procedure allows the operator to become directly involved in the development of the fabrication methods. 4. 3. well and riser systems.2. 2000 . hull shape.2. wherein the pretension can be selected to result in a predetermined static offset due to steady forces. Recognition of the need for several iterations of the design process and operational requirements is important in planning and scheduling the design.4 foundation: Consists of templates and piles.2 THE DESIGN SPIRAL 4. 4 Planning 4. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. In this manner the design is tailored to best utilize the methods and facilities provided by the builder and is still subject to the approval of the designer. wellhead.1. The design steps involved are illustrated in the Design Spiral (Evans.2.2 Another common feature is the relationship between the pretension in the tendons and the displacement of the hull. however.8 tension leg platform: Includes all of the above plus all deck equipment and hull marine systems.1 An understanding of the entire design sequence and its relationship to external constraints such as Þnancial.2. Generally.1.3 The industry practice for offshore platforms is generally to separate the design and construction activities by completing the detail design before committing for construction. 4. 4.2. 3.2. The selected concept then is used as a basis for obtaining approximate construction and installation costs and schedule.2. The control procedure should be one that can be used throughout the design.1.1 Conceptual design translates the functional requirements into naval architectural and engineering characteristics during the initial iteration around the design spiral.1. 4.1.2 Alternative designs are generally considered in parametric studies during this phase to determine the most practical design solution. the operator should recognize the differences and decide which method to utilize for the TLP.1.

1 Location Environmental conditions depend on geographic location.4 Final Design 4. the foundation conditions will vary as will such parameters as design wave height and period.2. Functional requirements Configuration proportions Costs contracting plans Arrangements Weight estimates Hydrostatics subdivision Mooring and foundation design Hydrodynamics (including model tests) Structural design and analysis Figure 2—Design Spiral For a Tension Leg Platform COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. as well as addressing those aspects of system design which assure hydrodynamic and aerodynamic performance. and wind speeds. and constructability. storage.2. 4. stability.3. structural details.2. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 5 4.3 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 4.3. use of different types of steel. 4. Its completion provides a precise deÞnition that will provide the basis for development of contract plans and speciÞcations.3 Preliminary Design Preliminary design further reÞnes the characteristics affecting cost and performance.2 The accompanying speciÞcations delineate quality standards of hull and outÞtting and the anticipated performance for each item of machinery and equipment. spacing and type of frames and stringers. dynamic response.5 Detail Design The last stage of design is the development of detailed fabrication drawings and construction speciÞcations. It encompasses one or more loops around the design spiral. machinery. This Þxes the overall volumes and areas for consumables. and handling equipment. The Þnal general arrangement is also developed during this stage. producing. tides. weight considerations.4.2. and within a given geographic area. living and utility spaces. The platform conÞguration should be determined by studying equipment layouts on decks. number and type of wells. These are the installation and construction instructions to yard tradesmen and are subject to the approval of the designer. They describe the tests and trials that shall be performed successfully to have the TLP considered acceptable. or some combination of these.3. 4. 4. 4. mooring pretension and payload should not change after completion of this phase. Certain controlling factors such as platform geometry.4.2 Site Considerations 4.2. Paramount among the Þnal design features is a weight and center of gravity estimate. DESIGNING. currents.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 2000 .2. The relatively broad column spacing required for stability and hydrodynamic performance will probably permit convenient equipment arrangements on the available deck area.1 Function A TLP can perform a variety of missions such as drilling. living quarters. materials handling.1 The Þnal design stage yields a set of plans and speciÞcations which form an integral part of the fabrication contract document. This stage delineates precisely such features as hull shape.


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Water Depth Accurate data on water depth and tidal variations are needed to fabricate tendon components so that the TLP operates at its design draft. Orientation The orientation of a platform refers to its position referenced to true north. Orientation will be controlled by the directions of prevailing and extreme design waves, winds, and currents and by operational requirements. 4.3.3 Arrangements Equipment and Consumables Layout and weight of equipment for mooring, drilling and/ or production, consumables, and other payload items should be carefully accounted for in the design and operation. Weight and weight distribution affect both the steady and dynamic tensions in the tendons. Consideration should be given to future operations such as gas and/or water injection. Personnel and Material Handling Plans for handling personnel and materials should be developed at the start of the platform design. The type and size of supply vessels and the mooring system required to hold them in position can affect the platform. The number, size, and location of boat landings, if required, should be determined. The type, capacity, number, and location of the deck cranes should also be determined. If equipment or materials are to be placed on a lower deck, adequate hatches should be provided on the upper decks. The use of helicopters should be established and adequate facilities provided. Access and Auxiliary Systems The location and number of stairways, access routes, and boat landings should be controlled by both safety and operational requirements. Fire Protection Fire protection systems, including Þre walls and pressurized spaces, should be provided for the safety of personnel and equipment. The systems selected should be suitable for the anticipated hazards (e.g., electrical or hydrocarbon Þre) and should conform to all applicable regulations. Emergency Evacuation Emergency equipment such as launchable lifeboats or survival capsules should be provided for personnel evacuation. The types of equipment and evacuation methods should meet all applicable regulations. Spillage and Contamination Provision should be made for handling spills and potential contaminants. A deck and process vessel drainage system which collects and stores liquids for subsequent handling should be provided. The drainage and collection system should meet applicable regulations. Hull Systems The platform should be provided with systems for transferring ballast water to or from hull compartments (ballast system), for monitoring tank contents, and for permitting safe access to tanks and void spaces. Compartmentalization of the hull will be required to limit the effects of damage, leakage or other unintended water ingress. Such compartments may be useful for temporary ballast to control draft and stability before and during installation. Access for inspection should be provided in the design. 4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 4.4.1 General Winds, currents, waves, and tides cause steady and oscillatory lateral movements, variations in tendon loads, and/or distributed loadings on the structure and its elements. The resulting TLP response requires the use of dynamic analysis methods in the design. Environmental data consistent with the analysis technique should be utilized. 4.4.2 Design Considerations The design of all systems and components should anticipate extreme and normal environmental conditions which can be experienced at the site. Environmental loading and platform response are important design considerations for several subsystems including foundations, tendons, risers, hull and deck equipment. Extreme Environmental Conditions Extreme environmental conditions are those which produce the extreme response that has a low probability of being exceeded in the lifetime of the structure. A minimum return period of 100 years for the design event should be used unless risk analysis can justify a shorter recurrence interval for design criteria. The design of the structure and its key subsystems shall be such that they will be capable of withstanding the extreme environmental event in a safe condition. Normal Environmental Conditions Normal environmental conditions are those which are expected to occur frequently during the construction and service life. Since different environmental parameters and combinations affect various responses and limit operations

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differently (e.g., installation, crane usage, etc.), the designer should consider the appropriate environmental conditions for the design situation. 4.4.3 Environmental Data Responsibility Selection of the environmental data required is the responsibility of the operator. The dynamic nature of the TLP requires that the platform designer work closely with a meteorological-oceanographic specialist to develop data and interpretations in the form needed for the particular design/ analysis methods to be used. Statistical Models Recognized statistical methods and models should be applied in the assessment of extreme and normal environmental conditions. All data used should be carefully documented. The estimated reliability and the source of all data should be recorded, and the methods used in developing available data into models should be described. Sensitivity of design to poorly established parameters/distributions in statistical models should be recognized. Specific Environmental Conditions Selection of speciÞc environmental conditions for design should be based on factors related to risk. Section 5.4 contains speciÞc guidance on the choice of environmental parameters for design. API Recommended Practice 2A, Chapters 1 and 2, give general discussions of most of these parameters and their speciÞc use in design analysis for Þxed platforms. 4.5 SEAFLOOR CHARACTERISTICS 4.5.1 Seafloor Surveys The primary purpose of a seaßoor site survey is to provide data for a geologic assessment of foundation soils and the surrounding areas. A secondary purpose is to identify operational hazards such as seaßoor irregularities, shallow gas pockets and man-made objects. Geophysical equipment such as side-scan sonar devices, sub-bottom proÞlers, boomers and sparkers are available for deÞning the physical features of the surface of the seaßoor to sub-bottom depths of several hundred feet. For more detailed description of commonly used sea-bottom survey systems, refer to Sieck and Self, 1977. 4.5.2 Site Investigations On-site soil investigations should be performed to deÞne the various soil strata and their corresponding physical and engineering properties. If practical, the soil sampling and testing program should be deÞned after reviewing the seaßoor

survey. The foundation investigation for pile supported structures should yield at least the soil test data necessary to predict axial capacity of piles in tension and compression, axial and lateral pile load deßection characteristics, and mudmat penetration vs. resistance. 4.5.3 Seafloor Instability Large movement of the seaßoor may be caused by waves, earthquakes and soil loads. Such soil movement can impose signiÞcant lateral and vertical forces against foundations. The scope of site investigations in areas of seaßoor instability should be sufÞcient to develop design criteria for the effects of soil movement. 4.5.4 Scour Scour is removal of seaßoor soils caused by currents and waves, and can result in removing vertical and lateral support for foundations. Where scour is a possibility, it should be accounted for in design to avoid settlement of the foundation and overstressing of the foundation elements. 4.6 SYSTEMS DESIGN 4.6.1 Platform Types There are several variations of platforms which can be distinguished either by platform use (i.e., production-only or drilling/production), or by drilling arrangement. Some example variations are: a. Production well platform without drilling capability. This type should be considerably smaller and lighter than a drilling/production platform. Production risers generally are attached to the deck structure. b. Drilling/production platform with drilling at deck level through a well bay. c. Drilling/production platform with drilling at deck level through the columns and tendons. The tendons are designed to act as conductors and drilling equipment is designed to move from column to column. Functional Requirements Many functional requirements of a platform require special attention during the planning stages of design. In all cases, personnel and material requirements must be considered in relationship to the safety and efÞciency of the platform. The following critical requirements will signiÞcantly impact the design and layout of the platform: a. Drilling facilitiesÑThe number, type and location of drilling rigs should be ascertained prior to commencement of design.

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b. Production facilitiesÑThe weight, area, and center of gravity of the production facilities should be determined insofar as possible prior to commencement of design of the platform. Because platform design is sensitive to the values of weight, area, and center of gravity, these values should not be permitted to deviate beyond speciÞed tolerances, otherwise redesign may be required. c. Drilling/production risersÑSufÞcient clearance must be provided between risers and adjacent structural members to avoid interference during severe environmental conditions. d. Well SystemsÑThe number of platform wells, completion and workover method, minimum well spacing, and well bay location have a direct inßuence on the size and layout of the deck structure and the hull. These features should be determined prior to commencement of preliminary platform design. e. Hull compartmentationÑHull damage from falling objects, boat collision, or other means should be considered during the design. The subdivision of the hull should allow for accidental ßooding of at least one watertight compartment. Damage control procedures should be developed during the design phase and included in the operating manual. f. AirgapÑThe minimum clearance between the lowest deck or any underdeck temporary maintenance equipment and a wave crest is an important parameter in the design of the TLP. The airgap has an effect on the center of gravity and in turn the maximum and minimum tendon tensions. The designer has two general options: provide a minimum deck clearance or allow for wave impact in the design of the platform. 4.6.2 Tendon System The tendon system consists of the tendons, ancillary components needed for operation, including load measurement systems and inspection or monitoring apparatus. The tendon system restrains motion of the platform in response to wind, waves, current, and tide to within speciÞed limits. Legs of the system, composed of an array of tendons, connect points on the platform to corresponding points on a seaßoor foundation (see Figure 12). By restraining the platform at a draft deeper than that required to displace its weight, the tendons are ideally under a continuous tensile load that provides a horizontal restoring force when the platform is displaced laterally from its still water position. Generally very stiff in the axial direction, the tendon system limits heave, pitch, and roll response of the platform to small amplitudes while its softer transverse compliance restrains surge, sway, and yaw response to within operationally acceptable limits. The number of legs, as well as the number of tendons in each leg, is determined by the platform conÞguration, loading conditions, and design philosophy, including intended service requirements and redundancy considerations speciÞed by the operator for a particular installation. The designer should

allow for the possibility of material deterioration during the service life of the platform and provide a means of detecting and repairing such defects. Tendon Types The tendons may take one of several forms, for example: a. Tubular members with connectorsÑThe members may be designed to be either buoyant or fully ßooded. They may be fabricated as one piece or constructed by welding the connectors to a tubular. The members may be made of metal or composite Þber reinforced resins (e.g., carbon Þber/epoxy composites), with either integral or metallic connectors. b. Tubular or solid rod members with Þeld welded connectionsÑThe tubulars are fabricated from seamless or rolled and welded steel and are designed to be welded together, prior to or during offshore installation, to form a continuous tendon element. c. Tendon strandÑThese tendons are fabricated from small diameter high tensile strength wire or Þber strands and are formed into bundles. These tendons are designed to be installed offshore using a continuous one-piece spooling operation without the need for intermediate connectors. State of Technology Investigating items such as coupled tendon/platform motions, vortex-induced vibrations, and the fatigue life of complex mechanical connections requires a high level of technical sophistication. Technology in this area is relatively new and rapidly advancing. The designer is encouraged to make use of modern but proven equipment and analytical methods. Engineering Certain tendon components, because of their complexity, may warrant extensive engineering development and prototype testing to determine the fatigue, fracture, and corrosion characteristics and the mechanical capabilities of the components. Tendon Fabrication The time required to fabricate the tendons may exceed the duration required to construct the hull and deck structure. Consideration should be given to the fabrication lead time requirement of the tendons to avoid unnecessary delays in installation. Tendon Installation Installation of the tendons may require the use of large capacity lifting and handling equipment. Installation procedures and their implication to the design should be considered early in the planning stages. Onboard storage area, if required

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4. d. the drilledand-grouted pile. 4. Design reliability should include redundancy. The weight and size of the well system equipment will have a signiÞcant impact on hull size and cost.4. including dynamic load input from drilling rigs.6. sharing of utilities between drilling/ production systems and hull systems.2 Pile Types Three commonly used types are the driven pile.. the consequences of such components being damaged. including integral and nonintegral risers.5. DESIGNING. control. A foundation consisting of a foundation template anchored to the ocean ßoor by piles which carry both lateral and tensile loads. SpeciÞc deÞnition of all facilities criteria and requirements early in the design process should prevent changes in the platform resulting from changes in facilities. Systems will commonly be capable of being run and retrieved by vertical deployment from the deck. Component and well system reliability studies could be useful in determining the consequences of failure.g.6. production. Shallow foundations such as non-piled gravity foundations or suction pile foundations to which the tendons are directly attached. c.2 Well System Selection Different types of risers between the platform and seaßoor may be utilized. Anticipated workover frequency and wellhead maintenance will inßuence the decision as to surface or subsea completions. hull systems. Drilling BOPs and well completion systems may be located either at the platform deck level or subsea.6. The type most appropriate for a particular foundation will depend on the soil conditions at the site and the pile performance. and transmission of produced ßuids from the oil or gas reservoir to the processing system. and escape means for various damage states. and risers integral to the tendons.6. Combination of a and b with a template for each leg or one template common to all legs.6.4. 4.3 Well System Reliability Well component design and selection should be primarily on the basis of reliability and safety of the system. deadweight clumps. and the importance of proper coordination and integration of drilling rig.6. such as for pipeline connections. changes.3.1 Foundation Types There are several types of foundations that may be utilized for a TLP. 4. and fail-safe designs whenever practical.3. Field proven technology and equipment should be used where possible.1 General The planning and selection of facilities involve many problems which are unique to compliant structures. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. as well as on the installation equipment available. the platform motion effects.3 Foundations 4. 4. 4. IdentiÞcation of those components that cannot be retrieved to the surface. 4. they can also be used for other functions. While risers are an integral part of the well system. The selection and design of the facilities should consider the platform motions.1 General Integration of the design of the well systems into the design of the TLP should be an early priority. consideration should be given to an acceptable means of stopping the well ßow near the seaßoor in the event of an accident. 2000 . can affect the layouts of the deck and hull and warrants early attention during design. Auxiliary foundations consisting of anchor piles. and the combination driven-drilled-andgrouted pile.5 Facilities 4.5.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. For example: a. or other types of anchors to which a catenary mooring system is attached for temporary use during installation.6. The loads are transmitted to the piles by the tendons which may be directly connected to the piles or attached to the template. 4.6. Further discussion on these pile types can be found in API Recommended Practice 2A. and structural needs. Such loads and interfaces should be identiÞed and considered.6. The selection of well riser tension levels. In all cases. and interfaces are properly addressed.4. drag anchors. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 9 for the tendons during installation. Anticipated changes in future operation (e. the effect of thermal loads when wells and tendons are congruent. and identifying those components needing a higher degree of reliability.2 Facilities Design TLP facilities design must recognize the highly interactive nature of the design process.6. back up procedures. There should be close coordination between the facilities and structural designers throughout the design project to ensure that routine interactions. and how to mitigate the consequences should be considered.4 Well Systems The design of a well system should achieve cost effective safety and reliability in the containment. b. Facilities will have interfaces between individual systems and the overall structure. and riser/hull clearances are examples of items requiring close coordination. gas lift or water injection) might require the need for ßexibility within components selected.

4 Facilities Weight.3 Facilities Layout Facilities layout should be considered in the initial stages of design when the development of the overall conÞguration is being made. Thus.7. c. Both design growth allowances and operational growth allowances should recognize the impact of weight and space on ßoating facilities. whether fully integrated. SpeciÞc towing requirements will depend on whether or not the tow is manned. 4. Stability criteria for towout should be selected as appropriate for the time.4.7. Integral deck and hullÑBy this method the deck is constructed integrally with the hull. Deck ßoatoverÑBy this method the deck is constructed in one piece separately from the hull. If the dry dock does not have sufÞcient depth. production systems needs.3 Towout Precautions should be taken during towout to sea to avoid damage to the structure. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. There are two basic methods of platform fabrication: a. 4.2 Fabrication Site Selection and Preparation The proper selection and preparation of the fabrication site is instrumental to the successful construction. 4. which can help in two respects.4 Installation Equipment The function.6. and Space Management 4. Operational growth scenarios should also include examination of the weight or space ßexibility that may be gained by the removal of certain facilities at later stages in the operation. 4.6. It may be beneÞcial to examine a variety of facilities layouts. First. semi-integrated.3 BeneÞts may result from keeping the design growth and operational growth allowances separate during design. Deepwater channelÑA deepwater channel must be available to permit towing the completed structure to sea. Escort tugboats to provide protection against damage should be considered. will affect the layout and weight as well. ßoated (usually by barge) over the hull and lowered and mated to it using controlled ballast and jacking procedures. OutÞtting of the deck is usually completed prior to deck mating.5. A sufÞciently deep dry dock or a convenient. b. Accordingly.6. Facilities construction. and area classiÞcation considerations. 4. platform facilities have a tendency to grow during the design process with potentially detrimental implications.7. Second. and size of the major equipment selected for installation can affect the design and should be considered during the planning stages of design. Center of Gravity. sheltered deepwater site is a prerequisite for this type of construction.1 Fabrication Methods The method of platform fabrication should be considered prior to completion of the preliminary design since the method selected will signiÞcantly affect not only structural design but also the feasibility of fabrication at a chosen site. the temporary restraining equipment should be sized accordingly. away from the fabrication yard.1 Weight. the response of the platform will change considerably during the transition from freely ßoating to vertically restrained.6. Important considerations are: a. and spillage/containment requirements also inßuence the facilities layout. For example. Sheltered offshore construction areaÑDeepwater construction facilities may be located offshore. realistic allowances for weight and space growth during the design process should help to prevent major design recycling at late stages.5. Layouts should initially be guided by the overall function of the platform and should include the inßuences of well location(s). the use of auxiliary buoyancy to support the hull during construction may be acceptable. personnel safety and evacuation. 2000 . Operational growth allowances can easily be preempted by unexpected design problems. accommodation requirements. type. experience has shown that the originally intended operational parameters for offshore facilities frequently are no longer adequate once the facility has been in operation for several years.7. but the implications to future facility operation should be considered. Damage control.10 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 4. 4. and in sufÞciently deep and sheltered waters to allow convenient access for either ßoatover deck mating or integral deck construction. it is appropriate to utilize space and weight growth allowances as a means of allowing ßexibility in future operations. duration and location of the tow as well as for the degree of damage protection and control afforded.5. b.5.2 The design process should consider the use of Ògrowth allowancesÓ in the form of weight and space factors. therefore. 4. It may be skidded onto a submersible barge or launched directly into the water. or modular. Coastal siteÑThe fabrication yard should have a deepwater dry dock or means for transferring the hull into the water. The minimum channel depth must be sufÞcient to allow the platform to be towed at a draft commensurate with speciÞed stability criteria. and space requirements should be managed to develop a facility efÞcient in cost and operation. CG. OutÞtting of the deck may be completed together with the construction of the deck subassemblies (as in modular construction) or may take place subsequent to deck and hull construction.7 FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION 4.

2 Where welding is allowed in the fabrication of tendons. STANDARDS. The Þnal design of the production template(s) and well system.8. Future revisions of this Recommended Practice will cover these other materials as appropriate. Personnel escape routes should be designated for damaged states. AND REGULATIONS A determination of the applicable codes.8. Frequency of monitoring should be determined to ensure that an unacceptable defect does not occur during service. Such analyses can help assess reliability versus system cost. due consideration should be given to avoiding interference with seaßoor returns of well cuttings and grout. 4. 4. different types of connectors. such as trim. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 11 4. Steel for the tendons may be higher strength than normal structural steel and will affect the method of tendon fabrication and inspection as well as tendon type and service. Differences between such requirements or standards should be identiÞed immediately. DESIGNING.g. should be considered. and methods of determining allowable defect size should be considered. and a project decision or agreement with the responsible regulatory organization expedited. Redundant means of monitoring major platform functions. Safety and reliability depend on the ability of a facility to survive the loads anticipated over the operational life.9. Such analyses can help to understand the differing degrees of reliability among designs utilizing different numbers of tendons. Damage control systems. platform. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking under operating conditions is critical since detection of such cracks is difÞcult during service. These properties may be more difÞcult to obtain in a weldment than in the parent steel. 4.8.3 The inspection method should be sufÞcient to detect and locate all potentially damaging ßaws. and the piles will depend on the installation methods and equipment selected. ballast redistribution capabilities. availability and fabrication lead time should be accounted for. standards and regulations should be made at the commencement of a project. etc. The tendons will operate under high cycle fatigue stresses superimposed on the mean stress tensile load in a seawater environment. 4. the effect on cost.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. The designer should examine not only the intact facility and structure. The material should have acceptable properties in the Þnal condition to meet the requirements of strength. and pinpoint critical elements deserving special attention. cement grout. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. but also examine the structure under damaged conditions and ensure that the remaining strength.10 CODES. and/or end terminations. toughness and resistance to corrosion and corrosion fatigue. 4. Other sections in this document and the API Recommended Practice 2A discuss applicable rules and regulations pertaining to a TLP. and alternate routes provided.1 The design should maximize the safety of personnel and the protection of property within a framework of efficient. foundation templates. however.9 SAFETY AND RELIABILITY 4. This requires consideration of the local geometry as well as the toughness of the material and the applied stress.1 Selection. the resulting weldments should have properties commensurate with the considerations given above for the tendon parent material.2. 2000 .3 Hull damage state scenarios should be developed with the implications of compartment flooding.1 Materials Selection of the strength and quality levels for steel. Fabrication procedures should be followed which assure the required properties in the installed tendon.9. and application of welding and weld inspection procedures will generally follow criteria used for offshore platform fabrication where applicable (e. and escape means are adequate.8 MATERIALS AND WELDING 4.7.. resolve and size defects. fire resistance. the temporary mooring system. and backup power supplies should all be selected considering the need for reliable operation during periods of severe service.8. 4.2. qualiÞcation. etc. Facilities design should consider damaged state scenarios and possible implications upon the deck structural system.9.2. cost effective design. ballast condition. This Recommended Practice edition emphasizes steel as the primary structural material but speciÞcally does not preclude the consideration of other materials. 4. 4. including firefighting means. These factors should also be considered in design of the connection equipment and methods to be used for the risers and tendons.2 Qualitative reliability analyses of certain systems such as the tendon system are possible. etc. the foundation templates.2 Welding and Inspection 4. concrete and other materials for the platform. In-service inspection requirements. especially as the strength level increases.). foundation or other components will generally follow the criteria commonly used for offshore structures. The material should possess adequate fracture toughness so as to withstand the largest possible ßaw (undetected) at design maximum loads and minimum exposure temperatures.5 Installation In planning the installation of the sub-sea well and mooring template(s).. Inspection methods should be designed and tested to demonstrate an adequate ability to detect. intervals. Consideration may be given to fabricating the tendons without any weld.8.

1 Intact Condition The intact condition should include the full range of possible center of gravity variations permitted by acceptable operating procedures during extreme conditions. and operation be coupled with design environmental events and associated allowable stresses and/or safety factors.3 STABILITY REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Accidental ßooding of a buoyant compartment will result in added weight on the platform and changes in tendon tensions.1.12 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 4. as promulgated by the U.3. maintenance.3. The format of the design criteria is consistent with Section 6. Evacuation. weight. 5.2 In addition to the topics common to most offshore operations. The cost and weight consequences of these requirements should be fully established for the operator before a Þnal design decision is made.11.2 Free-Floating Condition The intact and damaged stability while aßoat during construction.3 Inplace Condition The tension in the tendons should be sufÞcient to ensure integrity of the platform and tendons. installation. In-place performance monitoring systems.1 General Stability should be established for relevant operating and pre-operating conditions.3. In-place inspectionÑhull and tendons. Riser handling systems. c. satisfy requirements applicable to column-stabilized mobile offshore drilling units.1 GENERAL 5. Damage control. i. are also needed. Consumables resupply procedure and frequency. tow-out and installation stages should.3.O.3. including long-term data for fatigue analyses. Environmental considerationsÑRelevant information about extreme environmental conditions and the predicted response effects. This requires that each phase of construction. in-service inspection and emergency procedures for damage state conditions and other emergency situations. Environmental Forces. 4. Manning schedule and rotation.1. f.M. Emergency and routine drills. Knowledge of the system response characteristics must precede the determination of design environmental conditions. 5. Statistical procedures involving probabilistic predictions of environmental parameters and platform responses should be established in order to select design cases.. 5.1 This section defines the criteria commonly needed for the design of a TLP.2 Damaged Condition 5. waves.11. Corrosion monitoring and maintenance. 5. 4. such as initial pretension. and on the consequences to the tendon system and components in case of slacking. The sufÞciency of the tension should be demonstrated by appropriate analysis and/ or testing.11 OPERATING AND IN-SERVICE MANUALS 4. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.. for both intact and damaged states of the structure. Subdivision in way of the 5 Design Criteria 5. I.3. 3. Alternately. Simultaneous drilling and production. Operating personnel should be required to review and understand the Operating and In-Service manuals. d. American Bureau of Shipping.2. 5. or tension measurement accuracy.S. h. 5. The hull should be subdivided to survive accidental damage of any one compartment below the waterline. 5. etc. FireÞghting. g. b.2 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS Design criteria dictated by operational requirements should be reviewed during each iteration of the design spiral. d. 2. the operating manuals should address: a. 5. Well blow out. Specification of such conditions requires establishing maximum values of wind.1 The designer should provide manuals which communicate to the operator the correct practices to be used for safe and efficient operation. e.2 Design and analysis of the TLP and the associated subsystems require that a series of design cases be specified. Ballast. These manuals describe the practices and procedures necessary for normal operation. transportation. Coast Guard. or National Authorities. A minimum tension margin may be expressed in terms of some relevant component of the tension. or of a tendon compartment. maximum ßuctuating tension component. 6. a margin against tendon slacking should be selected which depends on the state-of-knowledge of design and operating conditions. Platform installation and removal. Maintenance procedures and frequency.3. b. Personnel protection. Emergency procedures: 1. in general. 2000 . Tendon handling systems. Other environmental conditions. current and tidal variation together with the range of weight and center of gravity variations of the platform. c. Examples of such requirements usually involve: a.3.3. and those sections that deal with the design of the various subsystems. and center of gravity control systems.

3) within three hours.2.4 Weight and Center-of-Gravity Determination An inclining test should be conducted. 2000 . The development of wave criteria should generally be done in accordance with API Recommended Practice 2A.4. Normal environmental conditions are important both during the construction and the service life of a platform. 5. 5.1. can vary in height and length. Extreme conditions are important in formulating platform design loadings. There may be different design events which give the worst response for different parts of the structure. 5. the seastate is usually described in terms of a few statistical wave parameters such as signiÞcant wave height. The commonly used assumption of taking the combined maximum of each parameter might not always produce the worst design condition.4. 5. criteria for design of a TLP should have more detail for the same level of analysis than for statically designed structures.4.3. Selection of the actual data needed should be made only after consultation with both the platform designer and meteorological/oceanographic specialists. It is also noted that the largest responses of TLPs are not necessarily produced by the highest wave conditions. to appropriate oceanographic numerical models. Other parameters of interest can be derived from these.3. For guidance on actual values to use in design. 5. The tidal range will affect the required tendon pretension.4. the 100 year design event should be that which produces the worst platform response in 100 years.6 Joint Statistics Environmental data such as wind. 5. 5. When collecting data or performing analytical work. Both steady wind and a wind spectrum which represents ßuctuating wind components should normally be used.4 Current Current data collected at the site should be included in the design criteria if available. 5.2 The amount of detail required in the environmental description is dependent on the level of analysis being undertaken and on the safety factors being used in design. Currents should include wind driven.5. the environmental conditions should be assumed to be the ÒnormalÓ environment (see 5. and to API Recommended Practice 2A. Considerations include: a. 5.3.2 At the time of ßooding.1.4. meanders and eddies should be considered.4 All data used should be documented.3. Section 1.2). For example.5. Such waves are irregular in shape.5 Tide and Water Level Tidal components for design include astronomical. 5.Comm. Of particular importance are wind/ COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.Comm. spectral shape and directionality.3.3. The quality and the source of all data should be recorded.5.4.5. 5.3. to accurately determine the platform weight and the position of the center-of-gravity. In deep water the currents might produce large system loads.1 Environmental criteria should be associated with a recurrence interval of the response of the structure. A high design water level (HDWL) and low design water level (LDWL) should be established for each design event.4.3 Waves 5. DESIGNING. the various relationships should be included if possible. the Gulf Stream). 5.4.g.3. and background circulation components.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. wave.4. and may approach a platform from one or more directions simultaneously.3 Under any of the above-assumed damage conditions the unit should be capable of being restored to adequate tendon tension for the reduced extreme environment (see 5. Near boundary currents (e. See A.4. and currents can have speciÞc relationships regarding their interaction and joint occurrences. 5. Adequate tendon tension should be demonstrated through analysis.2 Wind Wind is signiÞcant in TLP design and analysis.3 Because of the random nature of the sea surface.. spectral peak period. wind. the designer should refer to data collected at the intended site.4. 5. and pressure differential tides.4.1.1 Wind-driven waves are a major source of environmental forces on offshore platforms. and the methods employed in developing data into the desired environmental values should be deÞned.4.3. b.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA 5.4.1. when construction is as near to completion as practical. Because of its compliant and dynamic nature. tidal. 5.2.3 Available statistical data and/or realistic statistical and mathematical models should be utilized to develop the description of normal and extreme environmental conditions. tide.5 The following sections brießy describe the environmental criteria which are required for use in design.4. See A.3.1 General 5. Changes of on-board load conditions after the inclining test and during service should be carefully accounted for. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 13 waterline should be consistent with column-stabilized mobile offshore drilling unit standards.

5. 5.4. Other environmental criteria may be used if properly justiÞed. 5. d. and wave/tide relationships. wave/current. or stage of loadout. Further guidance can be found in API Recommended Practice 2A. c.4. Safety criteria. ßoatout. hydrodynamic diameters and drag coefÞcients. draft during tow. such as hull construction. b. Environment. Since it is free to pitch and roll.5. Refer to API Recommended Practice 2A for appropriate guidance. This table is intended only to provide an example and is not necessarily complete. salinity.1 DeÞning a design case requires selection of the following parameters: a. thus changing the dynamic response characteristics.8 Ice In Northern climates. or platform in place. such as temperature. 5. Load types and design parameters are discussed below. corrosion.3 Installation The stiffness and mass properties change as the platform is transformed from a freely ßoating vessel to a vertically moored platform. 5. 5.1. 5. 5. Local regulations and conditions should be considered and may result in more stringent requirements.14 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T wave.3 System Condition This describes the condition of the platform or component.5 DESIGN CASES 5.2. Since it is free to heave. Intact and damaged stability of the freely ßoating hull must be insured at all phases of the fabrication.5.1 General 5. and transportation phases have various loading conditions that should be examined. adequate deck clearance with the waves should be veriÞed. and oxygen content. 5.5. The tendons and their handling equipment should be designed for loading conditions representative of the various installation phases. wave height/wave period. may be important for steel requirements.2 Project Phase This describes the phase of the platform or component. Table 1—Design Cases Design Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Project Phase Construction Loadout Hull/deck mating Tow/transport Installation In place In place In place In place In place In place In place System Condition Various stages Intact Intact Intact/ damaged Intact Intact Intact Damaged Tendon removed Tendon removed Intact Intact Environment Ñ Calm Mating Route Installation Normal Extreme Reduced extreme Normal Reduced extreme Seismic Fatigue Safety Criteria A A B B A A B B A B B C The construction. 5.4. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1.5. deck transport. 5.2. loadout.2 All appropriate load types must be quantiÞed and included for each design case. Table 1 shows how the parameters may be combined to deÞne design cases.2. 5.7 Physical Properties Various seawater physical properties. Project phase.4.2 Transportation The freely ßoating platform behaves like a semisubmersible during transportation to the installation site.5. System condition. and heave resonant periods tend to be short. The degree of risk for seismic activity in the United States is shown in API Recommended Practice 2A.9 Earthquakes Seismic accelerations should be considered for areas that are determined to be seismically active. These conditions are described by the stage of construction (percent complete).10 Marine Growth The type and accumulation rate of marine growth at the design site may be necessary for determining design allowances for weight. wind/current. 2000 .1 Fabrication Loading conditions imposed on the hull and deck during fabrication could control the structural design of some components. and buoyancy calculations. lateral deck accelerations can be larger than after installation.5.5. Both vertical and horizontal accelerations are important for TLP design. ßoating ice or atmospheric icing can affect the loading on the platform (see API Recommended Practice 2N).


15 Intact The platform or component is as designed. Damaged The transport barge or ßoating component has one compartment ßooded. Tendon Removed If the platform is designed on the basis that tendons can be removed for inspection, maintenance, or replacement, it should be designed for combinations of static, environmental, motion induced and construction loads with one or more tendons removed. 5.5.4 Environment The environment should be deÞned quantitatively in terms of wind, wave, current, and tide. Environmental events should be determined by the operator. Extreme Environment Extreme environmental conditions are those which produce TLP responses having a low probability of being exceeded in the lifetime of the structure. A minimum return period of 100 years for the design response should be used unless risk analysis can justify a shorter recurrence interval. The design of the structure and its key subsystems shall be such that they will be capable of withstanding extreme environmental conditions in a safe operable condition. Normal Environment Normal environmental conditions are those which are expected to occur frequently during the construction and service life. Since different environmental parameters and combinations affect various responses and limit operations differently (e.g., installation, crane usage, etc.), the designer should consider the appropriate environmental conditions for the design situation. Reduced Extreme Environment Reduced extreme environmental conditions are those which have a low probability of being exceeded when the hull is damaged or a tendon is removed. Joint statistics may be used to determine a return period which, combined with the probability of damage, produces a risk level equal to that of the extreme environment. Calm Environment Some operations are performed only during calm conditions. Where such a choice is available, the design case is permitted to use calm conditions. Route Environment Transportation cases should use appropriate conditions for the transportation route. The return period selected should consider the length of exposure and an appropriate risk level. Seismic The TLP should be designed with strength and stiffness to ensure no signiÞcant structural damage occurs for the level of earthquake shaking which has a reasonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the life of the structure. 5.5.5 Safety Criteria Safety criteria are classiÞed as categories A or B. These correspond to the intent of API Recommended Practice 2A, where safety factors are related to the probability of loading occurrence. Others may also be considered, such as criteria corresponding to ultimate survival or damaged redundancy design cases. SpeciÞc recommendations for safety factors for each system component are given in their respective sections. Category A Category A safety criteria are intended for those conditions which exist on a day-to-day basis. Category B Category B safety criteria are intended for rarely occurring design conditions. Category C Category C safety criteria are intended for the design of the structure against fatigue failure. 5.5.6 Load Types Loading type categories are as follows: a. Dead loadsÑDead static weight of the platform structure and any permanent equipment which does not change during the life of the structure. b. Live loadsÑVariable static loads, which can be changed, moved or removed during the life of the structure. Maximum and minimum payloads should be considered. c. Environmental loadsÑLoads on the structure due to the action of wind, wave, current, tide, earthquake, or ice. d. Inertial loadsÑMotion induced loads that are consequences of the environmental loads. e. Construction loadsÑLoads built into the structure during the fabrication and installation phases. f. Hydrostatic loadsÑBuoyancy of, or submerged pressure on, submerged members.

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The combination and severity of loads should be consistent with the likelihood of their simultaneous occurrence.

6 Environmental Forces
6.1 GENERAL The purpose of this section is to describe methods for calculating forces which act on a TLP due to environmental effects, such as waves, winds, currents, ice, earthquakes, etc. Forces due to platform motion responses are also signiÞcant and are discussed herein. Environmental parameters needed for these calculations are deÞned in Section 5. Methods for estimating platform motions and mooring system loads caused by these environmental forces are given in Section 7. Environmental forces must be calculated at four distinct frequency bands to evaluate their effects on the system. The four frequency bands are: a. Steady forces such as wind, current, and wave drift are constant in magnitude and direction for the duration of interest. b. Low frequency cyclic loads can excite the platform at its natural periods in surge, sway, and yaw: typical natural periods range from 1 to 3 minutes. c. Wave frequency cyclic loads are large in magnitude and are the major contributor to platform member forces and mooring system forces. Typical wave periods range from Þve to twenty seconds. d. High frequency cyclic loads can excite the platform at its natural periods in heave, pitch, and roll: typical natural periods range from one to Þve seconds. 6.2 WIND FORCES 6.2.1 General The wind conditions used in a design should be determined with appropriate means from wind data collected in accordance with Section 5 and should be consistent, in terms of joint probabilities of occurrence, with other environmental parameters assumed to occur simultaneously. A TLP has long natural periods in surge, sway, and yaw which may be excited by energy in the wind spectrum. The effects of the complete wind spectrum, including sustained and ßuctuating winds, should be considered in determining the wind induced platform loads and responses. Such analyses may require knowledge of the wind turbulence intensity, spectra, and spatial coherence. These items are addressed below. 6.2.2 Wind Properties Wind speed and direction vary in space and time. On length scales typical of even large offshore structures, statistical wind properties (e.g., mean and standard deviation of velocity) taken over durations of the order of an hour do not vary horizontally, but do change with elevation (proÞle factor). Within long durations, there will be shorter durations

with higher mean speeds (gust factor). Therefore, a wind speed value is only meaningful if qualiÞed by its elevation and duration. A reference value VH is the one hour mean speed at the reference elevation, H, of 33 feet (10 meters).
Note: A duration of one hour is assumed unless otherwise noted.

Variations of speed with elevation and duration, as well as wind turbulence intensity and spectral shape, have not been Þrmly established. The available data show signiÞcant scatter, and deÞnitive relationships cannot be prescribed. The relationships given below provide reasonable values for wind parameters to be used in design. Alternative relationships are available in the public domain literature, or may be developed from careful study of measurements. Mean Profile The mean proÞle for the wind speed averaged over one hour at elevation z can be approximated by: Vz = VH(z/H)0.125 Gust Factor The gust factor G(t,z) can be deÞned as: G ( t, z ) º V ( t, z ) ¤ V z = 1 + g ( t )I ( z ) Where: I(z) = the turbulence intensity described below. t = the gust duration with units of seconds. The factor g(t) can be calculated from: g(t) = 3.0 + 1n[(3/t)0.6] for t £ 60 sec. Turbulence Intensity Turbulence intensity is the standard deviation of wind speed normalized by the mean wind speed over one hour. Turbulence intensity can be approximated by: 0.15(z ¤ z s ) Ð0.125 for z £ z s 0.15(z ¤ z s ) Ð0.275 for z > z s (3) (2) (1)

Iz º s (z)/Vz =


Where: zs = 66 feet (20 meters) is the thickness of the surface layer. Wind Spectra As with waves, the frequency distribution of wind speed ßuctuations can be described by a spectrum. Due to the large variability in measured wind spectra, there is no universally

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accepted spectral shape. In the absence of data indicating otherwise, the simple shape given by the following equation is recommended: f ¤ fp S uu ( f ) ---------------- = --------------------------------------2 s(z) [1 + 1.5 f ¤ f p ] 5/3 Where: Suu(f) = the spectral energy density at elevation z. f = the frequency in hertz. s(z) = the standard deviation of wind speed, i.e., s(z) = I(z)/Vz. Measured wind spectra show a wide variation in fp about an average value given by: fpz/Vz = 0.025 (6) (5)

u¢ = the instantaneous speed and direction variation from the sustained wind. 6.2.3 Wind Force Relationship The instantaneous wind force on a TLP can be calculated by summing the instantaneous force on each member above the water line. This should be calculated by an appropriate equation such as: 1 ú| ú F = -- r a C s A|¢V z + u¢ Ð x ( V z + u¢ Ð x ) 2


Due to the large range of fp in measured spectra, analysis of platform sensitivity to fp in the range: 0.01 £ fpz/Vz £ 0.10 (7)

Where: F = wind force (pounds). ra = mass density of air (slugs/cubic foot). Cs = shape coefÞcient (may also account for shielding). A = projected area of the object/feet2. x = the instantaneous velocity of the structural memú ber, feet/second. z = elevation of the centroid of the member, feet. For all angles of wind approach to the structure, forces on ßat surfaces should be assumed to act normal to the surface and forces on vertical cylindrical objects should be assumed to act in the direction of the wind. Forces on cylindrical objects which are not in a vertical attitude should be calculated using appropriate formulas that take into account the direction of the wind in relation to the attitude of the object. Forces on sides of buildings and other ßat surfaces that are not perpendicular to the direction of the wind shall also be calculated using appropriate formulas that account for the skewness between the direction of the wind and the plane of the surface. The total wind force on the structure may also be calculated using the total exposed area of the structure with appropriate coefÞcients determined by model tests or some other appropriate method. When using the wind spectrum, it is common to linearize the force for spectral and frequency domain calculations (see Simiu and Leigh, 1983; Kareem, 1980), 1 F = -- ra C s AV z2 + r a C s AV z u¢ 2

is warranted. Tension Leg Platform response, particularly maximum offset, may be very sensitive to this parameter. It should be noted that fp is not at the peak of the dimensional wind energy spectrum, since Equation 5 gives the reduced spectrum. Spatial Coherence Wind gusts have three dimensional spatial scales related to their durations. For example, 3 second gusts are coherent over shorter distances and therefore affect smaller elements of a platform superstructure than 15 second gusts. The wind in a 3 second gust is appropriate for determining the maximum static wind load on individual members; 5 second gusts are appropriate for maximum total loads on structures whose maximum horizontal dimension is less than 164 feet (50 meters); and 15 second gusts are appropriate for the maximum total static wind load on larger structures. The one minute sustained wind is appropriate for total static superstructure wind loads associated with maximum wave forces. In frequency domain analyses of dynamic wind loading, it can be conservatively assumed that all scales of turbulence are fully coherent over the entire superstructure. The variable nature of the wind Þeld can alternatively be described by two components: a sustained component (Vz) and a gust component (u'). The total wind speed is then: u = Vz + u¢ Where: u = the instantaneous speed and direction. (8)


where the Þrst term is the constant or steady force, and the second term is linear in the ßuctuating velocity. The higher order term which is neglected in this approximation is generally small. It does contribute a small amount to the steady force.

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2. ft2 V = current velocity normal to the member axis.7. the drag force exerted on a bluff cylindrical member by a current is proportional to the square of the current velocity. When the lateral dimensions of a structure are large. 1978. An example of tests for a semi-submersible is given in Macha and Reid (1984). The drag coefÞcient should be based on the best empirical data available. 1969. Usually this lift force is of an alternating nature and is randomly distributed over the body.2.7 Aerodynamic Admittance 6. ft/sec 6. the body is capable of vibrating and the vortices are being shed at or near one of the bodyÕs natural frequencies. A value of c = 1.) 6. 2000 . Suu = wind gust spectrum (see Equation 5).0 Beams Sides of rectangular sections Cylindrical sections Overall projected area of platform (Should be conÞrmed by model testing) Shielding coefÞcients may be used when the proximity of a second object relative to the Þrst is such that it does not experience the full effect of the wind. 6. The drag force acts in the direction of the component of current that is normal to the member axis.4 and should be consistent (as to return period) with other design parameters such as wave height and wind velocity.2.2. The net force on the body is of little or no consequence. Hoerner. however.4 Steady Wind Force The Þrst term of Equation 10 is the steady wind force. Simiu and Scanlan (1978) present data on transverse gust correlations which can be used to determine admittance factors. the total wind force is calculated from a time series of the instantaneous total wind velocity using Equation 9.5 1. and varies between 0 and Fluctuating Wind Force The ßuctuating wind force may be calculated in the time or frequency domains. the vortices induce a lift force.. lbs rW = mass density of water.2 The admittance coefÞcient is frequency dependent. 6. The joint statistics of current and other environmental events should be considered. Vz should correspond to the mean wind speed used in generating the wind spectrum.3 CURRENT FORCES (11) 6. (See Simiu and Scanlan.2.5 1.3. is smaller for higher frequencies.1 Wind gusts measured at two locations become uncorrelated as the distance between the two locations increase. 6. Currents acting with nearly COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Drag force can be determined using the following formula: 1 F D = -.e. slugs/ft3 CD = drag coefÞcient A = projected area per unit length. and should be used for high frequencies when data is not available to establish a lower value. a force normal to the ßow direction. 6. i.3. 1965. If. In frequency domain calculations. 6. vortices will be shed from a bluff body.2. or nearly steady.0 is conservative and appropriate for low frequency wind oscillation.3 Vortex-Induced Vibration 6. and Meyers.7.6 Shape and Shielding Coefficients The following shape coefÞcients are recommended for perpendicular wind approach angles: Shape CoefÞcients Object 6. The aerodynamic admittance coefÞcient c modiÞes the force equation as follows: 1 F = -. Equation 10 may be used with the wind spectrum to derive the wind force spectrum as follows: Sff(f) = c2 (f) Suu (f) (ra Cs AVz)2 Where: Sff = wind force spectrum. In the time domain.2 Current Drag In the absence of wave induced water motions. the body may be excited to vibrations of signiÞcant amplitude. API Recommended Practice 2P.1 In a ßow which is steady.3.18 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 6. Such tests may be suitable for a similarly shaped TLP.5 0. As they shed.3. c = aerodynamic admittance function (see 6.r a C s AV z2 + r a cC s V z u¢ 2 (12) Where: FD = drag force (per unit length) normal to the member.r W C D AV 2 2 (13) 1. and McAllister.8 Wind Tunnel Data Wind pressures and resulting forces may be determined with properly executed wind tunnel tests on representative models. Holm.2. the reduction in gust forces can be accounted for by an aerodynamic admittance factor.7).1 General The current velocity used in design should be determined by the means described in 5.

1. 6. the ßuid is described by a potential ßow function which satisÞes the Laplace equation within the ßuid domain and satisÞes boundary conditions at the bodyÕs surface.2 and 6.2 Two approximate methods for calculating wave forces are commonly used.3. feet/second (meters/second).2 The vortex shedding frequency can be predicted by the formula: V f = S --D Where: S f D V 6. The Þrst two wave systems provide the wave excitation forces while the last wave system gives rise to added mass and wave damping forces. 6. and that the body is sufÞciently large relative to the wavelength to modify the wave Þeld through diffraction and radiation. 1954).4.4.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.4. b. and at inÞnity.2 Diffraction Theory 6. Further information on vortex shedding may be found in Blevins (1977).1.4 Vortex-induced vibration is a hydroelastic phenomenon whose amplitude is not amenable to prediction by conventional methods of forced oscillation analysis.2. but is usually taken to be 0.4 One solution available for large vertical columns is the potential function for a solitary vertical cylinder extending to the seaßoor (see MacCamy and Fuchs. tendons and risers. and Yue. The radiated wave system generated by the moving body in calm water.3.4. When applied with other environmental parameters the wave parameters should be consistent with respect to return period.4. The incident wave system. at the ocean bottom. The Strouhal number varies with Reynolds number.4. 1950. ßow speed normal to member. Discussion of some of the techniques used to solve the complete body diffraction problem may be found in Faltinsen and Michelson. so numerical techniques are generally used.3. An approximation to the diffraction forces on a TLP can then be made by summing the forces on each column.4..1.1..2. et al.4 WAVE FORCES 6. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 19 uniform speed over a substantial portion of the body are more likely than waves to excite such vibration.3 The responses of a TLP which are sensitive to vortex shedding are strumming of the tendons and risers. however. 6. the potential is expressed as the superposition of three different wave systems: a.4.2.1. Towers and cylinders on the topsides may also be susceptible to wind vortex shedding. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1 The wave spectrum and/or deterministic wave height and period used in the design should be determined as discussed in 5. linear steady state solutions to the potential function provide adequate estimates for Þrst order wave forces. member diameter.2 In diffraction theory. 2000 . The vibration amplitude has.1 General (14) = = = = Strouhal number. 6. c. 6.1. Analytical solutions for the potential function for an arbitrary body are not available.1 Wave forces are calculated in diffraction theory by the integration of the total water pressure Þeld acting on a body. Higher order wave forces are discussed in 6. 1981). For response calculations. oscillation frequency (Hertz).4. at the free surface. These are the Diffraction Theory and the Wave Force Equation (WFE).3. been correlated with a nondimensional parameter called the reduced damping (GrifÞn.3. 6.3 The Þrst order calculation methods described in 6.2 in the range of Reynolds numbers relevant for TLP columns.4.4. 6.4.5. 6.3. and yaw of the hull caused by vortex shedding of the columns.) Recommendations for wave force theory selection are given in 6. et al. The method is appropriate when the body is large relative to the water motion amplitude so that viscous forces are relatively unimportant. 1974. The diffracted (or scattered) wave system as if the body is Þxed. 1978. 6.2.2. feet (meters). 6.4. and integrals of pressure over the body surface give the appropriate forces and moments acting on the body. (Morison.1.3 The solution for the potential function is usually sought on the submerged body surface.4. DESIGNING.3 provide wave forces at the wave frequency.4.4.1 General 6. In general.


