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THE PROVINCIAL STYLE OF INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

The Provincial Style of Architecture encompasses the architectural trends and developments noticed in different provincial capitals in India are: Punjab (1150-1325 AD) Bengal (1203-1573 AD) Gujarat (1300-1572 AD) Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD) Malwa (1405-1569 AD) Deccan (1347-1617 AD) Bijapur (1490-1656 AD) Khandesh (1425-1650 AD) and Kashmir (1410 onwards).

BENGAL STYLE
(1203-1573 AD)

The Pandua and Adina mosques are the earliest architectural examples in Bengal. The tomb of Akhi Surajuddin, the Kotwali Darwaza, the Dakhil Darwaza and the tomb of Sultan Jalaluddin Mohammad Shah (1414-1431 AD), known as the Eklakhi Tomb, served as prototypes for the subsequent Islamic architecture of Bengal. The other important buildings of Bengal include Tantipara Masjid (1475 AD), Chamkatti Masjid (1475 AD), Lotan Masjid (1480 AD), Chota Sona Masjid (1510 AD) and the Qadam Rasool Mosque (1530 AD).

JAUNPUR STYLE
(1376-1479 AD)

Under the Sharqi dynasty Jaunpur became a great centre of art, culture and architectural activity. During the rule of Shamsuddin Ibrahim (1402-1436 AD) several palaces, mosques, tombs and other buildings came up, the most prominent being the Atala Masjid built in 1378. Later other important buildings were produced that include Khalis Mukhlis Masjid (1430 AD), Jhangiri Masjid (1430 AD) Lal Darwaza Masjid (1450 AD) and the Jami Masjid (1470 AD).

GUJRAT STYLE
(1300-1572 AD) By far the largest and most important of the Provincial styles, Gujarat witnessed significant architectural activity for over 250 years starting from Muzaffar Shah's declaration of independence from Delhi and the formation of the Sultanate (Ahmad Shahi) of Gujarat in 1307 AD until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1500 AD. There are two reasons for the Indo Islamic style of this part of the country being pre eminent, one owing to the building ambitions of the Muslim dynasty who ruled it and the other to the profound artistic traditions of the inhabitants. Of all the provincial styles which emerged under Islamic rule, that which flourished in Gujarat is the most indigenously Indian. The characteristic features of these constructions are the panels decorated with geometric and floral designs, the richly ornamented balconies, minarets, domes and even niches and the introduction of light and air through perforated screens.

There were three different phases of the Gujarat style : The first phase lasting for the first half of the 14th century marked by the demolition of the Hindu temples and their reconversion into Muslim buildings. The second phase prevailing mostly during the first half of the 15th century and showing signs of hesitant maturity of a distinctive style. Finally, the phase ginning in the latter half of the 15th century when Gujarat style emerges in its own magnificent form. Most of the typical examples relate to this period of Gujarat style . In some of the finer examples of this style considerable portions of the buildings are in fact adaptations from either Hindu or Jain temples. In Gujarat style, the scheme of construction where the structure of a temple is fitted into the sanctuary of the mosque in the form of central compartment. Almost all the mosques from the second and third phase are composed in this manner.

GUJRAT STYLE
(1300-1572 AD) The early phase of the architecture belonging to the 14th Century was: formative and experimental Had charm and considerable dignity Was in transitional state so no definite character.

Of the Early period, Tomb of Baba Farid and the Adina or Jami Masjid at Pathan; the principal records of this phase when structural conversion prevailed. The succeeding phase of the early period when original building began to take place was represented by: Jama Masjid of Bharuch (1300), Haibat Khan Mosque, Jami Masjid at Cambay (1325) and the Hilal Khan Qazi's mosque in Dholka (1333).

Haibat Khan Mosque:

The Second Period into which the provincial style of Gujarat has been resolved, and which prevailed during the first half of the fifteenth century owed its remarkable development to the forceful personality of Ahmad Shah I. He founded the capital city naming after himself, Ahmadabad, a city full of architectural masterpieces. The City consisted of more than fifty mosques, large and small, irrespective of tombs within its walls, the whole forming a exposition of Indo Islamic art.

The old city of Ahmedabad once had huge fortification walls with magnificent gateways, in accordance with the norms of most medieval towns in northern India. Within the walls, the city was divided into residential areas, markets, and squares.

