Table of Contents

Chapter 0

1

Chapter 1

35

Chapter 2

54

Chapter 3

89

Chapter 4

132

Chapter 5

160

Chapter 6

177

Chapter 7

231

Chapter 8

295

Chapter 9

333

Chapter 10

357

Chapter 11

378

Chapter 12

423

Chapter 13

469

Chapter 14

539

Chapter 15

614

Chapter 16

658

Chapter 17

670

Chapter 0
Problems 0.1

7. True;

1. True; –13 is a negative integer.

⎛ b ⎞ ab
8. True, because a ⎜ ⎟ = .
⎝c⎠ c

2. True, because −2 and 7 are integers and 7 ≠ 0.
3. False, because the natural numbers are 1, 2, 3,
and so on.

9. False; the left side is 5xy, but the right side is
5 x 2 y.

0
4. False, because 0 = .
1

10. True; by the associative and commutative
properties, x(4y) = (x ⋅ 4)y = (4 ⋅ x)y = 4xy.

5
5. True, because 5 = .
1

11. distributive
12. commutative

6. False, since a rational number cannot have
7
is not a number
denominator of zero. In fact,
0
at all because we cannot divide by 0.
7. False, because
integer.
8. True;

13. associative
14. definition of division

25 = 5, which is a positive

15. commutative and distributive
16. associative

2 is an irrational real number.

17. definition of subtraction

9. False; we cannot divide by 0.

18. commutative

10. False, because the natural numbers are 1, 2, 3,
and so on, and 3 lies between 1 and 2.

19. distributive
20. distributive

11. True

21. 2x(y − 7) = (2x)y − (2x)7 = 2xy − (7)(2x)
= 2xy − (7 · 2)x = 2xy − 14x

12. False, since the integer 0 is neither positive nor
negative.

22. (a − b) + c = [a + (−b)] + c = a + (−b + c)
= a + [c + (−b)] = a + (c − b)

Problems 0.2
1. False, because 0 does not have a reciprocal.
2. True, because

x+2 x 2 x
= + = + 1.
2
2 2 2

23. (x + y)(2) = 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y

7 3 21
⋅ =
= 1.
3 7 21

24. 2[27 + (x + y)] = 2[27 + (y + x)] = 2[(27 + y) + x]
= 2[(y + 27) + x]
25. x[(2y + 1) + 3] = x[2y + (1 + 3)] = x[2y + 4]
= x(2y) + x(4) = (x · 2)y + 4x = (2x)y + 4x
= 2xy + 4x

3. False; the negative of 7 is −7 because
7 + (−7) = 0.
4. False; 2(3 · 4) = 2(12) = 24, but
(2 · 3)(2 · 4) = 6 · 8 = 48.

26. (1 + a)(b + c) = 1(b + c) + a(b + c)
= 1(b) + 1(c) + a(b) + a(c) = b + c + ab + ac

5. False; –x + y = y + (–x) = y – x.
6. True; (x + 2)(4) = (x)(4) + (2)(4) = 4x + 8.
1

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

27. x(y − z + w) = x[(y − z) + w] = x(y − z) + x(w)
= x[y + (−z)] + xw = x(y) + x(−z) + xw
= xy − xz + xw

51. X(1) = X

28. –2 + (–4) = –6

53. 4(5 + x) = 4(5) + 4(x) = 20 + 4x

29. –6 + 2 = –4

54. –(x – 2) = –x + 2

30. 6 + (–4) = 2

55. 0(–x) = 0

31. 7 – 2 = 5

⎛ 1 ⎞ 8 ⋅1 8
=
56. 8 ⎜ ⎟ =
⎝ 11 ⎠ 11 11

52. 3(x – 4) = 3(x) – 3(4) = 3x – 12

32. 7 – (–4) = 7 + 4 = 11
33. −5 − (−13) = −5 + 13 = 8

57.

5
=5
1

58.

14 x 2 ⋅ 7 ⋅ x 2 x
=
=
21 y 3 ⋅ 7 ⋅ y 3 y

59.

3
3
3
=
=−
−2 x −(2 x)
2x

60.

2 1 2 ⋅1 2
⋅ =
=
3 x 3 ⋅ x 3x

61.

a
a(3b) 3ab
(3b) =
=
c
c
c

34. −a − (−b) = −a + b
35. (–2)(9) = –(2 · 9) = –18
36. 7(–9) = –(7 · 9) = –63
37. (–2)(–12) = 2(12) = 24
38. 19(−1) = (−1)19 = −(1 · 19) = −19
39.

−1
⎛ 9⎞
= −1⎜ − ⎟ = 9
1
−9
⎝ 1⎠

40. –(–6 + x) = –(–6) – x = 6 – x
⎛ 7 ⎞
62. (5a ) ⎜ ⎟ = 7
⎝ 5a ⎠

41. –7(x) = –(7x) = –7x
42. –12(x – y) = (–12)x – (–12)(y) = –12x + 12y
(or 12y – 12x)

63.

−aby −a ⋅ by by
=
=
−ax
−a ⋅ x
x

−3
3
1⋅ 3
1
=− =−
=−
44. −3 ÷ 15 =
15
15
5⋅3
5

64.

7 1 7 ⋅1 7
⋅ =
=
y x y ⋅ x xy

45. −9 ÷ (−27) =

−9
9 9 ⋅1 1
=
=
=
−27 27 9 ⋅ 3 3

65.

2 5 2 ⋅ 5 10
⋅ =
=
x y x ⋅ y xy

46. (−a ) ÷ (−b) =

−a a
=
−b b

66.

1 1 3 2 3+ 2 5
+ = + =
=
2 3 6 6
6
6

67.

5 3 5 9 5 + 9 14 2 ⋅ 7 7
+ = + =
=
=
=
12 4 12 12
12
12 2 ⋅ 6 6

68.

3 7
9 14 9 − 14 −5
5 ⋅1
1
− =

=
=
=−
=−
10 15 30 30
30
30
5⋅6
6

43. –[–6 + (–y)] = –(–6) – (–y) = 6 + y

47. 2(–6 + 2) = 2(–4) = –8
48. 3[–2(3) + 6(2)] = 3[–6 + 12] = 3[6] = 18
49. (–2)(–4)(–1) = 8(–1) = –8
50. (−12)(−12) = (12)(12) = 144
2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

69.

70.

4 6 4 + 6 10
+ =
=
=2
5 5
5
5

X
5

Y
5

=

2 3 16 15 16 − 15 1
− =

=
=
5 8 40 40
40
40

74.

= 6÷

l
3

m

=

a3⋅7

=

(b 4 )5

b 4⋅5

75.

−x
y2
z
xy

76.

7
is not defined (we cannot divide by 0).
0

2

=

11.

w4 s 6
y4

x9
x5

= x 9 −5 = x 4

⎛ 2a 4
12. ⎜
⎜ 7b5

z
x xy
x2
=−
÷
=−
⋅ =−
yz
y 2 xy
y2 z
x

6


(2a 4 )6
⎟ =

(7b5 )6

26 ( a 4 ) 6
=
76 (b5 )6
=

0
77.
=0
7

=

0
78.
is not defined (we cannot divide by 0).
0

13.

( x3 )6
3

=

x( x )

79. 0 · 0 = 0
Problems 0.3

14.

1. (23 )(22 ) = 23+ 2 = 25 (= 32)

64a 4⋅6
117, 649b5⋅6
64a 24
117, 649b30

x3⋅6
1+3

( x 2 )3 ( x 3 ) 2
( x3 ) 4

3. w4 w8 = w4+8 = w12

16.

4

81 = 3

4. z 3 zz 2 = z 3+1+ 2 = z 6

17.

7

−128 = −2

9 5

y y

=

x
y

9+5
12⋅4

6. ( x ) = x
12 4

=

x

8

19.

48

0.04 = 0.2

3

4

4

= x18− 4 = x14

x 2⋅3 x3⋅2

25 = 5

18.

y14

=x

=

x18
x

x12−12 = x 0 = 1

15.

x x

=

x

2. x6 x9 = x6+9 = x15

5.

b 20

⎛ w2 s 3 ⎞
( w2 s 3 ) 2 ( w2 ) 2 ( s3 ) 2 w2⋅2 s3⋅2
=
=
=
10. ⎜

⎜ y2 ⎟
( y 2 )2
y 2⋅2
y4

x
y 6y
= 6⋅ =
y
x
x

3+ 5

a 21

9. (2 x 2 y 3 )3 = 23 ( x 2 )3 ( y 3 )3 = 8 x 2⋅3 y 3⋅3 = 8 x6 y9

l m l 1
l
÷ = ⋅ =
3 1 3 m 3m

3 5

=

5

72.

x
y

(a3 )7

⎛ x2 ⎞
( x 2 )5 x 2⋅5 x10
8. ⎜ ⎟ =
=
=
⎜ y3 ⎟
( y 3 )5 y 3⋅5 y15
⎝ ⎠

5

3 1 1 18 3 2 18 − 3 + 2 17
− + = − + =
=
2 4 6 12 12 12
12
12

6

7.

X −Y

71.

73.

Section 0.3

4
1
1 1
=
=
4
16
16 2

x3⋅4

=

x6 x6
x12

=

x12
x12

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

20.

–8
=
27

3

3

–8

3

27

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

−2
2
=−
3
3

21. (49)1/ 2 = 49 = 7

37. (9 z 4 )1/ 2 = 9 z 4 = 32 ( z 2 )2 = 32 ( z 2 ) 2
= 3z 2

22. (64)1/ 3 = 3 64 = 4
3/ 2

23. 9

=

3
3 13
39
39
39
=
⋅ =
=
=
2
13
13 13
13
13
132

36.

3

( 9)

3

3

38. (16 y8 )3 / 4 = ⎡ 4 16 y8 ⎤ = ⎡ 4 (2 y 2 )4 ⎤ = (2 y 2 )3
⎢⎣
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
⎦⎥

= (3) = 27
3

= 8y 6

1

24. (9) −5 / 2 =

(9)

1

25. (32) –2 / 5 =

(32)

26. (0.09)
=

1
3
10

–1/ 2

=

⎛ 1 ⎞
27. ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 32 ⎠

=

5/ 2

=

2/5

1

( 9)

5

=

1

=

5

3

1

( 5 32 )

1

=

2

1
243
1

=

(2)

2

=

⎛ 27t 3 ⎞
39. ⎜

⎜ 8 ⎟

1
4

1
=
=
0.3
0.09

10
3

41.
4/5

⎛ 64 ⎞
28. ⎜ − ⎟
⎝ 27 ⎠

4

⎛ 1 ⎞
1
⎛1⎞
= ⎜⎜ 5
⎟⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ =
16
⎝2⎠
⎝ 32 ⎠

2/3

42.

−3 / 4

2/3

c2

= a5 ⋅ b −3 ⋅

1
c2

2

9t 2
⎡ 3t ⎤
=⎢ ⎥ =
4
⎣2⎦

−3 / 4

= a5 ⋅

⎡4⎤
=⎢ ⎥
⎣ x3 ⎦

1

1

b3 c 2

= x 2 / 5 y 3 / 5 z –10 / 5 =

5 2 3 –10

x y z

−3

=

=

4−3
( x3 )−3

a5
b3 c 2

x2 / 5 y3 / 5
z2

2

2

64 ⎞
16
⎛ 4⎞
= ⎜⎜ 3 − ⎟⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟ =
27
3
9



30.

3

54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27

31.

3

2 x3 = 3 2

3 3

x =x

3

2 = 33 2

3

2

32.

4x = 4 x = 2 x

33.

16 x = 16 x = 4 x
4

a5b −3

4

43. 5m−2 m−7 = 5m −2+ ( −7) = 5m −9 =

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 5 2

29.

⎛ ⎡ 3t ⎤ 3 ⎞
= ⎜⎢ ⎥ ⎟
⎜⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎟

⎛ ⎡ 4 ⎤4 ⎞
= ⎜⎢ ⎥ ⎟
⎜ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎟


−3
9
9
4
x
x
=
=
=
−9
3
64
x
4

⎛ 256 ⎞
40. ⎜

⎝ x12 ⎠

1

(0.09)1/ 2

2/3

4

44. x + y –1 = x +
1

45. (3t ) –2 =

(3t )

46. (3 − z ) –4 =

2

5
m9

1
y
=

1
9t 2

1
(3 − z )4

2

47.

4
4
x
x
x
34. 4
=
=
4
16
2
16

5

5 x 2 = (5 x 2 )1/ 5 = 51/ 5 ( x 2 )1/ 5 = 51/ 5 x 2 / 5

48. ( X 3Y −3 )−3 = ( X 3 )−3 (Y −3 )−3
= X −9Y 9

35. 2 8 − 5 27 + 3 128 = 2 4 ⋅ 2 − 5 9 ⋅ 3 + 3 64 ⋅ 2

=

= 2 ⋅ 2 2 − 5 ⋅ 3 3 + 43 2
= 4 2 − 15 3 + 4 3 2
4

Y9
X9

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

x − y = x1/ 2 − y1/ 2

49.
50.

Section 0.3

u −2 v −6 w3
vw−5

w3−( −5)

=

=

u 2 v1−( −6)

w8

x

9/ 4 3/ 4
1/ 2

y

52.

= a −3 / 4b −1/ 2 a5b −4

63.

= a17 / 4 b −9 / 2
=

a17 / 4
b

=

9/ 2

53. (2a − b + c) 2 / 3 = 3 (2a − b + c)2

64.

4 3 6 9

54. (ab 2 c3 )3 / 4 = 4 (ab 2 c3 )3 = a b c
55. x

=

–4 / 5

1

=

x4 / 5

1

3

1

=

x 2 /15

59.

6

60.

3

5

4

]

8

=

=

=

= [x

−4 / 5 1/ 6

]

=x

–4 / 30

51/ 2
3
81/ 4

(3 x)1/ 3

3x
3

2

=

33 y 2

3y2 / 3

66.

18
= 9 =3
2

=x

5

2

=

(2 y )

y 2y
2y

=

1(3 x) 2 / 3

=

(3x)1/ 3 (3 x)2 / 3

3

(3x) 2
3x

=

2 ⋅ y1/ 3
3 y 2 / 3 ⋅ y1/ 3

=

2 y1/ 3 2 3 y
=
3y
3y

5

=

68.

6 ⋅ 51/ 2
51/ 2 ⋅ 51/ 2
3 ⋅ 21/ 4
81/ 4 ⋅ 21/ 4

=

=

6 5
5
34 2
4

16

=

34 2
2

2

5

=

(24 a10b15 )1/ 20
=
ab
2

=

2
31/ 3

=

20

31/ 3 ⋅ 32 / 3

3

3

=

(2334 )1/ 6 6 648
=
3
3

5

3
u 5 / 2 v1/ 2

=

16a10 b15
ab

21/ 2 ⋅ 32 / 3

69. 2 x 2 y –3 x 4 = 2 x6 y –3 =

70.

2 ⋅ a1/ 2 b3 / 4

2 / 4 1/ 4
a1/ 2b1/ 4 ⋅ a1/ 2 b3 / 4
a b a b
21/ 5 a1/ 2b3 / 4 24 / 20 a10 / 20b15 / 20
=
=
ab
ab
4 2

=

15 2

=

(2 y )

1/ 2

12
= 4=2
3

=

3

1

=

1/ 2

9 x2
3x

12

–2 /15

x

6

1

=

65.

67.

w3 / 5 (3w)3 / 5
3
1
3
1
=

=

5 3
5 3
5
3
5
w
(3w)
w
27 w3

1

1/ 2

x

57. 3w−3 / 5 − (3w) −3 / 5 =

58. [( x )

(2 x)

y (2 y )1/ 2

=

(2 y )

2

5 4

56. 2 x1/ 2 − (2 y )1/ 2 = 2 x − 2 y

–4 1/ 5 1/ 6

y

=

1
3

(2 x)

4 2x
2x

=

1/ 2

2y
2

=

a −3b −2 a5b −4 = (a −3b −2 )1/ 4 a5b −4

4

1/ 2

2 2x
x

2y

z

1/ 2

4(2 x)1/ 2

=

(2 x)

y

62.

4

=

2x
=

u 2 v7

51. x 2 4 xy –2 z 3 = x 2 ( xy –2 z 3 )1/ 4 = x 2 x1/ 4 y –2 / 4 z 3 / 4
=

4

61.

=

23 / 634 / 6
3

2 x6
y3

3 ⋅ u1/ 2 v1/ 2
u 5 / 2 v1/ 2 ⋅ u1/ 2 v1/ 2

=

3u1/ 2 v1/ 2
u 3v

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

243

71.

243
= 81 = 9
3

=

3

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

= [(5k 2 ) 2 3]1/ 2 = 5k 2 31/ 2

72. {[(3a3 ) 2 ]−5 }−2 = {[32 a 6 ]−5 }−2
= {3−10 a −30 }−2

83.

= 320 a 60

73.

20

=

64 y ⋅ x
6

x

74.

s

3/ 2

5

=

3 2

s

75.

76.

=

(2 –2 x1/ 2 y –2 )3
1/ 2

⋅x

s

5/ 2

s

2/3

1
2 –6 x3 / 2 y –6

x3 / 2

85.

64 y x
x

=

=

84.

26 y 6

6 1/ 2

=

1/ 2

15 / 6

s

s

4/6

75k 4 = (75k 4 )1/ 2 = [(25k 4 )(3)]1/ 2

82.

(ab −3c)8
(a −1c 2 ) −3

3

= s11/ 6
= x2 ÷

= (31/ 4 )8 = 38 / 4 = 32 = 9

87. −
77. 32 (32) −2 / 5 = 32 (25 ) −2 / 5

78. ⎛⎜ 5 x 2 y ⎞⎟

2/5

b 24

2

x6

= x 2 ÷ x6−12 = x 2 ÷ x −6

12

x
1

x6

= x 2 ⋅ x 6 = x8

(–6)(–6) = 36 = 6

86.

8s –2
2s

88.

a5 c14

⎡ x3 ⎤
x6 ( x3 ) 2
÷⎢
=
÷

3 2
x4
x 4 ( x6 )2
⎣⎢ ( x ) ⎦⎥

= x2 ÷

= 32 (2−2 )
1
= 32 ⋅
22
9
=
4

=

3

(–6)2 ≠ −6 since –6 < 0.

Note that

8

a 3 c −6

( x 2 )3

3 2

(4 3)

a8b −24 c8

= 7 ⋅ 7 2 = 73 = 7

3 7(49)

2

x yz 3 3 xy 2 = 3 ( x 2 yz 3 )( xy 2 ) = 3 x3 y 3 z 3
= xyz

=

3

4

=−

3 2

=−

s s

( a5b−3 c )

3

4

s5

= (a5 )3 (b −3 )3 (c1/ 2 )3
= a15b −9 c3 / 2
=

= [( x 2 y )1/ 5 ]2 / 5 = ( x 2 y )2 / 25

a15 c3 / 2
b9

⎛ 3 x3 y 2 ⎞
89. (3x3 y 2 ÷ 2 y 2 z −3 ) 4 = ⎜

⎜ 2 y 2 z −3 ⎟

= x 4 / 25 y 2 / 25

4

4

79. (2 x –1 y 2 )2 = 22 x –2 y 4 =

80.

3
3

y4 x

=

3

y1/ 3 x1/ 4

=

4y

⎛ 3 x3 z 3 ⎞
=⎜

⎜ 2 ⎟


3 3 4
(3x z )
=
(2)4

4

x2
3 ⋅ y 2 / 3 x3 / 4

y1/ 3 x1/ 4 ⋅ y 2 / 3 x3 / 4

=

24
81x12 z12
=
16

3 x3 / 4 y 2 / 3
=
xy

81.

x x 2 y3 xy 2 = x1/ 2 ( x 2 y 3 )1/ 2 ( xy 2 )1/ 2
=x

1/ 2

( xy

3/ 2

1/ 2

)( x

34 x12 z12

90.

y) = x y

2 5/ 2

6

(

1
–2

2x
16 x3

)

2

=

1

( )

1/ 2 2

2

=
–2 2

(x )

(161/ 2 )2 ( x3 ) 2

1
–4

2x
16 x6

=

1
1
8 x10

= 8 x10

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 0.4
18. −{−6a − 6b + 6 + 10a + 15b − a[2b + 10]}
= −{4a + 9b + 6 − 2ab − 10a}
= −{−6a + 9b + 6 − 2ab}
= 6a − 9b − 6 + 2ab

Problems 0.4
1. 8x – 4y + 2 + 3x + 2y – 5 = 11x – 2y – 3
2. 6 x 2 − 10 xy + 2 + 2 z − xy + 4

19. x 2 + (4 + 5) x + 4(5) = x 2 + 9 x + 20

= 6 x 2 − 11xy + 2 z + 6

20. u 2 + (5 + 2)u + 2(5) = u 2 + 7u + 10

3. 8t 2 − 6s 2 + 4 s 2 − 2t 2 + 6 = 6t 2 − 2 s 2 + 6
4.
5.

x +2 x + x +3 x = 7 x

21. ( w + 2)( w − 5) = w2 + (−5 + 2) x + 2(−5)
= w2 − 3w − 10

a + 2 3b − c + 3 3b
= a + 5 3b − c

22. z 2 + (–7 − 3) z + (–7)(–3) = z 2 − 10 z + 21

6. 3a + 7b − 9 − 5a − 9b − 21 = −2a − 2b − 30

23. (2 x)(5 x ) + [(2)(2) + (3)(5)]x + 3(2)
= 10 x 2 + 19 x + 6

7. 6 x 2 –10 xy + 2 − 2 z + xy − 4
= 6 x 2 − 9 xy − 2 z + 2 − 4

24. (t)(2t) + [(1)(7) + (−5)(2)]t + (−5)(7)
= 2t 2 − 3t − 35

8.

x +2 x − x −3 x = − x

9.

x + 2 y − x − 3z = 2 y − 3z

25. X 2 + 2( X )(2Y ) + (2Y )2 = X 2 + 4 XY + 4Y 2
26. (2 x)2 − 2(2 x)(1) + 12 = 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1

10. 8z – 4w – 3w + 6z = 14z – 7w
11. 9x + 9y – 21 – 24x + 6y – 6 = –15x + 15y – 27

27. x 2 − 2(5) x + 52 = x 2 − 10 x + 25

12. u − 3v − 5u − 4v + u − 3 = −3u − 7v − 3
13. 5 x − 5 y + xy − 3 x − 8 xy − 28 y
2

2

2

28. (1 ⋅ 2)

2

2

+ [(1)(5) + (–1)(2)] x + (–1)(5)

= 2x + 3 x − 5

= 2 x 2 − 33 y 2 − 7 xy

29.

14. 2 – [3 + 4s – 12] = 2 – [4s – 9] = 2 – 4s + 9
= 11 – 4s

(

3x

)

2

+2

(

)

3 x (5) + (5)2

= 3x + 10 3x + 25

15. 2{3[3x 2 + 6 − 2 x 2 + 10]} = 2{3[ x 2 + 16]}

30.

= 2{3x + 48} = 6 x + 96
2

( x)

2

( y)

2

− 32 = y − 9

31. (2 s )2 − 12 = 4 s 2 − 1

16. 4{3t + 15 – t[1 – t – 1]} = 4{3t + 15 – t[–t]}
= 4{3t + 15 + t 2 } = 4t 2 + 12t + 60

32. ( z 2 )2 − (3w)2 = z 4 − 9w2

17. −5(8 x3 + 8 x 2 − 2( x 2 − 5 + 2 x))

33. x 2 ( x + 4) − 3( x + 4)

= −5(8 x3 + 8 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 10 − 4 x)

= x3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 12

= −5(8 x3 + 6 x 2 − 4 x + 10)
= −40 x3 − 30 x 2 + 20 x − 50

34. x( x 2 + x + 3) + 1( x 2 + x + 3)
= x3 + x 2 + 3 x + x 2 + x + 3
= x3 + 2 x 2 + 4 x + 3
7

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

35. x 2 (3 x 2 + 2 x − 1) − 4(3x 2 + 2 x − 1)

46.

= 3x 4 + 2 x3 − x 2 − 12 x 2 − 8 x + 4
= 3x 4 + 2 x3 − 13x 2 − 8 x + 4

47.

36. 3 y (4 y + 2 y − 3 y ) − 2(4 y + 2 y − 3 y )
3

2

3

2

2 x3 7 x 4
4

+ = 2 x2 − 7 +
x
x x
x
6 x5
2x

= 12 y 4 + 6 y 3 − 9 y 2 − 8 y 3 − 4 y 2 + 6 y

48.

= 12 y 4 − 2 y 3 − 13 y 2 + 6 y

37. x{2( x 2 − 2 x − 35) + 4[2 x 2 − 12 x]}
= x{2 x 2 − 4 x − 70 + 8 x 2 − 48 x}
= x{10 x 2 − 52 x − 70}
= 10 x3 − 52 x 2 − 70 x

2

+

4 x3
2x

2

1

2x

2

= 3 x3 + 2 x −

3y − 4 − 9 y − 5
3y
−6 y − 9
=
3y
−6 y 9
=

3y 3y
3
= −2 −
y

38. [(2 z )2 − 12 ](4 z 2 + 1) = [4 z 2 − 1](4 z 2 + 1)
x

= (4 z 2 ) 2 − 12 = 16 z 4 − 1

49. x + 5 x 2 + 5 x − 3
x2 + 5x

39. x(3x + 2y – 4) + y(3x + 2y – 4) + 2(3x + 2y – 4)

−3

= 3x 2 + 2 xy − 4 x + 3xy + 2 y 2 − 4 y + 6 x + 4 y − 8
= 3x 2 + 2 y 2 + 5 xy + 2 x − 8

Answer: x +

40. [ x 2 + ( x + 1)]2
= ( x ) + 2 x ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)
2 2

2

−3
x+5

x −1
50. x − 4 x 2 − 5 x + 4

2

x2 − 4 x
–x + 4
–x + 4
0
Answer: x – 1

= x 4 + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1
= x 4 + 2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1

41. (2a )3 + 3(2a )2 (3) + 3(2a )(3) 2 + (3)3
= 8a3 + 36a 2 + 54a + 27

3 x 2 − 8 x + 17
51. x + 2 3x3 − 2 x 2 + x − 3

42. (3 y )3 − 3(3 y )2 (2) + 3(3 y )(2)2 − (2)3
= 27 y3 − 54 y 2 + 36 y − 8

3 x3 + 6 x 2
–8 x 2 + x

43. (2 x)3 − 3(2 x)2 (3) + 3(2 x)(3)2 − 33

–8 x 2 − 16 x
17 x − 3
17 x + 34
– 37

= 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

44. x3 + 3x 2 (2 y ) + 3 x(2 y ) 2 + (2 y )3
= x3 + 6 x 2 y + 12 xy 2 + 8 y 3

Answer: 3x 2 − 8 x + 17 +
45.

z 2 18 z

= z − 18
z
z

8

–37
x+2

1
2x2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 0.5
z+2
56. z 2 − z + 1 z 3 + z 2 + z

x3 + x 2 + 3 x + 3
52. x − 1 x 4 + 0 x3 + 2 x 2 + 0 x + 1

z3 − z 2 + z

x 4 − x3
x3 + 2 x 2

2z2

x3 – x 2

2z2 − 2z + 2
2z − 2

3x 2 + 0 x
3x 2 − 3x
3x + 1
3x − 3
4

Answer: x3 + x 2 + 3 x + 3 +

Answer: z + 2 +

z − z +1

Problems 0.5
1. 2(ax + b)

4
x −1

2. 2y(3y – 2)
3. 5x(2y + z)

x2 − 2 x + 4

53. x + 2 x + 0 x + 0 x + 0
3

2z − 2
2

2

4. 3x 2 y (1 − 3xy 2 )

x3 + 2 x 2
−2 x 2 + 0

5. 4bc(2a3 − 3ab 2 d + b3cd 2 )

−2 x − 4 x
4x + 0
4x + 8
−8
2

Answer: x 2 − 2 x + 4 −

6. 6u 2 v(uv 2 + 3w4 − 12v 2 )
7. z 2 − 7 2 = ( z + 7)( z − 7)

8
x+2

8. (x + 2)(x − 3)
9. ( p + 3)( p + 1)

3 x − 12

54. 2 x + 3 6 x 2 + 8 x + 1

10. (s – 4)(s – 2)

6x + 9x
−x +1
− x − 32
2

11. (4 x)2 − 32 = (4 x + 3)(4 x − 3)
12. (x + 6)(x – 4)

5
2

13. (a + 7)(a + 5)

5

1
Answer: 3x − + 2
2 2x + 3

14. (2t )2 − (3s )2 = (2t + 3s )(2t − 3s )

x−2
55. 3x + 2 3 x 2 − 4 x + 3

15. x 2 + 2(3)( x) + 32 = ( x + 3) 2
16. (y – 10)(y – 5)

3x2 + 2 x
–6 x + 3
–6 x − 4
7

Answer: x − 2 +

17. 5( x 2 + 5 x + 6)
= 5( x + 3)( x + 2)

7
3x + 2

18. 3(t 2 + 4t − 5)
= 3(t − 1)(t + 5)
9

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

35. y 2 ( y 2 + 8 y + 16) − ( y 2 + 8 y + 16)

19. 3( x 2 − 12 ) = 3( x + 1)( x − 1)

= ( y 2 + 8 y + 16)( y 2 − 1)

20. (3y − 4)(3y − 2)

= ( y + 4)2 ( y + 1)( y − 1)

21. 6 y 2 + 13 y + 2 = (6 y + 1)( y + 2)
36. xy ( x 2 − 4) + z 2 ( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 − 4)( xy + z 2 )

22. (4x + 3)(x – 1)

= ( x + 2)( x − 2)( xy + z 2 )

23. 2s (6 s 2 + 5s − 4) = 2 s (3s + 4)(2s − 1)

37. b3 + 43 = (b + 4)(b 2 − 4(b) + 42 )
= (b + 4)(b 2 − 4b + 16)

24. (3z ) 2 + 2(3 z )(5) + 52 = (3 z + 5) 2

38. x3 − 13 = ( x − 1)[ x 2 + 1( x) + 12 ]

25. u 3 / 5 v(u 2 − 4v 2 ) = u 3 / 5 v(u + 2v)(u − 2v)

= ( x − 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

26. (3x

) − 1 = (3 x

2/7 2

2

2/7

+ 1)(3x

2/7

− 1)

39. ( x3 )2 − 12 = ( x3 + 1)( x3 − 1)
27. 2 x( x + x − 6) = 2 x( x + 3)( x − 2)
2

= ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1)( x − 1)( x 2 + x + 1)

28. ( xy ) 2 − 2( xy )(2) + 22 = ( xy − 2)2

40. 33 + (2 x)3 = (3 + 2 x)[32 − 3(2 x) + (2 x)2 ]
= (3 + 2 x)(9 − 6 x + 4 x 2 )

29. [2(2 x + 1)]2 = 22 (2 x + 1)2
= 4(2 x + 1)2

41. ( x + 3) 2 ( x − 1)[( x + 3) + ( x − 1)]
= ( x + 3)2 ( x − 1)[2 x + 2]

30. 2 x 2 [2 x(1 − 2 x)]2
= 2 x 2 (2 x)2 (1 − 2 x) 2

= ( x + 3)2 ( x − 1)[2( x + 1)]

= 2 x 2 (4 x 2 )(1 − 2 x)2

= 2( x + 3)2 ( x − 1)( x + 1)

= 8 x 4 (1 − 2 x)2

42. (a + 5)2 (a + 1) 2 [(a + 5) + (a + 1)]
31. x( x 2 y 2 − 14 xy + 49) = x[( xy )2 − 2( xy )(7) + 7 2 ]

= (a + 5)2 (a + 1)2 (2a + 6)
= 2(a + 5)2 (a + 1) 2 (a + 3)

= x( xy − 7)2

43. [P(1 + r)] + [P(1 + r)]r = [P(1 + r)](1 + r)

32. x(5x + 2) + 2(5x + 2) = (5x + 2)(x + 2)

= P (1 + r )2

33. x( x − 4) + 2(4 − x )
2

2

44. (3 X + 5 I )[( X − 3I ) − ( X + 2 I )] = (3 X + 5I )(−5I )
= −5I (3 X + 5I )

= x( x 2 − 4) − 2( x 2 − 4)
= ( x 2 − 4)( x − 2)
= (x + 2)(x – 2)(x – 2)
= ( x + 2)( x − 2)

45. ( x 2 )2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4)

2

= ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2)

34. (x + 1)(x – 1) + (x – 2)(x + 1)
= (x + 1)[(x – 1) + (x – 2)]
= (x + 1)(2x – 3)

46. (9 x 2 )2 − ( y 2 )2 = (9 x 2 + y 2 )(9 x 2 − y 2 )
= (9 x 2 + y 2 )(3 x + y )(3 x − y )

10

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 0.6

47. ( y 4 ) 2 − 12 = ( y 4 + 1)( y 4 − 1)

8.

= ( y 4 + 1)( y 2 + 1)( y 2 − 1)
= ( y 4 + 1)( y 2 + 1)( y + 1)( y − 1)

9.

48. (t 2 ) 2 − 22 = (t 2 + 2)(t 2 − 2)

= (t 2 + 2) ⎢t 2 −

(

= (t 2 + 2) t +

( 2 ) ⎤⎥⎦
2 )( t − 2 )
2

10.

49. ( X + 5)( X − 1) = ( X + 5)( X + 1)( X − 1)
2

2

2

(t + 3)(t − 3) t 2
t (t + 3)(t − 3)

11.

51. y ( x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1) = y ( x 2 − 1)2 = y[( x + 1)( x − 1)]2
= y ( x + 1)2 ( x − 1) 2

52. 2 x(2 x 2 − 3 x − 2) = 2 x(2 x + 1)( x − 2)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

a 2 − 3a

=

(a − 3)(a + 3) a + 3
=
a(a − 3)
a

x − 3x − 10
2

x −4
2

x 2 − 9 x + 20
x + x − 20
2

=

=

( x − 5)( x − 4) x − 5
=
( x + 5)( x − 4) x + 5

2 x − 16 x + 14 x
3( x − 8)
=
2 x( x − 7)
3

2

6 x2 + x − 2
2 x + 3x − 2
2

=

12 x − 19 x + 4
2

6 x − 17 x + 12
2

12.

( x + 2)( x − 5) x − 5
=
( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2

3 x 2 − 27 x + 24

=

3( x − 8)( x − 1)
2 x( x − 7)( x − 1)

(3x + 2)(2 x − 1) 3x + 2
=
( x + 2)(2 x − 1)
x+2
=

t
t −3

(ax − b)(c − x) (ax − b)(−1)( x − c)
=
( x − c)(ax + b)
( x − c)(ax + b)
(ax − b)(−1)
=
ax + b
b − ax
=
ax + b
( x + y )( x − y )( x + y )2 ( x − y )( x + y ) 2
=
( x + y )( y − x)
(–1)( x − y )

2( x − 1)
( x + 4)( x + 1)

( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x + 1)( x − 1)
=

2( x − 1)( x + 4)( x + 1)
( x − 4)( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)

=

2( x + 4)
( x − 4)( x + 2)

Problems 0.6
a2 − 9

=

= −( x + y ) 2

50. ( x 2 − 9)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x + 1)( x − 1)

1.

2

(4 x − 1)(3x − 4) 4 x − 1
=
(2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 2 x − 3

=

x( x + 2)( x − 2)2
3( x − 4)( x − 2)( x − 3)( x + 2)

=

x( x − 2)
3( x − 4)( x − 3)

13.

X 2 4 4X 2 X
⋅ =
=
8 X
8X
2

14.

3x 2 14 3 x 14 3(14) x
⋅ = ⋅ =
=6
7x x
7 x
7x

15.

2m n3 2mn3 n

=
=
n 2 6m 6mn 2 3

16.

c + d 2c
2c(c + d ) 2(c + d )

=
=
c c−d
c (c − d )
c−d

17.

4x
4x 1 4x 2
÷ 2x =

=
=
3
3 2x 6x 3

18.

4 x 2 x 4 x(2 x) 8 x 2

=
=
1 3
3
3

y 2 (–1)
y2
=−
( y − 3)( y + 2)
( y − 3)( y + 2)

11

x ( x + 2)
( x − 2)2

3( x − 4)( x − 2) ( x − 3)( x + 2)

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra

19.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

–9 x3 3 –27 x3
⋅ =
= −27 x 2
1 x
x

27.

−12Y 4
−12Y 3 1 −12Y 3
÷4 =
⋅ =
= −3Y 3
20.
Y
1
4
4

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

x −3
x−4
x −3 1
x−3

=

=
=1
1 ( x − 3)( x − 4)
1 x−3 x−3

28.

(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3)(1 + x)(1 − x)
( x + 4)( x − 1)(2 x − 3)

=

(2 x + 3)(1 + x)(–1)( x − 1)
( x + 4)( x − 1)

2

=

( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x − 1)

( x + 3)( x − 3) ( x + 2)( x − 2)
x + 2 ( x + 3)( x − 1)
=

x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2)
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 1)
=
( x + 3)( x + 2)( x − 2)
x −1
=
x−2

(2 x + 3)(1 + x)
x+4

y (6 x 2 + 7 x − 3) x( y − 1) + 4( y − 1)

x( y – 1) + 5( y − 1)
x 2 y ( x + 4)
=

10 x
x +1
10 x ( x + 1)
2x

=
=
( x + 1)( x − 1) 5 x
5 x( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1
3

=

=−

( x + 3) 2
( x + 3)2 1
÷ ( x + 3) =

x
x
x+3
2
( x + 3)
x+3
=
=
x ( x + 3)
x
3

(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) (1 + x)(1 − x)

( x + 4)( x − 1)
2x − 3

y (3 x − 1)(2 x + 3)( y − 1)( x + 4)
( y − 1)( x + 5) x 2 y ( x + 4)
(3 x − 1)(2 x + 3)
x 2 ( x + 5)

29.

x 2 + 5 x + 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2)
=
= x+2
x+3
x+3

30.