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T The solution for the wave force per unit length (F) on a cylinder where the wave is deÞned by h = H/2 cos (kx Ð wt) is given by: F = (2rW gH/k)[cosh k(d+z)/cosh kd] A (kr) cos (kxÐwt+f) with A(kr) = [J¢12 (kr) + Y¢12 (kr)]Ð1/2 and f = tanÐ1 [J¢1 (kr)/Y¢1 (kr)] Where: H k r d g z (15)

tudes are small. However, experiments (Chakrabarti, 1971) have shown the method to be valid for vertical cylinders in moderate-to-steep waves. The diffraction solutions do not include viscous forces. For hull shapes composed of large members (greater than ten feet diameter) the viscous forces are usually insignificant at wave frequencies. At high frequencies viscous forces, along with wave radiation effects, provide damping. At low frequencies viscous forces provide both drift forces and damping. Linearized viscous damping may be added to the diffraction solution. 6.4.3 The Wave Force Equation (WFE) General When body members are relatively slender or have sharp edges, viscous effects may be important and the wave force may be expressed as the sum of a drag force and an inertial force. The wave force equation (WFE) is an empirical formula for calculating forces on a member for given water velocity and acceleration conditions (Morison, 1950; Ippen, 1966; Newman, 1977, Sarpkaya and Isaacson, 1981). It is based on the assumption that the presence of the member does not appreciably alter the wave form. The wave force equation given below has been modiÞed to account for the velocity and acceleration of the structure. F = Fd + Fi (16)

= = = = = =

x =

J'1 & Y'1 =

l = w = rW =

wave height (feet). wave number (=2p/l)(feet-1). radius of cylindrical member (feet). water depth (feet). gravitational acceleration (feet/second2). elevation above mean water surface (feet) (submerged members have negative values). the distance along the direction of wave propagation from the coordinate origin to the center line of the member (feet). derivatives with respect to kr of Bessel functions of the Þrst and second kinds, respectively. wavelength (feet). wave frequency (rad/sec). mass density of water.

The equation is a linearized solution which is based on water waves of small steepness incident on a circular cylinder of inÞnite extent. It can be applied to vertical columns with Þnite draft, providing that the member has sufÞcient draft to extend below most of the wave action. Pontoons can be treated by means of slender body or strip theory. The usual inner expansions of the Laplace equation reduce the problem to 2-D ßow involving a pontoon cross section. The 2-D boundary value problem can be solved without much computational effort compared to the 3-D problem. One of the most commonly used techniques is given by Frank (1967). The total force acting on a pontoon can be obtained by integrating sectional forces along the longitudinal axis. The approximations based on MacCamy and Fuchs and Frank are valid as long as the interaction between members of the body are small. For closely spaced columns, or where spacings are multiples of half wavelengths, interaction effects become important. These should be checked with a full 3-D analysis or model testing. Limitations of Diffraction Analysis Linear wave diffraction theory is based on the assumption that wave heights and platform excursion ampli-

Where: F = the force vector per unit length acting normal to the member axis (pounds) and: Fd = drag force vector: 1 F = -- r W C D D u Ð x ( u Ð x ) ( lbs ) ú ú 2 Fi = inertia force vector: p p F = -- r W C A D 2 ( u Ð xú) + -- r W D 2 u ( lbs ) ú ú ú 4 4 p ú ú F = -- r W D 2 ( C M u Ð C A xú) ( lbs ) 4 D = diameter of member (feet) CD = drag coefÞcient CA = added mass coefÞcient for body accelerations. With this formulation, added mass should not be included in the mass matrix. CM = virtual mass coefÞcient (for ßuid accelerations) CM = CA + 1 (18) (17)

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u = water velocity normal to cylinder axis (feet/second). u = water acceleration normal to cylinder axis ú (feet/second2). x = velocity of member normal to its axis ú (feet/second). xú = acceleration of member normal to its axis ú (feet/second2). The water velocities and accelerations can be calculated from several wave theories. The drag and inertia force components are vector quantities which act in the directions of the normal components of velocity and acceleration vectors, respectively. The drag and mass coefÞcients are empirical coefÞcients which are generally coupled with a wave kinematics theory. They should be used with the same theory that was used in their derivation. In the situation where current and waves occur simultaneously, prediction of the kinematics can be complex. A simple way is to vectorially combine the water particle velocities from the contributing wave and current systems. However, if the current is not uniform, then this superposition is not correct. Vectorial combination is conservative, and is generally used as the best available method. Drag Coefficients The drag coefÞcient is a function of Reynolds number, Keulegan-Carpenter number, roughness, and other factors.

Model tests do not normally cover the appropriate parameter ranges. Field tests have been conducted on Þxed offshore platforms, but member sizes are not indicative of TLP hull members. CoefÞcient determination will require careful extrapolation of test results. Commonly accepted values are between 0.6 and 1.2 (see Sarpkaya and Isaacson, 1981). Values well below 0.6 have been shown to occur for low Keulegan-Carpenter numbers (Verley and Moe, 1980). Mass Coefficients The mass coefÞcients are frequency dependent. Model tests are often the most appropriate way to produce sufÞciently accurate estimates of CM. (See 7.8.) Mass coefÞcients can be found theoretically by Þrst performing a diffraction analysis and then equating the resulting force to the inertial term of the WFE. This has been done for large vertical cylinders (Meyers, Holm, and McAllister, 1969) using the diffraction solution by MacCamy and Fuchs. When equating the two force terms, the inertia coefÞcient yields: CM = [4l2A(kr)/(p3D2)] cos (wt-a)/cos wt (19) The coordinate system used sets the wave zero upcrossing at t = 0. Figure 3 gives values of a and CM as functions of D/l. This formula assumes that there is no interaction between columns. For short waves where the vessel dimen-



a Inertia coefficient, CM





0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Member diameter/wave length, D/l

Figure 3—Inertia Coefficient Found By Equating the MacCamy-Fuchs Solution to the WFE Inertia Term

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sions or column spacings are on the order of half a wavelength, interaction effects may become important. This may be checked with a 3-D diffraction calculation. 6.4.4 Force Calculation Method Guideline The basic assumptions associated with each of the theories should be considered when selecting the force calculation method. Figure 4 (taken from Pearcey, 1979) provides a general guideline for applicability of the diffraction and WFE methods based on the ratio of diameter to wave height. 6.4.5 Other Hydrodynamic Forces Subharmonic and Superharmonic Wave Forces When second order terms in the potential theory, or when Þnite wave height kinematics are used with the WFE, then it can be shown that several different phenomena occur: a. In regular waves a steady wave drift force is generated in the horizontal plane. In the case of diffraction theory this steady force results from free surface integrals and the evaluation of the full Bernoulli equation over the body boundary.

From WFE, the steady drift force results from the free surface integral and viscous effects. b. In regular waves, both potential theory and WFE predict a steady vertical force. Additionally, potential theory predicts a double frequency force in the vertical direction. c. In irregular waves, the potential theory and WFE predict a steady and a slowly varying horizontal force called the wave drift force. In potential theory this occurs at the difference frequencies of the wave energy. A current adds to the drift force through an interaction with the viscous forces resulting from wave kinematics. d. In irregular waves, both potential theory and WFE predict sum frequency forces, which, when they occur at a pitch-rollheave resonant frequency, excite springing response. In regular waves, potential theory predicts double frequency forces. These theories are still in a state of development. The forces, however, have been shown to be very important, since subharmonic frequencies relate to rigid body resonance in surge, sway, and yaw, while superharmonic frequencies relate to the heave, pitch and roll resonance modes. These topics are addressed in a number of references (Ogilvie, 1964; EatockTaylor and Rajagopalan, 1981; Pinkster, 1979; Newman, 1974; Faltinsen and Michelson, 1976; Faltinsen and Loken, 1979; Pinkster, 1980; Standing, 1982).

107 100 80 60 40 30 20 Wave height (feet) 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.0 Subcritical 0.5 1.0 3 6 10 20 Diameter (feet) 105 Re 106 Post critical





Drag regime




% In er tia












Tendons and risers

Columns and pontoons

Figure 4—Wave Force Calculation Method and Guideline

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Solutions may be characterized as linear or nonlinear.5.9 FIRE AND BLAST LOADING Offshore facilities treating hydrocarbons have a potential. at a working stress design (WSD) approach. Additional guidelines for earthquake ground motion are referred to in API Recommended Practice 2A. and roll) includes contributions from structural and soil damping. Wave induced motions of ßoating ice can impose local impact forces which should be considered in the design of the structure. Analysis methods of varying degrees of complexity have been adapted from practices developed for design and analysis of ships. DESIGNING. mooring system loads. 6. the derivation of environmental forces and moments on the platform is given in Section 6.5. Care should be exercised when estimating full-scale damping values from model test results. semisubmersibles. however small. These measures could include. 6.5 The damping in the vertical modes (heave.2. and loading on the structure are included in this section.3 Special attention should be given to the high Reynolds number.4. if warranted. Any object in the vicinity of this explosion interacts with the overpressure.1 Damping in resonant modes is important in the calculation of responses.8 ACCIDENTAL LOADS The potential for accidental loads arising from various kinds of collision.4. Extreme responses are calculated to a design return period. dropped or swung objects. 6. Emphasis is placed on the use of multi-parameter forcing function inputs for a number of the design responses. 6. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 23 6.4. or determining the energy absorption capacity of the structure and/or mooring system. The result of an explosion from a structural sense is an overpressure that tends to dissipate with distance. appropriate ground acceleration time histories should be obtained.7 EARTHQUAKES For TLP sites where earthquakes are a concern. such absorption capacity should be consistent with the size and actual speed of vessels working close to the platform. Simiu and Leigh. Prolonged thermal loading also can result in changes in material modulus and yield point.5 ICE LOADS Superstructure icing can affect tendon tension and increase local wind loads due to increased frontal area. For TLP tendon tension responses. 1983. 1984. the vertical ground motion is much more critical than horizontal ground motion.2.4. frequency domain or time domain. Wichers and Huisman.1. The designer must work with a relatively extensive environmental data set in order to identify events and combinations of events giving design responses.5.2 Damping 6.5. the damping should be estimated for appropriate conditions. Model tests or time domain calculations are appropriate for this determination. Environmental information needed for the analysis is presented in Section 5. and deterministic or probabilistic: these will be discussed below in the context of the several relevant modes of response. Fire causes a thermal loading on nearby objects which in turn causes both deformation and stress. These should be estimated with consideration for the mode shapes and the strains in the various parts of the system. for either Þre or explosion or both.2 Verley and Moe (1980) have published work investigating the drag for very small oscillations of large cylinders.) For severe condition responses. large volume gravity base platforms and steel space-frame structures. pitch. 6. 6.4 The presence of current. The design of an offshore structure should include a systematic treatment of these potentially adverse loadings. 6. or both generally increases damping.2.1 GENERAL 7. or other events should be considered in the design of the structure.2. thickening deck plate in areas where material handling is performed. be included in the overall solution of the equation of motion. and can subsequently be used in a WSD or load resistance factor design (LRFD) approach.2.4.. as well as from hydrodynamics. but the viscous effects are ReynoldÕs number dependent.6 WAVE IMPACT FORCES Wave slamming must be evaluated for its local effect on structural or ßotation members and. Consideration should be given to employing active and passive measures in the design to resist or absorb such loads. 6.2 The design of a tension leg platform requires the application of analysis methods to estimate a number and variety of responses which are not commonly considered in the design of conventional fixed offshore structures. The calculation of platform motions. but not be limited to. Model tests can be used to determine the damping. The response analysis described herein is directed. 7 Global Design and Analysis 7.5.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.4. For the latter consideration.1. low Keulegan-Carpenter number dependence of damping for vertical mode resonances.1 The purpose of this section is to describe methods for performing the response analysis of Tension Leg Platforms. shielding risers in the wave zone.5. Environmental forces result in steady and dynamic platform displacements and loading on the overall TLP system. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 7. (cf. when possible. waves. 2000 . 6. see figure 5.

1. 1983 and Leverette.2. The methods described are based on a deterministic analysis whenever possible and are intended to be used as part of a working stress design. 7. and in the amount of computation involved.24 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 7. 1982) may provide a more versatile method for developing an optimum design. 7.1 See path ÒBÓ in Figure 6. and deck clearance. This path involves some reduction in the environmental data to identify the generally more Sway b Surge (platform north) Roll Ensemble of lifetime responses sis Extreme Response analy onse C. A suitable extreme event is identiÞed which is expected to produce the most severe response.1 Deterministic Response Analysis See path ÒCÓ in Figure 6. The differences lie in the order in which these operations are performed. An intermediate approach is a semi-probabilistic method. Deterministic design analysis involves performing statistical analysis on the environment as the Þrst step.1 Statistical Analysis The prediction of extremes for a number of major system responses requires the selection of appropriate design events and the use of analytical tools discussed in 7. maximum wind. The combination of maximum wave. Statistical analysis of these responses is then performed in order to predict a suitable extreme for each response. Extreme storm responses A B C Resp Field environment Extreme storm Statistical analysis Extreme wave Figure 5—TLP Motion Nomenclature Figure 6—Design Analysis Paths COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.7.2. The speciÞcation of these events is dependent on the system design. This method minimizes the amount of work involved in calculating system responses. Because each response is somewhat different. 2000 .G. and 2) probabilistic analysis of the extremes. yaw. The second step is the actual calculation of the response to this event. A probabilistic analysis combined with reliability based design methods (see Moses. and therefore should be done as part of the preliminary design. A full probabilistic analysis requires more data than is commonly available and requires more analysis cases than are generally feasible. The design events are those environmental events which produce the extreme responses. maximum storm current. The deterministic procedure is often inadequate in the proper speciÞcation of design cases.2. A full probabilistic analysis involves calculating responses to the entire suite of possible environmental conditions.3.1.2 EXTREME RESPONSES Extreme responses are considered to be those responses which govern the design of the TLP. The main difÞculty in using a deterministic approach is identifying appropriate design events. The alternate paths are Heave Yaw Pitch Incident waves similar in that all involve the two components of 1) response analysis of the system in the environment. They generally include offset.2 Probabilistic Analysis See path ÒAÓ in Figure 6.1. The environmental events are generally associated with various load cases as described in Section 5 to provide complete design cases. and maximum tide does not necessarily produce the worst design case for all parameters of interest and the same event does not provide the extremes for all of the major design responses. minimum and maximum tendon tension. This requires a much more extensive set of environmental data. The different approaches to calculating design responses are given schematically in Figure 6.2.1. 7. 7.2.3 Semi-Probabilistic Analysis 7. this section includes separate comments on each major system response. but requires extensive analysis.

1.1. tide/storm surge. Surface current speed. The low frequency forces excite motion which is below wave frequencies and predominately at frequencies near the surge.3. There are a number of advantages to this compromise: a.2.2. Simultaneous occurrence of independent extremes for each of the above parameters produces results which range from overly conservative for some responses to marginally nonconservative for others. The steady or mean forces result in a mean offset of the platform. Wind power spectral density function.1 Environmental Forces Contributing to Offset The environmental forces of interest can be classiÞed by their frequency content as 1) steady or mean forces. Wave directional spreading function. higher order wave drift forces.2.1. Wind: 1.3.3. Storm surge. 5. During the Þnal design. The designer assists in the process of determining combinations of events producing extreme responses. SigniÞcant wave height. and yaw) is often termed station-keeping analysis. 7. a deterministic analysis is usually used for initial sizing. 2. and current is appropriate in the absence of data.1 Mean or Steady Forces The following steady forces should be considered: a.3. If enough information is available. Analysis of the horizontal motions (surge. Mean wind direction. 2. See 6.2. b. Astronomical tide.1. Steady wave driftÑSteady wave drift forces result from wave diffraction and from second order viscous effects. While more rigid structures are typically dominated by wave forces. c.2.3.2. 7. The wind speed used should be an average wind speed for an extended period (on the order of one hour) based on the appropriate environmental conditions (return period). 2) wave frequency forces.4 (Wave Forces). The system responses to these are calculated and these are further reduced to predict the extremes.4. 7.2 The number of parameters involved cause the primary shortcoming of deterministic analysis. wave. The wave frequency forces result in wave frequency surge. responses of a TLP are also strongly affected by wind. The number of analysis cases are kept within reason. 7. 2.2 Wave Frequency Forces The wave frequency forces are dominated by Þrst order drag and inertial wave loads on the platform. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 25 severe conditions and combinations of events. The requirements are within the bounds of typical data availability. The designer may consider directional distributions of environmental conditions. 2.2. Wave: 1. 7. c.3 Maximum Offset The prediction of maximum horizontal excursion is important for analysis of riser and tendon systems and for speciÞcation of riser and tendon hardware. 3. the designer must evaluate and specify the design event or condition for each response. In order to produce a reasonable and safe design. Once the extreme events are identiÞed. Surface current direction. currents. DESIGNING. The interaction between waves and current can also result in steady forces which must be considered.3. 7. d. Wave amplitude spectral density function.2.2 Environmental Parameters 7. and wind dynamics. 2000 . a probabilistic analysis may be used for risk analysis and design veriÞcation. use of appropriate non-colinear environments may be used and can result in a more accurate estimate of maximum offset. In conceptual design. sway. and 3) low frequency forces. sway.3 Low Frequency Forces The following forces contribute signiÞcantly to low frequency motion and should be considered: COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3 for a discussion of these forces. 3.2. b.2. 4. various paths through Figure 6 will be followed. Current: 1. Mean wave direction. The assumption of colinear wind.2 Through the course of a design. Mean wind forcesÑSee 6.1 Environmental parameters important to response are: a. The maximum offset also partially governs the deck height requirement because of platform setdown with offset. or yaw natural frequencies of the platform. and sway motions. 7. a semi-probabilistic analysis may be used to predict the maximum global responses.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. a deterministic analysis may be used for local structure design and scantling sizing. 3. 7. Mean wave period.2. Current proÞle (speed and direction). The drag contribution due to tendons and risers should be included in estimating the total force. c. These forces are discussed in 6. b. Current forceÑSee 6. Mean wind speed.2. Following completion of the design.2. Tide: 1.

3. For time simulation a time history of low frequency forces is generated from wind and wave force spectra or directly from wind velocity and wave proÞle time histories. The prediction of maximum yaw is similar to predicting maximum offsets. Further discussion of damping is provided in 6.2.2. b. offset function and applying the estimated mean force to give an estimate of mean offset.5.3.3) should be used to model the wind speed variation from the average wind speed. sway and yaw resonances with natural periods on the order of 60 to 150 seconds.4.3. the resulting motion (combined low and wave frequency motion) is broad banded.3.06 0.6. Low frequency motionsÑThe low frequency motions can also be modeled using either time or frequency domain techniques.4 Maximum Yaw The prediction of maximum yaw is important for predicting the maximum rotation of riser and tendon top terminations and for the yaw contribution to horizontal excursions. because the low frequency motions are dominated by the surge. 7. A frequency domain approach or an approach based on estimating spectral parameters from a short time domain simulation is more tractable than full length time simulations.2. a long time simulation is required to include a signiÞcant number of cycles.3. Figure 7 shows an example motion spectrum for a TLP in an extreme storm. and the effect of time varying tendon tension.. Wind forcesÑThe wind gust spectrum (see 5. tendon stretch. Due to the contribution of the low frequency resonance.12 0.6 0. 7.2 0. the force spectrum for wave drift (or total low frequency wave forces) can be combined with the wind force spectrum to give a total low frequency force spectrum (see 6.08 0.3. the total low frequency force spectrum is given by the sum of the low frequency wave force spectrum and the low frequency wind force spectrum.2. Wave/current forcesÑA force spectrum for slowly varying (low frequency) wave drift forces should be estimated for the appropriate wave conditions. Pinkster (1980) gives a method to estimate the force spectrum from second order potential wave drift given the steady wave drift forces vs. 7.02 0. catenary effects. the estimation of damping is important.Comm.2.8 0.4 Because low frequency motion is dominated by a resonant response.3.2. 7. Surge energy density (thousands) 1 0. Mean offsetÑThe mean vessel offset can be estimated by developing a restoring force vs. It may also be appropriate to consider contributions from viscous wave drift and wave/current interactions.6.9 0. However.2.5 0.4.2 The estimation of the extreme value of offset should consider the wide band nature of the process and be based on wide band statistical methods such as those described in A.6.2.3 and 7.04 0.5. 7.3. The use of discrete fre- quencies is discussed by Tucker et al.3 Estimating Extreme Offset for Design 7.3 This total force spectrum can then be multiplied by the appropriate motion transfer function to obtain the desired horizontal motion. The restoring force function depends on setdown. However.3.2. Simiu and Leigh (1983) discuss the calculation of time varying forces on the platform from the wind gust spectrum. Wave frequency motionsÑThe wave frequency horizontal motions can be modeled by using either the time or frequency domain techniques discussed in 7.7 0.4 and 6.3 apply to yaw prediction except that moments on the vessel must be modeled instead of forces. in many cases the simulation times and number of simulations required will be prohibitive.3 and 6.3. and 7. The mean wind speed which is used as a parameter in most gust spectrum models should be the same as the wind speed used to estimate the mean wind force.4. This section will discuss only considerations speciÞc to yaw which are not identiÞed in 7.1 The TLP horizontal motions can be conveniently divided into three contributions corresponding to the classiÞcation of forces discussed above: a. Offset Components 7. Assuming that the low frequency wind and wave forces are independent. 7.2 For frequency domain modeling.3 0. The methods of 7.3. 7. 7.18 Frequency (hertz) Figure 7—Surge Motion Spectrum COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. b.4 0.2.1 0. 2000 . 0.1 0 0 0. c.5.16 0.3.3 It is possible to estimate extreme offset by performing full length time domain simulations. wave frequency and the appropriate wave spectrum.2.3. Burns (1983) gives an approximate method to estimate the effects of wave/current interactions. 7.5). Modeling of the time series should be done carefully.6. Time domain simulation can also be used to obtain the low frequency motion. 1984.26 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T a.

AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 27 7. TwÑTension variation from wave forces and wave induced vessel motion about the mean offset (including any coupled tendon responses).5. ToÑDesign pretension at mean water level.1 Environmental Forces Contributing to Yaw 7. The nominal pretension is selected in order to control minimum tension.5 If all of the terms in Equation 20 are taken to be extreme or maximum values.2.) 7. Any likely loading conditions such as non-symmetric placement of drilling rigs or non-symmetrical riser installations should also be considered. TsÑTension caused by setdown due to static and slowly varying offset (wind.3. and current). and should be checked for in high current areas. vessel yaw.2. the wind directions resulting in the greatest steady and oscillating moments on the vessel should be considered. 3. TtÑTide/storm surge water level variation loads. 3. TrÑLoading due to heave. Checking of various wave headings may be required because symmetric wave loadings will minimize the yaw response to waves. This should be determined from a statistical evaluation of the components of Equation 20.4. Modeling of wind induced moments is particularly difÞcult.1.1 In modeling the environmental forces contributing to yaw. 2. 5.). This approach is adequate if a maximum design condition can be determined which accounts for the statistical characteristics of the random sea condition. or to limit maximum offset. wave drift. c.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.2. there are other stresses and loads which sometimes have to be included. 2. Multi-directional seas tend to excite yaw more than uni-directional seas.2 Maximum tendon tension may be estimated using a linear superposition incorporating the effects discussed above: Tmax = To + Tt + Ti + Tm + Ts + Tw + Tf + Tr + Ti + Tv (20) 7. 7. including possible underdeck slamming loads). 2.4.2 Estimating Yaw Response The yaw response can be estimated using the same techniques outlined for offset in 7. 7.3 Another source of yaw excitation can be vortex shedding from the columns in a steady current. and roll oscillations at their natural frequency (ringing and springing.4.3 Figure 8 illustrates the superposition of these tension contributions. (See 6. TiÑIndividual tendon load sharing differential (one of a group of tendons generally carries a greater share of the load because of anchor template rotational tolerances. then thermal stresses should be considered. TmÑTension due to overturning moment from wind and current forces. The value of Tmax should correspond to the maximum expected tension over the design return period.3.2. 7.2.5. TfÑLoads from foundation mispositioning and the instantaneous offset.2. 4. initial setting tolerances. the designer must consider the likely conditions and environmental directions which would result in extreme yaw. For example. Individual tendon effects: 1. Wave induced tension: 1. the resulting estimate of tension will be very conservative.5.4.4 When calculating the maximum stresses in the tendons. DESIGNING. pitch.1. In order to calculate a reasonable design value for maximum Maximum Tendon Tension Up Wave Leg Foundation mispositioning Wave Tendon tension Offset Pretension Wind Tide/surge Figure 8—Maximum Tendon Tension Up Wave Leg COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2 Non-central center of gravity locations will tend to increase yaw responses to waves.5 Maximum Tendon Tension 7.5. TlÑLoad and ballast condition/weight variations/ design margin. The following components should be considered for maximum tendon tension determination: a. For example. Resonant coupling between the vortex shedding and yaw motion has been shown to occur in model tests.2. including their joint probabilities of occurrence.1. The modeling of damping is also important in estimating yaw response.2. Quasi-static: 1. TvÑTension induced by vortex shedding responses of an individual tendon. Consideration should be given to moments induced by spatial variability. b.2. etc.4.1 Tendon loads arise from pretension and environmental effects. with a much lower probability of occurrence than the return period of any one of the terms.3. 7.2. if the tendons contain ßuid at a temperature other than seawater temperature. 7. 2000 .2.

The deck elevation also affects the wind load and wind overturning moments.2 In determining the deck clearance. 2000 . b.1 The minimum clearance between the deck and a wave crest is an important parameter in the design. and wind dynamic forces and perform a statistical analysis of the tension responses. and current are needed to properly estimate the load/angle envelope. Although the form of this equation is similar to Equation 20. the positive tide and surge term will be different from the negative term. In general. the joint statistics of the driving functions should be considered.2 The maximum angles may be calculated using the maximum surge and yaw calculation methods together to predict a maximum excursion for the upper ßex joint.1 Like maximum tension. However. Storm and astronomical tides. the loading condition and conÞguration corresponding to the most probable minimum tension conditions are different than those corresponding to the maximum tension conditions. This can be done in time or frequency domains. 7. This can be used as input to an analysis of the tendon motion response (see Section 9) which provides the angle responses. This procedure is a more rigorous way to predict the tension response and includes the joint statistics as well as the system response to joint events.2. wave.2 The minimum tension calculation is illustrated in Figure 9. Accuracy of fabrication and of foundation installation should also be considered.2. Minimum load at high angles is likely to be of as much concern as maximum load. 7.7.7 Tendon Angle 7.2. 7. a higher deck has adverse effects on tendon tension responses. minimum tension is determined by linear superposition of pretension and environmental effects: Tmin = To Ð [Tt + Tl + Tm Ð Ts + Tw + Tf + Tr + Ti] (21) minimum tension at the upper ßex element. 7. The deck clearance has an effect on the vertical position of the center of gravity and in turn on the maximum and minimum tendon tensions.5. Wave crest elevation.2. 7. Joint statistics of wind.6. Platform setdown due to platform offset and yaw. d.2. The joint statistics of wind. See Leverette.6 An alternate method to the superposition formula given in Equation 20 is to perform a full dynamic analysis of the vessel to wave.28 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T tension. The maximum value is used for design of the ßex assembly.8. For example.3 For negatively buoyant tendons. the values of the terms may be different.2. wave drift. Frequency domain methods can be used if phase information between offset and tension is retained. current. 7. large tendon tension variations may result if the deck is too low and waves strike the lower deck.2. 7. Note that the term representing vortex shedding due to wave and current action need not be considered for minimum tension calculations. 7.2.7). hence the tendon weight (in water) needs to be subtracted from the Minimum Tendon Tension Down Wave Leg Tendon tension Pretension Tide/surge Offset Wind Foundation mispositioning Wave Figure 9—Minimum Tendon Tension Down Wave Leg a.6 Minimum Tendon Tension 7.7. wave. c. This method is recommended if the data and analysis capabilities are available. with the addition of any tendon motion effects.6. and for calculating bending stresses in the tendon. Dynamic vertical motion of platform. and the minimum tension will generally come from the minimum rather than maximum slowly varying offset which is associated with an extreme wave event. Due consideration of the consequences of exceeding the predicted extreme should be included when calculating the response (see discussion of risk parameter in 7. the minimum tension occurs near the lower tendon connection. for hull and foundation clearance allowance. the tension components may be evaluated by a method similar to those described above for maximum tensions. and tide/surge can be used with the vessel response functions to estimate a tension corresponding to the design return period. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Care must be taken to properly model the correlation of the various input parameters. In particular. 1982. Otherwise.8.2. Time domain and model test methods are also suitable.2. the ßex joint designers generally need the envelope of load range and angle for completing the ßex joint design.6. Local wave modiÞcations due to the presence of the hull.3 In addition to maximum angle.1 Maximum tendon angle at the upper and lower ßex assemblies is closely tied to maximum surge and yaw. e.7.8 Deck Clearance 7.2. one should consider: 7.2.

3 Method 3—Random Time Domain A simulation of the response to the environment is performed for an extended period of time.2 Tendon and Foundation Loads The tendon and foundation loads can be calculated using one of the above methods. however. In addition to the in-service condition other conditions during fabrication. The deck bottom should be designed for the anticipated local and global wave slamming forces. g. wind. Effect on the tension RAO of the setdown caused by surge. Phase angle between wave crest and platform position. Forces generated by tendon ringing and wave slamming should be considered. However. 7.5 Members subjected to wave run up should be designed for the associated forces.8. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 29 f. wind.3 Surge Offset/Tendon Flexjoint The offset/tendon angle can be calculated using one of the above methods.4 In the second option. 2000 .2. or allow for wave impact on portions of the deck.5).3.2. if this will be permitted (see 7. 7.3 RESPONSES FOR FATIGUE ANALYSIS 7. and current response statistics can be estimated using similar methods. Ringing and springing (see 6. These are dominated by Þrst order wave forces. 1983).5 and 7.3.2 Method 2—Frequency Domain The wave spectrum statistics are operated on by appropriate response amplitude operators (RAOs) which yield the force and motion spectra statistics.3. but may also include wind and wave drift components.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 7. 7. Regular sea or random sea model tests can also be used. DESIGNING. The RAOs can be generated with a regular sea or random sea and with frequency. roll and yaw.1.3. hull.1 Contributing Factors Global lateral accelerations are governed by the dynamic horizontal offset forces acting on the platform. The effect of wave slamming on tendon tensions and the hull heave and pitch accelerations should be considered. numerous investigators are developing more accurate probabilistic approaches (see Wirsching.1 General This section provides guidance in the prediction of the response histories for fatigue calculations.5). Because of the sensitivity to wave period. Air gap. 7.3). the tides and the platform loading.4) can be calculated using one of the above methods. current. deterministic analysis with high safety factors have been the norm. or time domain simulations. The response of interest is generally the extreme horizontal acceleration. These methods inherently furnish the designer with more information on the fatigue properties. the results should be modiÞed to include the following effects. storm surge. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. or lower appurtenances. sway and yaw.1 Method 1—Discrete Wave Height and Period The wave height/period joint statistics are operated on by appropriate transfer functions which yield force and motion statistics that are period dependent. transportation. Wave drift.2 Estimating Lateral Accelerations The wave frequency motions and accelerations are estimated by frequency or time domain solutions to the equations of motion or by model tests.9. In the past.4. 7. and installation phases of the platform life should be considered. traditional methods using a mean period for each wave height are not applicable. but the probabilistic approach requires more input data than is often available. The response statistics to wave drift force. The effect of the tide. Local lateral accelerations are also produced by the rotational responses of pitch. 7.8.4 Hull Forces The hull forces (see 7. c.2. The response statistics are generated from this time history.4.9 Lateral Accelerations The lateral accelerations of the platform are used in the design of the structure and in the design of equipment and equipment supports.1.8. 7. 7.3.3. although operating condition accelerations may be important in the design of process equipment and deck drainage systems. The prediction of fatigue life or damage is by nature a statistical procedure. if present: a. 7. the designer must have conÞdence in the accuracy of the wave crest elevation and the contact should only be localized. 7. 7. and platform loading on the offset should be considered (see 7. The three methods following are in order of increasing complexity and data requirements.2. Wave slamming force on the deck. b. Deterministic or short term probabilistic methods can be used to predict the maximum wave frequency response. and platform loadings are estimated using Method The designer has two general options: Provide a minimum deck clearance. 7.

1 Hydrostatic head on each submerged structural member is determined from a combination of submergence and tide.2 Determination 7. 7. an initial condition is needed for a time domain dynamic analysis. This pressure should be consistent with the force applied to the platform by waves and current and will vary with the sophistication of the force model. Pressures on individual members should be calculated for the extreme waves as determined by the design wave spectra.4 Maximum Wave Loads In addition to local loads which affect the global frame of the platform.2. This wave will not generally be the design case for all aspects of the structure. 7.4. Conditions which are important are related to hydrostatic pressures on submerged members.1 The determination of the static equilibrium (or Òweight balanceÓ) with the Òstill waterÓ condition.1 Static Equilibrium in Still Water Condition Loads may be resolved at discrete nodes or may be left as pressures acting over sections of structural members. certain members may experience loads which exceed the inplace design loads.6 Towing Loads During tow to the installation site.3 Squeeze-Pry Racking Loads 7.4. The determination of a mean or equilibrium position is necessary to proceed with a frequency domain dynamic analysis.5 STATIC AND MEAN RESPONSE ANALYSIS 7. or extreme drag such as high current or towing conditions.1 Major joints and braces of the hull are affected by squeezing and prying action of the hull.4. squeezing.3.4.3. and beam seas should be checked.1 Local loadings are deÞned as those loads which are locally applied to the platform for the detailed design of individual members and nodes.2. acceleration of gravity. Loads are applied statically at various elevations along each memberÕs length.5. risers. 7.7 Construction and Installation Loads Loading conditions during construction and installation should be considered. A prying con- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. individual member designs may be governed by loads resulting from extreme wave heights.1 General 7. Load conditions with head.4.4. wave slamming. If appropriate.2. or current present. 7. vertical distance from mean water level (MWL) to point of applied pressure (positive down).5.1.4 HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS FOR HULL DESIGN 7. 2000 .2 The maximum squeezing and prying loads generally occur in waves that are twice the length of the platform. prying and racking of the hull frame.1. 7. vertical braces. 7. unit mass of seawater. deck mating. 7. and then determining a mean position due to steady environmental loads acting on the platform. The loads produced for this purpose are used as input to the procedures deÞned in Section 8. is fundamental to sizing of the TLP and is the starting point for fur- 7. These members include columns. = = = = 7.2.5 Wave Slamming Loads Allowance should be made for members subject to wave slam. Pressures are determined by the equation: p = rW g(z + t) Where: p g rW z (22) dition occurs when lateral loads act outward away from the platform center.2 Hydrostatic Head quartering.4. Local loading can be derived either from time domain analysis at various phases within the steady state wave cycle or from frequency domain analysis by obtaining maximum loads at a prescribed wave frequency. 7. 7. and internal member pressures are given elsewhere in this recommended practice. wave.1. Similarly.1 General Static and mean response analysis consists of determining the static equilibrium with no wind.2 Environmental conditions for deriving local loadings are given in Section 5.30 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 7.3 Local loads relating to equipment arrangement. 7. waveborne ice impacts should be considered.1.4. Not all of these conditions need to be investigated when determining loads for structural design.5.2 Additional local pressure is applied to submerged members in the presence of waves and current. and possibly members forming the underside of the deck. local pressure.4. the platform will be subjected to towing loads. A deÞnition of maximum wave height as a function of wave length or period permits a rapid scan to identify the design condition for this response. Depending upon the location and length of the tow. t = height of tide above MWL. A squeeze condition is deÞned as one where lateral loads from a wave are maximum inward toward the center of the platform.

5.2. A low mean water level tends to decrease minimum tendon tensions and to decrease the horizontal restoring forces for a given horizontal offset. ballast. 2000 .2. stored liquids.5.2. Since future payload cannot be increased without modifying the hull displacement.2. The mean forces and moments acting on the platform due to wind.5.2. hydrostatic loading on the hull. 7. WHP = weight of all equipment and stored liquids in the hull. b. lifesaving equipment.4 A general representation of the vertical force balance of the TLP in static equilibrium is given by: B = WDS + WHS + WDP + WHP + WB + PR + PT +WM 7. and platform ÒsetdownÓ effects.3.1. 7.2 Tidal Effects 7. WB = weight of ballast in platform. if appropriate. foundation mispositioning. and future growth. The total platform displacement (the total platform buoyancy) for each draft to be analyzed.5. and any other temporary weights which are appropriate for the loading case being analyzed. Tendon effects including pretension. where attached to platform). Note that the various loading cases (identiÞed in 5. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 31 ther analysis.5.3).1 Changes in buoyancy due to tidal effects can signiÞcantly affect mean tendon tensions. The total platform weight associated with each loading condition to be analyzed.3. Therefore. Then the following effects should be added: a. ice loading.3 The platform weight should include the weight of all structural elements.2 Determination of the static equilibrium should include the following: a.2. WDS = weight of deck structure. 8. WM = any other weight appropriate for the loading case considered including. It is normal to include a weight margin which is consistent with the conÞdence bounds of the estimate. 7.2 The estimate of mean response should begin with the still water condition discussed in the previous section. 7.3. utilities equipment. drilling equipment.3. marine equipment.2 These effects of tide may be taken into account by performing a static balance at the various appropriate tide levels to provide a starting point for further analysis or by making allowances for the appropriate tide level in calculating extreme responses. and any signiÞcant hook loads.5. DESIGNING. 7. WHS = weight of hull structure. where attached to the platform). and 9. consumable supplies.2.5. 7. and all equipment permanently mounted on the platform.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.3. These temporary loads should include the weight of equipment. b. (23) Where: B = platform buoyancy (total buoyancy of the platform for a given draft). COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. All hook loads which are signiÞcant for the loading cases to be analyzed. and current loading on the hull.1 The analysis of the TLP response to mean or steady environmental forces may be used to determine the initial condition for time domain analysis of the platform dynamic response or for frequency domain analysis of the platform dynamics. Platform setdown increases tendon tension as the platformÕs horizontal displacement increases. marine growth or ice on the structure. For example. All riser and tendon tensions acting on the platform in each loading condition to be analyzed. In addition the platform weight should include all weights which are appropriate to the loading condition to be analyzed. consumables. Changes in tide conditions should be considered in evaluating the various maximum responses of interest: a.5.2) may involve signiÞcant variations in temporary or removable weights and loads to be included in static equilibrium analysis. A high mean water level tends to increase maximum tendon tensions.2. permanent appurtenances.5.3 Mean Response Analysis 7. See 4. the effect of the highest tide level consistent with the probability of simultaneous occurrence of other extreme environmental conditions should be taken into account in estimating maximum tendon tensions. marine growth. c.1.2.6 for further comments on weight estimating. it is important that the various weight components be estimated as accurately as possible.5.3. and tends to decrease deck clearance. d. quarters. this helps minimize the number of design iterations which will be required. b.5 A similar balance should be performed for other degrees of freedom of the platform. PT = tendon pretension (at the top of the tendon.5. Because of the weight sensitivity of the tension leg platform. A static equilibrium analysis should be performed for each loading condition to be analyzed (see 8. The dynamic analysis of risers or tendons often requires an estimate of mean platform position as input for further analysis. tendon weight in water (catenary effect).2. PR = riser pretension (at the top of riser. WDP = weight of all equipment in or on deck including production equipment. the choice of a tide condition for static equilibrium analysis is important.1.1. In some cases tendon stretch is important and should be included in modeling tendon effects. 7.

7. a number of assumptions and linearizations are usually made. The Þxed coordinates are coincident with the principal directions of the platform when the platform is at rest.32 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T c. 7. surge. 7. The assumption of no interaction between tendon and riser dynamic response and the platform dynamic response leads to the label of Òuncoupled analysisÓ for this simple case.3.6. Weight variations and tidal variations might be important in addition to changes in wind. Figure 10 illustrates the nonlinear behavior of the horizontal restoring forces versus horizontal offset for a typical TLP. Frequency domain techniques can estimate response to random waves including platform motions and accelerations. ßuid drag forces proportional to velocity squared can be incorporated without prior linearization. 7.5 If the wind. In order to try to separate the forces into separate terms to allow simple solution. the mean response analysis can be done considering responses only in the direction of the environment. system acceleration vector.1. Frequency domain analysis has been applied extensively to problems of ßoating vessel dynamics.6. In addition. 7.1. and incident on an axis of symmetry of the vessel.1. In cases where both time and frequency domain techniques are applicable. and hydrodynamic loads. and current directions are assumed colinear. (24) 7.1 The forces acting on the system are generally a function of both time and vessel position.1 This section describes the equations of motion governing the dynamic response and discusses the frequency domain and time domain techniques used to solve these equations.6. wave. and current forces. d.3. and pitch in the direction of the environment need be considered. This advantage over the frequency domain technique is gained at the expense of increased computing time and increased complexity in calculation results. 7. damping matrix. 2000 .6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND SOLUTIONS A common assumption is to limit the system model to a rigid platform and exclude riser and tendon displacements. Offset Restoring force Figure 10—Restoring Force With Offset 7. but their formulation must reßect the limitations and strengths of the selected technique.2 Frequency domain analysis is the closed form solution of ordinary or partial differential equations by means of Laplace or Fourier transform techniques. wave.1 General 7. The system then has the 6 degrees of freedom described by Figure 11.2 Equations of Motion 7.5. This simpliÞcation is often used as a preliminary design calculation.6.5 The equations of motion are the same no matter which solution technique is adopted. system velocity vector. The effect of current forces on the risers and tendons. and should be included in the loading cases used for analysis of mean response. tendon loads and angles. Note that an analysis of mean response will be required for various loading cases (identiÞed in 8. 7. The expression generally used to describe the motion is given by: M ( t )xú + N ( t )x + K ( t )x = F(x. For the simple model COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3. three degrees of freedom are eliminated from the platform response and only platform heave. stiffness matrix.t ) ú ú Where: M(t) N(t) K(t) x x ú xú ú = = = = = = inertial mass matrix. In such cases.3 The most signiÞcant limitation of frequency domain techniques is that all nonlinearities in the equations of motion must be ignored or replaced by linear approximations.3 A convenient coordinate system is a Þxed right handed coordinate system with origin at the mean position of the center of gravity of the platform. The mean forces and moments acting on the platform due to wave drift and current forces.5. the frequency domain often has the advantage of simplifying the computations. so is used for preliminary design. 7.4 The steady offset and setdown are important outputs from analysis of mean response.2. For example.1.2).6. system displacement vector.1.4 Time domain analysis is the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion allowing the inclusion of all system nonlinearities.6. the frequency domain input and output is often more convenient and useful for the designer.3 and 9.

7. These are referred to as Òcoupled analyses. These resonances typically have periods in the range of 1 to 5 seconds.4 Models with more than 6 degrees of freedom can be developed by including displacement degrees of freedom on the risers and tendons. C. d.2 In cases where both time and frequency domain techniques can be considered.2.6. 7.4.8 The time-dependent force vector includes the many external forces discussed in Section 1974.1. 7. The method is naturally suited to the analysis of systems exposed to random environments because it provides a clear and direct relationship between the spectrum of the environmental loads (see 5. sway and yaw natural frequencies. the inviscid hydrodynamic properties are most conveniently calculated in the frequency domain.6. Frequency domain analysis has been applied extensively to problems of ßoating vessel dynamics.Ó Some analysts have also relaxed the assumption of a rigid platform and added degrees of freedom to the platform model. pitch and roll natural frequencies. The result of a frequency domain analysis is a description of the variables of interest (platform motions.2. and elastic terms introduced by tendon and foundation ßexibility. Forces at frequencies near the heave.3.3 Frequency Domain Modeling and Solutions.. the position vector coordinate is given by: ì x1 ï ï x2 ï ï x3 x = í ï x4 ï ï x5 ï î x6 surge sway heave roll pitch yaw 7.2. Slowly varying forces near the surge.3) and the spectrum of the system response.5 The mass matrix include the mass of the platform steel.) as functions of frequency. These forces are often categorized by their frequency relative to the resonant frequencies of the platform/tendon/riser system: a.6. Nearly steady forces that can be considered static because they vary at frequencies much lower than any platform resonant frequencies. 1984). Inertia forces introduced by the tendons and risers should be accounted for in the mass matrix in an approximate fashion for 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) models.2. It has been applied to TLP analysis as well (see Botelho et al. 7. For large ßoating structures where wave scattering and radiation is important. including analysis of both motions and structural forces (see Price and Bishop. 1970). and Salvesen et al. and risers.7 The stiffness matrix contains hydrostatic terms for the platform. and the Òadded massÓ of the surrounding water. tendon forces. c. These models are useful for deep water or when tendon/riser masses are a signiÞcant portion of the total system mass. The system response spectrum can then be used to estimate the short term statistics of the variable of interest.. b. Such models couple the analysis of platform and tendons/risers.G. or more exactly in coupled tendon/riser/platform analyses with a large number of DOFs. 7.2.1 General 7.6. These responses typically have periods in the range of 1 to 4 minutes. X3 Heave X6 Yaw X5 Pitch Incident waves X2 Sway b X1 Surge (platform north) X4 Roll 7.6.6. platform forces. tendons. Forces at wave frequencies. Figure 11—Simple Model For TLP Response Analysis COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. the frequency domain often has the advantage of fewer and simpler computations.6 The damping matrix is important in limiting platform resonant responses and has signiÞcant contributions from platform wave radiation and drag on the hull.1. equipment and variable loads. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 33 described in Figure 11.6. DESIGNING. geometric terms due to tendon/riser tension combined with platform offset to produce forces restoring offset.6. 2000 .RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. etc.1 Frequency domain analysis refers to the solution of the equations of motion by methods of harmonic analysis or methods of Laplace and Fourier transforms. 7.

The transfer function is often presented as a magnitude or response amplitude operator (RAO): 2 2 2 RAO n = H 1n + H 2n ò ¥ 0 S xx dw (35) The use of a Gaussian distribution to predict extremes of a process is described in C7. pitch. Using the technique of harmonic analysis. In most cases.2. 2000 .3. The response vector is a sinusoidal function with frequency w: X = H1 cos (wt) + H2 sin (wt) (26) Once the system RAO and the input spectrum are known. This is not a restriction.6.2. 7. Discussions of the modeling of the hydrodynamic loads.3.6. no ßuid effects) modeling each tendon or group of tendons.6. transforms the mean square of the input to the mean square of the output by multiplication by the square of the RAO. s2 = 7.3 The most developed and widely used frequency domain solution techniques require linear equations of motion.6. two matrix equations for the vectors H1 and H2 are obtained: [ÐMw2 + K]H1 + [Nw]H2 = F1 [ÐNw]H1 + [ÐMw2 + K]H2 = F2 (27) assuming x has a zero mean.2.3. time varying geometry. and low frequency loads are also presented.3. and roll) and tendon tension variations is an elastic spring (no mass.4 This section includes the analysis of a general linear system in the frequency domain.6.3 This requires that the coefÞcients of X (Equation 24) be constant for a given frequency.1 The motions of a TLP can be modeled by the six degree of freedom set of differential equations given in Equation 24.2. By substituting Equation 25 and Equation 26 into Equation 24. is obtained from the spectrum of the response. H 2n f n = tan Ð1 æ ------. Thus.4 Stiffness Modeling 7.3 Random Excitation 7. The linearization may take the form of linearizing about some operating point or an equivalent linearization technique.3. the response would be: Xn = A(RAO)n cos(wt + fn) (30) The transfer function is often written in complex form: H = H1 + iH2 (31) Following this notation the response X can be written as: X = A REAL [HeÐiwt] 7.7. A linear system which transforms the amplitude of the input to the amplitude of the output by multiplication by RAO.3.6.3. A. 7.1 For a general problem. This is inconvenient when modeling velocity squared drag loads. If this simple elastic spring model is used (28) and a phase.3. SXX = RAO2 SAA (33) (32) 7. the load vector is assumed to be a sinusoidal function with frequency w: F = F1 cos (wt) + F2 sin (wt) (25) The subscript n denotes the nth element of a vector.3. The standard deviation of the response. The power spectrum of the excitation and the response amplitude operator deÞne the probability density function of the response.34 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 7. tendons. these nonlinearities can be satisfactorily linearized. horizontal restoring forces and variable water surface elevation.3.2 Gaussian (Normal) Random ProcessÑA linear transformation of a Gaussian process is also a Gaussian process. s. since for a linear system the solutions for each type of load can be calculated separately and then superimposed. Thus for some arbitrary input amplitude.1.ö è H 1nø (29) COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. This is usually called the transfer function.6. A simple tendon model which can be used to model vertical motions (heave.1. since these effects are nonlinear. the tendon stiffness will contribute terms for each element of K.6. 7.1 The spectrum of a variable can be interpreted as the average mean square of the variable between two frequencies divided by the difference between these frequencies.2 For simplicity it is assumed that there is only one source of the external load.3. 7.3.4 Where the load vector F is calculated for a unit amplitude sinusoidal wave.6.6. obtaining the output spectrum follows from a simple multiplication.4.6.2 Linear System Solution 7. The linear assumption is also predominant in the random process theory used to interpret the solution.6. the vectors H1 and H2 represent the response of the structure to a unit amplitude input.3.3. The probability density function for a Gaussian random process is: P(x) = (2ps2)Ðò exp [Ðò (x/s)2] (34) 7.