Teen darwaza: It is composed of 3 arched entrances was built by Sultan Ahmed Shah to serve as a royal entrance to Maidan Shahi

JAMI MASJID at BRAUCH: It lies at the eastern base of the fort. It was built in the early 14th century from the materials of an old Jain temple. Although constructed from recycled masonry, it was planned and built according to conventional mosque design, comprising a courtyard with gateways on three sides and an open pillared sanctuary at its western end. The interior has three compartments based on three temple mandapas, removed and

reassembled in their present position. The three mihrabs in the western wall are clearly indigenous in design and are copies of temple niches, but with pointed Islamic arches. The roof of the sanctuary has three large domes and ten smaller ones. The ceilings are enriched with cusped and geometrical patterns.

JAMI MASJID at CAMBAY:

The earliest monument from this period is the Jami Masjid at Cambay which includes columns taken from ruined Hindu and Jain temples. The form of the mosque resembles that of the Quwwat ul lslam Mosque in Delhi with a rectangular courtyard with gateways on three sides and an arched screen in front of the sanctuary on the west side.

Chief among the buildings erected in Ahmadabad during the early part of its founders reign were four mosques, each illustrating a phase in the development of the style. Tomb of Ahmed Shah (1440), Sayyid Alam's mosque (1412), the Jami Masjid (built by the citys founder Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1423), Qutubuddin's mosque (1454).

Ahmed Shah's Mosque Ahmed Shah started construction of this mosque in 1411, the year in which he laid the foundation stone of the city. The stone inscription in Persian language tells that it was built by Ahmed Shah placed in the mosque. recently. This mosque is renovated

Sayyid Alam's mosque (1412):

Jami Masjid at Ahmedabad: It was built by Sultan Ahmed Shah in the year 1423. Composed of yellow sandstone, this masjid witnesses the beautiful interspersion of Hindu and Muslim Architecture. The masjid stands produly on 260 Pillars and takes support from 15 Domes. It has a wide, rectangular courtyard which measures 75 m x 66 m. The western chamber of Jama Masjid is a large, sprawling hall which stands on 260 pillars that have carvings and inscriptions belonging to Hindu and Jain culture. From the East, one can access the central courtyard and the eastern entrance gives way to an area which has the mausoleum of Sultan Ahmed Shah. The ''Roja'' or Tomb of Sultan Ahmed Shah was made by his son Mohammed Shah 2 for paying homage to his father.

Qutubuddin's mosque (1454):

Rani Sipri Mosque This mosque is situated near Astodia Darwaja built by Sipri, begum of Muhammad Begada in 1514. Its balconies are grand, its carving is subtle like that of a haveli. Its slender minarets are solid and purely ornamental. It is one of the finest mosques in Ahmedabad.

The Shaking Minarets - Sidi Bashir's Mosque: The peculiarity of these minarets is that if you shake one minaret, the other one will also begin to shake automatically. The reaction of the movement of one minaret is received by the other one. These minarets are parts of the mosque, which was built by Sidi Bashir in 1452. The mosque was badly damaged during the battle between Marathas and Javanmardhkhan Babi, but the

GUJRAT STYLE
(1300-1572 AD) Under the rule of Mahmud I Begarha (1459-1511) different buildings constructed were: Jami Masjid at Champaner (1508-9) Rani Sipri Mosque (1505), Sidi Bashir's Mosque (1510), which is famous for its minarets, Rani Rupmati Masjid at Mirzapur (built between 1430 and 1440) and the Kankaria Lake, constructed in 1451 by Sultan Qutb-ud-Din.

JAMI MASJID, CHAMPANER: A new capital was built at Champaner by Sultan Mahmud Begarha towards the end of the 15th century. The symmetrical appearance of the whole is enhanced by the exquisite details of its parts. The surface is profusely decorated with fine carvings. It is an imposing structure on a high plinth with two tall minarets of 30 meter height, 172 pillars and seven mihrabs. The interesting Gujarati features are oriel windows. This mosque took 125 years to build and has a wonderful carved entrance and imposing courtyard. Inside, the ruler's prayer hall is divided from the main space by jalis.

Mosque & Tomb Of Bibi Achut Kuki:

Rani Rupmati Mosque: As the name suggests, it is one of the most beautiful mosques of Ahmedabad. Its minarets were damaged in the earthquake of 1819. In the construction of the mosque we find blend of Hindu style and Islamic style in pillars and arches.

Sidi Saiyed Mosque: Sidi Saiyed-ni-Jali is a unique feature of Ahmedabad. It is found in Sidi Saiyed Mosque. This elegant mosque was built by Sidi Saiyed in 1573. The Jalis are in rear wall of the mosque. The Jalis have fine carving design in geometrical and interwined tree and foliage, palm and parasite motif.