2+ x x+2
=
=1
x+2 x+2

31. LCD = 3t
2 1 6 1 6 +1 7
+ = + =
=
t 3t 3t 3t
3t
3t

( x + 2)( x + 5) ( x − 4)( x + 1)

( x + 5)( x + 1) ( x − 4)( x + 2)
x + 2 x +1
=

x +1 x + 2
( x + 2)( x + 1)
=
( x + 1)( x + 2)
=1

32. LCD = X 3
9
1
9
X
9− X

=

=
3
2
3
3
X
X
X
X
X3
33. LCD = x3 − 1
1−

( x + 3) 2 (3 + 4 x)(3 − 4 x)

4x − 3
7( x + 3)

x3
x3 − 1

=
=

( x + 3)2 (3 + 4 x)(3 − 4 x)
=
7(4 x − 3)( x + 3)
( x + 3)(3 + 4 x)(−1)(4 x − 3)
=
7(4 x − 3)
( x + 3)(3 + 4 x)
=−
7

=
=

x3 − 1

x3

x3 − 1 x3 − 1
x 3 − 1 − x3
x3 − 1
−1
x3 − 1
1
1 − x3

34. LCD = s + 4
4
4
s ( s + 4) 4 + s ( s + 4)
+s=
+
=
s+4
s+4
s+4
s+4
=
12

s 2 + 4s + 4 ( s + 2)2
=
s+4
s+4

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 0.6

35. LCD = (2x – 1)(x + 3)
4
x
4( x + 3)
x(2 x − 1)
+
=
+
2 x − 1 x + 3 (2 x − 1)( x + 3) ( x + 3)(2 x − 1)
=

39. LCD = (x – 1)(x + 5)
−3x 2
4
−3+
x −1
−( x − 1)( x + 5)

4( x + 3) + x(2 x − 1) 2 x 2 + 3x + 12
=
(2 x − 1)( x + 3)
(2 x − 1)( x + 3)

36. LCD = (x – 1)(x + 1)
x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x − 1)

=

x − 1 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1)
=

( x + 1) − ( x − 1)
( x + 1)( x − 1)
2

4( x + 5)
3( x − 1)( x + 5)
3x 2

+
( x − 1)( x + 5) ( x − 1)( x + 5) ( x − 1)( x + 5)

=

4 x + 20 − 3( x 2 + 4 x − 5) + 3x 2
( x − 1)( x + 5)

=

35 − 8 x
( x − 1)( x + 5)

2

40. LCD = (2x – 1)(x + 6)(3x – 2)
2x − 3
3x + 1
1

+
(2 x − 1)( x + 6) (3x − 2)( x + 6) 3 x − 2

x 2 + 2 x + 1 − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1)
4x
=
=
( x + 1)( x − 1)
( x + 1)( x − 1)

37. LCD = ( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3)
1
1
+
( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x + 3)( x − 3)
x+3
x +1
=
+
( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3) ( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3)
( x + 3) + ( x + 1)
=
( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3)
2x + 4
=
( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3)
2( x + 2)
=
( x − 3)( x + 1)( x + 3)

=

(2 x − 3)(3 x − 2) − (3 x + 1)(2 x − 1) + (2 x − 1)( x + 6)
(2 x − 1)( x + 6)(3 x − 2)

=

6 x 2 − 13x + 6 − (6 x 2 − x − 1) + 2 x 2 + 11x − 6
(2 x − 1)( x + 6)(3 x − 2)

=

2x2 − x + 1
(2 x − 1)( x + 6)(3 x − 2)
2

2

2

x2 + 2 x + 1
⎛ 1⎞
⎛ x 1⎞
⎛ x +1⎞
41. ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜ + ⎟ = ⎜
⎟ =
⎝ x⎠
⎝ x x⎠
⎝ x ⎠
x2
2

2

2

–1

⎛ 1 − xy ⎞
=⎜

⎝ x ⎠

⎛1 1⎞
⎛ y
⎛ y+x⎞
x ⎞
42. ⎜ + ⎟ = ⎜ + ⎟ = ⎜

⎝x y⎠
⎝ xy xy ⎠
⎝ xy ⎠

38. LCD = (x − 4)(2x + 1)(2x − 1)
4
x

( x − 4)(2 x + 1) ( x − 4)(2 x − 1)
4(2 x − 1)
x(2 x + 1)
=

( x − 4)(2 x + 1)(2 x − 1) ( x − 4)(2 x + 1)(2 x − 1)
4(2 x − 1) − x(2 x + 1)
=
( x − 4)(2 x + 1)(2 x − 1)
=

=

=

y 2 + 2 xy + x 2
x2 y 2
–1

⎛1

⎛ 1 xy ⎞
43. ⎜ − y ⎟ `= ⎜ − ⎟
⎝x

⎝x x ⎠

−2 x 2 + 7 x − 4
( x − 4)(2 x + 1)(2 x − 1)

2

2

1⎞

⎛ ab 1 ⎞
⎛ ab + 1 ⎞
44. ⎜ a + ⎟ = ⎜ + ⎟ = ⎜

b⎠

⎝ b b⎠
⎝ b ⎠
a 2b 2 + 2ab + 1
=
b2

–1

=

x
1 − xy

2

45. Multiplying the numerator and denominator of
7x +1
the given fraction by x gives
.
5x
46. Multiplying numerator and denominator by x
x+3
x+3
1
=
=
gives
.
2
+

−3
(
x
3)(
x
3)
x
x −9
13

56. Multiplying numerator and denominator by 2x(x + 2) gives 3(2 x)( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ( x + 2)[3(2 x) − 1] = x(2 x)( x + 2) + x(2 x) 2 x 2 [( x + 2) + 1] = ( x + 2)(6 x − 1) 2 x 2 ( x + 3) . = = −12 12 = =− .Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 47. ( a ) + 1( 5+a a a + 5+a 5+a ) 59. 1 2− 3 ⋅ 2+ 3 2− 3 57. Multiplying numerator and denominator by 3(x + 3)(x + 2) gives 3( x − 1) − 1(3)( x + 3) 3(3)( x + 3)( x + 2) + ( x − 7)( x + 3)( x + 2) 3 2 2 55. 3− 6 2 = ( 6+ 7 = 3+ 6 3−6 5 ( ⋅ )= 6 + 12 6+2 3 =− −3 3 6− 7 6− 7 6− 7 −1 3 3+ 6 3+ 6 5 54. ⋅ ) =5 ( = 5 ( 6− 7 ) 6−7 7− 6 ) 14 ( 4 x2 x +2 = ) 3( 4x2 ( x +2 x −2 )( ) x −2 ) = 4 x2 ( x −2 3( x − 4) ) . LCD = 3 x + h ⋅ 3 x − 2− 3 = 48. x+h x x+h x 3 3 3 x − x+h 3 3 ( 3 3 ) x + h3 x 3 50. ( x + 3)( x + 2)[9 + ( x − 7)] ( x + 3)( x + 2)2 3 x+h 3 3 = x = 33 x 5+ a 1 + a = = 51. 2− 3 = 2− 3 4−3 3 ⋅ t− 7 t+ 7 t− 7 ( x − 3) + 4 x −1 ( 3t − 3 7 t2 − 7 x +1 = 5 2− 3 = x −1 ) x +1 ⋅ x +1 = ( x + 1) ) x +1 x −1 ( 4 1+ 2 − ( ) ( 2 + 3 )( 2 − 3 ) (1 − 2 )(1 + 2 ) 5 ( 2 − 3 ) 4 (1 + 2 ) = − = ( 4−3 5 2− 3 ( 1 1− 2 ) − 4 (1 + 2 ) ) ( −1 ) = 5 2 − 3 + 4 1 + 2 = 4 2 − 5 3 + 14 1+ 2 1+ 2 1+ 2 52. ⋅ = = = −1 − 2 1− 2 −1 1− 2 1+ 2 1 60. LCD = 5 + a a a a 33 x + h − a a 58. 2 53. 5+ a a 2 a 5+a = 2+ 3 ⋅ = 2+ 3 2 2 ( 2+ 3 ) 2−3 4+2 6 = −4 − 2 6 −1 2 5 3+ 7 ⋅ 3− 7 3+ 7 2 5 3+ 7 ( 2 ) 3−7 15 + 35 ( ) −4 15 + 35 =− 2 49.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0. 12 − 7 x = − x 2 . z + 3( z − 4) = 5. 9 x − x = 0 Set x = 1: 9(1) − (1) 2 ⱨ 0 9 −1 ⱨ 0 8≠0 Set x = 0: 5. Adding 5 to both sides. equivalence not guaranteed 14. Raising both sides to the third power. equivalence not guaranteed 4. but 2 does not. Dividing both sides by 8. 15 . x(6 + x) – 2(x + 1) – 5x = 4 Set x = –2: (–2)(6 – 2) – 2(–2 + 1) – 5(–2) ⱨ 4 –2(4) – 2(–1) + 10 ⱨ 4 –8 + 2 + 10 ⱨ 4 4=4 Set x = 0: 0(6) – 2(1) – 5(0) ⱨ 4 –2 ≠ 4 Thus.7 2(–4) + (–4)2 − 8 ⱨ 0 –8 + 16 – 8 ⱨ 0 0=0 Thus. but 4 does not. 3. 4 and 3 satisfy the equation.4 4 17 : 4 17 ⎛ 17 ⎞ + 3⎜ − 4 ⎟ ⱨ 5 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 17 51 + − 12 ⱨ 5 4 4 5=5 Set z = 4: 4 + 3(4 − 4) ⱨ 5 4+0ⱨ5 4≠5 17 Thus. equivalence not guaranteed 2 ⋅ 2 + 22 − 8 ⱨ 0 4+4–8ⱨ0 0=0 13. equivalence guaranteed 11. 2 1. 3 Set x = 4: 12 − 7(4) ⱨ − (4) 2 12 − 28 ⱨ − 16 −16 = −16 Set x = 3: 6. 2 and –4 satisfy the equation. Multiplying both sides by x – 2. 2. 4. 4 Set z = 7. –2 satisfies the equation. equivalence not guaranteed. 10. 0 satisfies the equation. Multiplying both sides by x – 1. Dividing both sides by x. 17 . x( x + 1)2 ( x + 2) = 0 Set x = 0: 0(1) 2 (2) ⱨ 0 0=0 Set x = –1: 12 − 7(3) ⱨ − (3)2 12 − 21 ⱨ − 9 −9 = −9 Thus. Dividing both sides by 2. Dividing both sides by (x + 3). (–1)(0)2 (1) ⱨ 0 0=0 Set x = 2: 2(3)2 (4) ⱨ 0 72 ≠ 0 Thus. but 1 does not.7 Set x = –4: Problems 0. equivalence not guaranteed. equivalence guaranteed 9. satisfies the equation. 0 and –1 satisfy the equation. 9(0) − (0)2 ⱨ 0 0–0ⱨ0 0=0 Thus. equivalence guaranteed 8. 2 x + x 2 − 8 = 0 Set x = 2: 12. but 0 does not.

x = 2x − 6 5 x = 5(2x – 6) x = 10x – 30 30 = 9x 30 10 x= = 9 3 5y 6 − = 2 − 4y 7 7 5y – 6 = 14 – 28y 33y = 20 20 y= 33 4x x = 9 2 Multiplying both sides by 9 · 2 gives 9 · 2 · 7 + 2(4x) = 9(x) 126 + 8x = 9x x = 126 31. equivalence guaranteed 27. 25. 5x – 3 = 9 5x = 12 12 x= 5 24. 7 + 2x + 3 = 8 2x = 5 5 ⎛ 5 2⎞ x= ⎜ or ⎟ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 32. equivalence 2x not guaranteed 16.2x = 7 7 x= = 35 0. Multiplying both sides by ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 26. Adding 9 – x to both sides and then dividing both sides by 2. 4 − 7 x = 3 −7 x = −1 −1 1 = x= −7 7 30. 21. 3y = 0 0 y= =0 3 20. −8 x = 12 − 20 −8 x = −8 −8 x= =1 −8 22.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra 15. 4s + 3s − 1 = 41 7 s − 1 = 41 7 s = 42 42 s= =6 7 2x − 3 . 4x = 10 10 5 x= = 4 2 18.2 28. t = 2 – 2[2t – 3(1 – t)] t = 2 – 2[2t – 3 + 3t] t = 2 – 2[5t – 3] t = 2 – 10t + 6 11t = 8 8 t= 11 19. 23. 0. 5( p − 7) − 2(3 p − 4) = 3 p 5 p − 35 − 6 p + 8 = 3 p − p − 27 = 3 p −27 = 4 p 27 p=− 4 17. 7x + 7 = 2(x + 1) 7x + 7 = 2x + 2 5x + 7 = 2 5x = –5 –5 x= = −1 5 16 x x −4 = 3 5 5x – 60 = 3x 2x = 60 x = 30 . 2x – 4x = –5 –2x = –5 –5 5 x= = –2 2 29.

x 1 − 5 = + 5x 5 5 Multiplying both sides by 5 gives 15x + x – 25 = 1 + 25x 16x – 25 = 1 + 25x –9x = 26 26 x=− 9 35. y − 37. 42. w − 33. 17 7 + 2( x + 1) 6 x = 3 5 35 + 10(x + 1) = 18x 35 + 10x + 10 = 18x 45 = 8x 45 x= 8 x+2 2− x − = x−2 3 6 Multiplying both sides by 6 gives 2(x + 2) – (2 – x) = 6(x – 2) 2x + 4 – 2 + x = 6x – 12 3x + 2 = 6x – 12 2 = 3x – 12 14 = 3x 14 x= 3 x 2( x − 4) + =7 5 10 2x + 2(x – 4) = 70 2x + 2x – 8 = 70 4x = 78 78 39 x= = 4 2 9 3 (3 − x) = ( x − 3) 5 4 Multiplying both sides by 20 gives 36(3 – x) = 15(x – 3) 108 – 36x = 15x – 45 153 = 51x x=3 2 y − 7 8y − 9 3y − 5 + = 3 14 21 14(2y – 7) + 3(8y – 9) = 2(3y – 5) 28y – 98 + 24y – 27 = 6y – 10 46y = 115 115 5 = y= 46 2 .7 w w w + − = 120 2 6 24 Multiplying both sides by 24 gives 24 w − 12 w + 4 w − w = 2880 15w = 2880 2880 w= = 192 15 4 r −5 3 Multiplying both sides by 3 gives 3r = 4r − 15 −r = −15 r = 15 39. 3x + 41. y y y y + − = 2 3 4 5 60y – 30y + 20y – 15y = 12y 35y = 12y 23y = 0 y=0 36.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0. t 5 7 + t = (t − 1) 4 3 2 Multiplying both sides by 12 gives 3t + 20t = 42(t − 1) 23t = 42t − 42 42 = 19t 42 t= 19 44. 3x 5 x + =9 5 3 9 x + 25 x = 135 34 x = 135 135 x= 34 40. r = 34. 2y − 3 6y + 7 = 4 3 Multiplying both sides by 12 gives 3(2y – 3) = 4(6y + 7) 6y – 9 = 24y + 28 –18y = 37 37 y=− 18 43. 38.

= 5 − 2x 2 3(2) = 7(5 − 2 x ) 6 = 35 − 14 x 14 x = 29 29 x= 14 18 x+3 2 = x 5 5(x + 3) = 2x 5x + 15 = 2x 3x = –15 x = –5 q 1 = 5q − 4 3 3q = 5q – 4 –2q = –4 q=2 4p =1 7− p 4p = 7 – p 5p = 7 7 p= 5 1 2 = p −1 p − 2 p – 2 = 2(p – 1) p – 2 = 2p – 2 p=0 2x − 3 =6 4x − 5 2x – 3 = 24x – 30 27 = 22x 27 x= 22 1 1 3 + = x 7 7 1 3 1 = − x 7 7 1 2 = x 7 7 x= 2 2 3 = x −1 x − 2 2( x − 2) = 3( x − 1) 2 x − 4 = 3x − 3 −x = 1 x = −1 . 4 =2 x −1 4 = 2(x – 1) 4 = 2x – 2 6 = 2x x=3 56. Thus there is no solution. which is false. (2 x − 5)2 + (3x − 3) 2 = 13x 2 − 5 x + 7 4 x 2 − 20 x + 25 + 9 x 2 − 18 x + 9 = 13x 2 − 5 x + 7 13x 2 − 38 x + 34 = 13x 2 − 5 x + 7 −33 x = −27 −27 9 x= = −33 11 47. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4 (5 x − 2) = 7[ x − (5 x − 2)] 3 4(5 x − 2) = 21( x − 5 x + 2) 20 x − 8 = −84 x + 42 104 x = 50 50 25 x= = 104 52 52. 54.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra 45. 53. so the solution set is ∅. 50. 48. 49. 46. 3x − 5 =0 x −3 3x − 5 = 0 3x = 5 5 x= 3 58. 5 = 25 x Multiplying both sides by x gives 5 = 25x 5 x= 25 1 x= 5 55. Multiplying both sides by 3 – x gives 7 = 0. 3 7 51. 57.

( 3x − 4 ) 2 3x − 4 = 64 3x = 68 68 x= 3 19 = (8)2 . 3x − x 2 + 6 − 2 x + x 2 − 1 = 0 x+5=0 x = –5 61. −2 x 2 + 5 x − 2 − 3(–2 x 2 + 7 x − 3) = 4( x 2 − 5 x + 6) 4 x 2 − 16 x + 7 = 4 x 2 − 20 x + 24 4x = 17 17 x= 4 x + 2 x +1 + =0 x −1 3 − x (x + 2)(3 – x) + (x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 65. 6 x2 − x − 2 = 6 x2 + 7 x − 3 1 = 8x 1 x= 8 60. ( z−2 ) 2 = 32 z–2=9 z = 11 3x − 4 − 8 = 0 3x − 4 = 8 69. x x 3x − 4 − = x + 3 x − 3 x2 − 9 x(x – 3) – x(x + 3) = 3x – 4 67. ( y − 6)2 − 6( y − 6) = y ( y + 6) y 2 − 12 y + 36 − 6 y + 36 = y 2 + 6 y y−2 y−2 = y+2 y+3 x+5 = 4 ( 2 y + y−6 = y −4 y=2 63.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 59. Section 0. y−6 6 y+6 − = y y y−6 Multiplying both sides by y(y − 6) gives 66. x 2 − 3x − x 2 − 3x = 3x − 4 –6x = 3x – 4 –9x = –4 4 x= 9 y 2 − 18 y + 72 = y 2 + 6 y 72 = 24y y=3 62.7 3x − 2 3x − 1 = 2x + 3 2x +1 (3x – 2)(2x + 1) = (3x – 1)(2x + 3) 64. (y − 2)(y + 3) = (y − 2)(y + 2) 2 9 3x = x −3 x −3 9 = 3x x=3 But the given equation is not defined for x = 3. so there is no solution. 1 3 4 − = x − 3 x − 2 1− 2x (x – 2)(1 – 2x) – 3(x – 3)(1 – 2x) = 4(x – 3)(x – 2) x+5 ) 2 = 42 x + 5 = 16 x = 11 −5 7 11 = + 2 x − 3 3 − 2 x 3x + 5 Multiplying both sides by (2x − 3)(3x + 5) gives −5(3 x + 5) = −7(3 x + 5) + 11(2 x − 3) −15 x − 25 = −21x − 35 + 22 x − 33 −15 x − 25 = x − 68 −16 x = −43 43 x= 16 z−2 =3 68. The solution set is ∅.

2 73. ) =( 2 2x + 5 ) 79. 2 36y = 49 49 y= 36 4x − 6 = x = ) = (3 − y ) 6 y =7 [( x + 6)1/ 2 ]2 = 7 2 x + 6 = 49 x = 43 2 y+2 y+2 = 9−6 y + y 72. 2 z2 + 2z = 3 + z 2 ⎛ z 2 + 2 z ⎞ = (3 + z )2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 + 3x = 2 x + 5 x =1 75. y2 − 9 = 9 − y 76. ( x + 6)1/ 2 = 7 4x − 6 y + y+2 =3 77. The solution set is ∅. 2 ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛2⎞ + 1 ⎟⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x 4 +1 = 2 9 x 5 =− 2 9 10 ⎛ 5⎞ x = 2⎜ − ⎟ = − 9 ⎝ 9⎠ y + 2 = 3− y ( (6 y ) ( ) ( ) x 78. 2 ( x) = ( 4 + 3x = 2 x + 5 ( 2 x = x +1 +1 4x – 6 = x 3x = 6 x=2 74. which is impossible because a ≥ 0 for all a. Thus there is no solution.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 70. 4 − 3x + 1 = 0 4 = 3x + 1 2 4 = ( 3x + 1 ) 2 ⎛ y 2 − 9 ⎞ = (9 − y ) 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 16 = 3 x + 1 15 = 3 x x=5 y 2 − 9 = 81 − 18 y + y 2 18y = 90 90 y= =5 18 x 2 +1 = 2 3 71. z2 + 2z = 9 + 6z + z2 –9 = 4z 9 z=− 4 ( x − 5)3 / 4 = 27 [( x − 5)3 / 4 ]4 / 3 = 27 4 / 3 x − 5 = 81 x = 86 20 . 4 + 3x = 72 x − x +1 = 1 2 ) x +1 +1 2 x = x +1+ 2 x +1 +1 2 −2 = 2 x + 1 −1 = x + 1 .

p = 8q – 1 p + 1 = 8q p +1 q= 8 x −a x −b = b−x a−x Multiplying both sides by (b – x)(a – x) gives (x – a)(a – x) = (x – b)(b – x) (x – a)(a – x)(–1) = (x – b)(b – x)(–1) (x – a)(x – a) = (x – b)(x – b) x 2 − 2ax + a 2 = x 2 − 2bx + b 2 a 2 − b 2 = 2ax − 2bx (a + b)(a – b) = 2x(a – b) a + b = 2x (for a ≠ b) a+b =x 2 84. P ⎜ 1 + ⎟−R = 0 ⎝ 100 ⎠ p ⎞ ⎛ P ⎜1 + ⎟=R ⎝ 100 ⎠ R[1 − (1 + i ) − n ] i Ai 90.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 80. r = 85. Section 0. p = –3q + 6 p – 6 = –3q p−6 6− p q= = −3 3 91. S = P(1 + rt) S = P + Prt S – P = r(Pt) S–P r= Pt 2mI B (n + 1) 2mI B 2mI n +1 = rB 2mI −1 n= rB r (n + 1) = 2mI B (n + 1) r[ B (n + 1)] =I 2m rB (n + 1) I= 2m 86.7 1 2 − =0 w 5w − 2 87. S = R[(1 + i )n − 1] i Si = R[(1 + i ) n − 1] R= Si (1 + i ) n − 1 d 1 − dt r(1 – dt) = d r – rdt = d –rdt = –r + d d −r r −d t=− = rd rd 89. I = Prt I r= Pt p ⎞ ⎛ 82. r = 81. A = 1 2 = w 5w − 2 R= 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ w⎠ ⎝ 5w − 2 ⎠ 1 2 = w 5w − 2 5w – 2 = 2w 3w = 2 2 w= 3 P= 1 − (1 + i )− n 2 88. R p 1 + 100 83. r = 21 .

102. 1 1 1 = − q f p 1 p− f = q pf q= pf p− f 93.2904 mi/h on a 65 mi/h highway.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra 92.5x x = 20 The prey density should be 20. 22 .1 62 They must each work 44 hours each week.09 x 10(1 + 0.09x) = 1. 101.0825x = 1.2904 v= 2500 Since the car is traveling at 66. the officer can claim that you were speeding.0825x 1. 94. 726 = 66.4x 10 + 0. n⎞ ⎛ 97.4 x 1 + 0.4x 10 = 0. Let x = the maximum number of customers. c = x + 0.09 x With y = 10 the equation is 1.4 x 10 = 1 + 0. Bronwyn’s weekly salary for working h hours is 27h + 18. V = C ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ N⎠ ⎛ n⎞ 2000 = 3200 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 8⎠ 2000 = 3200 – 400n 400n = 1200 n=3 The furniture will have a value of $2000 after 3 years. Steve’s weekly salary for working h hours is 35h.8 165. F= 99.9x = 1. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 1 1 + = p q f 98. V = πr 2 h 355 = π(2) 2 h 355 = 4πh 355 h= 4π The height of the can is 355 ≈ 28.25 centimeters. 4π 100. 726 = 2500v 165. 8 10 = x − 92 x − 46 8(x − 46) = 10(x − 92) 8x − 368 = 10x − 920 552 = 2x x = 276 The maximum number of customers is 276. 1 (27h + 18 + 35h) = 550 5 62h + 18 = 2750 62h = 2732 2732 h= ≈ 44. 450x = 380x + 3500 70x = 3500 x = 50 50 toddlers need to be enrolled.8 v(2500) 495 = 334. Revenue equals cost when 450x = 380x + 3500. y = 96. P = 2l + 2 w 660 = 2l + 2(160) 660 = 2l + 320 340 = 2l 340 l= = 170 2 The length of the rectangle is 170 m. vf 334. y = a(1 – by)x y = ax(1 – by) y = ax – abxy y + abxy = ax y(1 + abx) = ax ax y= 1 + abx 95.

The percentage of the total that is HST is 0.15e = 1. − 103.8)d (45) = 14 is a root.15e and the total receipts are e + 0.15e 1. 000 = 2 x + 1 9999 = 2 x 9999 x= = 4999.15e 0. 45 = 24d ( 24d ) 2 2025 = 24d 2025 675 3 d= = = 84 ≈ 84 ft 24 8 8 106. (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x–4=0 x=4 or x + 4 = 0 or x = –4 7. and the interest earned is $1171. Let e be Tom’s expenses in Nova Scotia before the HST tax. (x – 2)(x + 5) = 0 x–2=0 x=2 or x + 5 = 0 or x = –5 5. t = 110. x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 1) = 0 x–3=0 x=3 or x + 1 = 0 or x = –1 6.073P = 1257.073) = $85.52. 108. 61 111. Then the interest earned is 0.15 115 23 13%.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8 d r −c t(r – c) = d tr – tc = d tr − d = tc tr − d d c= =r− t t 109. 8 14 23 or u – 9 = 0 or u = 9 . 3( w2 − 4 w + 4) = 0 3( w − 2)2 = 0 w–2=0 w=2 1 1 and − are roots. By the Pythagorean 2 1 is a root. Let P be the amount in the account one year ago. (t + 1)(t + 2) = 0 t+1=0 t = –1 3. 45 = 30(0. s = 30 fd Set s = 45 and (for dry concrete) f = 0. Let x = the horizontal distance from the base of the tower to the house. Then the HST tax is 0.15 15 3 = = = or approximately 1.073P and P + 0.48.073P = 1257 1257 P= ≈ 1171. u 2 − 13u = −36 u 2 − 13u + 36 = 0 (u − 4)(u − 9) = 0 u–4=0 u=4 107. 2 8.8 1.8.15e.48 1. 2.5 + 1 = 5000. 0 is a root. x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 theorem.5 meters. x 2 + 1002 = ( x + 1)2 . ( x − 2)2 = 0 x–2=0 x=2 x 2 + 10. 104. Problems 0. 000 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 10.48(0.5 2 The distance from the top of the tower to the house is x + 1 = 4999. 1.073 The amount in the account one year ago was $1171. 105. or t + 2 = 0 or t = –2 t 2 − 8t + 15 = 0 (t − 3)(t − 5) = 0 t−3=0 t=3 or t − 5 = 0 or t = 5 4.

6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 4 x = 0 x(6 x 2 + 5 x − 4) = 0 x(2x – 1)(3x + 4) = 0 24 . x( x 2 − 4 x − 5) = 0 x(x – 5)(x + 1) = 0 x = 0 or x – 5 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = 0 or x = 5 or x = –1 −6 x 2 + x + 2 = 0 6 x2 − x − 2 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 2) = 0 2x +1 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 1 2 x=− or x= 2 3 25.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra 9. 2 p 2 = 3 p 2 p2 − 3 p = 0 p(2p – 3) = 0 p=0 or x + 2 = 0 or x = –2 2 13. x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 (x – 5)(x + 2) = 0 x–5=0 x=5 or x + 2 = 0 or x = –2 1 2 3 y − y=0 7 7 1 y ( y − 3) = 0 7 y=0 y=0 or y – 3 = 0 or y = 3 19. 2 z 2 + 9 z − 5 = 0 (2z – 1)(z + 5) = 0 2z – 1 = 0 or z + 5 = 0 1 z= or z = –5 2 3v − 5v + 2 = 0 (3v − 2)(v − 1) = 0 3v – 2 = 0 2 v= 3 or 2p – 3 = 0 3 or p = 2 t 3 − 49t = 0 t (t 2 − 49) = 0 t (t + 7)(t − 7) = 0 t = 0 or t + 7 = 0 or t − 7 = 0 t = 0 or t = −7 or t=7 or v − 1 = 0 or v = 1 24. 3u (u − 2) = 0 u=0 u=0 or u − 2 = 0 or u = 2 11. ( w − 3)2 ( w + 1)2 = 0 w−3=0 or w + 1 = 0 w=3 or w = −1 15. x 2 + 9 x + 14 = 0 (x + 7)(x + 2) = 0 x+7=0 x = –7 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 18. x(x + 4)(x – 1) = 0 x = 0 or x + 4 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 x = 0 or x = –4 or x = 1 14. x 2 − 4 = 0 (x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x–2=0 x=2 17. or r + 4 = 0 or r = –4 21. − x 2 + 3 x + 10 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x = –2 10. r 2 + r − 12 = 0 (r – 3)(r + 4) = 0 r–3=0 r=3 22. 4 x + 1 = 4 x p=0 2 4x − 4x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 2x – 1 = 0 1 x= 2 20. 2 16. t 2 − 5t = 0 t (t − 5) = 0 t=0 t=0 or t – 5 = 0 or t = 5 12. v(3v − 5) = −2 3v 2 − 5v = −2 23.

c = –15 x= 26.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0. c = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −1 or x = 1 or x = − 2 or x = 2 x= 2−8 = −3 2 12 ± 0 8 12 ± 0 = 8 3 = 2 3( p − 3) (4 − p) = 0 p–3=0 or 4 – p = 0 p=3 or p = 4 ( x= = 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x + 2 or 33. 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 = 0 a = 4. b = −5. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 a = 1. c = 9 x= 30. = or x – 2 = 0 or x = 2 ( x − 3)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x−2=0 x=3 or x=2 or or 28.8 x = 0 or 2x – 1 = 0 or 3x + 4 = 0 4 1 or x = − x = 0 or x = 3 2 32. ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 − 2) = 0 –b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a –b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a –2 ± 4 − 4(1)(–24) 2(1) –2 ± 100 2 −2 ± 10 = 2 −2 + 10 −2 − 10 x= = 4 or x = = −6 2 2 = 25 q= 5−5 =0 2 . x 2 + 2 x + 1 − 5 x + 1 = 0 x2 − 3x + 2 = 0 (x – 1)(x – 2) = 0 x–1=0 x=1 27. b = 2. c = –24 = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 34. b = –12. 5(x + 4)(x − 3)(x − 8) = 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 or x = −4 or x = 3 or –(–2) ± 4 − 4(1)(–15) 2(1) 2 ± 64 2 2±8 = 2 2+8 x= =5 2 = x+2=0 x = −2 x −8 = 0 x=8 29. q 2 − 5q = 0 a = 1. x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 a = 1. b = –2. p( p − 3) 2 − 4( p − 3)3 = 0 = ( p − 3) 2 [ p − 4( p − 3)] = 0 ( p − 3) 2 (12 − 3 p ) = 0 )( x − 2 ) = 0 −(−12) ± 144 − 4(4)(9) 2(4) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 5 ± 25 − 4(1)(0) = 2(1) 5 ± 25 = 2 5±5 = 2 5+5 q= =5 or 2 q= 31.

c = −7 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −5 ± 25 − 4(4)(−2) = 2(4) −5 ± 57 = 8 −5 + 57 −5 − 57 x= or x = 8 8 −b ± b 2 − 4ac p= 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(−7) 2(1) 2 ± 32 = 2 = 1± 2 2 = p = 1+ 2 2 or p = 1− 2 2 40.02. c = 4 n= = 0.04 .3 ± 1.3 w= = 0. b = 5.3 w= = 0.04 2x2 + x − 5 = 0 a = 2.02w2 − 0.3 + 1.02 w2 − 0.3 ± 1.6 = 40 or 0.02)(–20) 2(0. b = –2.3w = 20 n 2 − 2n + 4 = 0 a = 1. p 2 − 2 p − 7 = 0 39. b = −2. 4 x 2 + 5 x − 2 = 0 a = 4.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 35. 4 − 2n + n 2 = 0 41.3) ± 0. b = –2. c = –2 a = 1. c = –20 –b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a w= −(−2) ± 4 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) = 2 ± −12 2 no real roots = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −1 ± 1 − 4(2)(–5) 2(2) −1 ± 41 4 −1 + 41 x= 4 −(–0. 2 − 2 x + x 2 = 0 x2 − 2 x + 2 = 0 a = 1.3 − 1.04 0. 2 x 2 + x = 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = or x= −1 − 41 4 26 1. b = 1. w2 − 2w + 1 = 0 a = 1.0 = −25 0. b = −2.3w − 20 = 0 a = 0. c = –5 = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 38.02) 0.3. 0.3 = 0.04 0.04 0.69 0. b = –0. c = 2 –(–2) ± 4 − 4(1)(2) x= 2(1) w= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) 2± 0 = 2 =1 = 2 ± −4 2 no real roots = 37. c = 1 36.04 –1.09 − 4(0.

Then = w2 − 3w − 10 = 0 ( w − 5)( w + 2) = 0 w = 5. Then x 3w2 − 7 w + 2 = 0 (3w − 1)( w − 2) = 0 1 w= .2 ± (0. b = 4.01x 2 + 0. 0. x = 3. b = –6.08 10 0.8 42.064 0. c = –5 w2 − 5 w + 6 = 0 (w – 3)(w – 2) = 0 w = 3. 3 ⎜ ⎟ − 7 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 = 0 ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ 1 Let w = .2 ± 0.01) = = –0. Then 2x2 + 4 x − 5 = 0 a = 2.6 = 0 a = 0. 2 –b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a Thus x 2 = 3 or x 2 = 2. –4 ± 16 − 4(2)(–5) = 2(2) –4 ± 56 4 –4 ± 2 14 = 4 –2 ± 14 = 2 −2 + 14 x= 2 –(–6) ± 36 − 4(–2)(5) 2(−2) 6 ± 76 −4 6 ± 2 19 = −4 −3 ± 19 = 2 −3 + 19 −3 − 19 x= or x = 2 2 = −10 ± 4 10 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 46. .01)(–0.0064)(10) 0. −2 x 2 − 6 x + 5 = 0 a = –2. −2 − 14 2 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ 47.2.6 x= 44.2 ± 0. 2 27 .01.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.6) 2(0. 2 3 1 Thus. −2 Thus X 2 = 5 or X 2 = −2.2 ± 0. c = 5 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= = –0. ( x 2 )2 − 5( x 2 ) + 6 = 0 43. 2 x 2 + 4 x = 5 Let w = x 2 . c = –0.02 x = −10 + 4 10 or x = −10 − 4 10 45.2 x − 0. ± 2 .04 − 4(0. so x = ± 3. b = 0. so the real solutions or x= are X = ± 5.02 = = –0.02 = –0. ( X 2 ) 2 − 3( X ) 2 − 10 = 0 Let w = X 2 .

−3 2 1 1 1 = −3 . x = − . gives x 2 = 14 − 5 x x 2 + 5 x − 14 = 0 (x – 2)(x + 7) = 0 Thus. then Let w = x−2 Let w = x –1.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 48. so X = 3. Then w2 + w − 12 = 0 (w + 4)(w – 3) = 0 w = –4. x−2 x−2 15 11 x= . (3x + 2) 2 − 5(3x + 2) = 0 Let w = 3x + 2. ⎜ ⎟ − 12 ⎜ ⎟ + 35 = 0 ⎝ x−2⎠ ⎝ x−2⎠ 1 . 7 5 49. = − or Thus. = 7 or Thus. . 4 1 1 1 1 = 5 or = 4. so x 2 = or x 2 = . Then Let w = x2 w2 − 9 w + 8 = 0 (w – 8)(w – 1) = 0 w = 8. 2 51. 2 2 5 4 x x 5 1 x=± . 4 55. so x = − . ± 1. ( X − 5)2 + 7( X − 5) + 10 = 0 Let w = X − 5. Thus. 5 2 Thus 3x + 2 = 0 or 3x + 2 = 5. −5 Thus. 1 1 1 1 = 8 or = 1. Then w2 + 7 w + 10 = 0 ( w + 2)( w + 5) = 0 w = −2. ⎜ ⎟ − 9 ⎜ ⎟ + 8 = 0 2 ⎝x ⎠ ⎝ x2 ⎠ 1 . 3 1 1 Thus. x 7 5 = − 2 x 2 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. so x 2 = or x 2 = 1. 4 3 w2 − 12w + 35 = 0 (w – 7)(w – 5) = 0 w = 7. 52. ( x –2 )2 − 9( x –2 ) + 20 = 0 Let w = x –2 . –7. ( x −1 )2 + x −1 − 12 = 0 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 53. 1. 2 ⎜ ⎟ + 7⎜ ⎟+3= 0 ⎝ x+4⎠ ⎝ x+4⎠ 1 Let w = . 3 28 . Thus. 0. − 1.± . 5 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 54. x = . . 5 1 1 = 5. Then x+4 2 w2 + 7 w + 3 = 0 (2w + 1)(w + 3) = 0 1 w = − . X − 5 = −2 or X − 5 = −5. 2 2 8 x x 2 x=± . − 3 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 50. Then w2 − 9 w + 20 = 0 (w – 5)(w – 4) = 0 w = 5. 56. x 2 = x+3 2 2 x2 = x + 3 2x2 − x − 3 = 0 (2x – 3)(x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. x+4 2 x+4 13 x = −6. x = 2. 2x. Then w2 − 5 w = 0 w( w − 5) = 0 w = 0.