6. DESIGNING. 7. the viscous drag contribution is not modeled and. 7. One useful approximation is to assume that members are cylindrical in shape with cross-sectional dimensions that are small in comparison with both the cylinder length and wave lengths of interest.) and the forces or moments. 7. the forces can be linearized to generate the stiffness terms of K. The main drawback of time domain methods is the computation times involved.3. and Current Forces for Frequency Domain 7.) are needed. In such cases. Even with this simple spring model for the tendons.2 For some analyses. it is important to account for the low frequency motions as accurately as possible. the risers contribute to the system stiffness.5. if signiÞcant. wave amplitude. In some cases it is appropriate to account for steady and low frequency forces and moments by adding constant forces and/or moments to arrive at a quasistatic equilibrium point. and Exciting Forces accounted for by linearized drag terms added to the damping matrix. 1971). Their primary advantage is in allowing changing boundary conditions and nonlinear forcing and stiffness functions. wave drift.4. Periodic analysis must be carried far enough to achieve steady state.3. discussed these assumptions and their application to response prediction. It is also possible to augment the six degrees of freedom. If hydrodynamic interaction between members is neglected then the exciting force. but are not used for fatigue analysis or analysis of more moderate conditions where linearized analysis works much more efÞciently. (The tendon dynamic equations are adjoined to the vessel dynamics of Equation 24. linearized potential ßow hydrodynamics can be solved by using 3-dimensional integral equation (sink-source) techniques or ßuid Þnite element techniques (see 6. etc. For response at wave frequencies or above. It does not depend on a linear relationship between the environment (wind speed.6.2 If hull members have large cross-sectional dimensions compared with the wave length.3. then free surface effects become important and should be modeled. For analysis using these assumptions.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.4 Time Domain Modeling and Solutions 7. 7.6. tendon stresses.6. One simple approach is to augment the mass or added mass matrices to reßect the contribution of tendons. added mass. 7.6. However.2 In deepwater.) In addition to the tendons. If a force spectrum can be estimated it can be added to the other contributions to F in Equation 24.1 There are various assumptions and degrees of approximation which can be used in modeling hull hydrodynamics for frequency domain analysis. Paulling and Horton. geometric non-linearities are present which will cause the terms of K to change depending on the offset point chosen for linearization.3. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 35 for modeling tendon attachment point forces on the vessel. The complete. Using these assumptions only the viscous drag contributes to damping. the tendon mass may be an important contribution to vertical and horizontal mode natural frequencies.3. Damping. the aerodynamic admittance may reduce the effective force of the wind because of wind spatial correlation effects. Time domain methods are usually used for extreme condition analysis.3. such as the analysis of offset.6 Modeling Wind.3 The response to wind forces including responses at all frequencies of interest can be modeled by estimating wind force and moment spectra. tendon angles. Also as members become larger compared with the wave length and member to member spacing then hydrodynamic interaction between the members becomes important.4. In other cases the steady and low frequency response may not appreciably affect the dynamics for wave frequency response so that the equilibrium point or linearization point may be taken as a convenient point such as the zero-offset still water condition. free surface effects are usually ignored and added mass and drag are computed as though the members are deeply submerged. Equation 24.6. etc.6. and damping contribution of each individual member can be computed at the memberÕs mean location in the ßow Þeld ignoring the effect of other members. This technique is particularly useful where the statistics of low frequency response (such as offset. force or moment spectra including wind and wave drift low frequency excitation may be applied as input to a frequency domain model. The viscous drag is usually assumed to be a quadratic function of velocity and is linearized for frequency domain analysis. These techniques model completely the linear (Þrst order) free surface effects and hydrodynamic interactions. The TLP dynamics including tendon stiffnesses may be linearized for motions about this quasistatic equilibrium point. 1971. by adding degrees of freedom for the tendons. End effects where columns join pontoons may be important.1 In frequency domain analysis the steady and oscillatory forces due to wind. 2000 . 7. In such cases the aerodynamic admittance should be modeled carefully (Bearman. 7. K.6. and current can be taken into account using a number of different assumptions and approximations. Wave Drift. and N to model tendon dynamic effects as a function of frequency.5.4). 7.5 Modeling Hydrodynamic Added Mass.6. Uncoupled time or frequency domain tendon analysis may be used to generate terms added to M. must be COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.6. Note that such an approach is useful where the response to forces or moments is linear.6.1 General Time domain solution methods are generally used for Þnal detailed design stages and for checks on frequency domain solutions.

All the added mass and damping terms may be frequency dependent value which can be obtained from the frequency domain analysis (see 7.5. 7.6. If the analysis is carried out for a single regular wave.3.4). It also depends on the wind and current Þelds. A strong nonlinear coupling between heave.4. 2000 . roll.4. ai = amplitude of ith wave component = 2S ( w i )dw .4. the direct numerical solution permits the user to investigate nonlinear.3 When the analysis is performed in a random sea.4.4.36 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Irregular analysis must be carried far enough to achieve stationary statistics. Besides a frequency dependent damping (so-called radiation damping) derived from diffraction theory and which mainly lies within the normal wave frequency region.2 The Newmark-Wilson method and the RungeKutta method are commonly used to solve a second order differential equation.2 For instance. 1982). Time domain analysis methods for ßoating bodies have been proposed by a number of authors (Cummings. and Current Forces for Time Domain A time series of wave forces may be generated from a wave spectrum. The Þrst order wave exciting forces and second order slowly varying wave drift forces are both represented in the form of random time histories.6. Typical effects are drag forces which are nonlinear functions of the ßuid velocity.3 Solution Techniques 7. damping comes from foundation/soil interaction.4.2. ei = phase angle of ith wave component. then consideration should be given to the frequency dependency of the added mass and damping coefÞcients.6.3. There are a number of ways that have been proposed to include the frequency dependency in time domain calculations (Van Oortmerssen. (1) F wv ( w ) = frequency dependent Þrst order wave exciting. Since a direct numerical integration of the equations of motion is performed. 1976.6. and platform motion. Van Oortmerssen. S(w) = spectral density function of wave spectrum.6.1 First order wave forces: N (1) F wv ( t ) = åF i=1 (1) wv ( w i ) cos [ w i t + e i ]ai (36) Where: (1) F wv ( t ) = 1st order time dependent wave forces.6. the platform positioning system.3 The low frequency damping (surge and sway) includes both radiation and drag effects. Regular wave analysis requires less numerical effort in solving equations of motion in the time domain (Paulling. 1977). 7.3. and heave).4. Salvesen. A discrete maximum design regular wave with one or several selected periods is used to predict the worst system response to this event. 7. Þnite amplitude phenomena which the former method is incapable of treating. then the frequency dependent added mass and damping coefÞcient for the speciÞc wave period can be directly used in solving the above equation.4. 1976). but this advantage is gained at the expense of increased computing time. Þnite motion and Þnite wave amplitude effects.6. Paulling.2. pitch and roll modes is almost always ensured. and nonlinear positioning or anchoring systems.4.4 Stiffness Modeling This can be handled in the same manner as in frequency domain analysis (see 7. and from local hydrodynamic drag effects around small members and sharp corners. 7.2 A wave spectrum is used to generate random time series when simulating irregular wave kinematics. forces per unit wave amplitude.4.2 Regular vs. 7.1 Regular wave time domain analysis is deterministic. Irregular Wave Analysis 7.4. In comparison to the commonly used linear frequency domain technique. in high frequency resonant motions (pitch. Wave.6. effects may be included which involve nonlinear functions of the relevant wave and motion variables.2 Second order slowly varying drift forces: COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3. 7. 7. and the total system damping rather than the damping in each mode should be considered. 1962. 7. 7. 7.5 Modeling Hydrodynamic Added Mass and Damping 7.1 There are many numerical methods that have been developed for solving the equations of motion in the time domain using direct step-by-step integration techniques. hull and tendon structure damping. there are other damping mechanisms involved in the entire dynamic system. and other disturbing effects such as wind. The time domain analysis procedure consists of a numerical solution of the rigid-body equations of motion for the platform subject to external forces which may originate in the ßuid motion due to waves.6 Modeling Wind.6.6.4. and contributions come from riser and tendon hydrodynamic drag. 1977. current.4.1 The treatment of added mass and damping for time domain calculations is based on the same principles and procedures as discussed for frequency domain calculations.4. 7.

8.8 HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL TESTS 7.6. In this case. 7. (38) tion of responses to this forcing involves random process analysis. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 37 N N i j ij F (t) = (2) wv ååa a D i=1 j=1 cos [ ( w i Ð w j )t + ( e i Ð e j ) ] (37) Where: Dij = drift force per unit wave amplitude squared in bichromatic waves.8.1 Physical model experiments are another means to obtain design estimates of the response.6. the forcing from the environment is a random process. The spectrum of the response can be calculated from the time series. shape coefÞcient.6.1. For most economically feasible systems there are possible conditions which will cause the structure to fail its performance goals.Comm. This is almost never true of numerical models.7 RANDOM PROCESS STATISTICS For a system operating in an ocean environment. In addition. certain aspects of structural design can only be treated with random process theory. In this case. 7. water particle velocity (includes current).6. The extreme response can be estimated directly from the peaks of the responses during a simulation. Through careful interpretation. projected area. to reduce cost and avoid complications which might obscure the most important results. 7.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. instantaneous platform velocity.2 Sources of Error 7.2 The numerical predictions and model experiment results are complementary to each other. (39) 7.7 Output of Time Domain Analysis The output of time domain analysis is a time series of responses: a.4. 7. It is important in this type of model testing to place enough emphasis on the measurement of the incident wave Þeld.3 Dynamic wind forces: F WD ( t ) = ò r a A C s c a V WD Ð x ( V WD Ð x ) ú ú Where: ra A CS ca x ú VWD = = = = = = mass density of air. Random process theory as an element in probabilistic design provides rational methods for estimating the probability of occurrence of such events and thus for designing these probabilities. 7.4. less emphasis is placed on the details of the physical model since the dimensions and parameters of the system can usually be modiÞed more easily in the numerical model than in the physical model even at a small scale. One of the greatest values of model tests is that the results are obtained without requiring any a priori assumptions about the nature of the responses. instantaneous wind speed. Tests to determine the responses of a particular design.4. b. The calcula- When comparing the results of model experiments with analytical predictions the following potential sources of discrepancies should be considered: COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. The primary objectives of model tests may be broadly categorized as the following: a. These include estimating dynamic response of a resonant system and estimating fatigue damage of any system. projected area. DESIGNING.1. 2000 . Newman (1974) has given an approximation for this matrix using only the diagonal terms.2.8. providing similar information to the frequency domain analysis.4 Viscous drag forces: F DRAG = ò r w AC D V c Ð x ( V c Ð x ) ú ú Where: rw A CD x ú VC = = = = = mass density of water. b. instantaneous platform velocity. it is recommended to keep the physical model simple. These aspects are analyzed as random processes even for Þxed platforms.7. This can be used for predicting extremes as described in 7. drag coefÞcient.7.1. but is not considered valid for semisubmersible like structures. c. the model experiment is treated as an analog computer which is capable of predicting the full scale responses.6. It is more efÞcient to make minor parametric variations to the system through a numerical model if it can be shown through physical experiments that the numerical model is accurate. Model tests may be used either as a calibration of analytical predictions or to determine those responses not directly calculable.8. if possible. VeriÞcation of methods for analytical or numerical prediction of system responses. In fact. The details of the wave form must be known to the same degree of accuracy as the vessel responses.1 Purpose 7. See A. aerodynamic admittance. each of these results can be used to partially circumvent the limitations of the other. This has been shown to be valid for ships by Faltinsen and Loken (1979). Regular wave simulations can be used to predict transfer functions by taking the ratio of the response amplitude to the input wave amplitude.

Such components include the bottom foundation.9 SYMBOLS The following symbols are typical in equations used for design and analysis: xú = ú F(x. Due to the difÞculty and expense of scaling down material properties most small scale platform models are considerably stiffer than the prototype. The physical dimensions of the platform.8.8. the needed products. 7. Discrepancies arising from assumptions made in the development of the numerical model which might not accurately depict the physical model.8. For example.38 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T a. real part of system response. Possible errors due to scale effects. 7. Since most offshore engineering model tests are done with low/zero forward speed. loads. wave. This might be of only minor importance if the water depth is small. during the installation phase there might be a free surface in the ballast compartments which will affect the static stabil- ity. the following parameters should be modeled with care in the physical model or otherwise properly accounted for in the interpretation of the results: a. deck clearance. c. e. Measurements of motions and interface loads during mating of deck structures and hull. and installation procedures. The effect on stability of internal free surface. This should be minimized wherever possible. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. In large water depths. c. However. d. t)= w = H1 = H2 = F1 = F2 = structural acceleration. The effect on dynamic stability will probably be minimal but should be examined. Free oscillation tests to determine the natural period and damping of the system in various modes of motion. the instrumentation itself might affect the responses.3 Modeling Parameters Typically. deck. this is not always the case. The effects of the responses of mechanical damping in the tendons might also be important. model or data acquisition system which might affect the Þnal results can be discovered and corrected. connections at the upper and lower ends of the tendons and the platform itself. imaginary part of force. Measurements of system responses under simulated damage conditions or in the partially installed state. Limitations on accuracy of the experimental results resulting from Þnite record lengths. may have signiÞcant inßuence on test results. wave reßections from side walls. imaginary part of system response. For example. Tests of the full system consisting of hull.. the inertial and drag forces acting on the tendons might be a signiÞcant component of the total force acting on the system. mass and immersed weight. Structural stiffnesses of any components which might affect the responses of the system. Current and wind are more difÞcult to model but can also provide useful information. the required instrumentation and data analysis procedures. radian frequency. etc. particularly when instrumentation is placed in series with the structural component to measure loads. This usually requires modeling both the axial stiffness and the length of the tendons. Improper scaling of Reynolds Number is inevitable since Froude scaling is almost always used. f.4. The restoring force characteristics of the tendon system. This will affect the viscous component of ßuid drag and the location of the boundary layer separation. Some relatively minor dimensional features such as the radius of corners on rectangular elements might signiÞcantly affect the results. real part of force. 7. 7. e. Towing tests to measure seakeeping characteristics of the platform during the transportation phase. b.2 The responses which can be tested commonly include motions. a test program should be developed in advance which deÞnes the test objectives. Þnite sample rates and numerical accuracy of the data analysis procedures. In other cases. In some cases. b.8. tension measuring devices attached to the model tendons might signiÞcantly reduce their effective axial stiffness causing erroneous results. b.8.4. This might cause signiÞcant discrepancies between the numerical and experimental results for very steep waves or in situations where viscous forces play an important role. Possible errors resulting from limitations on the accuracy of modeling physical parameters and dimensions. riser and tendon responses. Possible errors resulting from Þnite tank dimensions.3 In order to maximize the usefulness of the test information. d. It is desirable to have data analysis and display capabilities on line during the testing so that ßaws in the instrumentation. The mass properties of the platform including the center of gravity and the radii of gyration. tendons and risers in the drilling and operating conÞgurations in regular or irregular waves. it might be unnecessary to model the complete detail. The latter will affect the form drag and the nature of vortex shedding. 7. The principal physical characteristics of the tendons including the outer dimensions. 2000 . c. d.4. The effect of any such simpliÞcations to the model should be considered before the model construction. An example is the assumption of linearity of the responses with respect to wave height which is almost always made in the frequency domain analysis.4 Types of Tests 7. load vector.1 Types of tests which are commonly conducted and which might be useful include: a. e.

If wave impact on the underside of the lower deck is anticipated.2. explosion. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 39 f = A = ai = Sxx = Saa = wo = ei = P = s = t = M = R = Am = 1 F wv = Sa = S(w) = 2 F wv = D = FWD = A = CS = VWD = FDRAG = rw = CD = VC = phase of system response. second order slowly varying drift force.5 Interfaces with Other Systems The structural design of the deck and hull should consider critical interfaces with other systems. 8 Platform Structural Design 8. Design practices should minimize structural weight wherever possible. Þre. hull systems.2. Accidental events include collisions. such as tendon and riser anchor points. 8. 10.7 Deck Clearance The lower deck elevation should be established based on 7.2.2 and 8. input amplitude of energy. frequency independent added mass matrix. 11. dropped objects. time. response spectrum. 8. transportation. DESIGNING.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. The corrosion allowance should be based on the provisions of NACE Standard RP-01-76. and foundations. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Structural details in areas of high vibration should be designed to reduce the effect of resonance and local member fatigue. 8. Unprotected steel (plates with stiffeners and girders) in ballast and drillwater tanks should also be provided with a corrosion allowance. local strengthening of the deck structure is recommended. input energy spectrum.2. inspection. drilling and production equipment.2. projected area.10 Vibrations The effect of machinery vibrations should be included in the design.2 Damage Conditions The structural design should consider the possibility of accidental events (see 5. frequency dependent added mass coefÞcient. The inßuence of the structure on proper ventilation of hazardous areas. moonpool requirements.5).2. materials. standard deviation of response.2.2 GENERAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS 8. or ßooding. probability density function. and in place project phases.5. 2000 . retardation function. construction.8 Weight Engineering Because of their effect on the platform buoyancy and tendon tension requirements. dynamic wind force. mass density of water.3. instantaneous wind speed.7). 8.3 Redundancy The capability of the deck and hull to redistribute loads should be considered when selecting the structural conÞguration. phase angle of ith wave component.) 8. 8. drag coefÞcient. water particle velocity.9 Corrosion Allowances A corrosion allowance appropriate for the environment and design life of the platform should be provided on all members at the waterline. Þre protection and escape routes should be considered. installation and in place phases (see 5. drift force per wave amplitude squared.2. Discussions of fabrication.1 GENERAL This section addresses the structural design and analysis of the hull and deck.6 Safety The arrangement of the main structural deck elements should be coordinated with topside facilities equipment and operational requirements.2. viscous drag forces.1 Project Phases The hull and deck structures should be designed for loadings which occur during all project phases including construction. tendon and riser installation equipment.4 Reserve Strength The design of the structure should include details that provide reserve strength beyond the allowable design load. 8. Reinforcing of the structure may be needed to reduce the level of local stresses. all weights and centers of gravity should be accurately and continuously monitored throughout the design. 8. natural frequency. (See Section 12. wave spectral density. shape coefÞcient.2.) 8. wave spectral density at frequency w.3. Þrst order wave force. tendon cross load bearings.2. 8. access for Þre Þghting. and 12. monitoring and maintenance are also included. (See Sections 9.8. amplitude of ith wave component.

with the exception of earthquake loads. system condition. while others not listed may be required.5 Stability Analysis Formulas for the calculation of the buckling strength of structural elements are presented in API Recommended Practice 2A. or by published formulas. 8.2 for categories A and B.1 Structural analyses may be performed quasistatically when the structure does not respond dynamically. The loads applied to Þnite element models should come from the global space frame analysis and from local loads acting on the structure. 8.4.2 Modeling Analysis Methods 8.2. and environment with the appropriate safety criteria as described in 5. should be combined in a manner consistent with the probability of their simultaneous occurrence during the design case being considered.4 Stress Concentration Factors Stress concentration factors should be determined by detailed Þnite element analysis.3 DESIGN CASES 8. The effects of secondary members (if not included in the space frame model) should be accounted for in detailed local analysis. Columns and pontoons with complex stiffeners. may not be required for a speciÞc concept.4.2 Environmental loads acting on the platform should be calculated according to Section 7. The natural periods referred to in this section are those of the elastic vibration of the platform (hull and deck) and do not refer to the rigid body periods of the platform and tendon system. elastic space frame computer analysis is recommended. by physical models.4. loads from simultaneous drilling and production operations should be considered. Design Loading Conditions 8.5. the platform should be designed for the loading conditions that will produce the most severe effects on the structure. 2000 .3 Stress Analysis 8. and may use empirical formulas or basic engineering principles. API Bulletin 2U. Supplementary manual calculations for members subjected to local loads may be adequate in some cases. plus other elements needed to model speciÞc structural characteristics.4.1 For each design case. buckling and post-buckling analyses or model tests of speciÞc shell or plate structures may be performed to determine buckling and ultimate strength loads.4.2 Finite Element Models Finite element analysis is recommended for complex joints and other complicated substructures to determine local stress distributions more accurately and to verify the stiffness of the space frame model.2. The loads used for these calculations should come from the global space frame analysis and from local loads acting on the structure. B and C are deÞned in general in 5.3.2. The natural periods are expected to be small enough in com- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4. The designer should review the proposed concept to be sure that all appropriate design cases are considered. SpeciÞc recommendations for safety factors for platform design are given in Variations in consumables and the locations of movable equipment such as a drilling substructure should be considered in order to determine the maximum design stress in the platform members. These loads should be transferred to the structural model.2 For drilling and production platforms.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 8. 8. ßats. 8.1 General A design case is a combination of loads due to the project phase.3. The platform may be analyzed for the applied loadings using a variety of computational methods. 8. The effect of joint eccentricities and joint ßexibility should be accounted for in the model. Environmental loads. or bulkheads will require Þnite element analysis unless manual calculations are sufÞcient to accurately determine stress distributions. 8.5. 8. A linear.3 Manual Calculations Manual calculations may be performed where a detailed Þnite element analysis is not needed. 8. Some design cases given in 5. All primary structural elements should be modeled in the space frame analysis. As an alternative.4.1 for category C. Detailed Þnite element analyses may be necessary to more accurately determine the local stress distribution in complex structures. by other rational methods of analysis. Earthquake loads should be imposed on the platform as recommended in 5. and in 8.3.1 Space Frame Model A space frame model generally consists of beam elements. 8.2 Safety Criteria The safety criteria for categories A.4. and the effects of motion induced loads should be accounted for. as should the in-plane stiffness of the deck plating.4. Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells. 8.40 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 8. and API Bulletin 2V. Design of Flat Plate Structures.

4.4. DESIGNING.4 The fracture mechanics approach can be used to predict the growth rate of a fatigue crack and the crack length at which failure will occur.1 Fatigue can be caused by cyclic environmental loads and machinery vibrations. and may be condensed into discrete sea state blocks. Fatigue should be checked not only at joints. Structural details should follow good design practice as described in 8. Ni = number of cycles to failure at stress range i as given by the appropriate S-N curve.4. The wave climate is the aggregate of all sea states expected over the long term. such as doubler plate welds. dynamic structural analysis of the platform should be performed.3 Fatigue Analysis 8. This corresponds to safety criteria category C as deÞned in 5. but also at any details with high stress concentrations. respectively.3. 8. the ability to predict fatigue damage. The long-term stress distribution is used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio.3.4. DK = range of stress intensity factor occurring at the crack tip. 8.2.4. 8. D: D = å ----N i ni (40) Where: ni = number of cycles within stress range interval i. This assumption should be veriÞed for each speciÞc platform design.1.2. it is recommended that the design fatigue life of each structural element of the platform be at least three times the intended service life of the platform. If the Þrst natural period of the platform structure is greater than etc. thickness transitions. An inertial load set corresponding to platform motions should always be included. Stress ranges can be associated with the sea state description. a relationship can be established between the cyclic stress and the number of cycles to failure taking into account initial defect sizes and material toughness.2 and 7.5 Fatigue is a localized problem. structural and environmental conditions.2 Environmental loads applied to the platform are time varying and can be calculated using two different methods. The short-term stress response and number of wave cycles can be developed for each sea state. S-N approach. By integration and proper calculation for DK.4.4 Space frame analysis should be performed to obtain stresses for each wave frequency applied to the structure. 8.4. repair ability. The fatigue strength of a particular model being analyzed can be calculated using the Paris law expression: da -----.4. 8. Dynamic effects should be taken into account when it is believed that they make a signiÞcant contribution to the response of the structure. as described in 7.3. redundancy. Fracture mechanics approach. 8. The wave environment description can be established from recorded data and/or hindcasts.4.4.4. These material constants depend on material. b. 8.3.3.= C ( DK ) m dN (41) Where: da/dN = crack growth rate.4.4.0 seconds. Histories of cyclic stresses due to other types of loads should be calculated and included with the wave induced stresses for the fatigue analysis.5.4. use of an additional margin of safety should be considered. D should not exceed unity for the design fatigue life. 8. C and m are constants for a particular material and loading condition.2 Fatigue Loading 8. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 41 parison with periods with signiÞcant wave energy that structural dynamics need not be considered.1 Fatigue Life Requirement The allowable fatigue life is a function of inspectability. therefore detailed structural models of complex joints and other complicated structures may be needed to develop local stress distributions. including the heading of the sea state. frequency domain or time domain.4.2 Two different approaches have been developed for determining fatigue damage: a. based on the results of experiments.1 Fatigue life estimates are made by comparing the long-term cyclic loading in a structural detail with the resistance of that detail to fatigue damage. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4.3 The S-N approach uses an S-N curve which gives the number of cycles to failure for a speciÞc structural detail or material as a function of constant stress range. 2000 . Each sea state block may be characterized by a spectral description.4.4. 8. In general. thus giving the fatigue life.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. The wave climate should be derived on the best available basis.4 Fatigue Analysis 8. 8.2 The main cause of platform fatigue is cyclic wave loading.4. For critical elements whose failure could be catastrophic and for elements not easily accessible for inspection or repair.4. and the consequences of failure of a structural element.5.

other accepted codes of practice can be used as a design basis. the allowable stresses are classiÞed in terms of limit states. Two basic limit states are considered: ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.5 Any fatigue analysis should account for material properties in sea water and cathodic protection effects. the lower of the two allowable stress values should be used. In API Bulletin 2U.3. 8.5. Where alternative codes are followed. the layout of its members.5.2 Allowable Stresses 8. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1. 8. etc. 8. maximum allowable initial ßaw size (for in place inspection). Fracture mechanics analysis can be used to determine required material toughness. AISC and API Bulletins 2U and 2V. allowable stress values are expressed in terms of critical buckling stresses.2 The structural components of the deck and hull should be designed in accordance with the applicable provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A. and inspection intervals. the allowable stress is obtained by dividing the limit state stress by an appropriate factor of safety.2 at the proportional limit to y is recommended for all buckling modes for safety criteria A.1 The design of the deck structure should conform to the provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A. but the structure is still capable of carrying additional loads before reaching an ultimate limit state. For extreme design conditions associated with safety criteria B.5 The loss of equilibrium of a part or the whole structure must be avoided by careful selection of the overall structureÕs conÞguration.5.3 and API Recommended Practice 2A for a more detailed discussion of fatigue analysis techniques. Refer to A. The parameter y varies with the buckling stress and is deÞned in API Bulletin 2U. Design judgment must be used to ensure that the possibility of this type of failure is excluded. local buckling. For structural elements designed in accordance with API Recommended Practice 2A or AISC.Comm. if reached. In the case of serviceability limit states associated with deformation. the degree of redundancy. are associated with the adequacy of the design to meet its functional requirements.0 when the buckling stress is equal to the yield stress. 8.1.2 For shell structures designed in accordance with API Bulletin 2U.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 8.5 If both limit states are checked.. leads to structural failure. ßat plate elements in accordance with API Bulletin 2V. While an ultimate limit state.5. the safety factors recommended in API Recommended Practice 2A and AISC should be used for normal design conditions associated with safety criteria A.25 2. For each limit state.3 In cases where the structureÕs conÞguration or loading condition are not speciÞcally addressed in API Recommended Practice 2A.2 for elastic buckling stresses below the proportional limit and reduces linearly for inelastic buckling from 1.5.4. the allowable deformation is obtained by dividing the limit state deformation by the applicable factor of safety given in the table above. For safety criteria B. Factors of safety for different service conditions and limit states are as follows: Factor of Safety Serviceability Ultimate Limit State Limit State Safety Criteria A B 1. 8.67 1.3.3 Design of Deck Structure 8.0 1. 8. the allowable stresses may be increased by one-third.8.5. AISC and API Bulletins 2U and 2V. such as material yield. reaching the serviceability limit state implies that the structureÕs ability to serve its intended purpose has been impaired. 2000 . Ultimate limit states are associated with the failure of the structure. In API Bulletin 2V.4 In API Recommended Practice 2A and AISC. 8. the designer must ensure that the safety levels and design philosophy implied in API Recommended Practice 2T are adequately met. the availability of alternate load paths.5. excessive deformations. the allowable stress depends on the limit state under consideration (ultimate or serviceability).5. Serviceability limit states.4.42 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T This method can also be used to help establish inspection intervals by predicting the time necessary for a crack to grow from an undetectable size to failure.1 The design basis adopted in this document is the working stress design method. It is equal to 1. allowable stress values are expressed in most cases as a fraction of the yield stress or the buckling stress.25 y. AISC and API Bulletin 2V. a factor of safety equal to 1. 8.5.1 Design Basis 8.2.5. 8. the corresponding factor of safety is equal to 1. and the adequate design of foundation and support conditions. 8.3 For ßat plate structures designed in accordance with API Bulletin 2V.5. cylindrical shell elements should be designed in accordance with API Bulletin 2U. and all other structural elements in accordance with API Recommended Practice 2A or AISC as applicable. whereby stresses in all components of the structure are not allowed to exceed speciÞed values.2.1. In general.

2 Stiffened tubular joints should be designed according to 8.2 Details and penetrations in main structural members should be checked for compliance with the applicable provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A and AISC should be used. b. a Þnite element analysis should be performed and may be complemented by model testing.4 Design of Hull Structure 8. Measures to obtain adequate ductility are: Joint designs should be checked by using a Þnite element analysis to determine the load path through the joint. Primary stresses in the joint shell and internal stiffening may be compared to the limit state strength formulas for curved and ßat structural elements. and deep plate girders should comply with the provisions in API Bulletin 2V.2.5. 8.5 Alternate rational methods may be used where necessary. 8. 8. such as collisions.2.3 Transition Joints and Stiffened Plate Intersections The same general principles described in 8.5. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 43 8. These references provide some history of service performance of structural details used on oceangoing ships.1.5.3 The design of stiffened and unstiffened tubular braces against local buckling should comply with the provisions of API Bulletin 2U.5. 8. 8.3 Guidance for sizing beam brackets and spacing of panel stiffeners can be found in the rules of the major classiÞcation societies. 8. 8.5. DESIGNING. The design of structural details is important for producing a complete structure that will be free of local cracks.1.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.1 General Structural design should consider the possibility of accidental events.2 Design Philosophy Satisfactory protection against accidental damage can be obtained by a combination of two means: a.6. 8. 8.2 The design of circular cylindrical columns and pontoons should comply with the provisions in API Bulletin 2U.4. Low damage probability. grillages. 8.5. Model tests COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.5.5.3 API Recommended Practice 2A and AISC should be used for the design of truss elements.4 The design of stiffened ßat plate hull components should comply with the provisions in API Bulletin 2V. rolled beams.5 Design of Nodes and Connections 8. 8.2 Pontoon to Column and Deck to Column Joints may be useful to determine the stress distribution in complex joint geometries. and 11 should be consulted by the designer. 2000 . The details incorporated in the Þnal construction drawings should be reviewed by the platform designer to ensure that the design has not been compromised.5. or ßooding.3 Energy Absorption Capability The structure should behave in a ductile manner to absorb energy caused by impact loads.5. explosion.5.5. Þre. 8. AISC and API Bulletins 2U and 2V.4 Alternate rational methods may be used where necessary.4. For other design considerations. unstiffened tubular joints should comply with the provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A.5.7.7 Design for Accidental Loads 8.5.5. 8. buckles. dropped objects.5. Whenever the complexity of the geometry justiÞes. The term Òaccidental eventÓ is a collective term for exceptional conditions. 8.1 The design of small. and severe localized corrosion during the life of the platform.6 Design of Structural Details 8.1 The design of the hull structure components should comply with the applicable provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A. shallow plate girders and built up members such as open box type beams.2 The design of stiffened ßat panels.4. 10. Tensile limit states should be checked to guard against fracture of node material or welds. 8. Acceptable damage consequences.4 Sections 9.2 apply in the case of transition joints and stiffened plate intersections.5.5.5. Joints should be designed to provide a continuous transfer of loads from the pontoons and decks through the columns.6.5.1 Tubular Joints 8. 8. Cast insert pieces may be used to reduce stress concentrations at these joints. 8.5.

7. SpeciÞc designs may provide individual pieces of equipment for each function or combine two or more functions into one unit. steel has been the material of preference for tendons.2 In the case of tubular tendons. as a minimum.5.1. all tendons will have. The residual strength of a damaged member may be included provided its magnitude can be assessed by rational analysis or tests. React side loads and control the bending stresses of a tensioned tendon.1 An individual tendon is composed of three major parts: an interface at the platform. and operational considerations which should be taken into account during the design of the tendons. stranded construction such as parallel or helical wire rope. Determination of tendon bending loads induced by platform motions and by direct hydrodynamic forces is addressed in this section. If such residual member strength is not proven. damaged members should not be considered effective.5 Damage Tolerance A damaged platform should resist functional and reduced extreme environmental loads (see 5.3 and in API Bulletin 2U. intermediate connections or couplings 9 Tendon System Design 9. Each part may contain several components.2.7.1. 8. Use materials which are ductile in the operating temperature range. an interface at the seaßoor.1.5.4 Collisions and Dropped Objects 8. with each component taking a variety of forms depending on the speciÞc design. Avoid dependence on energy absorption in slender struts with a limited degree of postbuckling reserve strength. solid rods or bar shapes. Make the strength of connections greater than the strength of the members.1.1. 9.7.2. terminations top and bottom and in most cases. 9. design considerations relating to the interaction with other structural systems are also referenced as appropriate. the term ÒtendonsÓ includes all components associated with the vertical mooring system between (and including) the top connection to the platform and the bottom connection to the foundation. 3. and a link between the two (see Figure 12). b. React side loads and control the bending stresses of a tensioned tendon. e.1 The purpose of this section is to discuss major parameters such as loading conditions.2. such as aramid or graphite Þbers in a composite matrix.3 To date. there is interaction among the tendons. and the foundation.1. Provide redundancy in the structure. or any other conÞguration that meets the tendon service requirements.1.1 The direct loads and consequential damage due to collisions and dropped objects should not cause complete structural collapse or loss of platform stability. Nonmetallic materials and composites. 9.1.4. design case 8). however. d. Avoid pronounced weak sections and abrupt changes in strength or stiffness.5. the bore may be considered for use in routing umbilicals between the seaßoor and surface. and may be considered as a tendon material.2 It may not be possible to design the platform to survive a collision with a very large object such as a tanker or an iceberg. This implies that the platform should maintain its structural integrity and be stable with no immediate need for conducting repairs. all of which the designer must take into account in selecting the tendon system. As used here.1 GENERAL 9.1. 8. the platform. Any change in these tolerances as a consequence of speciÞc fabrication methods should be considered in the design.5.3 Determination of tendon tensile loads induced by platform motions is addressed in Section 7 with references and further description in this section.1. Apply and adjust a prescribed level of tension to the top of a tendon.4. 8. The functions of the three major parts are described below: a.44 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T a. 2000 .1.2. Link between platform and subsea interfaceÑThe main body of a tendon may take a variety of forms including tubulars. or as a ßuid ßow conduit. recommended practice addresses those design considerations which apply speciÞcally to tendons.6 FABRICATION TOLERANCES Guidance on fabrication tolerances is given in 13. c. so that alternate load redistribution paths may be developed. 9. design criteria.1. have been proposed.1. Platform interfaceÑComponents at the platform interface must perform the following three functions: 1.2 Description of Tendon 9. 9. Provide a structural connection between the tendon and foundation.1 Tendon Components 9. This section of the COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 9.2 Because the tendons link the platform to the ocean ßoor. Connect a tensioned tendon to the platform.1. c. b. 2. 2.2.1 Purpose and Scope 9.2.5. Seaßoor interfaceÑComponents at the seaßoor interface must perform the following functions: 1.7.4 Regardless of material or conÞguration. analysis methods.

2000 .RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 45 Top connector and/or tensioner Tendon access tubes (TYP) Leg (includes all tendons at a corner) Hull column Top flex element Tendon (TYP) Tendon element (TYP) Well production risers Coupling (TYP) Foundation template Bottom flex element Bottom connector Figure 12—Typical Tendon Components COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. DESIGNING.

Provisions for the tendons to be used as guidance structures for running other tendons. tendon in-place inspectability. or combinations of any of these.2 should not be exceeded when one tendon is missing in an appropriate environmental condition. 9.2. Response analysisÑDevelop vessel motions and maximum and minimum tendon loads.1. installation. fatigue life. g. etc.2 The tendon cross-sectional area may be set by fatigue life. weldability.2 In general.2.1 See Section 14.9. and hydrostatic collapse. typically. tattletales.. or similar conduits. or any other type of structural connection meeting the service requirements. 9. or equipment packages to be used in support of other operations. Corrosion protection system components.1 Tendon Removal Tendons may be designed to be permanent or to be removable for maintenance and/or inspection.2. 9.2 Specialized Components The tendon design might incorporate specialized components. f.3. If tendons can be removed for maintenance and/or inspection. so as to facilitate achievement of other important properties such as toughness.3.2. g. f. This condition should be selected taking into account the expected frequency of tendon removal and the length of time for which one tendon is likely to be out of service. Elastomeric elements. b. Minimum tensionÑEstablish minimum allowable tendon tension. This ßow chart is shown only as an example and will be referred to for purposes of this discussion.g.6.4 Design Procedure 9. 14. Operational limits checkÑCheck for acceptable vessel offsets and tendon motions and displacements. material. or other forms of instrumentation intended to provide information about the performance or condition of the tendons.4. 9.4. for tendon service requirements.3. consistent with maximum stress prediction. i. These steps are shown in the form of a ßow chart in Figure 13. If the fatigue or stiffness requirement dominates. c. the nominal tendon life might match the design life of the platform. possibly with certain components located in the splash zone. e. Sensors. fracture mechanics and inspection/ COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. minimum tension. 9. and speciÞcally. inspection. 9.3. The initial tendon cost. b.2. umbilicals. elements of an impressed current system. stress. that could extend or shorten the tendon design service life criteria. and fatigue requirements. Tendon connections may take the form of mechanical couplings (threads. Devices intended to suppress vortex induced vibrations and/or reduce hydrodynamic drag.4. the cost of tendon replacement. the sequence of major activities in the design process is as follows: a. Buoyancy devices such as air cans or foam modules to offset a portion of the tendonÕs submerged weight. Auxiliary lines.3 Maximum wall thickness of the tendon or tendon couplings might be limited by the material properties achievable in thick sections and by the fabrication process envisioned (e. Preliminary stress analysisÑCheck preliminary maximum stress level.3 Material Considerations 9.4 Material fatigue performance should be considered. Tendon horizontal responseÑCalculate tendon bending loads and horizontal motions.3.2.2 Service Life The tendon system should have a speciÞed service life.6.46 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T along their length.1 This section discusses some of the major steps in the design procedure necessary to develop a tendon system which satisÞes operational. Final design checkÑCheck maximum stress. 9. bolted ßange. clamps. Fatigue lifeÑCalculate fatigue life under combined axial and bending loading.2. welded joints. h. the allowable stresses recommended in 9.5). c.2. There might be cost or risk incentives.2.2 GENERAL DESIGN 9. d. welded or unwelded construction).2. Selection of toughness and defect size should be made in conjunction with the choices of tendon cross-sectional area and tendon inspection/ replacement strategy (see 9.3. and the risks associated with tendon retrieval and reinstallation are among the factors that may affect the tendon design service life. sacriÞcial anodes. which may include coatings. etc. 9. axial stiffness or maximum allowable stress requirement. such as the following: a. Relatively high mean tensile stress with a high number of cycles at relatively low stress ranges will typically dominate the load history over its lifetime. Tendons will be subjected to long-term exposure to seawater.2. 2000 . Preliminary tendon designÑEstimate pretension and other input required for platform sizing. e. as described in 14.5 Tendon material fracture toughness and maximum initial defect size should be established using fracture mechanics methods to reßect the effects of mean and alternating stresses.2. or for some function not related to the tendons. the material yield strength should be speciÞed low. however. 9. Platform sizingÑDetermine overall TLP conÞguration. d. 9. fatigue life.).

DESIGNING. detectable crack size Combination of stresses Tendon bending stress responses Increase yield strength Fracture mechanics analysis Lifetime stresses Max. Platform response analysis* Tendon axial stress responses Tendon top lateral motions Tendon maximum and minimum tensions Minimum allowable tension analysis Tendon bending response analysis* Min. allowable tension OK Not OK Fatigue analysis S–N Curves Increase area Required fatigue life OK Inspection interval Not OK Check hydrostatic Not OK collapse. max. etc. angles. toughness. yield strength pretension. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 47 Set Tendon Properties Area. etc. allowable Not OK tension OK Increase pretension da/dn Data. material. Prototype testing Figure 13—Tendon Design Flow Chart COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Increase area and/or decrease diameter *May be combined as a coupled analysis. 2000 . OK Tendon dimensions. D/t. etc.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. stress concentration factor.

Gravity when platform is offset (catenary effect). e. and possibly to marine fouling. For a more complete discussion of environmental data requirements (see 5. and Foundation Characteristics 9. If separate foundations are used. c) during installation.4). ßoating ice. 9.2. be advisable to develop the tendon installation design. k. the tendon load is affected by the placement accuracy of the foundation system. The number of tendons per corner might be determined in part by this available space.2.2.2. Large spacing may cause differences in loading among tendons at a corner due to pitch/roll platform motions. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. These tensions inßuence platform displacement and offset. salinity. Tendon.3. in turn. torque. Dynamic response to platform motions. 9. b) for less than a full complement of tendons. and tide.5. and vice versa. It may. 9. 9.2.5 The foundation system design is also affected by the number of tendons. Current proÞles. waves.6 The size of the platformÕs columns determines the space available for handling and installing tendons. bending.5.2.48 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T replacement strategy.5.6 (Minimum Tension). therefore. and vortex induced vibrations. 9. Flexure limitsÑThe ßex element must accommodate the maximum tendon angles at top and bottom due to platform surge. 9.1.5. b. These periods must be kept low enough to limit fatigue damage due to wave excitation. and platform snow or ice accumulation. radial and hoop loads.5 (Maximum Tension) and 7.4 The ßow chart. Wind and wave spectra and directionality data are valuable for assessing tendon fatigue.3 The procedures. Depending on the type of tendon and tendon top attachment. including some tendon analysis.2.3 Operating Limits and Other Design Considerations The limits imposed on or by the tendon design may include: a. Unusual loading during installation.3 Tendon cross-sectional area establishes tendon axial stiffness which is a major factor in the platform natural periods of heave. InterferenceÑInterference between tendons and platform or foundation template structure or the maximum distance of the upper ßex element above the bottom of the tendon access tube and the lower one inside the foundation is governed by the tendon tube diameter and ßex element angle. This step will generally follow selection of Þnal platform and tendon design parameters.4.5.1 The properties of the tendons affect the platform displacement and response.4 The diameter-to-thickness ratio for air-Þlled tendons is also important because it establishes the tendon weight in water which. Model test (optional)ÑVerify tendon motions and loads.5. Figure 13.3 DESIGN LOADING CONDITIONS 9.1 Load Types 9.2. 9. j. 2000 . pitch and roll vibration.3. in parallel with the platform/tendon design procedure. Tendon loads and maximum angles also inßuence the design of the foundation. Axial loads may be determined by superposition of the load components described in 7. g. the installation requirements could inßuence the platform and tendon design.2 Platform. Bending induced by ßex element stiffness.5.2. d.2.2.5. special equipment and tolerable environmental conditions for tendon installation must be developed.5. b. Tendon pretension has a direct effect on platform displacement and tendon maximum tension. 9.1 Tendon loads include axial. hydrostatic collapse. f.2. c.5 Design Data Requirements 9. Hydrodynamic drag and inertial forces. their pattern and their loading.2. 9. The extreme environmental conditions as well as other return period conditions might be pertinent a) for damage conditions. The column structural arrangement should accommodate the localized tendon loads and the possible presence of tendon access tubes. and oxygen content can be used to establish cathodic protection requirements. c. establishes the difference between the top and bottom tensions in the tendons.1 Environmental Data The tendon loads depend on platform response to wind. or d) for other speciÞed operational events. seismic activity. Tendon centerline spacingÑMinimum spacing is set by equipment space requirements.2. Manufacturing alignment errors.4.2. Bending and shear loads may arise from: a.2. 9.2 Tendon pretension (tension in still water) is established to satisfy the maximum platform offset limit and to control minimum tendon tension. by possible interference among tendons during deployment. and by column fabrication space requirements. illustrates the iterative interaction between the platform sizing and response analysis (Section 7) and the tendon design analysis. 9. Coupled analysis checkÑDetermine whether a coupled response analysis is necessary. shear. current. Vortex induced vibrations. Water temperature. and weather persistence data help establish the design of equipment and the techniques needed for tendon installation and retrieval. seastate probabilities.

3..3. Maximum tension.2.2.3 Normal Conditions 9. 9. and current conditions which will commonly occur. b. e. If tension loss is permitted. c. The designer should consider appropri- Selection of environmental conditions and a TLP conÞguration for each load case should account for the likelihood of joint events occurring which could lead to an extreme load occurrence. Installation. load cases associated with the following: a.3 The consequence of minimum tension should be considered. c.3. f.1 Loads during tendon installation can result from any of the environmental conditions discussed. the designer should consider the frequency of planned tendon replacement (if any).3. Damaged platform compartmentsÑA ßooded platform compartment could lead to a reduction in tendon tension and the possibility of loss of tension in the tendon under certain conditions. 9. b. thus these loads should be considered. as a minimum. tendon leaking.2.1 General 9.2.2 Hoop loads result from a difference in hydrostatic pressure on the outside and inside. Loss of tendon tension could result in tendon buckling and/or damage to ßex elements.1. Adequate pretension should be provided to insure that the tendon load does not drop below levels which could cause excessive tendon stress or damage tendon components under the worst environmental conditions expected with one or more ßooded compartments as speciÞed in 5.2. NDT). 9. DeÞnition of these load cases should consider the following factors: a.2.3 While tendon design is characteristically dominated by axial tension loads.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Lifetime fatigue conditions.2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2.2.4 Installation 9. Missing tendonsÑThe absence of a tendon can increase the static load shared by the remaining tendons as well as the dynamic loads resulting from platform response to environmental conditions. Largest ßex element angle.3.5 Damage Over the structure life. The combined effect of primary and secondary wave effects. springing and ringing). from damaged bottom connector or failure of foundation).1. spectral sea state criteria for installation should be based on site speciÞc spectral measurements or hindcast estimates.2 Extreme Events 9.1. and maximum angles in 7. the other load types should be evaluated as appropriate to ensure adequate design margins.2 Maximum and minimum tension are discussed in 7.g. 9. tendons may be designed to be removable and replaceable. wave. 9.2 As in the case of operational loads. Tendon dynamics prior to and during latch-up should be considered to minimize the risk of tendon damage due to free hanging phenomena or due to resonance response with part of the tendons installed. DESIGNING. Minimum tension..2.2 For any selected survival load case. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 49 9.2. Damage to the platform such as a ßooded compartment could also affect tendon loads and responses to dynamic forces. 2000 . Maximum loading on speciÞc components. including high frequency axial responses (e.3. speciÞcation of the design wave should include a spectral representation or a range of wave heights and frequencies.3. plus vortex shedding should be evaluated. These considerations should determine the appropriate operational environments applicable for a missing tendon case.3.3.3. Life time operating loads are particularly important in the evaluation of tendon fatigue life and inspection interval. and 7.2 Cyclic loads in the tendon can lead to fatigue crack initiation and growth. and large diameter tendon design could be dominated by bending.2 Loading Conditions 9.) See 7. 1986. Hydrostatic collapse.1 Tendon structural analysis should consider. Derivation of life cycle tendon loads should be based on long-term climatic and oceanographic data which includes data on the joint occurrence of waves and factors which result in static platform offset (wind and current). Damaged tendonÑStructural damage to a tendon may be detected either by in-service inspection (e.2. Buoyant tendon designs in deep water could be controlled by hydrostatic collapse.4. tendons might become damaged..4. g. Hence.3. following discovery of serious damage). The design should not be based exclusively on a single Òmost probable maximumÓ wave height and an associated period since this single wave representation might not correspond to the maximum loading condition. In determining tendon loads under this condition.3.2.3. or loss of load carrying capability (e.7. 9.3.6 respectively.1 Lifetime operating load conditions for the tendons should consider a range of combinations of wind. (See Brekke and Gardner. d.6 for a more complete discussion of minimum tendon loads. The operator may elect to leave such a tendon in place for a period of time prior to replacement. 9. 9.2.2.g. Torque may be induced by platform yaw motion. tendon dynamic analysis should be conducted to evaluate its effect.3.2.g. and the likelihood for unplanned tendon removal (for example.

