Why Should I care?
Because 6 - Trait writing provides« 1. Common language 2. Consistency in assessment 3. The ³how to´ students need to revise

To Teach the Traits« 

Teach the concept first Surround students with writer¶s language Share strong and weak examples from written works Write - and link writing activities to the traits Practice revision and editing on the text of OTHERS

Six Traits of Writing 
    

Ideas & Content Organization Voice Word Choice Sentence Fluency Conventions

Ideas and Content
This trait is the HEART of the message; the central idea and support. 
 

CLARITY - makes sense. FOCUS - narrow and manageable size QUALITY DETAILS - noticing little things that others might not notice.

How does it look at intermediate grades? 

Writing has a clear, direct message that is focused.

Ideas and Content Links to Instruction 1. 3. 4. 2. 6. 5. Prewriting Keeping Journals Moving from broad topic to focused and narrow ideas Learning to observe carefully Borrowing ideas from other writers Knowing the purpose for writing .

I Remember Poem -Create this poem as a list of possible personal narrative stories.Activities to Help Students Select Ideas Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing. Favorite places. Call It Out. Call out questions & encourage students to chime in with different answers. .think about a place they love to go and make a class list of favorite places. Go from general questions to narrow ones. Divide students into groups and ask them to generate as many ideas as they can about the possible use of the item. Write a short focused paper about the uses of item being discussed. Ruth Culham       Free Writing . String-Along. Record topics on chart and let students do a quick write on one of them. developing narrow topics.Pick a category from an appropriate content area.Ask students to write what¶s on their minds or what they¶re feeling right now or what they¶ve been thinking about lately. dividing ideas into categories. Flashback.Look through journal entries or family photos.Bring some string or any item to class. personal mementos that stimulate memories. Create a class list.

Discuss the importance that elaborating and filling in blanks for the reader is an important step in making ideas clear. Read the original story. Not Tell.Read a familiar story leaving out important or ³juicy´ details. This can also be used to prepare for persuasive text. create a poor chronological outline of what happened. . read the entire story to them.Divide students into groups of 3. delete. Ask students what it missing. Then the listeners write 3 questions for the opinion. Leave It Out. Instead they write 3 questions so that the storyteller becomes aware of details he may have left out which can be included in the final story. Next. embellishing for dramatic effect.a hodgepodge of major & minor details. The listeners can¶t interrupt. detailed (showing). Finally. interesting. Have each student tell their opinion about a controversial topic to the listeners. Ask students to rewrite the general statement (telling) into one that is more focused. In small groups.Tell a story that that has happened to you to your students. Each student tells a story of a memorable event that has happened to him or her. Ask Me a Question. Then have students give you advise for making it less bland by deciding which details to keep.    It Happened to Me. Show. and elaborate. Ask if it would make an interesting idea for a story. let them ask you questions. When finished. have students brainstorm as many details as they can about the general idea they¶ve selected.Make a list of telling sentences.

Adding Details / Show. Later they go into a cocoon. They hatch from eggs and then they eat a lot. They make silk. Next. the female lays eggs and it starts all over again. When they come out. They¶re pretty cool bugs. Then they make silk for you and me. aren¶t they? . The Japanese have been using their silk for 4000 years! They take the silk from the cocoon. Not Tell Example #1: Silkworms are interesting bugs. they turn into moths.

these interesting caterpillars start from a small. Mulberry leaves are the silkworm¶s main diet.Adding Details / Show. in fact tiny. fine silk that feels tingly against your skin is actually produced by two glands on a silkworm¶s head? That¶s right. The eggs will hatch within an hour of each other. they start eating mulberry leaves. gray egg. you may have worn something from a bug! Hey. this is a cool bug. It takes fourteen days for the eggs to hatch. the silkworm . but don¶t worry. Not Tell Example #2 Did you know that the beautiful. Silkworms eat constantly! In three weeks. Instantly.

000 times more than when they were born. when they come out. they¶ve turned into moths. an enzyme is produced to soften the cocoon. It takes 24 days to reach this point. To start. when they reach this point. Even though most of the silkworms are not allowed to hatch.000 times. In three days the silkworm will rotate 75. they are ready to spin cocoons and they weigh 12. Next. During this time. that means they are getting ready to start spinning their cocoons. the females produce pheromones to attract males. stop eating.will weigh five grams. Soon after the female lays small gray eggs. some are. When they get sluggish. and look waxy. When they are ready and formed. . they spin a line to anchor the cocoon to a tree branch. silkworms have to rotate once every three seconds. It takes three days to spin a complete cocoon. the process starts over again.