. b = 5. (r – 2)(r + 4). 4 4 w 6( w + 1) + =3 60. b = 9. r 2 − 3r − 10 = 0 (r – 5)(r + 2) = 0 Thus. 2x(x + 1). gives 3x + (x – 3)(x – 4) = 2x(x – 4) 61. c = 5 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −9 ± 81 − 4(2)(5) = 2(2) −9 ± 41 = 4 −9 + 41 −9 − 41 Thus t = . gives (t + 1)(t + 4) + (t + 3)(t + 2) = t + 5 t 2 + 5t + 4 + t 2 + 5t + 6 = t + 5 2t 2 + 10t + 10 = t + 5 1 Thus. 6 x 2 + 4 x − (2 x 2 + 3x + 1) = 2 x 2 + 2 x 4 x2 + x − 1 = 2 x2 + 2 x 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 t +1 t + 3 t +5 + = t + 2 t + 4 t 2 + 6t + 8 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. 58. 2 6 − =5 2x +1 x −1 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. 59. x = − .8 3 x −3 + =2 x−4 x Multiplying both sides by the LCD. (2x + 1)(x − 1). 2−w w −1 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. gives (2x – 3)(3x + 1) + 2x(2x + 5) = (2x + 5)(3x + 1) −10 x − 8 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 6 x 2 − 7 x − 3 + 4 x 2 + 10 x = 6 x 2 + 17 x + 5 0 = 10 x 2 + 5 x + 3 a = 10. –2. 3x + x 2 − 7 x + 12 = 2 x 2 − 8 x 2r + 8 − (r 2 − r − 2) = 0 x 2 − 4 x + 12 = 2 x 2 − 8 x −r 2 + 3r + 10 = 0 0 = x 2 − 4 x − 12 0 = (x – 6)(x + 2) Thus. 4. gives 2 x(3 x + 2) − (2 x + 1)( x + 1) = 2 x( x + 1) 63. thus there are no real roots. c = 3 10 x 2 + 3 x − 3 = 6 x 2 + 17 x + 5 4 x 2 − 14 x − 8 = 0 2 b − 4ac = 25 − 4(10)(3) = −95 < 0. gives 2( x − 1) − 6(2 x + 1) = 5(2 x + 1)( x − 1) 62. 2 r +1 − =0 r−2 r+4 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. x = 6. (2 – w)(w – 1). Section 0. gives 6(w + 1)(w – 1) + w(2 – w) = 3(2 – w)(w – 1) t= 6( w2 − 1) + 2 w − w2 = 3(– w2 + 3w − 2) 5w2 + 2 w − 6 = −3w2 + 9 w − 6 8 w2 − 7 w = 0 w(8w – 7) = 0 7 Thus. 2 3x + 2 2 x + 1 − =1 x +1 2x Multiplying both sides by the LCD. gives 2(r + 4) – (r – 2)(r + 1) = 0 2x2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 4) = 0 1 Thus. (2x + 5)(3x + 1). (t + 2)(t + 4). w = 0. . 8 29 . x(x – 4). x = − . 1. r = 5. 2x − 3 2x + =1 2 x + 5 3x + 1 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. –2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 57. 2 2t 2 + 9t + 5 = 0 a = 2.

x = . c = 6 70. ( = ( x − 6)2 ( −9 ± 92 − 4(1)(6) = 2(1) −9 ± 57 = 2 −9 + 57 −9 − 57 Thus. q = 4. then w2 + 2 w − 5 = 0 a = 1. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2 3 4 + = x +1 x x + 2 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. c = 1 0 = x − 8 x + 12 0 = (x – 6)(x – 2) x = 6 or x = 2 Only x = 6 checks. z + 3 = 3z + 1 71. . 8. x x Multiplying both sides by x gives 5x – 3 = 1 – x 6x = 4 2 x= 3 66. 2 2 67. gives ) 2 q 2 − 12q + 32 = 0 (q – 4)(q – 8) = 0 Thus. x2 + 9 x + 6 = 0 a = 1. 2 69. Thus w = −1 + 6. the equation is 5 − 2 2 Let w = x . Since w = x and −1 − 6 < 0. − 2x − 3 ) q 2 + 4q + 4 = 16q − 28 1 2 = 2 x − 1 x( x − 1) x 2 Multiplying both sides by the LCD. b = −5. b = 2. gives 2 x( x + 2) + 3( x + 1)( x + 2) = 4 x( x + 1) 68. so ( x = −1 + 6 3 1− x = . 5 x 2 + 13 x + 6 = 4 x 2 + 4 x 65. ( x) w= +2 ( x)−5 = 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 4 − 4(1)(−5) 2(1) −2 ± 24 = 2 −2 ± 2 6 = 2 = −1 ± 6 w= 2 x 2 − x ( x + 1) = 2( x + 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − x2 − x = 2 x2 − 2 x2 − x = 2 x2 − 2 0 = x2 + x − 2 0 = (x + 2)(x − 1) x = –2 or x = 1 But x = 1 does not check. 30 2 . w = −1 − 6 does not check. If x ≠ –3. The solution is –2.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra 64. b = 9. ( z +3 ) =( 2 ) 3z + 1 2 z + 3 = 3z + 2 3z + 1 −2 z + 2 = 2 3 z − z + 1 = 3z = ( x − 3)2 (− z + 1) 2 = 2 x − 3 = x2 − 6 x + 9 ( 3z ) z 2 − 2 z + 1 = 3z 2 z 2 − 5z + 1 = 0 a = 1. x+4 9 x + 36 = x 2 − 12 x + 36 2 x2 + 4 x + 3x2 + 9 x + 6 = 4 x2 + 4 x x= (3 ) 2 = 7 − 2 6. (q + 2) 2 = 2 4q − 7 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 2 ) 0 = x 2 − 21x 0 = x(x – 21) x = 0 or x = 21 Only x = 21 checks. c = −5 x 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1). x(x + 1)(x + 2).

x = 0. x = = ( y + 1) 2 16 y − 32 = y 2 + 2 y + 1 0 = y 2 − 14 y + 33 0 = (y – 11)(y – 3) Thus.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis z= Section 0.01) ≈ 2. 2 72. 18 4x = x 2 74. 2 73.04) ≈ 64. = ( x − 12)2 ( t +2 2 2x + 1 ) 2 t= = x2 0 = x2 − 4x 0 = x(x – 4) Thus.6) 2(0.65 or –22.7) ± (−2.8 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 75. ( –0. x = y − 2 + 4 y − 2 + 4 = 2y + 3 (4 3t + 1 −(−7) ± (−7)2 − 4(9)(1) 2(9) 7 ± 13 = 18 7 + 13 Only checks. 4.15 or 3. b = −7. 3.6) 2(0. 31 . ( y−2 +2 ) =( 2 ) 2 2 2 = (3t − 1)2 2y + 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ) –(−2.2 ± (0.2) 2 − 4(0.7) 2 − 4(0. y = 11.01)(–0. c = 1 x + 2 x + 1 = 2x + 1 (2 x ) 2 t = 9t 2 − 6t + 1 x +1 = 2x + 1 ) =( ) ( t) 0 = x 2 − 40 x + 144 0 = (x – 4)(x – 36) x = 4 or x = 36 Only x = 4 checks. ) x= 2 x − 4 x + 4 = 2x − 8 ( −4 x ) 2 0 = 16 x 2 − 17 x + 1 0 = (16 x − 1)( x − 1) −4 x = x − 12 2 2 x + 3 = 16 x 2 − 16 x + 4 x − 2 = 2x − 8 2 ) = (3 x ) x + 3 +1 x + 3 + 2 x + 3 + 1 = 9x 2 x + 3 = 8x − 4 x + 3 = 4x − 2 −(−5) ± (−5)2 − 4(1)(1) = 2(1) 5 ± 21 = 2 5 − 21 Only z = checks.65 78.35 2 4 y − 2 = y +1 y−2 ) 77. ( = 2 x=x 2 = 0 = 9t 2 − 7t + 1 a = 9.04)(8. x +1 = (4 x − 2) 2 t + 2 = 3t + 1 t = 3t − 1 16 x = x − 24 x + 144 ( 2 1 or x = 1 16 Only x = 1 checks. ( ( x −2 ) =( 2x − 8 ) x+3 76.

2 2 11 + 73 11 – 73 ≈ 10 or A = A= ≈ 1. X 2 + 15 = 51 X 2 = 36 X = ± 36 X = 6 or X = –6 The temperature has been rising 6 degrees per day for 6 days. Thus. b = −5.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 79. –10 ± 100 – 4(1)(–44M ) 2(1) 84.72 28% and 72% of yeast gave an average weight gain of 60 grams. v= –(–2n) ± 4n 2 − 4(2n − 1)(1) 2(2n − 1) v= 2n ± 4n 2 − 8n + 4 2(2n − 1) 2 2n ± 2 n 2 − 2n + 1 n ± (n − 1) = 2(2n − 1) 2n − 1 Because of the condition that n ≥ 1. adulthood is achieved at age 23 according to Cowling’s rule. Let l be the length of the picture. n ± (n − 1) . adulthood is never reached according to Young’s rule. M = A A +1 d= d. Q= = 0 0 25 Young’s rule prescribes less than Cowling’s for ages less than one year and greater than 10 years. l = 8. A +1 c = d in Cowling’s rule when = 1. 2n − 1 . 82. The amount that the temperature has risen over the X days is (X degrees per day)(X days) = X 2 degrees. c = 1. l(l – 2) = 48 83. which 24 occurs when A = 23. Thus. The dimensions of the picture are 6 inches by 8 inches. 80. 24 A = A2 + 13 A + 12 0 = A2 − 11A + 12 From the quadratic formula. c = −44 M . A + 12 24 Dividing both sides by d and then multiplying both sides by 24(A + 12) gives 24A = (A + 12)(A + 1) Q(Q + 10) 44 1 44 M = Q 2 + 10Q 0 = Q 2 + 10Q – 44 M From the quadratic formula with a = 1. A = 1. Cowling’s rule prescribes less for ages between 1 and 10. 5 ± 25 − 4(5)(1) 5 ± 5 P= = 2(5) 10 (n − 1)2 = n − 1 and we have v= P ≈ 0. which is c = d in Young’s rule when A + 12 never true. 2 2 The doses are the same at 1 year and 10 years. Thus. it follows that n – 1 is nonnegative. c = 1.28 or P ≈ 0. v= 200 P 2 − 200 P + 40 = 0 5P 2 − 5P + 1 = 0 From the quadratic formula with a = 5. b = 10. 11 ± 121 − 48 11 ± 73 A= = . a. –10 + 2 25 + 44M 2 = −5 ± 25 + 44M Thus. l 2 − 2l − 48 = 0 (l – 8)(l + 6) = 0 l–8=0 or l + 6 = 0 l=8 or l = –6 Since length cannot be negative. The width of the picture is l – 2 = 8 – 2 = 6 inches. b = –2n. 2n − 1 v = 1 or v = 32 1 . 81. then its width is l – 2. g = −200 P 2 + 200 P + 20 Set g = 60. 60 = −200 P 2 + 200 P + 20 (2n − 1)v 2 − 2nv + 1 = 0 From the quadratic formula with a = 2n – 1. −5 + 25 + 44M is a root.

so Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 0 0 = 39. b = –(2n + 1).2 gives 68. v= −[−(2n + 1)] ± [−(2n + 1)]2 − 4(n)(1) 2n v= 2n + 1 ± 4n 2 + 1 2n 8 x 2 − 18 x + 9 = 0 (2x – 3)(4x – 3) = 0 Thus.934 91.4 s or t ≈ 2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 0 87. 0.75. 2x – 3 = 0 or 4x – 3 = 0. 3 3 So x = = 1.1 z − 6.2 ± 14. By a program. Because 4n 2 + 1 is greater than 2n.5 and –3.9) 39. and c = 1.999. The plots match. adding a number to a list has the effect of adding the number to each element of the list. and subtracting one list from another is the same as subtracting corresponding elements. because 89. Algebraically: 3. roots are 4. a.1t − 3 π2t 2 − 8πt + 16 = 4.762 and 0. 2n = 1. 9 2 z z − 6.1 7 z − 6.3 = (1.5 and 0.5 or x = = 0. 2 The results agree. By a program. By a program. t= 86. This meets the so v is less than 2n condition on v. 2n π2t 2 + (–8π − 4. b. 2x – 9 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 9 So x = = 4.3 = z − z2 2 3 3 ⎛ 9 7 ⎞ 2 1. 1. 33 .2 = 0 2. (πt − 4)2 = 4.75.5 or x = –3.2) 2(4.1)t + 19 = 0 Roots: 1.9t (8 − t ) t = 0 or t = 8 The object will strike the ground 8 s after being thrown.2) − 4(4.987. 4n 2 + 1 is greater than 1. there are no real roots. 2 2 x − 3 x − 27 = 0 (2x – 9)(x + 3) = 0 Thus. h must be 0.6 s.9t 2 4.262. or 4n + 1. roots are −0.2t − 4. Thus we choose v= 85.2 = 39.2 ± ( −39.2t − 4. Algebraically: nv 2 − (2n + 1)v + 1 = 0 From the quadratic formula with a = n. so v is 4n + 1 1 = 2 + . 2 4 88.9t 2 − 39.8 t ≈ 5. 2 39. choosing the minus sign gives a numerator less than 2n. b. choosing the plus sign gives a numerator greater than 2n + 1 + 2n.2t + 68. The procedure works because multiplying a list by a number is the same as multiplying each element in the list by the number. roots are 1.3 = 0 ⎜ + ⎟z − 3 ⎝2 3⎠ Roots: 0. This contradicts the restriction on v. Thus v is greater than 2n 2n greater than 2.1 ≈ 9. By a program.9)(68.963 When the object strikes the ground. –0. Setting h = 68. 90. On the other hand.9t 2 = 4.1 − 7 z ) 2 3 9 2 1.1t − 3 2n + 1 − 4n 2 + 1 .

The slight deviations from the quadratic model are presumably due to random measurement errors. 34 . The smaller quadratic residuals indicate a better fit.Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. The fairly random pattern suggests that the model cannot be improved any further.

1 1. The dimensions are 50 ft by 100 ft. Let w be the width and 2w be the length of the plot. Let w = width (in meters) of pavement. 3n = 3(85) = 255 ft3 of sand. 3 3 Problems 1. Let n = number of cubic feet in each part. Let w be the width and 2w be the length. 8 − 24w + 16 w2 = 3 16w2 − 24w + 5 = 0 (4w – 1)(4w – 5) = 0 1 5 5 Hence w = . 8 Thus (8 – 2w)(4 – 2w) = 12 32 − 24w + 4 w2 = 12 4w2 − 24 w + 20 = 0 w2 − 6 w + 5 = 0 (w – 1)(w – 5) = 0 35 4 . Then we have 1n + 3n + 5n = 765 9n = 765 n = 85 Thus he needs 1n = 1(85) = 85 ft3 of portland cement. Let w = width (in miles) of strip to be cut. But w = is impossible since 4 4 4 one dimension of original forest is 1 mi. 2w w w 2w Then area = 800. we have 3 (2 − 2 w)(1 − 2 w) = 4 3 2 − 6 w + 4 w2 = 4 w 2w The perimeter P = 2w + 2l = 2w + 2(2w) = 6w.Chapter 1 5. Thus 6w = 300. Then we have 2n + 1n = 16 3n = 16 16 n= 3 Thus the turpentine needed is 16 1 (1)n = = 5 ounces. Then we have 4n + 5n = 145 9n = 145 1 n = 16 9 4 ⎛ 1⎞ Thus there should be 4 ⎜ 16 ⎟ = 64 ounces of 9 ⎝ 9⎠ 1 5 ⎛ ⎞ A and 5 ⎜ 16 ⎟ = 80 ounces of B. Let n = number of ounces in each part. and 5n = 5(85) = 425 ft3 of crushed stone. . 300 w= = 50 ft 6 Thus the length is 2(50) = 100 ft. 8 – 2w w 4 – 2w w w w 4. The remaining plot for flowers has dimensions 8 – 2w by 4 – 2w. 2 2w w w Considering the area of the remaining forest. 2w2 = 800 w2 = 400 w = 20 ft Thus the length is 40 ft. the width of the strip should be 4 3. 2 – 2w w 1 – 2w w 1 w 2. (2w)w = 800 6. so the amount of fencing needed is 2(40) + 2(20) = 120 ft. 9 ⎝ 9⎠ 7. Thus 1 mi. Let n = number of ounces in each part. Then the remaining forest has dimensions 2 – 2w by 1 – 2w.

Since x must be 1. selling price = cost + profit p = 3. 000 = 52q − 120. 5. 000. Area of square end is x 2 . 000(1 + r )3 . 000.04 or 0. 000 680.800 1. 000 = 52q 680. 2 x(0. 11.000(0. Following the procedure in Example 6 we obtain the total value at the end of the second year to be Equating areas.000 profit.000 – x)(0.04 = 4%. Area of circular end is π(radius)2 = π(70)2 . 000 650. 000(1 + r ) 2 + 1.07) = 20.06) + (20. the accumulated positive. Since diameter of circular end is 140 mm.01x = –50.015x + 1500 = 1440 –0.04 We choose r ≈ 0. 000 = 50q − (25q + 500. the radius is 70 mm. Following the procedure in Example 6 we obtain 3.40 + 0.0675) –0.000 – x = 16. so x = 5000 The investment consisted of $5000 at 6% and $15. 2 16. 000. 000.000 – x = amount at 7 %.9 ≈ 13.000 – x = amount at 7%.8 8. 50 q = q + 600 2500q = q 2 + 1200q + 360. so 20.075) = 1440 –0. 000(1 + r ) 2 = 3. 000(1 + r )2 r.40 p= = $4. Total revenue = variable cost + fixed cost 100 q = 2q + 1200 12.125. Let x = amount at 6% and 20. Thus x = ± π(70)2 = ±70 π . 000 = 134q − (82q + 120.8p = 3. Let q = required number of units. we have x 2 = π(70)2 .000 1 at 7 %. 000) 150. Thus the investment should be $4000 at 6% and $16.40 3. amount will be 1.01x + 1400 = 1350 –0. Thus the width of the pavement should be 1 m.000. Let q = number of tons for $560. 000. 000 0 = q 2 − 1300q + 360. 000. This must equal $1. 000(1 + r ) 2 plus the 9. 000(1 + r )3 = 1. 10. 000 15.25 0. from which q = 26. 13. 14. 000. 000) 560. 000(1 + r )2 r = 1.000 at 7%. Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost 560.125.800.2p. x(0. Let x = amount at 6% and 1 20.125. 000 1 + r ≈ 1. 076. Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost 150. 000 = 25q. Thus the total value at the end of the third year will be 1. Let p = selling price. 000 =q 52 q ≈ 13. Then profit = 0.04029 r ≈ 0.015x = –60 x = 4000. 077 tons. 000.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Hence w = 1.04029 ≈ 4%. 245. which is 1. 000 = 25q − 500.000 – x)(0.800 (1 + r )3 = = 1. But w = 5 is impossible since one dimension of the original plot is 4 m. x = 70 π ≈ 124 mm. interest on this.2p 0. 1.1258 1. 000 0 = (q – 400)(q – 900) q = 400 or q = 900 36 . 000 649 (1 + r ) 2 = 600 649 1+ r = ± 600 649 r = −1 ± 600 r ≈ −2.06) + (20. 000.04029 Thus r ≈ 0. 000(1 + r ) 2 . So at the end of the third year.

9n = 280 + 0. Let n = number of people polled.045 21.30 ⎠ 25.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1. Thus 2P = P(0.3n = 40 1 n = 133 3 28.031c b.045t 2 t= ≈ 44. Let n = number of room applications sent out. Let w = width of strip.95n = 76 76 n= = 80 0.000 q = 46. 0. 0.031c = 600. total revenue = total cost 21.06(4000 + 15n) total yield = bond yield + stock yield = 0.07(4000) + 0.600) = 2760 2760 P= ≈ 0. 046 Approximately 619. We equate incomes under both proposals.03q = 8500 q ≈ 1209.60n Thus. 600 1600 = 80q − q 2 q 2 − 80q + 1600 = 0 (q − 40)2 = 0 q = 40 units 26. c – 0.80v + 7 = 100 0. total investment = 4000 + 15n total yield (goal) = 6% of total investment = 0.60n 240 + 0.969c = 600. 2000 + 0. Let q = required number of units.000.95q = 14. Yearly salary before strike = (7.000 0. 0. 0. w 120 80 80 + w w 120 + w 37 .80(v – 35) = 100 0. Let v = total annual vision-care expenses (in dollars) covered by program.000.195.20p = 700 700 p= = 3500 0.30 ⎛ 200 ⎞ Yearly salary = 12s = 12 ⎜ ⎟ = $8000 ⎝ 0.600 Lost wages = (7.10 1209 cartridges must be sold to approximately break even.195. Then 35 + 0.177 = 17.20 24.95 18.06(4000 + 15n) = 0. Revenue = (number of units sold)(price per unit) Thus ⎡ 80 − q ⎤ 400 = q ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 20. and t = time. 0.50)(8)(46) = $2760 Let P be the required percentage increase (as a decimal). If I = interest.000 0.000 units 22. 19.50)(8)(260) = $15. then I = Prt.80v = 93 v = $116.000 c ≈ 619. The original area is 80(120) and the new area is (120 + w)(80 + w). 27. a.045)t 2 = 0.7% 15.07(4000) + 0.92q + 8500 7. P(15. Let s = monthly salary of deputy sheriff.30s = 200 200 s= 0.046 bars will have to be made. r = rate.25 17.1 23. Let q = number of cartridges sold to break even.6n 0.50q = 23.4 years 0. P = principal. To triple an investment of P at the end of t years. Let n = number of shares of stock to be bought.50q = 25. the interest earned during that time must equal 2P.

Let p be the percentage increase in market value. b = −3. 000 − x) − (3. 000 − x ). 000 800 ± 600 = = 14 14 800 + 600 For p > 50 we choose p = = $100.1⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ E ⎠ (1. 250. 000 14 800 ± 360.100.13. 000) or $2. 20. 240 = 20. 11 9 x + (3. 2 p − 10 = 200 − 3 p 5 p = 210 p = 42 30. which 10 9 simplifies to (3.2 1. 800 ± 640.000 x = 2.1 = 2 n − 5n + 6 = 0 (n – 2)(n – 3) = 0 n = 2. 240.000 – 9x = 32. Then length of enclosed area is 300 – w – w = 300 – 2w. 000 10 10 11x + 27. = 35. To have supply = demand.000 2x = 4. the number of units that can be rented is 50 – 2n.100.100. 000 − x) = 3.400. 14 p= 29.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus (120 + w)(80 + w) = 2(80)(120) 31. Then the current 1 11 x.000 Thus the current value of the blue chip 11 (2. 000 = 0 w2 + 200 w − 9600 = 0 (w + 240)(w – 40) = 0 w = –240 or w = 40 We choose w = 40 ft.130 or p ≈ −2. then 3. Then ⎛ P ⎞ (1 + p) P 1.100. Then at the rental charge of 400 + 20n dollars per unit. c = −20 p= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 3 ± 249 = 6 p ≈ 3. 000 − 280.2) E 20. 33.32 = 32% 1. Let n = number of $20 increases. investment is 10 2 p 2 − 3 p = 20 − p 2 34.500.32 = 1 + p p = 0.000 – x is the original value of the glamour stocks. Let x = original value of the blue-chip investment.240 = (400 + 20n)(50 – 2n) 32. 000 = 800 p − 7 p 2 9600 + 200w + w2 = 19. The total of all monthly rents is (400 + 20n)(50 – 2n). Let w = width (in ft) of enclosed area. or 10 10 For the glamour stocks the current value is 1 (3. 2 3 p − 3 p − 20 = 0 a = 3. which must equal 20.475.100. value of the blue-chip stock is x + x.900. 000 − x).240. 200 7 p 2 − 800 p + 10. 10. 38 .000. 3 Thus the rent should be either $400 + 2($20) = $440 or $400 + 3($20) = $460.130 The equilibrium price is p ≈ 3.250. 000 + 200n − 40n 2 40n 2 − 200n + 240 = 0 1+ p 1. 10 Thus for the current value of the portfolio.

Let n = number of machines sold over 600.800 37.28(100) = 28 cm3 Volume of new bar = 100 – 28 = 72 cm3 Let x = number of centimeters that the length and width are each reduced.1)2 (2. balance of p% is L − 100 p L− L=E 100 100 − p L=E 100 100 E L= 100 − p 36.04 .461π) 29. Thus the dimensions are 80 ft by 140 ft. Equating total commissions to 30. 000 + 24n + 40n + 0. 70.86 To the nearest thousand.04n.77 mm.142. Then the amount actually received is x − 0.84142π = 2. The dimensions are 9 in.04 0. Let s = length in inches of side of original square.1) = 97.16 x = 195.78(97. Hence. then length is 300 – 2w = 300 – 2(70) = 160. we reject w = 70. we choose r = 3.1) = 0. 9. The new bar has length 10 – x = 10 – 1 = 9 cm and width is 5 – x = 5 – 1 = 4 cm.461π mm3 Let r = inner radius (in millimeters) of new style candy. 000 x ≈ 232. We reject s = –1 and choose s = 9. 39.16x.1πr 2 14. π(7.000. Then 24. by 9 in. the loan amount is $232. x − 0.1) − π(2)2 (2.04n) = 30.04n 2 = 30.7696 Since r is a radius. 40. Let x = amount of loan. the amount received from a loan of L with a compensating p L.02n 2 + 32n − 3400 = 0 n= 39 –32 ± 1024 + 272 −32 ± 36 = 0. we have (length)(width)(height) = volume (s – 4)(s – 4)(2) = 50 ( s − 4) 2 = 25 s − 4 = ± 25 = ±5 s=4±5 Hence s = –1.84 x = 195. In the general case. If w = 80.1)2 (2. we reject x = 14 and choose x = 1. Since the building has length of only 150 ft. then length is 300 – 2w = 300 – 2(80) = 140. 000 0. s 3 3 3 3 s–6 s 3 3 3 3 s–6 Considering the volume of the box.2102 = r 2 r ≈ ±3.800 we obtain (600 + n)(40 + 0.200 w(150 – w) = 5600 = π(7. Then the commission on each of 600 + n machines is 40 + 0. Volume of old style candy 150 Thus w(300 – 2w) = 11. we have 0 = w2 − 150w + 5600 0 = (w – 80)(w – 70) Hence w = 80.200 2w(150 – w) = 11. Considering the volume of the new style candy.1 300 – 2w w (10 – x)(5 – x)2 = 72 (10 – x)(5 – x) = 36 x 2 − 15 x + 50 = 36 w AREA x 2 − 15 x + 14 = 0 (x – 1)(x – 14) = 0 x = 1 or 14 Because of the length and width of the original bar.1) − πr 2 (2. Original volume = (10)(5)(2) = 100 cm3 Volume cut from bar = 0.800 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1. If w = 70. PLANT 38.

2.04 500 ± 100 = 0. x3 ≥ 0. and x4 ≥ 0. it follows that 7140 4500 = + 0.5(q + 2000) 3q 2040 1500 = + 0.500 0 = (q – 100)(q – 125) q = 100 or q = 125 If q = 100. 000. ⎡ 30n + 600 + 7200 ⎤ n⎢ ⎥ = 7200 n + 20 ⎣ ⎦ n(30n + 600 + 7200) = 7200(n + 20) Principles in Practice 1.02 q + 2000 q 2040q = 1500(q + 2000) + 0.8S ≥ 4300 S ≥ 5375 He must sell at least 5375 products per month. or 150 units of A and 125 units of B.04 number of machines that must be sold is 600 + 100 = 700.2 30n 2 + 7800n = 7200n + 144. Then the revenue last year was 3q and this year it is 3.02q 2 + 40q 0 = 0. 000 − 240. 2 n + 20n − 4800 = 0 (n + 80)(n – 60) = 0 n = 60 acres (since n > 0). Let q = number of units of product sold last year and q + 2000 = the number sold this year. if q = 125. = 2. Thus 15.000 or 15.8S ≥ 4500 0. 000 = 0 1. we have the inequalities 150 − x4 ≥ 0 3x4 − 210 ≥ 0 x4 + 60 ≥ 0 x4 ≥ 0 42.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 43. By the definition of margin of profit. 000 30n 2 + 600n − 144. q + 25 500 ± 250. The price of each acre sold was ⎡ 7200 ⎤ 30 + ⎢ ⎥ . Let n = number of acres sold. 000 0.000 units were sold last year and 17. Thus the 0. 000 + 0.02q 2 − 500q + 3. then q + 25 = 125. Therefore. 000 0.15. 3x > 12 12 x> 3 x>4 (4. We choose n = costs 41. q + 25 = 150.04 = 10.04 4 500 ± 10.5(q + 2000). we have 7200 ⎤ ⎡ n ⎢30 + = 7200 n + 20 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 1500 1000 = +2 q + 25 q 1500q = 1000(q + 25) + 2(q)(q + 25) 0 = 2q 2 − 450q + 25. Then n + 20 acres 7200 were originally purchased at a cost of n + 20 each. so 60 acres were sold.000 So that the margin of profit this year is not greater than 0. Let q = number of units of B and q + 25 = number of units of A produced. Since the revenue from selling n ⎣ n + 20 ⎦ acres is $7200 (the original cost of the parcel). ∞) 2040q = 1500q + 3. 000 0 = q 2 − 225q + 12. x2 ≥ 0. 4x < –2 –2 x< 4 1 x<− 2 40 . 000 q= 1500 . Since x1 ≥ 0. 200 + 0. and each unit of A Each unit of B costs q –32 + 36 = 100. 1000 .2 1. Thus the company produces either 125 units of A and 100 units of B.000.000 this year. 000.02 3. we choose q = 15.02q(q + 2000) Problems 1.

–3 ≥ 8(2 – x) –3 ≥ 16 – 8x 8x ≥ 19 19 x≥ 8 ⎡ 19 ⎞ ⎢ 8 . x + 5 ≤ 3 + 2 x − x ≤ −2 x≥2 [2. ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 12. 3(2 – 3x) > 4(1 – 4x) 6 – 9x > 4 – 16x 7x > –2 2 x>− 7 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜− 7 . 5 x ≤ 0 0 x≤ 5 x≤0 (−∞. 2y + 1 > 0 2y > –1 1 y>− 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− 2 . –1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 7 –2 7 41 . ∞) 4 0 4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1. 7 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 13.2 8. 0] 10. 3 < 2y + 3 0 < 2y 0<y y>0 (0. ∞⎟ ⎣ ⎠ –1 2 19 8 7. − 2 ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ 4 ≤ 3− 2y 1 ≤ −2 y 1 − ≥y 2 1 y≤− 2 1⎤ ⎛ ⎜ – ∞. 0 5. –4x ≥ 2 2 x≤ −4 1 x≤− 2 1⎤ ⎛ ⎜ – ∞. 5 x − 11 ≤ 9 5 x ≤ 20 x≤4 (−∞. 4] 9. 5 – 7s > 3 –7s > –2 2 s< 7 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ –1 2 –1 3. 4s – 1 < –5 4s < –4 s < –1 (–∞. ∞) –1 2 2 6. − 2 ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ –1 2 11.

− –4 –9 15. 48) 1 − t 3t − 7 < 2 3 3(1 − t ) < 2(3t − 7) 3 − 3t < 6t − 14 −9t < −17 17 t> 9 ⎛ 17 ⎞ ⎜ . (–∞. ⎝ 3 −2 2 23. 2(4 x − 2) > 4(2 x + 1) 8x − 4 > 8x + 4 −4 > 4. ∞⎟ ⎣ 12 ⎠ 11 12 3 −2⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟⎠ 3−2 2 18. The solution is –∞ < x < ∞. (–∞. ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 24. 8(x + 1) + 1 < 3(2x) + 1 8x + 9 < 6x + 1 2x < –8 x < –4 (–∞.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 14. –4) 2 x>6 3 –x > 9 x < –9 (–∞. 4 3 19. ∞) 2 ( x + 2) > 8(3 − x) 2 ( x + 2) > 2 2 (3 − x) x + 2 > 2(3 – x) x + 2 > 6 – 2x 3x > 4 4 x> 3 ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ 3 . 0x ≤ 0 0 ≤ 0. which is true for all x. 4 − ( x + 3) ≤ 3(3 − x ) 1 − x ≤ 9 − 3x 2x ≤ 8 x≤4 (−∞. The solution is –∞ < x < ∞. –9) 20. 3y − 2 1 ≥ 3 4 12 y − 8 ≥ 3 12 y ≥ 11 11 y≥ 12 11 ⎡ ⎞ ⎢ . which is true for all x. 16. ∞) 25. which is false for all x. 9 y +1 ≤ 2 y −1 4 9y + 1 ≤ 8y – 4 y ≤ –5 (–∞. ∞⎟ ⎝ 9 ⎠ 17 9 48 42 . –5] 5 x < 40 6 5x < 240 x < 48 (–∞. Thus the solution set is ∅. 21. 4] –5 22. −3x + 1 ≤ −3( x − 2) + 1 −3x + 1 ≤ −3x + 7 1 ≤ 7. x + 2 < 3 − x 2x < 3 − 2 x< ⎛ ⎜⎜ – ∞. 4 17.

017x ≥ 0. ∞) 27.8 – 0.03x + 4) ≥ 0. ∞) 24 17 32.2 x ≥ –20 [–20.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 26.2 3(2t − 2) 6t − 3 t > + 2 5 10 15(2t – 2) > 2(6t – 3) + t 30t – 30 > 13t – 6 17t > 24 24 t> 7 ⎛ 24 ⎞ ⎜ 7 .02x + 0.434 0. 2 0 30.01x 0. The measures of the acute angles of a right triangle sum to 90°.2 1. 0. ⎥ 3⎦ ⎝ –2 34. 2 3 29. 2 5 r< r 3 6 4r < 5r 0<r r>0 (0. −3) –3 35. y y y + > y+ 2 3 5 15y + 10y > 30y + 6y 25y > 36y 0 > 11y 0>y y<0 (–∞. –2] –12 28. 2 x + 13 ≥ –20 33. 0 2 − 0.01x –0. 12(50) < S < 12(150) 600 < S < 1800 36.1(0.02x ≤ 2 – 0.1x ≤ 1 x−7 3 6 x + 39 ≥ x − 21 5 x ≥ −60 x ≥ −12 (−12. ∞) 0 43 .034 x ≤ –2 (–∞.003x + 0. 7 8 t>− t 4 3 21t > –32t 53t > 0 t>0 (0.4 ≥ 0. x < 3(90 – x) + 10 x < 270 – 3x + 10 4x < 280 x < 70 The measure of the angle is less than 70°. ∞) 3 y − 1 5( y + 1) < −3 −3 3y −1 > 5 y + 5 −6 > 2 y −3 > y y < −3 (−∞. If x is the measure of one acute angle. Section 1.434 –0.01x ≤ 0.02x + 0. 9 − 0. 1 5 3x − ≤ x 3 2 18 x − 2 ≤ 15 x 3x ≤ 2 2 x≤ 3 2⎤ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. the other angle has measure 90 – x. 0) 1 ≤x≤4 2 37. ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 31.

12(420) + 0.9q > 5000 5000 5 q> = 5555 0.95d.000 q > 120.000 ≤ x The number of miles driven per year must be at least 17.02x 17.3N + 0. 2. Profit > 0 3. 219 + 18. The number of magazines sold is 0. the annual cost is 12(420) + 0.9 9 Thus at least 5556 units must be sold. there are advertising revenues of 0.10(0.90q). Thus. Total revenue – Total cost = Profit We want Profit > 0.06x ≤ 4700 + 0.4 N + 6500) > 0 1.5N and Total cost = 1. Then Total revenue = 3. 44 .06x ≤ 4700 + 0.95d ≤ 360 18.3 1. Problems 1.50 + 4)q + 5000] > 0 0. while if more than 30. If the auto is purchased. Let q = number of units sold.55q.90q − 30.000 magazines are sold.000).95 The student can buy at most 7 disks. Let d be the number of disks.9q – 5000 > 0 0.001 units must be sold. The revenue from dealers is (0. Profit > 0 Total revenue – Total cost > 0 20q – (15q + 600.000 > 0 5q > 600.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 38.1 At least 3612 shirts must be sold. 3.3 N + 0.08x.4N + 6500.000) > 0 5q – 600. the annual cost is 4700 + 0. 7. Let q = number of units sold.06x.40q – [(2. 4.08x 340 ≤ 0. We want Rental cost ≤ Purchase cost. Then the cost of publication is 0.44 18. 5. If fewer than 30.08x 5040 + 0.000 are sold.5 N − (1. Let x = number of miles driven per year.60)(0.000.000 Thus at least 120.90q. The stereo plus d disks will cost 219 + 18.60)(0. Let N = required number of shirts. the only revenue is from the sales to dealers.8 N − 6500 > 0 1.95d ≤ 141 141 d≤ ≈ 7.8 N > 6500 N > 3611. Let q be the number of magazines printed. If the auto is leased.

594 1800 ⎩ Profit = Revenue − Cost q ≤ 33.3 if 0.000 – x = amount at 5%. 000) if 0.000 – q) ≤ 25.000 ≤ 25.334 magazines are sold.000 Let x = amount of money they can borrow.6 150.000 8000 ≤ q At least 8000 clocks must be produced during the regular workweek.044q − 1800 ≥ 0 0.910 Thus.8 = L 3. 000 + x ≥ 2.9q − 30.000 ≥ 1. Then current assets Current ratio = current liabilities 570.000 and the maximum amount they can borrow is $112. Let L be current liabilities.333 ⎧0.500.000 – x)(0.6)(0.500 ≥ x Thus current liabilities are $150.54q =⎨ − > 33.8L = 570.044 q − 1800 q > 33. 000 + x 570. Then 2q + 3(11.000 + x ≥ 390. 45 .000 + 2.55q q > 33.01q =⎨ 0.333 ⎧0.065)(30. Let x = amount at 6 % and 30.6x 112.6(0.333 ⎩ Clearly. 3 7. the profit is negative if fewer than 33.333 q ≤ 33.910 magazines must be printed in order to avoid a loss.594q − 1800 − 0.0175x + 1500 ≥ 1950 0.714.9q ≤ 30.54q − 0.29 3 Thus at least $25. so 11. at least 40.05) ≥ (0.9)q Revenue = ⎨ ⎩0. 4 8. 6. where x ≥ 0.9q > 30.000 – q = number produced in overtime.1(0.6x 180.000) 0.6(0. 570. Let q = number of clocks produced during regular work week.000 L = $150.000 –q + 33. 000 ⎧0. 000 q ≤ 33.29 must be invested at 6 %.0175x ≥ 450 x ≥ 25.0675) + (30.55q =⎨ ⎩0. 000 3.044q ≥ 1800 q ≥ 40.714.9)q + 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.333 q q 0. 0. Then 4 3 1 interest at 6 % + interest at 5% ≥ interest at 6 % 4 2 x(0.333 ⎧−0.