Compute steady loads and offsets due to environmental forces (see 7. Perform a tendon lateral (bending) analysis using a riser type program as discussed in API Recommended Practice 2Q. ground motion time histories should also include energy contributions in this frequency range (typically up to 12 second periods).3.4.2. If the time history method is used. These loads may be determined from the equilibrium conditions of the platform. 9. particularly for loads due to platform pitch or heave.3. This spring constant may be a function of the steady offset and drawdown. If the response spectrum method is used. calculated in e should be imposed on the tendon top.1. Platform response analysis should include both primary wave effects (loads at the primary wave frequency) and secondary wave effects (loads at harmonic or subharmonic frequencies to primary wave frequencies. and the design spectra should include the vertical and two orthogonal horizontal components of ground acceleration.1. A check of linear analysis results using non-linear methods may be necessary and a suitably scaled model test may be used to conÞrm analytical results. 9. and risers as discussed in 7. Also. 9. For discussions of non-linear and coupled analyses.3.2).2 Tendon dynamic analysis may be coupled nonlinear.6.4.4. tendons.50 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T ate load cases with a damaged tendon in place to determine the effects of such conditions as reduced pretension on a damaged tendon.2 Dynamic tendon loads arise from platform and seismic motions. Compute equilibrium (zero offset) conditions based on water level and tendon pretension (see 7. Compute a linearized spring constant for the riser and tendon reactions acting on the platform. since damping may not be accurately modeled.2 Either the response spectrum method using response spectra presented in API Recommended Practice 2A or the time history method may be used. 1983. platform offset due to steady environmental forces and foundation installation position errors. 9.2. Also.1. or at sum/difference frequencies in response to spectral wave input). suitable adjustments should be made to the response spectra to account for the best estimate of damping.4.2. then the procedure is non-linear as well as coupled.2.2.1 Dynamic axial and bending tendon loads arise primarily from platform motions. although each has its advantages and disadvantages as discussed below.6 Seismic 9. The platform horizontal motions at the tendon attachments.1 Tendon loads consist of both static and dynamic components.2.4. wind gusts and direct hydrodynamic forces. General Considerations 9. 1983. Static loads arise from tendon pretension. 9.2. 9. Linearized dynamic analysis does not include some of the secondary wave effects and it may not model accurately extreme wave responses. In coupled analysis. the transverse (bending) response of the tendons is calculated simultaneously with the platform response. If dynamic tendon tension is also allowed in the tendon bending response analysis. e. c.4.2. or complete or partial ßooding of an air-Þlled tendon. No mass should be added for accelerations in the horizontal directions. to unsteady environmental forces (see 7. This approach requires modeling the hydrodynamic drag as a lin- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2. Calculation of these loads and forces is described in the following paragraphs. Tendon bending response analysis can be performed separately using the results of uncoupled platform analysis. Care should be exercised in interpreting model test results for resonant responses.4.2 Frequency Domain Analysis 9.5 This approach can be carried out using either time domain or frequency domain (linear only) techniques. rotational stiffness of the ßexible termination joints should be included in the analysis model.1 Seismic loads on the tendons should be based on site speciÞc geotechnical conditions. 9. Denise. The tendon tension may be constant (linear analysis) or vary according to the results of e.6. see de Boom.6. 1979. Dynamic horizontal forces interact between the tendons and platform at the points of attachment.1.3).2 Dynamic Analysis Considerations 9. 2000 .1 Frequency domain solutions for tendon response can be obtained by numerical solution of the linearized Þnite element or Þnite difference equations for the tendons. tide. General 9. 9. is uncoupled. Dynamic analysis of TLP tendon loads should take into consideration the possibility of platform pitch/roll resonant excitation due to primary and secondary effects.2. b.3 Platform response analysis with tendons modeled as springs having no transverse inertia. and Halkyard.1.1.5 and 7.7) f.4.4 One approach for uncoupled dynamic analysis is as follows: a.4 LOAD ANALYSIS METHODS 9. Apply an equivalent vertical mass (typically one-third of the total tendon mass) to the platform tendon attachment points to account for tendon mass. the response spectra should be extended to cover periods corresponding to lateral (bending) mode vibrations of the tendon in the surge and sway directions. coupled linear or uncoupled. d. 9.1. if the analysis is nonlinear.4. Compute platform response including tendon top tensions.

2) and seismic loads. Several riser type programs are available for this analysis. b. Two forcing mechanisms should be considered: a.2. 9. An example of these are the axial forces caused by platform heave and pitch/roll oscillations at resonance. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. it is best to combine the results for tension. displacement.3.2 Uncoupled time domain analysis of tendon loads requires as input the time history of top tendon loads and platform offsets. Non-linear wave forms should be investigated to examine the possibility of tendon responses at resonant frequencies other than the primary wave frequency. In considering these dynamic responses.2 Frequency domain analysis is well suited for fatigue and operational analysis.1 Time domain solutions offer the advantages of allowing the direct inclusion of non-linear effects and the determination of the phase relationship for combined loadings (tension. and tension and shear components. between these forces and primary wave height and frequency needs to be determined from the motion analysis as input to the tendon load analysis.3.2.4. This analysis can be made using either time history or response spectrum methods. Ideally.2.4.4 Instabilities and Resonances The tendon system may possess certain dynamic characteristics which should be given special consideration. motions. A simulated time history of platform motions and top tensions can be constructed from frequency domain platform motion solutions if appropriate phase relationships are maintained between the incident wave proÞle.1 Wave and Current Loads The in-line force acting on tendons can be described by the modiÞed MorisonÕs equation (see 6. 9. 9. tendons.4. Other effects which should be considered include vortex induced vibrations (see 6. The solution will be in the form of a transfer function relating tendon response (bending.4.4.3. 9. 9.4.g. tension or angle). Natural periods typically will be in the range of 2 to 5 seconds.4. the phase relationships for the combined load cases are not taken into account. since the transfer functions may be applied directly together with sea spectra to arrive at exceedance statistics for tendon loads and stresses.3 The linearizations required for frequency domain analysis might lead to inaccurate results for extreme loads. and foundations.1 Axial Vibrations Natural heave and pitch/roll frequencies may be determined from the above analyses or from simple harmonic oscillator theory.3. Riser type analyses such as those discussed above and in API Recommended Practice 2Q should include a sufÞcient number of nodes and time step intervals (for time domain analysis) to include modes with natural frequencies in the range of primary waves. 9. etc. and shear) under a maximum design condition.4. DESIGNING.4. Otherwise. 9.4. Therefore a linear relationship.3.2.2 Transverse Vibrations Transverse vibrational modes for the tendons can have natural periods in the range of primary wave periods.2. 9.2.. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 51 ear damping term and assumes small excursions from the mean position. hence a time domain platform motion is required. and shear loads to arrive at a response amplitude operator for total combined stress prior to application of spectral techniques. the design should include an approximate damping model accounting for both mechanical and hydrodynamic effects.3 To determine the extreme values for key parameters (e. High frequency primary wave platform heave and pitch/ roll response.) as a function of frequency. 9.3). Non-linear heave and pitch/roll motions at two and three times the primary wave frequency. including phase relationships. a random time series representing the wave form in the design storm should be used to develop a histogram of peak loads.2. 9.2 Vortex-Induced Loads Vortex-induced vibrations are described in 6. The forcing function will be from platform motions and direct hydrodynamic forces. 2000 . time domain analysis should be carried out and compared. In order to do this.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. In this case.4.2. A sufÞcient number of complete cycles should be computed in order to obtain a distribution of peaks.4.4 Seismic Loads Analysis Seismic response can be estimated using a dynamic analysis method which includes the coupled responses of the platform.4.3. resonant ampliÞcation can lead to signiÞcant tendon tension oscillations at the natural period of heave or pitch. bending.3 Time Domain Analysis 9.3.3 Hydrodynamic Loads 9. cases should be run for several wave frequencies at amplitudes consistent with expected maximum wave heights. While these periods are lower than the predominant wave energy. bending.3.

9. using the method of inspection to be employed. 9. Components having been proven by prior service or qualiÞcation may not require additional testing. Normal design qualiÞcation tests may be performed in conjunction with this testing. the stress distribution will usually vary within the cross section.5.5. the life to which the tendon parts (critical failure).1.2 The testing should serve to verify the pattern of strain in regions surrounding the critical points and to ensure that no areas of stress concentration were overlooked in the analysis. The residual life should be a multiple of the inspection interval. shape and stress gradients.1 Periodic inspection of the tendons for fatigue cracks is desirable.6. The linear stress distribution at a cross section represents the combination of two categories of stress: net section stress and local bending stress. In some components.1.5.52 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 9. environments.). In the design of tendon components.. then the initial ßaw size would be the tendon wall thickness.4. such as tubulars. In coupled analysis. assumed COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. and added mass properties are chosen appropriately. this information can be obtained by simple calculations. For example.4. top and bottom connections. the area of maximum stress being that of interest.5.2. 9.5. particular care must be taken in calculating the bending stress.4 Inspection Interval Selection 9. A nominal inspection interval should be established by a fatigue analysis based on MinerÕs cumulative damage theory and appropriate crack growth data as described in 9. Care should be taken to ensure that the S-N curve or crack growth parameters are derived under conditions representing actual materials. hydrodynamic drag.5.6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA 9. 9. or portions of cylindrical cross sections. section thickness.1 General Considerations The design of components for the TLP tendon system requires a detailed knowledge of the stresses in each component.4. consideration should be given to the fatigue damage that will result from cyclic stresses. 9. the initial ßaw size should be taken as.1 Design for Maximum Loading 9.5 Representation of Multiple Tendons Multiple tendons at each leg may be modeled as a single tendon provided the cross section.e.2 The combined axial and bending stress history should be determined by dynamic analysis (see 9. S-N curve approach or fracture mechanics. 9.1 After completion of the design studies. 9. and to substantiate the analytical stress predictions. In this case. 9. mean stress.4 The critical cross sections within a component are generally cylindrical cross sections. 2000 . The testing has two primary objectives: to verify any assumptions made in the analysis. i. ßex elements.5 The component internal loads acting on such a cross section are illustrated in Figure 14 for a hypothetical coupling design with an axisymmetric cross section.4. cyclic stress range and fre- quency. level of cathodic protection. Local peak stresses are not considered for maximum loading.2 The allowable limits for maximum loading relate to the linear stress distribution at each of the critical cross sections within a component.2) and may consider variations around the tendon circumference. An example of this method is given in Halkyard (1986). while local bending stress results from local bending moments created by an eccentric load path. However.3.5 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS METHODS 9. Net section stress at a cross section results from axial load.3. Recommendations for ÒDetermination of Stresses by AnalysisÓ can be found in API Recommended Practice 2R. This can be accomplished by strain gauge testing or photoelastic methods. the determination of stress distributions should be obtained from appropriate Þnite element analysis. The axial and ßexural stiffness of elastomeric ßex elements in the tendon system should also be modeled.3 Fatigue Analysis 9. however.9. mass.1.5. The inspection interval may be determined using the fracture mechanics approach described in A.5.1 The design of tendon system components for maximum loading requires that they support their design load while keeping the maximum stresses within the allowable limits in this section. but can be of primary concern for evaluating fatigue life as discussed in 9. the maximum ßaw size likely to be missed.3 The location of critical sections and the stress distribution at these cross sections are obtained from an appropriate analysis as described in 9.2.2 Stress Distribution Verification Tests 9. The fatigue life of the tendon is deÞned as the total life to tendon failure. 9. obtained by passing a plane perpendicular to the axis of the tendon.1. These limits are intended to prevent structural deformation that could lead to failure and ductile fracture with a factor of safety.6.3. pressure and general bending moments. it is recommended that the initial prototypes of the tendon components be tested to verify the stress analysis. for most components (couplings. A detailed fatigue analysis should be performed using a PalmgrenMiner. etc. if a leak before break criterion is used in tendon design. 9.

6.5 are as follows: a. For each of these stress categories. the same principles discussed are applicable..2 The allowable stresses for tendon components. Section VIII.2.1. are more important for fatigue life and fracture mechanics calculations as discussed in 9. Net section stress sp £ 0. where the total stress represents the combination of net section stress. . Local bending stress. 9. See ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.7 Fu.. dogs. the Von Mises equivalent stresses are calculated after formulation of the component stresses. For axial tension only. whichever is less. are as follows: a. The local bending stress is calculated as the linear bending stress distribution which results in the same bending moment on the cross section as that developed by the total stress distribution. .9 Fy or 0.). 9. safety criterion A in 5. sp £ 0.4 and Referring to the axisymmetric cross section shown in Figure 14.2 Allowable Stresses 9. The component internal loads shown result in the linear stress distribution used to evaluate the component for maximum loading. b. whichever is less.9 The net section stress and the local bending stress at a cross section have different degrees of signiÞcance.8 Although not all tendon system components have cylindrical cross sections. Therefore. the loads and stress distributions will be similar for noncylindrical cross sections (such as collets.1 The allowable stresses for tendon components.6. Total stress distribution Local peak stress Von Mises stress Section through tendon Section through coupling General bending moment Tensile load Local bending stress Net section stress Thickness Tensile load Equivalent linear distribution COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. b. 9.1. 9. the allowable limit for local bending stress being higher in accordance with the Limit Theory for combined bending and tension. DESIGNING.6.6 Fy or 0.6. whichever is less. whichever is less. segments. Division 2... for design load condition of tension only. both the net section stress and local bending stress vary around the circumference. ksi (MPa). Local bending stress ss £ 0. The net section stress is calculated as the constant stress distribution which results in the same multiaxial loads on the cross section as that developed by the total stress distribution.5 Fu. local bending does not vary around circumference.6. 9. as illustrated in Figure 15 for an axisymmetrical cross section. the net section stress (sp) at the cross section is seen to result from the combined axial tension and general bending moment. Local bending moment Net section load due to tension Net section load due to bending Net section load due to tension Net section load due to bending Local bending moment Note: Local bending moment varies around circumference when general bending moment is considered. safety criterion B in 5. local bending stress and peak stress categories.6 Fu.1.5. ss £ 1..RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. the net section tensile stress and local bending stress are constant around the circumference..6.2. The local peak stress and the resulting total stress.6.9 Fu. etc.. For combined axial tension and general bending. . Local bending moment Vertical plane through axisymmetric coupling C L A A Figure 14—Net Section and Local Bending Loads On a Cylindrical Section Figure 15—Stress Distribution Across Section A-A For Axisymmetric Cross Section . AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 53 here to simplify the illustration.7 The stress output provided by typical programs gives the distribution of total stress. For this reason they are given different allowable limits.. Net section stress.2 Fy or 0. while not used for static loading. 9. while the local bending stress (ss) is seen to result from an eccentric load path.6. Where: Fy = minimum yield strength. 2000 .6.8 Fy or 0...

8 INSTALLATION PROCEDURES Procedures for the installation of tendon systems are discussed in 13.4.8 s Yield *Net section stress (sp) *As derived from Von Mises Equivalent Stress Figure 16—Combined Net Section and Local Bending Stress Linear Interaction Curve COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Regardless of the reason for retrieval. 9.2 A lower design fatigue life factor may be used when a proven.6. 1984. In addition.9 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES 9. the equipment.6.2 s Yield Allowable stress *Local bending stress (ss) curve corresponding to a lower bound usually deÞned as the lower bound of a two-sided.1. 9.6. should the fatigue life be less than three times the design tendon service life.9. Both categories of stress should be expressed in the form of the Von Mises equivalent stress. reliable inspection/crack detection method (see 9.9.5 Inspection/Replacement Interval The inspection/replacement interval should not be more than one-Þfth (1/5) of the time necessary for a reliably detectable crack to grow to tendon failure. The effect of multiple tendon elements on ultimate strength reliability is discussed in Stahl and Geyer. 9. (2) in the event of damage or suspected damage.6. 9. scatter and approximations mentioned above (see Wirsching. 95-percent prediction interval.5) and expedient replacement (repair) plan are to be employed. however. 9.2 Tendon Retrieval and Replacement The need to retrieve a tendon could arise: (1) as part of a scheduled plan for inspection or replacement. 9.5 The allowable stresses given in this section apply to steel components but do not apply to chains or wire ropes. S-N curve data scatter. 9. 2000 . approximations in linear damage theory and the effect of many tendon components being connected in series. 9. 9.6. This factor includes allowances for uncertainties in lifetime load prediction.2 Provision should be made to monitor tendon top tension.2. This factor should be used in conjunction with the component S-N 1. 9. ksi (MPa). the inspection method could be leak-before-break or removal for dry inspection.9.3 In no event.9.3 Hydrostatic Collapse Hydrostatic collapse of the tendons should be prevented by using the appropriate analysis methods and safety factors from the latest edition of API Recommended Practice 2A.4 The net section stress and local bending stress are combined using linear interaction as shown in Figure A nominal tendon component fatigue life (crack initiation plus propagation) of 10 times the tendon design service life is recommended. Besides in-place NDT.7 FABRICATION Procedures for the fabrication of tendon components are discussed in 9.6.1 Load Monitoring 9. s Yield = Material yield stress 0.1 The tendon system should be suitably instrumented and monitored to aid in operations and to ensure that the system is performing within design limitations. 9.4. 9.7. it may be desirable to monitor platform mean offset position and tendon upper and/or lower ßex joint angles. The factor might also be reduced by reduction in the uncertainties.1.3 In addition to complying with the above allowable stresses. Fatigue Life 9.6. and procedures involved should be carefully preplanned and personnel trained to carry out the procedures.54 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Fu = minimum ultimate strength. or (3) in removing the TLP from site. the tendon static loading design should reßect the inßuence of the series and parallel nature of the tendon conÞguration. 9. Alternate analysis methods and allowable stresses reßecting chain and wire rope technology should be used for these types of tendon systems.6. 1986). operations.10 CORROSION PROTECTION Provisions for corrosion protection of tendons should be provided as discussed in 14.

2. 2000 . structural strength. and maintenance as related to the foundation are also included. transportation. 10. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 55 9.3 The use of a template structure requires consideration of several factors including: template conÞguration.1 The primary function of the foundation system is to anchor the tendons.1 Purpose and Scope This section addresses the analysis and design of TLP foundations.1.2. materials.1 Piled-Template Foundations Foundations comprised of piles and template structures (integrated or independent) are addressed.2. required positional and alignment tolerances.1. connections with the tendons and Figure 17—Components of an Integrated Template Foundation System COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1. through tendons directly attached to piles. Mudmat design and analysis is covered in the shallow foundation subsection.2 Description of Foundation Systems The term foundation system refers to the foundations used to anchor the tendon legs to the seaßoor. installation feasibility. through templates which distribute tendon forces to the soil via piles.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. mudmats or combinations of each.1 Foundation Requirements 10. DESIGNING. inspection.1. Figure 19 is an example of a shallow foundation system.2. For example. monitoring.1 GENERAL 10. A foundation system can consist of structures such as independent leg templates and well templates or an integrated single piece foundation supported or anchored by piles. installation. 10. 10. or through a gravity base. 10. 10. Figure 17 illustrates an integrated foundation and Figure 18 independent templates.2.1. Well templates are also addressed since the well template may be integrated with the leg templates.11 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Procedures for the inspection and maintenance of tendons are discussed in 13.1. 10. 10 Foundation Analysis and Design 10. gravity.2 Load transfer to the soil can be accomplished in a number of ways.2. Discussions of fabrication.2 Shallow Foundations Shallow foundations principally address gravity foundation systems but also include the piled template during installation prior to pile placement.2 Figure 18—Components of an Independent Template Foundation System Figure 19—Components of a Shallow Foundation System FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS AND SITE INVESTIGATIONS 10.1.7.

the use of in-situ testing techniques are recommended for deepwater sites. Consideration should also be given to the loss of foundation capacity due to scour or soil instability (e. The presence of boulders. c.1. mudslides and liquefaction). 6.g. 10. 3. and to ensure that the Þndings of the subsurface investigation are consistent with known geological conditions. the relief of hydrostatic pore pressure and its resulting effect on any dissolved gases can yield soil properties signiÞcantly different from in-situ conditions. 10. obstructions. Design. Because the quality of soil samples can be expected to decrease with increasing water depth. Geological surveyÑBackground geological data should be obtained to provide information of a regional character which may affect the analysis. The background geological data should be incorporated into the results of the geophysical survey to provide an overall geological evaluation of the area and to determine the existence of any geologic hazards. as a minimum and preferably in the order listed. Without special precautions.2 The measured properties of soil samples retrieved from deep waters may be different from in-situ values.5 The foundation system design should include provision for inspection and maintenance. The design soil parameters in various soil strata should be determined from a Þeld program that tests the soil in as nearly an undisturbed state as feasible. the availability and quality of data from prior site surveys. potential creep due to sustained axial tension loadings.2. 10.1. tendon/riser installation sequences. In addition. and in the case of pile supported foundations. Piled TLP foundations are subjected to constant and cyclic tensile load components which can result in tensile creep of the foundation. Scarps. Because of these effects. connections between the template and piles. Particular attention should be given to loading eccentricity arising from tendon/riser force variations within a group. Shallow faults. regional and local site studies to adequately establish soil characteristics may be required. 10.2. and possible tendon/riser retrieval and redeployment during the platformÕs operational life.2.2. soil properties that best represent the parameters of interest should be used.4 A site investigation program should be accomplished for each platform location.6 As the primary objective of an analysis is to obtain realistic predictions of foundation response to loading.2 Site Investigations 10.2.56 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T risers.2. For pile foundations. displacement. Slump blocks.3 The upward static and dynamic loadings are different from those typically experienced by a jacket-type structure. The extent of inspection and maintenance should be commensurate with the redundancy relative to overall safety and performance.2. Special problems include deepwater sites and unusual loading conditions. design and siting of the foundation. and small craters. The sampling and in-situ testing intervals should ensure that a reasonably continuous proÞle is obtained. For piled or non-piled gravity foundations. Previous site investigation and experience may permit a less extensive site investigation. and if applicable. Position of bottom shapes which might affect scour. Previous usage of seaßoor.2.. The permissible soil stress and displacement should be established considering variations in soil properties resulting from cyclic tensile and lateral loadings. Cuttings for pre-installed templates.4 The design of the foundation structure should ensure that permissible limits of stress. 4. Tests to ascertain the long-term soil-pile response when subjected to these loadings should be performed. and the consequence which would result from a partial or complete foundation failure. on the other hand. seeks to assure that particular levels of safety are possessed by the foundation to resist loads predicted by analysis. 5. consist of the following: a. 8. Soundings and contours of the seaßoor and shallow stratigraphy. the minimum penetration of at least one boring should exceed the anticipated design penetration. 10.2. Gas seeps. Therefore in design. and fatigue are not exceeded during and after installation.1 Requirements for site investigations should be guided primarily by the type and function of the platform to be installed. 7. 2000 . 10. Geotechnical investigationÑThe subsurface investigation should obtain reliable geotechnical data concerning the stratigraphy and the lateral variability of the soil. the minimum penetration of each boring should be related to the expected zone COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. The program should. soil parameters should be modiÞed by factors to reßect uncertainty and risk. Such data should be used in planning the subsurface investigation. b. Since installation sites may be remote from areas for which extensive site data are available.2. Seaßoor and sub-bottom surveyÑGeophysical information should be obtained relating to the conditions existing at and near the surface of the seaßoor and include: 1. 10. The number and depth of soil borings required will depend on the foundation geometry and the natural variability of the site geology. in-situ or special laboratory testing to determine soil properties is warranted.2. 2.1.2. soil samples will be required to characterize the soil types and provide other basic engineering property data. 9.

wind or earthquake motions.3. Additional testing should be performed to deÞne the dynamic and cyclic behavior of the soil to allow prediction of soil structure interaction due to sustained and cyclic loading. 3. Recovered samples which are to be sent to an onshore laboratory should be carefully packaged to minimize disturbance. Soil testing programÑThe soil testing program should consist of in-situ and laboratory tests to establish classiÞcation properties for all soil and rock strata and to obtain classiÞcation properties and initial estimates of the soilÕs strength and deformation properties.5. to a penetration that will include the soil layers inßuenced by the foundation components.3.2. Additional shallow sampling and testing should be performed to allow accurate predictions of near surface soilfoundation interaction. 10.3.3 Fatigue Loading Consider cyclic tendon and riser forces and towing loads on the template. DESIGNING. Appropriate insitu tests should be carried out.3. risers and pipelines should be applied as loads. 10. 10. changes in moisture content. Environmental conditions should be the reduced extreme event. CyclicÑrecurring. Samples should be labeled and the results of initial inspection of the samples recorded.2. lifting.2. and to assess the variation of soil stratigraphy across the site. where possible. Tendon and riser COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. e. appurtenances.1 Load Types The load types deÞned in 5.1 Extreme Drilling and/or producing equipment loads appropriate for combining with tendon and riser forces and foundation system loads resulting from extreme environmental events.2.2 need to be considered as either static or dynamic loads when applied to the foundation design.1. piles and conductors should be applied as appropriate. boat collision or drill rig hook loads. For example.2 Loading Conditions Forces at the connections between the foundation and the tendons.3.3. 10.3. varying forces induced by waves. Scouring potential. Hydraulic instability and occurrence of sand waves. ImpactÑnon-cyclic forces induced by dropped objects. 4. d.3. b.5 Tendon Removed A recurrence interval based upon the time required to replace a tendon should be determined. Preinstallation seaßoor surveyÑA seaßoor survey should be made immediately prior to the installation of the foundation system to determine the most recent changes to the bottom topography. 2000 .2 Dynamic A dynamic load is due to an externally applied force or displacement whose time rate of change can produce additional external and/or inertial forces. 10. When applicable. The following loading conditions represent the minimum requirements for the analysis and design of the foundation system (see Table 1): 10. These deÞnitions are ampliÞed here as they apply to the foundation design. TemporaryÑdynamic forces induced by an event of short duration such as those due to launching. testing should be performed in accordance with ASTM or other applicable standards. 10. c. Loads due to the effective weight of the templates. Dynamic loads can be classed as: a. 2.2. 10.5. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 57 of inßuence of the loads imposed by the base. f. Seaßoor instabilities in the area where the foundation system is to be placed. Consideration should be given to the performance of permeability and consolidation tests. placement or pile driving. Ground response studies or analysis.4 Damage Tendon and riser forces imparted to the foundation system in which it should be assumed that one compartment of the hull has been damaged (ßooded). analytical studies or scaled tests should be performed to assess the effects listed below: 1. Some loads that vary over relatively long time durations can also be considered constant.1 Static A static load is an externally applied force of constant magnitude. Also consider forces induced by pile driving. 10. including soil fabric and sample disturbance.1. the forces from movable drilling equipment or the forces due to astronomical and wind-driven tides and currents are considered static.2 Normal Drilling and/or producing loads appropriate for combining with tendon and riser forces and template loads resulting from normal condition environmental events (conditions which occur frequently during the life of the platform).1.3 LOADING The basic deÞnition of load types and conditions are found in 5.3. 10. and temperature variations. Additional studiesÑAs applicable.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.

and type of analysis. 10.2.4. Forces produced during lifting. such as undrained shear strength. Effects of possible liquefaction should be considered.2. d.3. For foundation systems utilizing drilled and grouted piles. a pile should not be assumed capable of carrying its own weight until after a suitable set-up time. template. 10.3. After grouting to the soil. b. the effect of the conductors on the behavior and strength of the foundation system should be assessed.3. the effects of group interaction on response and capacity should be evaluated. soil characteristics. The soil model should reßect the characteristics and interactive response of the affected soil zones and be consistent with modeling techniques and level of sophistication used for the rest of the structure. 10. the recommendations given in API Recommended Practice 2A should be considered where appropriate.1 General This section presents guidelines for analysis procedures for the response of TLP foundations under the loading conditions detailed in 10. The length of the freestanding portion of the pile can then be determined.2. The effects of lateral load on axial behavior should be considered because of the consequences of large upward foundation movements.4.2.3. Pile buoyancy should be considered because of differences in internal and external ßuid densities. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4. Pipeline pull-in forces on the foundation. 10. Forces that result from on-bottom placement and leveling of the structure such as those due to mudmat reactions. Analysis provides the internal member forces and displacements for use in design.2. 10.6 Transportation and Installation 10. the designer/analyst should estimate possible variations and ranges of the parameters and assess the effects of these variations on the response of individual components and the overall system. Impact forces due to latching and/or stabbing piles. elastic and shear moduli should be consistent with the soil model. a three-dimensional space frame model of the template should be used to predict load distribution and stress levels in members of the template.2.4. and loading conditions.2. PoissonÕs ratio.4.2 Environmental effects on transport vessel or self-ßoating motions appropriate to the tow route and installation site should be considered in determining the following: a. In addition.4.4.1 The manner in which the foundation soil is modeled and the selection of the values (and range) of engineering properties of the soil is important. 10.2.6. For example.2. 2000 .1 Template Modeling The foundation template should be analyzed using a model which represents the geometric.6 and 9.6.1 Static and/or dynamic loads are imposed on the components of the foundation system during the operations of moving them on and off a barge.4 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 10. the soil may be modeled as a continuum or a set of discrete springs.2. c.2. tendons and risers. the static weight and impact load caused by the hammer should be considered. during tow and placement.7 Seismic Reference 9.2. e.2. effective friction angle. loading condition. For foundations with closely spaced piles.2 Soil Modeling 10. Simpler two-dimensional models may be sufÞcient if the geometry and loading characteristics allow such simpliÞcation. and soil friction and end bearing. f. Analysis is differentiated from design by the range of behavior (response) of the foundation and the need to provide an understanding of the primary factors controlling the interaction between structure.4. 10. For driven piles. The interaction between tendon connectors.4. The anticipated running rate and the effect of tensioning devices should be considered.2 Selection of engineering properties of the soil. The effects of ocean currents on the freestanding portion of the pile and hammer assembly should be included.3. Three-dimensional analyses may be required to further check the validity and adequacy of any two-dimensional analyses. self-ßoating or lowering of the foundation system components.3. launching. and piles should be considered. restraint offered by the template.4 Conductor Modeling For a template with drilling conductor slots (whether separate or integral). 10. 10.4.2 Analysis of Piled-Template Structures Because piled foundation templates are similar to Þxed platform foundations. piling and the supporting soil for given geometry. The penetration of the pile should be calculated accounting for pile/hammer assembly weight. Normally. and damping characteristics of the structure. stiffness. 10.3 Pile Soil Interaction Where appropriate the pile may be modeled by discrete elements which account for the stiffness and damping characteristics of soil-pile interaction.58 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T forces imparted to the foundation system loads should be based upon the environmental conditions established for this case. the effective weight of piles supported by the structure should be included.2.

the effects of sustained tension loading. DESIGNING.1 Axial Capacity 10.3 Analysis of Shallow Foundations 10.6.2 The design pile penetration. Appurtenances should be designed to withstand the effect of impact. and the potential of near surface axial capacity reduction from gapping caused by lateral loading. Linear or nonlinear analysis methods may be used.2 Tendon Connection The tendon attachment should be detailed to ensure all load components are safely transmitted into the main template structure or directly into the piles. Q = fAs Where: Q = ultimate pullout capacity f = unit skin friction capacity As = side surface area of pile 10. Analyses should model the cyclic nature of the loads and pore pressure generation and dissipation under cyclic loads.4.5. Local details and secondary members such as pile guide cones. cyclic degradation about a sustained tension load. are similar to those for jacket-type structures for analysis purposes.6.4 Installation Aids Details of the template structure should consider the requirements for installing piles.1 Mudmat Modeling Mudmats.1 Ultimate pullout capacity should be calculated using API Recommended Practice 2A. 10. padeyes.1. 10. 10. 10. Reference should be made to Section 8 for the minimum design fatigue life of the steel foundation components. 10. Detailed analyses may be required to determine the stress distribution in the region of the pile-template connection. (42) COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. accounting for the expected loading conditions and duration of service. grouting system attachments and other appurtenances not included in the analysis may be designed by detailed local analysis. axial ßexibility of the pile.1. Allowance should be made for maximum computed axial tension load.2 Gravity Template Modeling Modeling of a gravity type foundation subjected to high eccentric uplift loads should consider the problems of potential suction under the base and lateral stability under the eccentric uplift loads. scouring. 10.3 The following factors of safety are recommended for use in conjunction with Equation 42 for each pile in a group and to the group taken as a whole: Where B is a bias factor modifying API Recommended Practice 2A recommended jacket compression pile factors of safety for tension pile applications. tendon stabbing cones.4. but with the addition of fracture gradient considerations.1 Internal member forces derived by analysis (see 10.5. must be sufÞcient to develop adequate capacity to resist axial loads unique to TLP foundations.4. mechanical connectors or other means.6 DESIGN OF PILES Pile design should conform to the practice given in API Recommended Practice 2A except as noted below for axial pullout loads and factors of safety. together with the interaction between foundation. in general.5 Corrosion Protection Reference can be made to API Recommended Practice 2A for corrosion protection considerations. The designer/analyst should generally follow the recommendations in API Recommended Practice 2A. considering the effects of marine growth or debris.3. The use of shear keys on the pile and pile sleeve can signiÞcantly increase grout bond strength.2 For the design of a steel template structure reference should be made to API Recommended Practice 2A for allowable design stresses and fatigue estimation procedures.3.3 Pile-Template Connection Piles may be connected to the template by grouted pile sleeves. 10. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 59 The same analysis. 10. 10.1.5 DESIGN OF PILED-TEMPLATE STRUCTURES 10. including the appropriate safety factors. design and installation considerations used for the pile would apply to a conductor. or other loads during pile installation. 10.1. group effects.6.1. The template should be detailed to provide adequate clearance between the tendons and the template structure during the maximum platform offset. 10.5.4) should be used to determine the required member sizes. Detailed analyses may be required to determine the stress distribution in the region around the connection.6.1 General 10. soil and skirts. driving.5.5. B may vary between individual piles and pile group.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 2000 . tendons and conductors. Reference can be made to API Recommended Practice 2A for the design of grouted piletemplate connections.5.5. or liquefaction.

7. typically less than 0. Also the calculated lateral displacement should be consistent with the rest of the foundation design.6. 10. = = = = = = empirical adhesion factor. 10.6.2 Drilled and Grouted Piles Refer to API Recommended Practice 2A. quality control and formation fracture potential. such as formation (hydraulic) fracturing. Lack of residual strength of the soil-pile system. 10.1 Uplift Capacity The resistance of a gravity template against an uplift force can be obtained from the following equations: 10. As its effect is temporary.5 ´ B 2. 2000 .4 Jacked-in Piles In contrast to driven piles. inspection.5 ´ B 1. b.3. uplifting or a combination thereof. drainage paths. the soil shear strength.1. e.1 Soil Characteristics The ability of the soil to resist loads from shallow foundations should be evaluated by considering the stability against overturning.3. 10. As an example.2.5. a temporary suction caused by negative pore pressure and adhesion may develop at the base of the template and the uplift capacity will be greater than that computed from Equation 43. sliding.5 ´ B 10. inspection and quality control.1.1.2 Laterally Loaded Piles The ability of the piles to resist lateral loads and moments should be checked using the criteria given in API Recommended Practice 2A. A deep water environment requires additional installation considerations.7.1 Driven Piles Refer to API Recommended Practice 2A. a highly redundant foundation system capable of effectively redistributing the load from a failing pile to the other piles in the group would have a lower B value.0 ´ B 1.0 through 1. d. bearing.4 Five speciÞc aspects of pile foundation design are to be considered in the determination of B.3 For drained condition: COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.6. Relative difÞculty of foundation installation.6. Soil properties needed for such an evaluation include. The foundation load-deformation behavior is generally characterized using the stiffness and damping of the foundation.1 For undrained total stress (f = 0¡) analyses Q = Wb + a cAs Where: a f c Q Wb As (43) Extreme environment Normal environment Damage (w/reduced extreme env.6. it shall not be accounted for in the design unless substantiated by appropriate analysis or experimentation.6. c.2.1. as follows: a. 10. A deep water environment requires special consideration of construction. duration of applied load. the permeability of soil.) One tendon removed (w/reduced extreme env. 10. the capacity of jacked-in piles during and immediately after installation may be higher than the long-term capacity.3 Installation Method 10. An understanding of the present and past state of stress (stress history) of the soil deposit is also necessary. 10. among other factors.7. compression index and unit weight. and relative integrity of soil samples obtained from deep water. This additional capacity depends on. Uncertainties in understanding soil-pile behavior under tensile loadings. moduli.7. undrained shear strength. A higher B value would apply to a single pile or ßexible template foundation system incapable of effective redistribution. but are not limited to.3.7 DESIGN OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 10.5 The recommended range for the minimum value of B is 1. embedded side surface area of the gravity template and/or skirt. 10. maximum vertical uplift load at failure.) 1. soil friction angle.7.2. 10.2 When a gravity template is subject to a dynamic uplift force. and geometry of the foundation. Load redistribution capabilities of the foundation system.3.2 Design of Gravity Template A gravity template should be designed in accordance with the Shallow Foundation design practice given by API Recommended Practice 2A with the following additions.6. Refer to the commentary for a detailed discussion of these factors.60 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Load Condition Safety Factor 10. 10. This short-term penetration resistance and long-term capacity should be evaluated. Belled Piles Refer to API Recommended Practice 2A. submerged weight of the gravity template.5.6.

AND SURVEYS For design considerations arising from fabrication and installation requirements refer to Section 13.7.1. component selection criteria. 10. Support auxiliary lines.2.2.5 factor of safety for all loading conditions. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 61 Q = Wb + (c¢ + K Po¢ tan d) As (44) Where: c¢ = effective cohesion intercept of Mohr-Coulomb envelope.e.1. DESIGNING.7. 10.3 Skirts may increase the sliding capacity of the foundation. The foundation surface should be prepared to avoid high localized contact pressures.2 Functions of Risers A TLP requires risers to provide conduits between the seaßoor equipment and the surface platform. where risers are not used as/or part of/the tendons. or be incorporated in. 10. Monitoring.2 Drained analysis: H = c¢ A + V tan d (46) (45) ence on the performance of the foundation should be considered.2. INSTALLATION. b.7.5 The design based on Equations 43 and 44 should satisfy one of the following safety factors: a. 10. not ßexible pipe). design guidelines.2 Sliding Capacity API Recommended Practice 2A (Sliding Stability) is modiÞed as follows: 10. Guidance is also given for developing load information for the equipment attached to the ends of the riser.4 Site Preparation Obstructions on the seaßoor should be removed prior to template installation.. mudmats should not be relied upon to provide long term sliding or uplift resistance.2. Items of special interest are: grout for a drilled and grouted-pile foundation.7. Guidance for design/analysis is currently under development.25 is acceptable.3 Design of Mudmats Mudmats are used to temporarily support the foundation template during installation and should be designed to consider short-term bearing failure.7. 10. and maintenance requirements for the foundation are also provided in Section 13.2. a factor of safety of 2. The grout should be designed so that its strength properties are compatible with adjacent surface soil. and the material connecting piles to templates and templates to tendons.1 Scope This section discusses structural analysis procedures. K = coefÞcient of lateral earth pressure at rest. and typical designs for riser systems. Po = effective overburden pressure.2.2. 2000 . Wb in the above equations a factor of safety of 1.4 Safety FactorsÑAPI Recommended Practice 2A (Safety Factors) should be modiÞed to include Uplift Failure. c = undrained shear strength. Voids between the gravity template structure and the seaßoor should be considered and may be Þlled with grout to achieve effective contact during installation. sliding stability and short term deformation in accordance with API Recommended Practice 2A (Shallow Foundations). Guide drilling or workover tools to the wells. V = maximum vertical load at failure.1 Undrained analysis: H = cA Where: H = horizontal load at failure.1. 10.2.7. 11. or circulate ßuids. This section primarily addresses rigid steel risers (i. structural design should also consider the recommendations outlined in Section 9. their inßu- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 10.7.7. In the event mudmats are made a permanent part of the foundation template. When the functions of risers and tendons are combined. When considering only the submerged weight. c. 11 Riser Systems 11. surveys.9 FABRICATION. Serve as. When considering both terms.7. d. A = effective bearing area of foundation.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 10. However.2. Risers may perform the following functions: a. Export. b. import. the tendon.2.4 Safety factorsÑThe design based on Equations 45 and 46 should satisfy a 1. Where: c¢ = effective cohesion intercept of Mohr envelope. 10. d = effective friction angle along slip surface.8 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS Section 14 describes general material requirements. is required.1 GENERAL 11.

Mudline . Figure 20.Ó When two joints are mated together by connecting their coupling halves.2. as shown in Figure 21. . The weight of the tubing may be carried at the mudline or at deck level. Risers. 11. and payload capacity.1.1 One type of non-integral internal production riser.4 outlines the use of riser response results in component design. 11. well spacing and deck area can be impacted by the size of the subsea equipment deployed through the deck openings..11.2 The integral internal riser contains smaller diameter ßowlines within the bore of a large pipe.3 Description of Risers Drilling and production riser conÞgurations depend on whether the drilling BOP and well completions are located at the surface or subsea.1 The component ßowlines of an integral riser may not be retrieved separately. which has been built (Goldsmith. et al.. 1980).3.1. A. regardless of function. may be needed.2 RISER DESIGN 11.3 The type of riser system selected impacts platform design (Nikkel. . risers have a tensioning device at the top and a moment controlling device and a connector at the bottom. as in Figure 20.1 General Considerations 11.1.2 Non-integral external riser concepts have been used as production risers from semisubmersible ßoating production systems.2 Alternatively.1 Integral Risers 11.3. Then the tubulars are installed through external guides or through the bore of the structural pipe.3. An integral external riser consists of a central structural pipe which may carry ßuids or provide structural support. . The concept consists of a tensioned structural pipe and provision for lateral support of internal or external tubulars. Local forces and moments derived from the response analysis are then used for the design of the individual riser components. 11. This pipe is installed and tensioned Þrst to establish the structural support. Smaller diameter ßowlines are attached to the central pipe with brackets. Centralizers at intermediate points within a joint prevent the tubulars from buckling.3..1.3..Comm. is an extension of the well bore and permits a deck-level completion similar to that used on a conventional Þxed platform. and 11.1. An example of an integral internal riser is a workover riser with multiple bores providing direct access to the internal bores of a subsea tree and continuity to the surface. a subsea completion system may be used.2.2. Similarly.2. The non-integral riser can assume several conÞgurations. . 2000 . .. when one riser is required for each well. These tubulars are supported by plates attached to the internal shoulders of the large pipe at the junction of the coupling half and the pipe. the external ßowlines and the coupling are together called a Òjoint..3 Riser Examples 11. A section of the central pipe.1. . 11. .. 11.1 The component ßowlines of a non-integral riser may be retrieved separately. 1982).. substantial deck area.2 Non-Integral Risers 11. while the subsea connector provides a seal between the removable riser and the subsea well or pipeline. the ßowlines are also connected with full design pressure sealing integrity. Production tree Fluid transfer system Platform Tensioner Riser joints Tapered joint Couplings Connector Guidance equipment Template Wellhead Figure 20—Deck-Level Completion Production Riser COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3.62 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 11.3.3 describes recognized analytical methods.3.3. may be classiÞed in two broad conÞguration categories: integral and nonintegral. In general. They have been proposed for use with TLP production systems. Each end of the central pipe is Þtted with half of a quick make-up coupling. This section describes input parameters for response analysis.3. The tensioning device may allow relative vertical motion between the riser and the platform.1 Riser design requires that the riser response to the platform motions and the environmental loads be obtained. . Several possible riser conÞgurations are illustrated in Figure 21. For example.3.1. Each conÞguration is further subdivided into internal or external tube types.1. 11. 11.1.

Riser design and the selected top tension should be based on their response to environmental loads and their functional performance requirements.5 The following paragraphs describe the required data and the recommended procedure for analyzing riser response.1.2. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 63 11. Production riser A A Subsea trees Non-integral external Template Integral external Integral internal Production Riser Joint Arrangements A–A Figure 21—Subsea Completion Riser COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2. steady and alternating stresses. mechanical interference. Limiting criteria for riser design may then become maximum combined stresses. Refer to API Recommended Practice 2Q. 11.1. 2000 . and seismicity for the site should be acquired in accordance with 5.4 Because TLPs may have multiple risers. Drilling and production requirementsÑThe risersÕ conÞguration and properties as well as the internal ßuid densities are determined by the drilling program and production requirements. ice. selecting the appropriate top tensions for the range of environmental conditions.2.1.3 The design of riser components should account for operational procedures. hydrodynamic interaction and hydroelastic vibrations may require special attention.2 A riserÕs ability to resist environmental loading is derived largely from the applied top tension. Site environmental dataÑWater depth and statistical data on wind.4. tides. current. Some of the functional constraints are top and bottom angles. and the loads imposed by contained ßuids and tubulars.2. Tensioner 11. The riser loads include hydrodynamic forces of current and waves. 11.2. Such decisions are a part of the riser design process and require analysis of the riser in each potential operational mode. a drilling riserÕs ßex joint angle should be maintained within rather low limits when drilling. For example. a.1. during extreme conditions.2. However. the motions of the platform. and specifying the limiting conditions for each operational mode. 11. DESIGNING. b. During such a change of operation the riser top tension may be changed.2 Riser Design Analysis Procedure 11.1 The following items describe a step-by-step procedure for establishing riser component design loads. drilling may be suspended and the limitation on riser angles relaxed. wave.2.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. and resistance to column buckling and hydrostatic collapse.

determine the required top tension and component design requirements. f. d.3 Earthquakes Seismic motions should be considered in riser design for seismically active areas. for the use of riser analysis.2.2.2 Platform Response Data 11.) Riser Joint Properties (area. 11. 11.) Arrangement of Risers (relative to platform and other risers) Riser ConÞguration (auxiliary lines.3. are: a. b. etc. This phasing should be corrected to account for the offset of risers. 11.1 Currents exert lateral forces on the risers.4. Parametric riser analysisÑRiser analyses should be conducted for a range of environmental and operational parameters to determine the required top tensions and limitation on operational modes.) Hydrodynamic Parameters (diameter. force coefÞcients.64 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T c. Riser design should start with a proposed design and then iterate to identify the riser parameters. Platform response data may be used for translating wave motion into riser top motions. Wave data needed for riser analysis should be developed from the data base describing the site.1 Waves Waves produce motion of the platform and exert oscillating forces on the risers. 11. d.) 11.2.2 For riser design proper combination of waves and current should be considered. Computation of clearances between risers and the platform may be necessary.4. elevation of terminations. Setdown. lift in water.2. Necessary analysis should be conducted for installation/retrieval situations and installed riser cases.2.2.1 The platform response to environmental loading is transmitted directly to the top end of the riser. as discussed in 5. Vertical and horizontal ground motion data should be acquired.4.2. Wave Frequency Motions (1st Order).3. pressure.2.2 Currents 11. Low Frequency Wind and Wave Motions (2nd Order).2. Riser installation and operational proceduresÑRiser operating procedures should be prepared for all phases of riser operations. The type of current data which should be considered includes: a.3.1 Platform Configuration Data The location of risers relative to each other and to the platformÕs structural members are needed for installation and inplace riser interference analyses..3. Stress-range limits should be established based on fatigue considerations.4.2.4. Platform motionsÑAnalytical and/or model test data on platform response should be acquired in accordance with 7. 11. by transfer functions which are linear in wave height and depend on wave period and direction. weight. etc. Static Offset (steady wave drift. c.2. These motions constitute a source of dynamic loading on the riser.3 The phasing described in the transfer functions is normally relative to the platform center of gravity.2. such as wall thickness and material strength. The exact phase shift depends on riser location. ßex joints and lateral constraints. phenomena such as internal waves and current eddies may affect riser design.2 First order motions are characterized. restraints. etc. 11. The various platform motion data that should be determined in accordance with 7. etc. The following paragraphs present a general summary of the information that should be considered. Table 2 shows a typical data list for iterative riser analysis. internal ßuid density.2.2 Figure 22 presents an example ßowchart for riser design showing major activities. etc. etc.3 Site Data Site-speciÞc data required for the design and operation of risers should be gathered as deÞned in 5.2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.) Site Environmental Data Platform Motions Internal Contents (weight.) Buoyancy Device Properties (mass. e. and wave length. Long-period excursions and setdown should be included.2.4 Platform Data 11. In some areas. Many other alternative procedures are suitable. This ßowchart shows the interaction of the response analysis and component design phases and their relationship with other platform design activities. riser stresses. etc. b.2. Table 2—Typical Data List For Analysis of Risers Water Depth Boundary Conditions (top tension. Current speed and direction proÞles for each month or season. wave direction. which satisfy the design objectives. 2000 .4.2. 11.3. 11. wind.2. etc.3.2.3.. Design limitsÑParametric limits such as top and bottom riser angles. 11. current forces). material. Components of total current such as wind driven or tidal portions.2.4.

AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 65 Environmental data Operational requirements Start Platform motion data Riser design limits Preliminary response analysis Riser analysis load cases Preliminary riser design Compare OK Final response analysis* Adjust: • Design • Platform • Operational requirements Compare • SCF Range • Fatigue data OK Generic fatigue analysis Fatigue life? OK *Include vortex-induced oscillation analysis Component design loads Component stress analysis Component preliminary designs Adjust design Compare OK Final fatigue analysis Fatigue life? Risk analysis Acceptable? Riser design Platform loads Equipment loads Top tensions Figure 22—Riser Design Activities COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 2000 .RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. DESIGNING.