This stand of silk is a mile long and transparent. the silkworm is a special bug. Grade 8. The inner layer of silk within the cocoon is what is used. One farm usually has 2. expository based on research.000 years. As you can see. . Raw silk is purchased from the farm in the form of thread. 1999. From the collection of the Oregon Department of Education.000 cocoons.The Japanese have been rearing silkworms for 4. and is very important to the clothing industry. There is no substitute for this silk.

Inviting Opening Sequencing . facts.logical and effective Linking words/phrases Pacing Effective Ending How does it look at intermediate? ‡ Create organizational structures that balance all aspects of the composition ‡ Use effective transitions ‡ Support all statements and claims with anecdotes. descriptions. 3. .Organization This trait is the internal structure 1. 5. statistics. and specific examples. 2. 4.

coherent.   . supporting evidence. and conclusions. and focused Writing that contains formal introductions.Organization Links to instruction«  Strong leads that exhibit students¶ awareness of the audience and purpose Essays that are clear.

Ask students to share leads from their work and have classmates offer ideas of different ways to begin their work.Organize chronologically.Read excerpts from a variety of sources to show how professional writers choose to begin their work: Teach Organizational Options: ‡ Organize by space.Categorize information into categories and write paragraphs developing them. Share Examples from Literature. . ‡ Organize by Content. then move to smaller details ‡ Organize by Time.Begin with big impression. Ruth Culham    Share Student Leads.Activities to Help Students With Organization Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing.

lead sentence. a tie-up. Pacing. story. a question or open ended statement. a quote.Reorder a poem. while others aren¶t important or can be combined with other small details.      Teach Transitions. Putting it in Order. noticing that some details are very important and need elaboration. a laugh) . create an outline of a story that treats all details with the same importance. Step by Step-Have student write directions for an activity such as making a sandwich. etc. a summary. Cut the text into pieces so students can play with it like a puzzle. Then read it again with the transitions so students can see how transitions add clarity to a piece.On an overhead. recipe. have different children tell the middle of the story while arranging themselves logically between the beginning and the end.Connecting words and phrases help readers see how one idea ties to another.Read aloud a familiar story. Read a passage omitting the transitions. Brainstorm the Possibilities. and ask students to reassemble it in the correct order. a surprise. have classmates follow the written directions in order to illustrate the importance of order. Ask them to look for transition words.Make a list of techniques authors use to conclude their work. Hang the list in the room: (profound thought. Ask students to help you revise the piece for organization. Next. Next. Mix It Up. Have one student stand up and retell the beginning and another child to tell the ending. then the conclusion.

³The night Max wore his wolf suit and made mischief of one kind and another. a boy who acts wild sometimes. ³This will be a story about picnics on our apartment roof. ³In this story.´ 2a. Read aloud different leads from children¶s literature and let them tell you why the lead was strong or not.´ 1b. ³I will always remember when the stars fell down around me and lifted me above the George Washington Bridge. I will tell you about Max.Choose Strong Leads In any kind of writing. Ready? Here goes.´ . Read each lead and have students explain why one is better than the other. ³I¶LL EAT YOU UP!´ so he was sent to bed without eating anything. his mother called him. 1a.´ 2b. leads are critical. ³WILD THING!´ and Max said.

her father told her that he was venturing off to a new land to look for a prince for her to marry. The princess begged to go with her father to find her prince.Staying On Topic / Maintaining Focus Once upon a time. there was a beautiful princess who lived in a huge castle. I was a bridesmaid at my sister¶s wedding. Weddings are fun. She loved her home with the tranquil lagoon and lovely flower garden. She was so angry! Why couldn¶t she get married to someone that she loved? That night she ran away from home in search of her prince« . but her father refused. On her 18th birthday.

Involvement.Voice     This is the personal quality of the piece . ³Flavor´ or tone appropriate to the purpose of the audience. integrity. How does it look at intermediate? ‡ Individuality ‡ Sparkle ‡ Exuberance ‡ Humor ‡ Love of writing ‡ Playfulness ‡ Appropriate for type of writing .the sense of the writer behind the words. enthusiasm. Commitment to topic.