000. 11. –10 < x < 10 9. 000 > s The first method is better for yearly sales less than $1. . For t < 40.7 hr 7. 750. Because 12. Let x = accounts receivable. 1 1 = 2 2 3.750 500 ≥ 0. |f(x) − L| < ε w − 22 ≤ 0.50 each.400 in accounts receivable. Problems 1. 2 –1 = −13 = 13 46 p1 − p2 ≤ 9 5 − 2 = 5 − 2. Principles in Practice 1. of units)(price per unit) ⎛ 100 ⎞ + 1⎟ > 5000 q⎜ ⎝ q ⎠ 1. 11.750 –0. Let q be the number of units sold this month at $4.03s > 0. x−2 <3 c.000 + x x ≥ 67. x <3 g. x − 105 < 3 i. the salary is 35. 2.3 ≤ 398. Let s = yearly sales. ( ) 2− 5 = − 2− 5 = 5 −2. 000 517. 400 The company must have at least $67.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 9. x+4 < 2 f. x < 4 .250 ≥ 10. x < 10. x−7 < 3 b.03s. x >6 h.00 each.750. Then 2500 – q will be sold at $4. 000 450. x−7 = 4 e. 000 + x Acid test ratio = 398.5q + 11. Revenue = (no. 10. –4 < x < 4 8. Because 2 − 5 < 0 . x − 850 < 100 13.400 ≤ 450. 8 − 2 = 6 = 6 10. a. −4 − 6 −10 = = −5 = 5 2 2 5.4 12. 000 + x 1.02 s 1. 000 > 0. 35.05s 35. x−7 ≤ 5 d. and with the second method it is 0. Then Total revenue ≥ 10.5q 1000 ≥ q The maximum number of units that can be sold this month is 1000.3 13. we want income on hourly basis > income on per-job basis 9t > 320 + 3(40 − t ) 9t > 440 − 3t 12t > 440 t > 36. ⎛ 7⎞ 2 ⎜ − ⎟ = −7 = 7 ⎝ 2⎠ 6. With the first method.5(2500 – q) ≥ 10. Then 450. |3 − 5| − |5 − 3| = |−2| − |2| = 2 − 2 = 0 100 + q > 5000 q > 4900 At least 4901 units must be sold. 5 − 2 > 0.750 4q + 4. 000 + 0.05s.4 1.000 + 0. 4.

M) Note that M > 0 is required. 7x + 3 = x or –(7x + 3) = x 6x = –3 –7x – 3 = x 3 1 x=− <0 x=− <0 8 2 There is no solution. ∞ ⎟ .4 x − µ ≤ 2σ 23. 18. −x = 2 –x = 2 or –2 x = ±2 17. Section 1. so the solution is 2 x+9 < 5 −5 < x + 9 < 5 −14 < x < −4 (−14. 5 − 3 x = 2 5 − 3 x = ±2 −3 x = −5 ± 2 −3 x = −3 or − 7 7 x = 1 or x = 3 x =7 5 x = ±7 5 x = ±35 25. 3) x −5 = 8 x – 5 = ±8 x=5±8 x = 13 or x = –3 27. x 1 > 3 2 x 1 <− or 3 2 3 x<− or 2 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ −∞. x 1 > 3 2 3 x > . so the solution is (–∞. −4) 30. 5 x − 2 = 0 5x – 2 = 0 2 x= 5 22. 7 x + 3 = x Here we must have x ≥ 0. 7 − 4 x = 5 7 – 4x = ±5 –4x = –7 ± 5 –4x = –2 or –12 1 x = or x = 3 2 –2σ ≤ x – µ ≤ 2σ µ – 2 σ ≤ x ≤ µ + 2σ 15. x >2 4 x x < −2 or >2 4 4 x < –8 or x > 8. −x < 3 x <3 –3 < x < 3 (–3. 24. 4 + 3x = 6 4 + 3x = ±6 3x = –4 ± 6 3x = –10 or 2 10 2 or x = x= − 3 3 28. 47 . x <M −M < x < M (–M. ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 21. x =7 x = ±7 16.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 14. |2x − 17| < −4 Because –4 < 0. 5 = 12 x 5 = ±12 x 5 x=± 12 26. 19. 29. –8) ∪ (8. ∞). the solution set is ∅. 20. − 2 ⎟ ∪ ⎜ 2 .

⎣3 ⎠ or 4. ∞ ⎟ . 5 − 8 x ≤ 1 –1 ≤ 5 – 8x ≤ 1 –6 ≤ –8x ≤ –4 3 1 ≥ x ≥ .005 Problems 1. or x – µ > hσ. the index of summation is m. x− ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 1 > 2 2 1 1 <− 2 2 x<0 (–∞. − ⎟ ∪ (1. 0) ∪ (1. 1 1 > 2 2 or x > 1 or x− 37. Thus –∞ < x < ∞.5 a. Let T1 and T2 be the temperatures of the two chemicals. µ – hσ) ∪ (µ + hσ. 2 4 ⎡1 3⎤ The solution is ⎢ .∞). The bounds of summation are 3 and 450. 35.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra 31. 1. 22] = 6(1) + 6(2) + 6(3) + 6(4) + 6(5) + 6(6) + 6(7) = 6 + 12 + 18 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 42 = 168 3x − 8 ≥4 2 or 3x – 8 ≥ 8 or 3x ≥ 16 16 x≤0 or x ≥ 3 ⎡ 16 ⎞ The solution is (– ∞. 33. 4 ∑ 10 p = 10(0) + 10(1) + 10(2) + 10(3) + 10(4) p =0 = 0 + 10 + 20 + 30 + 40 = 100 48 . 0] ∪ ⎢ . ∞). so the solution is (–∞.20 or 1 – 3x < –2 or –3x < –3 38. ⎥ . the index of summation is t. x−7 ≤5 3 x−7 −5 ≤ ≤5 3 −15 ≤ x − 7 ≤ 15 −8 ≤ x ≤ 22 [−8.2| ≤ 0. ⎣2 4⎦ 34. 2. ∞) x− 32. which may be rewritten as 4 2 1 3 ≤x≤ . 1 − 3x > 2 1 – 3x > 2 –3x > 1 1 x<– 3 36. The bounds of summation are 12 and 17. Thus either x < µ – hσ or x > µ + hσ. |d − 35.2 m| ≤ 20 cm or |d − 35.01 ≤ 0. x − µ > hσ Either x – µ < –hσ. 3⎠ ⎝ 39. 5 ≤ T1 – T2 ≤ 10 or x > 1 1⎞ ⎛ The solution is ⎜ −∞. 7 ∑ 6i i =1 3x − 8 ≥4 2 3x − 8 ≤ −4 2 3x – 8 ≤ –8 3x ≤ 0 x − 0. or (–∞. ∞). 40. 4 x − 1 ≥ 0 is true for all x because a ≥ 0 for all 3.

15. 14. n ⎛ 1⎞ ∑ ⎜⎝ 5 ⋅ n ⎟⎠ = ⎜⎝ 5 ⋅ n ⎟⎠ ∑ 1 = ⎜⎝ 5 ⋅ n ⎟⎠ (n) = 5 k =1 200 200 200 k =1 k =1 k =1 ∑ (k − 100) = ∑ k − 100 ∑ 1 = 200(201) − 100(200) = 20. 000 = ∑ 10 j j=1 13. 000 = 100 2 49 . 36 + 37 + 38 + 39 + " + 60 = 60 ∑i i =36 8.5 = 46 + 56 + 66 + 76 + 86 + 96 + 106 = 532 11 ∑ (2n − 3) = [2(7) − 3] + [2(8) − 3] + [2(9) − 3] + [2(10) − 3] + [2(11) − 3] n =7 = 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 = 75 7. 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 = 5 ∑ k2 k =1 8 9. 43 43 k =1 k =1 135 135 101 k =35 k =35 i =1 ∑ 10 = 10 ∑ 1 = 10(43) = 430 ∑ 2 = 2 ∑ 1 = 2∑1 = 2(101) = 202 n ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ k =1 16. 000.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 5. 9 ∑ (10k + 16) = [10(3) + 16] + [10(4) + 16] + [10(5) + 16] + [10(6) + 16] + [10(7) + 16] + [10(8) + 16] + [10(9) + 16] k =3 6. 10 + 100 + 1000 + " + 100. 53 + 54 + 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 = ∑ 5i i=3 16 10. Section 1.100 − 20. 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 128 + 256 = 8 ∑ 2i i=1 8 12. 11 + 15 + 19 + 23 + " + 71 = ∑ (7 + 4i ) i =1 11.

50 = 10∑ i + (10)(50)∑1 i =1 50(51) + 500(50) = 12. 100 ⎧ ⎡ 20 ∑ (5k 2 + 3k ) = 5 ∑ k 2 + 3∑ k k =1 k =1 ⎪ ⎩⎣ 4 1 10(11)(21) 1 (10) − ⋅ = 8− ⋅ 385 5 125 6 125 77 123 23 = 8− = =4 25 25 25 ∑ n +1 k 2 = n +1 ∑ k 2 k =1 2 10 1 ⎛ 2k ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎫⎪ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎬ = ∑ ⎜ 4 − k 2 ⎟ 10 5 25 ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪⎭ k =1 ⎝ = n n ⎧⎪ ⎡ 10 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 10 = (4) ∑ 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ∑ k 2 5 k =1 5 ⎝ 25 ⎠ k =1 i =1 = 10 ⋅ 18. = n 3 3⎛ 9 ⎞ n (5) ∑ 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ∑ k 2 n k =1 n ⎝ n 2 ⎠ k =1 15 27 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) = ( n) − ⋅ 6 n n3 9(n + 1)(2n + 1) = 15 − 2n 2 = ∑ i 2 + 100∑ i + 2500∑ 1 i =1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎫⎪ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎬ ⎥⎦ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎭⎪ 2⎤ = 100 100 ⎪ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ∑ ⎨⎢⎢ 4 − ⎜⎝ 100 k ⎟⎠ ⎪⎣ k =1 ⎩ 2 1 100(101)(201) (100) − ⋅ 25 125.000 = 295.500 + 125.750 n n 19.425 = 50 1 n ∑ (n + 1)(2n + 1) = (n + 1)(2n + 1) ∑ k 2 k =1 ∑ k 2 + 100 ∑ k + 2500 ∑ 1 k =1 1 100 ⎛ 1 ⎞ k2 ⎟ ∑ ⎜4− 50 k =1 ⎝ 2500 ⎠ = 50(51)(101) 50(51) = + 100 + 2500(50) 6 2 = 42. 10 ∑ ⎨⎢⎢4 − ⎜⎝ 10 ⎟⎠ k =1 1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n ⋅ = (n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 6 . 100 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 50 ∑ 10k = 10∑ (i + 50) k =51 i =1 50 23. k =1 n n(n + 1)(2n + 1) = ⋅ 6 n +1 n 2 (2n + 1) = 6 20 20 24. 000 2500 13.500 + 125. 750 + 25.000 = 50 50 k =51 50 i =1 25. 000 6 1 6767 = 8− ⋅ 338.980 21. k =1 k =1 20(21)(41) 20(21) +3 6 2 = 5(2870) + 3(210) = 14. 3k 2 – 200k 3 100 2 200 100 = ∑ 101 ∑ k − 101 ∑ k 101 k =1 k =1 k =1 3 100(101)(201) 200 100 ⋅101 = ⋅ − ⋅ 101 6 101 2 = 10. 233 733 = =5 2500 2500 = 5⋅ 20.925 + 127.Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra 17.050 – 10. 000 2 = 37.350 = 8 − 125.925 + 127. = 100 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 100 2 (4) ∑ 1 − ⎜ ⎟∑k 50 k =1 50 ⎝ 2500 ⎠ k =1 ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ 3 ⎞2 ⎤ 3 ⎫⎪ ∑ ⎨⎢⎢5 − ⎜⎝ n ⋅ k ⎟⎠ ⎥⎥ n ⎬ k =1 ⎪ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎩⎣ n 3 ⎛ 9 2⎞ k ⎟ = ∑ ⎜5 − n k =1 ⎝ n2 ⎠ n k2 n = 50(51)(101) 50(51) + 100 + 2500(50) 6 2 = 42.000 = 295. 50 ∑ k 2 = ∑ (i + 50)2 = ∑ (i 2 + 100i + 2500) i =1 50 50 i =1 50 i =1 50 ∑ (k + 50)2 = ∑ (k 2 + 100k + 2500) k =1 50 = k =1 50 50 k =1 k =1 26.425 22.

∞). 5 x − 2 ≥ 2( x − 7) 5 x − 2 ≥ 2 x − 14 3 x ≥ −12 x ≥ −4 [−4. 3. –(5x + 2) < –(2x + 4) –5x – 2 < –2x – 4 –3x < –2 2 x> 3 ⎛2 ⎞ ⎜ 3 . 4. 5x − 6 =0 13 5x − 6 =0 13 5x – 6 = 0 6 x= 5 13. 3 p (1 − p ) > 3(2 + p ) − 3 p 2 3 p − 3 p2 > 6 + 3 p − 3 p2 0 > 6. Thus –∞ < s < ∞. –2(x + 6) > x + 4 –2x – 12 > x + 4 –3x > 16 16 x<− 3 16 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. |2z − 3| < 5 −5 < 2z − 3 < 5 −2 < 2z < 8 −1 < z < 4 (−1. ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 9. 1. or (–∞. 3 − 2 x = 7 3 – 2x = 7 –2x = 4 x = –2 7 ⎞ ⎛ 6. so –∞ < x < ∞. which is false for all x. 2 ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ x x x − > 3 4 5 20 x − 15 x > 12 x 5 x > 12 x 0 > 7x 0>x (−∞. x+5 1 − ≤2 3 2 2(x + 5) – 3(1) ≤ 6(2) 2x + 10 – 3 ≤ 12 2x ≤ 5 5 x≤ 2 5⎤ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. which is true for all x.∞). − 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 1 Review Chapter 1 Review Problems 7. 3 ⎜ 5 − q ⎟ < 9 3 ⎠ ⎝ 15 − 7q < 9 −7q < −6 6 q> 7 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 7 . ∞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 12. which is true for all s. 8. The solution set is ∅. 5. ∞) 11. or (–∞. 2x – (7 + x) ≤ x 2x – 7 – x ≤ x –7 ≤ 0. 4) 51 or 3 – 2x = –7 or –2x = –10 or x = 5 . 1 1 (t + 2) ≥ 3 4 4(t + 2) ≥ 3t + 48 4t + 8 ≥ 3t + 48 t ≥ 40 [40. ∞) 2. 0) 1 1 s − 3 ≤ (3 + 2 s ) 4 8 2s – 24 ≤ 3 + 2s 0 ≤ 27.

By Equation (1.40p = c 0. c = cost.29 x = 2853.000 [5q + 30.000 – q at B. Cost at A + Cost at B ≤ 117. 460 c < $212.50.90 236. 5 5 i =1 i =1 5 ∑ (i + 2)3 = ∑ (i3 + 6i 2 + 12i + 8) 22. For SP.000 ≤ 117.000 –0. Let q units be produced at A and 10. Let x be the number of issues with a decline.500π ft 3 Let r be the radius (in feet) of the new tank. so the 150 − t of the remaining 150 − t minutes take up 1 120 available. Total volume of old tanks 5 5 5 i =1 i =1 i =1 = π(10)2 (25) + π(20)2 (25) = 2500π + 10. 2⎦ ⎣2 ⎝ ⎠ 16. 2 t r = 2. Let p = selling price. For LP. 3 − 2 x ≥ 4 3 – 2x ≥ 4 –2x ≥ 1 1 x≤− 2 or 3 – 2x ≤ –4 or –2x ≤ –7 7 or x ≥ 2 1⎤ ⎡7 ⎛ ⎞ The solution is ⎜ – ∞.000 – q) + 35. 7 5 i =3 i =1 23.79 = $185.8). − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . Then p – 0. ∑ i3 = ∑ i3 − ∑ i3 7 (8)2 22 (3)2 = − 4 4 = 784 − 9 = 775 This uses Equation (1. Let c = operating costs c < 0. ∞ ⎟ . r = 1. Here m = 120 and M = 2 (60) = 150. 18.500π 3 r 3 = 9375 5 (6) 5(6)(11) 5(6) +6 + 12 + 8(5) 4 6 2 = 225 + 330 + 180 + 40 = 775 = 17. Then 4 3 πr = 12. 7 7 2 i =3 i =1 2 i =1 r = 3 9375 ≈ 21.065 x = 3039. Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 1 1 1.5q + 120.0858 feet. so the first t minutes take up of the 120 2 available minutes.065 x = 3039.000 –0. x + 0.29 − 2853.6p = c c 5c ⎛2⎞ p= = = c + ⎜ ⎟c 0. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ or 20.29 1.9).Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra 14. 21. ∞ ⎟ .50(10.000] + [5. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − .6 3 ⎝3⎠ Thus the profit is 2 2 . 15.79 Thus tax is 3039.000] ≤ 117. 3 3 52 . Then x + (x + 48) = 1132 2x = 1084 x = 542 2 x+5 3 2 x + 5 < −4 3 2 x < −9 3 27 x<− 2 2 x+5 > 4 3 2 or x > −1 3 3 or x > − 2 27 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ The solution is ⎜ −∞. of the cost. and x + 48 be the number of issues with an increase. or 66 %.5q ≤ –3000 q ≥ 6000 Thus at least 6000 units must be produced at plant A.0858 The radius is approximately 21. 4 < ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 19. Let x = purchase amount excluding tax.814 ∑ i3 = ∑ (i + 2)3 . 000π = ∑ i3 + 6∑ i 2 + 12∑ i + 8∑ 1 i =1 2 2 = 12.

t of the m available R M −t minutes.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 1 5. t M −t + = 120 2 1 t + 2 M − 2t = 240 −t = 240 − 2 M t = 2 M − 240 The switch should be made after 2M − 240 minutes. so the first t minutes will take up 3 120 available minutes. x gives the maximum amount of audio (600 minutes or 10 hours) that can be written using the 12-to-1 compression ratio. Use the reasoning in Exercise 2. 2 t of the r = 3. Here m = 120 and M = 2 (60) = 150. 18 hours (1080 minutes) are being written to a CD using a combination of 12-to-1 and 20-to-1 compression ratios. with M unknown and m = 120. t 150 − t + = 120 2 1 t + 300 − 2t = 240 −t = −60 t = 60 Switch after 1 hour. t M −t + = 120 3 1 t + 3M − 3t = 360 −2t = 360 − 3M 1 t = (3M − 360) 2 The switch should be made after 1 (3M − 360) minutes. The first t minutes use 4. For EP. x = 310 6. t 150 − t + = 120 3 1 t + 450 − 3t = 360 −2t = −90 t = 45 Switch after 45 minutes. In the second equation. For SP. r = 1. so the 150 − t of the remaining 150 − t minutes take up 1 120 available. 26. the remaining M − t minutes use r of the m available. 2 53 . Use the reasoning in Exercise 1. t M −t + =m R r t M t + − =m R r r M ⎛ 1 1⎞ t⎜ − ⎟ = m− r ⎝R r⎠ ⎛ r − R ⎞ mr − M t⎜ ⎟= r ⎝ rR ⎠ R (mr − M ) t= r−R 7. with M unknown and m = 120. A maximum of 310 minutes can be written at 15-to-1. In the first equation. x = 600 1 2. 3. Here.5 hours (1590 minutes) is being written using 15-to-1 and 24to-1 compression ratios. Both equations represent audio being written onto 74-minute CDs.

q 18. the domain for the function. 400 p = 26 − 40 p = 26 – 10 p = 16 To sell 400 large pizzas each week. 300 . 2.Chapter 2 b. g(−2) = −2. the same constant. hence f(3) = g(3). f(x) = g(x) for all real numbers and they have the same domains. the time is scaled (multiplied) by ⎛ r ⎞ 300c .1 1. r is the speed. The functions are not equal because f(x) ≥ 0 for all values of x.5 = 26 − 40 q −7. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 Note that we can cancel the x − 3 because we are assuming x ≠ 3 and so x − 3 ≠ 0. while g(x) can be less than 0. For x = 3 we have f(3) = 2 and g(3) = 3 − 1 = 2. f (−2) = (−2) 2 = 4 = 2 and Since speed is not negative. For b. Principles in Practice 2. If the price is $18. r Problems 2. Any other real number can be used for x. a. and t is the time. c. Thus for x ≠ 3 f(x) = x − 1 = g(x). Answer: all real numbers except 0 54 .5. is r > 0. in context. h(x) is defined for all nonzero real numbers. the domain for the function. while k(x) is defined for all real numbers. we have x 2 − 4 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = = x − 1. q = 200. For x ≠ 3. When d = 300. The domain of G(x) is [−1. and speed is d = rt where d is the distance. thus the functions are equal. Replacing r by x: t ( x) = Replacing r by e. thus f(−2) ≠ g(−2).50 per large pizza. This can also be d written as t = . 2. c. a. the price should be $16 per pizza. 5. use q = 400. 300 pizzas are sold each week. in context. a. The functions are different because they have different domains. The functions are not equal because they have different domains. Replacing r by : t ⎜ ⎟ = = x 2 x ⎝2⎠ 2 d. x : 4 To double the number of large pizzas sold. t ⎜ ⎟ = r ⎝c⎠ 4. ⎛ x ⎞ 300 1200 t⎜ ⎟ = .5 = − 40 300 = q At a price of $18. 200 p = 26 − 40 p = 26 – 5 p = 21 The price is $21 per pizza if 200 large pizzas are being sold each week. c. x x ⎛ x ⎞ 300 600 . = x x ⎝4⎠ 4 When the speed is reduced (divided) by a constant. The domain of a(r) is all real numbers. example. Since a radius cannot be negative or zero. 3. a(r ) = πr 2 b. where r is the radius. The functions are equal.50 per large pizza.1 1. while the domain of H(x) is all real numbers. p = 18. 3. ∞) (all real numbers ≥ −1) because you can only take the square root of a non-negative number. time. we have r 300 t (r ) = . The domain of t(r) is all real numbers except 0. The formula for the area of a circle is πr 2 . The formula relating distance. If 200 large pizzas are being sold each week. is r > 0. The denominator is zero when x = 0.

H ( s ) = 5s 2 − 3 H (4) = 5(4)2 − 3 = 80 − 3 = 77 9. Answer: all real numbers H 10. Answer: all real numbers 7. We exclude values of x for which x+8=0 x = –8 Answer: all real numbers except –8 2 − 3 = 10 − 3 = 7 2 20 7 ⎛2⎞ ⎛2⎞ H ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 3 = −3 = − 3 3 9 9 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 19.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. − 2 Answer: all real numbers except 4 and − 1 1 2 55 16 1 1 4 = = 1 4 1 1 2 1 1− x =2 . Answer: all real numbers except 2.1 6. so we = 2 x 2 + 4ax + 2a 2 − x − a exclude values of y for which y − 2 = 0. Answer: all real numbers > 1 18. For z − 1 to be real. For 4 x + 3 to be real. 2 Answer: all real numbers except −3 and 2 h(16) = v 1 ⎛1⎞ h⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 15. Answer: all real numbers 16. r 2 + 1 is never 0. Any real number can be used for z. thus y = 2. We exclude values of x where 2x + 7 = 0 2x = –7 7 x=− 2 G (–8) = 2 − (−8)2 = 2 − 64 = −62 G (u ) = 2 − u 2 G (u 2 ) = 2 − (u 2 )2 = 2 − u 4 7 Answer: all real numbers except − 2 20. so z − 1 = 0. 4x + 3 ≥ 0 4x ≥ –3 3 x≥− 4 Answer: all real numbers ≥ − ( 2 ) = 5( 2 ) 21. so x ≥ 3. We exclude values of x for which 2 x + x−6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. For x − 3 to be real. thus z = 1. G ( x) = 2 − x 2 11. γ (u ) = 2u 2 − u 3 4 γ (−2) = 2(−2) 2 − (−2) = 8 + 2 = 10 γ (2v) = 2(2v) 2 − (2v) = 8v 2 − 2v 13. We exclude all values of s for which h(1 − x) = 2s 2 − 7 s − 4 = 0 (s – 4)(2s + 1) = 0 1 s = 4. Any real number can be used for x. 22. Answer: all real numbers ≥ 3 17. z − 1 ≥ 0. so z ≥ 1. We exclude values of y for which γ ( x + a ) = 2( x + a) 2 − ( x + a) y 2 − 4 y + 4 = 0. x – 3 ≥ 0. F(x) = −5x F(s) = −5s F(t + 1) = −5(t + 1) = −5t − 5 F(x + 3) = −5(x + 3) = −5x − 15 12. h(v) = 14. y 2 − 4 y + 4 = ( y − 2) 2 . We exclude values of z for which z − 1 = 0. f(x) = 2x + 1 f(0) = 2(0) + 1 = 1 f(3) = 2(3) + 1 = 7 f(–4) = 2(–4) + 1 = –7 8.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = h x+h 2 − 2x h = h 2 h = 1 2 f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x a.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs 23. x−7 x2 + 2 5−7 2 =− 2 27 5 +2 3x − 7 3x − 7 k (3 x) = = 2 (3x) + 2 9 x 2 + 2 ( x + h) − 7 x+h−7 k ( x + h) = = 2 2 ( x + h) + 2 x + 2 xh + h 2 + 2 30. k ( x) = x − 3 k (4) = 4 − 3 = 1 = 1 k (3) = 3 − 3 = 0 = 0 31. H (t − 4) = [(t − 4) + 4]2 = t 2 25. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 28. f(x) = 4x – 5 H (2) = (2 + 4)2 = 62 = 36 a. k ( x + 1) − k ( x) = ( x + 1) − 3 − x − 3 = x −2 − x −3 27. = (4) 4 = 256 4 4 ⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⎛1⎞ = ⎜3 ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ 8⎟ 16 ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 32. f ( x + h) = 3( x + h) 2 − 2( x + h) − 1 = 3( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x − 2h − 1 = 3 x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 − 2 x − 2h − 1 56 . f ( x + h) = b. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 2 x + 2h) − ( x 2 + 2 x) h = 2 xh + h 2 + 2h = 2x + h + 2 h f ( x) = 3x 2 − 2 x − 1 a. H ( x) = ( x + 4) 2 g (t10 ) = (t10 )2 / 5 = t 4 H (0) = (0 + 4) 2 = 16 29. f ( x + h) = ( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) = x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 2 x + 2h f ( x) = x 4 / 3 f (0) = 04 / 3 = 0 ( ) f (64) = 644 / 3 = 3 64 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ 2 4/3 4 b. k ( x) = k (5) = b. g ( x) = x 2 / 5 ( 5 32 ) = (2)2 = 4 2 g (−64) = (−64)2 / 5 = ( 5 −64 ) 2 2 = ( 5 −32 5 2 ) = ( –2 5 2 ) = 4 5 4 f (1) = 12 + 2(1) + 1 = 1 + 2 + 1 = 4 g (32) = 322 / 5 = f (–1) = (–1) 2 + 2(–1) + 1 = 1 − 2 + 1 = 0 f ( x + h) = ( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 2 x + 2h + 1 24. f(x + h) = 4(x + h) – 5 = 4x + 4h – 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h (4 x + 4h − 5) − (4 x − 5) 4h = = =4 h h f ( x) = x 2 x+h 2 a. 26.

Section 2. 1 1 −h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) x + h − x 1 x( x + h) = = = =− h h h x ( x + h) h x ( x + h) x −( x + h ) 36. f ( x + h) = 3 − 2( x + h) + 4( x + h)2 = 3 − 2 x − 2h + 4( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) b.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b. 35. x + h + 8 − x +8 x( x + h) x +x +h h+8 − f ( x + h) − f ( x ) x = x+ h = h h x ( x + h) h ( = 2 2 x +8 x ) = x( x + h + 8) − ( x + h)( x + 8) −8h x + xh + 8 x − x − hx − 8 x − 8h 8 = =− x ( x + h) h x ( x + h) x ( x + h) h 57 x ( x + h) h . f ( x + h) − f ( x) ( x3 + 3 x 2 h + 3xh 2 + h3 ) − x3 3x 2 h + 3 xh 2 + h3 = = = 3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 h h h f ( x) = 1 x 1 x+h a. f ( x + h) = b. f ( x + h) = ( x + h)3 = x3 + 3 x 2 h + 3 xh 2 + h3 b. 33. 34. f ( x + h) = b. f ( x + h) − f ( x) 3 − 2 x − 2h + 4 x 2 + 8 xh + 4h 2 − (3 − 2 x + 4 x 2 ) = h h −2h + 8 xh + 4h 2 = h = −2 + 8 x + 4h f ( x ) = x3 a.1 f ( x + h) − f ( x) (3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 − 2 x − 2h − 1) − (3 x 2 − 2 x − 1) = h h 6 xh + 3h 2 − 2h = h = 6 x + 3h − 2 f ( x) = 3 − 2 x + 4 x 2 a. f ( x) = x +8 x ( x + h) + 8 x + h + 8 = x+h x+h a.

because corresponding to each input r there is exactly one output.000. y = –1.49) = 935. 47. so P is a function of q. This shows that for each input y 3 9y − 4 . a. f ( x) − f (2) 2 x 2 − x + 1 − (8 − 2 + 1) = x−2 x−2 2 2x − x + 1 − 7 = x−2 2x2 − x − 6 = x−2 = 2x + 3 44. the coffee house will supply q = 48(8. so x is not a function of y. for each input q there corresponds exactly one output.02t). To star in 4 films per year the actor should charge 1. then x = ±1. − x 2 . 000 600. 43.000). y . 38. πr 2 .49 per pound.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs 37.000). Charging $600. or V = f(t) = 30. Thus y is a function of x. The dependent variable is P and the independent variable is q. Thus the value of V of the business at the end of t weeks is given by V = f(t) = 25. At $8. Solving for x 49.72 pounds per week. If y = 0. 40. If. . 9 Thus y is a function of x. Solving for x gives x = ± − y . so x is not a function of y. gives x = ± 58 . Solving for x gives 9y − 4 x= . At $19.000 per film corresponds to p = 600. 46. y = 7. The actor will star in 2 films per year.52 pounds per week. 9y – 3x – 4 = 0 3x + 4 shows that for The equivalent form y = 9 3x + 4 each input x there is exactly one output. 39. 000 p= = $300.000 + 1700t. for example. y = 7 x For each input x. b.000(1 – 0. then x = ±1. 4 2 41. f ( a ) = a 2 a 3 + a 3 a 2 = a 5 + a 5 = 2a 5 f (ab) = a 2 (ab)3 + a3 (ab) 2 = a 2 a 3b 3 + a 3 a 2 b 2 = a 5 b3 + a 5 b 2 = a5b 2 (b + 1) 45. so value V of machine is V = f(t) = 30. Yes. x 2 + y 2 = 1 Solving for y we have y = ± 1 − x 2 . 3 function of y. The function can be written as q = 48p.000 – 0. The amount the coffee house supplies increases as the price increases. 200. the coffee house will supply q = 48(19. Depreciation at the end of t years is 0.39) = 402. Yes.000 = q q=2 The form y = − x 2 shows that for each input x there is exactly one output. If x = 0. Weekly excess of income over expenses is 6500 − 4800 = 1700. After t weeks the excess accumulates to 1700t. Thus x is a there is exactly one output. then y = ±1. x 2 + y = 0 48. Solving for x gives x = ± 1 − y 2 .02t(30. 200. 000 per film. there is exactly one output 7 x 2 . If.02t(30. 1. so x is not a function of y. Thus y is a function of x. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f (3 + h) − f (3) [5(3 + h) + 3] − [5(3) + 3] = h h [15 + 5h + 3] − [15 + 3] = h 18 + 5h − 18 = h 5h = h =5 42.39 per pound. for example.25q. 1. so y is not a function of x. then 7 x = ±1.

d (t ) = 3t 2 is a quadratic function.5 3 0. f(0) = 1 – 1 = 0 3 b. f(3000) = 10 2.13 b.532. 2300. 17.2 1 1 1 52.672 2 2 3 27 ⎛ 300 ⎞ ⎛3⎞ f (100) = 1 − ⎜ = 1− ⎜ ⎟ = 1− ⎟ 64 ⎝ 400 ⎠ ⎝4⎠ 37 = 64 ⎛ 300 ⎞ f (900) = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1200 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = 1− ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ 1 = 1− 64 63 = 64 53. 55. 2000 f(2900) = 12.344)0 = 1 − (1) = 2 2 2 1 1 P (2) = 1 − (1 − 0. 4 c. p(n) = 125 b. 2. 000 24 3 = 4 23 ⋅ 2 = 83 2 2500 f (2 I 0 ) = –17. 20 g(10) = 3000. 3. The leading coefficient of d (t ) = 3t 2 is 3. c.656) = 0. 3 10.723.247. 3 b. 57. a.344)1 = 1 − (0. 1.5n 0 ≤ n ≤ 5 ⎪ c(n) = ⎨ 3n 5 < n ≤ 10 . a. Domain: 10.64 ⎛ 300 ⎞ 0. c. a.75n 10 < n ⎩ Thus f (2 I 0 ) = 2 3 2 f ( I 0 ) . –581. b.97 b. a.57 2. a.40 7. a. P (1) = 1 − (1 − 0.287. 3 ⎛ 300 ⎞ ⎜ 300 + t ⎟ = 0.43 b. The premiums do not change regardless of the number of doctor visits.21 Principles in Practice 2. The degree of d (t ) = 3t 2 is 2. f (1000) = ( 3 1000 2500 1.500 = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 300 + t ⎠ b. Domain: 3000. a. 59 .5 ⎝ ⎠ 300 = 3 0.997.5 ) 4 c. The price for n pairs of socks is given by ⎧ 3. 63. 56.77 d. a.964.5 300 + t 300 = 300 3 0. g(17) = 2300 3 54.98 c. which means that doubling the intensity increases the response by a factor of 2 3 2. (2 I 0 ) 4 / 3 24 / 3 I 04 / 3 = 2500 2500 This is a constant function.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 50. 4 Let n = the number of visits and p(n) be the premium amount. 3 c. 000 = =4 2500 2500 ( ) ⎡ 3 1000(2) ⎤ 10 3 2 ⎦ = f (2000) = ⎣ 2500 2500 1.2 = 104 10. c.5 t= 300 − 300 3 0. –5. a. We solve 51. –18. ⎪2. 2900. Section 2.89 1.85 ≈ 77. ⎡ I4/3 ⎤ = 23 2 ⎢ 0 ⎥ = 23 2 f ( I0 ) ⎢⎣ 2500 ⎥⎦ c.5 + t 3 0. 12.51 b.35 78 days = –18.

a. 9. Once a book has been put in the first slot. 7 28. 10. 9 17. a. no 4. 6! = 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 = 720 11. F(10) = 1 Problems 2. all real numbers 23. b. all real numbers 24. Think of the bookshelf having 7 slots. 6! ⋅ 2! = (6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1)(2 ⋅1) = (720)(2) = 1440 3 b. (4 – 2)! = 2! = 2 · 1 = 2 13. all real numbers F(−3) = 2(−3) − 5 = −11 F(2) is not defined. b. g ( x) = 4 x –4 = 4 x4 22. a. which is a 2. yes G (−1) = 3 − (−1)2 = 2 7. no G (1) = 3 − (1)2 = 2 8. G(8) = 8 − 1 = 7 G(3) = 3 − 1 = 2 5.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. 1 27. yes F(0) = 0 ⎛ 18 ⎞ F ⎜ − ⎟ = −1 ⎝ 5⎠ x3 + 7 x − 3 1 3 7 = x + x − 1. yes 21. 18. f(3) = 4 f(–4) = 3 f(0) = 4 3. 0 b. 20. all x such that 1 ≤ x ≤ 3 25. The number of arrangements is 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 = 7! = 5040. from left to right. 7 15. a. 0! = 1 12. You have a choice of 7 books for the first slot. f(x) = 8 f(2) = 8 f(t + 8) = 8 ( ) f − 17 = 8 60 n! n ⋅ (n − 1)! = =n (n − 1)! (n − 1)! 8! 8! = 5!(8 − 5)! 5! ⋅ 3! 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = (5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1)(3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1) 8⋅7⋅6 = 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 8⋅7 = 56 . f ( x) = 3 3 3 polynomial function. F (3) = 32 − 3(3) + 1 = 1 . you have 6 choices for which book to put in the second slot. 1 16. g ( x) = x − 3 g (10) = 10 − 3 = 7 = 7 g (3) = 3 – 3 = 0 = 0 g (–3) = –3 − 3 = −6 = 6 19. etc.2 ( ) F − 3 = −1 1. 7 14. which is a rational function. yes 6. 26.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. g ( x) = ( x + 3) 2 can be written as g ( x) = a(l ( x)) = (a D l )( x) where a( x) = x 2 and l(x) = x + 3. and 2w – 1 = the height of the prism. 31. 30.5n 0 ≤ n < 12 c ( n) = ⎨ 12 ≤ n ⎩8.94 34.69 2. 4985. 35. or f(t) = P(1 + rt). –62. while a(x) is the area of a square with side of length x. Let w = the width of the prism. a. 1 2!(1!) ( 14 ) ( 34 ) 5! 5 5!(0!) 39. The cost for buying n tickets is ⎧ 9.98 c. 5!(1) 19. and M have been chosen. Then l(x) represents the length of the sides of the square. a. ( 14 ) ( 43 ) 742.3 29. Similarly. P (5) = 37. there are 4 choices for who will be member A.28 C = 850 + 3q 3! 1 11 5 11 16 (30) + = + = =4 24 4 4 4 4 1 11 6 11 17 (36) + = + = f (36) = 24 4 4 4 4 4 175 175 33 f (39) = (39) − = 52 − = 3 4 4 4 f (30) = Problems 2. Once members A and G have been chosen. 1182.74 40. Thus. For each choice of member A. G. For a committee of four. there are 3 choices for member G. −20.3 1. c(i) = 4. a committee of five can label itself with five labels in 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 1 = 5! = 120 ways.5 This is a constant function. 9. b.52 Principles in Practice 2. then w + 3 = the length of the prism. a. The customer’s price is (c D s )( x) = c( s ( x)) = c( x + 3) = 2( x + 3) = 2x + 6 2. P (2) = 1218. g(x) = x + 5 1 1024 a. b. f(x) = x + 3.12 57. so principal and interest amount to f(t) = P + Prt.75n 2 c. there are two choices for member M. The interest is Prt. a. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = length · width · height.27 32. V ( w) = ( w + 3)( w)(2w − 1) = 2w3 + 5w2 − 3w This is a cubic function. Since f(t) = at + b where a (= Pr) and b (= P) are constants.60 c. = 0 = 6 ( 161 )( 43 ) = 2(1) c.3 1.15 b. 9 64 1 (1) ( 1024 ) = 5! 252. there are 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 1 = 4! = 24 ways to label the members. –14. 1600 = 850 + 3q 750 = 3q q = 250 36.50 b. all T such that 30 ≤ T ≤ 39 ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = ( x + 3) + ( x + 5) = 2x + 8 b.21 b. then one choice for member S once members A. 33. 38. f is a linear function of t. b. a. 41. (f + g)(0) = 2(0) + 8 = 8 61 . a. Let i = the passenger’s income and c(i) = the cost for the ticket.