2.6. combined with other stress components on the basis of von Mises. These load distributions are typically converted to local stresses in riser components. bend radii..1. fatigue damage.4 The low frequency wind and wave motions may be considered as static in the riser response analysis. 11.6. The operator may select purposebuilt drilling riser equipment for a TLP with limits different from those in API Recommended Practice 2Q.2. The platform undergoes a vertical setdown with horizontal offset that should be considered in the riser analysis. maximum stress. These stresses.4 Stability Risers should be designed to avoid collapse caused by hydrostatic pressure and column-buckling caused by insufÞcient tension. and for evaluating effective tension. and (3) the fabrication method and surface Þnish.2. including local peak stresses as deÞned in 9. The need to limit riser curvature to permit passage of downhole tools. should not exceed the allowable stresses recommended in Table 3. 11. 11.2. 11.6.4 COMPONENT SPECIFICATION 11. should be based on the riserÕs functional and operational requirements.66 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 11. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. accounting for all load cycling.6. 2000 . The mathematical models and the solution techniques have been widely treated in the literature. maximum deßection. stress ratio (minimum stress/maximum stress). API Recommended Practice 2Q provides guidelines for calculating limiting collapse pressures for hydrostatic loading and combined axial and hydrostatic loading.. A bibliography is provided for the reader desiring detailed information.2. corrosion protection. Consideration should also be given to insuring adequate riser system life. The maximum angles permitted by such riser components as ßex joints (API. 1982). and between risers and platform members.2. b.6 Limits for Design and Operation Five types of limits for drilling and production riser system design and operation are typically considered.5 Fracture Riser materials and manufacturing procedures should be selected to avoid unstable crack propagation or fracture.1 and 9.2. API Recommended Practice 2R and 9. c.2.6.1 This section describes the various components that make up the riser system and their relevant design con- 11. Data should be characteristic of (1) the corrosive environment and corrosion protection. riserangle limits should be selected on the basis of the equipment to be used. incorporating the effects of internal and external pressures and thermal gradients. (2) the mean stress.5 Functional and Operational Requirements Internal diameters and pressure ratings.2. and limit wear (Fowler and Gardner. and fracture: 11. Recommended Practice 2Q).1 Maximum deßection limits should be based on three factors: a. API Recommended Practice 2Q).6. Fracture mechanics methods should be used to evaluate the fracture toughness required for the expected service conditions and to establish the limits for tolerable defect sizes. Total stresses.4.2 deÞne components of stress acting on a cross section. 1981). and a general discussion of the pertinent aspects of riser analysis is contained in the commentary.2 Maximum Deflection 11. 11.2. 1980.3 Fatigue Damage A detailed cumulative damage and/or crack growth analysis.6. The need to avoid collision between adjacent risers (Nikkel et al. etc.2. 11.3 RISER ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY An analytical approach is used for determining the riser response.2. and frequency. The net section stress and local bending stress are combined using linear interaction as shown in Figure 15. Thus.2 API Recommended Practice 2Q provides limits for lower ball joint angles. stability.1 Introduction 11. 11. The design fatigue life should be based on the intended service life and the inspection program schedule. A design fatigue life of a minimum of three times the intended service life should be used for each component. should be performed for critical regions in the riser system (Wybro and Davies. Table 3—Allowable Stress Limits For Riser System Design and Operation Design Case Use Lower Value Net Section Stress % yield strength: % ultimate strength: Local Bending Stress % yield strength: % ultimate strength: Installation 67 50 87 67 Normal 67 50 87 67 Extreme 80 60 120 90 11. should be used for fatigue analysis.1 Maximum Stress Dynamic riser simulation provides estimates of the load distribution on a riser system needed for design of riser components. S-N fatigue or crack growth curves appropriate for the material and the environment should be used.6.

could give general guidance for the other riser systems.2 General Considerations The design engineer should have two primary objectives in developing speciÞcations for riser components: a. The inspection program should assure that these speciÞcations are followed. c. QualiÞcation testing of existing equipment may also be necessary. Except for Þeld proven designs. Interface speciÞcations ensure dimensional.4.2.2. and welding compatibility between the components. hydraulic. and fatigue should be demonstrated by analysis and test. General requirements common to all components are outlined in 11.4.5 Failure Propagation A failure analysis (Woodyard.2. 1980) may be useful to identify possible component malfunctions or failures which can propagate. Component speciÞcations should include required maintenance operations. pressure and thermal gradients should be included in the component speciÞcations. etc.7 Maintenance Replacement of seals.6.2 Riser systems may comprise a number of components made by various manufacturers. and individual components are discussed in subsequent paragraphs according to the following general format: a. Such loadings as tension.8 Corrosion Protection of a riser system against corrosion involves consideration not only of individual components. and the cyclic life if there are moving surfaces. The equipment should be designed to facilitate maintenance operations. b.2. The resistance of the component to yielding.6 Inspection 11. Appropriate procedures should be developed for other riser systems (API Recommended Practice 2K). Riser components may require prototype testing to verify the designÕs compliance with the design requirements.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.4 Prototype Testing Riser component designs may change from those currently used in offshore service. 11.. 11.3 Handling and Storage For many components handling during installation. Frequently.1 Inspection and testing should be performed periodically during the operational life of the risers.2. The speciÞcations should call out required pressure differentials. 11. The requirements for such testing should be included in the component design speciÞcation. Proper speciÞcation of the components should reßect the requirements of the integrated system. collapse. The failure analysis can identify where a redundancy or fail-safe design philosophy is appropriate. inspection for structural cracks. 11. but the riser system and the equipment to which it is attached.2.4.4. to isolate hydraulic or electric actuation systems. 11.4.4. FunctionÑthe basic function of components within the riser system is described. Selection/acceptance criteriaÑgeneral performance and qualiÞcation requirements are outlined.4. component speciÞcations can be developed which will reduce or preclude major system failures resulting from individual component failure. or to protect against dirt contamination. Concepts or designs derived from applicable ßoating drilling or production equipment and current TLP concepts are described.6.4. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 67 siderations. The sealing devices are most critical when the pressure differentials are high and when there are moving surfaces. DESIGNING. 11. Reference to API Recommended Practice 2K. which is speciÞcally for drilling risers.4. The following list of general requirements for all components of a riser system should be considered in preparing the speciÞcations.4. Dissimilar metals in the same area and electrical circuits set up by elec- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. b. electrical.1 Structural Integrity The design load for each component should be based in part on the riser response analysis described in 11. qualiÞcation testing to the design environment should generally be required.2.2. The speciÞcations should include qualiÞcations criteria to demonstrate that the component design complies with the speciÞcations.4. lubrication. should generally be performed on a scheduled basis for drilling risers.2.2 Proven technology and hardware should be used where practical. torsion.1. 11.4. 2000 . 11. 11. retrieval and storage may impose the most severe loadings and may warrant special consideration. structural.2. The speciÞcations should be sufÞciently comprehensive to assure the required performance of each component and the total riser system. Such techniques as Þnite element analysis and strain gage testing may be speciÞed. types of ßuids which may come in contact with the seals. 11.4. painting. bending.2. Typical designsÑTypical existing designs are described.2.2 Sealing Almost all riser components have some provision for sealing to segregate internal ßuid from the seawater. causing the failure of other system components. 11.

Devices such as ball joints or elastomeric ßex joints reduce bending stresses induced by relative angular movements at the ends of the riser. The required bending ßexibility.68 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T trically powered equipment are two examples of inßuences which can accelerate corrosion. 11. although motion compensation may not be necessary for deep water designs.4.4.3. A redundant strategy may be used to enhance tensioner reliabilities. 11.1 Function A moment controlling device is used at the bottom and sometimes at the top of the riser string to minimize bending moments or control curvature.4.4.4. d. breachlock. clamped.3 Tensioner System 11.4.3 Typical Designs Telescopic joints have an outer barrel connected to the riser and an inner barrel connected to the platform.2 Selection Criteria Riser joint couplings should have strength equal to or greater than that of the riser pipe.4.2 Selection/Acceptance Criteria The selection of a telescopic joint should include consideration and evaluation of the following basic items: a. 11.1 Function Tensioner units are used to maintain risers in tension as the platform moves in response to wind.4. 11. and unexpected situations such as internal pressure resulting from a tubing failure. and current and are commonly motion compensated.4.1 Function A telescopic joint may be needed.1 Function A riser joint forms the basic element of a riser system. A riser joint may support ßowlines in various conÞgurations as described in 11. bending and internal pressures. Any opposing pair of cylinders will support the riser.3 Typical Designs One current production riser tensioner example consists of four hydraulic cylinders attached directly to the riser. Many types of couplings have been used including: threaded. A hydraulically or pneumatically actuated seal is used between the barrels. waves. StrengthÑThe telescopic joint should be designed to support the imposed load and to resist the design internal pressures. dog-type.4.6.6. such as H2S and CO2 exposure. 2000 . 11.3. b. Particular attention should be given to fatigue considerations (API Recommended Practice 2R). The cylinders are contained in a removable module which Þts into a recess in the deck. The riser joint design should be evaluated to determine its ability to carry expected tension. but a riser joint normally consists of a length of pipe with couplings on each end.4.4. Another hazard is stress corrosion in high strength metals which are under continuous loading. 11. and welded. this tensioner requires no outside power. Tensioner support systems are discussed in 12. It may also provide attachment points for jumper hoses and tensioners.4.4.5 Riser Joint 11.3.3. These and other corrosion related effects. Additional corrosion considerations are presented in Section 14. c. to allow for elongation due to platform motions and environmental load. 11.2 Selection Criteria The following should be considered when specifying or designing a moment controlling device: a.5. b. 11. Corrosion and elastomeric degradation due to contained ßuids may be an important consideration in an evaluation of the ßexible joint life.4.3 Typical Designs Riser joints can take many forms. The effect of temperature and internal and external pressure should be considered in the design.2 Selection Criteria Riser tensioners with motion compensation should reliably maintain top tension within a speciÞed range over a speciÞed stroke for the design life of the platform. c. should be considered in preparing the component speciÞcations.3.5. Protection against wear from the run- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4. During normal operations. 11. 11. The fatigue life requirements should be established and evaluated. ServiceabilityÑThe packing should be easily serviced and maintained. angular limits and tension capacity should be determined by the riser analysis as described in 11. ßanged.6 Moment Controlling Device 11.4 Drilling Riser Telescopic Joints 11.5. Stroke lengthÑThe maximum stroke should accommodate platform and riser relative motions.1. Tapered joints are also used to control curvature and stresses. The telescopic joint has a sliding seal and transmits the ßow of ßuids.4. based on the stroke requirements of the tensioner.

Fatigue resistance is important. including: a.1 The buoyancy system design should reßect service conditions.2. especially for use with production risers. c. Air CansÑThe air can system requires a supply of compressed air.10. Air cans may be fabricated from a number of materials. 11. maintenance requirements.9. various types of operational loads and their fatigue consequences.3 Typical Designs The types of moment controlling device which have been considered include: pressure balanced ball joints. The tubing may transmit produced ßuids to the platform or permit access to the well annulus. 11. elastomeric ßex joints. retrieval or operation. Their effect should be included in the riser response analysis. 1978).4.2. b. Watkins. spacer frames can be used to guide and position the tubing relative to the primary structural tubular or to similar tubing. should also be used for tubing design.4. d. their volume and density sized to provide the desired amount of buoyancy.4.2 Selection Criteria Spacer frames should be designed to accommodate static and dynamic loads between the tubulars.3 Typical Designs Hydraulic connectors use a large annular piston or multiple hydraulic pistons to activate the locking segments within the connector.4 or API Recommended Practice 14E.3.1 Production tubing is subjected to. 2000 . COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 11.2 Other design guidelines.4.4. to reduce tension in the pipe wall and occasionally to reduce the heat loss from production lines.8.4.1 Function Production riser systems may incorporate tubing in addition to a primary structural riser tubular. 11.4. and reliability (Agbezuge and Noerager.1 Function Buoyancy. These segments mechanically engage the mating parts to effect a mechanical and pressure-tight connection.2 Selection Criteria 11.4. 11. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 69 ning and rotation of the drill pipe and the necessity of pigging some risers may also be important.4.7. a.9.4.7 Connector Typical tubular arrangements are described in 11. b. The density and type of the foam depends on the service water depth and the required submerged lift.4. which may be signiÞcant in deep water. rotational and translational misalignment should be considered in the design.4.9.4. Buckling. Spacer frames may also be designed to provide structural support to reduce or eliminate hydroelastic vibrations. Internal pressure.4. universal joints.10 Buoyancy Equipment 11.1 Function A connector is used to latch risers to the subsea termination and provide mechanical and pressure continuity. externally mounted ßowlines or an array of similar production risers. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.8. DESIGNING. 11.2 Selection Criteria 11. is added to risers to reduce the top tension required. in the form of foam modules or air cans.10.8 Spacer Frame 11. The connector is used to connect the riser to the seaßoor equipment. Bending.2. The ability of the connector to maintain long term pressure seal integrity should be considered.6. Foam ModulesÑFoam modules are passive. Selection of the air can volume should account for the weight of the pressurized air. e.2 Selection Criteria Mechanical strength of the connector should be sufÞcient to safely resist internal pressure and externally applied (riser) loads (API Recommended Practice 2R). f.1. 11.7. The connectorÕs ability to engage and latch and to disengage in the presence of angular. Effective sealing is a primary consideration.9. Thermal expansion/contraction.4. handling loads. and tapered joints. and should be designed for. PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. During installation.4.3 Typical Designs A number of conÞgurations are possible and the type selected is determined by the riser concept used. such as ANSI B31. Tension. 1978.10. compatibility with riser type. Other designs use mechanical latches with a hydraulic running tool in which no permanent hydraulics remain subsea.1 Function Some production riser systems consist of a primary structural tubular surrounded by an array of smaller. Hydroelastic excitation (when external). 11.9 Production Tubing 11.

may be subject to vortex induced vibrations (Albers and DeSilva. The pup joint carries instruments to measure stresses. 2000 . Relative motion.13. and external ßowlines attached to risers. The instrumentation may include measurement of top and bottom angles. high pressure ßuids are normally transferred through ßexible or articulated pipe.11. b. stresses.4. e. 11.) As described in 9.2 Air Cans These are open-ended cans that encase a typical riser joint. Pressure and temperature.3 Typical Designs Telescopic joints and angular articulations (i. An Instrumented Riser Joint (IRJ) should be qualiÞed to the same strength and fatigue requirements as other riser components. The cans get their buoyancy by displacing the water within them with air.1 Function Riser instrumentation (Evans et al.12. may be desirable. appropriate analyses should be performed to assess the likelihood of the occurrence of this phenomenon. f.10. Reliability and maintainability. (See 6. g. reliability.e.10. Some designs may require such a system at the bottom of the riser.3 Typical Design Helical strakes of various types have been successfully employed to suppress vortex induced vibrations. ÒHard WiringÓ is normally used to transmit the data to surface.13 Fluid Transfer System 11. and mechanical wiring terminations.3.3. measurement range.4.. 11. 11. 11.4.10. 11. including environmental and vessel motion data. 11. 1977. 11. Resistance to corrosion/erosion/chemical attack.2.3 Acceptance Criteria The riser instrumentation should be qualiÞed to function under extended exposure to the ocean environment for the required service life.3 Typical Designs 11.13.4.. 11. maintainability and ability to resist service loading. Conduit size. in a high strength plastic matrix.11. angles.13.3. pressures.12.4. 11.1 Function The purpose of the ßuid transfer system is to provide a ßuid conduit which accommodates the relative motions between the platform and the top of the riser. For drilling and production risers. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. c.4.4. d.70 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 11. motions and external pressures.4.4.12 Vortex Induced Vibration Reducers 11. Shanks. Gas diffusion. 11.4 Typical Designs The usual design for an IRJ is a special Òpup jointÓ which replaces the principal riser pipe.2. instrumentation attachments. These stresses should be considered in the design. 11. bell nipples or ball joints) typically accommodate the relative motions for the bore of the drilling riser.3. Other information. designed to Þt the contour of the riser.11 Instrumentation 11.2 Selection Criteria In certain cases risers.12. 1981) may be desirable as an operations aid or in gathering data for conÞrmation of design analysis methods. Particular attention should be given to electrical insulation. Susceptibility to such vibrations depends on the coincidence of a structural natural frequency and a vortex shedding frequency acting over a substantial extent of the riser.1 Foam Modules These are cast sections of microspheres and hollow balls.11.2 Selection Criteria The choice of riser instrumentation should be based on accuracy. Vanes or fairings also suppress vibrations and reduce drag. etc. The buoyancy is a function of displaced air column which can be controlled by adjusting the position of the air shut-off valve within the individual riser.4. 11.2 The air can normally has a much larger stiffness than the riser and may add signiÞcant stress to the coupling.4. 1983).2 Selection Criteria Selection of a suitable ßuid transfer system should include the following criteria: a.4. Routing and minimum bend radius required.1 Function This equipment suppresses vortex-induced vibrations and in some cases is used to reduce ßuid drag from ocean currents on risers.

5. waters. 11. can serve as guidance equipment.1 GENERAL 12. size. Identify interfaces unique to a TLP with regard to: 1. machinery. hydraulic or pneumatic supply and structural loads is important for the design of the platform. designing and arranging facilities for a TLP in U. safety factors. efficient production of oil and gas. b. c.2 These guidelines: a. for production or drilling equipment are not provided. Identify unique static or dynamic loads which could affect equipment selection.1. 11. Guidelines.1 Loads on Sea Floor Equipment 11. 12 Facilities Design 12.. and drag characteristics of equipment to be run.5 OPERATING PROCEDURES 11. 3. clearance. The designer should refer to other API publications for this information. Riser handling and storage (on deck). 1976). Structures. b. Guidance may be a particular problem because positioning the platform to facilitate stabbing is difÞcult..4. d. submersibles. weight. etc. ratings. 11.4. i.3 Detailed specific design guidelines for sizing.1 This section contains guidelines for planning.14. operation. Platform Design and Facilities Design.e. Drilling systems. 11.6.1. and addresses drilling and production considerations unique to a TLP. Riser retrieval.2 Operating procedures should cover all aspects of riser operation including.S. Riser installation. 11. etc.14 Guidance Equipment 11. 11. 4. Installed riser operation. while recognizing the requirement for safe. etc.1 Function Guidance equipment is used to direct and orient risers or tools to the seaßoor template. the riser. Hull systems (systems required for life support and functional operations excluding drilling and production). 2000 . Riser inspection and maintenance.6.1.5. retrieval. and proximity of operations to installed risers. c. e.2 Interface with Platform Structure Information on riser installation. Identify industry codes..14.4. tendons. depending on the type of moment controlling device used.1. which should be designed to withstand them (Bednar et al. Emphasize and provide recommendations on the need to limit and control weight (dry and operating) and center of gravity (CG) when selecting equipment and determining equipment arrangements. respectively. 11. f. 12. This horizontal force will induce a bending moment in equipment below the riser. 11. environmentally acceptable. standards or guides which might be applicable to TLP design and which have acceptance by industry and governmental bodies. riser loads may be important for the design of subsea templates or conductor pipe to which they may be attached. DESIGNING. or platform structure.6. Such procedures should be developed in consultation with riser designers to ensure that limits established are consistent with the original riser specifications.3 Typical Design A wide variety of approaches have been proposed.1. 2. Foundation Analysis and Design.1. e.. Identify federal regulatory agenciesÕ established requirements and indicate how they might inßuence design and arrangement of equipment. This information will thus be needed for the design aspects treated in Sections 8 and 12. but not limited to: a.6 SPECIAL PROBLEMS 11. 12.14.1 The operator should develop procedures for safe and efficient riser operations which are suitable to the particular application. Provide guidelines for the selection of hull system equipment such as bilge. The design selected should be compatible with the production riser design and installation requirements. tendons.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Consideration should thus be given to riser load implications for Section 10. ballast.4. An additional bending moment may also be transmitted by COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1 Risers often impose signiÞcant forces and moments on wellheads or other connecting subsea equipment.2 Selection Criteria Design of guidance equipment should consider maximum environmental conditions selected for deployment and retrieval operations. This section includes hull systems.6.6. Production systems. Estimation of these design forces should be obtained as a part of the riser response analysis. The horizontal force is the horizontal component of the effective tension. d. the tension calculated by subtracting the wet weight of the entire riser and its contents from the top tension.2 The vertical design force is approximately equal to the riser pipe wall tension. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 71 11.3 In addition to implications for subsea equipment design.

tow-out and temporary mooring phases. machinery. and installation have a basic inßuence on facility design. f. Requirements for higher deck area loading for maintenance (egress.2 CONSIDERATIONS 12. For planning equipment arrangements.3.1. The designer should become aware of the methods planned for construction. should be observed in the arrangement of equipment. Plate girder members and bulkheads will impose constraints on type and quantities of penetrations which may result in less than optimum routing of services. setdown and handling of equipment/machinery) need to be established early in design. a TLP is subject to horizontal accelerations throughout its operational life. Adequate escape routes and equipment maintenance access should be given attention since imposed space limitation will require compromises probably greater than those found on Þxed offshore structures. d. The relatively broad column spacing required for stability will probably permit convenient equipment arrangements on the available deck area.2. 12.72 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 12.2 Deck height limitations desired to maintain CG as low as possible can present facilities design with unique concerns: a.2.2.1 Structural 12.2 Arrangements The principles of good practice. c. when completed. transportation.1 The type of deck structure adopted will affect facilities design. 2000 . electrical.3.2.2 Preliminary weight estimates should be as accurate as possible and adequate margins should be allowed for estimating inaccuracies.5 Construction. Equipment. separation trains. and safety systems. long vent ducting or additional structure. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 12. Enclosing areas should be minimized.2. should be consulted. 12.2. 12.4 Dynamic/Static Loads In addition to the static and dynamic loads encountered on Þxed platforms. but will require special venting and bilge requirements and may have other design penalties. design growth. 12.1.3. 12. Location of storage tanks upon or under the deck presents additional operating weight. Weight and weight distribution will affect both the steady and dynamic tensions in the tendons. b.2. the following items should be considered: a.2. load and stability concerns. In addition.1. the guidelines provided in API Recommended Practice 2G. Section 7 of this recommended practice provides data on what acceleration forces may be expected. Installation of production or drilling equipment in hull spaces will provide greater ßexibility in CG location. 12. Area classiÞcations and the separation of hazardous and nonhazardous areas need early resolution to minimize the need for additional bulkheads. c. fabrication deviations.3 Weight and Center of Gravity 12. b. 12.3 A strict policy of weight control should be implemented throughout design and fabrication and weight margins reduced as veriÞed weight information becomes available. The designer should become aware of the methods available to determine the effects of these loads on facilities equipment. and tanks which present heavy concentrated loads require early coordination with response analysis disciplines. but also increase costs for utilities. A TLP is sensitive to the effects of weight and CG and the effects of equipment arrangement/selection must be given special considerations during the planning stages. etc. Inßuent and discharge caissons must be minimized. Structural design utilizing plate girders and bulkheads require early service routing agreement to assure that penetration requirements are identiÞed in time to allow structural design to proceed.1 Control of weight and CG location are essential during design and should be an initial design consideration. Mezzanine level having height restrictions more severe than for Þxed structure. g. Consideration should be given to using sea-chests for both seawater intake and efßuent disposal. These enclosures not only add structural weight. and platform operating requirements such that. In addition to the many equipment spacing considerations provided in API Recommended Practice 2G. and installation to assure that design criteria selected supports the total project. transportation. the platform will remain within the established design parameters. Production Facilities on Offshore Structures. May dictate that some equipment be installed on main deck when optimal locations may be on lower decks. HVC. special loading conditions should be anticipated for construction. e. Transportation and Installation Methods of construction.2.3 Weight restrictions can dictate selection of minimum deck area loading criteria (PSF) and maximum total load for a given area. Restricted height for installation of gravity systems such as vents. drains. as applied to any offshore structure.2. The hull structure may provide available space for consumable storage.2.

5. Recommended Practice for Planning. Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems on Offshore Production Platforms. stability. Ballast adjustments during resupply should be considered. National Fire Codes. c. This listing is intended to be general in nature and is not all-inclusive.9 Industry Codes and Standards Various organizations have developed numerous standards.2. Fire Protection Handbook. 2000 . ventilation. Some of the more commonly accepted documents are listed herein. American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. heating.2. API Recommended Practice 2G. Recommended Practice for Analysis. speciÞcations.1. marine and electrical engineering are applicable in part. d. American National Standards Institute: 1. FAA Advisory Circular 100/5390-1B. 12. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. National Electric Code. 2. Recommended Practice for the Design and Installation of PressureRelieving Systems in ReÞneries. Design. API Recommended Practice 14F. weight.10 Regulations Regulatory organizations have established rules which might inßuence the design. API SpeciÞcation 2C. and recommended practices which have substantial acceptance by industry and governmental bodies. f. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. More speciÞc references may be contained within the listed documents. 3. 2. DESIGNING. Recommended Practice for Fire Prevention and Control on Open Type Offshore Production Platforms. API Recommended Practice 520. ÒHeliport Design Guide. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 73 12. API Recommended Practice 14C. 7. Designing. codes. National Fire Protection Association: 1. Recommended Practice for Production Facilities on Offshore Structures. The personnel and equipment protection options. The Offshore OperatorÕs Committee Manual of Safe Practices in Offshore Operations. such as wind walls. The location and the maximum weight of supplies should be considered in the weight estimate. American Petroleum Institute: 1. ANSI B 31.3. Drilling of wells prior to installation of production equipment could result in a signiÞcant reduction of topside loads. 140. ANSI B 31.8 Simultaneous Drilling and Production Weight and CG penalties are associated with simultaneous drilling and production. These regulations establish certain requirements with respect to safety equipment and the promotion of safety of life and property at sea. and air conditioning requirements and their impact on equipment arrangement. API Recommended Practice 2L. 6. Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms. e. American Society for Testing and Material Annual Book of ASTM Standards. SpeciÞcation for Offshore Cranes. The TLP is a permanent OCS facility for drilling and/or production. 12.Ó 12. and CG should be considered. Parts I and II.2. 4.120 which describes the speciÞc application of the regulations. 10.7 Resupply Platform location and prevailing weather conditions should be evaluated to establish an acceptable cycle for consumable resupply to minimize required consumable storage. Power Piping. and Constructing Heliports for Fixed Offshore Platforms. API Recommended Practice 14G. 3. 3.10 and 33 Code of Federal Regulations. ANSI B 31.6 Environmental and Geographical Considerations The degree of environmental protection required is a function of the Þnal geographic location. Rules developed for mobile offshore drilling units. Guide for Pressure Relief and Depressuring Systems.8. g. 2. enclosed structures. weight savings achieved may be at the expense of future drilling program requirements.2. API Recommended Practice 2Q. a.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 143. API Recommended Practice 500B.4. These documents could be useful references and helpful in designing TLP drilling and production facilities. API Recommended Practice 521. Recommended Practice for ClassiÞcation of Areas for Electrical Installation of Production Facilities. API Recommended Practice 14E. Recommended Practice for Design Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems. Recommended Practice for Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems. Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems. b. Chemical Plant and Petroleum ReÞnery Piping. offshore installations. However. ANSI B 31. 4. Regulatory requirements could have an impact on consumable storage requirements and should be investigated. and has been deÞned as a Òßoating OCS facilityÓ in 33 Code of Federal Regulations. 9. 8.2. 11. 12.

2 The location of discharge casings for cement slurry. These orders govern the marking. hull systems and drilling should be considered to minimize equipment/machinery requirements.4 Tank Sizing and Arrangement Mud (wet and dry). 2000 . 12.3. fuel.3.Ó These regulations stipulate requirements for identiÞcation marks for platforms. utility air. ÒOuter Continental Shelf Activities.2 Modular Package A modular package approach is often used when designing drilling rigs. Their location and effects on CG should be carefully considered since their relocation after Þnal design is in progress could result in extensive redesign or use of ballast adjustment allowances. Waters. and fuel storage requirements should be identiÞed after the drilling program has been established. drill water.3.414 (XI)].74 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 12. ÒMarine Engineering. Design criteria which speciÞes simultaneous drilling live loads for two rigs present weight and CG penalties. Shared utilities (such as electrical power. installation. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. 250. 140-147 (Subchapter N). Alternative approaches such as palletizing equipment and integrated deck design should be considered because of the TLP sensitivity to weight. CG or weight sensitivity may require integrating tanks into the deck structure and/or hull. Rule 24a.S.1 Drilling system discharges (cement slurry. Oil and gas and sulfur operations in the Outer Continental Shelf and Outer Continental Shelf orders for U.Ó These regulations prescribe in detail the requirements for installation of lights and foghorns on offshore structures in various zones. means of escape.2 Minerals Management Jurisdiction 30 Code of Federal Regulations. solids. life preservers. etc. Þre extinguishers. ÒMobile Offshore Drilling Units. unÞred pressure vessels.11 Classification Societies A classiÞcation society should be consulted if the TLP is to be certiÞed or classed as an offshore installation. Horizontal accelerations during operation could require tank bafßing. 107-109 (Subchapter IA). ÒAids to Navigation on ArtiÞcial Islands and Fixed Structures. d. and completion programs can determine equipment.2. guard rails. International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. ÒTowing and Pushing. Care with the arrangement of cement discharges is suggested to avoid coating or blockage of drain lines resulting in additional weight/CG considerations. 33 Code of Federal Regulations. 12. ring buoys. ÒElectrical Engineering. 12. Minimum equipment size which meets realistic drilling program requirements should be planned.3.3 International Applicable international regulations include: a.2. and consumable requirements. etc. Early coordination of the drilling program with other design disciplines can minimize storage and equipment size. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. 12. These requirements may have weight and space impact. bit cuttings and other solids should consider the effect of settlement or cement fouling of subsea equipment and suction sea chests. 12. c. operation and removal of offshore structures and facilities.Ó These regulations prescribe the requirements for materials construction. Þrst aid kits. 33 Code of Federal Regulations.10. b. 12. bit cuttings.10. oily water.3.2. 1972.2. These consumables require signiÞcant space and present concentrated loads on the platform. or chemical discharges) should be integrated into the overall pollution containment and drainage system.3 Pollution Containment 12. e.1 United States Coast Guard Jurisdiction Applicable regulations include: a. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.Ó Designer is advised to consult the above organization to determine current rules and regulations. 110-113 (Subchapter J).Ó These regulations govern the inspection and certiÞcation design and equipment and operation. piping and welding. Depth and drift angles along with casing.3. b.Ó These regulations prescribe in detail the electrical engineering requirements for vessels.) between production. Applicable portions of appropriate classiÞcation society rules should be investigated if the TLP is to be classed. 50-64 (Subchapter F). cement.3. attention should be given to the potential effects of this program on weight and center of gravity.10. storage. utility. The close coordination between drilling rig and facility design is recommended to assure efÞcient interfaces.3. mud. installation.3 DRILLING CONSIDERATIONS 12. 67. Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units [Resolution A. 12.1 General When establishing a drilling program. clean water. 12. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. inspection and maintenance of boilers. International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Shared use of production and TLP utility systems.9).2 Packaging Integrated deck construction should be considered in lieu of skid packages. and rotational movements which vary in magnitude in both the moored and tow modes. 12. 12. Liquid spillage within the conÞnes of the decks should be handled by the drain system. e. d. API Recommended Practice 500B. b.1 When determining the extent and boundaries of hazardous areas on production decks.1 Initial facility design should emphasize the early establishment of Þrm design premises. Use of high strength materials and higher equipment operating speeds. 12. Design data provided to outside vendors should identify speciÞc packaging requirements.3 TLPs are subject to vertical. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 75 12. DESIGNING. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. j.3 should be consulted for piping systems.4.1. Article 500.4. vertical separators (to minimize retention time). b. 12. c.105-33 (Subchapter J). Use of central electric power plants vs. and other facility equipment as well as in the design of riser connections. Use of horizontal vs.4.4.4 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS CONSIDERATIONS 12.4. Bilge system recommendations are found in 12. Minimizing surge and storage capacities. d.4 Area Classification 12. tubular heat exchangers. and type of equipment: a.3 Drain System 12. Use of centrifugal or vane type pumps and compressors vs. Recommended Practice for ClassiÞcation of Areas for Electrical Installation of Production Facilities. Where the process system design and equipment selection and location should stress weight reduction and low center of gravity. Large hoses have been used from the sea chest to achieve the desired segregation. c. 2000 . Liquid storage integrated into hull and deck structures. 12. National Electrical Code. Lightweight valves and Þttings. API Recommended Practice 14F.3. Recommended Practice for ClassiÞcation of Areas for Electrical Installation of Production Facilities. Liquid accumulations in drain system should be minimum. National Electrical Code.2 The drain system guidelines provided in API Recommended Practice 2G and API Recommended Practice 14G should be consulted.4. 111. This design approach provides potential weight and space savings but requires close facility/structure design coordination. a bilge system and a drainage system.4. and layouts in order to establish accuracy in weight estimates.2 Detailed speciÞc guidelines for process design can be found in the referenced industry codes (12.4. Use of gas turbine vs. 12. 12. arrangement. Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms.1. Unique considerations for the TLP are: a.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Draft limitations of hull may not provide structural support of outside discharge casings. 12.Ó USCG requirements for area classiÞcations.1. g. c. vessels. Low deck heights could limit gravity drain system capacity within deck spaces. Use of plate frame heat exchangers vs. horizontal. some additional items to be considered are: a.5 The recommended practices of API Recommended Practice 14C for design and analysis for surface safety systems should be consulted.4. ÒElectrical Engineering. Such movements and the associated forces generated should be considered in the design of support structures for piping.1.5 Area Classification When determining the extent and boundaries of hazardous areas for drilling equipment.2. API Recommended Practice 14E and ANSI B31. c. i. Acceleration forces may affect ßow of liquids in gravity drain systems. Article 500.1 Two liquid spillage handling systems should be provided.1 General 12. b. reciprocating units.4.4.2 The extent and boundaries of hazardous areas on production decks is not speciÞcally covered in the Code of COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. API Recommended Practice 500B. individual engine drivers.5.4. reciprocating drivers. f.4. 12. Industry standard code providing deÞnitions and electrical standards. b. the following should be considered since they will inßuence design. equipment sizing. 12.1.1. h. Industry standard code providing deÞnitions and electrical standards.4.4.4 Cooler wellhead temperatures and possible hydrate formation due to extreme water depths may require additional equipment considerations. Installation of bafßes in storage tanks and process vessels should also be considered to restrict liquid movement and stabilize process levels. e.3. Vertical segregation of water intakes and facilities outfalls may be limited by keel draft. standards and codes should be considered since they can inßuence design and arrangement of equipment: a. the following regulations.3.

4.2. 12. 12. Where it is apparent that the free-ßoating inclined damaged condition trim impairs the operability of the ballast system.3 Bilge pumps should be of the self or automatic priming type and capable of continuous operation in the absence of liquid ßow.5 HULL SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Federal Regulations (CFR). since a vertical launcher can be mounted on the riser structure. Regulatory Agency to examine the plans to determine the overall effect on general safety. service water washdown.Ó b.5. e. towing. Þrewater from deluge.2.2 Redundancy and reliability of utilities. Any hull compartment containing equipment essential for the operation and safety of the platform should be capable of being pumped out when in the extreme inclined damaged condition (that is maximum incline or list angle). Well shutdown sequences should consider subjecting ßexible connection to well shut-in pressure.5. control and monitoring instruments and equipment during all phases of TLP operation should be given design emphasis and priority. ÒMarine Engineering. it is important to establish realistic relief rates and system sizing criteria in the initial design phase. sea trial.5.1 The ballast system design serves numerous functions. or ßooding of any single watertight compartment.2 Ballast 12. and machinery spaces in the hull should be serviced by a bilge liquid removal system. should not disable the damage control capability of the ballast system. However.7 Vent/Flare System Vent system design should be studied early in the design.g.4.5. 12. all compartments. where Þtted at the open ends of pipe. Sharing of these utilities between drilling.5.101 (Subchapter J).4. production and hull systems could be imposed on the overall shared utilities. 12.3 Ballast pump and controls should be designed for numerous differential head conditions without damage due to excessive velocity or cavitation.2.. Vertical pig launcher/receivers may provide a more desirable solution than horizontal. Parts I and II. and operation. ßoating-out.5. Since these structures will have signiÞcant effects on weight. the following should be considered: a. 12. A single point failure on any piece of equipment. b. wind loading and center of gravity. correction of center of gravity. Tendon tensioning or tension adjustment. 12. Dewatering of ballast com- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.1. after installation.1.2 All valves in machinery spaces controlling the bilge suctions from the various columns or hull compartments should be the stop check type. For machinery spaces containing equipment essential to safety. or maintenance. b. installation.4 If bilge piping is tied into topside treatment facility.5. Bilge pumping capacity should be adequate to remove the maximum liquid input from nonfailure operations (e. However. and installation. 12. and 521 provide guidelines for pressure relief systems. Hull compartment dewatering for inspection. hull/deck mating.5.1 With the exception of ballast compartments. Adjustment of platform center of gravity during fabrication. TLP draft changes during fabrication. 46 Code of Federal Regulations.5. 12.S. In selecting a ßexible connection to accommodate this relative movement. the designer should expect the U. including: a. Watertight hull compartments and hazardous and non-hazardous spaces should be provided with separate drainage or pumping arrangements. c. 12. Provisions for removal of bilge liquid should be made for installation free-ßoating and fabrication phases. c.2 Utility demands should be controlled with demand margins identiÞed and modiÞed as the information becomes available. Amount of wellhead spacing required because of space required for ßexible connection. 2000 . passageways. additional means are to be provided for this phase of the operation. a. the valves should be of the nonreturn type.5 These regulations should be considered since they can inßuence the design. back ßow into the bilge system should be prevented. production and hull systems will provide opportunities for weight savings. d.5.50 (Subchapter F).1 Bilge 12.1. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. and booms. 12. Damage stability.5. 111.1. 12. 12.5 Utility Systems 12. A system which ensures for gravity free fall should be considered.6 Riser Connection The production and pipeline risers present special conditions due to the relative motion between the deck and risers. the designer should determine speciÞc applicability to the TLP. API Recommended Practice 520. independently powered pumps should be considered with one supplied from an emergency source.4.5.1. Dynamic loads from platform accelerations should be considered during the design of ßares. tow. or hose reels). ÒElectrical Engineering.1 Utility systems account for a large portion of the total topside equipment.5. 56.Ó 12.3 Applicable regulations and codes that apply to individual drilling. vent stacks.

when required and should prevent liquid accumulation in the vent pipes. Similar tensioners may be used during tendon installation to apply tendon pretension while also acting as motion compensators.2.5. The equipment should be placed and protected to minimize the probability of mechanical injury or damage by leaks or falling objects. The ballast system design should prevent uncontrolled ßow of ßuids passing into one compartment from another whether from the sea.6 Provision for in-situ isolation of the sea chest and intake system or any discharge below the waterline level should be provided. Blinding off of systems not in use should be considered.3 Necessary utilities for supply of high pressure gas should be available during the installation phase. and redundancy should consider the potential effects and allowable time of response to partial or complete depressurization of any single tensioning device. 12. and pipeline risers. compression capacity.2. Selection of tank vents and overßow locations should consider damage stability effects and the location of the Þnal calculated immersion line in the assumed damage condition. but the reliability of the ballast system for in-place operations should not be impaired. water ballast or consumable storage.3. 12. Integrating seawater supply and ballasting functions into a common system should be considered. 12.5. 12. 2000 . the high pressure gas supply system should provide a dew point below the temperature realized with expansion cooling from design pressure and minimum design temperature to atmospheric pressure. while the platform moves with the wind.3. ÒMarine Engineering. weight reduction and lowering of CG should be stressed. the designer should anticipate that MODU rules may be applied to electrical installations.Ó 12.5. Such tensioners act as air springs maintaining nearly constant tension on drilling. 12.7 The potential for hazardous contamination of the ballast system and tanks should be considered in the design and appropriate access should be provided for maintenance.5. All watertight tanks should be provided with leak detection and level measurement capability. standby supply. The stripping system may also serve as a partial rate backup to the ballast system. Arrangement and design of the vent systems should provide for through tank ventilation. provisions for the safety of personnel responsible for the repair and maintenance of the equipment should be considered. 56.5. One regulation to be considered is 46 Code of Federal Regulations.5. Position indication power should be independent of control. Clear working space should be provided around the COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. The designer is advised to investigate all applicable regulations during initial design because they will inßuence design of the hull electrical system. However. Subchapter J) establish requirements with respect to safe electrical installations and repair aboard vessels and mobile offshore drilling units.2 As a minimum.5 Electrical API Recommended Practice 14F provides recommended practices for electrical design which should be consulted. The TLP presents no signiÞcant unique utility requirements from those found on Þxed structure platforms.2.1 Many tensioning systems utilize high pressure gases to minimize riser tension ßuctuation in response to platform motions. The USCG Electrical Engineering Regulations (46 Code of Federal Regulations.4.3. Because of the similarities between the TLP and a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU).5.4 The potential for ignition or explosion of hydraulic ßuid/high pressure gases should be considered in the design of tensioning equipment and selection of ßuids. Ballast tank valves should be designed to remain closed except when ballasting. waves. 12. Tension device guidance can be found in API Recommended Practice 2Q.5.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.5. and current.1 should be investigated for application to utilities.5.5. The considerations of 12.4 Control systems should be provided to prevent accidental opening of ßooding valves for all modes of operation.8 Regulations that are applicable to a TLP should be determined by the designer. 12. Tank vents and overßows should be located so that they will not cause progressive ßooding unless such ßooding has been taken into account in the damage stability review. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 77 partments may require a separate stripping system to lower the water below the level set by main ballast pump Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) requirements. Pressurization of any tensioner should be possible without recharge of storage. Provisions should be made to ensure that all equipment installed and operated below water level can be readily serviced or replaced.5 Remote controlled valves should fail closed and should be provided with open and closed position indication at the ballast control station.3 Riser Tensioner Support System 12. 12. DESIGNING.4 Utility System Hull system utilities are those required for life support and functional operation of the platform excluding drilling and production.5. Design of storage volume. Provisions should be made to dewater ßooded machinery spaces with consideration given to the inclined damage (maximum list of TLP) angle and available NPSH to remaining pumps. 12.50 (Subchapter F). 12. production.6 Machinery Area In the arrangement of machinery.5. as in process design.

25.12. Provisions should be made for thermal expansion of piping between watertight bulkheads.486Ð108.10.30. 111. Inspection access plans for ballast compartments must consider damage stability as well as ventilation to remove potential accumulation of hazardous vapors. 12. and 67.5.78 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T equipment to enable personnel full access for inspection or repair of the equipment as required as well as its handling and operation. Its size and location should be Þnalized early in design.9.11. or C.10. d.12 Helicopter Facilities 12. Access/egress. Rule 24a. ÒConstruction and ArrangementÓ (Structural Fire Protection Accommodation Spaces). 107Ð109. Subchapter I-A.1 Facility design for helicopter operation should review the requirements of 46 Code of Federal Regulations. 12. ÒElectrical Engineering.5.105 (Subchapter J).5. 46 Code of Federal Regulations.231Ð108. Ventilation and access requirements during inspection of hull compartments might create potential for multiple compartment ßooding.5. 12.. the following are of use for design guidelines: a. Facilities for the remote shutdown of any equipment during an undesirable event. National Electrical Code.20.Ó 12. ÒTowing and Pushing. Electrical equipment liable to arc should be ventilated or placed in ventilated spaces in which dangerous gases and oil vapors cannot accumulate. API Recommended Practice 2L.8 Subsea Inspection Support Plans for subsea inspection and maintenance should be made early in the design process. 2000 .11.241 and 108. b. d. Complete access to the areas as required for manual Þre Þghting where necessary.2 The accommodation area will probably have signiÞcant effects on wind loading and center of gravity.9.2 Refueling requirements for helicopters should be considered when required. sampling connections should be provided on all hull compartments for test veriÞcation of a safe atmosphere prior to entry.5.5. respectively.Ó is the pertinent section. Special attention to Þre Þghting COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.5. API Recommended Practice 500B. Additionally.9.Ó This booklet sets forth requirements for marking towers. c. the structure will be classed A. 67.2 The designer should consider the following: a. independent of all support utilities. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5390-1B. 12. and when the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters. ÒAids to Navigation on ArtiÞcial Islands and Fixed Structures. Recommended Practice for ClassiÞcation of Areas for Electrical Installation of Production Facilities. 12. Obstruction light and fog signal requirements for these classes are detailed in Subparts 67. should be provided from all hull access and inspection spaces. etc. c. c. the following will inßuence design.5.9 Navigation Aids 12.1 When establishing accommodation needs. Space and weight allowances and any utility requirement for diving support/inspection facilities need to be made prior to Þnalizing equipment arrangements. the layout of machinery should incorporate the following provisions: a. Personnel safe escape routes in an emergency.1 The platform must have obstruction lights and fog signals installed. Access and Inspection 12. 1972 (72 COLREGS).10 Hull Compartment Penetration.Ó 12.3 While being towed to the installation site.12.Ó and in particular Subpart B.5. In addition. Applicable guidance for these requirements is found in 33 Code of Federal Regulations. and similar obstructions. 108. Designing and Constructing Heliports for Fixed Offshore Platforms b. Platforms with derricks. selection and arrangement of equipment: a.5. a sternlight.7 Area Classification When establishing classiÞcation of hazardous areas for hull system equipment.1 Penetration plans and locations must be addressed and Þxed early in the design process since structural analyses and facilities routing plans cannot proceed without mutually agreed penetrations. Installation of the accommodation requirements wholly or partly within the deck structure should be considered. the USCG regulations will inßuence the design. Article 500. 67. 12. Planning. b.2 Depending upon the installation site as it relates to the Outer Continental Shelf line of demarcation. for USCG considerations.489.5. 12.5. a diamond shape where it can best be seen. 12.5. antennas. and it requires a platform being towed to exhibit sidelights. are governed by the rules set forth in this booklet. b. ÒHeliport Design Guide. B. ÒMobile Offshore Drilling Units. poles. the platform is required to exhibit appropriate navigational lights as prescribed by the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. In addition to ventilation provisions.5. Of interest are USCG 46 Code of Federal Regulations. 12.5. e. Equipment handling facilities.11 Accommodation Area 12.

46 Code of Federal Regulations. 12.4 Alarms 12. Electrical Engineering RegulationsÑ46 Code of Federal Regulations.7.2. 2000 . if provided.6.1.6. 146.1.7 FIRE PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS 12. Each space that is (1) an accommodation space over 300 square feet.2 When planning/arranging escape routes. 12.2. 12. 12. a visible means of alarm should be provided. API Recommended Practice 14G provide guidelines on design of Þre protection systems and should be consulted.4. distress signals.3 The alarm system is required to be audible in all parts of the platform.2 Regulatory agencies have established certain requirements for Þre protection which will affect the design. Outer Continental Shelf ActivitiesÑ33 Code of Federal Regulations. 144. In addition the effect of TLP motions on all crane operations should be considered. USCG Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular NVIC No. the water level.25.1 The following regulatory requirements will inßuence the design criteria for life saving: a.4 Due consideration should be given to 46 Code of Federal Regulations.258-260 provides additional requirements for crane certiÞcation. 12. 12.7. b. 12. 107.4. ÒGuide to Structural Fire Protection Aboard Merchant Vessels.2 The alarm system should be continuously powered with an automatic change over to standby power in case of loss of normal power supply.6. The designer is advised to consult the regulations identiÞed in this section during initial project planning. if possible. Escape means should be planned to allow personnel to move from the uppermost level of the TLP to successively lower levels to lifeboats and.Ó 12. DESIGNING.527.1. The alarm system should be designed to handle simultaneous alarms with the acceptance of any alarm not inhibiting another alarm. and methods of embarkation and should be consulted.1 API Recommended Practice 2G.1 General Regulatory agencies have established certain requirements for personnel safety which will affect the design.1 General 12. 680.4.6. the following should be considered since they can inßuence the design: a.5 These circulars provide a USCG interpretation of regulatory requirements for equipment structural Þre protection.6. The regulations stipulate speciÞc requirements for alarm systems. 108. preservers. 142.6. or (3) used on a regular working basis needs two means of escape.1.3. 12.2 Means of Escape 12. Further guidance can be found in: a.6.1 A general alarm system is required.2 The above regulations stipulate requirements for lifeboats. 108. 12. 12. b. Outer Continental Shelf ActivitiesÑ33 Code of Federal Regulations.167. life rafts. ÒGuide to Fixed Fire Fighting EquipmentÓ including Change 1.6. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 79 and area classiÞcation requirements of regulatory agencies is advised. 12.501Ð108. Whenever possible two separate isolated escape routes from any working or accommodation area should be provided.6.6.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.1.7. 12.7.5. 12.3 The designer is advised to consult the regulations speciÞed herein during initial design. 113.4 The following regulatory requirements will inßuence the design criteria for alarms: a.7. API Recommended Practice 14C.6.4. 108 requirements which provide guidelines for MODUs.3 Life Saving 12.3. inspection and testing. 12. Requirements for Mobile Offshore Drilling UnitsÑ46 Code of Federal Regulations. b.151Ð108.6 PERSONNEL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 12. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.13 Cranes The methods for establishing rated loads for cranes can be found in API SpeciÞcation 2C. (2) continuously manned. communications. USCG Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular No.6. The system should be capable of being activated by manually operated alarm boxes and by an automatic Þre detection system. In high ambient noise level working areas.1 The space limitations imposed will require early planning for means of escape for personnel. b. ring buoys. 6-72. Requirements for Mobile Offshore Drilling UnitsÑ46 Code of Federal Regulations. Outer Continental Shelf ActivitiesÑ33 Code of Federal Regulations.7.