Voice Links to instruction     ‡ Helps writers feel safe/accepted Point out voice in books Reward risk --even over success Provide opportunities to hear voice of others Writing TO someone .

Find two or three books on the same topic.Activities to Help Students With Voice Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing. Ask students to compare prints and make lists of the ways they are alike and how they are different. sarcastic. (The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs) Discuss the different ways the author of each piece writes using a different voice. Ruth Culham      Voice in Art. Next. ask them to change their story by telling it from a the point of view of one of the other characters. sincere. it becomes recognizable to others. Make a Book of Books.Keep a class book of favorite passages to show how good writing affects us. Help students see that each artist develops his or her voice through their work.5 art prints that depict the same subject.Gather 4 . cute. Ask them how the voice changed. The Old Switcheroo. sentimental. but by authors with different styles. Compare and Contrast. and over time.Gather samples of birthday cards and categorize them: romantic. Greeting Cards With Voice.Ask students to think of a favorite story that they could tell to a partner. and so forth. . Choose artists whose styles differ significantly.

Have students write the first sentence of a letter to 5 different audiences. Taking voice out is a good activity for building awareness of this trait. trying to put in as much voice as possible. Try this activity in reverse. . For instance. or the president of a local consumerrights group. their grandmother. have them write to the local newspaper. Discuss how the voice in the writing will change depending on the intended audience. since to remove it.Find a sample of writing where no voice is used. an antienvironmentalist. they must understand it! New Voices. Describe appropriate voices for each of the audiences. New Choices.  Voice in. Have students rewrite the piece. if you are studying ways to keep our environment clean. manuals. a friend. Voice Out. too. textbooks are often a good source.

original use of everyday words rate high scores.  Vivid. ‡ Verbs. metaphors. pictures. and similes. noteworthy  Effective . analogies. and ideas that evoke particular words or phrases.Word Choice Correct. memorable. accurate use of language. *Misuse of language or over-reliance on the Thesaurus tends to hurt scores! . precise. unusual or well-used adjectives and adverbs. How does it look at intermediate? ‡ Correct word use without overuse of thesaurus  ‡ Originality ‡ Experiment with use of idioms. ‡ Images.

Word Choice Links to instruction       Verbs. verbs!! Building vocabulary through reading Brainstorming .How else could you say it? Put ³tired´ words to rest Eliminate redundancy List words you love . verbs.

paper. (said. think aloud all your associations with the topic. buttons. Allow them one minute to observe and take object away.Activities to Help Students With Word Choice Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing. run. Then show students the description after you have painted a picture for the reader by focusing on interesting details. pipe cleaners corks. The More Detail. Then Build It. cried. laughed. A 3rd student observes the construction. discuss the role of specific and accurate details. At the overhead.Create lists of alternative verbs that show rather than tell. Next. As a class. the Better.Create 2 identical collects of building materials (blocks. sticks. then describes it in detail to the 2nd builder who must work only from the description. place. or object. Describe It. walked. Then give them one minute to write down everything they can remember about the objects.Create a bare-bones description of a person. and so forth). focus on what you are describing. descriptive words and revisit them often.Collect precise. etc. .) Word Jar.Have students study the same inanimate or live object to see who can observe the most details and the most unusual details. Ruth Culham      Painting With Words. Have one student build something from the collection while a 2nd student is not looking. cardboard. Active and Passive Verbs.

Give pairs of students simple sentences and ask them to enhance meaning by punching up the verbs and throwing in a few colorful adjectives and precise nouns.Make lists of verbs . Expanding Small Phrases to Bigger Ones. Ask students to act out the verbs. nibble. or images that stick in their minds. noticing that passive verbs are more difficult or impossible to demonstrate. munch. Rice Cakes or Salsa? As students discover some bland words in their writing. Then have students talk about why they chose particular words and why they worked so well in creating mind pictures.Read a story or poem with excellent words and have students jot down any words. (eat vs. some passive.    Find That Word.) . ³Is this a µrice cake¶ word or a µsalsa¶ word?´ Every paper should have salsa words! Act it Out. pick at. phrases. etc. teach them to ask.some active. gobble. scarf.

but I liked some other rides better. We had to wait a really long. I am so very happy that I got to go to the very best amusement park in the world. Some of them made me very. fast. It made me feel better. very dizzy.Eliminating Excessive Adjectives/ Selecting Exact Word Choice Magic Mountain is a very cool place to go. . Batman is cool. I liked the rids as Magic Mountain because they all went really. very. I felt like I was going to get sick so I took my little sister to the kid¶s section for a while. long time and my mom almost made up give up and leave some of the long lines. really. Viper is awesome! I liked it a lot. It was fun.