= ( x 2 − x) 2 + 1 2 = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 1 h. g. f. ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g ( x + 3) = ( x + 3) + 5 = x+8 f ( x) = x 2 + 1. c. ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g ( x 2 + 1) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − ( x 2 + 1) = x4 + x2 i. ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f ( x 2 − x) (f – g)(4) = (4) – 6 = –2 ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = 2 x(6 + x) = 12 x + 2 x e. g(x) = 6 + x a. = 2x2 − x + 1 b. f f ( x) 2x = ( x) = g g ( x) 6 + x f. ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g (2 x) = 6 + 2 x i. f 2(2) 4 1 (2) = = = g 6+2 8 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) = (2 x) − (6 + x ) = x−6 d. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = ( x 2 + 1) + ( x 2 − x ) ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) + 3 = x+8 h. j. g. 62 ( g D f )(−3) = (−3) 4 + (−3)2 = 90 . ( g D f )(2) = 6 + 2(2) = 6 + 4 = 10 ( f D g )(3) = 3 + 8 = 11 i. ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) = ( x 2 + 1) − ( x 2 − x) = x +1 2. ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f (6 + x) = 2(6 + x) = 12 + 2 x 2 3. f(x) = 2x.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs c. b. c. ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − x) ( g D f )(3) = 3 + 8 = 11 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − x ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = (2 x) + (6 + x) = 3x + 6 e. f f ( x) x 2 + 1 ( x) = = g g ( x) x 2 − x f. − 12 + 1 f ⎛ 1⎞ 5 − = = 2 g ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 3 − 12 − − 12 g. ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) = ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) = −2 d. ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = ( x + 3)( x + 5) ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis = x 2 + 8 x + 15 e. 1 1 ⎛ 1⎞ ( f − g) ⎜ − ⎟ = − +1 = 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ d. g ( x) = x 2 − x a. ( fg )(–2) = (−2) + 8(−2) + 15 = 3 f f ( x) x + 3 ( x) = = g g ( x) x + 5 h.

f(g(2)) = f(4 – 4) = f(0) = 0 + 6 = 6 g(f(2)) = g(12 + 6) = g(18) = 4 – 36 = –32 v+2 ) 1 ( v+2 ) 2 +1 1 v + 2 +1 1 = v+3 ( g D f )(v) = g ( f (v)) ⎛ 1 ⎞ = g⎜ ⎟ ⎝ v2 + 1 ⎠ 1 = +2 2 v +1 = 6. ( F D G )(t ) = F (G (t )) ⎛ 2 ⎞ = F⎜ ⎟ ⎝ t −1 ⎠ f ( x) = x 2 + 1. g ( x) = 5 a. f f ( x) x 2 + 1 ( x) = = g g ( x) 5 =G g. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 2 = ( x 2 + 1) + 5 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ + 7⎜ t –1 ⎟ +1 ⎝ t –1⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 14 = + +1 (t − 1) 2 t − 1 (G D F )(t ) = G ( F (t )) = x2 + 6 2 b.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = ( x 2 + 1)(5) 8. ( f D g )(v) = f ( g (v)) = f = 5. ( F D G )(t ) = F (G (t )) 2 = 5x + 5 = F (3t 2 + 4t + 2) = 3t 2 + 4t + 2 (G D F )(t ) = G ( F (t )) e. ( f D g )( p) = f ( g ( p )) ⎛ p–2⎞ = f⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 4 = p –2 3 = ( 12 p–2 4 ⎛ 4 ⎞ p – 2 4 – 2p ( g D f )( p) = g ( f ( p )) = g ⎜ ⎟ = = 3 3p ⎝ p⎠ = = 63 1 + 2(v 2 + 1) v2 + 1 2v 2 + 3 v2 + 1 . Section 2. ( fg )(7) = 5(7 2 ) + 5 = 245 + 5 = 250 f. 003) = 26 i. 58 ⎛2⎞ ⎛2⎞ ( f + g) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ + 6 = 3 3 9 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = G (t 2 + 7t + 1) 2 = 2 (t + 7t + 1) –1 2 = 2 t + 7t ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) = ( x 2 + 1) – 5 = x2 – 4 d. c.3 7. ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f (5) = 52 + 1 = 26 = 3t + 4 t + 2 h. ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g ( x 2 + 1) = 5 ( t) 2 = 3( t ) + 4 ( t ) + 2 9. ( f D g )(12.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 19. 21.4 b.29 E 3.5x – 4500.45(6202 + 0. Then h( x) = 4 g ( x) = f ( g ( x)). Then h( x) = x 2 – 2 = g ( x) = f ( g ( x)) 20. a. F −1 ( x) = 2 x + 14 v( x) = f (l ( x)) = ( f D l )( x) where f ( x) = x3 and l(x) = 4x – 2. 0. Let g ( x) = and f ( x) = 4 x .45(7202 + 0.85 23.05 f −1 ( x) = x 7 − 3 3 2. ( f D f )( x) = f ( f ( x)) = f ( x 2 + 2 x − 1) = ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)2 + 2( x 2 + 2 x − 1) − 1 = x 4 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 2 11. 14. Then h( x) = [ g ( x)]3 – [ g ( x)]2 + 11 = f ( g ( x)) b. c.53 This represents status based on years of education. 24.45 b. a. Then x 1 1 h( x ) = = = f ( g ( x)) 2 g ( x) x –2 = f (7202 + 0. a. a.29 E 3. ( f D g )( E ) = f ( g ( E )) 1 13.75x – (4500 + 4. Problems 2. 14. Let g(x) = 11x and f(x) = x − 7. Then h(x) = g(x) − 7 = f(g(x)) = 10(40m − m2 ) = 400m − 10m2 This represents the total revenue received when the total output of m employees is sold.68 ) 2 = 0. so r(x) = 9. 5.25x) = 5. 1169. Profit = revenue – expenses. Let g ( x) = 9 x3 – 5 x and f ( x) = x3 – x 2 + 11.64 x2 − 1 15.29 = f ( g ( x)).47 b. (r – e)(x) = 9. 4. 18.25x. 0. Let g(x) = 3x − 5 and f ( x) = h( x ) = 17.29 E 3. The expenses are e(x) = 4500 + 4. 12.75 per pound of coffee sold.53 = 0. Then l(x) represents the length of the sides of the cube. r ( A) = 64 x 5 + 4 4 f −1 ( x) = A π .68 – 1000)0. g −1 ( x) = x 1 − 2 2 1. . 16. v( x) = (4 x – 2)3 can be written as 3.68 )0.75x. ( g D f )(m) = g ( f (m)) ⎛ 40m – m2 ⎞ = g⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40m – m 2 ⎞ = 40 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 10.13 b. x+3 22. Then 194. a. 18. 1. 2 − (3x − 5) (3x − 5) 2 + 2 2− x x2 + 2 −0.61 The revenue is $9. Let g(x) = x 2 – 2 and f ( x) = x . while f(x) is the volume of a cube with sides of length x. Let g ( x) = x – 2 and f ( x) = .

5 days Rachel will deplete her savings. p > 0.5 10. we 4 4 find f −1 (23). after 12 months and approximately 2. 8. From p = 5 . so q as a 1. f −1 (23) = 23 5 + 4 4 The solution is x = 23 5 + . so 5 x1 = 5 x2 and thus x1 = x2 . and after two months y = 7250 – (2 · 600) = $6050. y = 7250 – 600x 0 = 7250 – 600x 600x = 7250 1 x = 12 12 ⎛ 1 ⎞ The x-intercept is ⎜12 . y = 7250 – 600x y = 7250 – 600(0) y = 7250 The y-intercept is (0. The inverse of V (r ) = 4 3 3V πr is r (V ) = 3 . p is 48 also greater than 0. g ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎝ 5⎠ ⎛ 13 ⎞ g ⎜ − ⎟ = 1. and hence x1 = x2 . so 3 4π the solution is r (100) = 3 p 1. 000 1. ⎝ 5⎠ 9. 000 = 3V 4π 7. 200. Therefore. 000 . we get q = 48p. Rachel has $7250 in her account. and thus 12 (5 x1 + 12)2 = (5 x2 + 12)2 only if 5 x1 + 12 = 5 x2 + 12. g ( x) = (5 x + 12) 2 is not one-to-one.000 p = 1. we set y = 0 and solve for x. y = 7250 – (1 · 600) = $6650. F ( x) = x − 9 is not one-to-one. 0 ⎟ . 200. q ⎛ q ⎞ q( p (q )) = q ⎜ ⎟ = 48 ⋅ =q 48 ⎝ 48 ⎠ 48 p p(q ( p )) = p (48 p ) = =p 48 Thus. 14. To identify the x-intercept. 000 ⋅ =p Similarly. 200. 000 ⎞ p(q( p )) = p ⎜ ⎟ p ⎝ ⎠ 1. 200. F ( x1 ) = F ( x2 ) does not imply x1 = x2 . because g ( x1 ) = g ( x2 ) does not imply x1 = x2 . so the functions are inverses. if we let x = the number of months during which Rachel spends from this account. for if f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) then 5 x1 + 12 = 5 x2 + 12.5 ⎛ 1. so to find the solution. 200. p > 0. h( x) = (5 x + 12)2 . 200. q(p(q)) = q. function of p is q = q ( p) = p 13. Then. From p = 65 . before any months have gone by. f(x) = 5x + 12 is one-to-one. because 1. after one month. so q as a function of p is q = q(p) = 48p. 1. we get q = . 000 3(100) . p is also greater than 0. ⎝ 12 ⎠ Therefore. we set x = 0 and solve for y. in general. Since q > 0. F(8) = F(10) = 1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 6. Thus. For example. 200. 000 . p(q) and q(p) are inverses. 4π 1. 12 If h( x1 ) = h( x2 ) then (5 x1 + 12)2 = (5 x2 + 12)2 . y = 7250 – 600x. Since x ≥ − 5 we have 5x + 12 ≥ 0. r (V ) = 3 Section 2. For ⎛ 11 ⎞ example. 4 4 12. Let y = the amount of money in the account. Principles in Practice 2. The inverse of f ( x) = (4 x − 5) 2 for x ≥ f −1 ( x ) = 5 is 4 x 5 + . for x ≥ − q . 7250). To identify the y-intercept. is one-to-one.200. 11. q p Since q > 0.

Then.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Problems 2. if 0 ≤ x ≤ 70 y=⎨ ⎩0. f(0) = 0.53(70) + 0. x therms 66 . there is no x-intercept. 0 1 2 2.53x. 0) x 10 Q.3 15. –3) (3. if x > 70 60 (8. the distance from the rental shop at any time x can be represented by the function y = 30 – 30 – 12 x .9 26.3 y Cost (dollars) y b. f(–2) = 0 Range: all real numbers d. Range: all y such that 0 ≤ y ≤ 3 20 (0. 0 10 30 50 70 80 90 100 x 0 5. The monthly cost of x therms of gas is ⎧0. The formula relating distance. –6) 4. f(x) = 0 for x = 0. y=⎨ ⎩0. 1) x 10 f(0) = 1. II 3. 12x = the distance traveled. 0) 3. f(x) = 0 for x = –2. 5. Q.3) Range: all nonnegative real numbers d. Domain: all real numbers x 40 10 (0.9 59. –2 2 Q. 59. 7) Q. So a real zero is –2. the equation y = 24. 6. 0) 1 2 3 4 5 4. Since the cost does not change. Similarly.5 3 4 5 y 0 12 24 30 24 12 0 ( 2. f(x) = 0 for x = 2. III y 36 y (2. I (0. f(0) = 0.5 = 30 miles and then turns around and bikes the same distance back to the rental shop. x hours f(0) = 2. f(x) = 0 for x = 0. 30) Q. time.1) c. The graph of y = 24. Let x = the time spent biking (in hours). 0) 20 40 60 80 100 d.53x. f(2) = 1. 37.1 44.5. a. a. Since the line is parallel to the x-axis. where d is the distance. I (1. Let y = the cost to the customer and let x = the number of rides he or she takes. f(4) = 2 b. Miles (2. f(–1) = 1 b.95 represents this situation. Domain: all x such that 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 (70.74 x − 14. IV (–4. (5.5 37. f(4) = 3. Therefore. Range: all y ≥ 2 d. So a real zero is 2. and speed is d = rt. 24.5 2. f(2) = 2. f(1) = 1.5 51.7. if x >70 or if 0 ≤ x ≤ 70 ⎧0. Domain: all real numbers c. r is the speed. we can represent the distance from the turn-around point at any time x as 30 – 12x .95). and t is the time. So a real zero is 0. Domain: all x ≥ 0 c. f(2) = 0 b.74( x – 70). So a real zero is 0.95 is a horizontal line whose y-intercept is (0. Brett bikes 12 · 2. 12 ( – 1 . x 10 (100. 0) 24 (0. a. a. f(3) = 3. regardless of the number of rides taken. 5) c. 1.

x = 3 . 2) (–2. Not one-to-one. Because x ≠ 0 . y = 2 x2 If y = 0. Intercept: (0. –5) ⎝3 ⎠ y is a function of x. 12 ) (1. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers 10 12. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . y = 3x – 5 If y = 0. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers 5 10. Intercepts: (–1. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers 5 11. y = 3. 2) (2. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 y 1 x –1 y 5 5 x 5 9. (0. 2 ⎛3 ⎞ If x = 0. If x = 0. One-to-one. If x = 0. then y = 0. which has no solution. x = 0. One-to-one. 0). Intercept: (0. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers y y x 5 3 3 2 x 5 8. (0. then 0 = . then y = 0. Domain: all real numbers except 0 Range: all real numbers > 0 y x –5 5 3 2 5 y 10 (–1. then y = –5. One-to-one. One-to-one. Intercepts: ⎜ . 3 ⎛5 ⎞ If x = 0. then 0 = 3 – 2x. (0. Intercepts: ⎜ .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. then x = 0. then x = –1. y = x + 1 If y = 0. y = x 4 If y = 0. then. 3) ⎝2 ⎠ y is a function of x. 12 ) x 5 67 . 1) y is a function of x. y = 3 – 2x If y = 0. y = 2x If y = 0. Not one-to-one. If x = 0. then 0 = x 4 . x2 Thus there is no x-intercept. 0) y is a function of x. 0) y is a function of x. x = 5 . then 0 = 3x – 5. then y = 1.5 7.

Intercepts: every point on y-axis y is not a function of x. x = 1. then 0 = −|y|. –16) y is a function of x. y = 4 x 2 – 16 If y = 0. One-to-one. y = 2. x 2 = y 2 x 2 –2 5 If y = 0. 0 = 4( x + 2)( x − 2) . 2) Note that y = 2 – 2x. 14. y = 0 . x = −|y| If y = 0. then 0 = x3 . then y – 2 = 0.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 16. –16 5 15. 0). x = ±2. then x 2 = 0. Intercept: (0. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers 5 y y x 5 y 19. 5 y y 10 x 5 17. If x = 0. then y = 0. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers x 5 68 . then x = 0. then y can be any real number. there is no y-intercept. then 0 = 4 x 2 – 16 = 4( x 2 − 4) . 0). If x = 0. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ –16 20 x 10 ñ 10 5 x 5 y 18. 0). One-to-one. x = 0 If y = 0. then y = –16. y is a function of x. Intercepts: (±2. If x = 0. If x = 0. 2x + y – 2 = 0 If y = 0. 0) y is not a function of x. Intercepts: (1. If x = 0. Intercept: (0. If x = 0. y = 0. Not one-to-one. then 0 = y 2 . y is a function of x. then 2x – 2 = 0. x = −9 If y = 0 then x = −9. Intercept: (0. 0). 13. Because x cannot be 0. (0. x = 0. (0. x = 0 . Intercept: (−9. then x = 0. y is not a function of x. y = x3 If y = 0. 0) y is not a function of x.

y = h(x) = 3 Because y cannot be 0. then y = 1. Intercepts: (2. then y = 3.1) Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ –3 quadratic formula. 0). If y = 0. f ( x) = 5 – 2 x 2 . then 0 = x 2 – 4 x + 1 . there is no s-intercept. –17) Domain: all real numbers Range: –17 s 20 4 y t –2 2 5 x 20 –20 –20 22. 0). then g(s) = –17. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers 5 23. (0. 0). If s = 0. Intercepts: (1. there is no x-intercept. then s = 4. If 2 x = 0. One-to-one. x = 69 . y is a function of x. 1) Note that y = 1 – x. (–2. then 0 = 4 – t 2 0 = (2 + t)(2 – t) t = ±2. (0. then f(x) = 5.5 y ⎛ 10 ⎞ Intercepts: ⎜ ± . Intercept: (0. 3) Domain: all real numbers Range: 3 y 1 x 1 x 5 5 y 5 3 x 5 21. Intercept: (0. and by the 4 ± 12 = 2 ± 3 . 0). (0. then y = 1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 5 Section 2. If x = 0. x=± =± 2 2 If x = 0. If f(x) = 0. Intercepts: (2 ± 3. If x = 0. If t = 0. then x = 1. s = f (t ) = 4 – t 2 If s = 0. g(s) = –17 Because g(s) cannot be 0. (0.5) ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≤ 5 2 x 1 5 5 f(x) – √10 √10 2 2 20. 4) Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≤ 4 5 24. x + y = 1 If y = 0. 0 ⎟ . then 0 = 5 – 2x 2 25. y = h( x) = x 2 – 4 x + 1 2 2x = 5 5 x2 = 2 5 10 .

then 0 = – t 5 5 F(r) 28. then f ( x) = –1 = 1 . (0. so q = −1. –8). Intercepts: (−1. 2 If x = 0. 2 x –1 = 0. then 0 = 2 x –1 . so no s-intercept exists. y = f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x – 8 10 p 3 x 10 f (t ) = – t 3 If f(t) = 0. s = f (t ) = t 2 − 9 If y = 0. Intercepts: (−3.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y 5 2– 1 3 1 x (2. and |t| ≥ 3. we know t ≠ 0. F (r ) = – f(t) 1 r 1 . 0). then 0 = t 2 − 9. so t 2 ≥ 9. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ –9 –4 q –1 26. Because |t| ≥ 3. f ( x) = 2 x –1 If f(x) = 0. p = h(q) = 1 + 2q + q 2 r 2 2 5 If p = 0. r Because r ≠ 0. If x = 0. (0. Intercepts: (–4. 0). t = 0 . Domain: all real numbers ≠ 0 Range: all real numbers ≠ 0 If F(r) = 0. then f(t) = 0. then 0 = – t 3 . or t = ±3. If q = 0 then p = 1. –9) –3 27. – 3) 2+ 3 t 2 − 9 to be a real number. (1 + q) = 0. so 1 . (2. so x = –4. 0) Domain: all real numbers t ≤ −3 and ≥ 3 Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 y x 10 10 y –8 (1. If t = 0. which has no solution. 5 29. x= 70 . 0). 0). then 1 + 2q + q = 0. Intercept: none. If s = 0. then 0 = x 2 + 2 x – 8 0 = (x + 4)(x – 2). then y = –8. Intercept: (0. Note that for t 2 − 9 ≥ 0. (3. 0 = t 2 − 9. 2. 0) Domain: all real numbers Range: all real number 5 30. 1) Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 31. there is no vertical-axis intercept.

0). Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 10 v x 10 4 –1 2 35. Domain: all real numbers ≥ 0 Range: all real numbers 1 ≤ c < 8 3 3 10 8 u 10 c p 6 33. (0. – ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Domain: all real numbers except 4 Range: all real numbers except 0 ⎛1 ⎞ Intercepts: ⎜ . (0. there is no vertical-axis intercept. No intercepts Domain: all nonzero real numbers Range: all positive real numbers 10 14 ␾(x) F(t) x 10 t 10 37. then v = –3 = 3 . y = f ( x) = f(x) 1 x 1 2 5 10 32. Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 10 9 g(x) x 3 71 5 . v = H (u ) = u – 3 y If v = 0. then 0 = u – 3 . which has no solution. F (t ) = 10 16 t2 If F(t) = 0. then y = – .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. Domain: all real numbers ≥ –1 Range: all real numbers ≤ 11 16 . which has no x ≠ 4.5 2 x–4 Note that the denominator is 0 when x = 4. Intercepts: (3. Thus 2 . 0 ⎟ . u – 3 = 0. If u = 0. so u = 3. 3). then 0 = x–4 1 solution. If x = 0. 2 1 ⎛ ⎞ Intercept: ⎜ 0. t2 Because t ≠ 0. then 0 = 36. If y = 0.1) ⎝2 ⎠ Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 5 34.

p 50 40. (b).M.M. quantity supplied increases. ⎪8.M. ⎪18.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y 38. y = 2400 − 275x y = 2400 − 275(0) y = 2400 The y-intercept is (0. and (d). p is a function of q. To determine the y-intercept. From the horizontal line test. if 4:30 P. we set x = 0 and solve for y. Therefore. if 2:30 P. ⎪ y = ⎨13.M. As price decreases. if 10:30 A. the amount Tara owes is represented by the equation y = 2400 − 275x. From the vertical-line test. if 6:00 P. 0 ⎟ . 1000 y 300 42. 41. To determine the x-intercept.M. Let y = the amount that is owed and let x = the number of monthly payments made. if 8:00 P.39 48. ≤ x < 4 : 30 P. the graphs which represent one-to-one functions of x are (c) and (d). x is ⎧9. we set y = 0 and solve for x. The cost of an item as a function of the time of day. As price increases.M. ≤ x < 8 : 00 P.50. 39. Therefore. ≤ x ≤ 10:00 P. Tara will ⎝ 11 ⎠ have paid off her debt after 9 months. Tara owes $2400.M. before any payments are made. the graphs that represent functions of x are (a).M.M.57 72 x 12 . −0. 14 x 21 y 4 4 5 47.M. P. Domain: all positive real numbers Range: all real numbers > 1 20 f(x) Cost (dollars) 10 4 1 16 12 8 4 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 A. ⎩ 7 46.M. x 3 5 10 x 43. p is a function of q. p 25 5 q 25 5 45. 0. y = 2400 − 275 x 0 = 2400 − 275 x 275 x = 2400 8 x=8 11 ⎛ 8 ⎞ The x-intercept is ⎜ 8 . ≤ x < 6 : 00 P. 10 q 30 210 44. ⎪13. Then. 0. quantity increases. ≤ x < 2 : 30 P.M. 2400).

49. 4 –5 1 –1 a.62.29).5 range: (– ∞.60 b. intercepts: (0. No real zeros 53. maximum value of f(x): 3. range: [18.21 b. 4) 51. 5 15 –5 73 . (0. –1.61. 50.68.03.52.94 57. 5 c. 1.02. –0.03 35 6 2 3 3 a.65 b. b. 34. ∞) 49. a.60 real zeros: −4. minimum value of f(x): 18.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. 0 54. 0. minimum value of f(x): –1. c.70. 0. 4. minimum value of f(x): –10. 0. 0. (−1. –0. no intercept 10 5 –5 maximum value of f(x): 34.25 –5 25 55. minimum value of f(x): 4 58. b.86 5 –5 56. range: (−∞. −1. range: (−∞.73. maximum value of f(x): 19.73. maximum value of f(x): 28 b. –15 a. 52. 28] 4 1 c.12 35 59. a. 0) –2 a.94 61. intercepts: (–1. –0. 1. 5 –5 5 60. 0).68 maximum value of f(x): 5 b.04 a.21] d. ∞) real zero: −1.

and then y = 02 – 4 = –4 .Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis line y = x: (a. (0. so (b. a) is not on the graph. line y = x: (a. a) on graph. 2b 2 + a 2b 4 = 8 − a will not necessarily be true. which has 9 no real root. if x = 0. 0). 16 x 2 − 9 y 2 = 25 y-axis: y = (– x)2 – 4 = x 2 – 4 origin: – y = (– x)2 – 4 Intercepts: If y = 0. 0). then −9 y 2 = 25. a) is not on the graph. 16 2(– x) 2 + (– y )2 (– x) 4 = 8 – (– y ) then 16b 2 − 9a 2 = 25 and 1 1 a 2 = (16b 2 − 25) ≠ (9b 2 + 25) 9 16 2 x2 + y2 x4 = 8 + y 74 . a) is not on the graph. Answer: (±2. there is also symmetry about the origin. if x = 0. (b. a) is not 5 on the graph. Testing for symmetry gives: 3. x 2 = 4.6 2a 2 + b 2 a 4 = 8 − b. (0. and 1 a 2 = (9b 2 + 25). then x-axis: 25 . symmetry about origin x = – y3 – x = (– y )3 origin: 2. 0). then x = y3 2 0 = x – 4 = ( x + 2)( x – 2) . b) on graph. then 5x = 0. then b = 5a. if x = 0. then 2 x 2 + (– y ) 2 x 4 = 8 – (– y ) 2 x2 + y2 x4 = 8 + y 16a 2 − 9b 2 = 25. Testing for symmetry gives: y-axis: 25 . 16 2(– x) 2 + y 2 (– x)4 = 8 – y 2 x2 + y2 x4 = 8 − y origin: 16 x 2 − 9(− y ) 2 = 25 16 x 2 − 9 y 2 = 25 2 x 2 = 8. then 16 x 2 = 25. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: x = (– y )3 = – y 3 y-axis: – x = y3 Answer: (0. then a = b3 . then 0 = y3 . but 1.and y-axes. 0). y = f ( x) = x 2 – 4 Intercepts: If y = 0. y = 5x Intercepts: If y = 0. 8). b) on graph. so (b. Answer: (0. b) on graph. and 1 a = b ≠ 5b for all b. or x = 0. so (b. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: –y = 5x y = –5x y-axis: y = 5(–x) = –5x origin: –y = 5(–x) y = 5x line y = x: (a. 2 x + y x = 8 – y Intercepts: If y = 0. –4). or x = ±2. b) on graph. x = y 3 Intercepts: If y = 0. so y = 0. then b = a 2 − 4. then Problems 2. so y = 8. and if x = 0. if x = 0. symmetry about y-axis 2 x-axis: 2 4 y-axis: 16(− x) 2 − 9 y 2 = 25 16 x 2 − 9 y 2 = 25 origin: Since the graph has symmetry about x. x 2 = 5 so x = ± . b) on graph. line y = x: (a. or x = ±2. Testing for symmetry gives: b = 3 a ≠ a3 for all a. Answer: (±2. so (b. then x = 0. 4 y = – x2 + 4 line y = x: (a. symmetry about y-axis 4. then 0 = 8 – y. then y = 5 · 0 = 0. y 2 = − 2 a = ± b + 4 ≠ b − 4 for all b. symmetry about origin x-axis: – y = x2 – 4 y = – x2 + 4 5.

so x = –21. Testing for symmetry gives: 6. if x = 0. then x = –2. then x + 21 = 0. x 2 – 25 = 0. 0). Answer: (0. b) on graph. b) on graph. −2) is not necessarily on the graph. a) is not on the graph. then b = 2a − 2 and b+2 ≠ 2b − 2 for all b. then a = −b −4 and b = (−a )−1/ 4 ≠ −a −4 for all a. 9. a) = (b. 2 x = 2. because x ≠ 0. then a = −2. b) on graph. a) = (57.6 for all b. (y + 7)(y – 3) = 0. b) on graph. then 0 = – y4 no solution. then b = a 2 − 25 or y = – 2x + 2 b 2 = a 2 − 25 and y = 2(− x) – 2 a 2 = b 2 + 25 ≠ b 2 − 25 for all b. there is no 1 . so 2 (b. if x = 0. so (b. so (b. then 2 x = 2. but b can be any value. Answer: no intercepts. so x = ±1. then b = 57. 0 ⎟ . y = 57 Intercepts: Because y ≠ 0. Answer: (±1. 0). 57). x = 1. y = x 2 – 25 Intercepts: If y = 0. so (b. b) on graph. 0). symmetry about y-axis y = 2x – 2 origin: – x = – y –4 x = y –4 7. symmetry about y–axis x-axis: x = – y –4 y-axis: origin: – x = –(– y ) –4 x = y –4 line y = x: (a. (0. Testing for symmetry gives: – y = 2x – 2 x-axis: origin: – y = (– x)2 – 25 y = – x 2 – 25 . then y = –2. so x = ±5. x 2 = 25. symmetry about x-axis. then x 2 – 25 = 0. b) are not always both on the graph. y = 2 x – 2 y = (– x)2 – 25 y = x 2 – 25 Intercepts: If y = 0. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: x = –2 y-axis: –x = –2 x=2 origin: –x = –2 x=2 line y = x: (a. ⎛ 5 ⎞ Answer: ⎜ ± . there is no x-intercept. symmetry about y-axis a=± if x = 0. a) is not on the graph. there is no y-intercept.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. if x = 0. a) and (a. ⎝ 4 ⎠ y-axis. which has x-intercept. line y = x: (a. line y = x: (a. Answer: (±5. –2). symmetry about x-axis y-axis: x = –(– y ) –4 – y = 2(– x) – 2 y = – 2x + 2 11. Answer: (–2. if x = 0. so (b. then y = –25 . which has no real root. 75 . Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: – y = x 2 – 25 y = – x 2 – 25 y-axis: 8. a) is not on the graph. but a can be any value. a) is not necessarily on the graph. symmetry about x-axis 10. x = –2 Intercepts: If y = 0. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: (–y) = 57 y = –57 y-axis: y = 57 origin: (–y) = 57 y = –57 line y = x: (a. x = – y –4 Intercepts: Because y ≠ 0. then –4 y – y 2 + 21 = 0. so y = –7 or y = 3. and origin. then y = 57. so (b. x – 4 y – y 2 + 21 = 0 Intercepts: If y = 0. y 2 + 4 y – 21 = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: Because f is not the zero function. so x = 0. but b = a 2 + 4a − 21 will not necessarily be true. no symmetry a= Intercepts: If y = 0. Answer: (1. Answer: (0. x 2 + xy + y 2 = 0 if x = 0. but x 2 + xy + y 2 = 0 b 2 + ab + a3 = 0 will not necessarily be true. there is no x-axis symmetry 15. a) is not on the graph. a) is on the graph. 0). so (b. a) is not on the graph. 0). then 76 3 . b) on graph. b) on graph. then y = . so (b. symmetry about origin. no symmetry. then x 2 – xy + y 2 = 0 (– x) 2 + (– x)(– y ) + (– y ) 2 = 0 origin: a 2 + ab + b3 = 0. 1. then y 3 = 0. (0. Testing for symmetry gives: 3 x − xy − y = 0 2 y-axis: (− x) + (− x) y + y 3 = 0 x 2 + x(– y ) + (– y ) 2 = 0 x-axis: x 2 − xy + y 3 = 0 x 2 – xy + y 2 = 0 (− x) 2 + (− x)(− y ) + (− y )3 = 0 2 (− x)2 + 1 is not necessarily b2 + 1 true. x 2 + xy + y3 = 0 2 (− x)3 − 2(− x) 2 + (− x) x2 + 1 line y = x: (a. (0. x-axis: x 2 + x(− y ) + (− y )3 = 0 if x = 0. then x 2 = 0. which has x +8 3 no solution.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: y= y-axis: 2 x – 4(– y ) – (– y ) + 21 = 0 2 x + 4 y – y + 21 = 0 y-axis: y= (– x) – 4 y – y 2 + 21 = 0 – x – 4 y – y 2 + 21 = 0 origin: − x3 − 2 x 2 − x x2 + 1 (– x) – 4(– y ) – (– y ) 2 + 21 = 0 y= a = b 2 + 4b − 21. so y = 0. a) is not on the graph. (0. 3). b) on graph. Answer: (0. then y = 0. so y = 0. 13. x3 + 2 x 2 + x b3 − 2b 2 + b 14. then a 3 − 2a 2 + a b= . if x = 0. so x = 0. 8 Testing for symmetry gives: Intercepts: If y = 0. 0). so (b. but a2 + 1 a − 4b − b 2 + 21 = 0 and (– x)2 + (– x) y + y 2 = 0 y-axis: 3 x + xy − y = 0 line y = x: (a. 0). y = 3 3 x +8 3 = 0 . then x3 − 2 x 2 + x x( x − 1) 2 = = 0. x2 + 1 x2 + 1 if x = 0. b) on graph. symmetry about y = x x3 − 2 x 2 + x x2 + 1 Intercepts: If y = 0. Answer: (–21. 0). then origin: (− x)3 − 2(− x) 2 + (− x) line y = x: (a. then a 2 + ab + b 2 = 0 and b 2 + ba + a 2 = 0. then y 2 = 0. –7). y = f ( x) = (− x) 2 + 1 −y = origin: – x + 4 y – y 2 + 21 = 0 line y = x: (a. so (b. then x 2 = 0. no symmetry of the given types 12. so x = 0. Testing for symmetry gives: Intercepts: If y = 0.

a) is not on the graph. then b = x3 + 8 3 a4 b4 . but a + b = will not b a necessarily be true. then y = . if x = 0. Answer: no intercepts. symmetry about origin x +8 3 3 3 17. a) is not on the graph. so y = ±3. ⎟ .6 origin: − x = ( − y ) 4 + (− y ) 2 + 1 x = − y4 − y2 − 1 x4 x+ y 77 . so x = 3. b) on graph. ±3). ⎛ 3⎞ Answer: ⎜0. which has no x 0 solution. x − 1 = y 4 + y 2 or x = y 4 + y 2 + 1 Intercepts: If y = 0. a) is not on the graph. b) on graph. and a+b a+b = 3 (– x)3 + 8 y= origin: Section 2. so (b. y = a4 . 0). if x = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x-axis: –y = y=– y-axis: y= 3 line y = x: (a. (0. then y 4 + y 2 = −1. which has no y solution. symmetry about x-axis 5 4 x = 0 . b) on graph. Testing for symmetry gives: 3 3 –x + 8 3 3x + y 2 = 9 x3 – 8 3 a3 + 8 −3 x + y 2 = 9 and −3 x + y 2 = 9 line y = x: (a. then 3x = 9. Answer: (3. so no y-intercept Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: x − 1 = (– y )4 + (− y )2 x −1 = y4 + y2 y-axis: − x = y4 + y2 + 1 x = − y4 − y2 −1 (– x) 4 –y = (– x) + (– y ) y= 5 –3 x4 y= –x + y origin: y 3 Intercepts: If y = 0. then y-axis: 3(− x) + (− y ) 2 = 9 origin: x4 x+ y x4 –x + y 3(− x) + y 2 = 9 y-axis: 3 3 a = 3 −8 ≠ for all b. then 3a + b 2 = 9 and 1 1 a = (9 − b 2 ). Testing for symmetry gives: x4 x-axis: –y = x + (– y ) y= (– x )4 (– x) + y x 3 18. no symmetry of the given types ⎝ 8⎠ y= 3x + (− y )2 = 9 x-axis: line y = x: (a. so 3 b b +8 (b. 3x + y 2 = 9 Intercepts: If y = 0. –x + 8 3 –y = (– x )3 + 8 –y = y= if x = 0. but b = (9 − a 2 ) will 3 3 not necessarily be true. then b = 16. then x = 1. so (b. then y 2 = 9.

a) is not on the graph. Testing for symmetry gives: x – –y = 0 x-axis: 3 y = x – 4x line y = x: (a. then b = a3 − 4a. x(x + 2)(x – 2) = 0. then a − b = 0. symmetry about origin 5 19. b) on graph. b) on graph. a) is not on the graph. symmetry about x-axis. ± 5. a) is not on the graph. then y = 0. if x = 0. then – y = 0. 0). Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: Because f is not the zero function. but x − y =0 a = b3 − 4b will not necessarily be true.and y-axes. symmetry about origin exists. Answer: (0. then y = 0. y line y = x: (a. symmetry about x-axis.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis line y = x: (a. (±2. but 3a = 5b − b3 will not necessarily be true so (b. so y = 0. 0). then 5 x – x3 = 0. y = – x3 + 4 x – y = (– x ) – 4(– x) x = 0. if 3 origin: 5 –5 3 y-axis: y 2 5 a = b . line y = x. so x = 0 or x = ±2. 0 . x –5 y = (– x) – 4(– x) 21. there is no x-axis symmetry. so x = 0. line y = x: (a. and b − a = 0. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: 5 3(– y ) = 5 x – x3 3 y = –5 x + x3 78 . b) on graph. b) on graph. symmetry about origin. then x3 – 4 x = 0. if x x = 0. so (b. 3 y = 5 x – x3 5 y Intercepts: If y = 0. x ( 5+x )( ) 5 − x = 0. 0). thus x –2 x – y =0 Intercepts: If y = 0. then 3b = 5a − a3 . origin. y-axis. a) is on the graph. Answer: (0. then x = 0. y = f ( x) = x3 – 4 x Intercepts: If y = 0. so x = 0 or x = ± 5. x 5 ( ) Answer: (0. 5 3 y = 5(– x) – (– x)3 y-axis: 3 y = –5 x + x3 3(– y ) = 5(– x) – (– x)3 origin: 3 y = 5 x – x3 . 5 –x – y = 0 y-axis: x – y =0 y origin: Since there is symmetry about the x. 0). 0). then a = b 4 + b 2 + 1 and b ≠ a 4 + a 2 + 1 for all a so (b. 20. so (b. Answer: (1.

