Through discourses of gender and race both Du Bois s concept of the Veil and Hirschmann s social constructions elaborate

the tensions of realizing freedom within the context of a white patriarchal society. External factors of repression such as the terrors of the Ku-Klux Klan (Du Bois, p.40) and the non-intervention of law-enforcement in domestic violence cases respectively constrain the opportunities for self-realization and emancipation such as the ideal of book-learning (Du Bois, p. 41) and the space offered by shelters for emotional, psychological and discursive sustenance (Hirschmann, p.135). Battered women, in order to challenge the socially constructed values, institutions and hierarchy that implicitly support the abuser, also must shift their self-understanding and worldview from victimhood to purposive empowerment, where they are able, within a protected space, to redefine their gendered experiences. Similarly, African Americans must overcome their ignorance that is perpetuated by white hegemony (the Veil) and educate themselves as workers and thinkers towards a common human solidarity. While transcending the Veil to achieve this ideal Du Bois ignores how his educational model reproduces the dominant American class structure within the Black community and internalizes the higher culture ideology of individualism. Hirschmann s account compellingly resuscitates individual freedom, especially the fissures between negative and positive liberty, with social constructivism as external and inner mediators on choice, but misses out on the social construction of liberty entirely. 1. Ideology and materiality a. Legal mechanisms that legitimate patriarchal power b. Ideological misrepresentation i. Gendered experiences within social support structures c. The Veil and ideology 2. External factors and intrapsychical effects a. Hirschmann and internalization i. Social meaning of men and women ii. Patriarchical values 1. Masculinity 2. Encoded oppressions within worldview iii. Shelter and support prejudices iv. Subjectivity and discourse b. Du Bois and double consciousness i. Social meaning of being black and American 1. Black 2. American 3. Class/educational position ii. Outer social response iii. Cultural effects iv. Subjectivity and discourse 3. Discourse and a. Economic and educational effects i. Problem of dependency ii. Problem of ignorance

iii. Education and its guiding role 1. Leadership 2. Moral inspiration iv. Synthesis with shelter space 1.

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