His bike stopped. really mad! He walked close to me. I was scared that he might hurt me. He looked really. He was mean. ³I¶m Jose´.Writing With Details/ Creating ³ Mind Pictures´ Vote: Story #1 versus Story #2« Story #1 Billy came toward me. I said. He was riding his bike toward me. ³Who are you?´ he asked. .

I prayed it was not my last breath. I¶m Bobby and I just moved in yesterday.Mind Picture Story #2 Traveling at lightening speed. ³Uh . I gasped. His beady eyes squinted. My life flashed before me. ³Would it hurt?´. I wondered. I began to tremble. I could almost picture his dirt filled nails going right into my neck as he strangled me slowly. I think I even saw smoke rising from the asphalt street.´ I whispered under my breath. . Geek?´. Wild red hair stood straight up from his freckled face. his mouth was drawn tight as he glared at me. Billy drove his bike wildly down the steep hill.uh. his nostrils flared. Even the grown-up were terrified of him! He was headed straight for ME! His tires screeched as he slammed down his sneakers to stop. After moving in only the day before. he growled through a space between his two front teeth. ³Who are you. I had already learned that Billy was the town bully.

Begin sentences in ways that hook them to the preceding sentences (transitions) . and structures 3. How does it sound to the ear? Listen for smoothness & flow Variety of sentence beginning Differences in sentence lengths Variations in general patterning How does this look at intermediate? Are they beginning to: 1. Vary sentence beginnings. Use rhythmic language 2. lengths.Sentence Fluency      This trait focuses on the rhythm and cadence of the piece.

Sentence Fluency Links to instruction Pointing out fluency when reading good literature Writing and listening to poetry Combining/detangling sentences Wordiness and parallel construction Sentence fragments & variety .

Read aloud poetry that has natural language.Alvin Schwartz or find some on the Internet. This helps them focus on the way language sounds.Have students participate in a tongue twister contest to build up their oral fluency. Reading Aloud to Yourself-Have students read aloud to practice fluency and to experience writing that is easy to read aloud. not poetry that works so hard at rhyming that the natural flow is lost.Activities to Help Students With Sentence Fluency Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing. a Tangler of Tongues. Invite students to create their own. Purchase: A Twister of Twists. Let them listen as they close their eyes. Music to Our Ears. Ruth Culham     Twisted Twister. Then have them listen a 2nd time.Listen to classical music like Peter and the Wolf and Circus of the Animals to develop fluency. . I¶ve Got Rhythm. inviting them to pick a section and write a description of what they think is happening.

read a piece that does have variety in sentence length and structure. and had variety in length and structure. stop & start.Nothing helps students see the difference a pause or inflection can make more than trying to read a passage or poem aloud with other people simultaneously. Decide which piece was more fluent. have students stretch their Slinky to match the length of each sentence. and raise & lower voices. Choral Reading.Divide students into groups of 5 and give each group a slinky.   Slinky City. Create a class chart that establishes criteria for what good sentences should look like. End With a Noun. As you read a piece aloud that has little variety. After reading quite a few sentences.Sentences are more powerful when ended with a noun: . ask them to stop and discuss what they noticed. held their attention. Were all sentences the same length or were some short and snappy while other were long and languid? Next. They need to plan where to breathe.

Write several sentences on sentence strips. On the reverse of some words. roll it. the moss will become smooth. Once completed. We flew kites. (verb) If you don¶t want moss to gather on a stone. Next. We ate hot dogs. ask them to rearrange the sentence using the same words.   A rolling stone gathers no moss. the student must give the correct answer. (adverb) If you roll the stone. To remain standing. (noun) If a stone rolls. Sentence & Fragments Bee. ³Is this a sentence or a fragment?´ as you give them an example written on an overhead. roll it quickly. hardly any moss with be gathered. . We spent a warm. (pronoun) When trying to rid a stone of moss. The last student standing is the winner. let students practice sentence combining. there will be capital letters or punctuation marks so that the 2nd sentence will be correct. Which Is Better? Share 2 versions of a piece of writing. (adjective) Flipping sentences. Divide students into groups of 3 and have them assemble the sentence. It was warm. It was sunny. They will have the same content. cutting apart each word. sunny day at the beach eating snacks and flying kites.Ask one student at a time. We had fun. but very different sounds. Example: We went to the beach.