Considerations are: a. b.g. 12.. m.8 INTERACTING CHECKLIST An optimized design will require close coordination between the facilities designer and other design disciplines. Drilling rig interface points with TLP are: 12. diesel hydraulic units.80 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 12.2 Structural Fire Protection 12. Use of lightweight piping for Þre water where permitted by regulations. 2000 . etc.1 Drilling Rigs A good working design is often seriously weakened by a lack of deÞnition between the various design disciplines on how the drilling rigs interface with the TLP. Position of ÒratÓ and Òmouse holes. 12. Rig skid beam spacing.1. b. l. Piping for fuel. drilling live loads. h. Location alternatives for diesel powered Þre pumps versus 1.404Ð413. The following drilling and production interacting checklist will assist in identifying coordination points. 144 provide guidelines along with USCG 46 Code of Federal Regulations. Increase need for powered air circulation to column/pontoon area. position.7. 12. Ventilation requirements for hull inspection and its impact on multiple compartment ßooding. k. b.7.7.8. decks and associated weight and CG impact. Remote air sampling should be planned for closed compartments requiring inspection access. d.2. 12. e.3 Ventilation 46 Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum use of portable dry chemical and gaseous extinguishers to minimize weight. c. The USCG Circular NVIC 6-72 and 6-72 Change 1 provide accurate interpretation of the regulatory rules. Use of sea chest versus outside casing for Þre water lift pump. Active systems can increase water system capacity requirements and demand provisions for drainage for Þre water run off. Strength and layout of local beams around wellhead area. d. The following are considerations: a. and rig packaging/module design. i. Area classiÞcation requirements resulting from drilling rig modules. Position and strength of beams and trusses on platform deck(s). 12. Increase duct runs for fresh source air and discharge. f. Elevation of well heads. 12. c. Part 108 provides regulatory agency established requirements. Strength points available for pulling heavy loads. and strength. tow out and temporary mooring phases. Jacking systems that can be accommodated. Provisions for portable detection devices should be planned for hull inspection. 108. d. Liquid storage in hull vs. e. water.7. Deck layout plans for open areas. 108. hanging BOP units.Ó 12.8.. c.8. Allowable loadings for deck areas between major support members. j.7.187 and ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations provide regulatory requirements for ventilation systems for enclosed spaces and equipment.2 Utilities Considerations include: a. This circular provides an accurate interpretation by the USCG of the regulatory requirements. ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations and 33 Code of Federal Regulations. Passive system materials such as intumescent coating provide protection but may not represent a minimum weight solution.1 Structure Layout Considerations include: a. e. Dynamic loads from drilling packages resulting from horizontal accelerations of platform.181Ð108. Lightweight machinery valving and piping. The following are considerations: a. CG and weight impact due to rig layouts. Testing requirements for active system.1 The USCG Circular NVIC 6-80 provides guidelines for regulatory rules. c. use of electric power pumps with separate power source or 2.2.2 The merits of an active or passive system for protection of the structural steel should be determined. Design loads due to wind on drilling packages.1. c. d. Sharing with production systems.7. Hull system protection should consider systems other than deluge.4 Detection Systems Gas and Þre detection systems utilized on Þxed structures are applicable. g. b. b. and transfer to and along the platform: COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Loading conditions from drilling packages due to construction. e. Requirements for structural inspection under passive system coating.5 Fire Extinguishing 46 Code of Federal Regulations.

Loads generated by horizontal. b.4 Safety Considerations include: a. Drain system inßuence on buoyancy and CG. b.2. size and number. DESIGNING. f. 3. desanders. e. l. 1. Drilling mud from active and reserve mud pits. Riser connections and support. TLP hydrodynamics impact from facilities installations. tow out.8. i. h.1. Bilge system requirements. and sandtraps. Integrated or palletized construction. Supply barge handling and consumable loading/unloading. 12. 12. and temporary mooring phases of project. Maximum use of lightweight equipment. Drilling drains.8. b. Regulatory requirement impact on design.8. Dynamic loads from and on production equipment resulting from horizontal accelerations of platform.1 Structural and Layouts Considerations include: a. f. The following is provided to assist the facility designer in identifying unique interaction with facilities and hull systems which may not exist on a Þxed platform. Ventilation and access for inspection of compartments and tanks. b. d. Handling of solids discharges and oily water from bilges and drains. Two escape routes from working areaÑfrom rig modules onto platform then to lifeboats. Location distribution. sumps.8. f. e. Shared utilities with drilling and hull systems. Handling and operations of drilling risers. Hazardous area impacts due to equipment location selections (bulkheads. sumps. 12. d. g. blowout preventers and deep well tools. Cool ßowing wellhead temperatures and possible hydrate formation due to extreme water depth. Damping liquid movement and stabilize process levels.8. Equipment height limitations.5 Regulations Review for impact on design resulting from drilling rig. f.8. and operations.3 Rig Services Considerations include: a. c. Height restrictions on mezzanine levels. g. desilters.1. l. j. Deck PSF loading required for maintenance and equipment access/egress. g. Access points. j. h. and rotational movements of TLP during fabrication. Þrewalls). i.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Drain/bilge system interfaces. 2. h. tow out. Ballast tank and compartment arrangements and effect on ventilation and access for inspection.2 Production System Considerations include: a. Drilling instrumentation 12. Multi-compartment ßooding during inspection. Limitation on gravity systems caused by inadequate deck height. Loading conditions from and on production systems due to construction.2. Cement and cooling water. Remote BOP control points (including prerun hydraulic lines) 3. Plate girder bulkhead design and routing of services. Early coordination between platform designer and facility designer will result in a more workable optimum design. 2. k. and solids handling to avoid coating or plugging lines. c. mooring. The designers should develop good working relationships to avoid lack of interfacing deÞnitions. 12. d.8. Bulk storage in hull/columns. i. Impact of solid discharges on under sea equipment or installations. distribution and location 2. Deck height limitations. Number. Shared utilities with production and drilling. Weight and CG limitations. Subsea inspection requirements. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. e. or other discharge points. 12. Downcomers for overboard disposal of cuttings from shale shakers. Accommodation needs. d. Tension device redundancy. 12.3 Hull Systems The following is provided to assist the facility designer in identifying requirements which may not exist or are different on a Þxed platform: a. c. Electrical power and communication/instrumentation: 1. 2000 . c. Coordinated communications.2 Production Systems Production equipment and piping can be placed in a variety of positions. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 81 1. k. Vents and overßow locations. Watertight bulkhead penetrations.1. b. vertical.

The COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2 STRUCTURAL FABRICATION 13. in no case should this toe to toe separation be less than 4 times the plate thickness (4t). Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for BuildingsÓ AISC. its effects on the material properties should be assessed by the designer. and non-cylindrical sections including ßat plate structures. The following serves as guidance for acceptable practices: a. Close coordination between the designer. installer.2 The overall fabrication sequence should be such that defects and deÞciencies can be found and corrected prior to completion of the affected part being made inaccessible.2.2. c. Fabrication should be in accordance with the ÒSpeciÞcations for the Design. Consideration should be given to providing temporary access. unless otherwise speciÞed herein.1. and Inspection 13.2. Additionally.2. assembly. d. should be consulted for guidance on splices. All faults and/or deÞciencies should be corrected before the material is painted. Further. Joints with expected signiÞcant shrinkage should be welded before those of lesser expected shrinkage. e. b. and innovation by equipment manufacturers. offshore contractor experience.1. latest edition. the following recommendations should be considered in addition to those discussed in 14. 13. and inspection of a Tension Leg Platform. and plate girder fabrication. The designer and builder are encouraged to take full advantage of available technology as well as ongoing research and development.2. connection details.6.2 State of Technology Techniques and procedures to be used in the fabrication and assembly of the various components of a Tension Leg Platform combine the experience of Þxed platforms and ßoating drilling units. lighting. Further.. during all phases of fabrication. Welds should progress in a direction from higher to lower restraint. etc. respectively.1 General This section addresses fabrication of the hull.2. foundation.2. c. Section 4. and well templates. coated or otherwise made inaccessible. assembly. tendon running. reporting. deck structures. and well template. a program for nondestructive testing (NDT) should be developed and agreed upon. weld details.1. assembly. standards. and installation procedures for the platform and seaßoor foundations should be developed during the design process so as to meet work requirements. fabricator. including such items as launching. and applicable regulatory agencies. If localized heating is proposed for straightening or repair of out of tolerance. Joints should be welded with as little restraint as possible. see 14. It speciÞcally addresses fabrication. For welding guidance. global fabrication tolerances. and installation. as well as introducing new challenges due to size.2 Welded Stiffened Plates and Shells Fabrication of large diameter shells stiffened by either ring frames or a combination of ring frames and longitudinal stiffeners requires consideration of local fabrication tolerances.1 Scope and Objectives This section deals with fabricating.82 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 13 Fabrication. 13.2 Weld Details In fabricating cylindrical. 13. 13.1 GENERAL 13.1 Fabrication Sequence 13. installation is addressed.3 Practices and Procedures Fabrication. positioning and inspection as they apply to the platform and its foundations and well templates. outÞtting and inspection for the platform.1 A fabrication sequence should be established so as to minimize the extent of residual stresses. Assembly of substructures can result in built-in stresses.2. Installation. and fabrication sequence. 2000 .1. fabricator. installing. and applicable sections of API Recommended Practice 2A.2. connecting. 13. and operator is essential in developing these procedures. controlling. speciÞcation for the fabrication and quality control procedures covering critical aspects pertinent to the productÕs quality should be developed and agreed upon by the designer. Some recommended guidelines for establishing this sequence are: a. 13. A construction sequence should be developed for all structures to minimize this condition. Prior to commencement of work. 13. Personnel safety during all phases of fabrication and installation must be maintained. ventilation. mooring system.6: a. welded tubular connections. operator. However. and riser running are discussed. API Recommended Practice 2A. stability. geometry and service requirements.1. b. etc. pretensioning. Weld ProximityÑAll parallel welds (butt or Þllet) should be separated considering the thickness of the material and the heat affected zone. Þre Þghting. Splices in component parts of built-in members should be made before welding to other component parts. All work should be carefully executed with proper quality and testing procedures to assure that the work product meets design speciÞcations and drawings. foundation system. transporting. d. This program should contain information and documents for planning.2.

..3. DESIGNING. the maximum misalignments should not exceed the values given in 13.50 ´ t1. b.. b. . Seal WeldsÑFillet welds in tank spaces should be detailed so as to limit the possibility of ßuids encroaching behind the welds.2.1 Misalignment of plate edges in butt welds (see Þgure 23) should not exceed the following values with a maximum of 1/8 inch (3 millimeters): a. .3 Tolerances Deviations from planeness of unstiffened plating. . i.3. m.... . Cut-outsÑThe cut-outs where stiffeners pass through ring-frames should be designed to provide support for the stiffener. external shell plating of a column or pontoon.e. Special consideration should be given to alignment between welded structural members.. 13. Unless otherwise speciÞed in the fabrication speciÞcations.. Fabrication.3 Secondary structural elements refers to less critical members due to a combination of lower stress and favorable geometry.. or where an incidence of fracture is not likely to induce a major structural failure.2. Intermittent welds should not be used where corrosion is likely. such as pontoon or brace connections to columns. each member should be fabricated and positioned accurately to the Þnal tolerances stated herein. 13. c. The radius of these cutouts or clearances should be at least 2 inches (50 millimeters).. and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings..1.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING..3. (see Þgure 24) of the noncontinuous plates in cruciform joints should not exceed the following values: a.15 t1 primary elements 0. a = min { a 0. t2 t1 Figure 23—Misalignment of Butt Joints 13. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 83 most common case is the seam weld in a plate or cylinder parallel to a stiffener. straightness of plate stiffeners. d. Weld ContinuityÑIntermittent welds are a stress concentration source which could lead to fatigue cracks if oriented in the direction of varying tensile stresses. d. c. latest edition. line up with the direction of the primary load path to minimize fatigue effects in critical areas... Secondary structural elements: 0..2.2.2..2. and limit the extent of stress concentration. . t1 = thickness of the thinnest of the two noncontinuous plates.Ó latest edition. c.3. Primary structural elements: 0..2.2.30 ´ t1... TapersÑWhen joining items of different thicknesses and widths. This can be accomplished by use of seal welds.2. fabricated tubular members should conform to the tolerances as given in API SpeciÞcation 2B. latest edition. Secondary structural elements: 0. retain adequate ring-frame shear area. 13.. i. ..2.. 13. Primary structural elements: 0. Plate orientationÑThe direction of rolling of plates should. Allowable misalignment depends on stress level and type of loading.. as well as type and importance of the joint. Fabricated Structural Steel Pipe..2.3. and AWS D1. t1 = thickness of the thinner plate. . stiffeners with larger varying stress range should be welded continuously with interruptions in welding on the secondary stiffeners.4 Misalignment...30 ´ t1. DrainageÑAdequate drainage should be provided for the webs of deep ring frames. tapers of 4 to 1 are generally recommended. Longitudinal butt welds should be offset a sufÞcient distance to avoid having all welds intersecting at the same corner.2 Primary Structural elements refers to primary load carrying members of a structure where the occurrence of a fracture could induce a major structural failure. Additional NDT may be required. 2000 . . .e. b.2.1 Tubular Members Unless otherwise speciÞed. 13.2 Welded Plates 13. 13.15 ´ t1... therefore.2.30 t1 secondary elements 1 /8 inch (3 millimeters) .3 Fabrication Details When detailing the Þnal construction drawings..2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Weld IntersectionsÑWhere the intersection and overlap of butt welds by butt or Þllet welds is unavoidable...3.2. At points of intersecting stiffeners.3. consideration should be given to: a. where practical. c. b. . or roundness of circular members should not exceed the design assumptions regarding buckling strength. Tolerances not stated herein or referenced to other existing codes should be in accordance with AISC ÒSpeciÞcations for the Design. the intersected (Þrst) weld should be ground ßush for a distance of 2 inches (50 millimeters) where possible on either side of the abutting plate. . internal members which do not provide continuity at major structural intersections. Cutouts (mouseholes) or clearances at these intersections should be of adequate size to provide access for complete end welds.

should not exceed 0.. .2. L h e7 b L = unsupported flange length e2 £ 0.2.012 e7 £ 0. . . should not exceed 0.0015 L e2 £ 0. . e5 e4 13. the lateral deßection..0015 times the truss depth. For stiffeners with lengths less than 84 inches.3 Beam Columns The lateral deßection.0015 times the column length.. See Figure 25.. should not exceed 0. h A A e3 L A–A Figure 24—Misalignment of Cruciform Joints e1 £ 0. e1.. . See Figure 28. The lateral deßection.025. e3. b Figure 25—Beam Column Deflections 13.0015 h e4 £ 0.0015 L L = member length L or e6 .3. . For trusses shorter than 84 inches. use a lower limit of 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) for Ws. should not exceed 0..0015 times the length of the stiffener. For columns shorter than 84 inches. measured at the midspan of the beam column should not exceed 0. e4 £ 0.3. Similarly. e3 e4 C L COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. . e5. .01 times the width between the stiffeners.2. See Figure 26. h. The deviation of the centerline of the web from the centerline of the ßange. the eccentricity of framing members at a truss member intersection.. should not exceed 0. .. e2.5 Girders The lateral offset.0015 L . should not exceed 0. use a lower limit of 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) for e1 and e2....0015 h e3 £ 0. The lateral and in-plane deßection of compressed longitudinal and transverse stiffeners. use a lower limit of 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) for e1 and e2. e1.... h. Wp. e7.. L. or the compression ßange length between lateral supports. 2000 .0015 times the depth of the truss.4 Trusses The inclination of a truss. The slope of the ßange from its true position (e6/b) should not exceed 0. The inclination of columns. of the top ßange with respect to the bottom ßange of a built-up girder should not exceed 0. should not exceed 0. . Unless speciÞcally incorporated in the design approach. h.. See Figure 27. The lateral deßection of the web. of a chord member of a truss should not exceed 0. .008 times the truss depth.. of a truss bracing member should not exceed 0.2..008 times the girder depth. b.008 h Figure 26—Truss Deflections 13.0015 times its length.015 times the width of the ßange.3.. t1 m t3 t2 .015 b e6 £ 0..0015 times the column length.. e2.008 h e5 £ 0.3.84 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T .. h.01 times its depth.. Ws.6 Stiffened Plates The lateral deßection of a plate between longitudinal stiffeners. e4. . e4.01 h Figure 27—Girder Deflections 13. e1 e2 e1 £ 0.

4 PLATFORM ASSEMBLY 13. Additional protection can be provided by cathodic protection systems.2 Cathodic Protection The cathodic protection system components should be in accordance with drawings and/or speciÞcations and the guidelines established by NACE RP-01-76 for the platform. The stiffener tolerances should satisfy 13..4.8 Deck and Cap Beams. 13. Lg. e. Division 2 and Section III.3.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.3. corrosion can be prevented by multicoat painting systems. should not exceed 1/100 times the gauge length. Deck assembled at a different site.1.3. e. the designer may specify a smaller out-of-roundness. foundation system. for recommended tolerances. Hull assembled on shore. Some methods include: a.3. and loaded onto a barge.6. 13.3. The manufacturer should develop and use a comprehensive manufacturing and assembly system. f.1 The local deviation of a straight line generator on a cylindrical shell. Hull fabricated in sections and joined in free ßoating condition or on barges. Lr.2 Manufacturing and Assembly The designer should require the use of existing industry codes.2.4. is the distance between bulkheads or stiffening rings. eg. 13.4 Corrosion Protection Generally. including a complete quality control procedure. Both hull and deck transported to a preselected mating site. i. Unless speciÞed otherwise by the designer.005 r. c. 13. in the manufacture and assembly of components. 13. latest edition.2. see American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).1 General Tendons of various structural conÞgurations such as steel. Subsection NE. or nonmetallic components like synthetic Þber are candidates for use. Hull and deck assembled in dry dock and ßoated out. deck added as in (a) above.3. Hull and deck assembled on land and launched into water. Fabrication.1 General 13. Grating Handrails. wire rope. where practical.2.2. and well template and NACE RP-06-75 for the tendons and production risers. b.3 TENDON SYSTEM FABRICATION 13.3. where Lg is deÞned as 4(rt)1/2. Local deviation from a true circle should not exceed the permissible deviation.01 b Ws £ 0.2 The out-of-roundness. Hull assembled in dry dock and ßoated out. The bay length. but not to exceed the maximum ring stiffener spacing.1 Coatings Guidelines for the installation and inspection of coating systems can be obtained from the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) publication Recommended Practice-01-76. d. loaded onto barge and launched off barge at mating site. Piles. 13. deck modules may or may not be added at a later ßoating stage. Deck assembled as in (a) above.2 Several different methods for fabrication and assembly may be considered. DESIGNING. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.7 Cylindrical Shells 13.2. the applications of coatings should conform to the above referenced publication. of API Recommended Practice 2A.7. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 85 13. For very large cylinders. the deviation of the actual radius (ra) of a cylinder from the true circle radius (r) should not exceed 0.Ó Section VIII. 2000 .1 Assembly of subcomponents depends on the structure design and proposed fabrication technique.4.2. deck added as in (a) above. Deck added by a hull/deck mating operation or by individual modules added to a framework. obtained from Figures 29 and 30.0015 L WS WS L WS Figure 28—Stiffened Plate Deflections 13. 13. latest addition. For additional reference.2. Hull assembled on land and launched into the water.4.1. WP b Wp £ 0. ÒBoiler and Pressure Vessel Code. and Fences Refer to Section 4.e.

5 t t 0. 7 Do D Ar c= Ar c 0.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bay length Ö outside diameter.08 0.2 e= 0.1 3 D c = 0.06 0.10 = 0 c = .04 0.35 Ar 0.10 0. o A 0.5 c= o 0D 0.3 Ar o c= 0D Ar o c = 0.2 o c= 5D 0.02 0.2 7 D o Ar c= 0D o Ar 0. Lr/Do Figure 29—Maximum Permissible Deviation From Circular Form.0 t t t e= 200 150 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 25 0.3 t e= 0.8 1. Do/t 400 e= 300 1.86 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 1000 900 800 700 600 500 Outside diameter Ö thickness. 2000 .3 0.6 1.6 o 0D Ar c= o 0.01 0.6 e= e= e= 0.5 0.05 0.4 0.2 0.4 0. 6 Do 0 0.8 0.2 0.0 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 Bay length Ö outside diameter. Do/t 1000 800 600 500 400 300 200 Ar c Ar c = Ar 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 0. e. 09 11 Ar rc = Do Do Ar c = 0.1 Ar c = 0.4 e= 0.2 5t 0t 0. Lr/Do Figure 30—Arc Length For Determining Deviation From Circular Form COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4 Do c= 0D Ar 0.7 8D o 0 0.1 5 D o 0. For Cylinders 2000 = Outside diameter Ö thickness.6 0.

4. In the absence of supportive calculations.4. Adequate water depth to allow for the mating considering ballasting operations and changes in hull draft and transportation vessels.6.3 In the selection of a fabricating and assembly method. and connecting waterways or channels to open sea or mating site. 13.3.4. mating and installation phases. d.4.4.4. skidways. Number of pontoons and columns. Size and type of deck modules.3 Dimensional Control 13. SufÞcient shelter from prevailing environmental conditions to assure that hull/deck motions are acceptable. Evaluation of results. f. 13. Complete procedures for the intended method should be included. Type of deck construction. c.3.3 Dimensional control operations should be planned to suit the design. and draft. for ÒLifting Forces. It may also be achieved through mechanical means (e.. b.4 The following steps should be considered: a. e.4.4. dynamic impact loads between the hull and the barge may be lessened. and that the structures are not overstressed during critical interfacing operations. some factors to be considered include: a. or load transfer during mating operations.3. latest edition.3. pins or slots. fabrication and erection plans.2 The Òas-builtÓ global geometry of the structure is not to deviate from the calculation model in a way which may cause a signiÞcant change in load path. Ongoing survey of fabricated structures. DESIGNING. IdentiÞcation of control parameters in accordance with design.4. Platform size. etc. Section 2. 13.5 The corrective and/or reanalysis requirements should be determined based on the survey results and the calculated dimensions of the modules and structures for the actual support and loading conditions during the particular phase of construction. weight.4.4. Depth of water at launch site. rubber shock pads or absorbers. and hydraulic jacks.2 Erection Sequence The fabricator should develop a detailed erection sequence showing a step-by-step plan for assembling subcomponents to make up the hull and/or deck.g.1 The actual weights of the fabricated modules and structures often vary from the calculated weight. 13. 13. b.6 For guidance on dimensional tolerances.. Corrective and/or reanalysis requirements. 13. In this manner.5 Heavy Lifts Refer to API Recommended Practice 2A.g.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Fabricators facilities (inclusive of size of dry docks. open truss or plated. An effective weight control program should ensure the Òas-builtÓ weight meets the design requirements.3. Careful planning is required to assure that subcomponents Þt-up within speciÞed tolerances and that overall global dimensions are met. 13. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 87 13. b. fabrication and erection plans. 13.6 Hull/Deck Mating Operations The designer should prepare a detailed plan for this operation. 13. the recommended practices of Section 4 of API Recommended Practice 2A.2 Mating Hardware Hardware involved with the mating operation may include guidance cones. 13. c.4 Weight Control 13. 2000 . 13. the mating site selection should provide.).4. e. refer to 13.4. d.1 Careful attention to dimensional control is required to assure that proper Þt of fabricated modules and structures is achieved during the assembly.6. the following: a. SufÞcient clearance between the transportation barge and the deck after load transfer may be achieved through deballasting of the hull and/or ballasting of the barge. Timely corrective or reanalysis action could minimize possible construction delays or major rework.1. may be used.4. 13.Ó 13.2 Selected subcomponents should be weighed to verify the calculated weights and centers of gravity. as a minimum.4 Additional temporary buoyancy may be considered to reduce draft.3 Load Analysis Detailed deßection and load analysis should be performed to determine applied forces on structural connections and mating hardware due to environmental loads.1. and provide early warning for necessary corrective and/or reanalysis requirements. so that time delay is minimized and the Òas-builtÓ modules and structures meet the Òas-designedÓ requirements. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4.1 Site Selection If the fabrication sequence of the platform involves separate fabrication of the hull and deck.6. changes in ballasting arrangements. pull out blocks or hinged drop arms). overhead cranes.4.4.

5. Refer to 5. stillwater bending. 13. all watertight closures and valves should be secured.5.5 Towing Vessels The proper number of seagoing tugs should be provided with sufÞcient power and size to operate safely in any sea environment that may develop for each particular transit route. 13.3 Stability Sea-keeping characteristics along with heeling and righting moment curves of the platform should be produced for the various towing conditions anticipated.S.3.5.2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 13. and time of year.5 TRANSPORTATION 13. Towing attachments to the platform should be stronger than the breaking strength of the largest towing wire and should be accessible during transit. if built in a dry dock. jacks and control systems. environmental and towing forces imposed on it during transit. and either lift-off or launching at the installation site.1 General Transportation operations should be planned concurrently with the structural design in order that loading conditions during loadout.5. Coast Guard should be considered. Prior to launching. that it can transfer from the on-bottom condition to the ßoating mode without instability or overstressing. launch trajectory.5.4 Equipment Testing All mating equipment (such as ballasting arrangements. The mathematical analyses may be correlated with a series of tank tests on an accurately scaled model. Applicable regulations and/or codes such as those of the U. which should be incorporated in the structural and tiedown analyses.5.1 Launching Calculations should be made to conÞrm that the platform can be safely skidded into the water or on a barge or. launching.6. transportation time.5. 13. Fatigue at towing attachments should also be considered.2. Possible operations can include load-out or launching at the fabrication site. 13. towing. should be performed. latest revision. all watertight closures and valves should be secured.1 Launch A method of launch should be considered which utilizes the procedures and criteria established for the launching of jacket-type offshore platforms. 13.2 Ballast Systems The systems for ballasting and deballasting should be designed with sufÞcient numbers of valves and pumps to provide a Òfail safeÓ operation during mating.3.5.2 and 5. etc. Structural strength. As required. and launching are clearly deÞned.5.2. towing.4 Offshore Lifts Structures lifted from transport barges offshore should be designed following the guidance of API Recommended Practice 2A. wave induced bending.5.5. including a one-compartment damage condition. motion analysis should be undertaken to determine the dynamic load components. transportation by self-ßoating or as deck cargo.2. 13. Section 5. and hydrostatic forces.3.3 Foundations and Well Templates Foundations and well templates may be transported and handled by a variety of methods. Prior to lifting.2.5.4 for additional guidance.3. reference is made to the provisions of API Recommended Practice 2A. 13.3.5 Stability Stability calculations should be performed on both the platform and transportation barge (or vessel) to assure positive stability during all phases of the ballasting operations and load transfer to the hull. 13.5.6.) should be thoroughly tested before ßoat out or commencement of operations.4.2 Platform 13. Stability calculations. For additional guidance in transportation to an installation site. Points of attachment for towing hawsers should be designed to limit stress concentrations and crack initiation at these locations.2. and structure equilibrium after launch should be assessed. and installation. temporary generators. The designer should perform calculations to show that adequate buoyancy and stability will exist if damage occurs during transit.4 Forces The platform should be designed to resist all hydrostatic. 13.3.2 Barge Transport Foundations and well templates transported as deck cargo are subject to loads generated by the vesselÕs dynamic motions.3. 13.4. A hypothetical damage condition should be considered when making these calculations. 2000 .3 Free-Floating Transport Foundations and well templates transported by ßotation will be subject to drag forces.88 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 13. Environmental loads should be predicted on worst case tow criteria and analyzed in accordance with procedures in 10. 13.

1 General Installation can be considered as Þve major activities: installation of the foundation system. the designer should determine the acceptable range of motions from a combination of wind. 2. Underwater hammer. Type of foundation: 1. These responses may be critical when the platform is transferring from a Òfree ßoatingÓ to a Òtension mooredÓ condition. Within diver capability or not. Piled structure. an accurate depth survey should be made to determine the Òas installedÓ position and depth of each template. (c) terminated.4 Contingency Plans Comprehensive contingency plans covering all phases of the installation should be included in the installation plan and procedures. and installation of risers. shipshape or ßat-bottom barges. 13. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Calculations and/or wave tank testing may be conducted to ensure that this mooring system will handle the forces that result from platform motions.6.6. In particular. current. and swell that the platform can experience while being maintained in position and installed. d. Combined base template. sway. Installation equipment: 1. This system should be capable of maintaining the platform in position during the entire installation period including an anticipated storm condition. 2000 . attachment of the tendons to both the foundation and platform. 4.2 Environmental Envelopes Based on the environmental conditions anticipated at the proposed installation site. calculations should be performed (and conÞrmed by wave tank testing. e. a temporary mooring system or other means of station keeping may be required. This should include a bottom survey to ensure that no recent changes to the installation area such as debris and cuttings have occurred that would prevent installation of the seaßoor structures. yaw. pitch. Moored or dynamically positioned. heave. After template installation..RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.1. deployment of the temporary mooring system. are not damaged. including the connectors. 4.5 Mooring and Station Keeping During installation. Water Depth: 1. Tension Leg Platform (self-installed). Mild or hostile area. Drilling/grouting tools. 13. Proposed installation procedures should be considered early in the design process. Equipment capability and availability. or (d) reversed for each major phase of the procedure. Type of installation vessel: 1.1.6 INSTALLATION OPERATIONS 13. if necessary) to predict motion response of the platform. In addition to deÞning the sequence and interface for completing the tasks of each major phase of the installation.5. equipment status and logistic support under which installation operations should be: (a) initiated. 3. 13.1. d.4 Tendons The transportation and handling of tendons between the fabrication site and the platform requires careful evaluation to ensure that the tendons.3 Installation Plan Installation procedural and training plans should be developed to ensure that the installation is accomplished in a satisfactory manner. 3. 2.1 Site Survey Prior to the initiation of installation operations. b. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 89 13.6. Semisubmersible. 13. 5. and roll.1. 13. The sequence and speciÞc tasks that will occur during each of these activities may vary depending on a number of factors including: a.e. c.6. (b) suspended. installation of the tendons. DESIGNING. c. 2.2 Foundations and Well Templates The means adopted for installing foundations and well templates may be inßuenced by the following: a. Soil. coatings. Shallow foundation. which includes establishing the desired level of pretension in the tendons. wave. Long-term Þeld development plans and other economic considerations.1. These calculations should establish the acceptable limits of motion response. b.6. Geometry of the overall system design and individual components.6. 13. Many of the options that may be viable for a speciÞc Tension Leg Platform installation are illustrated in the network diagram Figure 31. Environmental conditions: 1. Hybrid structure. anodes and other appurtenances. Multi-template. Each phase of installation operations should be reversible if a malfunction occurs. Other. 13. it should deÞne conditions for weather. a survey of the proposed site should be carried out. surge. 2. environmental and geographic parameters. Length of installation periods. as they might impact Þnal designs. i.6.

90 Gravity Multiple piece Foundation system installation Tension pile Installed at same time Installed prior to platform arrival Staged installation Installed with platform at location Installation assisted or accomplished by platform A Hybrid Single piece Installed by equipment other than platform API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T A Mooring system deployment Accomplished from or assisted by platform Installed by equipment other than platform Legs installed sequentially Individual tendons installed simultaneously B Individual tendons installed sequentially Legs installed instantaneously Pretension by ballast Legs interfaced sequentially B Interfacing and pretensioning Legs interfaced simultaneously Individual tendons interfaced simultaneously Pretension by pull-down Individual tendons interfaced sequentially Pretension individual tendons simultaneously Pretension all legs simultaneously Pretension by pull-down and ballast Pretension individual tendons sequentially Final installed condition Figure 31—Major Activities and Options For Installation Operations COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 2000 .

anchor templates relative to foundation/well template). b. mechanism to operate bearing mats.6.2.2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2 Drilled and grouted piles depend on the ability to drill the pilot hole because of possible cave-in problems and the efÞciency of the grouting operation. Use of pin piles (positioning piles). With underwater driving. the foundations should be inspected and monitored to ensure that installation has been achieved in accordance with plans. whether lowering from a crane. Leveling methods may include hydraulic jacks..4.6 Shallow Foundations 13. 13.6. a special winch module.6.6. although well established for deep water oilwell drilling operations.g. DESIGNING. The grout may be monitored with special instrumentation (e. This would act as a guide around the well template (it may or may not be removed).6. Factors that might impact handling of seaßoor foundation structures at the surface (e.2.2. 2000 ..2. Grouting techniques. in the case of combined foundations and well templates) or relative to independently installed seaßoor foundations (e. large structures might require buoyancy assistance during surface handling and lowering.2. size of bearing mats. calculations will have been performed to establish penetration rates and blow count based on soil data.4..6. 13.2.2. This may be minimized through the use of motion compensators or elastic synthetic lowering lines. are still somewhat of an unknown technology with large diameter tension piles.2. these could mean incorrect soil data or inadequate transfer of energy of the hammer to the pile.g. Maneuvering lowered seaßoor structure with localized thrusters. b.. 13.6. and grouting.2. nuclear densimeters) either mounted on the template or deployed with ROVs. Use of a bottom founded positioning structure lowered separately to the templates. Maneuvering installation vessel on conventional (catenary) mooring system. rack and pinion mechanisms. 13.3 Leveling The means for obtaining leveling tolerances of seaßoor foundation(s) depends on: nature of soil conditions. It is necessary to ensure that the pile has deformed to the design speciÞcations.1 Handling and Lowering When installation equipment and methods are selected. 13. 13.2.6. c. 13.2 Positioning 13. d. pile elevators. and other factors.2. Size of structure.1 Shallow foundations may be fabricated from concrete or steel and may include deadweight or hybrid pile/ deadweight structures. Positioning may be relative to a seaßoor grid (e.g. Amount of lowering capacity available on installation equipment. 13. pile size and hammer energies. Although the means to monitor positioning tolerances are readily available with conventional electronic underwater acoustic devices. and the items mentioned in 13. engineering analysis and test program are recommended. If considerable deviations are noted from the design criteria. Mechanical connections include means of deforming the shape of the pile inside the template sleeve so that a connection is made between the two.2 It is anticipated that these structures may include additional buoyancy for lowering operations.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.6. ballasting.6.6.4 Pile Installation 13.2.6. c. Dynamic loads due to two-body interaction..6. Leveling adjustments of large combined or hybrid structures are likely to be difÞcult to achieve due to their overall mass. Maneuvering installation vessel with dynamic positioning system. calculations should be performed to quantify dynamic loads and stresses during the lowering and placement of the structures on the seabed. the means to achieve the necessary tolerances requires careful evaluation. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 91 13. Generally the leveling adjustments with multi-templates should be small (this can be achieved through accurate bottom surveys and structure design considerations).g. Type of lowering equipment on installation vessel (e. and levelness. d.2 Possible positioning means available include: a.6. transfer from ßoating condition to lowering condition) and also lowering will include: a.1 Template piles may be installed using underwater driving techniques or by drilling and grouting.1 Positioning encompasses the means to monitor and hold accurate location. e. f.5 Template to Pile Connection Present technology for the interface of piles to seaßoor foundations includes grouting and mechanical connections. After installation.5. Stability of structure during surface transfer operation.3 For both pile design and installation techniques. Rotational control and stability of the structure may create problems during lowering. e. or drill string). Grouting may be performed through drill strings or hoses.2.4. a comprehensive soils survey.6. Effective means to monitor the integrity of the grout in place are available through specialized monitoring tools lowered from the surface vessel or deployed from underwater remotely operated vehicles.2. azimuth.2 would apply. 13. This may be accomplished with high pressure hydraulics or with explosives. Structures although stable in a ßoating mode on the surface might become unstable when negatively buoyant.g.

Develop contingency plans and alternate procedures to be followed in the event of damage to tendon components or installation equipment malfunction or failure. Damage to tendon components. Individual tendon installation Tendon run as a single continuous piece Spooled pipe: Parallel strand helical wound or W. c. Inventory. In this event. (See Section 9. temporary moorings. 13. b. Tendon System Design. careful consideration should be paid to the ballasting system. 13. intermediate connections Threads.6.6.92 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 13. inspect and document the conditions of all tendon components. 13.5 Risers 13. b. In view of the variety of conÞgurations and peculiar design features that may be involved in a speciÞc tendon systems design. In many designs it may be prudent to conduct deployment operations with surface equipment offset from the location of previously installed seaßoor equipment to minimize the damage potential from dropped objects. Fused intermediate connections Welded.6. or the tendon system. etc.2.6. there are a number of options for equipment utilization.5. Initiated.6. the need and potential beneÞts of comprehensive operator training and equipment familiarization including installation system trials cannot be overemphasized. the installation operations will involve the sequential completion of the tasks discussed below.2. it is not reasonable to attempt to outline detailed installation procedures. etc. Evaluate the need for inspection procedures to be conducted during installation operations.g.4. integrated or nonintegrated. As illustrated in Figure 32. 4.4. 2.1 Preparing to Install Tendons The following is a partial list of tasks the designer and installer should consider in developing procedures to be followed in preparation for tendon installation: a. Develop contingency plans and alternate procedures to be followed in the event of: 1. Interruption of logistic support. The ßow chart of Figure 32 deÞnes some of the designerÕs options that relate the design of both an individual tendon and the entire tendon system to installation considerations. explosiveformed. Installation equipment malfunction or failure. Type of riser system. b.4. when moving the platform over the location. Regardless of the speciÞcs of the design of an individual tendon. 3. c.6. 13.4. Suspended. Terminated or reversed. Regardless of the speciÞcs of the installation procedure. construction No intermediate connections Tendons run as several long segments Few intermediate connections Tendons run as many short segments Many intermediate connections Mech. etc. DeÞne conditions for weather. clamps..1 Procedures for running risers should be developed considering the following factors: a.3 A comprehensive plan that includes appropriate inspection and record keeping procedures to ensure that individual tendons are deployed in a manner consistent with their design and service requirements should be developed and form the basis for Þeld operations.2 Tendon Installation 13. collets.6. Figure 32—Options For Tendon Installation COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Functionally test all equipment and systems to be used during installation. e.4. 2.6..) It is recommended that the installer consult and work closely with the designer in developing an installation plan. including landing and connection operations: a. 2000 . equipment status and logistic support under which installation operations will be: 1.6. 13. dogs. 3.2. 13. sequencing and procedure that may be employed depending on the speciÞcs of the individual tendon and overall mooring system design.3 Platform The platform may be installed over previously installed seaßoor foundations and/or tendons.4 Tendons Developing a concept and a procedure for installation of a tendon system is intimately linked with the tendon design process. Unexpected deterioration of weather.1 Tendon installation operations will generally include handling and running operations similar to drill pipe or casing running procedures. bolted flange. Water depth.R.2 The following is a partial list of tasks that should be considered in developing procedures to be followed during tendon installation.

Weld inspection. j. Type of connections and latching devices.5.1 Positioning Systems The accuracy required to position and align the seaßoor components is limited by installation equipment but must be consistent with design tolerances. The use of a temporary catenary mooring system.2. e. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 93 c. Weld size.1. etc. f.1 Platform/Seafloor Structures 13.2 General recommendations on the running of risers can be found in API Recommended Practice 2K Care and Use of Marine Drilling Risers.6. Fit-up and edge preparation. the platform will likely remain onsite throughout the life of the Þeld.. k. and designer.2 Fabrication 13. This system should assure an adequate level of traceability for both metallic and nonmetallic components.7. accordingly. etc.7 INSPECTION AND TESTING 13. is weight sensitive and. 13.7.2 Tendon System 13.7. The manufacturer should then COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 13. The monitoring of the platformÕs performance and continued inspection of structural components to detect deterioration or damage should be done to avoid removing the structure for major repairs. The platform. Consideration should be given to special alignment appurtenances and monitoring systems such as acoustic positioning equipment. Thickness tolerances.7. Weld procedure qualiÞcations. anchor handling vessels. 13.6. f. regulatory authority.6. To the fullest extent practical.6. c.1. Surface or subsurface completion.2.2.7. The stab-in of riser joints into a seaßoor template from a TLP offers somewhat different problems than a drilling vessel since the station keeping components do not readily provide lateral platform positioning adjustments as in the case of drilling vessels.6.2 The manufacturer should use a system to maintain the traceability of each tendon assembly and its components. 13. Dimensional and alignment checks. in performing these tasks.3 Standby Equipment Adequate numbers of tugs. b.7. ROVs. Documentation of all inspection/testing 13.2. Material traceability. Whether guidelines are to be used or not. Upon installation. d. should be on location at all times during the installation should it become necessary to secure operations and/or abandon location. fabrication inspection to detect ßaws which could reduce fatigue life is essential. l.1 Fabrication inspection should be performed to ensure adherence to the drawings. and API Recommended Practice 2Q Design and Operation of Marine Drilling Riser Systems. The most effective quality control system is one which prevents the introduction of defects into a component rather than Þnding the defects when they occur. Welder performance qualiÞcations. 13. 13.7.2. the manufacturer should determine the level of traceability required jointly with the owner.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Inspection should be performed during both the fabrication and assembly phases to ensure compliance with the requirements. TV.2.2. being a buoyant structure. 2000 . or other positioning mechanisms may be considered for the stab-in operations. Tendon systems are sensitive to fatigue and. inspection during fabrication is necessary to assure weight control in addition to the usual concerns of fabrication quality and dimensional tolerances. and procedures which contain the detailed instructions necessary to obtain the desired quality and service in the Þnished product. consideration should be given to special weather monitoring means to ensure that operations may be completed within the constraints of the design environmental envelopes. inspection should be performed as the fabrication progresses.6.6 Special Operations 13.1 Inspection and testing undertaken during fabrication of the platform and seaßoor structures components should cover at least the following: a. 13. Prior to manufacture. thrusters. Previously installed multiple production risers may introduce clearance and contact problems during running of riser joints.6. tugs.1 General Inspection and testing throughout the life of the TLP is necessary to assure the continued performance of the design goals. Coating and anode application. Material quality.. h. g. Support for handling. Whether buoyancy is included (either internal or external air cans or foam). 13.2 Environmental Monitoring If installation is to be performed during a time of year and/ or in an area where weather windows are relatively short or unpredictable. d. visual and NDT. e. shipment and storage.2 The techniques for this inspection and testing are speciÞcally deÞned in other sections. DESIGNING. speciÞcations. i. and in recognized codes currently being utilized in marine fabrication facilities.2.7. accordingly. The plans and speciÞcations for a component should clearly indicate which materials and items are to be inspected and by what method.6.

and tendons should be inspected for damage during transportation.6.3 The manufacturer. and/or owner may wish to demonstrate the acceptability of the product for its intended application.2 The template installation should be completed within tolerance and positively connected to the pile foundation.3. designer. Tensioning.5. seaßoor foundations. During this procedure. etc.3.2 When two-phase construction is undertaken. The testing of components such as ßex joints should avoid damage to the component prior to initiation into service.6 In-Service 13. and all necessary equipment be available and in good working order. ÞreÞghting system. etc.1 The assembly of the structural components of the platform should maintain the quality control and alignment control established during the component fabrication as per 13.3. platform bending due to load and environmental conditions.1 An inclining experiment should be carried out to determine the platformÕs center of gravity. Functional testing of tendon running tools and trials of tendon running operations is also recommended.2 A Þnal testing program should be undertaken prior to the transportation of the platform.7.1 Upon arrival at the installation site. and possible misapplications of load. vented.6. weld details and procedures.5.2 All platform compartments should be accessible. In addition watertight closures and automatic closing doors should be tested. 13. staging. Instrumentation to measure the motions of the deck and hull components.7. The design of the platform. ÒAs builtÓ centerline to centerline dimensions of access tunnels or hawse pipes at the platformÕs vertical columns where tendons terminate as well as similar dimensions of the seaßoor foundations should be available to further assist in the overall installation. 13. d.7. Particular care should be taken when mating cylindrical sections of the major columns. communication systems. the alignments.4.7. 13.5. 13. This will require that the relative motions of the platform and lift vessel be included as an aspect of the lift analysis. and cleaning provided to allow complete internal COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.4.7. and the stresses at the mating surfaces throughout the mating process may be considered. tendons and risers should take inspection into account. acoustical devices. This program should verify the operation of the ballast system. inspection points and criteria. grout samples should be taken for strength tests.3 A functional test of the equipment used to couple the template to the pile should be undertaken prior to deployment.3 Assembly 13.3 Module lift procedures should be developed following current offshore practice with the additional consideration of the platform as a buoyant structure. 13.7. the positioning devices should be tested for accuracy.7. Mechanical connections should be inspected by remote techniques to assure that the connection is satisfactory.7.7. Tendon damage during handling.2.2. ROVs. The condition of the platform at the time of inclining should be clearly documented so that an accurate assessment of the effects of added loads can be made.4 Preparation for Tow-Out 13.).4 The platform installation requires running and stabbing the tendons within the anticipated weather window.7.5.3 The buoyancy compartments and the ßooding control system of the subsea structures should be tested prior to tow-out.2. Tendon element makeup sequence (identiÞcation).4. and thus. 13.7. life saving appliances. and instrumentation such as nuclear densimeters deployed to monitor grout quality. 13. alarms (as practical). seaßoor structures. Final template position should be measured and recorded in the platformÕs operating booklet.7. 2000 . 13. The information to be included in this plan includes environmental constraints. alignment checks. special damage control precautions may be necessary. f. etc. If grout connections are to be used. This operation should be analyzed by the designer as a load condition including allowable limits of misalignment. 13. grout volume should be monitored during installation and compared with calculated volumes. Such testing methods should be realistic and consistent with the factors of safety designed into the component. b. for mating. 13.7. a procedural plan should be prepared which clearly outlines all steps of the mating.5 Installation 13. platform monitoring equipment.94 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T maintain the necessary detailed records consistent with the level of traceability agreed by the parties. It should be recognized that. the platform. 13. 13.7. normal and emergency utility systems.1 Maintaining the platform on station will require a continuing inspection program to limit the possibility of requiring major repairs. 13.7. Coating scars. e. the platform may be submerged beyond its design operating draft.7. and either temporary or permanent means of lighting. Measuring devices for determining level and position should be tested for accuracy prior to deployment of the template.7. inspections should monitor: a. Tendon motions during deployment (monitored by divers. Connector makeup. c.

c.9 In addition to the regularly scheduled inspections discussed above. if required. Tendon loading history and information on the size and location of cracks and ßaws may be used to modify the inspection frequency over the life of the structure. A sufÞcient number of tendons should remain in place to withstand environmental conditions likely to occur during the inspection period. Innovative inspection methods may be considered by the designer and operator to meet unique requirements. or inspect them in place. and class in accordance with the design. The condition of anodes. an in place visual inspection of the tendons should be performed to check for damage which might have occurred during installation.6. should include an in place visual examination to check the condition of corrosion prevention components. Tendons should be inspected when they are pulled for any reason. 13.11 An inspected tendon should be reinstalled in accordance with the manufacturerÕs and designerÕs speciÞcations or stored in a protected location if future use is planned. 14. coatings.8 Immediately prior to initial installation of tendons.7. CertiÞed mill test reports or certiÞed reports of tests made by the fabricator or a testing laboratory in accordance with COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.10 After inspection.7. cement grout. 13.7. Inspection intervals and methods should take into account design methods and assumptions. for steels with yield strengths below 70 ksi reference is made to API Recommended Practice 2A. 13.1. concrete. d. 13. a materials speciÞcation should be developed.7. The operator may elect to pull tendons and risers. or ABS speciÞcation does not exist. DESIGNING.6. 2000 .7. Protective coatings may be removed if required to conduct a thorough examination. a thorough examination of each tendon component should be made and the exact location of any ßaws or damage noted and appropriate corrective action taken. Areas of geometric discontinuity which cause stress concentrations should be examined with particular care. may provide better information than a complete examination of a few pulled tendons and risers. 13. Components having elastomeric or other nonmetallic parts should be inspected for failure or deterioration.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Such inspections may be substituted for pulling tendons. Selection of tendons or risers to be inspected should take into account load history and any indication of damage. 13. and damage. Detailed inspection for cracking or other deterioration of metallic components is recommended.6. A tendon should be inspected when the maximum allowable stress has been exceeded. API.3 Seaßoor structures should be designed such that underwater inspections of critical members utilizing ROVs or similar devices can be undertaken. in place.2 Specifications Steel should conform to a deÞnite speciÞcation and to the minimum strength level. and other components of the corrosion protection system should be carefully inspected. This examination typically would include a thorough visual inspection.4 Tendon and riser system components should be inspected to detect deterioration and allow corrective action.1 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to deÞne materials appropriate for use in design and construction of a TLP.1 GENERAL 14.6.5 General inspection of all components is recommended to check for corrosion and damage.7.1. group. particularly those which concern fatigue life and corrosion.6 A complete examination can be performed on a tendon or riser pulled from the water after marine fouling has been removed. ßaws.7.6. 14 Structural Materials 14.6. to be taken in a timely manner. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 95 inspection.6. Any inspection program. The entire tendon or riser should be inspected with attention to areas of stress concentration and accelerated corrosion. appropriate nondestructive testing. A slightly less thorough examination. inspections should be considered under the following circumstances: a.6.6. All tendons should be inspected if the TLP is relocated to a new producing or drilling site. Thorough examination of one or more used as an indication of the condition of all tendons and risers having an equal operational life. An appropriate number of additional tendons may need to be inspected after a failure or damage to a tendon if a similar problem could have occurred on other tendons. Sea-chests should be provided with means of closing off so that they may be dewatered while at sea.6. As soon as practical after installation. and elastomers are discussed in less detail. b. 13. Steels are covered in some depth. In situations where an appropriate ASTM.7. 13. 13.7. coatings should be repaired or reapplied in accordance with the manufacturerÕs recommendations. and measurements of material loss due to corrosion or erosion.12 Detailed records should be maintained by the owner of the inspection history of each component including the exact location and size of cracks. subject to preproduction qualiÞcation (See API SpeciÞcation 2Z) and used as appropriate for each situation. Fracture and fatigue considerations are indicated for all critical components with a yield strength greater than 70 ksi (480 MPa).7. whether involving pulled tendons or in situ checks. 13.7 In place or in-situ examination of tendons and risers requires advanced techniques having a high probability of detecting cracks and other deterioration.

and deck beams and trusses.1. c. c.5. 14. impact loading. Welding procedures which might require preheat and postweld heat treatment. Where impact tests are speciÞed. 2000 .45 percent and higher. restraint. including fracture toughness requirements.40 percent or less. 14. Carbon equivalent ranges up to 0. low restraint. Class A steels are suitable for use at sub-freezing temperatures and for critical applications involving adverse combinations of the factors as cited in Class B.+ ----------------------------5 6 15 (47) steels may be used provided that investigation into application includes the following areas in addition to that for the Group III materials: a. Carbon equivalent (CE) is generally 0. b. Additional guidance is provided in 14. Additional guidance is provided in 14. and these steels should be welded utilizing low hydrogen welding processes. For this purpose steels in Groups I and II may be classiÞed as follows: a. Examples of such applications are frame members. stress concentration. Weldability and special welding procedures which may be required. Fatigue problems which may result from the use of higher working stresses. Such steels may be used.1 Steel Groups Steel may be grouped according to strength level and welding characteristics as follows: 14.+ -----------------.1. Class B steels are suitable for use where thickness. service temperature and environment.2. Such COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. These steels may be welded by an appropriate welding process as described in AWS D1.2.4 Group IV Designates high strength steels. 14.3 Group III Designates high strength steels with speciÞed minimum yield strengths of 52 ksi (360 MPa) to 70 ksi (480 MPa). A450 or equivalent constitutes evidence of conformity with the speciÞcation. Such steels are applicable to primary structural members involving limited thickness. Class C steels are those which have a history of successful application in welded structures at service temperatures above freezing.2. b. Toughness in relation to other elements of fracture control.1. modest stress concentration.1. Critical applications might warrant Charpy testing at 35¡ to 54¡F (20¡ to 30¡C) below the lowest anticipated service temperature. moderate forming. where CE is deÞned: Mn Ni + Cu Cr + M 0 + V CE = C + ------. with speciÞed minimum yield strengths in excess of 70 ksi (480 MPa). Susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress corrosion cracking in seawater and other possible environments which may be present.1. provided that each application is investigated with regard to: a.96 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T ASTM A6.1 Group 1 Designates mild steels with speciÞed minimum yield strengths of 40 ksi (280 MPa) or less. at the lowest anticipated service temperature. 14.1 Steels should be selected with toughness characteristics suitable for the conditions of service.2 Group II Designates intermediate strength steels with speciÞed minimum yield strengths of over 40 ksi (280 MPa) through 52 ksi (360 MPa).2. and 25 ft-lbs (34 J) for Group II.2 Steel Classes 14. c. Steels enumerated herein as Class B can generally meet these Charpy requirements at temperatures ranging from 50¡ to 32¡F (10¡ to 0¡C). such as service stress.2. quasi-static loading (rise time 1 second or longer) and structural redundancy such that an isolated fracture would not be catastrophic. b.2. often quenched and tempered. Class B steels should exhibit Charpy V-notch energy of 15 ft-lbs (20 J) for Group I. and are primarily for use as tendons.2.5.2 STEEL CLASSIFICATION 14.2. but for which impact tests are not speciÞed. cold work. Heat treatment procedures necessary to meet mechanical property requirements. 14. Steels enumerated herein as Class A can generally meet the Charpy requirements stated for Class B steels at temperatures ranging from Ð4¡ to Ð40¡F (Ð20¡ to Ð40¡C). and/or lack of redundancy indicate the need for improved notch toughness.