0). 3 2 Testing for symmetry gives: Intercepts: If y = 0. which has no real roots. and b 2 + a 2 = 16. if x = 0. then 9a 2 + 4b 2 = 25 1 and b 2 = (25 − 9a 2 ). then 9b 2 + 4a 2 = 25 and 1 b 2 = (25 − 4a 2 ). 0 ⎟ . a) is not on the graph. y-axis. symmetry about 2⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ x-axis. 0). ± ⎟ . b) on graph.96 x 2 − πx 4 . b) on graph.and y-axes. ⎜ 0. (b. then a 2 + b 2 = 16 Intercepts: If y = 0. 5 line y = x: (a. 6 –6 line y = x: (a.96 x 2 − πx 4 . 5⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ Answer: ⎜ ± .96(− x)2 − π(− x) 4 or y = 5 − 1. so (b. Testing for symmetry gives: 2 y 5 2 x + (– y ) = 16 x-axis: x 2 + y 2 = 16 y-axis: (– x )2 + y 2 = 16 origin: x 2 + y 2 = 16 Since there is symmetry about x. x 5 24.6 graph. y 2 = −4. y-axis. so y = ±4. a) are not always both on the gives y = 5 − 1. 9 x 2 + 4 y 2 = 25 25 . so 9 5 5 x = ± . which is equivalent to 79 . b) on graph. then y 4 = 16. symmetry about x-axis. y-axis. if x = 0. origin. Testing for symmetry gives: y x 2 − (− y )2 = 4 x-axis: x2 − y 2 = 4 x y-axis: (− x) 2 − y 2 = 4 origin: x2 − y 2 = 4 Since there is symmetry about x-and y-axes. then a 2 − b 2 = 4 and a 2 = 4 + b 2 ≠ b 2 − 4 for all b. Answer: (±4. 23. origin 22. a) on 4 5 6 –6 y = f ( x) = 5 − 1.and y-axes. symmetry about origin exists. Replacing x by –x graph. so (a. line y = x. so x = ±2. x 2 = x-axis: 5 y 9 x 2 + 4(− y )2 = 25 2 x 9 x + 4 y = 25 y-axis: 9(− x)2 + 4 y 2 = 25 origin: 9 x 2 + 4 y 2 = 25 Since there is symmetry about x. 2 −2 2 25. symmetry about origin exists. b) and 9 (b. so x = ±4. so (b. origin. ±4). so y = ± .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2. then x 2 = 4. Answer: (±2. symmetry about origin exists. then − y 2 = 4. then x 2 = 16. then 4 y 2 = 25. then 9 x 2 = 25. 5 if x = 0. a) is on the graph. (0. x 2 − y 2 = 4 line y = x: (a. symmetry about x-axis. x 2 + y 2 = 16 Intercepts: If y = 0.

±1. –2 5 y= 2 3x y y = x3 – 1 6.58 27. x f(x) = x3 x 5 10 y f(x) = |x| y = |x| – 2 x 10 80 . 10 y y = 2 x 4 – 7 x 2 + 5 . (0. Thus the graph is symmetric about the y-axis. a. 5] 26. Maximum value of f(x): 5 c. Thus the graph is symmetric about y-axis. Real zeros of f: ±1. 8 3. x 2 f(x) = 1 x –11 1 –1 Problems 2. 0). 5 y f(x) = x2 Intercepts: (±0. 5 y = √x + 2 x 10 f(x) = √x y y 5 5.7 1. Replacing x by –x gives y = 2(– x)4 – 7(– x) 2 + 5 or 4. which is equivalent to original equation. 5) x b. 10 y f(x) = 1 x 4 –4 x 10 –3 y= 1 x–2 4 2 y = f ( x) = 2 x – 7 x + 5 . 2.99.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis original equation. 5 y = –x 2 Range: (–∞.

reflect about the x-axis. x 10 y= 1 2–x 81 . and 3 units. the graphs for k = 1. and 3 are vertical shifts upward of 1. 8. 10 Compared to the graph for k = 0. Translate 3 units to the left and 4 units downward. –2. 10 y –5 f(x) = x2 Compared to the graph for k = 0. respectively. y 10. Reflect about the y-axis and translate 5 units downward. 5 y f(x) = x 16. respectively. The graphs for k = –1. y f(x) = √x y = √–x x 19. Section 2. y = (x – 1)2 + 1 f(x) = x 2 5 –5 x 10 –3 11. Translate 3 units to the left. 2. respectively. the graphs for k = 2 and 3 are vertical stretches away from the x-axis by factors of 2 and 3. and 3 units. respectively.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 7. 2. 2. x 10 y = 1 – (x – 1)2 3 18. 2. stretch vertically away from the x-axis by a factor of 2. and 3 units. and –3 are horizontal shifts to the right of 1. 2. 10 5 y f(x) = 1 –5 x Compared to the graph for k = 1. and 3 are horizontal shifts to the left of 1. the graphs for k = 1. and –3 are vertical shifts downward of 1. 5 y = – 13 x 5 –5 9. and 3 units. 15. and move 2 units upward. –2.7 y 10 13. 2. respectively. 5x 17. The graphs for k = –1. 10 5 –5 12. f(x) = |x| x 10 y = |x + 1| – 2 14. The 1 graph for k = is a vertical shrinking toward 2 the x-axis. Shrink horizontally toward the y-axis by a factor of 3.

all real numbers 5+ 4 9 3 = = 5 5 5 h(5) = 3. 82 f(x + h) = 3 – 7(x + h) = 3 – 7x – 7h . x must be nonnegative. a. s – 5 ≥ 0 s≥5 Domain: all real numbers s such that s ≥ 5. all function values are 7. h( x ) = –4 + 4 0 = =0 –4 –4 x+4 x h(u – 4) = 6. 4 9. Domain: all nonnegative real numbers except 1. G ( x) = x − 3 G (3) = 4 3 − 3 = 4 0 = 0 G (19) = 4 19 − 3 = 4 16 = 2 14. Answer: 7. h(x) = 7. 7. F ( x) = x+4 –1 – 3 4 F (–1) = =– –1 + 4 3 0−3 3 F (0) = =− 0+4 4 f (5) = 53 − 99 = 125 − 99 = 26 f (6) = 63 − 99 = 216 − 99 = 117 15. Both conditions are satisfied by all nonnegative numbers except 1. 7 ( ) ( x 2 – 4)2 x 4 – 8 x 2 + 16 = 3 3 13. 2.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 2 Review Problems 5–3 2 = 5+ 4 9 ( x + 3) – 3 x = F ( x + 3) = ( x + 3) + 4 x + 7 F (5) = 1. G (t + 1) = 4 (t + 1) − 3 = 4 t − 2 4 G ( x3 ) = x3 − 3 1 3 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = −⎜ − ⎟ +1 = +1 = 2 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = 02 + 1 = 1 2 1 5 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ +1 = +1 = 4 4 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x–3 10. all real numbers h(–4) = 5. 5 Domain: all real numbers except 1 and 5. For x to be real. Denominator is 0 when x2 − 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 5) = 0 x = 1. 7. For the denominator x – 1 to be different from 0. h(u ) = 12. H ( s ) = f (0) = 3(0) 2 – 4(0) + 7 = 7 H (7) = f (–3) = 3(–3) 2 – 4(–3) + 7 = 27 + 12 + 7 = 46 u–4 = u u–4 ( s – 4) 2 3 H (−2) = f ( x) = 3x 2 – 4 x + 7 (u – 4) + 4 (–2 – 4)2 36 = = 12 3 3 (7 – 4)2 9 = =3 3 3 ( ) 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 49 − 72 49 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎣ 2 − 4⎦ = = 4 = H⎜ ⎟= 2 3 3 3 12 ⎝ ⎠ 2 f (5) = 3(5) – 4(5) + 7 = 75 – 20 + 7 = 62 f (t ) = 3t 2 – 4t + 7 ( ) H x2 = 8. all real numbers 4. f(4) = 4 + 16 = 20 f(−2) = −3 f(0) = −3 f(1) is not defined. x cannot be 1. u+4 u 11. 7.

(f + g)(4) = 5(4) + 2 = 22 20. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = − x 2 + 3 x − 2 b. g(x) = 3x − 2 a. 17. ( f D g )(5) = 6(5) + 8 = 38 i. (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = (3x – 1) + (2x + 3) = 5x + 2 b. b. 18. b. ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) = (3 x –1)(2 x + 3) = 6 x 2 + 7 x – 3 e. Chapter 2 Review f ( x + h) – f ( x) (3 − 7 x − 7 h) − (3 − 7 x) –7 h = = = –7 h h h f ( x + h) = 11( x + h) 2 + 4 = 11x 2 + 22 xh + 11h 2 + 4 b. ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) = − x 2 − (3x − 2) = − x 2 − 3x + 2 83 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b. f f ( x) 3 x –1 ( x) = = g g ( x) 2 x + 3 g. ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f (2 x + 3) = 3(2 x + 3) –1 = 6 x + 8 h. f(x) = 3x – 1. a. g(x) = 2x + 3 a. ( fg )(1) = 6(1)2 + 7(1) – 3 = 10 f. a. ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g (3x –1) = 2(3 x –1) + 3 = 6 x + 1 f ( x) = − x 2 . 16. c. (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (3x – 1) – (2x + 3) = x – 4 d. a. f ( x + h) – f ( x) (11x 2 + 22 xh + 11h 2 + 4) – (11x 2 + 4) 22 xh + 11h 2 = = = 22 x + 11h h h h f ( x + h) = 4( x + h)2 + 2( x + h) – 5 = 4 x 2 + 8 xh + 4h 2 + 2 x + 2h – 5 f ( x + h) – f ( x) (4 x 2 + 8 xh + 4h 2 + 2 x + 2h – 5) – (4 x 2 + 2 x – 5) = h h 2 8 xh + 4h + 2h = h = 8 x + 4h + 2 f ( x + h) = 7 7 = ( x + h) + 1 x + h + 1 f ( x + h) – f ( x ) = h 7 x + h +1 – 7 x +1 h = 7( x +1)–7( x + h +1) ( x + h +1)( x +1) h = −7 h −7 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1)h ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 19.

then y = 0. x + 2. g ( x) = x 4 ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f − y = 3(− x) − (− x)3 y = 3x − x3 . ± 3. If x = 0. f(x) = ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f ( x3 ) = x3 + 2 = (− x 2 )(3x − 2) ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g = −3 x3 + 2 x 2 e. if x = 0. so (b. which is impossible. then b = 3a − a3 . then 0 = 4. symmetry about x +1 . 0). g ( x) = x3 x +1 2 x2 y2 =4 x2 + y2 + 1 Intercepts: If y = 0. = 3(− x 2 ) − 2 x2 3 x(3 − x 2 ) = 0. ± 3. Testing for symmetry gives: x 2 (– y ) 2 =4 x-axis: x 2 + (− y )2 + 1 x2 y2 x2 + y2 + 1 equation.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis c. x-axis: y-axis: = −3 x 2 − 2 ( g D f )(−4) = −3(−4) 2 − 2 = −48 − 2 = −50 origin: . b) on graph. ( x) = x +1 4 x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g ⎜ ⎟= 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ = ) Answer: (0. then 0 = 4. 0 . a) is not on the graph. = g (− x 2 ) 21. f −(2) 2 (2) = = −1 g 3(2) − 2 g. ( = ( x + 2)3 / 2 = −(3x − 2)2 h. x = 0. ( f − g )(−3) = −(−3) 2 − 3(−3) + 2 = 2 d. f(x) = 2. ( fg )( x) = f ( x) g ( x) 23. f f ( x) − x2 ( x) = = g g ( x) 3x − 2 f. which is impossible. which is the original . g(x) = 3 ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f (3) = 2 ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g (2) = 3 = −9 x 2 + 12 x − 4 i. x+2 25. which is the original equation. − y = 3 x − x3 y = −3 x + x3 . 84 = 4 . then 0 = 3 x − x3 . ( x + 1)2 ( ⎞ 1 1 + x2 = + = 1 ⎟ x2 ⎠ x2 origin 26. which is not the original equation. ⎛ 1 ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) = g ⎜ ⎝ x2 f ( x) = y = 3(− x) − (− x)3 y = −3 x + x3 ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f ( x + 1) = 22. g(x) = x + 1 line y = x: (a. Testing for symmetry gives: ( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x)) f ( x) = ) Intercepts: If y = 0. but 1 a = 3b − b3 is not necessarily true. y = 3x − x3 ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) = f (3 x − 2) 1 ) ( x+2 = 24.

line y = x: (a. a) a2 − 4 are both on the graph. Answer: no intercepts. ⎜ . y-axis. origin: 7 . a) is not on the graph. 0 = u + 4. –7). line y = x: (a. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: 10 y – y = 9 – x2 y = –9 + x 2 . origin. (b. origin: –y = 3(–x) – 7 y = 3x + 7. or x = If x = 0. symmetry about x-axis. which is the x2 + y 2 + 1 original equation. so (b. which is not the original equation. 3 − y = 9 − (− x) 29. y-axis: y = 3(–x) – 7 y = –3x – 7. 85 . b) on graph. y = 9 – x 2 Intercepts: If y = 0. b) on graph. which is the original equation. 0) Domain: all real numbers u such that u ≥ –4 Range: all real numbers ≥ 0 2 y = −9 + x . then G(u) = 4 = 2 . then b = 9 − a 2 and a = ± 9 − b ≠ 9 − b 2 for all b. G (u ) = u + 4 2 If G(u) = 0. y-axis: 7 3 x 10 y = 9 – (– x)2 y = 9 – x 2 . so (a. = 4 and 4(a 2 + 1) . line y = x: (a. which is not the original equation. (±3. ⎛7 ⎞ Answer: (0. symmetry about y-axis. 9). 2). then 0 = 9 – x 2 = (3 + x)(3 – x ) . (− x)2 (− y )2 =4 ( − x) 2 + (− y ) 2 + 1 x2 y2 x 10 28. Testing for symmetry gives: x-axis: –y = 3x – 7 y = –3x + 7. (–4. which is not the original equation. then y = –7. 0 ⎟ . then 0 = u + 4 . then 0 = 3x – 7. so 3 (b. 27. b) on graph. 0). no symmetry of the ⎝3 ⎠ given types =4 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y-axis: (– x)2 y 2 (– x) 2 + y 2 + 1 Chapter 2 Review 10 =4 y x2 y2 origin: = 4 . a) is not on the graph. Answer: (0. which is the x2 + y2 + 1 original equation. or x = ±3 If x = 0. Intercepts: (0. b) and (b. then and b 2 = then b2 = 4(a 2 + 1) a2 − 4 b2 a 2 b2 + a 2 + 1 a 2b2 a 2 + b2 + 1 Intercepts: If y = 0. y = 3x – 7 = 4. which is not the original equation. a) on graph. u = –4 If u = 0. and y = x. which is not the original equation. then y = 9. then b = 3a − 7 and 1 a = (b + 7) ≠ 3b − 7 for all b.

y = g (t ) = 2 t –4 If y = 0. which has no solution. y 2 . If u = 0. u = 0. 1) Domain: all real numbers Range: all real numbers ≥ 1 10 u –8 33. 8 f ( x) = x + 1 If f(x) = 0. 4 2 ⎛ 1⎞ Intercept: ⎜ 0. S is a function of t. t –4 f(x) = √x 2 1 If t = 0. then 0 = x + 1. h(u) = 0. h(u ) = −5u If h(u) = 0. 86 .Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs 10 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis G(u) 32. t = 5. x = –1 . If x = 0. then y = = . Hence S = 150. 10 8 y f(x) = x2 g(t) x 10 y = – 1 x2 + 2 t 2 10 36. then 0 = −5u . 0) Domain: all reals ≤ 0 Range: all reals ≥ 0 u 10 h(u) 30. which has no solution.000. then f(x) = 1. Range: all real numbers ≤ 2 f(x) 5 y x 10 x 5 31. then 0 = 34.000 + 3000(5) = $165. For 2006. Domain: all real numbers. Intercept: (0. Intercept: (0. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ Domain: all real numbers t such that t ≠ 4 Range: all real numbers > 0 10 8 x y = √x – 2 – 1 35.

88. 90 −5.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 2 37. –0. none Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 2 8 –8 1. –20 (–∞.50. 681. 000) = 1510 + 0. the graphs that represent functions of x are (a) and (c). 2.300) = 14.40 42.15(23. f (85. 2. b.43 39.000 is $14. k = 0. 4 b.73 40. 359. (–∞.92.67. 1.03 c. 45. 7) 729 20 44. 0). –8 b.11. 0. 3 –2 2 2 –2 3 –3 –5 –2 –1. 4. ±2.34.000 is $2695.000 is $75. −9. a.170 + 0. From the vertical-line test. a. 450) = 75. (0.33(290. a.68 41.50. 1. f (290. (1. 000) = 42.∞) 43. 5 k = 1. 2.25(85. 20 0.100) = 2695 The tax on $23. 38. 000 − 188. 000) = 8440 + 0. f (23.∞) 8 –2 8 –8 2 –20 a.5 The tax on $290. 4 2 6 –3 –3 3 –30 –1. 1. 3.03 –0. 000 − 15. –0. 000 − 61. b.09.365 The tax on $85.365.681. all real numbers ≥ −9.38. 20 8 –8 –20 87 .

170 + 0.000 x 400. There should be no jump in tax as one moves from one tax bracket to the next.90 x ⎪0.01 to pay substantially different taxes. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f (462.550 8.550 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 15. 700)] if 123.550)] if x > 336. 450 < x ≤ 336.72 x + 10.950.15( x − 15. 700 < x ≤ 188.85 x + 755 if 15.33( x − 188.000 is $134.100)] if 15.300 < x ≤ 123.300 ⎪ if 61.000 88 .300 ⎪ if 61.Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs 4.100 < x ≤ 61. 040 0. 700 ⎪ x − [8440 + 0.550 ⎪⎩ x − [91. 018.100 < x ≤ 61.28( 123. 043 + 0.550 ⎪ ⎪⎩0.25( x − 61.550) = 134. 700 < x ≤ 188.35(462. 700 ⎪0. 450 ⎪0.300)] =⎨ − + − x x [24. 5.100 ⎧0.50. 450)] if 188.596 + x 0. 400. 7. 450 ⎪ ⎪ x − [42. since it would be unfair for two couples whose incomes differ by only $0.75 x + 6885 =⎨ if 123. 450 < x ≤ 336.65 x + 26.50 if 188. 000) = 91. Answers may vary. g ( x) = x − f ( x) if 0 ≤ x ≤ 15.5 The tax on $462.000 g(x) 200. 749.300 < x ≤ 123.10 x ⎪ x − [1510 + 0.000 0 200. 000 − 336.67 20. 6. 043 + 0.100 ⎧ x − 0.950.50 if x > 336.35( x − 336.

Then. then the point-slope form can be written as S − S1 = m (T − T1 ) 5. b. Let x = the time (in years) and let y = the selling price. then move horizontally to read the Fahrenheit temperature of the vertical axis.1 9 (C − 5) 5 9 F − 41 = C − 9 5 9 F = C + 32 5 1. m. To find the slope and y-intercept. locate the Celsius temperature on the horizontal axis. A linear function relating Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius temperature can be found by using the point-slope form of an equation of a line. 3. 000 1994 − 1991 −6000 = 3 = –2000 The car depreciated $2000 per year. 5 F= 6. 9C – 5F + 160 = 0 is a general linear form 9 of F = C + 32 . F −F 77 − 41 36 9 = = m= 2 1 = 25 − 5 20 5 C2 − C1 F 100 –100 100 C –100 To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit. If S = the number of students enrolled. 3 125 is . is and the y-intercept. move vertically to the line. Price (in thousands of dollars) = y (price) 40 30 20 10 x (time) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Year 2. Let m = 14. 000 − 32. An equation relating the growth in enrollment to the number of years can be found by using the point-slope form of an equation of a line. S – 50 = 14(T – 3) S – 50 = 14T – 42 S = 14T + 8 9 C + 32 5 ⎛9 ⎞ 5( F ) = 5 ⎜ C + 32 ⎟ 5 ⎝ ⎠ 5 F = 9C + 160 0 = 9C − 5F + 160 Thus. 1 y= (t + 1)a 24 1 y= (t + 1)1000 24 1000 1000 y= t+ 24 24 125 125 y= t+ 3 3 125 Thus the slope. 000 The slope is y −y m= 2 1 x2 − x1 F − 41 = 4. let a = 1000. 000 In 1994: x2 = 1994 and y2 = 26. and T = the number of years.Chapter 3 F − F1 = m ( C − C1 ) Principles in Practice 3. 3 26. 89 . S1 = 50 . In 1991: x1 = 1991 and y1 = 32. and T1 = 3 . then write the equation in slope-intercept form.

the points do not define a right triangle. 5. Parabolas. m = −4 − (−4) 0 = =0 3− 2 1 y 100 x 10 11. so the slope is undefined. m = 0 − (−6) 6 = =2 3−0 3 1 y − 5 = − [ x − (−2)] 4 4( y − 5) = −( x + 2) 4 y − 20 = − x − 2 x + 4 y − 18 = 0 10 y 9 2 −2 − (−2) 0 7. Problems 3. x 5 10. Therefore. there are no perpendicular lines. m = y − 0 = 75( x − 0) y = 75 x 75 x − y = 0 x 10 0 − (−7) 7 = 9 −1 8 90 . m = 10 − 1 9 = =3 7−4 3 2. Right angles are formed by perpendicular lines. The difference in the x-coordinates is 5 – 5 = 0. m = 10 − 3 7 = = −1 −2 − 5 −7 3. m = = =0 4−5 −1 8.1 1. The slopes of the sides of the triangle are: 0−0 0 ⎧ AB ⎨m = = =0 6−0 6 ⎩ 9. 6. m = −3 − (−2) −1 1 = =− 8−6 2 2 4. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 7.Chapter 3: Lines. 7−0 7 ⎧ BC ⎨m = = =7 7−6 1 ⎩ y − 7 = −5[ x − (−1)] y − 7 = −5( x + 1) y − 7 = −5 x − 5 5x + y − 2 = 0 10 y 7−0 7 ⎧ AC ⎨m = = =1 7−0 7 ⎩ Since none of the slopes are negative reciprocals of each other.

1 −8 − (−4) −4 = = −4 −2 − (−3) 1 y − (−4) = −4[ x − (−3)] y + 4 = −4 x − 12 4 x + y + 16 = 0 1 ⎡ ⎛ 5 ⎞⎤ ⎢x − − ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎦ 5⎤ ⎡ 6( y − 5) = 2 ⎢ x + ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ 6 y − 30 = 2 x + 5 2 x − 6 y + 35 = 0 15. m = = 1 − (−6) 7 3 ( x − 1) 7 7( y − 4) = 3( x − 1) 7 y − 28 = 3x − 3 3x − 7 y + 25 = 0 y−4= y 10 10 y x 10 x 10 17.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12. m = 4 −1 3 13. Section 3. 2 − (−4) 6 = = −6 5−6 −1 y − 2 = −6( x − 5) y − 2 = −6 x + 30 6 x + y − 32 = 0 14. m = y = 2x + 4 2x – y + 4 = 0 10 y 4 y –2 50 x 10 91 x 10 . m = y −5 = y 20 y 10 35 6 x x 10 20 3−0 3 = 2−0 2 3 y − 0 = ( x − 0) 2 3 y= x 2 2 y = 3x 3x − 2 y = 0 16.

0) –1 2 92 5 . Thus x = –1. and Systems 18. A vertical line has the form x = a. 3 5 –3 20. Thus x = 2. A horizontal line has the form y = b. or x + 1 = 0. y 5 y x 10 7 5 x 5 –7 19. or x − 2 = 0. Parabolas. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y = 5x – 7 5x – y – 7 = 0 10 21. 1 x−3 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 y = 2 ⎜ − x − 3⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 y = −x − 6 x + 2y + 6 = 0 y=− 5 y 5 x (–1. or y + 3 = 0. y = 0x − 1 2 2 y = −1 2y +1 = 0 5 y x 1 2 5 (2. y 5 y 5x x (0. –1) y x –6 23. 22. Thus y = –3. Thus y = 0. A vertical line has the form x = a. –3) y=− 5 24.Chapter 3: Lines. A horizontal line has the form y = b.

10 29. Thus the slope is undefined. 5 y 5 y x 8 5 y x 27. y − 7 = 3( x − 4) y − 7 = 3 x − 12 y = 3x − 5 m = 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. is a vertical line. 3x + 5 y − 9 = 0 5 y = −3 x + 9 3 9 y = − x+ 5 5 3 9 m=− . b = –5 y 3 y 3 x x 5 5 –5 93 . where m = 4 and b = –6. b = 3 5 32. x − 9 = 5 y + 3 5 y = x − 12 1 12 y = x− 5 5 1 12 m= . y x x 10 –5 5 30. Thus the slope is undefined. y + 4 = 7 y=3 y = 0x + 3 m = 0. y = 4x – 6 has the form y = mx + b. x − 2 = 6 or x = 8. There is no y-intercept. y = 3x y = 3x + 0 m = 3.b= 5 5 5 20 – 12 5 31. b = 0 y 5 y 9 5 x x 5 5 28.b= − 5 5 26.1 25. There is no y-intercept. x = –5 is a vertical line.

x 5 42. Since m1 ≠ m2 and m1 ≠ − . The lines y = 7x + 2 and y = 7x – 3 have the same slope. The lines y = 5x + 2 and –5x + y – 3 = 0 (or y = 5x + 3) have the same slope. The line y = x has slope m1 = 1 and the line y = −x has slope m2 = −1 . or 3x + 2y – 6 = 0 (general form) 3 2y = –3x + 6. 4 5 9y = –4x + 5. Parabolas. 4. 43. 1 5⎞ ⎛ 45. 37. 35. m1 = − 36. 5. The lines y = 4x + 3 and y = 5 + 4x (or y = 4x + 5) have the same slope. 3( x − 4) − 7( y + 1) = 2 3x − 12 − 7 y − 7 = 2 3x − 7 y − 21 = 0 (general form) 1 ⎞ ⎛ 46. 6 y − 24 = 0 y=4 y = 0x + 4 m = 0. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 33. The line x + 3y + 5 = 0 ⎜ or y = − x − ⎟ has 3 3⎠ ⎝ 1 slope m1 = − and the line y = −3x has slope 3 1 m2 = −3. or y = x − 3 (slope-intercept 7 form) 94 . or y = − x + (slope-intercept 3 3 form) 44.Chapter 3: Lines. Thus they are parallel. y 5 3 x 5 1 x + 8 is in slope-intercept form. b = 3 39. y = 3 y = 0x + 3 m = 0. b = 4 5 x 2y 3 − + = −4 2 3 4 ⎛ x 2y ⎞ ⎛ 19 ⎞ 12 ⎜ − + ⎟ = 12 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 2 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ −6 x + 8 y = −57 6 x − 8 y − 57 = 0 (general form) −8 y = −6 x + 57 3 57 y = x− (slope-intercept form) 4 8 y 41. Since 6 6 3⎠ 3 −7y = −3x + 21. The line x + 3y = 0 ⎜ or y = − x ⎟ has slope 3 ⎠ ⎝ 1 m1 = − and the line x + 6y − 4 = 0 (or 3 1 1 2⎞ y = − x + ⎟ has slope m2 = − . the m2 lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular. 2x = 5 – 3y. or y = − x + (slope-intercept 9 9 form) 38. 300 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 300 y = 300 ⎜ x + 8⎟ 300 ⎝ ⎠ 300 y = x + 2400 x − 300 y + 2400 = 0 (general form) 40. Thus they are parallel. 4x + 9y – 5 = 0 is a general form. or 2x + 3y – 5 = 0 (general form) 2 5 3y = –2x + 5. or y = − x + 3 (slope-intercept 2 form) 1 so the m2 lines are perpendicular. 7. 3x + 2y = 6. y = 34. Thus they are parallel.

or y = 2x − 10. Since the line must pass through (2. 48. An 4 1 equation of the desired line is y − 1 = − ( x − 1) 4 1 5 or y = − x + . An 3 1 equation of the desired line is y − 4 = − ( x − 3). x = –4 is a vertical line. Since ⎝ ⎠ m2 = − 2x 2x ⎞ ⎛ + 1 has + 3 ⎜ or y = − 5 15 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 . The line y = 3 is horizontal and the line x = − 1 3 57. The line 3x + y = 4 (or y = –3x + 4) has slope m1 = –3. y = –4 is a horizontal line. or y = − x − . The line x − 2 = 3 (or x = 5) is vertical and the line y = 2 is horizontal. so the slope of 4 4 1 a line parallel to it must also be − . –4). 3 3 3 x 1 51. is vertical. The line 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 has slope − . so the 3 2 slope of a line parallel to it must also be − . and the line x – 3y + 1 = 0 1 1 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ or y = 3 x + 3 ⎟ has slope m2 = 3 . its equation is x = –4. its equation is x = 2. The slope of y = 3x − 5 is 3. so the slope of a line parallel to it must also be 2. y = −3 is a horizontal line. The slope of y = 3 + 2x is 2. (1. 4 4 60. the lines are perpendicular. 3 1 or y = − x + 5. (–3. so the lines are perpendicular. A line parallel to x = –4 has the form x = a. 58. 1). the lines are neither m2 parallel nor perpendicular. m1 ≠ m2 and m1 ≠ − 47. so the slope of a line perpendicular 15 15 . 1 . Since that line passes through (5. Since the line must pass through (2. 61. The slope of y = − − 2 is − . so the perpendicular line must be vertical with equation of the form x = a.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. When the 2 x-coordinate is 5.1 56. 1) its equation is y = 1. 10). so the lines are perpendicular. 2 slope − 1 . y = 2 is a horizontal line. Since that line passes through (1. 3 y − 2 = − (5 − 1) 2 3 y − 2 = − (4) 2 y − 2 = −6 y = −4 Thus the point is (5. –8). so the slope of a line 1 perpendicular to it must have slope − . An equation of the desired line is y − (−4) = 2(x − 3). The line 3 y = − 49. A parallel line is also vertical and has an equation of the form x = a. 3 95 . The perpendicular line must be vertical and has an equation of the form x = a. An 3 equation of the desired line is 2 2 29 y − (−5) = − [ x − (−7)]. m1 50. 55. its equation is x = 1. 2). its equation is x = 5. The y-axis is vertical. 3 Point-slope form: y − 2 = − ( x − 1) . 2 59. A line parallel to it has the form y = b. 2). 54. Both lines are vertical and thus parallel. 8) 8−2 6 3 = =− m= −3 − 1 −4 2 53. Since it passes through (–4. An equation of the to it must have slope 2 15 desired line is y − (−5) = ( x − 4) or 2 15 y = x − 35. 52.

2 y −y 20 − 14 6 = =3 m= 2 1 = 5−3 2 x2 − x1 Using the point-slope form with m = 3 and ( x1 . The slopes of the sides of the figure are: 4−0 4 ⎧ AB ⎨m = = = undefined (vertical) −0 0 0 ⎩ 65. 40 67. In 1988: x1 = 1988 and y1 = 37 In 1998: x2 = 1998 and y2 = 8 The slope is −29 8 − 37 = = −2. L = 1.Chapter 3: Lines. 40. − 100. m = 3. y2 ) = (5. −1. Parabolas. 0. 000) 140. which is true. Then. 000) gives 62. 20) . y (price) 20 10 x (time) 0 1988 1993 Year 1998 64. Thus (−1.5) 2 −1. 000) = 28. then −2 = 3(−1) + 1 or −2 = −2. −2) lies on the line if its coordinates satisfy the equation. −2. 000 Price per share (dollars) 63. −2) lies on the line.53t ( L + 6.5 = − ( x − 0. 000( x − 0) y + 100. 3 6 7−3 4 ⎧ CD ⎨m = = = undefined (vertical) −2 0 2 ⎩ y2 ) = (5. The point (−1.5 − 0. − 100. Using the points (3. The given points are ( x1 . y1 ) = (3. 000 x − 100.53 0. If x = −1 and y = −2.5 = 2(x − 0. y1 ) = (3.65 and the y-intercept is approximately 4. Let x = the time (in years) and y = the price per share. 000) . The given points are ( x1 . 96 . 30 68. Solve the equation for t.5 −1. ABCD is a parallelogram. gives a slope of m = −1 − 0.38 = t The slope is approximately 0.000 7−4 3 ⎧ BD ⎨m = = 2−0 2 ⎩ Since AB is parallel to CD and AC is parallel to BC .53t – 6.5. 000 = 28. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Using the point-slope form with m = 28.5) −2.65L + 4.5 An equation is y − 0. 000 x y = 28.5 −3 = = 2.5. Using the points (0.7) =t 1.5.5) or 3 2 5 y = − x+ .90 per year. y1 ) = (0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−100.5) or 1 y = 2x − . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 14 = 3( x − 3) y − 14 = 3x − 9 y = 3x + 5 69. 000 − (−100.5) and (−1. gives a slope of m = 3. A general linear form of d = 184 + t is –t + d – 184 = 0. y1 ) = (0.5) and (0. 000) and ( x2 .5 − 0. 3−0 3 ⎧ AC ⎨m = = 2−0 2 ⎩ y −y 40. The number of home runs hit increased as a function of time (in months).000 and ( x1 .5 =− . 000 = m= 2 1 = 5−0 5 x2 − x1 = 28. The owner’s profits increased as a function of time. 14) gives These two paths are not perpendicular to each other because the slopes are not negative reciprocals of each other. 14) and ( x2 . 0. b = 1 Slope-intercept form: y = 3x + 1.7 = 1. Let x = the time (in years) and let y = the profit (in dollars).7 L + 6.9 m= 10 1998 − 1988 The stock price dropped an average of $2.38.5 3 2 An equation is y − 0. b. 66.5 − 0. a.

The quantity and price are linearly related such that p = 575 when q = 1200. and p = 725 when q = 800. m2 71.000). the lines are perpendicular. p1 ) = (1200. which is expected because they have the same slope.3 shows that when x = 0.2 1. The path of descent is a straight line with a slope of –1 and y-intercept of 3600.000 = 50.625 . 725) . y = 7. p2 ) = (800. The slope of the first line is 0. 72. 1128. the equation 8x + 14y = 1000 describes all possible production levels of the two products.2 70. Then. Thus ( q1 .000(T – 5) or R = 50. Thus C – 1128. The graph of the equation y = −0.82(T – 6) or C = 59.82T + 769. the plane will crash 200 feet short of the airport.000. 330.000T + 80. 10 –10 2. 1.6 .3 0.82 and passes through (6.9x − 7. Thus. Since 0.3. Let x = the number of skis that are produced and let y = the number of boots that are produced.58.000 and passes through (5. using the slope-intercept form with m = –1 and b = 3600 gives y = mx + b y = (–1)x + 3600 y = –x + 3600 10 76.3. 97 . 15 4000 –500 p − p1 = m ( q − q1 ) 3 p − 575 = − (q − 1200) 8 3 p − 575 = − q + 450 8 3 p = − q + 1025 8 10 –10 –10 The lines are parallel.1. The slope is 7. The slope is 725 − 575 3 =− . The line has slope 50. 75.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. Let x = the distance traveled and let y = the altitude. 10 73. and the slope of the m1 = 0.32 second line is m2 = − = −1. Thus R – 330. 10 –10 –10 10 4000 –15 –1000 –10 If the airport is located 3800 feet from where the plane begins its landing approach.2 1 m1 = − .1875 = 0.5. Therefore. 575) and –10 ( q2 . 800 − 1200 8 An equation of the line is m= 10 74. the y-intercept is 7. The line has slope 59.50).50 = 59. Principles in Practice 3.