And sometimes she gets mad at me. And my mom always thinks I am the one who started it and then Ashley just smiles. One day. And she knows it! She is only two years old and she smiles all the time. maybe my mom will think it is Ashley¶s fault and then I will smile and smile and smile and then I will think she is cute again. .Omitting Too Many ³ands´ or ³thens´ I have a little sister and her name is Ashley. She is so cute. I tell her to stop and she always screams and then I get in trouble. I don¶t like it when she plays with my dolls and stuffed animals and games and books.

Although it was midnight. the young child refused to admit she was sleepy. On the reverse side of the two words that can start each sentence. ‡The boy rushed to school as he ate his breakfast. he realized how cold the water was. This will strengthen sentence fluency. write a capital letter. even though he was scared. ‡ The team went out for pizza after winning the game. As he ate his breakfast. . Even though he was scared. After jumping into the pool. the shy boy raised his hand. the team went out for pizza. ‡ The boy wondered what the scratching noise at his window was long into the night. the boy rushed to school. Long into the night. Cut up each sentence and have the students construct the sentences in two ways.Getting Kids to Vary Sentences Write one of each of the following sentence on sentence strips. the boy wondered what the scratching noise at his window was. ‡ The shy boy raised his hand. ‡ He realized how cold the water was after jumping into the pool. ‡ The young child refused to admit she was sleepy although it was midnight. After winning the game.

The tree grew. . The car groaned. The dog barked. The bird flew.Practice Sentence Building          The girl walked. The children worked. The father picked up the child. The teacher taught. The boy ran.

5. dashes. 4. clear pronouns and antecedents Correct use of hyphens. Spelling Punctuation Grammar & Usage Paragraphing Capital Letters How does this look like at intermediate?    Proper use of infinitives. and semicolons Applying the spelling of bases and affixes to derivatives . brackets. Has it been edited/proofread? 1.Conventions This trait reflects the general correctness of the piece. participles. 2. 3.

.Conventions Links to instruction     Difference between editing and revising Learning and using symbols Model using clear examples in simplified contexts Provide extensive opportunities to receive instruction and feedback.

Now.the school lunchroom? .Activities to Help Students With Conventions Adapted from 6+1 Traits of Writing. ³What are the conventions of« . Conventions Game. capitalizing only words that shouldn¶t be etc.Examine the word ³conventions´ itself.a holiday dinner? .a baseball game? . spelling every 3rd word incorrectly. . tell them you want them to follow some new directions such as putting commas where semicolons should be. Ruth Culham   The Conventions of Conventions. Then give students the opportunity to read their pieces aloud and ask them if it was difficult to read. Discuss. Make a list of reasons for having rules.a typical day at school? Ask what conventions help traffic flow. What would happen if we didn¶t have traffic conventions? Relate their responses to writing and what happens when we don¶t have conventions or use them correctly.Go over basic conventions that you know your students can handle on their own.

Have them share and compare their edited versions with the original and note any differences. capitalization.At the beginning of the year. Reading Backwards. they focus on each word and don¶t get caught up in the meaning of the words. if appropriate. .To check for spelling errors. Group students together and ask them to put all conventions back in. and indentation. That way. Be Accountable.   Take it Out. have students read their pieces backwards. Be realistic and don¶t let them overdo their list! Throughout the year. add conventions to the list when new skills have been mastered.Rewrite a short story or passage by omitting all punctuation. ask students to decide for which types of errors they should be held accountable.

Dialogue Posters.Ask a student to come to the board.Have students examine dialogue from writing pieces and have them create a list of ³Rules for Writing Dialogue´. . Have the student answer the question on the next line.  Silent Interview. discuss what would be needed if this dialogue was written in a story where they couldn¶t µsee¶ the speakers. Each of you should have a different color marker or chalk. Start by writing a question. Next. Continue in this fashion until you have several sentences.