450 min. 65 min.Fabrication Structural pipe should be fabricated in accordance with API SpeciÞcation 2B. 2000 . seamless or welded pipe should conform to one of the speciÞcations listed in Table 5.3. 68-85 71-90 70-90 63-83 70-90 70-90 70-90 80-100 80-100 80-100 75 min.3.1 are considered by the designer. a materials speciÞcation should be developed.2. 470-585 490-620 485-620 435-570 485-620 485-620 485-620 550-690 550-690 550-690 517 min. D) ASTM A516 Grade 65 ASTM A573 Grade 65 ASTM A709 Grade 36T2 ASTM A131 Grades CS.2.2.3. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 14. ASTM A139.2. 70 min.1 Structural Shape and Plate Specifications Unless otherwise speciÞed by the designer. Fine Grain Practice. Killed. 450 min. 448 min. 470-585 490-620 430-550 485-620 427 min. in Groups III and IV. 75 min. 65 min. 448 min. 485 min. MPa 400-550 400-490 380-515 400-490 450-585 450-530 400-550 400-490 435-485 415 min.3 MANUFACTURED STEEL 14. EH32) Grades DH36. B Grades C.Steels above the thickness limits stated may be used.2 High levels of Charpy energy might be required Table 4—Structural Steel Plates and Shapes Yield Strength Tensile Strength ksi 58-80 58-71 55-75 58-71 65-85 65-77 58-80 58-71 63-70 min. qualiÞed and used for each situation. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 97 14. ASTM A381. 50T3 ASTM A131 Grade AH32 (ABS Grade AH32) ASTM A131 Grade AH36 API SpeciÞcation 2H API SpeciÞcation 2W API SpeciÞcation 2Y ASTM A131 Grade 42 Grade 50 Grade 42 Grade 50 Grade 42 Grade 50 ksi 36 34 30 34 35 35 36 34 42-50 42 50 50 50 45. 60 min. E (ABS Grades CS. 62 min. Group I Class C SpeciÞcation & Grade ASTM A36 (to 2² thick) ASTM A131 Grade A (to 1/2² thick) (ABS Grade F) ASTM AA285 Grade C (to 3/4² thick) ASTM A131 Grades B. In situations where an appropriate ASTM or API speciÞcation does not exist.5 51 42 50 42-62 50-70 42-62 50-70 45. 14. provided applicable provisions in 14. 68-85 71-90 62-80 70-90 62 min. DESIGNING.5 51 50 42 50 50 50 60 60 60 60-80 60-80 MPa 250 235 205 235 240 240 250 235 290-345 290 345 345 345 315 350 290 345 289-427 345-482 289-427 345-482 315 350 345 290 345 345 345 415 415 415 415-550 415-550 I B I II A C II B II A ASTM A537 ASTM A633 ASTM A678 ASTM A737 III A Grades DH32. Additional guidance on selection of toughness requirements is given in 14. structural shapes and plates should conform to one of the speciÞcations listed in Table 4. EH32) Class I (to 21/2² thick) Grades A. EH32 (ABS Grades DH32. for high strength steels.2 Structural Steel Pipe 14. D Grade A Grade B ASTM A537 Class II ASTM A633 Grade E ASTM A678 Grade B API SpeciÞcation 2W Grade 60 API SpeciÞcation 2Y Grade 60 a To 2² Thick for Type 1.1 Specifications Unless otherwise speciÞed. 427 min.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. 517 min. 65 min. or ASTM A671 using grades of structural plate listed in Table 4 except that hydrostatic testing may be omitted. E) ASTM A441 (strength varies w/thickness) ASTM A572 Grade 42 (to 2² thick) ASTM A572 Grade 50 (to 1/2² thicka) ASTM A588 (to 2² thick) ASTM A709 Grades 50T2. EH36 (ABS Grades DH32. 65 min. D (ABS Grades E.5.

2000 .2 Selection for Service Consideration should be given to the selection of steels with toughness characteristics suitable for the conditions of service.g. Guidance on toughness selection for Group III and IV steels is given in 14. 45 min. 415 min. I B I II A C II II a B A Seamless or with longitudinal seam welds 14. (34 Joules) for Group II steels (Transverse test). 415 min. making additional demands on the ductility of the steel. API SpeciÞcation 2H. 60 min. due allowance should be made for possible degradation of notch toughness. 60 min.1.3. cold expansion ASTM A500 Grade B ASTM A618 API 5L Grade X52 with SR5.1.4.2 For water temperatures of 40¡F (4¡C) or higher. by specifying a higher class of steel or by specifying notch toughness tests run at reduced temperature. 455 min.g. MPa 415 min. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Additional guidance for Group III and IV steels is given in 14.1. 60 min.2 Above Water Joints For above water joints exposed to lower temperatures and possible impact from boats or dropped objects and for critical connections at any location in which brittle fractures are to be prevented. 400 min.3 Steel Forgings and Castings In situations where an appropriate ASTM speciÞcation does not exist.4. 415 min.98 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T Table 5—Structural Steel Pipe Yield Strength Group I Class C SpeciÞcation & Grade API 5L Grade Ba ASTM A53 Grade B ASTM A135 Grade B ASTM A139 Grade B ASTM A381 Grade Y35 ASTM A500 Grade A ASTM A501 ASTM A106 Grade B (normalized) ASTM A524 Grade I (through 3/8Ó w.3.) ASTM A524 Grade II (over 3/8Ó w. 415 min.3. 455 min. or through members in overlapping joints should meet the following notch toughness criteria at the temperatures given in Table 6. (20 Joules) for Group I steels and 25 ftlbs. 55-80 60 min. 415 min. 60 min. 485 min.1 Group I and II steels for underwater joints.1 Underwater Joints 14. 14.4. 415 min.2.5. For tubes cold formed to D/t less than 30..4 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS FOR STEEL 14.t. particularly under dynamic loads. SR6 or SR8 See 14. Charpy V-notch energy Table 6—Impact Testing Conditions D/t Over 30 20-30 under 20 a Test Temperatures 36¡F (20¡C) below LASTa 54¡F (30¡C) below LASTa 18¡F (10¡C) below LASTa Test Condition Flat plate Flat plate As fabricated LAST = Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature should be 15 ft-lbs. 60 min. cans. cold expansion API 5L Grade X52 2% max.3. CertiÞed mill test reports and mechanical property tests should be in conformance with the appropriate ASTM A6 or A370 speciÞcations.2 ksi 35 35 35 35 35 33-39 36 35 35 30 35 35 42 52 42-46 50 52 MPa 240 240 240 240 240 230-270 250 240 240 205 240 240 290 360 290-320 345 360 Tensile Strength ksi 60 min. Special attention should be given in developing welding procedures for higher strength steels to ensure that the required mechanical and toughness properties are maintained throughout the welded joint. a detailed speciÞcation should be developed and qualiÞed for the speciÞc application. 415 min. e. 66 min. the tougher Class A steels should be considered..2. 380-550 415 min.2.1.1. 60 min. 14.5. 58 min. 14. cyclic loading may initiate fatigue cracks. During the service life. 58 min. 14.4. These demands are particularly severe in heavywall jointcans designed for high brace loads. 60 min. 14.) ASTM A333 Grade 6 ASTM A334 Grade 6 API 5L Grade X42 2% max.1.4.1 Tubular Nodes Welded tubular joint intersections are subject to local stress concentrations which may lead to local yielding and plastic strains at the design load. 310 min.1. 66 min. and not subsequently heat-treated.t. 400 min. e. 60 min. 415 min. 70 min. such as a tubular joint. these requirements may normally be met by using the Class A steels listed in Table 11.

The connector body might be a forging of heavier size to accommodate a thread or other mechanical fastening device. DESIGNING. Quality requirements should be speciÞed on the seam welds. with the end connections machined into the ends. A fatigue analysis of the connectors should be performed to assure that the design is adequate for the intended purpose. fabrication and testing requirements should be commensurate with the material quality and properties. and therefore heat treatment and alloy composition should be balanced to assure uniformity.3 Brace Ends Although the brace ends at tubular connections are also subject to stress concentration.3. for example. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 99 14.3 Tubular Tendon Materials This section only considers materials for steel tubular tendons. 14. high residual stresses and may be subjected to through-thickness tensile loads in service. through-thickness shrinkage strains. The tendon is produced from a single billet or forging. 14.4. consideration should be given to the use of castings.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. the weldment between the body and the connector should be given critical attention.1. Tendon alloy production.3. or other required properties by removal of a test ring should be considered. In this design. Additional guidance is provided in 14. The method(s) of corrosion protection may have a direct bearing on materials selection. Non-metallic as well as sacriÞcial metallic coatings have been used to control corrosion in the splash zone and below the water as well as during storage prior to installation.3.4.2 Critical Joints and Plate Intersections Joints formed by the intersection of stiffened plates may form areas of high restraint. such as welded line pipe with upsets or joints attached to the ends. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. for which brittle fracture would be catastrophic.1 Connector Integral With Tendon Body This conÞguration consists of a single length of tendon body.4 Tendon End Connections The tendons may be connected together with a threaded integral connection or may be joined with dog-latch type design.3. 14. toughness. forgings. may aggravate stress cracking of high strength steels. For critical braces.4. notches. 2000 . 14. The ends of the tendon may be required to be thicker than the body to provide adequate load carrying capacity. 14. or steel having improved through-thickness (Zdirection) properties. Testing of a prototype might be desirable to assure conformance to the tendon speciÞcations. The tendon material should therefore possess optimum mechanical properties including tensile and yield strength. The connection may be either a thread or ÒdogtypeÓ engagement. 14. or one class lower. probably a tubular. which may include volumetric and surface examination using radiography. Also. The materials must have adequate weldability. etc. Critical attention should be paid during the fatigue analysis to the intersections between the longitudinal seam weld and the end connection girth weldment. If a connector is welded to the tendon body the material should have satisfactory weldability. Special care should be given to the design of stiffened intersections or terminations to minimize or avoid the formation of stress intensiÞers. These properties should be uniform through the thickness of the tendon. The material should have adequate hardenability to assure uniform properties through the cross section. although other structural conÞgurations are candidates for use with TLPs. consideration should be given to the use of stub-ends in the braces having the same class as the joint-can.4. A quality assurance program should be implemented to conÞrm that microstructure and mechanical properties in the upset and tendon body are uniform. Corrosion control procedures should also be a consideration in the material selection process. For these and other highly restrained critical joints. Similar considerations may apply where stress risers are encountered along the member between joints. High hydrogen overpotential from the cathodic protection system. fatigue strength. Tendon metallurgy is of utmost importance since this component is the key element in the satisfactory performance of the Tension Leg Platform. ultrasonic or other techniques.4. The material or tendon joint conÞguration should also be inspectable. and ductility. The weld should be thoroughly inspected to assure that it meets the speciÞcation requirements. Testing of selected production pieces for hardness. the designer should be aware of possible galling of connections in the event the tendons are pulled for inspection. the conditions of service are not quite as severe as for joint-cans.2 Multiple Piece Tendon Joints This conÞguration may consist of a tendon body which is a tubular onto which are welded end connectors. The paragraphs below discuss the materials selection considerations for various tendon conÞgurations.4.4. Thickness and strength requirements should be considered in the materials selection process. The material selection process should therefore consider the dimensions and shape of the connectors as well as the tendon body to determine required hardenability of the alloy. A quality assurance program is also an important consideration in tendon material selection. microstructure.5.3 Seam Welded Tendons This conÞguration involves a welded cylinder.

heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal. 14. residual stress. level of cathodic protection.1 Code. Environment. d.g.2 The operator should select materials and fabrication processes that lead to adequate levels of toughness and fatigue properties under service conditions. Testing should be carried out under conditions consistent with the actual prototype operating environment with respect to loading frequency.6 STRUCTURAL WELDING 14.5 FRACTURE AND FATIGUE CONSIDERATIONS 14. 2000 . and loading rate should be incorporated into the selection of target values.1 Group I and II Steels These steels are as deÞned in Tables 4 and 5 and the recommendations in API Recommended Practice 2A should be followed. However. b.3.6. bio-organic environment.4 Fatigue Resistance 14. AWS D1. API Recommended Practice 2X provides guidance on ultrasonic testing techniques. where material thickness exceeds 11/2 inch.1 Experience with these steels in offshore applications is limited and little data exists in the public domain. Temperature.1 This practice recommends fatigue analysis based either on the Palmgren-Miner S-N approach or the fracture mechanics approach. when moving to higher strength material it is recommended that sound justiÞcation be established before accepting an S-N curve for design purposes. this can be achieved by speciÞcation of Charpy V-Notch toughness requirements at prescribed temperatures. 0. Effects of stress (or strain) concentration.2 The fracture mechanics approach to fatigue analysis should have reliable and pertinent fatigue crack growth data. ÒTubular StructuresÓ may apply to the various TLP components. e. Standard compact and three-point bend specimens should be considered. area of application (in air. In particular. the following target values (average of three) have been speciÞed and achieved at typical seawater service temperatures: a.1 The materials and fabrication methods used should have sufÞcient toughness to avoid brittle failure..5.1 Specifications Welding should be done in accordance with applicable provisions of the AWS Structural Welding Code AWS D1.5. Part C of Section 6.2 CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) Testing together with rational target toughness values may be used. and stress level. f.5.012 inch (0. Sections 1 through 6 are applicable and constitute a body of rules for the construction of any welded steel structure governed by the AWS D1. 14. API Recommended Practice 2A provides recommended fatigue S-N curves that may be applied when utilizing materials speciÞed therein.3 millimeter) as welded. appropriate to the design situation.5.5. c. 14. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2 millimeter) post-weld heat treated. Loading frequency. 0. 14.3 Toughness Testing 14.5.1 and other applicable AWS documents as follows: a. For Group I and II materials.4.3. 50 ksi materials. b. e.4. submerged).2. b. Cathodic protection. Steel with increased thickness or increased strength may require alternate means for assessing toughness requirements.5. covering ÒUltrasonic Testing of Groove WeldsÓ should not apply to tubular nodes. Fatigue properties of tendon materials should be deÞned with appropriate mean tensile stress. d.5. reports and qualiÞcations of technicians for tubular nodes. 14. The target value of CTOD should ensure that readily detectable (and rejectable) fabrication ßaws will not propagate unstably under service conditions.100 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 14.3 Application speciÞc threshold thicknesses for requiring CTOD properties and the target levels should be selected by the designer. 14.5.3. 14. procedures. portions of deck sections. data should be collected at cyclic stress intensity levels pertinent to design.2.4 Charpy V-Notch impact values achieved on procedures passing the CTOD requirements can be used as a quality control indicator in production plate testing and routine qualiÞcations.5.1 alone may not be adequate for Group III and IV steels.5. the data should be gathered from tests on specimens having similar a. temperature. For example. Such curves should be based on tests carried out on specimens of the appropriate material having micro-structures and weld proÞles or notch effects (where appropriate) that model the general characteristics to be found in prototype components. Mean stress.008 inch (0. Curves should cover the range of variables where they have signiÞcance to design. Section 10. Section 8 applies for general structural welding of plates and structural shapes. As with S-N curves. 14.3. This approach involves testing of specimens of full thickness in the parent plate.2 Group III and IV Steels 14. 14. Testing should be carried out on specimens with known KI calibrations. c. Material chemistry and microstructure.5. splash zone.

Seal welds need not exceed 1/8 inch (3. The essential variables speciÞed in AWS D1.5. a. welders.6.6.3 Welders Welders should be qualiÞed for the type of work assigned.2 millimeters).9 Unspecified Welds Intersecting and abutting parts should be joined by complete penetration groove welds. 14.2.1 as further qualiÞed herein. 14.6.12 Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) Stress relief by PWHT of cylindrical members fabricated from carbon steels is generally not required where the weld joint thickness is 2 inches or less. b. DESIGNING.1A may be used.13. Where post-weld heat treatment is to be used in production it should be included in the welding procedure qualiÞcation tests.1.1 code.7 Weld Size Welding should conform to sizes of welds and notes on the drawings. 14. 14. 14. such as may occur in overlapped braces and pass-through stiffeners. 2000 . d.6. and be issued certiÞcates of qualiÞcation stating such limitations as required by AWS D1. Section 5 should be shown in the welding procedure and adhered to in production welding. 14. c.2 Welding Procedures Written welding procedures should be required for all work. When tubular members are large enough to allow welder access to the inside of the member.8 Inspection The degree of inspection required should be speciÞed.2.5 Performance Qualification Tests QualiÞcation tests should be performed by a competent testing laboratory. 14.6. Section 5 and Appendix E.14 Alternate Specifications At the option of the operator. The longitudinal axis of the specimen should be at a minimum depth of T/2 for T = 3/4 inch or less and T/4 for T > 3/4 inch. When the purchase speciÞcation does not specify impact requirements for Group II. hull and deck fabrication may follow the ABS ÒRules for Building and Classing Mobile Drilling Units. regardless of base metal thickness. weld deposit and heat affected zone). AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 101 14. complete penetration groove welds conforming to AWS Figure 10. consideration may be given to cutout windows to allow access for welding the back side of the joint. A detailed PWHT procedure should be written for each heat treatment.13 Weld Toughness Where minimum toughness requirements are speciÞed they should be applicable to the entire weldment (base material. 14. The cutout should be replaced and rewelded using a properly Þt back-up bar with all splices in the back-up bar full penetration welded.1.6. In specifying PWHT other factors such as high weld joint restraint should be considered in addition to thickness. 14. and Group IV the as-deposited weld metal and heat affected zone in the procedure qualiÞcations should meet the minimum toughness requirements speciÞed in 14. from a weld surface. As a minimum a visual inspection of welded joints should conform to the appropriate requirements of the AWS D1. even where prequaliÞed.6.6. 14. HardnessÑHardness requirements should be by agreement of the manufacturer and the purchaser.6. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.Ó Riser and tendon fabrication may follow the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 14.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. including repairs.4 Qualification Welding procedures.10 Groove Welds Made From One Side At intersecting tubular members. provided low hydrogen welding is used. Class A and B. 14. where access to the root side of the weld is prevented.6 Prior Qualifications New qualiÞcations may be waived if prior qualiÞcations and experience are deemed acceptable. unless otherwise speciÞed. Charpy V-notch tests should be performed in accordance with ASTM A370. This includes hidden intersections. Large Diameter PipeÑThe procedure for submerged arc metal welding of girth joints on large diameter pipe should be qualiÞed on the smallest diameter for which the procedure will be used during production. and welding operators should be qualiÞed in accordance with AWS D1.6. Impact RequirementsÑImpact requirements should be included in the fabrication or purchase speciÞcation.6. Group III. Gas Metal Arc WeldingÑThe short arc process should not be used without prior approval of the purchaser.6.6. all faying surfaces should be sealed against corrosion by continuous Þllet welds.11 Seal Welds Unless speciÞed otherwise. Additional guidance for the selection of toughness requirements is given in 14.

6 Water content should be the minimum that will provide a ßowable mixture and completely Þll the space to be grouted without segregation.e. sea water temperature and depths. 14.102 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 14.1 General The steel materials should be protected from the effects of corrosion by the use of a corrosion protection system that is in accordance with NACE Standard RP-01-76.2 Typical Materials Used in Flexjoint Design Selection of elastomers for use in TLP ßexjoints is dependent upon the laminated structure design approach employed by the ßexjoint manufacturer. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. the grout should not be mixed for more than 3 minutes after the water is added.1. d.8.1 The material selection.4 Batches should be of a size to allow continuous placement of the freshly mixed grout. butyls and polysulÞdes. SBRs. or reduction in strength.9.2 Non-shrinking grouts are generally classiÞed into four types: gas liberating. Placing should be continuous.1 Cement Grout cathodic protection. The water-cement ratio (by weight) should not exceed 0.Comm.9. Site long term stress distribution spectrum in terms of ßuctuating tension loads and angular excursions. 2000 . manufacture. tends to reduce expansions. gypsum-forming.3. When the grout is formed by the addition of a volume controlling ingredient to a cementitious binder. 14. metal oxidizing.1 Function Elastomer compounds may be used in the articulating element of a TLP Mooring System. In most instances.8. e.2 Concrete The designer should consider the recommendation on concrete material set forth in API Recommended Practice 2A. Some types are designed to maintain their as-cast volume while other types are designed for a continual but programmed expansion with time. 14. Synthetics include the nitriles. it should be thoroughly dry-mixed before adding water. External environment consideration. these fall within general types including synthetic and natural rubbers.9. Grout should not be retempered. 14. Prolonged mixing. Maximum angular deßection at design load.8. The selected material should have sufÞcient successful use history to demonstrate to the userÕs satisfaction its adequacy for its intended purpose. Þlling the volume to be grouted from the bottom to the top. 14.9. Selection of a material is highly dependent on the user speciÞcations and the design of the ßexible joint. g. Internal conduit pressures if applicable.1.8. Diameter and weight constraints.3 Selection Criteria 14. Tension loads as a function of local leg deßection angle including normal operating and design maximums and minimums. i. no additional ingredients should be added without evaluating the effect of these additions on the non-shrink (expansion) behavior of the grout. The level of expansion and the force it exerts on adjacent structures and formations can be controlled and designed accordingly. design.1 The designer should consider the recommendation on cement grout set forth in API Recommended Practice 2A. Non shrinking grout should be used when the integrity of the connection depends solely on the bond strength between the grout and the surface.14.8 CEMENT GROUT AND CONCRETE 14.2 The designer should be provided with speciÞcation deÞnition in enough detail to ensure the best design/ material combination is selected. and expansive cements which derive their non-shrink properties from the expansive nature of the cementitious system. the Þnal proportions should be based on the results from sample mixtures of the grout.3. while increasing strength. 14. Placement under pressure using a pump is acceptable. Design life. and test of the TLP mooring ßexjoint are normally functions of the ßexjoint contractor.7..9 ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS 14. Overprotection which may cause hydrogen embrittlement should be avoided. This includes the following: a. Unless recommended by the material manufacturer. c. 14. Although literally thousands of elastomeric compositions exist.1.8. 14. 14. 14.1.2 Antifouling In areas where marine fouling is signiÞcant.5 When the material is a prepackaged product requiring only the addition of water.7. if available. Many of the speciÞc compounds used are proprietary to the manufacturer. organisms are active and the use of antifouling coatings may be considered to reduce the effects of marine growth.8. See A.3 Mixing and placing should be in conformance with the material manufacturerÕs instructions.8. 14. corrosion allowance and corrosion monitoring.7 CORROSION PROTECTION 14. f. 14. Some blends of two or more polymers are also used. neoprenes. The corrosion protection systems include coatings.9. Grout not used within 30 minutes after mixing should be discarded.1. the ingredient may be dispensed in solid or liquid form. If in a solid form. bleeding. b.5.

5.5. Hydro testing (if applicable). thermal or cryogenicÑshould have no deleterious effect on the metal. Adhesion Test ASTMÑD-429 3. SpeciÞc criteria for voids and surface blemishes.9. Maximum angular stiffness spring rate at operating conditions. e. Material mechanical property testing requirements such as: 1.4. Hardness of Rubber ASTMÑD-2240 c.2 The ßexjoint contractor should demonstrate appropriate controls of materials. g. unusual site speciÞc conditions.1 The ßexjoint contractor should provide speciÞcations for user approval which include the following requirements: a.4. Normal dimensional requirements. mold design. Reclamation processesÑchemical.5 Acceptance Criteria 14. Non-destructive examination. material selection including documented and demonstrated history of satisfactory operation in similar design. and environmental situations. processing. d. Corrosion protection requirements. Any special requirements. Proof loads. Tear Resistant Requirement ASTMÑD-624 4. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 103 h. f. the shear modulus requirement at a particular set of strain conditions. temperatures. 14. l.4 Contractor Specifications 14. 2000 . k.9. Repair methods and limitations.4. b. 14. axial and spring rate testing.4.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. j. b.2 Acceptance criteria for reclamation of metal components of rejected moldings should be deÞned.3 Acceptance criteria for ßexjoint assembly testing should include the following: a. 14.9. operational. compatibility with internal ßuids.3 The ßexjoint contractor should have suitable molding process speciÞcations for molding techniques. Bonding agents and surface preparation methods. Age and storage controls must be documented. DESIGNING. for instance.1 Acceptance criteria for the molded elastomer should include the following: a. Proof loads (optional).5.4 The ßexjoint manufacturer should provide indepth analysis of design. 14.9. As applicable.9. 14. and testing to ensure uncured green rubber is delivered to the molding operations. Tension Testing of Rubber ASTMÑD-412 2. Inspection techniques to ensure proper location of reinforcements and adequate rubber coverage.9. d. 14. The type of elastomer to be used.9. Local interfacing with corrosion protection coatings. i. Fatigue resistance. cure time. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Minimum axial stiffness. Proof loads and angles.9. c. pressures and should provide these for review. b.9. 14.

COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 2000 .

the tendon pretension. must be balanced against the pretension requirements for the tendon system as dictated by the environmental loads. i. Directionality. Tide/surge. Geotechnical criteria. s.2 THE DESIGN SPIRAL The design of a TLP system is an interactive process involving both design and analysis. Regulatory requirements. and to recognize that later changes in the design requirements can have a very large impact on the global design. n. The paragraph numbers correspond to numbered paragraphs in the referenced section.COMM.2 describes the iteration which is necessary in performing the design of a TLP. Riser number. 2000 . aa. m. Stress/load/resistance factors. Function and payload (space and weight). and tension.2. z. Wind.APPENDIX A—COMMENTARIES Appendix A includes commentaries on certain sections of Recommended Practice 2T. The estimate of weight at each level of design is critical. l. and too 105 small an estimate results in insufÞcient weight carrying capacity which cannot be increased without a complete resizing of the hull. k. The Þrst is the conÞguring of the platform and tendon system and a weight estimate. Weight estimating margins. Performance requirements. Bottom survey/contours. r. while subsequent sections provide details on the steps involved in the design. and the payload. Weight margins should be considered carefully.COMM. The important factors in a design basis include performance requirements. The TLP system is interdependent among its parts and requires trade-offs and balancing from conceptual design all the way through Þnal design.Deck clearance margin. increased displacement also increases the pretension requirements. Safety factors. A. spacing.3 Preliminary Design Because of the nature of the response calculations for the TLP design. the draft and sizing of pontoons. A. References are included in Appendix B. Construction and fabrication tolerances. Environmental criteria (operation and extreme).4 Planning A. u. Design life.COMM. x. Current. while the pretension requirement is determined by analysis of the Þnal conÞguration. Wave.2. Tendon pretension margins. Maximum offsets and riser angles. Water depth. and design factors and margins. q. The design process is shown schematically in Figure A-33. with excessive errors in either direction having a detrimental impact on the design. y. The following provides an overview of the system design process. the site parameters.4. and economics. Site parameters. The design process balances operational requirements of the TLP with constraints of environment. Design factors and margins. A.COMM. The second is the analysis of the system extreme responses to environmental forcing. The design of TLPs should include appraisal of probabilistic risk. c. the deck clearance. The design spiral discussed in 4. Therefore. The parameters which are considered primary in this Þrst level of design are the size and number of columns.4. h. b. The system design of a TLP is a small subset of this spiral which includes some of the most important interactions and tradeoffs. number and tension of risers. and the third is checking the system COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. t. p. including riser tension and payload.4. The Þnal weight of the platform is ultimately determined by the end product of design. and the use of spectral and statistical methods of predicting design responses. Motion limits. Increased displacement generally increases both weight and the dynamic response of tension in the tendons to environmental forces. The design loop within which the system is conÞgured and sized includes three steps. o. Soil strength/stiffness. Joint statistics of events. in addition to providing additional pretension. f. w. The weight of the system.2 Conceptual Design The conceptual design and sizing of a TLP centers around the pretension in the tendon system. g. d. including subjective uncertainties as well as statistical uncertainties. The relationship between weight and pretension is a Þne balance which involves most major aspects of design. Location. The pretension is provided by excess displacement of the hull. maximum tendon loads. regulation. it is important to have a complete design basis available at the end of the preliminary design cycle. v. j. but are listed here for completeness: a. The proper balance between weight and pretension is approached in an iterative manner. e. These are discussed elsewhere in Sections 4 and 5. Too large an estimate results in a signiÞcantly larger and more expensive structure.

foundation. The weight estimates will be based on preliminary structural sketches and/or typical weight densities for similar structures. the designer will be concerned with meeting the fundamental performance requirements and surviving extreme environmental conditions. By the Þnal pass through the loop. Performance requirements Site parameters Design factors and margins Tendon configuration Platform configuration and weight est. risers. The result of this phase of the design should be the system conÞguration with a Þxed hull displacement and the maximum loads and responses for the detailed design of the platform tendons. Appropriate margins for error and growth should be included. and platform systems. 2000 .106 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T responses against the requirements established in the Design Basis. Any unacceptable performance results in a return to the conÞguration and sizing step for modiÞcation of the system and subsequent analysis and performance checks. In subsequent passes through the design loop. the designer will include more detailed requirements such as fatigue life of the tendons. During the initial passes through this loop. Towout stability check Global response analysis Model testing Performance checks Vessel configuration and responses Detailed structural design Detailed tendon design Detailed foundation design Riser/well system design Figure A-33—TLP Global Design Process COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. it is important that the weight estimate be very close to the Þnal weight. and perform a much more complete analysis to be certain of covering environmental conditions and combinations which will give extreme responses.

can be derived from the signiÞcant wave height (see A. A simple wind spectra is given in 6.4.2. Statistically. wave period. Measured wave spectra are highly variable in nature.COMM-48) Where: Tz = Average zero-crossing period. The spectrum so deÞned may then be used to calculate ßuctuating wind forces (see 6. Pierson and Moskowitz. center of gravity.5 Design Criteria A. The steady speeds are considered to be the mean speed measured at a reference height.COMM. distance above bottom and time. A number of general empirical formulations for wind spectra have been proposed (Kareem. Cutoff frequency. water depth. directionally spread seas. short-fetch seas. Wave SpectraÑThe wave spectrum describes irregular sea conditions.4 Final Design The Þnal design of the various subsystems of the TLP proceed with the results of the preliminary design from the design loop described above. typically 30 feet (10 meters) above the mean still water level. 1982. Wind spectra are used to deÞne variable wind speeds which cause dynamic loadings on the platform. Simiu and Scanlan. If a cutoff frequency is not used.2 Wind Steady wind speeds are deÞned in this Recommended Practice as the average speed occurring for a period of one hour duration. Hasselmann et al. The directionality of the wind may be important in some applications and if so should be investigated. B = dimensional constants related to the signiÞcant wave height and period.7.5.COMM. This characteristic can be either the spectral peak period. primarily at the physical intersection points such as the tendon attachment to the hull or to the foundation. 2000 . The primary resources available to prevent such iterations are weight margins and weight shedding exercises. Tz = M o /M 2 (A.4. moments of inertia. Among the empirical spectra available. A.COMM-50) ò ¥ 0 S ( f )d f = s2 (A. terms of the zero and second statistical moments of the wave height spectrum. Wave PeriodsÑIn addition to the signiÞcant wave height. a characteristic wave period must be given to deÞne a seastate. or the average zero-crossing period. The criteria for selecting the cutoff frequency may be based on preserving a percentage of the zeroth moment of the spectra. but suffers from having many differing deÞnitions in use. or is approximately the average height of the one-third highest waves. and should use an upper cutoff frequency in its deÞnition.7 or Recommended Practice 2A). s2 = (HS/4)2. Various spectral forms have been developed for different condition such as fully arisen seas (long duration and fetch or causing winds).2. or be a multiple of the spectral peak frequency. There continues to be some interface. including an expected maximum. Hz. It may at some time be necessary to reenter the primary design loop if major changes are required. There is considerable variability in wind gust characteristics as revealed by measurements.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. and any other factors which may affect the system responses.COMM-51) Where: s2 = variance of the sea surface elevation about its mean level. Mn = Where: S(f) f fc Mn A. etc. Tz (the average time between consecutive up or down crossings of the mean sea level). Wave KinematicsÑWave induced water particle velocity and acceleration are functions of wave height. 1959. most have the following form: S(f) = A fÐm exp (ÐBfÐn) (A. 1978).2. These functions COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.2. The distribution of wave heights. Tz should be deÞned in Where: ò f c o fc S ( f )d f (A.5). the spectrally deÞned zero-crossing periods will be biased to values smaller than observed by other methods. n-th spectral moment. Tz is more commonly used. 1973.3 Waves The signiÞcant wave height (HS) is often used as the main parameter to deÞne a seastate. Frequency. Many empirical formulations for wave spectra have been proposed (Bretschneider. DESIGNING.COMM.4.2. Measured wind data may be needed to develop an appropriate wind spectrum for a speciÞc site. Hz. Wind speeds may be extrapolated to heights other than the reference height and to other average time intervals as shown in 6. 1964). It remains critical to monitor the weight.2. the signiÞcant wave height is four times the standard deviation of the sea surface elevation about its mean level. A. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 107 A. ft2/Hz or m2/Hz.. Tp. combined seas.COMM.5.COMM.COMM-49) = = = = height spectral density. n = integers. and smoother parametric spectral models are commonly used for analysis. m.

Equations for the Chappelear wave theory can be found in Chappelear. Gumbel. either calculated or measured.COMM-56) For a narrow-band assumption. Chappelear wave theory. The largest response in these n events has a 63 percent chance of exceeding gn.÷ ----------------. the kinematics from the mean water level must be either stretched or extrapolated. gn is the most likely extreme to occur in n events. e. This method could lead to extremely conservative results for random seas.7 RANDOM PROCESS STATISTICS For short term Gaussian processes.. e. Equation A. a number of other techniques can be used. values are calculated only to the mean water level. 1961.g. Thus. Response analysis often requires the consideration of multivariate processes. For longer term analyses. The most probable extreme value can also be expressed in terms of time instead of the number of observations.COMM-55) Where: T = total time (in hours) of exposure to the sea state in question. 1974.COMM-53) (A. a is between 0 and 1. the Gumbel distribution may be used. and are for short-term probabilistic analyses. This relationship holds for any value of e and is not dependent on the bandwidth. Lambrakos and Brannon. For this case the stretched method may be used. The peaks of Gaussian processes are Rayleigh distributed. the solution can still be simply estimated for bandwidth parameter. for a large number of observations.COMM52 becomes: n 1¤2 g n = æ 2 M 0 1 n æ -. and Ochi. the joint distributions of all relevant environmental events must be speciÞed. e = 0. Equations for StokesÕ Þfth order wave theory can be found in Skjelbreia and Hendrickson. the joint distributions of the different parameters become important. Wave and wave response statistics are generally Gaussian in nature. the above formula can be written as: æ ö 2 g n = ç 2 M 0 1n 3600 T M.COMM-55 is the same irrespective of the bandwidth parameter of the spectrum. contains the equations for the extended velocity potential wave theory.9.ö ö è è aø ø (A. Long-term wave statistics are often Þtted to a Weibull distribution.COMM-53 becomes: æ æ 2 1 Ð e2 g n = ç 2 M 0 1n ç ------------------------è è 1 + 1 Ð e2 nö ö --÷ ÷ aø ø 1¤2 A.7.COMM-54) M2 and M1 are the second and fourth spectral moments of the process. or extended velocity potential wave theory. In order to obtain an extreme response in which the probability of being exceeded is small.90. In this case. For processes with e greater than 0. may be incorporated in the design extreme response prediction.7 Global Design and Analysis A. If a stretched approach is used the kinematics at the free surface will be identical to those originally calculated for the mean water level. 1961. The preceding formulae are for Gaussian stationary processes. stream function wave theory.COMM. 1973. gn of a zero-mean narrow-band Gaussian random process may be obtained by the following formula. n: gn = (2M01n(n))1/2 (A. Equation A. and include Weibull. For deterministic analysis. 1964.108 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T may be determined by any defensible method for deepwater waves. 1951. Gumbel. StokesÕ Þfth order wave theory. Extrapolating kinematics to the free surface consists of applying the velocity potential to the actual free surface.COMM-57) The parameter M0 is the zeroth spectral moment of the process. less than 0. Although Equation A. the number of peaks for a broad-banded spectrum is larger than that for a narrow-banded spectrum for the same period of time. a risk parameter.COMM. an assumption of full correlation between different parameters will usually provide COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. The stream function wave theory equations can be found in Dean.-----è 2p M0 ø 1¤2 (A. Further information can be found in Weibull. there are simple formulae for estimating extremes. If the process is non-narrow band. To obtain values up to the free surface. Linear theory is discussed in detail by Wiegel.ö -÷ ç è 1 + 1 Ð e 2ø Where: M22 1 ¤ 2 e = æ 1 Ð ----------------2ö è M 02 M 4 ø (A. a. The time for a given number of observations can be derived from the average number of zero crossings per unit time.COMM-52) (A. To predict the response distributions in a fully probabilistic analysis. and represents a fractional occurrence in n events. linear wave theory. That is: 1¤2 2n 1 Ð e 2 g n = 2M 0 1 n æ ------------------------. Since this is a Þrst order approximation to actual wave kinematics. and is especially useful when performing spectral analysis. 1974. These are generally referred to as extreme distributions. and Ochi distributions. 2000 . The most probable maximum value. 1954.

stiffened plates. A. The number of cycles per ÒblockÓ is obtained by the return period concept from the probability distribution of wave height. Fatigue ScreeningÑA simple method to determine the maximum stress amplitude for fatigue screening during pre- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.COMM.COMM. The S-N curves used should be related to the material. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 109 a conservative estimate of the extreme combination. 2. In a spectral fatigue analysis (see Maddox and Wildenstein 1975. The stress range distribution is then used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. A 95 percent conÞdence level S-N curve should be used. The wave period assigned to each of these regular waves may be a deterministically deÞned quantity corresponding to a given wave height. 1976. The number of cycles occurring for a given stress range is obtained Þrst from the stress record. The effect of mean stress should be considered. The objective is to generate stress response spectra for critical locations on the platform.COMM.g. Vugts and Kinra. for fatigue analysis purposes. construction detail. The stress response spectral may be used to estimate the stress range distribution by assuming: 1.4.Ó c. The recommendation in this TLP design practice of a fatigue life requirement for the hull and deck of at least three times the intended service life of the platform reßects this immaturity of TLP technology. The number of cycles is obtained by the return period concept from the probability distribution of wave height. discrete ÒblocksÓ of several regular waves of different height are formed. Time series simulation and cycle counting via rainßow. Proper S-N curves should be used for connections different from tubular. each described by a wave spectrum. The wave climate is composed of many sea states. Each short-term sea state is represented by a wave record (usually generated from a wave spectrum). visual wave height. such as tubular to rectangular connections (column to pontoon). The choice of proper S-N curves is important. A. but this is often excessively costly to the design. b. 1975) presented a deterministic approach for fatigue analysis. Rice distribution in the case of broad banded stress response spectra. and environment.3 Fatigue Analysis There are two main categories of methods for generating stress range distributions for fatigue life assessment: deterministic and stochastic. etc. The response of the structure is obtained for a series of single waves each being representative of one Òblock. For welded connections the S-N curve used should reßect local weld proÞle. Maddox (1974.4. Further information on the application of joint statistics to TLP design may be found in Leverette. Four approaches for generating stresses are presented.4. range pair. This recommendation may change as more information on TLPs becomes available. The fatigue of TLPs is a high cycle.1 Fatigue Life Requirement API Recommended Practice 2A recommends a design fatigue life for components of Þxed offshore platforms equal to twice the intended service life of the structure. 2000 .8. use of an additional margin is recommended.. For S-N curves to be used for tubular connections. D. A. or some other algorithm. d. the wave climate is composed of many sea states. by approaches such as described in API Recommended Practice 2A. 3. DESIGNING. From the probability distribution of the wave height measure.). the following approach called discrete fatigue analysis may be used.4. 1982.4. this period may be of stochastic character related to a given wave height through scatter diagrams that describe the joint probability of wave heights and periods. For critical elements whose sole failure could be catastrophic. Short-term statistics are generated by evaluation of moments of the stress spectra. The parameters of the stress distribution are derived from a limited number of response analyses of the structure subjected to regular waves. low stress phenomenon. In the high cycle range. Alternatively.8. Dynamic effects should be taken into account in determining the probability distribution of stresses if their contribution is expected to be signiÞcant. S-N curves are characterized by a degree of uncertainty. Rayleigh distribution in the case of narrow banded stress response spectra. Transfer functions for response quantities can be developed by either time domain or frequency domain analysis. A simple fatigue analysis is based on the assumption that the stresses in the structure have a probability distribution similar to the probability distribution of the wave height measure (e. Kinrad and Marshall 1979). etc. Stress range is deÞned from the record. The structure response and stresses are obtained for each wave record.4. Instead of assuming the shape of the probability distribution for stresses. There is no body of historical data or extensive analytical studies for TLPs that can be used to calibrate a fatigue life requirement to assure reliabilities for TLP structural components like those implicit in API Recommended Practice 2A for Þxed offshore platforms.COMM. Tension leg platforms are a new structural concept. according to Equation 40.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.8. Long-term statistics are evaluated by considering the probability distribution of the parameters characterizing the wave spectrum. see API Recommended Practice 2A. and should be used with a stress concentration factor that reßects overall joint geometry. signiÞcant wave height. The Þrst three are deterministic and the fourth is stochastic: a.2 Fatigue Loading The wave climate may be described.8 Platform Structural Design A. then it is scaled according to the percent of occurrence per year for the given sea state and the percent of occurrence for the corresponding Þnite length record.

5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Deterministic DesignÑIn deterministic design. The allowable stresses used here have been chosen to be like those used in API Recommended Practice 2A. Substituting these variables into Equation A. As an example of the calculation of maximum screening level stress. These Òlimit statesÓ can be placed in two categories: a. Probabilistic DesignÑIn probabilistic design all quantities that enter into design calculations are associated with probability of occurrence.COMM. The onethird increase in allowables has been used here for the ÒExtremeÓ environmental condition. is: ( S rmax ) m G ( m/x + 1 ) D = -------------------------.6 of the AISC code. the complete gamma function. b. For this example the variables in Equation A. The theory behind the method and the derivation of the equation for fatigue damage is given in Marshall and Luyties.Ó This allowable increase was adapted from the AISC provision for wind and earthquake loading. This simple method is based on the assumption of a Weibull probability density function for the stress range.4.3. maximum cyclic stress range.0.COMM-58) = = = = = = cumulative damage ratio. loading and material rather than use a catchall factor of safety.0 Weibull shape parameter.5.5. empirical coefÞcients for the S-N curve. probabilistic design attempts to account for all random and systematic uncertainties at the code development stage. The implicit approach to safety embodied in this practice.5.5.0).1b.2 Allowable Stresses (A. Probabilistic design attempts to model the mechanics of the structure.7 ksi in the 100 year event. in terms of the damage D: 1¤m S max 1/x DA = ( 1nN T ) . and that the API X fatigue damage curve is applied with no endurance limit. The designer should bear in mind that the behavior of TLPs under applied loads may not be like that of other types of structures.NT ----------------------( 1nN T ) m/x A Where: D m. assume that the damage allowed over a one hundred year period is 1. A Srmax NT x G() A.0 may be more appropriate for TLPs.8. or part of a structure. Section 2. A.2. The lifetime fatigue damage. usually based on experience or commonly accepted practice. Ultimate limit states.38 Tension Leg Platforms are a new structural concept. is considered unsafe when its performance or use is seriously impaired. Uncertainty is only indirectly included in the design process through factors of safety. Thus. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. which relate to the criteria governing normal use and durability.110 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T liminary stages of design is outlined here. extreme values that have a small chance of being exceeded are usually adopted. There is no body of historical data or extensive analytical studies for TLPs that could be used to calibrate the allowable stresses used in this working stress design based practice to assure reliabilities for TLP structural components like those implicit in API Recommended Practice 2A for Þxed offshore platforms. will provide structures that have a great range of component and system reliabilities. This equation can be solved for the maximum cyclic stress amplitude Smax (equal to Srmax divided by 2. corresponding to the increased allowables in API Recommended Practice 2A. 2000 . The value of x is a function of the long-term environment and the platform response.4. like any working stress design based practice. A value closer to 1. This design approach is expected to result in a more uniform level of safety for all structures. The designer should develop a basis for x based on more detailed fatigue analyses. Serviceability limit states.COMM. m = 4. and should use appropriate caution when using the allowable stresses recommended in 8. Section 1.0 E+8 number of cycles over 100 years D = 1. discrete values are assigned to each design variable rather than ranges associated with probability of occurrence. The fatigue life of the Þnal design must be conÞrmed by a detailed fatigue analysis as outlined in 8.COMM-59 are as follows: NT = 5.8 is often used for x for Þxed platforms. which correspond to the maximum load carrying capacity. total number of cycles. A value of 0.8.COMM-59 yields a maximum fatigue screening level hot spot cyclic stress amplitude of 18.0 damage allowed over 100 years ü From the API X curve ý A = 2. D.COMM-59) The designer should decide on the appropriate level of damage for this preliminary screening procedure. Ultimate Strength DesignÑLimit state design checks the safety of the structure against criteria for performance and use.5 to 0. To deÞne loads. A structure. Weibull shape parameter.44 E + 11 þ x = 1. 1982. ÒIncreased Allowable Stresses.------------------------------------------------------G ( m/x + 1 ) N T 2 (A.

the designer must use care in using such a program because of the following two important differences between risers and tendons: a. Uncoupled linear analysis is the easiest method to employ. For example.2 Extreme Environment In designing for minimum tension conditions. could result in higher tendon loads than a maximum design storm with all tendons in place. 2000 . hence the loads on all legs should be considered. Examples of this might include a case where a solid rod or stranded cable tendon is to be installed inside a previously installed tubular tendon.COMM. the procedures for selecting ground motion described in API Recommended Practice 2A should be followed. or with a ßooded compartment on the platform.3 DESIGN LOADING CONDITIONS Since tendon loadings can be sensitive to the occurrence of wave energy at a resonant frequency. and intended service conditions of individual tendons either within a leg or from leg to leg.COMM.COMM. These can be used to determine cyclic stress range data needed for fatigue analysis.9.3. parting of a tendon. Selection of the maximum design load should therefore consider the range of possible storms which might occur during the various operational conÞgurations of the platform. DESIGNING. Each component on each record should be scaled on the amplitude and/or time axis so that its damped response spectrum matches the appropriate recommended API Recommended Practice 2A spectrum.2 Description of Tendon System platform weight and ballasting should be considered in determining minimum tension conditions.9.1 deÞne representative conditions for which tendons need to be designed to preclude overload.3. It can give adequate results for primary wave fatigue loads and maximum loads provided a spectral wave input is used with appropriate statistics applied. A.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING.9. three historic records from sites similar to the TLP location should be selected. It is not mandatory that an individual tendon have an identical appearance throughout its length. an annual or 10 year storm occurring while one or more tendons are removed for inspection or service.9. some error or uncertainty in the Lifetime operating load conditions deÞne the expected magnitude and frequency of occurrence of tendon loads on an annual or service life basis. and truncated. or to the number of tendons in service. Also. A. This would be the case for very deep TLP applications and/or tendon designs based on very large diameter tendons or large tendon clusters. with an appropriate extension to longer periods as discussed above.9. An important consideration is the amount of hydrodynamic added mass associated with tendon transverse accelerations.6 Seismic In considering seismic loads.3. Tendons will be rigidly attached (in the axial direc- COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3.2 GENERAL DESIGN The general design philosophy of this section is that the structural failure of a tendon. the designer should consider the possibility of extreme tidal variations occurring in conjunction with storms or improper ballasting. This philosophy has been adopted in light of the high uncertainty in predicting the consequences of a parted tendon. Þltered.9 Tendon System Design A.COMM.4. at the oscillating period corresponding to the structural response. Although an uncoupled tendon load analysis can be performed using a riser-type program. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 111 A.3. A.9.COMM. Where possible.1. i. A.9. A. Risers normally have constant tension at the top with their length changing in accordance with vessel heave motions.2 Dynamic Analysis Considerations The importance of non-linear and coupling effects on tendon tensions has been the subject of research in recent years. with only a small variation in tension due to tensioner response.2.2 Loading Conditions The loading conditions listed in 9.. Generally any analytical method contains uncertainties which must be accounted for in design procedures and safety factors. The goal of this design procedure is to avoid the parting of a tendon.2.9. A.COMM. if time history analysis is performed.COMM. The importance of coupled tendon analysis may increase as the mass of tendons approaches a signiÞcant percentage of platform mass. is deÞned as a critical failure. Note that the minimum tension condition is likely to occur on a leg other than the one experiencing the maximum tension.2.3 Normal Conditions For some applications it can be useful to consider tendon system designs where there are substantial differences in the form.e.2. A. buckling and fatigue modes of failure.COMM. The selection of the maximum design load should be based on a consideration of the relative probabilities of each combination occurring. A single deterministic Òdesign waveÓ could give inaccurate results for extreme loads if the peak of the tension Response Amplitude Operator (RAO) does not happen to fall at the period of the design wave.COMM. tendon survival analysis should consider loadings which might arise from conditions other than the maximum design storm. Uneven ballasting could result from a ßooded compartment or from equipment failure. geometry.