Since the height changes by 2. f(t) = at + b f(8) = 2. then f(t) = the height of the child at any age t. a = 2. Answers may vary. f(s) = 3(5 − 2s) = 15 − 6s has the form f(s) = as + b where a = –6 (slope) and b = 15 (the vertical-axis intercept). The height and age are linearly related such that f(8) = 50. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3.6 = 18. y = f(x) = x + 1 has the form f(x) = ax + b where a = 1 (the slope) and b = 1 (the vertical-axis intercept). Since f(t) is a linear function it has the form f(t) = at + b. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y – 360 = 70(x – 3) y = f(x) = 70x + 150 f(s) 16 s 5 98 . Then. ( x1 . h(t) = 5t − 7 has the form h(t) = at + b with a = 5 (the slope) and b = −7 (the vertical-axis intercept).2 1. y1 ) = (3. but two possible points are (0. 140). Thus.3 inches per year. 5 y x f(x) 5 500 0 2. f(x) = 40x + 60 x f(x) 0 60 2 140 1000 Problems 3. 60) and (2. x 20 5 4.3(8) + b 50. 360) gives slope is m = 4. 640) .4 + b 32.Chapter 3: Lines. 360) and ( x2 .3. y1 ) = (3. Let y = f(x) = a linear function that describes the value of the necklace after x years. 10 h(t) 5.2 = b Thus.3t + 32. y2 ) = (7. y 1 x 5 3. If t = the age of the child. y = f(x) = –4x = –4x + 0 has the form f(x) = ax + b where a = –4 (the slope) and b = 0 (the vertical-axis intercept). The problem states that f(3) = 360 and f(7) = 640.2 is a function that describes the height of the child at age t. Parabolas.6. f(t) = 2. The t 10 y2 − y1 640 − 360 280 = = = 70 x2 − x1 7−3 4 Using the point-slope form with m = 70 and ( x1 .

q 1 13. 18. Thus the graph of f. Let y = f(x). f(x) = ax + b = 4x + b. f(x) = ax + b = 0. so y = –2x + 3 ⇒ f ( x) = –2x + 3.000) or p = –0. The points (40. –1) and (–4.25 (the vertical-axis intercept).75) and (25. The line passes through (26. 12) and (10. Let y = f(x). 8) lie on 8−2 = −2 . 3 3 ⎝ 3⎠ we have 2 2⎛ 2⎞ − = − ⎜− ⎟+b 3 3⎝ 3⎠ q 5 2 4 10 − =− .75. 14. which can be 5 2 written p = − q + 28. Then m= 10. When q = 37.75 2 = − . 1) and (2. ⎛2⎞ Since f ⎜ ⎟ = −7.01. b = 0 ⇒ f(x) = 4x. The points (–2.95. m = −4 + 2 y + 1 = 1(x + 2). 000 − 26. h(q) = 5 h(q) 11. 2) lie on 2 −1 =1. so y = x + 1 ⇒ f(x) = x + 1. Since f(2) = 8.1) + b ⇒ b = 0. m = −2 − 1 y – 2 = –2(x – 1). m = 4−0 y – 3 = –2(x – 0).25 –0. f(x) = ax + b = −2x + b. Thus on the graph of f.5 12. 8 = 8 + b. –5) lie on −5 − 3 = −2 . 7 ⎛2⎞ −7 = −2 ⎜ ⎟ + b ⎝5⎠ 4 31 b = −7 + = − 5 5 31 so f ( x) = −2 x − .000375q + 21. The points (0. 15.2 2−q 2 1 = − q has the form 7 7 7 1 h(q) = aq + b where a = − (the slope) and 7 2 b = (the vertical-axis intercept). 5 5. the graph of f. h(q) = 0. 18. 7. 5 9. 10. so 18 − 12 = −0.5q + 0. so y = –2x + 4 ⇒ f ( x) = –2x + 4.75.75 − 12. m = 2 −1 Thus y – 1 = 1(x – 1) ⇒ y = x. Since f(0. which is a line. Thus the graph of f. 1 h(q) 0.1) = 0. 8. we have ⎝5⎠ 16. Hence an equation of m= 25 − 40 5 2 the line is p − 12. then 5 2 p = − (37) + 28.009 ⇒ f(x) = 0. so f(x) = x. 3) and (4. 2) and (–2. 2 7 f ( x) = ax + b = − 2 2 ⎛ 2⎞ x + b .000. Since f ⎜ − ⎟ = − .01 = (0. 3 9 b=− 6. –3) lie −3 + 1 = 1 . 18).75 = − (q − 40) . 99 .75 = $13.009.01x + b.25 has the form h(q) = aq + b with a = 0. 8 = 4(2) + b. 000 p – 18 = –0.000375(q – 10. Let y = f(x). 12.75) lie on the graph of the equation. The points (1. we have 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.5 (the slope) and b = 0. 3 9 9 2 10 so f ( x) = − x − . Let y = f(x).000. The points (1.01)(0.000375.01x + 0.

v 19.Chapter 3: Lines. so f(x) = 64x + 95. The line has slope 27. 88) 88 − 79 = 0. The line passes through (3000.000 and passes through (5. After t years the total decrease is 0. The number of curative units from d cubic centimeters of the drug is 210d.125(380) + b 51. 245. Thus v = 1800 – 0. Then (2200. The points (50. we get a= 3 −1 y − 159 = 64(x − 1) or y = 64x + 95.10(1800)t. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 17.125.03x + 76 t 10 24.25(q – 2200) or p = 0. Thus 210d + 305r = 2410 42d + 61r = 482 100 . Let y = f(x).5 + b 4. Hence an equation of m= 35 − 50 −15 3 the line is 1 p − 35 = (q − 50) 3 1 55 p = q+ 3 3 r d 0 20 23. The line passing through (10. then c = 3(35) + 10 = 105 + 10 = $115. 30 − 35 −5 1 = = . then f ( x) = the total monthly charges for x kilowatt hours of electricity. If x = the number of hours of service. 40) and (20.000x + 735. If x = the number of kilowatt hours used in a month. 340). 000 y = f ( x) = x + 245. 20 18.03. a = 0.65. The line has slope –120 and passes through (4.15 is a linear function that describes the total monthly charges for any number of kilowatt hours x. f ( x) = 0. 79) and (400. 159) and (3. 159). 3 26. 000 = and 15 3 y-intercept 245. So 49.15 = b Hence. Using (1. 287) lie on the graph of f which has slope 287 − 159 = 64. The line passing through (100.25q + 190. 21. The problem states that f(380) = 51. 940) and 740 − 940 = 0.000). 70) 70 − 40 = 3 . so an equation for the has slope 20 − 10 line is c – 40 = 3(q – 10) c = 3q + 10 If q = 35. The line has slope 45. Parabolas.10(1800)t v = –180t + 1800 The slope is –180. 740). 960. 000. 1800 0 20. 30) lie on the graph of the equation.000. then f(x) = the price of x hours of service. so m = 2200 − 3000 p – 740 = 0. so (1.000.5 cents are charged per kilowatt hour used. 25.125x + 4.25.03(x – 100) c = 0. Thus y – 340 = –120(x – 4) or y = f(x) = –120x + 820. f(1) = 159 and f(3) = 287. Thus y – 960.65 = 0. and the number of curative units from r minutes of radiation is 305r. which is a line. 35) and (35.10(1800). f(x) = ax + b 51. Since 12.000(x – 5) or y = f(x) = 45.65 = 47. 22. so an equation for has slope 400 − 100 the line is c – 79 = 0.000 = 45. If f ( x) is a linear function it has the form f ( x) = ax + b. Each year the value decreases by 0. 000 49.

a. f(0) = 21. Thus any isoprofit line has 3 6 2 slope − .32. then w = 0.059t + 0. r) lies on the graph. Thus 4−2 2 35 r − 160 = − (l − 2) 2 35 r = − l + 195 2 b. 3 34. Solving P = 4x + 6y for y gives 2 P y = − x + . If l = 1. so b = 21.63. p = f(t) = 0. Since the equation can be 2 written y = − x + 100. 125) are on the line. R = 38N + 397 is a linear equation. slope = − .295 + b. 0. w = f(d) = ad + b. P = 4x + 6y where x. p = f(t) = at + b. Thus a = slope = 10 w = f(d) = 0. so its slope is 125 − 160 35 = − . 3 3 c. then r = − 100 − 65 35 = 100 − 56 44 35 y − 100 = ( x − 100) 44 35 3500 y= x− + 100 44 44 35 225 y= x+ 44 11 m= 31. 62 = b. y acres cost 2000y.025. Hence w = 0.025.3 = 0. then p = 0. 35 (1) + 195 = 177. b.059. When t = 9. Section 3.025 = 0.2 is the lowest passing score on original scale. and at $2000/acre.059t + b. a = slope = 0. a. The points (2.2 35 52. so b = 0. Hence the required equation is 200x + 2000y = 20. 3 2 slope = − . 600 = 4x + 6y. 0. 240 = 4x + 6y 100 R 587 y 549 511 473 40 435 0 60 x 100 0 33. 30.32 = 0. which can be written as x + 10y = 100. and (l. At $200/ton. 35 225 x+ 44 11 35 225 x = 62 − 44 11 1828 x= ≈ 52.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 28.63d + 21.556.65 + 21 = 55. d. 32. and lines with the same slope are 3 parallel.2 Suppose r = respiratory rate. N 5 a.059(5) + b. Thus p = 0. Since f(5) = 0. 6. b. 101 . When d = 55.63(55) + 21 = 34. f(5) = 0. y ≥ 0.000. l = wool length. Slope = 38. we have 20 = 0.65 kg.32 = 0.059(9) + 0. Since the equation can be written 2 2 y = − x + 40 .32. a. which is a line.63(0) + b.5 2 29.63d + b. Since f(0) = 21. Hence isoprofit lines are parallel. 160) and (4. x tons cost 200x.

and Systems 35. 24). 4 0 = −16t 2 + 32t + 8 t= b. f ( x) = 5 x 2 has the form f ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c where a = 5. b = 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ) t −t 80 − 68 12 1 = = . b 6 =− = 1000 q=− 2a 2(−0. c = 399.Chapter 3: Lines.3 2 2. 0 ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 6 ⎞ . If we express the revenue r as a function of the quantity produced q. Since c = 399. Thus. To find the x-intercepts we set y = h(t) = 0.3 1. 102 . or 4 4 1 t = c + 37 . Thus from part (a). Since c = 8. t − 68 = c − 31 . 399). the x-intercepts are (–19. 0 = − x 2 + 2 x + 399 ( 0 = − x 2 − 2 x − 399 3. 0⎟ . and c = 0. The x -coordinate of b 32 =− = 1 . the maximum revenue that the manufacturer can receive is $3000. 8). y 400 100 –25 25 5 r = 6(1000) − 0. 2a 2(−1) The y-coordinate of the vertex is 30 –5 ( ) P (1) = − 12 + 2(1) + 399 = 400 . b = 2. 0). The x-coordinate of the vertex is b 2 − =− =1. and c = 8. Problems 3. which occurs at a production level of 1000 units. Thus. ⎜⎜1 − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Principles in Practice 3. the parabola opens downward.003(1000)2 = 3000 Thus. a = –1. to estimate temperature add 37 to the number of chirps in 15 seconds. the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. 400). Since a < 0. the y-intercept is (0. Since a < 0. 1 1 then c is the number of chirps in 4 4 minute or 15 seconds.003q)q ) r = 6q − 0.003.003q 2 We note that this is a quadratic function with a = –0. In the quadratic function y = P ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x + 399 . and r is maximum at the vertex (q. b = 6. = −32 ± 322 − 4(−16)(8) −b ± b 2 − 4ac = 2a 2(−16) −32 ± 1536 −32 ± 16 6 6 = = 1± −32 −32 2 ⎛ 6 ⎞ Thus. the vertex –20 is (1. we obtain r = pq r = (6 – 0. 1 1 t − 68 = (c − 124) . In the quadratic function h(t ) = −16t + 32t + 8 . this is not a good business. and c = 0 ⇒ quadratic. m= 2 1 = c2 − c1 172 − 124 48 4 h(1) = −16 12 + 32(1) + 8 = 24 . Parabolas. 0) and (21. since it will lose money if more than 21 minivans are sold. a = –16. a. x If the model is correct. Since c is the number of chirps per minute.003) 0 = –(x + 19)(x – 21) Thus. the vertex is (1. the parabola opens downward. the y-intercept is (0. Since a < 0. the x-intercepts are ⎜1 + . r). The the vertex is − 2a 2(−16) y-coordinate of the vertex is 1. To find the x-intercepts we set y = p(x) = 0. b = 32.

and 2 9 c = – ⇒ quadratic. g (t ) = t 2 − 1 b 4 1 =− =− 2a 2 ⋅8 4 3 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 8⎜ − ⎟ + 4 ⎜ − ⎟ −1 = − 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3. 11) b. b = −1. so x = 2. b = 10. c = 0 ⇒ quadratic. 103 . and c. f ( s ) = 2 2 2 1 2 f ( s ) = as + bs + c where a = . ( ) 2 − b 1 =− 2a 2 2 1 25 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ f ⎜− ⎟ = ⎜− ⎟ − −6 = − 2 4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ s2 − 9 1 2 9 = s − has the form 7. a ≠ 0 ⇒ not quadratic. c = 5 a. 11. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 12. = t 4 − 2t 2 + 1 cannot be put in the form g (t ) = at 2 + bt + c where a ≠ 0 ⇒ not quadratic. then y = f (1) = −4(1)2 + 8(1) + 7 = 11 . so the vertex corresponds to the highest point. the form k (v) = av 2 + bv + c where a ≠ 0 ⇒ not quadratic. x= = b 8 =− =1. 2 h(q) = aq + bq + c where a = 1. 6. a = –4 < 0. x-intercepts: 2. Vertex occurs when x = − −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−1) ± (−1)2 − 4(−3)(5) 2(−3) 1 ± 61 = −6 −1 ± 61 = 6 −1 + 61 −1 − 61 x-intercepts: . −3 2 f (t ) = at + bt + c where a = –2. g ( x) = 2 x2 − 4 Section 3. a = 8 > 0. 4. b = 0. b. f (t ) = 2t (3 − t ) + 4t = −2t 2 + 10t has the form x 2 + x − 6 = ( x − 2)( x + 3) = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 2. 2a 2(−4) When x = 1.3 10. c = 5. c = −6 a. b = 1. y = f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x + 7 a = –4. Vertex: (1. y = f ( x) = 8 x 2 + 4 x − 1 a = 8. h(q) = (3 − q ) = 9 − 6q + q has form a = 1. g(x) = 7 – 6x cannot be put in the form 2 − 25 ⎞ ⎛ 1 Vertex: ⎜ − . so the vertex corresponds to the lowest point. y = x 2 + x − 6 2 5. 6 6 9. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 4 a ≠ 0 ⇒ not quadratic. y = f ( x) = 5 − x − 3x 2 a = –3. and c = 9 ⇒ quadratic. k (v) = 3v 2 (v 2 + 2) = 3v 4 + 6v 2 cannot be put in b. c = –6. c = –1 cannot be put in the form g ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c where a. b. −3. Thus the y-intercept is –6. 2 8. b = −6. 2 g ( x) = ax 2 + bx + c where 3⎞ ⎛ 1 Vertex: ⎜ − . c = 7 a. b = 4. Thus the y-intercept is 5. b = 8.

–3. Range: all y ≤ 0 5 y x –2 y 2 –4 x 5 104 5 . Range: all y ≥ 4 f (0) = −4(0) 2 = 0 Vertex = (0. 2. c = –4 b 0 =− =0 Vertex: − 2a 2 ⋅1 x 1 5 (3. –4) y-intercept: c = 5 y 2 x-intercepts: x − 6 x + 5 = (x – 1)(x – 5) = 0.Chapter 3: Lines. so x = 0. –4) y-intercept: c = –4 14. y = f ( x) = x 2 − 4 a = 1. Range: all y ≥ –4 9 2 –3 x –3 2 y 5 16. y = g ( x) = −2 x 2 − 6 x a = –2. b = –6. so x = 0. –4) f (0) = 02 − 4 = −4 Vertex = (0. b = 0. and Systems c. y = f ( x) = –4 x 2 a = –4. y = f ( x) = x − 6 x + 5 a = 1. − ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b −1 1 =− =− 2a 2(−3) 6 15. so x = –2. 5. so x = 1. b = –6. Parabolas. c = 5 b −6 =− =3 Vertex: − 2a 2 ⋅1 x-intercepts: −2 x 2 − 6 x = −2 x( x + 3) = 0 . c = 0 b 0 =− =0 Vertex: − 2a 2(−4) x-intercepts: x 2 − 4 = ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 . ⎟ ⎝ 2 2⎠ y-intercept: c = 0 2 13. 0) y-intercept: c = 0 5 x-intercepts: −4 x 2 = 0 . c = 0 b −6 6 3 =− =− =− Vertex: − 2a 2(−2) 4 2 2 61 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 5 − ⎜ − ⎟ − 3⎜ − ⎟ = 12 ⎝ 6⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ 2 9 ⎛ −3 ⎞ ⎛ −3 ⎞ ⎛ −3 ⎞ −9 f ⎜ ⎟ = −2 ⎜ ⎟ − 6 ⎜ ⎟ = +9 = 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 61 ⎞ Vertex: ⎜ − . ⎟ ⎝ 6 12 ⎠ ⎛ 3 9⎞ Vertex: ⎜ − . b = 0. 9 Range: all y ≤ 2 f (3) = 32 − 6(3) + 5 = −4 Vertex = (3.

b = 8. b = 6. 54 ) –2 –1 – 5 2 105 y 5 4 –1 + 5 2 x 5 = 1± 5 −2 . c = –9 b 8 =− =2 Vertex: − 2a 2(−2) h(−3) = (−3) 2 + 6(−3) + 9 = 0 Vertex = (–3.3 17. –2. –1) y-intercept: c = –9 x-intercepts: Because the parabola opens downward (a < 0) and the vertex is below the x-axis. b = –1. –1) t –3 –9 3 18. – 258) −(−1) ± (−1) 2 − 4(−1)(1) 5 x 5 (– 12 . − ⎟ 8 ⎠ ⎝ 4 s-intercept: c = –2 2 5 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 1− ⎜ − ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ = 4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎛ 1 5⎞ Vertex = ⎜ − . b = 3. ⎟ ⎝ 2 4⎠ y-intercept: c = 1 x-intercepts: Solving 1 − x − x 2 = 0 by the quadratic formula gives t-intercepts: 2t 2 + 3t − 2 = (2t − 1)(t + 2) = 0 . Range: all s ≥ 0 10 s 2 y x (2. there is no x-intercept. s = h(t ) = t 2 + 6t + 9 a = 1. y = f ( x) = −9 + 8 x − 2 x 2 a = –2. 0) s-intercept: c = 9 f (2) = −9 + 8(2) − 2(2)2 = −1 Vertex = (2. c = 1 b −1 1 =− =− Vertex: − 2a 2(−1) 2 2 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ h ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 3⎜ − ⎟ − 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 9 9 25 = − −2 = − 8 4 8 25 ⎞ ⎛ 3 Vertex = ⎜ − . y = H ( x) = 1 − x − x 2 a = –1. s = h(t ) = 2t 2 + 3t − 2 a = 2. so 1 t = .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. 2 x= Range: all s ≥ − 5 25 8 = y 2(−1) −1 ± 5 2 Range: all y ≤ 1 2 –2 (– 34 . c = –2 b 3 3 =− =− Vertex: − 2a 2⋅2 4 20. so t = –3. c = 9 b 6 =− = −3 Vertex: − 2a 2 ⋅1 19. Range: y ≤ –1 t-intercepts: t 2 + 6t + 9 = (t + 3)2 = 0 .

–2) t-intercept: c = 14 2 808 ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 49 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎜ ⎟ + 17 = . From the quadratic formula applied to (–3. b = 6. t = f ( s ) = s 2 − 8s + 14 a = 1.1(20)2 = −10 .1 < 0. the parabola opens upward and f(x) has a minimum value that occurs when 5 b −10 . c = 11 6 b Vertex: − =− = −3 2a 2 ⋅1 f (−3) = (−3)2 + 6(−3) + 11 = 2 Vertex: (–3. t = f ( s ) = s 2 + 6s + 11 a = 1. t 25. Parabolas. 106 . 49 49 49 49 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ s-intercepts: Solving s 2 − 8s + 14 = 0 by the quadratic formula: s= f ( x) = 49 x 2 − 10 x + 17 Since a = 49 > 0. The minimum value is x=− 2a 2 ⋅1 2 2 57 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟ + 3 ⎜ − ⎟ − 12 = − 4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 27. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 21. the parabola opens downward and f(x) has a maximum value that occurs when b −18 =− = −3 x=− 2a 2(−3) The maximum value is f (−3) = −3(−3)2 − 18(−3) + 7 = 34. b = −2.1x 2 Since a = –0. 11 x ≥ 1.Chapter 3: Lines. c = 14 b −8 Vertex: − =− =4 2a 2 ⋅1 23. 14 4– 2 4+ s 2 f (20) = 4(20) − 50 − 0. The minimum value is x=− =− = 2a 2 ⋅ 49 49 24. the parabola opens upward and f(x) has a minimum value that occurs when b 3 3 =− = − . Range: all t ≥ 2 16 f ( x) = 4 x − 50 − 0. The 2a 2(−0.1) maximum value is f ( x) = x( x + 3) − 12 = x 2 + 3 x − 12 Because a = 1 > 0. x ≥ 3. −(−8) ± (−8)2 − 4(1)(14) 2(1) 8± 8 8± 2 2 = = 4± 2 2 2 Range: all t ≥ –2 = f ( x) = −3 x 2 − 18 x + 7 Since a = –3 < 0. –2) 26. we get s x= 10 2 ± 4 − 4(1)(4 − y ) = 1 ± 1 − (4 − y ) 2(1) So the inverse of g(x) is g −1 ( x) = 1 + x − 3. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x + 4 a = 1. f (4) = 42 − 8(4) + 14 = −2 Vertex = (4. the parabola opens downward and f(x) has a maximum value that 4 b occurs when x = − =− = 20 . 22. c = 4 b −2 =− =1 v=− 2a 2(1) t The restricted function is g ( x) = x 2 − 2 x + 4. there is no s-intercept. (4. 2) t-intercept: c = 11 s-intercepts: Because the parabola opens upward (a > 0) and the vertex is above the s-axis. 2) x 2 − 2 x + 4 − y = 0. b = –8.

and r is a maximum at the vertex (q. we obtain r = pq r = (200 − 5q)q 32.00045q)q g(x) g –1(x) r = 0.3 y 30. b = 2400.00045.000. Since a < 0. where 9 3 9 10 0 ≤ n ≤ 12. and r is maximum at the vertex (q. In the quadratic function P ( x ) = − x 2 + 18 x + 144.00045(944) 2 = 401. which occurs at a production level of 944 units. r = 200q − 5q 2 This is a quadratic function with a = –5. the maximum revenue that the manufacturer can receive is $240. Since a = − < 0 . r). the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. r). the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. 000 Thus. 5 g(x) 29.85. Since a < 0.000 households. b 0. b = 4. If we express the revenue r as a function of the quantity produced q. and r is maximum at the vertex (q. b 200 q=− =− = 20 2a 2(−5) 10 40 10 n(12 − n) = n − n 2 . c = −3 b 4 v=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) r = 0.85 8500 q=− =− = ≈ 944 2a 2(−0. 5 y g –1(x) x r = 2400(200) − 6(200)2 = 240. b = 18. the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. From the quadratic formula applied to − x 2 + 4 x − 3 − y = 0. x ≥ 2. f ( n) = 40 − b 3 =− =6 2a 2 − 10 9 ( ) The maximum value of f(n) is 40 10 f (6) = (6) − (6) 2 = 80 − 40 = 40 . f(n) has a 9 maximum value that occurs at the vertex. which 3 9 corresponds to 40. r = 200(20) − 5(20)2 = 2000 Thus. and c = 144.00045) 9 x 8 28. b = 200. which occurs at a production level of 200 units. b = 0. The x-coordinate of the vertex 107 . and c = 0.85q − 0. x ≤ 1. we obtain r = pq r = (2400 – 6q)q −4 ± 16 − 4(−1)(−3 − y ) 2(−1) = 2 ± (−1) 4 + (−3 − y ) x= r = 2400q − 6q 2 This is a quadratic function with a = –6. the maximum revenue that the manufacturer can receive is $2000. a = –1. and c = 0. the maximum revenue that the manufacturer can receive is $401. 33. and c = 0. f ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 3 a = −1.39 Thus. b 2400 q=− =− = 200 2a 2(−6) So the inverse of g(x) is g −1 ( x) = 2 + 1 − x .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 8 Section 3. we obtain r = pq r = (0. we get 31.85 − 0. which occurs at a production level of 20 units. Since a < 0. the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. If we express the revenue r as a function of the quantity produced q. Since a < 0. r). If we express the revenue r as a function of the quantity produced q.85(944) − 0. The restricted function is g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 3.39.00045q 2 This is a quadratic function with a = −0.

When t = . 0). we let y = h(t) = 0.7. 2a 2(−4. h(t ) = −16t 2 + 16t + 4 Since a = –16 < 0. let y = P(x) = 0. f ( P ) = − P 2 + 2 P + 20 . The maximum value of 2a 2 − 1 ( 50 ⎛5 ⎞ Thus. 2a 2(−16) then x 30 34. Since a < 0.8 Since a = –4. the graph of the function is a parabola that opens downward. In the quadratic function h(t ) = −16t 2 + 80t + 16 . 16). 225). The x-coordinate of b 0 =− =0. the graph of the function is a parabola that opens upward.86 feet. 50 1 Because a = − < 0 . Since c = 16. h(t) has a maximum value that occurs at the vertex where b 16 1 1 t=− =− = sec. h(t ) = −16t 2 + 85t + 22 –20 Since a = −16 < 0. the y-intercept is (0.8 14 Thus. the x-intercepts are (24. the ⎝2 ⎠ y-intercept is (0. the vertex is (9.36 sec. Since a > 0. 2a 2(−16) 2 2 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ then. a = –16. 144).825 meters. s = −4. To find the x-intercepts. ) 0 = −16t 2 + 80t + 16 108 . 8 y 39.7) 2 + 85(2.7) + 22 = 134. and c = 16. s has a maximum value that occurs at the vertex where b 62. 0) and (–6. The y-coordinate of the 2a 2(−1) f (50) = ( ) vertex is P (9) = − 92 + 18(9) + 144 = 225 .3 ⎜ ⎟ + 1. 0). h(t) has a maximum value that occurs at the vertex where b 85 t=− =− ≈ 2. Parabolas. 0 = − x 2 + 18 x + 144 ( 0 = − x 2 − 18 x − 144 −1 (50)2 + 2(50) + 20 = 70 grams. To find the x-intercepts. the vertex is ⎜ . then y = kx 2 h(t ) = −16(2.3 89 t=− =− = = ≈ 6.3t + 1. f(P) has a maximum 50 value that occurs at the vertex.9t 2 + 62.9 ⎜ ⎟ + 62. If k = 2.7 sec. and Systems is − ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f(P) is 18 b =− = 9 .9 < 0. The x-coordinate of the vertex is b 80 5 − =− = . When t = 2. b = 80.Chapter 3: Lines. 50 ) When t = 0 = –(x – 24)(x + 6) Thus. h(t ) = −16 ⎜ ⎟ + 16 ⎜ ⎟ + 4 = 8 feet. ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ y = 2(0) 2 = 0 Thus.3 62. where 0 ≤ P ≤ 100. then 14 2 ⎛ 89 ⎞ ⎛ 89 ⎞ s = −4. 89 . 116 ⎟ . the vertex is − 2a 2(2) The y-coordinate is 38. y = 2 x2 This is a quadratic equation with a = 2. b = 0 and c = 0. P(x) 400 37.8 ⎝ 14 ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ = 199. Since c = 144. 36. 2 b − =− = 50 . 2a 2(−16) 2 The y-coordinate of the vertex is x 5 2 ⎛5⎞ ⎛5⎞ ⎛5⎞ h ⎜ ⎟ = −16 ⎜ ⎟ + 80 ⎜ ⎟ + 16 = 116 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 35. the vertex is (0.9) 9.

73 45. 2a 2(−1) 2 41. the x-intercepts are ⎜ .000 is invested at 9% and $80. ⎨ ⎩5 A + 7 B = 9500. and let B = the number of deer of species B.11.4 y = 78 − x = 78 − 39 = 39. two 46. 000. y = 80. A has maximum value at the vertex where b 11 11 x=− =− = . one ⎛ 5 − 29 ⎞ . Then. Thus. The number of pounds of hay that will be consumed is 5A + 7B = 9500. The area A is given by A = x(500 − 2 x) = 500 x − 2 x 2 . none b. which is quadratic with a = –2 < 0. –1. ⎨ ⎩0. p(x) has a maximum value that occurs at the b 78 vertex where x = − =− = 39 and 2a 2(−1) 109 . 14. ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ c. Then. two numbers whose sum is 78 and whose product is a maximum are 39 and 39.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis t= = Section 3.18 h(t) 47. 4. we obtain ⎧ B = 2000 − 2 A ⎨5 A + 7 B = 9500. Then the 2(−2) side opposite the highway is 500 – 2x = 500 – 2(125) = 250. 0⎟ . 200. −0.09 x + 0.08 y = 17. ⎨ ⎩0. Thus the dimensions are 125 ft by 250 ft.09 x − 0.4 –10 10 1.09 y = −18. 2. ⎨ ⎩ y = 80. $120. Thus x + y = 78 and y = 78 − x. a. Let A = the number of deer of species A.01 y = −800. 000. the number of pounds of food pellets that will be consumed is 4A + 2B = 4000. Thus. Since a = −1 < 0. y be two numbers whose sum is 78. Therefore. Their product is then p( x) = x(78 − x) = 78 x − x 2 .08 y = 17. If we solve the first equation for B. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −80 ± 802 − 4(−16)(16) 43. ⎧ x = 120. x 40. Thus A is 500 maximum when x = − = 125. (1. we have ⎧4 A + 2 B = 4000.89 160 Principles in Practice 3. Since the total length of fencing is 500. 2. the problem states ⎧ x + y = 200. A = x(11 − x) = 11x − x 2 . 000. Let x. We eliminate x by multiplying the first equation by –0. 3.09 and then adding ⎧−0. 0 ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 44. 200. so A is a quadratic function of x where a = –1 < 0. 000. Then.88) 2(−16) −80 ± 7424 5 ± 29 = = −32 2 ⎛ 5 + 29 ⎞ Thus.61.000 is invested at 8%. 000. Let x = the number invested at 9% and let y = the amount invested at 8%. the side opposite the highway has length 500 – 2x.09 x + 0. ⎩ Substituting 2000 – 2A for B in the second equation gives 5A + 7(2000 – 2A) = 9500 A = 500 Highway x x 500 – 2x 42.

Then. x = 3 – 4y. The number of milligrams of the second supplement that will be consumed is 30A + 40B = 200. ⎨ ⎩30 A + 40 B = 200. ⎪ B = 2 A.50. 1 lb of 6 1 1 lb of B.50. ⎧4 x + 2 y = 9. 1 ⎧ ⎪A = 6 . (2) Rewriting the system gives ⎧4 x + 2 y = 9. 000. Adding the equations gives 7y = 14 y=2 From Eq. 1. the number of milligrams of the first supplement that will be consumed is 15A + 20B = 100. (2) gives 3(3 – 4y) – 2y = –5 9 – 12y – 2y = –5 –14y = –14. The food will support 500 of species A and 1000 of species B. ⎪ B = 2 A. B = r. ⎧15 A + 20 B = 100. 3. since the amount of type B is to be twice the amount of type A. (2) by 4 gives ⎧9 x − 12 y = 39. y = 1. ⎩ ⎧3x − 4 y = 13. Let A = the amount of type A used. ⎩ Thus. where form A = 3 3 0 ≤ r ≤ 5000. 4 4. ⎧15 A + 20 B = 100. y = 2. (1) (2) From Eq. and A + B + C = 1. 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪B = 3 . Thus x = –1. ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨C = .50 per pound.Chapter 3: Lines. Thus. ⎨ ⎩3 x − 2 y = −5. Furthermore. ⎩ Simplifying gives ⎧30 A + 7C = 8. and lb of C. (1). (1) we have 4x + 2(2) = 9 4x = 5 5 x= 4 5 Thus x = . ⎨ ⎩8 x + 12 y = 12. let B = the amount of type B used. 110 . (1) 2. 000. ⎨ ⎩−15 A − 20 B = −100. Parabolas. there are infinitely many solutions of the 20. ⎨ ⎩−4 x + 5 y = 5. 3 2 Problems 3. then 12A + 9B + 7C = 8. and let C = the amount of type C used. and let B = the number of fish of species B. Let A = the number of fish of species A. ⎨ ⎩2 x + 3 y = 3.000. ⎨ ⎩ A = 500. A. and ⎧ B = 1000. (1) by 3 and Eq. ⎪ ⎨3 A + C = 1. 0=0 Thus. 1 We multiply the second equation by − and 2 then add.50. ⎨ ⎩5 y − 4 x = 5. ⎨ ⎩ A = 500. 000 4 − r . the system of equations is ⎧12 A + 9 B + 7C = 8. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus ⎧ B = 2000 − 2 A. (1) (2) Multiplying Eq. 000.000. B = 2A. 000. If the final blend will sell for $8. ⎪ ⎨ A + B + C = 1. or y = 1 ⇒ x = 3 – 4y = 3 – 4(1) = –1. Substituting in Eq.4 ⎧ x + 4 y = 3. the final mixture will consist of 3.

(1). y = 2x – 1. or y = –7. ⎧u + v = 5 5. From Eq. ⎩ (1) (2) By simplifying. (1). Thus x = –3. which is never true. ⎨ ⎩3 p + 3q = 33. Multiplying the first equation by 9 and the second equation by –4 gives 111 . Clearing fractions gives the system ⎧4 x + 3 y = 12. Thus there is no solution. y = 2. ⎪⎩ 8 6 2 From Eq. From Eq. 7. (1) (2) From Eq. ⎧5 x + 7 y + 2 = 9 y − 4 x + 6. ⎨ ⎩9 x − 2 y = 4. Subtracting the second equation from the first gives 0 = –4. (2) we have 2(3) + 3y = 3 3y = –3 y = –1 Thus x = 3. ⎧2 p + q = 16. (1). ⎧2 x − y = 1. u = 6. Substituting in Eq. ⎨ ⎩5 x + 3 y = –9. y = –7. v = −1. Thus x = 3. x = 2y – 7. Multiplying Eq. ⎧ x − 2 y = –7. q = 16 − 2p. ⎨ ⎩ x + 5 y − 2 = y + 4. Then 2 4 9 x − 2r = 4 ⇒ x = r + . 8. ⎨ 21 4 11 3 2 5 ⎪ 2 x− 3 y− 4 = 2 x+ 3 y+ 4. Thus a parametric 9 9 2 4 solution is x = r + . Simplifying. ⎨ ⎩−15 x − 27 y = −21. Substituting in Eq. (2) we have 5x + 9(–7) = 7 5x = 70 x = 14 Thus x = 14. Let y = r. y = 5. ⎨ ⎩u − v = 7 From the first equation. Both equations represent the same line. ⎨ ⎩− x + 2 y = 7. 6. Substituting in the second equation gives u − (5 − u ) = 7 2u − 5 = 7 2u = 12 or u = 6 so v = 5 − u = 5 − 6 = −1. 9. q = 6. y = r. ⎨ ⎪ 3 x + 5 y = − 11 . ⎧3x + 5 y = 7. (2) gives 3 p + 3(16 − 2 p ) = 33 −3 p = −15 p = 5 ⇒ q = 16 − 2p = 16 − 10 = 6. y = –1. (1) by 5 and Eq.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. Substituting in Eq. (2) by –3 gives ⎧15 x + 25 y = 35. ⎨ ⎩5 x + 9 y = 7. where r is any real 9 9 number. (1) (2) (1) (2) 1 ⎧2 ⎪⎪ 3 x + 2 y = 2. Thus. we have ⎧ x + 4 y = 2. p = 5. ⎨ ⎩9 x + 20 y = −132. we have ⎧9 x − 2 y = 4.4 Adding gives 17x = 51 x=3 From Eq. 11. Thus. 4. (2) gives 5(2y – 7) + 3y = –9 13y = 26 y = 2 ⇒ x = 2y – 7 = 2(2) – 7 = –3. ⎪ 10. (2) gives –x + 2(2x – 1) = 7 3x = 9 x = 3 ⇒ y = 2x – 1 = 2(3) – 1 = 5. so we have infinitely many solutions. v = 5 − u. ⎨ ⎩ x + 4 y = 6. Adding gives –2y = 14. ⎧4 x − 3 y − 2 = 3 x − 7 y.

y= 1 1 1 . 112 . ⎩ 1 2 Therefore x = Multiplying Eq. ⎨ ⎩−36 x − 80 y = 528. we have ⎛1⎞ 3x + 10 ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝4⎠ ⎧⎪ 1 z − 1 w = 1 4 6 12. ⎪4 x − 2 y + 2 z = 0. ⎧36 x + 27 y = 108. Parabolas. Thus z = . ⎨ ⎩−10 x + 6 y = 4. we have 4x + 3(–12) = 12 4x = 48 ⇒ x = 12. ⎪3x + 2 y − 2 z = 2. we have 4z = –8 z = –2 From y + z = –2. (2) to Eq. (1) by –2 gives ⎧−10 p − 22q = −14. ⎨ ⎩−2 y + 2 z = −4. 14. ⎨ ⎩5 x + 6 z = 4. Multiplying the first equation by 2 gives ⎧2 y + 2 z = −4. 1 . ⎩ (1) (2) (1) (2) (3) Subtracting Eq. y = 0. (2) and (3) and simplifying gives ⎧ y + z = −2. and adding 2 times Eq. 3 ⎛1⎞ From the first equation we have 6 ⎜ ⎟ − 3w = 2. ⎨ ⎩10 p + 22q = 33. or z = 3x + 10z = 4. (2) from Eq. ⎨ ⎩−2 y + 2 z = −4. 3 ⎧5 p + 11q = 7. y= .Chapter 3: Lines. (3) gives ⎧3 x + 10 z = 4. we have y + (–2) = –2 y=0 Thus x = 1. From 4 (1) (2) (3) ⎧ x + 4 y + 3 z = 10 ⎪ 17. so the system has no solution. (1) by 2 gives ⎧10 x − 6 y = 4. y = 3x + z − 11. ⎧5 x − 3 y = 2. 13. z= . Adding gives –53y = 636 y = –12 From 4x + 3y = 12. 2 2 4 ⎧ x + y + z = −1. (1) and (2). ⎧2 x + y + 6 z = 3. w = 0. which is never true. z = –2. ⎨ x − y + 4 z = 1. Thus x = 12. (1) gives –2x = –2. ⎨ ⎩−10 x + 6 y = 4. we have ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ 2⎜ ⎟ + y + 6⎜ ⎟ = 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝4⎠ 3x = 1 Adding gives 12z = 4 and so z = . or x = 1. ⎨ ⎩−15 x − 18 z = −12. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Multiplying the first equation by 5 and the second equation by –3 gives ⎧15 x + 50 z = 20. ⎨3x + y + z = 1. (1) (2) Multiplying Eq. ⎪ 16. which is never true. Adding gives 0 = 19. ⎪ 15. Adding gives 0 = 8. y = –12. ⎨ ⎩ 10 p + 22q = 33. ⎨ 12 1w= 1 z + ⎪⎩ 2 4 6 Multiplying both equations by 12 gives ⎧6 z − 3w = 2 ⎨ 6 z + 3w = 2 ⎩ 3 2 1 x= 2 From 2x + y + 6z = 3. Substituting in the first two equations gives ⎧ x + 4(3 x + z − 11) + 3 z = 10 ⎨4 x + 2(3 x + z − 11) − 2 z = −2 ⎩ Adding Eq. ⎨4 x + 2 y − 2 z = −2 ⎪⎩ 3x − y + z = 11 From the third equation. ⎝3⎠ 1 from which w = 0. Substituting x = 1 in Eqs. By adding. so the system has no solution. Adding gives 32z = 8.