Does it leave your reader thinking? Hungry for more? . Let¶s just read your conclusion. Do you have a favorite part? Why is it your favorite? 6. Are there any unneeded details you could cut? 7. Did you tell things in a logical order? 9.Name that trait«. 1. 3. 2. 4. Will it grab the reader¶s attention? 8. Who is your audience? What do they need to know? What is the MAIN thing you want to tell our readers? Do you have enough information on your topic? What is the purpose of this paper? Do you think the that purpose would be clear to a reader? 5. Let¶s read just your lead.

rush. linger. Do your sentences begin in different ways to add interest? 15. 18. fume. provoke. did you use strong verbs? Words like squash. Is it easy to read your paper aloud? 17. gallop. zoom. Write down what you think is the strongest trait in this paper. Look at each place you began a new paragraph. lunge. pummel? 12. Is Is it the right voice for this kind of writing? 11. Describe the voice of this piece in just one word. Do you know the meanings of the words you used? 13. .10. Circle all the words you think might not be spelled right. Are some sentences long and some short so the paper does not get monotonous? 16. Did you stretch a little to try a new word? 14. Do you think they¶re in the right spots? 19. Did you leave out any punctuation marks? 20.

a problem to solve.Don¶t make a list ‡Remember that a good story makes a point ‡Create some tension . a what¶s-going-to-happen-next kind of feeling ‡ Do NOT write a bed-to-bed story of everything that happened to you that day.Keys to Success in Modes Narrative ‡Write a story . only tell what matters .

Informational ‡Be clear ‡Teach your reader something new . or three key points. don¶t try to tell everything ‡ Write as if you find your topic very interesting .do not fill your paper with things everyone knows ‡ Imagine you are writing to someone who is bored . two.make it lively ‡ Explain one.

show how or why their argument is not as strong as yours .Persuasive ‡Outline the issue(s) or problem clearly for readers so they get it ‡Choose ONE position and stick with it .think of the consequences if people do not agree with you! ‡ Your personal opinion is not a reason . or experience to support your argument ‡ Consider the other side . examples.you need facts.do NOT change sides halfway through your paper ‡ Give reasons for believing what you do .

sight. sound. smells.Descriptive ‡Paint a picture for the reader ‡Put the reader right at the scene ‡Appeal to ALL senses . taste . feelings.

4. Encourage teaming among students. 8. etc. . Encourage students to create their own checklists. 5.10 Things you can do now: 1. Emphasize process over product. Involve parents as coaches. 10. 3. Encourage multiple forms of writing. Provide resources . posters. 2. 6. Encourage personal revision/editing. Talk ³trait language´ in all content areas. Use the print all around us. 9.let students help! 7. Provide multiple opportunities for students to be assessors.

questions? Use sensory details? Pick out favorite details? Work on making the main message crystal clear? You¶re teaching ideas! 2. after a while? Think how order helps make information interesting? You¶re teaching organization! . Brainstorm? Do research? Make lists? Do interviews? Ask readers. Organize information? Group things together that go together? Look for patterns? Write more than one lead? More than one conclusion? Work on transition words like next. therefore. 1.You¶re Probably Teaching the 6 Traits Now! Do you«.

g. knowledge of word meanings? Explore how words are used in the literature you read? Keep lists of favorite and least favorite words? Brainstorm alternatives for ³tired´ words? Encourage students to define specialized terminology (e.g. Stretch your students. Identify the audience? Think about what the audience already knows? Wants to know? Adjust the voice/tone for the audience? Help students find their individual voice? Leave their personal mark on a piece of writing? Make sure voice/tone matches purpose? (e..3.. business letter vs. narrative)? You¶re teaching voice! 4. for math or science)? .

crisp.)? Encourage students to read their own work aloud? Check sentence beginnings for variety? Show students how to vary sentence length by sentence combining and detangling? Work on tips for good sentences (e.personal notebooks of favorite words? Encourage students to teach YOU new words? You¶re teaching word choice! 5.. avoiding ³There is´ or ³There are´ beginnings.and from a variety of written sources (tech writing.g. avoiding run-ons)? Keep informational/technical pieces short. business writing. poetry. etc. and to the point? You¶re teaching sentence fluency! . novels. Read aloud to students? Read often .

if only for a few minutes? Post the 100 most frequently used words for easy spelling reference? Model use of dictionaries. spell checkers or other resources? Teach students to use copy editors¶ symbols? Provide opportunities for students to practice editing on text that is not their own? Model editing using your own writing? Ask students to be editors for YOU? Post copy editors¶ symbols on the wall for quick reference? Practice editing daily . and other resources? You¶re teaching conventions! . handbooks. Ask students to proofread their work? Use dictionaries.6.

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