1976 (thumb nail cracks) and Buchalet.6. A. The number increases with water depth. These allowable stress levels were selected with the recognition that peak or Òhot spotÓ stresses. They should be determined as accurately as possible due to the sensitivity of fatigue life to variations in cyclic stress range predictions. see Wirsching. there is difÞculty in establishing accurate stress intensity expressions for three-dimensional geometries.COMM. Methods for determining stress intensities for ßaws in notches are discussed in Shah. A. Several approaches have been suggested for predicting the tendon fatigue life from individual component lives (e.8 Fy for net section and 1. indicating the necessity for test data for both phases of fatigue life. Also.4 Fatigue Life Since tendons typically consist of many components connected in series.9.). fatigue design requirements should reßect the fact that the predicted fatigue life of the whole tendon will be less than the predicted fatigue life of any component.COMM. such as those found in the roots of threads in threaded connectors and other locations of stress concentration are likely to be much higher.. particularly when girth welds. TLP experience. and even the main body of the tendon have comparable fatigue lives. 1976 (circumferential cracks). the tendons warrant regular inspection. Given all the uncertainties with respect to procedures and input values of key parameters. although fatigue analyses reveal substantial life variation among points along the length when bending is signiÞcant. Hammouda. The component fatigue life factor of ten is considered a reasonable blanket requirement. The approaches vary in the sense of whether both stress and resistance or only resistance is considered and. in-service. connectors.112 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T tion) to the platform columns and will experience large tension variations due to smaller heave motions. high uncertainties exist. mean load and level of cathodic protection. While research into appropriate statistics is ongoing.9. cyclic load range and frequency.5. and crack initiation periods. All of the approaches to tendon fatigue life make use of reliability concepts and characteristic values of statistics. Both storm conditions and operating conditions should be considered since safety factors associated with the operating condition are 33 percent higher than those of the storm condition. such calibration may fall short of providing a sufÞcient amount of data to establish a lower bound S-N curve.9. many components of interest have non-welded details. there are numerous pitfalls in achieving accurate fatigue life predictions using ÒconventionalÓ fracture mechanics. discuss the general problem of fatigue crack initiation and propagation from notches. et al. the degree of correlation assumed among stresses of various components.2 Allowable Stresses The maximum allowable stress levels of 0.2 Fy for local bending are intended to preclude tendon failure due to gross overload and yielding. particularly in regions of high stress gradient and instances where the peak stresses are displacement-induced. For example.6. 2000 .g..6.5 Inspection/Replacement Interval Because of their criticality. However. However. The inspection interval must allow sufÞcient COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.3 Fatigue Analysis While well understood in the offshore industry.g. for which some general guidance can be found in DnV. These peak or Òhot spotÓ stresses are principal determinants of tendon fatigue life and crack growth rates. so particular S-N curves cannot be given. calibration of analysis techniques to the conservative side of experimental results for each component is warranted. even if the Þnal ßaw size and crack growth constants are carefully established. 1979. few tendon component designs have been tested (Salama.COMM. the number of components to assume is questionable. The uncertainty in detecting small cracks in such a large volume of material suggests the small ratio of inspection interval to time-to-failure. if stress is included.. and material crack growth constants (e. This ratio could be increased based on the use of a demonstrably reliable in-place inspection system. initial and Þnal ßaw sizes. The analysis needs to consider the effective amplitude of these responses since they could contribute a high number of fatigue cycles. High uncertainties are apt to remain until there is extensive.9. As of 1986. the S-N approach assumes the availability of lower bound S-N curves for the components being analyzed. et al. Most of the approaches assume that the predicted fatigue lives of individual components are equal. The life is thereby a function of the range of stress intensity. A. et al. The factor could be substantially less than ten if the inspection were proven reliable and continuous or very frequent.6.. these curves are intended to be representative of the material. environment.3 Hydrostatic Collapse Interaction between axial and hoop stresses should be considered in the collapse check. Furthermore. Burnside. Further. A.COMM. 1977 (Appendix C). and there were an expedient repair/replacement plan. Fatigue life estimates can also be made via fracture mechanics. can represent a substantial portion of the overall fatigue life. Heave and pitch motions of the platform may occur at resonant frequencies close to the primary wave frequencies. or in the range of second order wave force frequencies. et al. 1984) from the Paris equation. b.COMM.. during which fracture mechanics is not applicable. 1984).9. A.

Tendon vertical angle and azimuth can be monitored using ßuid-damped pendulum potentiometers or other systems developed to monitor drilling riser angles. A. and a wet/dry thermometer. and a radio position reference system. strain gauges. consideration should be given to the time and procedures required to mobilize and install the equipment onboard accounting for COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Such information can. Additional tendon monitoring instrumentationÑMonitoring lower and upper ßex joint angles and tendon stress and deßection might be desired to verify in-service performance with analytical predictions. Meteorological instruments normally include a barometer. or methods to identify the need for recalibration. Position reference systemÑA platform position reference system can be provided to monitor horizontal offset and platform oscillatory motions. The following paragraphs give general descriptions of instrumentation functions and design considerations: a. Meteorological and oceanographic instrumentationÑA vast array of meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation is commercially available. coupling damage. such as adjacent to the upper and lower ßex joints. Retrieval equipment and tendon replacement parts can be maintained onboard the platform or at an onshore location. For validation of analytical predictions. template or connector damage. Recalibration procedures and schedules. e.COMM. it may also be useful to monitor stress and deßection along a tendonÕs length. Operating and maintenance manuals should also be supplied by the manufacturer. Electro-hydraulic load cells.. Shifts in the platform center of gravity can then be calculated and counteracted by re-ballasting. This monitoring can be achieved by maintaining accurate records of ballast volume changes and signiÞcant platform weight and weight location changes. Selection of a particular instrument to monitor a speciÞc parameter should be based on the instrumentÕs required service life. etc.1 is intended to aid in operations and ensure that tendon system design and operating limits are not exceeded. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 113 time for replacement of a damaged tendon including provision for weather windows. reduced strength. multichannel simultaneous recording of selected parameters can be used to correlate theoretical predictions of platform response and tendon tension variations. reliability. The latter consideration requires a system for controlling and recording drilling derrick location and load. 2000 .) Initial qualiÞcation and calibration of each instrumentation and monitoring system should be performed by the manufacturer. for example. and current meters. and its potential detrimental effects on a tendon (e.9. more tendon load distribution non-uniformity being tolerable in mild conditions than in severe storm conditions. anemometers.COMM.2 Tendon Retrieval and Replacement Contingency planning for retrieval in the case of known or suspected damage should address the feasibility of retrieval for a variety of damage scenarios. Center of gravity monitoringÑMonitoring of platform center of gravity location can be done to ensure that a relatively uniform distribution of tendon pretension is maintained as weights aboard the platform vary with operations. accuracy. etc.9. d. be used to verify stress-cycle assumptions employed in design fatigue analyses and crack growth predictions. Example systems which can be used are an acoustical system. Such units can be strapped to tendons adjacent to the upper and lower ßex joints or deployed down the tendon bore on a wire-line. Platform heave. or other load sensing instrumentation may be used to monitor tendon tensions. Data can be transmitted to the platform either by hard wire or by remote telemetry. maintainability. Strain gauges can be installed at points of predicted high bending stress.9. should also be developed and provided to on-board operating personnel. When the latter option is selected. wave rider buoys. and yaw can be measured using an array of accelerometers and vertical axis gyroscopes. roll. These limits or envelopes can vary with the severity of environmental conditions. Operating personnel should be properly trained on the use and care of the systems and should understand their operation and limitations. c. coating damage.g.9. bringing out a new tendon.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. Estimated weight distribution should be periodically compared with tendon tensions and discrepancies investigated. These motions are expected to be small and might not need to be monitored for operational purposes but intermittent data collection can be used to compare actual motions with analytical predictions. b. Additionally.9. Tendon tension instrumentationÑTendon axial loads should be monitored during installation to set tendon pretension and during operation to ensure that tendon loads are maintained within design limitations.1 Load Monitoring The load monitoring described in 9. Strain gauges can be located on the tension members just below the upper connector to measure top tension. a taut-line system. Estimated platform weight distributions should be compared with tendon tension distributions during calm conditions (no offset) and signiÞcant discrepancies investigated. Accessibility for periodic replacement should be provided. In this way the center of gravity can be maintained within pre-determined safe limits. galvanic cell creation. etc. lower/upper ßex joint damage. drilling and auxiliary consumable inventories and other signiÞcant variable or movable weights. Data logging and processing of tendon top tensions can be used to estimate tendon stress histograms in service. A. pitch. Oceanographic instruments include wave staffs. in turn. DESIGNING.

Cyclic degradation. 2.6. Schematically.114 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T expected environmental conditions and platform motions at the site. Listed below are eight factors which were considered important for TLP pile design. b. This effect should be considered in determining the long-term capacity of piles under sustained loading.1 Discussion on Safety Factors to be Applied to the Axial Capacity of Piled Foundations a. ¥ Item (c) relates to the development of progressive pile failure due to the axial ßexibility of the pile-soil system under cyclic loading conditions.e. oscillation motions. that is. 2000 . tensioncompression) load tests conducted in the above mentioned studies show an immediate degradation in pile capacity. e. d. It was also felt that it would not be appro- priate to suggest testing of calculation methodologies to help quantify these effects. d. Factors which could inßuence the safety of a TLP pile foundation have been identiÞed and compared to the design inßuence each factor has for a conventional jacket pile. Time required to install a replacement tendon or reinstall the retrieved tendon. b. and environmental conditions associated with the selected method. Crack growth predictions of time to failure for various crack sizes and locations and the ability to retrieve the tendon within the available time. and (d) relate to considerations that were felt to be difÞcult to quantify given the present state of knowledge. Lacking experience with TLP foundations. there appears to be no reason to apply any explicit penalty for this consideration. Results from the full scale Beta pile test (Doyle & Pelletier. J. the design approach adopted utilizes the jacket type platform pile design as the baseline for safety consideration. (c). 1985) showed temporary reductions of 61 percent to 85 percent of the pre-cyclic pile capacity within 16 fully reversed load cycles. and ChevronÕs pile test site at Empire. Background. ¥ Item (b) considers the degradation of pile capacity due to the combination of sustained and cyclic loads. L. A. other testing at Haga by NGI suggests that one-way cyclic loading of the pile relative to the soil causes signiÞcantly less degradation than two-way loading at discrete pile elevations. Uncertainties in understanding soil-pile behavior under tensile loadings. ¥ Items (b). The need to install and pretension a replacement tendon into a spare template receptacle prior to removing the tendon to be retrieved. Thus. these considerations should be explicitly mentioned as needing thorough investigation. it was decided to ignore this consideration..COMM. The selection of guideline or guidelineless retrieval and the limiting platform offset. b. Soils under sustained shear stress may deform in time. ¥ Item (a)ÑRelative to a jacket structure and driven piling. A consideration included under this factor is the relative lack of residual strength for a pile loaded in tension compared to one loaded in compression. Two-way (i. Several proprietary Þeld studies are underway to quantify clay-pile behavior under sustained loading. These include a pile study by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute at Haga and small diameter model pile segment tests by the Earth Technology Corporation at ShellÕs Beta pile test site. For long ßexible piles. ¥ Item (d) considers the effect of sustained tension loading on soil behavior.COMM. Axial ßexibility of the pile-soil system. a generally conservative interpretation of some of these data indicate pile pullout does not begin until the sum of the sustained load plus the cyclic component reaches about 80 percent of the static ultimate load. The last three factors were not included in the body of API Recommended Practice 2T because their inßuence on design was deemed the same for the TLP and jacket foundations. Potential reduction of near surface soilÕs effectiveness. Suction. fully reversed cycling may occur even though the pile top is under a sustained bias loading.10. Briaud at Texas A&M University is studying cyclic axial behavior under APIÕs sponsorship. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. A qualitative comparison or bias is discussed relating the TLP and jacket pile application. However.10 Foundation Analysis and Design A. pile load capacity may be reduced due to cyclic loading for ßexible piles. Factors considered as having possible inßuence on TLP piled foundations in comparison to compression piles in jacket type structures: 1. Instead. Effects of sustained tension. Since here again it is not possible to reliably quantify the effects of suction. c. Considerations include: a. In addition. While none of the study results have been published. Recommended safety factors should then be applied to the pileÕs ultimate axial capacity after it is suitably modiÞed to account for these items. empiricism. ConocoÕs Gulf of Mexico TLP pile test site. ¥ Item (e) represents a consideration which can be expected to aid the foundationÕs load carrying capacity. Pile design is dependent on past successful practice. Lack of residual strength of the soil-pile system. Planning of retrieval operations should also consider: a. c.

3. McIver. The bias factor should reward redundancy. The internal ßuids may be drilling mud. DESIGNING.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. For drilled and grouted piles and for connections between a pile and a foundation template. Redundancy in the form of clustered or grouped piles can mitigate concern over the lack of residual strength. In this regard it is believed that adequate precautions are already mentioned in the text on Òsoils investigation. 2000 . Relative lack of ability to inspect and repair TLP foundation piles. The determination of loading is assumed to be comparable to that obtained for a jacket structure. it is believed that these should be attainable in a manner comparable to a jacket platform. This allows for variations in riser properties and for the introduction of such other non-uniformities as joints and soil restraints.COMM. A.COMM. the analysis should be modiÞed accordingly. 1978. The potential for dramatic decreases in strength in the event of pile overload warrants an increased safety factor when compared to a compression pile. If the equation is rewritten with that term represented by To.Ó It is also felt that the geotechnical consultant in conjunction with the operatorÕs staff. However. This concept has been thoroughly discussed (Young et al. Chakrabarti. Consequences of a foundation failure to the integrity of the overall structural system. 1982). Load redistribution capacities of the foundation. etc.11 Riser Systems A. called the Òeffective tension.. The terms forming the coefÞcient y equal the tension calculated by considering only the wet weight of the riser and the internal ßuid.) 5. This qualiÞes it for analysis using the fundamental Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. gas.1 Structural Model For the purposes of response analysis. Basically. When large angles are possible. the riser is a simple structure although in some cases it may comprise multiple tubulars with the potential for structural interaction. could properly interpret engineering soil properties resulting from deep water soil samples. Relative to a jacket type structure the consequence of a foundation failure was deemed to be comparable to that of a TLP. 4. the tension in the pipe wall. and the weight. 6. Imposition of the equations of equilibrium and simple beam theory leads to the equation of motion. Finally. The relative ability to install satisfactory driven piles is deemed comparable to the skirt piles of a jacket type structure. Relative difÞculty of foundation installation. The Þgure also shows the deformation of the riser pipe over the elemental length. it is believed necessary to explicitly mention that special means should be provided to verify that grouted piles and pile to template connections are installed in a manner conforming with the design. Real riser problems are solved by converting it to a system of simultaneous equations for a discretized or lumped parameter representation of the riser.11. oil.3 RISER ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY A.11. and compression (C) may be viewed as shown in Figure 34. Figure A-35 shows the hydrostatic pressures of sea water and internal ßuid. T Compression pile Tension pile Pile force Displacement Z Figure A-34—Residual Pile Strength COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services.COMM. 1977. water. The ability to inspect and repair TLP piles was deemed to be very similar to that of jacket type structure. Lubinski. The beam equation for the riser is developed by Þrst examining a differential element and the forces which act upon it. the horizontal hydrodynamic forces are indicated. The assignment of speciÞc numerical values to account for a tension pileÕs relative lack of residual strength is uncertain. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 115 the relative residual strength after pile overload in tension (T). Relative integrity of soil samples obtained from deep water. 1983.Ó it then takes the form of the classical beam-column equation. Relative character and reliability of load determination. 8. since all piles would not reach their maximum capacity simultaneously. it may be represented as one or more tensioned beams which rarely develop an angle greater than 10 degrees from the vertical. 3. (Provided explicit mention was made of the need to provide means to verify the adequacy of grout and pile to template connection installation. 7.

dh = bouyancy internal. Px = internal ßuid pressure at elevation x. p 2 2 s = r p Ap + -.[ r w g ( h w Ð x ) d b Ð P x d i ] + T p 4 fy = distributed hydrodynamic force acting in y direction. y = horizontal riser translation at station x.116 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T y« + y«« Æx fp sp + rp Æp g Æx x+Æx Æx rw g (hw Ð x) x db y« sp Px di fy y Undeformed riser position Governing Differential Equation Terminology in Equations Ap = cross sectional area of the riser pipe. sea water. s = distributed mass. P x = Pt + ri g ( hi Ð x ) To = effective tension at bottom of riser.( r i d i Ð r w d b ) + r p A p g y ' 4 x = vertical coordinate measured from bottom of riser. Cm = hydrodynamic mass coefÞcient. 2000 . pipe. rp. Tp = actual tension in pipe wall. and water. rw = density of internal ßuid. pg 2 2 f y = Ð ----.( ) dx Figure A-35—Riser Governing Differential Equation COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. di. hi.[ r i d i + ( C m Ð 1 ) r w d h ] 4 p 2 2 T = -. Pt = internal ßuid pressure at top of riser. diameter of riser and hydrodynamic. d s yú + EI y '' '' Ð ----. d ( ¥ ) = ---. and: T = effective tension. g = gravitational acceleration. hw = total depth of internal ßuid. r1.( ) dt d ( )« = ----. db.[ ( T o + T' x ) y '] = f y ú dx Where: EI = ßexural rigidity.

Hydrodynamic Force AlgorithmÑAlso the subject of extensive study based on empirical results the widely used Morison equation. The following are examples of the complicating factors that inßuence the hydrodynamic loading on risers: a. The effect of the platform on wave kinematics may need consideration. and variation in Reynolds Number and Keulegan-Carpenter Number. JONSWAP or Pierson-Moskowitz. b.11. This is especially true for the production riser system in an external multiple-tube conÞguration (Bennet and Wilheilm. It is common practice to use a unidirectional. There is. 1981). b. random wave model (Hudspeth. Depending on the riser design. A time history solution is carried out long enough to assure that the riser response has statistical signiÞcance. Þnal design veriÞcation may require design-speciÞc testing (Rowe et al. Wake encounter in oscillating ßow. f. usually converted to a system of discrete coordinates. extensive debate as to the selection of the drag and mass coefÞcients.. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 1976). While available experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic data provide guidelines for the riser design.COMM. 2000 . Fluctuating in-line and transverse forces due to vortex shedding. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 117 A. The signiÞcant consequence of this discretization of the riser is that it leads to a series of simultaneous equations which are conveniently and rapidly solved on a digital computer.3.2 Hydrodynamic Model Probably the greatest uncertainty in riser response analysis comes in formulating the hydrodynamic model (Hansen et al. however. especially in high wave conditions. most design analyses for offshore structures are based on a unidirectional wave model. since the forces acting on the riser are dependent on wave particle kinematics.. it is generally believed to give more conservative loading. An important source of riser excitation is the platform motions. The solution involves Þnding the translations and rotations. a time history wave proÞle is synthesized based on the design wave spectrum. In the latter approach. 1984). Relative motion between riser and ßuid. There are three different aspects to be resolved: a. All three are primarily dependent on empirical evidence. division of the riser into a series of Þnite length regions. Several nonlinear models have been developed to satisfy boundary conditions. While each of these idealized elements has uniform properties. c. A. c. the unidirectional wave is much simpler to deal with and. 1972) both involve. Wave kinematics. 1976). 1979).3. bending moments. The two methods presently used are Þnite-element (Gardner and Kotch. Force algorithm. 1976). e. Each of these is rather complicated and for practical reasons. has survived intact. second. Recently gathered environmental data indicate that the simple. Drag variation due to surface roughness. is generally used only with the single. Wave KinematicsÑA number of models have been proposed for the ßuid velocity and acceleration proÞle beneath the wave surface. These are always in the wave zone and near the bottom of the riser where the tension is the lowest. Airy linear function is quite adequate for modeling a random surface condition. especially with the Òstretched kinematicsÓ feature. A critical consideration is the number of elements into which the riser is divided. etc. Sexton and Agbezuge. it may be necessary to use a multiple beam model in order to determine detailed structural loads on multi-tube risers in which spacer frames are included. The behavior of the riser can then be described in terms of the nodes at which these elements are joined. described in 6.4 provides guidance for predicting the wave Þeld as altered by the TLP. 6. The upper and lower boundary conditions should reßect actual support conditions including tensioner forces (Kozik and Noerager. Multiline risers may be modeled with a single beam representation having equivalent properties. at each node of the riser. 1979). periodic wave model. e. 1976) and Þnite difference (Tucker. They should be modeled accurately with emphasis on the phase relationship between platform motion and the wave.11. ßex-joint stiffness.. especially for fatigue calculation. d. Although extensive data have been gathered in each area (Sarpkaya and Isaacson. 1978). Another consideration that may warrant attention is the distortion of the wave pattern by the platform (Connolly and Wybro.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. marine growth. the non-uniformities of the riser are accounted for by the variation of properties from element to element. Active research continues and promises further advances. Drag ampliÞcation due to vortex-induced vibrations. there is as yet no Þnal resolution as to the most accurate general model. or in the more accurate time domain solution. Sea surface.COMM.g. The principal reasons for this are: Þrst. multi-directional process. It is therefore. either in a linearized frequency domain method. Sea SurfaceÑAlthough the surface of the ocean is a random.2. DESIGNING. 1975. The nodes should be closely spaced in the areas where high bending moments tend to occur. Flow disturbance due to nearby bodies. etc. This is most important for complex riser geometries involving multiple tube arrays.3 Lumped Parameter Model The partial differential equation which governs riser behavior is not directly usable for analyzing general problems (Morgan and Peret..3.

The desire of the structural designer to reduce overall weight will result in the use of minimal PSF deck loading criteria. Deck height above sea level can impose limitations on the location of ventilation intakes (which are commonly placed below deck) due to the ingestion of aerosol salt spray or even physical contact with the crests of waves under storm conditions. frequency.11. the application of time or frequency domain methods. The proposed method of deck construction can create the necessity for temporary supports for services. An iterative procedure is used whereby the equivalent linear drag is varied in successive solutions until it gives a minimum error solution. This transfer function (sometimes called the complex frequency response) can be used directly with the power spectra (wave energy vs. Some equipment may have to be installed on the exposed weather deck (e. A. Modal AnalysisÑThe riserÕs natural frequencies and modes of vibration may be determined from the equation of motion (McIver and Lunn. including bending stresses. b. frequency) deÞnition of seastate. separation trains.COMM. It is the wave action and associated platform motion that provide the dynamic excitation. for example vs. The result is riser response amplitude. Additional temporary service supports for each discrete pallet increases the scope of design and fabrication work and can cause access difÞculties during fabrication. The applied riser tension may have timevarying components due to the non-ideal characteristics of the tensioner system. producing additional contributions to the time-varying forces.2. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. Time Domain or Frequency DomainÑThere are two different approaches for solving the riser dynamic equations.3.4 Solutions of the Simultaneous Equations The discussion in the previous section dealt with the mathematical techniques for converting the spatial derivatives into discrete translation coordinates for solution as simultaneous equations. For example.. The alternative is the frequency domain method in which non-linear functions are linearized about a quasi-steady (Krolikowski and Gay. This is precisely the kind of information which is often used for fatigue analysis. and angles over the length of the riser. This section deals with solution of the time derivative portion of the equations. etc. number and location of penetrations through the stressed plate members to avoid local overstressing particularly with respect to fatigue. The latter can have a signiÞcant impact on facilities design. Regardless of the means of solution. 1980. 1983) or mean value. Comparison of Marine Drilling Riser Analysis. as applied to the platform response problem. The waves impose time-varying hydrodynamic forces on the riser.118 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T A. individual pallets cannot receive the beneÞts of overhead supports from the pallet above until both pallets are installed into the main deck structure. To achieve adequate vertical separation. This type of structural design will impose constraints on the size.). For this reason the facility designer should recommend the use of truss girders or a combination of truss and plate girders for the main deck members.12 Facilities Design A. c. 2000 . The use of a mezzanine ßoor in the deck may be restricted. This may preclude the optimized routing of services and access routes and will place demands on the facilities designer to agree to Þnal penetration requirements at an early stage in the design. InsufÞcient deck depth may cause problems in the following areas: a. deßections. The platform drives the riser back and forth.1 Structural The type of structure adopted for the deck is of paramount importance to the facilities designer. This may introduce a hydrocarbon hazard into areas of the hull which would otherwise be free from hydrocarbons. The exclusive use of plate girder bulkheads in the deck may offer certain advantages to the structural designer but can create signiÞcant problems in the routing of services.12. varying free surface. 1983). This method has been shown to yield reliable results for drilling riser analyses at substantially lower cost than the time domain solution. HVAC plant/ducting and turbine waste heat recovery systems) which may increase service runs thereby adding to weight and wind loads and raising the center of gravity. McIver and Lunn. The frequency domain approach leads to a linear transfer function for the riser which is a mathematical expression of its dynamic characteristics.g. with a palletized deck construction. some components of a deck system may have to be installed in the hull. This information supplements the dynamic analysis and may be used to evaluate the riserÕs susceptibility to vortex-induced vibrations. and early coordination between structural and facilities designers is necessary. There may be inadequate height for the installation of gravity systems within the deck space (vent and drain systems.COMM. limitations may be placed on the depth of the deck structure.COMM. Reference is made to API Bulletin 2J. riser response analysis should result in an accurate description of mean and alternating stresses. To maintain the center of gravity as low as possible. The direct integration or time domain solution permits the inclusion of all non-linearities such as the non-linear hydrodynamic force. 1983). and non-linear ßex joint behavior (Hachemi Safai.

Subchapter J) establish requirements with respect to safe electrical installations and repair aboard vessels and mobile offshore drilling units.5 Electrical The designer should review all applicable electrical requirements of the U.6 Riser Connection The relative motion of the deck to the launcher receiver will be predominantly in the vertical direction. Thereafter. Each pallet should be Þtted-out with services (piping. It might not.4. Different design approaches for the same application may dictate different mechanical characteristics of the elastomer(s) selected. Various generic elastomers are satisfactory but mechanical property requirements are dependent on the laminated structure design. A. In liquid service a vertical launcher requires additional height for drainage.12.12. The amount of rework resulting from relocating major equipment can be extensive once piping. If a ßexible connection was placed downstream of the horizontal launcher. In particular. DESIGNING. Appropriate industry standards should be considered. the launcher support may need to maintain support while allowing the launcher to ßoat with the riser. The regulations establish certain requirements with respect to safety equipment and promotion of safety of life and property at sea. where unique TLP design or equipment requirements make regulation compliance impractical. 2000 . A. alternate proposals that provide an equivalent level of safety may be acceptable to the USCG. The designer is advised to become familiar with Òequivalent requirementsÓ of the agency involved. This approach might result in faster fabrication times by allowing concurrent facilities equipment packaging and platform structural fabrication. These ballast adjustments caused by misplacement of equipment could result in substantial weight penalty. If the ßexible connection is upstream of the launcher.S. A. A. these skids are set on the platform deck structure and piped together. More than one elastomer compound may be utilized in a single composite molding. A.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. cable. Elastomers are both elastic and viscous materials.COMM. However. Vertical launchers may present advantages over horizontal. Once a shift is made.2. The weight of a vertical launcher may be supported by the upper support of the riser since this will probably be a device maintaining riser tension. misalignment could cause remedial work when bulkhead penetrations are involved. A common approach to the design of production facilities for Þxed offshore platforms has been that of prepackaging equipment items on individual structural skids.14. 111. the effect of equipment weight and location on locating the center of gravity (CG) at the platform desired coordinations should be considered a facilities design function. Due to the similarities between the TLP facility and a mobile offshore drilling unit compliance with Subchapter J will probably be found to be applicable for hull design. The electrical installation for production systems is not speciÞcally covered in Coast Guard regulations. there is no way to know that subsequent information will not necessitate rearranging the equipment. it could be attached to the deck and loaded in the conventional way.5.) as far as is practical.10 Regulations The TLP has been deÞned as a Òßoating OCS facilityÓ in 33 Code of Federal Regulations.COMM.2. Coast Guard. 143. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 119 Maintenance routes for major equipment must be established at an early stage to assure adequate strength for these areas. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. be economically attractive for TLP facilities due to the weight addition resulting from duplication of structural support. etc.COMM.4. however. 33 Code of Federal Regulations. As an alternative.COMM. Horizontal launchers would require an additional support under the launcher since the pipe would not support the cantilevered weight of the launcher.12.12.Ó The agency assigned to provide the regulations (CFR) is the Coast Guard.COMM. fabrication tolerances must be maintained since services run between structures and pallets. the facilities designer might consider an integrated deck/facilities approach wherein all equipment supports and drain pans are fabricated onto pallets which then become an integral part of the platform deck structure.9 ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS The material selection guidelines for the elastomeric structure of TLP mooring ßexjoints must consider the following: a.107 should be noted for speciÞc requirements applicable to industrial systems.2 Packaging Construction methods should provide capability for an integrated deck/facilities approach providing opportunities for considerable weight savings.COMM. 140 Subchapter NÑÓOuter Continental Shelf Activities. A. The Electrical Engineering Regulations (46 Code of Federal Regulations.3 Weight and Center of Gravity Until equipment arrangements are established.12. Subsequently.COMM. electrical and instrument detailed design efforts get underway. 46 Code of Federal Regulations. further CG adjustments probably will need to be made by ballast adjustments or accommodated through allowances in the vessel/mooring design. b.14 Structural Materials A.120 deÞnes the applicable regulations for a ßoating OCS facility and should be consulted at initiation of project.

These are the properties that permit bearings such as used in the TLP to ßex to large angles. the high effective compression modulus and low shear modulus. the dynamic response and mechanical behavior are dependent upon their viscous components. that permits the ßexible elastomeric bearing to work. is not affected. 2000 . or hysteresis. All tension leg ßexjoints and similar bearings use a laminated structure design approach such that the mooring systemÕs tension and rotational loads result in compressive and shear stresses in the rubber. It follows then that the higher the tension leg induced compression loads the higher the hoop tensile stresses in the reinforcements. These shear stresses must be contained through bonding. This viscous component also determines the internal energy loss. or compression at low stresses and return to their original condition. which is converted into heat. It is important that the mooring system designer as well as the ßexjoint designer appreciate the signiÞcance of the viscous element of the elastomer. especially in highly loaded. The extremely high compressive loads imposed on the laminated bearings must be taken up by the elastomer and the reinforcements (often called ÒshimsÓ). temperatures). c. the ÒMullinsÓ effect in which the stress/strain relationship is affected by the immediately preceding stress/strain history. The Òshape factorÓ approach. they can be repeatedly grossly deformed in tension. edge areaÑthe compressive modulus of the nearly incompressible elastomer approaches its bulk-modulus. fatigue.120 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T In addition to the above two technical differences over normal structural materials. The laminate system designer then must match the overall design approach with characteristics of both the elastomers and the reinforcement materials. Viscoelastic ConsiderationsÑSince elastomers are viscoelastic materials. dynamic conditions. Elastic Nature of RubberÑThe word ÒelastomerÓ clearly notes the one unique property of rubber-like materialsÑthey are highly elasticÑi. Chemical ChangesÑElastomers can be greatly inßuenced by externally or internally produced chemical changes. by the reinforcements.. laminated structures. These various methods can be broken down into three categories: a. High degrees of stress relaxation (reduction in rotational spring constant with time).. Closed form mathematical solution approach. bondability.e. It is assumed that the elastomers selected for the TLP ßexjoint will have been proven capable of long-term survivability in the surrounding environments (ßuids. and performance adequacy of the bearings. The shear modulus. rates of loading. and long fatigue life requirements imposed along with state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities of both the rubber and metal forming industries. without imposing high bending loads on the mooring system. rubber is seldom used in tension loading. It is the unique combination of these characteristics. under highly loaded. It is also assumed that the elastomer has been properly compounded and that the adhesive and reinforcement system are such that no internal chemical actions take place that are deleterious to the operation and reliability of the ßexjoint. Elastomeric Bearing DesignÑThere are various proprietary and non-proprietary design methods used by the elastomeric bearing industry to determine the structural. strain amplitude. As a result.g. rigorous environments. which is thousands of times greater than its YoungÕs modulus. shear. and (2) although many rubber compositions exist. d. however. the ÒmaterialÓ and other properties of the composite along with compatibility. steel. i. Some examples of viscoelastic behavior that must be considered in the TLP system are: a. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. increasing the bonded areas to the nonbonded. manufacturability of this structure must also be considered. even the high hysteresis rubber compounds do not have heat build-up problems in TLP bearings because of the low motion energy spectrum inputs of these systems. Non-linearity of shear modulus (higher spring constants at low and high angular deßection). Since a laminated structure is utilized. c.. Through the use of high strength laminatesÑe. Certain peculiarities of carbon black Þlled elastomers should also be notedÑe. Also certain crystallizing elastomers such as natural rubber and Neoprene compounds may have a unique low temperature aging effect on mechanical properties. The stress or strain history. evaluation of elastomer(s) for the intended application is made more difÞcult because: (1) laboratory data is of limited use to the design engineer.5. It also follows that a low shear modulus rubber (which results in low bending stresses on the tendon) creates high tensile stresses in reinforcements from tendon tension (rubber compression). The choice of materials a TLP ßexjoint designer has to work with often becomes extremely narrow considering the high performance. Although the mathematics of the bearings are fairly complex. b. Rate dependence (higher rotational spring constant at higher angle rate changes). strain frequency. Although elastomers are poor heat conductors. However. b. Inßuence of temperature on rotational spring constant (increased bending stress with lower temperatures).e.. With a sufÞcient number of laminates. Finite element approach where the analysis method is capable of handling elastomeric materials with PoissonÕs ratio very nearly 0. and elastomer temperature affect the behavior of the material. for the most part these are proprietary to the manufacturer and limited data is available for comparative or other technical purposes.g. The rotational motion of the spherical bearing segments also results in shear stresses. the compressive loads principally result in elastomer shear stresses. these same highly desirable ßexing properties also present major limitations when used in structural design. the low compressive (YoungÕs) modulus of elastomers can be signiÞcantly increased.

compatibility with the design and operational environment. but other materials such as titanium may be utilized. The derivation of the equations normally used by the industry are based on the works of Timoshenko1 and Sokolhikoff2. or would not meet the age life or other critical requirements. There are combinations which will provide improvements in one area at the expense of the other. Because of the complex nature of the ßexjoints. Obviously.. Elastomer SelectionÑThe material selection. incompatible with the surrounding ßuids. but for the most part these are proprietary. no speciÞc restrictions should be placed on the choice of a particular elastomer. correlation of both the structural and fatigue analysis with actual product use and product test data is mandatory. Several such computerized solutions are used by the industry. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 121 The Òshape factorÓ approach has been the engineering standard for simple elastomeric bearings such as bridge pads but is limited to applications in which the strains are very small. for a particular design approach. and test of the bearing normally is the prime responsibility of the ßexjoint contractor. For instance. In those areas where insufÞcient experience may be available. low alloy. but the deÞnition of ÒfailureÓ in the elastomer must consider the unique characteristics of the laminated rubber systems. DiscussionÑEither the closed form or the Þnite element methods are acceptable design analysis techniques providing the designer can support the speciÞc analysis method(s) with actual product use and test data. the conÞguration is very simple and the Òshape factorÓ remains low. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. there are few restrictions in this area. (c) differences in elastomers from manufacturer to manufacturer. low carbon. However.e. Here again. The material selection process will be a function of the details of the bearing design used. the required fatigue life may be speciÞed by a ÒMinerÕsÓ number. (b) little correlation exists between methods. there is a wide range of elastomeric compounds when used in compatible designs that would be suitable for most TLP applications. demonstrated successful experience is the key to methods selection. The closed form analysis methods are based on linear theory of elasticity. say at extremely high angles and high loads. particularly in those applications where high rubber and reinforcement stresses are indicated. The terms Òstructural failureÓ and Òfatigue failureÓ must be deÞned in the TLP userÕs speciÞcation. The designer must demonstrate that catastrophic form of failure in the way of column buckling instability will not occur. SufÞcient data must be presented to demonstrate that the various analytically derived stress levels have performed satisfactorily in other designs which used both the same analysis technique and the speciÞc elastomer selected. i. it is Òfail-safeÓ or highly damage tolerant in most modes. In all cases. This demonstration can be through analysis and laboratory experimental efforts (e. manufacturability. one would not want to utilize an elastomer compound that was brittle. Aluminum materials for shim stock are not permitted.. The number should be consistent with the remainder of the mooring system. Material property data used in the fatigue analysis for both the reinforcements and the elastomer must be based on actual use data in the particular environments involved. manufacture. Selection of the reinforcement material may be restricted by strength requirements and manufacturing as well as heat treating limitations. DESIGNING. computerized Þnite element analysis techniques are seeing more and more use in highly loaded elastomeric bearings.e. Although expensive. Because of ever-increasing knowledge and advancements in the state-of-the-art of elastomers. This applies to both the elastomer and the reinforcement materials.. design. This is necessary because: (a) it has not been possible to directly measure the actual rubber or elastomer shear stresses. and processing requirements. or stainless steels may be used providing they have the ability to meet the structural. The selection of the manufacturing methods for both the reinforcements and the elastomer molding/bonding process and metal surface preparation and adhesive system is nearly inseparable from the materials selected by a given manufacturer. Thus. fatigue. i. The service or fatigue life must be determined from the stresses as determined from the previously discussed analyses and the load and angular motion requirements speciÞed by the TLP operator. This document is not intended to place any limitations on the selection of a speciÞc material or class of materials other than noting that the particular material(s) selected must have sufÞcient successful use history to demonstrate its adequacy for the intended purpose. demonstrated bondability of the elastomer must have been proven through long-term service or test. and (d) poor correlation between laboratory tests and actual product performance. sub-scale tests) or in-service use of data of similar conÞgurations and materials. 2000 .RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. There are competitive designs and material combinations some of which will be superior to others. The speciÞc mechanical characteristics of the materials will be dictated by the design approach. and general experience.g. Here it is important that the user provide the designers with adequate speciÞcation deÞnition to ensure that the best design/ material choice combination is selected. It is not considered useable in the design of tension leg platform bearings. Stresses in the reinforcements must be determined by analysis and correlated with data available from actual tests of earlier designs (equivalent loadings and/or strain gauge data). many rubber laminates and reinforcements all of a different radius and all of a different area. it is normally necessary to go to computerized solutions. However. subscale data may be developed to demonstrate design adequacy.

COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 2000 .

ÒDynamic Effects of Wind on Offshore Structures. 5. 1969. 6.Ó Appl. ÒSuperharmonic Resonance Effects in Drag Dominated Structures. 8... Barnett. J. October.Ó NSRDC Report #2375. Rules for The Design. S. C. S. No. Vol. Beach Erosion Board. No. 12. Wave Force Calculations for Stokes and Non-Stokes Waves. ÒMotion and Tether Force Prediction for a Deepwater Tension Leg Platform. Saunders. London. Bretschneider. Kitaigorodskii. 1983.. A. Prentice-Hall. Skjelbreia. and A. Army Corps of Engineers. Hoerner. A. 12. O. Editor.. 11.. and Moskowitz.. J. and Michelsen. 1981. Rules for the Design. Ewing. ÒOTEC Cold Water Pipe Design for Problems Caused by Vortex-Induced Oscillations. ÒOscillation of Cylinders in or Below the Free Surface of Deep Fluids. 4229. L.Ó Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.. Fluid Dynamics. Muller.. Sept. 3. American Bureau of Shipping. McGraw-Hill. Hydrodynamics in Ship Design. 19. (1964). Newnes-Butterworths London. R. 2. and McAllister. John Wiley & Sons. 2. Government Symposium Dynamics of Marine Vehicles and Structures in Waves. Richter. W.Ó Journal of Geophysical Research. F. M. ÒMoored Floating Structures and Hydrodynamic CoefÞcients. U. pp. McGraw-Hill. Loken. 1980. Frank. E. H. Evaluation and Development of Water Wave Theories for Engineering Application. 66.. Lars. Oceanographical Engineering.. London. T. 17. G. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. Chappelear. 1979. and Scanlan. 1961. 10. 14. R. 9. and Hendrickson. Morison. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1977. J. Mei. S. Faulker. and Rajagopalan. (1959)... Blevins. New York.. 15.. 8. K. Faltinsen. 1950... T. Olbers. Molin. Wind Effects on Structures. 11. and Brannon. DeBoom. 69. Wave Forces on Piles: A Diffraction Theory. James. R. 85. ÒDirect Numerical Calculation of Wave Properties. and Constructing Fixed Offshore Structures in Ice Environments. A. 5. E. 1983. 2039. 1974. and Inspection of Offshore Structures. New York. 1977. S. Beach Erosion Board. R. W. New York. Wave Variability and Wave Spectra for Wind Generated Waves. Planning. W.. Gienapp. 6. New York. Carlson. TM 69. 1974. 10. Fluid Dynamic Drag.. Pinkster. Eatock-Taylor. P. 1984.. Simiu. K. J. Ore. 1. Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units. 1980. 1954.. Designing. Robert L. API Recommended Practice 2A. and Inspection of Offshore Structures. OTC. Loads. R. 1973. ÒMeasurements of Wind-Wave Growth and Swell Decay During the Joint North Sea Wave Project. ÒComputation of Drift Forces. Houston. E. ÒMotions of Large Structures in Waves and Zero Froude Number. Kruseman. et al.. Cartwright. 1961.. No. p. 7. 4. F. D. Construction. API Bulletin 2N. 1. 20. A. A. ÒFifth Order Gravity Wave Theory. N. P. 9. ÒSlow drift oscillations of a ship in irregular waves..Ó Journal of Petroleum Technology. May 1980. OTC Preprints No.. 1974. Vol. Dean. M.. P. 123 References for Section 6 1.Y. editor.. 129-209.. H. 10.. 1967. 1966. Pierson. Estuary and Coastline Hydrodynamics. November 7-10.. H. 18. The Applied Dynamics of Ocean Surface Waves. Corvallis.. Rules for the Construction and ClassiÞcation of Mobile Offshore Units.. Det norske Veritas. ÒThe Forces Exerted by Surface Waves on Piles.. S. COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. K. Daily. C. 1965. Vol. Sell. T. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. John Wiley and Sons. H. Meyers. Ocean Res.. 1964.. F. A. Coastal Research Center. 13. 1982. Planning. Construction. Houston. ÒSemisubmersible Wind Loads and Wind Effects. E.. Brebbia.. Glasgow 1981. Chakrabarti. 14. K. Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers. Holm. Flow-Induced Vibration. Vol. 118.. D. 16. 16th Edition. Inc. Texas. A. Chap. Ippen. O. 1966. and Fuchs... 1978.. 4. Kareem. J. Faltinsen. Vol. I & II. 12. F. O.Ó OTC Paper No. C. R. W. and Tan. 15.APPENDIX B—REFERENCES References for Section 5 1. 1979. Meerburg. 3627. R. and Walden. B. 8. L. C. ÒBoundary Element Techniques in Engineering. 7.. J. Vol. 8. ÒDynamic Effects of Wind on Tension Leg Platforms. E. Reading. MacCamy. Wiegel. 13. Corps of Engineers. Det norske Veritas. J. C.. 3. 16. Bouws.Ó Ocean Structural Dynamics Symposium. published by the author. A. 1984. D.Ó Deutche HydrograÞca Zeitung. Appendix B. Massachusetts. W. A. New York.. K.Ó Ocean Engineering. 1977. Jr.Ó Paper No. ÒA Proposed Spectral Form for Fully Developed Wind Seas Based on The Similarity Theory of S..Ó Integrity of Offshore Structures.Ó Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference.. Enke. M. 2000 . 2. D.. and Harleman.. OTC. and Walker.. F. Det norske Veritas (DnV). Macha and Reid. G. Supplement A. Kareem. GrifÞn. Cowling and Frieze. Hasselmann. R. Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering. 1965. Lambrakos.Ó Proc..Ó Journal of Geophysical Research.Ó Proceedings of Seventh Conference on Coastal Engineering. Houston.Ó OTC Paper 4437. C. Applied Science Publishers. H.

and Leigh. Finnigan. Fatigue. OTC 4658. I. D. University College. A.. S. ÒWind Loads on Structures in Turbulent Flow. 24.Ó International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering.T. N. Gelb.124 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 2T 21.. P.. 32. and Isaacson.M. A. 1980. 16. Houston. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. 1974. Yue. S. R. H. 6. Michigan. P. A. (1984). 59.. 1977. John Wiley and Sons. 1963. T. pp. S.Ó Proceedings. D. Vol.. J. 12.Ó The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.Ó 1978 OTC 3304. Verley. K. Random Vibration in Mechanical Systems. Simiu. Stochastic Processes.. Vol. 14th ONR Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. OTC. ÒFirst and Second Order Interaction of Waves with Large Offshore Structures. 451-472. Fylling. G.. H. O. ASME. J. 650.. S. I. 3798. Doob. 1974. J. Khabbaz. M.. E. C. Van Nostrand Rienhold Co. Recommended Practice for Planning. 27. No. R..S. ÒMean and Low Frequency Wave Drift Forces on Floating Structures. R. New York. 1. 3. 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W.Ó The Modern Design of Wind-Sensitive Structures.. New York. R. L. E. Ann Arbor. Vol. 1968. Young. J. No. P. E. London. ÒLow Frequency Second Order Wave Exciting Forces on Floating Structures.Ó D. IAHR Symposium on Mechanics of WaveInduced Forces on Cylinders. Second International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium. 5. 245-266. and Piersol. 26. Shaw. Chen. 1983. New York. ed.. ASME. 1. Standing. 25. K. M. and Moe.. Numerical Solution to Free Surface Flow Problems. Vol. ÒModel Test Evaluation of a Frequency Domain Procedure for Extreme Surge Response Prediction of Tension Leg Platforms. No.. pp. 1982. Houston. and Manning. Wind Effects on Structures. ÒSecond-order. and the Reliability Characteristics of a Vertically Moored Platform. O. ÒSlowly-Varying and Mean Second-Order Wave Forces on Ships and Offshore Structures. Bedrosian. (1963). New York. Newman. of the Acoustical Society of America. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 10th Symposium ONR. N.. Vol. R. 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Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated with COPYRIGHT 2000 American Petroleum Institute Information Handling Services. 18. 1983.. Thomson. Ochi. S. August 1982. and Fuchs.Ó OTC 3965.. 40. Van Oortmerssen. Paulling.Ó Journal of Applied Mechanics. S. 1984. New Jersey.Ó Dissertation. and Oka. Simiu. March. Latest edition. K. Publication No. ÒA Statistical Distribution Function of Wide Applicability. vonKerczek. of Non-Linear Mechanics. N. 78. AND CONSTRUCTING TENSION LEG PLATFORMS 125 16. DESIGNING. Spanos. E. 55. Vol.RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR PLANNING. K. Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells. Englewood Cliffs. D.Ó Transactions SNAME.. ÒThree Dimensional Calculations of Wave Forces by a Hybrid Element Method. W. R. OTC 4394.. M. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. Latest edition. A. Kan. O. Latest edition. D. No. ÒContinuous Random Wave Loading on Structural Members.. Gumbel.. ÒDynamic Analysis Models of Tension Leg Platforms. Newman. 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