(1) to Eq. where r is any real 3 3 number. ⎪ ⎨2 x + y − z = 0 ⎪2 x + y − z = 0 ⎩ We can ignore the third equation because the second equation can be used to reduce it to 0 = 0. ⎧2 y + 3 z = 1. Setting y = r and z = s gives the parametric solution x = 2r + s. z = r. y = . and 7z = 28. (2). x = 15. (1). ⎧ x + y + z = 18 (1) ⎪ 18. (1) ⎧ x − y + 2 z = 0. ⎪ 21. (3) gives 2 x = 30 ⎧ ⎨4 x + 3 z = 16 ⎩ From the first equation. (1) ⎧ x − 2 z = 1. x= 113 . where r is any real number. z = s. ⎨ ⎩2 x − 4 y − 2 z = 0. ⎨2 x + y − z = 0 (2) ⎪ x + 2 y − 3z = 0 (3) ⎩ Adding Eq. ⎨2 x − 4 y − 2 z = 0 (2) ⎪− x + 2 y + z = 0 (3) ⎩ Adding Eq. ⎨ ⎩3x − 4 z = 0. y = − r . 2 2 4 z . y = (1) (2) 1 3 − z . 3 3 (1) ⎧ x − 2 y − z = 0. Substituting in the second equation gives 4(15) + 3 z = 16 3 z = −44 44 z=− 3 From x + y + z = 18 44 = 18 15 + y − 3 53 y= 3 53 44 Thus. y = r. (1) and Eq. z = r. x = 2y + z. z = 4. y = −1. y = 3 – z. Multiplying the first equation by –2 gives ⎧−2 x + 4 y + 2 z = 0. x = 15. (2). (2) to both Eq. Substitute these two values to solve for y: y = 3(2) + 4 − 11 = −1 Therefore. (1). Thus 13(2) + 7z = 54. ⎨ ⎩0 = 0. ⎨ ⎩2 x + y − z = 0. From Eq. from Eq. ⎪ 22. ⎪ ⎨2 x − 4 y − 2 z = 0 ⎪0 = 0 ⎩ We can ignore the third equation. ⎨ (2) ⎩ y + z = 3. hence z = 4. Setting z = r gives the parametric solution x = 1 + 2r. Adding the first equation to the second. where r and s are any real numbers. from Eq.4 or ⎧13x + 7 z = 54 ⎨10 x = 20 ⎩ From the last equation we have x = 2. x = 1 + 2z. 19. ⎨ x − y − z = 12 (2) ⎪⎩3x + y + 4 z = 4 (3) Adding Eq. z = r. y = 3 – r. so we have ⎧ x − 2 y − z = 0. 20. (3) gives ⎧ x − 2 y − z = 0. (1) to Eq. x = 2. From Eq. where r is 3 2 2 any real number. Setting z = r gives the parametric 3 4 1 3 solution x = r . We have ⎧ x − y + 2 z = 0. z = − .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. (3) gives ⎧ x − y + 2 z = 0. we have ⎧−2 x + 4 y + 2 z = 0. ⎨ ⎩2 x − 4 y − 2 z = 0. y = r . From the first equation. Adding the first equation to the second gives 3x + z = 0 1 x=− z 3 Substituting in the first equation we have 1 − z − y + 2z = 0 3 5 y= z 3 Letting z = r gives the parametric solution 1 5 x = − r .

⎪ N = P. Solving the first equation for x. Substituting in Eq. Parabolas.5 lb of cotton.000 and state tax is $24. where r is any real number. then N = P and C + P + N = 1.3 3 1600 800 y = 800 − x = 800 − = ≈ 266. ⎨ ⎩−2 x − 2 y + z = −3. ⎨ ⎩ x + y = 20. 2 2 where r and s are any real numbers. (2) by − 1 gives 2 ⎧2 x + 2 y − z = 3. and 0. (1).25. ⎨ ⎩0 = 0. From the first equation we have y + z = 17 − 5x = 17 − 5(3) = 2 Letting z = r we have the parametric solution x = 3. 000. ⎩ which is equivalent to ⎧ 4 F + S = 312. the system of equations is ⎧4C + 3P + 2 N = 3. ⎨ ⎩ y = 15.35(800 – x) = 0. each pound of the final fabric will contain 0. If the final blend will cost $3.8. Now solve the system ⎧ F = 0.03 x + 0. 28. ⎨ ⎩4 x + y + z = 14 Subtracting the second equation from the first gives x = 3. y = r.25.20x + 0. and let N = the number of pounds of nylon. Thus 3 3 533. Let x = the number of pounds of 3% nitrogen fertilizer. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎧0. Adding the first equation to the second equation gives ⎧2 x + 2 y − z = 3. and 15 lb of 11% nitrogen fertilizer. 29. y = 800 – x. Let x = number of gallons of 20% solution and y = number of gallons of 35% solution.25.20 x + 0. y = 2 − r. z = r. let P = the number of pounds of polyester. 000.11 y = 1. ⎪ P = 0.3 gal of 20% solution and 266.35 y = 0. the final mixture should contain 5 lb of 3% nitrogen fertilizer.25 per pound to make. Then (1) ⎧ x + y = 800. ⎨ (2) ⎩0. say. 000 ⎨ F + 10 S = 312.09(20).25(800).11 y = 0. ⎪ ⎨C + P + N = 1. 000 − S ). z = s. ⎨ S = 0. By substituting 20 – x for y in the first equation.15x + 280 = 200 –0. ⎪ N = P. 23.25. ⎩ Simplifying gives ⎧4C + 5 N = 3.000.25(312.Chapter 3: Lines. (1) (2) Multiplying Eq. we have 3 1 x = − y + z . Let C = the number of pounds of cotton. Thus. if we use the same amount of nylon as polyester to prepare. we obtain ⎧ x = 5. 25. ⎨ ⎩4 x + 4 y − 2 z = 6. (2) gives 0. Furthermore. Then ⎧0. Thus. ⎧ N = 0. ⎩ and has solution ⎧ F = 72.7. ⎪ ⎨C = 0. 1 pound of fabric.25(800) –0.25 lb each of nylon and polyester.03 x + 0.7 gal of 35% solution must be mixed. Let p = speed of airplane in still air and w = wind speed. and let y = the number of pounds of 11% nitrogen fertilizer.25. From Eq. ⎨ ⎩ y = 20 − x. 27. ⎩ Federal tax is $72. and then simplifying. ⎨ S = 24.5. then 4C + 3P + 2N = 3. Let F = federal tax and S = state tax.15x = −80 1600 x= ≈ 533. 26. Now convert the time into minutes and solve the system 114 .10(312. and Systems ⎧2 x + 2 y − z = 3. ⎩ Thus. 000. Letting y = r and z = s gives the 2 2 3 1 parametric solution x = − r + s . 000 − F ). ⎪ ⎨C + 2 N = 1. ⎩ ⎧5 x + y + z = 17 24.

Therefore 130 liked. y = z. ⎪ (2) ⎨2. ⎪ ⎝2⎠ ⎨ ⎪(r − c) ⎛ 3 ⎞ = 10. ⎪ (2) ⎨ x = 1. (1) and (2) gives 115 .30 y + 2.625(80) = 130. ⎪ 40 ⎨ ⎪r − c = 3 . 000. (3) ⎩ From Eq. 31. ⎪ z = 0.4 (1) ⎧ x = 1.00y + 8800. more simply.20 y. Then (1) ⎧ x + y + z = 250. respectively.00y + 8800. (1). and z be the amounts of 2. 3 33.2 Plane speed in still air is about 285 mph and wind speed is about 23. (3) ⎩ From Eq.20y for x in Eq. and z = number of no comments. The total cost of Exton is 7.50x + 7000 = 6. and 40 had no comment.00(1500 – x) + 8800 7. (2) gives 250(1. ⎧r + c = 20. (3). (3). and 2.000 650y = 130. and the total cost at Whyton is 6.625 y. z = 40.000 300y + 350y = 130. This gives the system (1) ⎧ x + y = 1500. Therefore 800 calculators must be made at the Exton plant and 700 calculators at the Whyton plant.60 dollars/lb coffee. y = number of unfavorable comments.2 mph. ⎩ Adding the equations gives 100 2r = 3 50 r= 3 10 Since r + c = 20. Thus the 3 2 speed of the raft in still water is 16 mi/h.625y = 1. Substituting for x and z in Eq.625y = 210 y = 80 Thus x = 1.800 x = 800 Thus y = 1500 – x = 1500 – 800 = 700.20. 900 ⎧ ⎪⎪ p + w = 175 ⎨ ⎪ p − w = 900 . The fact that 20% more of early American styles are sold than Contemporary styles means that x = y + 0. Also. Let x = number of early American units and y = number of Contemporary units. we have ⎧ ⎛1⎞ ⎪(r + c) ⎜ ⎟ = 10.20 x + 2. (2) gives 7. Since (rate)(time) = distance.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. (2) ⎩ Substituting 1. (1). ⎪ y = z.5x = 10. ⎪⎩ 206 900 900 36 450 + = + Thus 2 p = 175 206 7 103 3429 miles per minute p= 721 279 miles per minute w= 721 Multiplying by 60 to get miles per hour we have p ≈ 285 and w ≈ 23. y = 1500 – x.50x + 7000 = 9000 – 6x + 8800 13.40(100).20y) + 350y = 130. Let x = number of favorable comments.00 y + 8800.625y) + y + (40) = 250 2. From Eq. Then rate of raft downstream is r + c.50x + 7000 = 6. Therefore 240 units of early American and 200 units of Contemporary must be sold. ⎜4⎟ ⎪⎩ ⎝ ⎠ or. we have c = .50x + 7000. 30. 3 1 speed of the current is 3 mi/h.20y x = 1.20(200) = 240. x + y = 1500. and rate upstream is r – c. ⎨ + = 250 x 350 y 130.000 y = 200 Thus x = 1. Let x. 32. y. ⎨ (2) ⎩7. we obtain (1.16(250).000. Thus we have the system 34.60 z = 2. and y = number of calculators produced at Whyton.30. Substituting for y in Eqs. 2.20y An analysis of profit gives 250x + 350y = 130. Substituting in Eq. 80 disliked.20y = 1. Then (1) ⎧ x + y + z = 100. Thus 7.50 x + 7000 = 6. Let x = number of calculators produced at Exton. Let r = speed of raft in still water and c = speed of current.

Thus p1 = 39. Let x = rate on first $100. 000.90 z = 240. 000 ⎨T = L + 0. A system that describes the situation is ⎧T = L + 25. 000. Subtracting Eq.30 L ⎩ We can rewrite this as ⎧T = L + 25.333 T = 1.60 z = 240. r = number of rockers.000 and 6% on the remainder.3L = 25. by simplifying. Let x = number of loose-filled boxes and y = number of boxes of clam-shells that will be filled. Solving for L 0. 000 x + 180.333.20. respectively. ⎨ (2) ⎩100. and from the statement of the problem we can write 3 ( p1 + p2 ) + 600 = p1 .6 x = 3600 37. (1) from Eq.30 L ⎩ Thus T = 1. invested 384 736 = .333. x = 100 – 2z.30 z + 2.60 per lb coffee must be used.04. From the first equation. (1) ⎧x = y ⎨20 x + 17. ⎪⎩ 1 23 2 12 Substituting p1 = p2 in first equation gives 23 7 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 3 − ⎜ p2 + p2 = −600 10 ⎝ 23 ⎟⎠ 10 36. and 40 lb of $2. This can also be written as p1 p2 35.800.000y = 6300 y = 0. Let p1 and p2 be the amounts of the two investments. we have 3 ⎧ 7 ⎪⎪− 10 p1 + 10 p2 = −600.2(8y) pounds of peaches. Then (1) ⎧100. or x = 0. Let c = number of chairs company makes. and $2.74 y = x ≈ 95. 000. This will take 20x + 2. we can write since rate = amt. p1 p = 2 .000x + 4500 = 8500. 000 y = 8500. The total 23 23 amount invested was p1 + p2 = 4800 + 9200 = $14. ⎨ ⎪ p1 = p2 . (2) gives 105. Thus.333.Chapter 3: Lines. x = 100 – 2(40) = 20. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 20 x + 17.74 Thus. 000 y = 14. 000.50z = 20 z = 40 From x = 100 – 2z.20(100 – 2z) + 4. 40. y = 40.333 thus T = $108. $2.06 Substituting in Eq. ⎪⎩ 384 736 Simplifying. Then the total amount invested was p1 + p2 .06) = 8500 100. ⎨ ⎪ p = 12 p . (1) gives 100. 000 ⎨T = 1.3L and we can substitute this in the first equation: 1. 37. 000 L = 83. The return on the 10 second investment was 1120 – 384 = 736. ⎧ x + z + z = 100. 000. Thus the rate is 4% on the first $100.333 and L = $83.90z = 240 0.333. (2). ⎨ ⎩2.000 and y = rate on sales over $100. From y = z. Hence we have the system 384 736 ⎧3 ⎪⎪10 ( p1 + p2 ) + 600 = p1 . 000 . Wood used: (1)c + (1)r + (1)l = 400 Plastic used: (1)c + (1)r + (2)l = 600 116 . and l = number of chaise lounges. respectively.000.333. Substituting in the second equation gives 2.333. ⎧ x + 2 z = 100. 3 p2 = −600 46 p2 = 9200 − 12 12 p2 = (9200) = 4800 . Parabolas. ⎨ ⎩2.3L = L + 25.3(83.3L = 1.333) = 108. or.6 y = 3600 (2) ⎩ Substitute x = y in Eq.6 x = 3600 x ≈ 95. 38.30. Then 8y clam-shells will be used.20 x + 4.20 x + 2.000x = 4000. 20. Since the percentage return on each was the same. 000 x + 75.000x + 75. 100.000(0. and interest . 95 boxes will be loose-filled and 8(95) = 760 clam-shells will be used. for a total of 190 boxes.

Method 1. Since b = a + 5. (3) gives 0. z = number of shipping clerks employed. Then (1) ⎧ x + y + z = 35. (3) ⎩ Subtracting Eq.75.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.000 From Eq.01y = 120 y = 12. Let a = number of minutes that pump for tank A operates. ⎪2c + 3r + 5l = 1500.02z = 380. Then a + b = 10.08 y + 0.4 Aluminum used: (2)c + (3)r + (5)l = 1500 Thus we have the system (1) ⎧c + r + l = 400.000 at 7%.0 . (2) gives l = 200. $12.000 at 8%. Thus 35 b ⎧a (1) ⎪ +5 = 35 ⎨ 25 ⎪a + b = 10. ⎪ wages: 16 x + 9.08 y + 0.07 times Eq. y = 0.5(2 x) + 10 z = 725 ⎩ or ⎧ 3x + z = 70 ⎨35 x + 10 z = 725 ⎩ Adding −10 times the first equation to the 117 From Eq. 000. x = 8. pump on A operates is 25 b it is . 25a gallons are pumped from tank A and 35b from tank B.01z = 130 z = 13. ⎪ (2) ⎨0. (2) gives 25a + 35(a + 5) = 10. (2) from Eq. 45.75) = 5906. 10 semiskilled workers.25 gallons are pumped from B.25 = 4093. 42. 8%.000) = 380 0.000 x = 10.000 – b.000 at 9% (later 10%).10 z = 2960. $13.3.01y + 0. y = 2 46.33. (1) to Eq. Let a = number of gallons from A. and 55 shipping clerks. (2). (1) gives 10.75 + 5 = 168. x = 1.000. ⎪0.000 60a = 9825 a = 163. and 35(168. For the pump on B. (1). y. Letting z = 13. substituting in Eq. ⎪ (2) ⎨c + r + 2l = 600.75) = 4093.07 x + 0. b = 163. (1) from Eq. 100 rockers and 200 chaise lounges should be made. a = 10.000 The investments are $10.01y + 0. y = 14.07 x + 0.000 = 35. Method 2. 000 − b b +5 = 25 35 b b 400 − + 5 = 25 35 12b 405 = 175 5906. and z.5 y + 10 z = 725 (2) ⎨ ⎪semiskilled: y = 2x (3) ⎩ From the last equation.75 b = a + 5.000 + 13. or c = 100. y = number of semiskilled workers employed. be the amounts originally invested at 7%. 000.000. (2) gives 0.67 47. (1) ⎧b = a + 5. (1) from Eq. second gives: 5 x = 25 x=5 So y = 2x = 10 z = 70 − 3x = 70 − 15 = 55 The company should hire 5 skilled workers. Adding –2 times Eq. y = 2x so substitute into the first two equations: x + 2 x + z = 70 ⎧ ⎨16 x + 9. x + 12.000 – b = 10. Then b = a + 5. The number of minutes the a . Substituting in Eq. (2) ⎩ 40. Thus 100 chairs. and b = number of minutes that pump for tank B operates. 41. x = 3. (3) ⎩ Subtracting Eq.000 Subtracting 0. Let x = number of skilled workers employed. and 9%.000 – 5906. from which r + 3(200) = 700. 000.75.02(13. Let x.75 gallons are pumped from A. (3) gives r + 3l = 700. ⎨ (2) ⎩25a + 35b = 10. Thus 25(163. Then we have the system (1) ⎧number of workers: x + y + z = 70.25 = b Thus a = 10. r = 100 From Eq. and let b = number of gallons from B. respectively. we have 0.09 z = 2830. (1) we have c + 100 + 200 = 400.

if x = 0. then y = 0. y = 3 − 2x. (1) gives In the following solutions. there are no real solutions. 5 p2 − 3 p + 3 = 0 2. (2). any reference to Eq. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a x4 − x = 0 ( ) x x3 − 1 = 0 −2 ± 22 − 4(1)(−12) 2(1) −2 ± 52 = 2 = −1 ± 13 = Thus x = 0. if p = –3. y = x. From Eq. –1. From Eq. then we have y = 42 − 2(4) = 8 . x 1 − x2 = 0 x(1 + x)(1 – x) = 0. (2). 2. (1) gives 7. if x = –1. (1) gives 3 − 2x = x2 − 9 0 = x 2 + 2 x − 12 5. x = 1. Substituting into the second equation gives 5( p 2 + 1) − 3 p − 2 = 0 x = −1 − 13. y = 5 − 2 13. Substituting in Eq. q = –4. in the given system. y = –1. then ⎧ 2 6. x = –1. The only solution is x = 6. then y = –1. p = 2. x = 1. y = 0. then y = 02 = 0 . we have q = –3 – 1 = –4. (2). ⎨ p − q + 1 = 0 ⎩5q − 3 p − 2 = 0 y = 5 − 2 13. Parabolas. From y = x 2 − 2 x . respectively. There are two solutions: x = 0. y = –8. There are three solutions: x = 0. From Eq. x = 1. There are two solutions: x = −1 + 13. then y = x – 14 = 6 – 14 = –8. Substituting in Eq. There are two solutions: x = 4. There are two solutions: p = –3. (2) refers to the first or second equation. then q = 2 – 1 = 1. y = 3. y = 1. x2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) = 0 Thus x = 4. (1) or Eq. (2). y = 0. if x = −1 − 13. 3. if x = 4. q = 1. then y = 12 = 1 . From the first equation q = p 2 + 1. 1. Thus x = 0.Chapter 3: Lines. then y = (−1)2 − 2(−1) = 3 . and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Problems 3. From Eq. ( x − 14)2 − x 2 = 28 –28x + 196 = 28 –28x = –168 x=6 If x = 6. q = p – 1. (1) gives x2 − 2 x = 4 x − x2 + 8 p 2 = 5 − ( p − 1) 2 x2 − 6 x − 8 = 0 p2 + p − 6 = 0 (p + 3)(p – 2) = 0 Thus p = –3. then y = 5 + 2 13. if x = −1 + 13. Substituting in Eq. then y = 1. 118 . Substituting y = x 2 − 2 x in Eq. if x = –1. Substituting in Eq.5 4. (1) gives p= x = x3 x − x3 = 0 ( = ) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(5)(3) 2(5) 3 ± −51 = 10 Since −51 is not a real number. ±1. y = 8. y = 1. x = –1. From q = p – 1. if x = 1. if p = 2. y = 5 + 2 13. From y = x 2 . From y = 3 − 2x. y = x – 14. Substituting y = x 2 into x = y 2 gives x = x 4 . From y = x. if x = 0. 1.

(1). 0. The x −1 −2 − 1 3 1 solution is x = –2. The only solution is x = 7. y = x 2 + 4 x + 4.01x 2 + 0. (1) gives 8. There are two solutions: p = 0. then y = y= = − . 1. w = 2. y = x − 1. x = 2. ⎧⎪ y = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. From 1 1 1 . ⎛4⎞ 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 2w + 2 ⎝ w⎠ 12 = 2w2 + 2 w 14.01x + 7 0 = 0. if x = 3. 2. But x cannot equal 1 in either of the original equations (division by zero). 1. Substituting p = q in Eq. and if x = 10 then y = 8. x = − 17 . z = − . y = –1. then y = 3(3) – 5 = 4. so x = ± 17 . then 15. then z = = 2 . Substituting in Eq.01x 2 − 1 0 = (0. y = 2. the system has no solution. then x2 − 2 x + 1 = 4 x + 8 p = 0 = 0 .01x + 8. Substituting in Eq. (1). q = 0.1x + 1)(0. From y = x − 1. from Eq. if x = −1. However. (2). if x = 2. From Eq. q = q4 13.9.5 12. –1. we obtain x 2 = y 2 + 13 = 22 + 13 = 17 . From y = 3x – 5. (1) gives x −1 ) y = y 2 + 13 − 15 2 y − y−2 = 0 (y – 2)(y + 1) = 0 Thus y = 2. 3 Thus w = –3. then x 2 = y 2 + 13 = (−1)2 + 13 = 14 . 9.0 = 0. Thus there are two solutions: x = 3. y = − . y = 3x – 5. y = 4. By substituting 0. If y = 2. then y = 3(2) – 5 = 1. (2) gives ( 1 in Eq. y = 1. x = − 14 .01x + 8. From p = q . We can write the following system of equations. y = 6. z = 2.1x – 1) x = −10 or x = 10 If x = –10 then y = 7. From z = 1 = x 2 + ( x − 1) x2 + x − 2 = 0 (x + 2)(x – 1) = 0 Thus x = –2. then y = −2. y = –1. then w 4 4 z = − . p = 1. If y = –1. y ≥ 0. Substituting y = 2 w + w−6 = 0 (w + 3)(w – 2) = 0 x2 1 = +1 x −1 x −1 4 . 119 . ⎨ ⎪⎩ y = 0.1. then y = 6.01x + 8.0 for y in the first equation and simplifying. if w = –3. Replacing x 2 by y 2 + 13 in Eq. if w = 2. 10. if x = 7.01x 2 + 0. if q = 0. (2) gives Squaring both sides gives 4 x 2 − 20 x + 24 = 0 x2 − 5x + 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 2) = 0 Thus x = 3. x = 14 .0. Substituting in Eq. (2). then p = 1 = 1 . (2) gives x −1 = 2 x + 2 q4 − q = 0 ( ) q q3 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) 2 = 4( x + 2) Thus q = 0. There are two 3 2 4 solutions: w = –3. (2) gives w Thus x = −1 or 7. 2.01x + 7. (2) gives x 2 + (3 x − 5) 2 − 2 x(3 x − 5) = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 − x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 7=0 Since this is never true. q = 1. From Eq. The system has four solutions: x = 17 . if q = 1. q = q2 . if x = –2. y = 2. Substituting z = x2 − 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 7) = 0 4 in Eq. so x = ± 14 . 3 11. From Eq.

x = 2.012 x + 8.06(x – 10)(x – 5) x = 10 or x = 5 If x = 10 then y = 14.912 x + 5.71 q= 7 7 5 When q = 4285 . We can write the following system of equations.56. 14. y = 1.56). 17.06 x − 0. 6 ⎟ 7 7⎠ ⎝ 21.76 5 22.Chapter 3: Lines. 9. x = −1. we obtain (100. y = −3.3. then 7 1 1 ⎛ 5⎞ 6 p= q+4= ⎜ 4285 ⎟ + 4 = 6 ≈ 6.912x + 5 for y in the first equation and then simplifying.12) and (5. 18. Equating p-values gives 4 6 + 13 q+3= − 100 100 10 q = 10 100 q = 100 (1) (2) Multiplying Eq. 212.1).1 p 10 20. Parabolas. The two holes are located at (10. (2) by 2 and adding equations gives 165q – 825 = 0 q=5 From Eq.06 x 2 + 0.912 x + 5 = 0. 8. y = 8. 000 5 = 4285 ≈ 4285. and if x = 5 then y = 9. x = 1. x = −0.2. y = 5.9) and (10.3 6 6⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 4285 . 10 feet away from center on each side at (–10.5 = 0. (2). Equating p-values gives 1 1 q+4= − q+9 1500 2000 7 q=5 6000 30. p= 120 .9 x + 3 p ) 0 = 0.50 Thus the equilibrium point is (5.9. 7) q 0 0. 7. ⎨ ⎪⎩ y = 0. y = 4 19. 6 ⎟ . ⎪⎧ y = 0.50). the equilibrium point is (100.46 5000 Problems 3. x = –1. 7 7⎠ ⎝ 2 0 = 0.3.6 q 10. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis The rope touches the streamer twice. 20 16. 65(5) + p – 537. x = 2. 7). 3.1.6. x = –1.06 x 2 − 15 x + 50 200 2. x = 2. The system has 3 solutions.5 = 0 p = 212. 1.12.06 x 2 + 0.81 23. By substituting 0.000 ⎧35q − 2 p + 250 = 0.86 1500 1500 ⎝ 7⎠ 7 5 6⎞ ⎛ The equilibrium point is ⎜ 4285 . ⎨ ⎩65q + p − 537.012 x + 8 ( 0 = 0. 4 (100) + 3 = 7 100 Thus.

30. choose q = 9.29 q ≥ 0 so choose q ≈ 82.57). 452. 15.625 = 0 54.5 From Eq.75q − 46. Then 40 q + 1200 3 2 q = 1200 3 q = 1800 units p = (q + 10)2 = (6 + 10)2 = 162 = 256 .5 − 10.5p – 54. Equating p-values gives 20 − q = q + 10 .29 or −108. Then p = 2q + 20 = 2(9) + 20 = 38.5 3690 = = = 1230 3 3 The equilibrium point is (1230.25).350.000 q 2 + q − 90 = 0 (q + 10)(q – 9) = 0 Thus q = –10.5 = 0. TR 0 q 1000 2000 11. Squaring both sides gives 1800 units 400 − 40q + q 2 = q + 10 TC q 2 − 41q + 390 = 0 (q – 26)(q – 15) = 0 Thus q = 26. Since q ≥ 0. 452. (2) ⎩ Multiplying Eq. Thus one cannot break even at any level of production. Equating p-values gives 5000 (q + 10)2 = 388 − 16q − q 2 10. then p = 20 – q = 20 – 26 = –6.25 2070. Equating p-values: 9. 4. Since q ≥ 0. The equilibrium point is (6. ⎨ 410 p + 3 q − 14. But p cannot be negative. Letting yTR = yTC gives 2q 2 + 36q − 288 = 0 14q = q 2 + 18q − 144 = 0 (q + 24) (q – 6) = 0 Thus q = –24.75q − 7380 = 0. 26. 121 . 9.25q − 2460 = 0. 762.625 = 0.000 y (1800. 25. The equilibrium point is (9.29 + 6 ≈ 26. 14.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3. 5). 6. 10. 2q + 20 = 200 − 2q q 2 + 26q + 48 = 8960 q 2 + 26q − 8912 = 0 q= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −26 ± (26) 2 − 4(1)(−8912) 2(1) q ≈ 82. or q = 2500 units. (2) in original system. 452.05q = 0. (2500.29. 82. 452.5 − 410 p 14.625 p= = 26. 26.200) 7. choose q = 6. then p = 20 – q = 20 – 15 = 5. (1) by 3 and Eq.25 gives ⎧738 p − 9.970. If q = 26. Equating p-values gives q 2240 +6 = 4 q+2 (q + 24)(q + 2) = 2240(4) 5. Then p ≈ 4 The equilibrium point is (82. 256). which is negative.6 (1) ⎧246 p − 3. ⎨ ⎩1332.29.5 − 410(26.5 p + 9.25) q= = 3 3 14.85q + 600 –0. 8.000) q 6. The equilibrium point is (15. Adding gives 2070.57. If q = 15. (2) by 3.80q = 600 q = –750. Letting yTR = yTC gives 4q = 2q + 5000.350. 38). 2 TR p 2q 2 + 2q − 180 = 0 TC 15. Letting yTR = yTC gives 0.

a.15q – 2116 1.9) 16.15q – 2116 1.1)(741. Since profit = total revenue – total cost. Solving gives 4600 = 1. ⎨ ⎩3q + 100 p − 1800 = 0.7q = 840 q = 1200 units Subtracting Eq.1) 49.27 200 3 p= q + 9.20q). Parabolas.6q + 111.16q + 360 0.05(6q + 800) yTC = 6.3q + 840 Letting yTR = yTC gives 7q = 6. Letting yTR = yTC gives 7q = 6q + 800.15q = 2116 q = 1840 units p S 10 D 0 500 q 1000 b.1q + 37.20q). Adding gives 3654 300 p − 3654 = 0 ⇒ p = = $12. 5600) TC TR 2 0.25q = 0.1q + 9q = 3q + 400 2 0 0. 40.Chapter 3: Lines.18 . (1) (2) 17.35q = 2116 + 7.15q = 6716 6716 q= = 5840 units 1. or q = 800 units. 300 p= 900 = 1.4) 2 − 4(1. Letting yTR = yTC gives p (800. 2(1. and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12. Letting yTR = yTC gives 0. The new total cost equation is yTC = 1.4q + 741. we have yTR = yTC . and the new system to solve is ⎧−3q + 200 p − 1854 = 0. ⎨ ⎩3q + 100 p − 1800 = 0. Before the tax. the supply equation is 122 .09q = 360 q = 4000 units 3 q + 9 + 0. then 4600 = 8. the supply equation is 3q – 200p + 1800 = 0 –200p = –3q – 1800 3 p= q+9 200 After the tax.2 There are no real solutions.3)(q + 3) 13.1q 2 − 49.35q – (2116 + 7. ⎧3q − 200 p + 1800 = 0. or 8. choose q = 40 units.20q 1.3 q+3 90(q + 3) − 900 = (1.15q = 966 q = 840 units To break even.35q – (2116 + 7. (1) gives –300p + 3600 = 0 p = $12 20 500 q 1000 b.1q 2 + 40. (2) from Eq. therefore one cannot break even at any level of production.1q + 37.1q + 6q − 400 = 0 q 2 + 60q − 4000 = 0 (q + 100)(q − 40) = 0 Thus q = –100. Thus –1150 = 1.9 1.3q + 840 0.27 200 This equation can be written –3q + 200p – 1854 = 0.4 ± −824 2.9 = 0 q= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 49. 6000 = 3000 14. Since q ≥ 0. 15.15 For a loss (negative profit) of $1150.4 ± (−49. Letting yTR = yTC gives 90 − 90q + 270 − 900 = 1. we solve −1150 = 8. a.

400q = q 2 + 7 4. For the supply equation we fit the points (0. Thus total cost always exceeds total revenue. Then at the break even point.50 100 100 = 8.50 100 The system to consider is 8 ⎧ ⎪⎪ p = 100 q + 48. 1000 q a.500 Solving for q gives 2.000(p – 1) = 7q 7q – 27. 2 which is not real.500 − 0 13. 4. 0.000(p – 20) = –31q 31q + 27.000c + 40.000c c = $4. 000 so the line is 7 p −1 = (q − 0) 27. 000 27.8 + 48.000 = 0 For the demand equation. there is no break-even point.70.500 ⎞ ± ⎜ ⎟ − 4(1) ⎜ ⎟ 3 9 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ q= . or 2. We have 2500 ⎛ 1250 ⎞ q+⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 1300 1. ⎪⎩ 100 Equating p-values gives 8 7 q + 48.50. 4= 1000 1000 = 250 units gives q = q 4 b. 2= 1000 1000 = 500 units gives q = q 2 c.500 13.50 − 20 15.000.000 160. we have 5q = 200.50 − 1 3. p = 31 4. 1) and (13. 20) and (13.63q Total Cost = 0. We have m= 2 2 1300 ⎛ 1300 ⎞ ⎛ 1.50 = 1000 1000 = 2000 units gives q = 0. Since total revenue is 5q.63q = 0.32q + 70. Let q = break-even quantity.500 or 0. Let q = number of pairs sold. Let c be the variable cost per unit. Total Revenue = Total cost.562.5 m= =− =− 2 13. 4.5 100 q = 110 When q = 110. p= 20.000 = 40. Total Revenue = 2.85q + 0.50) to a straight line.500. After the subsidy the supply equation is ⎡ 8 ⎤ p=⎢ q + 50 ⎥ − 1.500 q2 + q+ =0 3 9 Using the quadratic formula.000 = 0 19. Thus the original equilibrium price decreases by $0. Letting yTR = yTC gives 60 q = 3q + 1250 1250 3 Squaring gives 20 q = q + 123 .500 13.500 q = 141.000. = = 2 = 13. so ⎝ q ⎠ revenue of $1000 is received regardless of price. Cost = Variable Cost + Fixed Cost.000 = 40. 000 27.50 = (110) + 48.500 At the break-even point. so the line is =− 27.5q = 70. yTC = 3q + 1250 : yTR = 60 q . 23.6 18.000p – 540.85q + 0. then 8 8 p= q + 48.5 7 . which yields q = 40.500 31 .32q + 70. − 22.50 q ⎛ 1000 ⎞ The revenue is qp = q ⎜ ⎟ = 1000 .562.000p + 27. 000 31 p − 20 = − (q − 0) 27. we fit the points (0. = Tot.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.000 21.96q + 0. Rev.50 = 57.50 ⎣ 100 ⎦ 8 q + 48.500 27. ⎨ ⎪ p = − 7 q + 65.50 = − q + 65 100 100 15 q = 16.50) to a straight line.96q + 0.63q = 2. Thus 200.13q + 70.500 − 0 13.30 .500. Tot.

The equation 3 5 4−4 = 0 is true for any real 5−k number k ≠ 5. 124 .6 thousand units 27. which is a general form.000(1. Solving 5 ⎛ ⎞ 9. Then 40. If x = 3. A general form is y – 4 = 0.000. so −1 − 3 m= = −2. 13) does not lie on the line.25q q = 600. Thus pA = 8 and pB = 10. 5 2 Since the y-intercept is −3. −1) lie on the line.000(2. then y – 8 = 3(3 − 1) y–8=6 y = 14 Thus (3. so the line perpendicular to it has slope . General form: 3x – y + 2 = 0. 5 k −5 = 4 gives k – 5 = 4. 5 pA − 3(10) = 10 or pA = 8. $17.Chapter 3: Lines. 2. 5 5 7⎞ ⎛ 8.00q – [110.000 + 1. so slope-intercept form is y = 4.75q] 150. (−2.000. A general form is 2x − 5y − 15 = 0. There is a net loss of $40. y − 4 = b.000 – 600. 2 Clearing fractions. Let q = unit sales volume. Slope-intercept form: 0 − (−2) 8−2 6 = = 3. Equating qA -values gives 7 − pA + pB = −3 + 4 pA − 2 pB 10 = 5 pA − 3 pB Equating qB -values gives 21 + pA − pB = −5 − 2 pA + 4 pB 26 = −3 pA + 5 pB Now we solve ⎧10 = 5 pA − 3 pB ⎨26 = −3 p + 5 p A B ⎩ Adding 3 times the first equation to 5 times the second equation gives 160 = 16 pB pB = 10 From 5 pA − 3 pB = 10.75)] = 560. which is slope-intercept form. 4.000 = 0. 2. The line 2y + 5x = 2 ⎜ or y = − x + 1⎟ has slope 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 5 − . a. we have ⎛1 ⎞ 2 y = 2 ⎜ x − 1⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ 2y = x – 2 x – 2y – 2 = 0. 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Thus the line perpendicular to it has slope − 3 and its equation is y − 2 = − ( x − 1) .000 units 25.000 + 280. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost = 280. 5. so slope of parallel line is also m = 3. A general form: 2x + y + 1 = 0. The line has slope y = mx + b ⇒ y = –2x − 1.000 = 2. An equation of the vertical line is x = 3. 3− 2 2. 3.80. 26.000 = –40. 1 ( x − 10) 2 1 y −4 = x−5 2 1 y = x − 1 . –3y + 5x = 7 ⎜ or y = x − ⎟ has slope . 7. Thus y – (–1) = 3[x – (–1)] y + 1 = 3x + 3. the equation is 2 y = x − 3. General form: x – 3 = 0. 3) and (0. Slope of a horizontal line is 0. Slope of a vertical line is undefined. Thus y – 4 = 0[x – (–2)] y – 4 = 0. Slope-intercept form: y = 3x + 2.3 Chapter 3 Review Problems 1. k = 9. Parabolas. 10. so slopeintercept form does not exist. and Systems 24. A general form is 3x + 5y – 13 = 5 5 0. Slope of y = 3x – 4 is m = 3.00) – [110. or 5 3 13 y = − x + . so an 1 − (−1) 2 equation of the line is y – 8 = 3(x – 1).4 and 11. 6.

and y = 7 has slope 20. y = 7x has slope m1 = 7 . Since m1 = − m2 2 perpendicular. Since m1 = − . x + 4y + 2 = 0 ⎜ or y = − x − ⎟ has slope 4 2⎠ ⎝ 1 m1 = − and 8x – 2y – 2 = 0 (or y = 4x – 1) has 4 1 slope m2 = 4 . and 6x + 21y = 90 7 2 2 30 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ or y = − x + ⎟ has slope m2 = − . y – 2 = 2(x – 1) (or y = 2x) has slope m1 = 2 . 12. the ⎝ ⎠ lines are parallel. 5 y 4 3 1 11 ⎞ ⎛ 13. 2 4⎞ ⎛ 14. y = 2x m=2 5 1 . Since m1 ≠ m2 and m1 ≠ − x 5 125 . the lines are parallel. y = 3x + 5 has slope 3. Since 7 7 7 ⎝ ⎠ m1 = m2 . 17. and y x 4 3 –2 5 18. 16. 4 – 3y = 0 –3y = –4 4 y= 3 m=0 5 y 4 3 x 5 15. 2x + 7y − 4 = 0 ⎜ or y = − x + ⎟ has slope 7 7⎠ ⎝ 2 m1 = − . the lines are m2 = − . m1 = 19. x = –3y + 4 3y = –x + 4 1 4 y = − x+ 3 3 1 m=− 3 1 3⎞ ⎛ 2x + 4y – 3 = 0 ⎜ or y = − x + ⎟ has slope 2 4⎠ ⎝ 1 1 . m1 = slope of first line.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review In Problems 11–16. and 6x − 2y = 7 7⎞ ⎛ ⎜ or y = 3x − 2 ⎟ has slope 3. and m2 = slope of second line. Since m1 = m2 . the lines are neither m2 parallel nor perpendicular to each other. the m2 lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular. 3x – 2y = 4 –2y = –3x + 4 3 y = x−2 2 3 m= 2 y m2 = 0 . 5 1 1⎞ ⎛ 11. x – 3 = 2(y + 4) ⎜ or y = x − ⎟ has slope 2 2⎠ ⎝ x 4 1 . and y = 4x + 2 has slope m2 = 4 . the lines are m2 perpendicular to each other. Since 2 1 m1 ≠ m2 and m1 ≠ − .

Vertex: − 5 b −3 3 =− = 2a 2(1) 2 2 11 ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ g ⎜ ⎟ = 5 − 3⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 2 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3 11 ⎞ ⇒ Vertex = ⎜ . y = f(x) = 3x – 7 has the linear form f(x) = ax + b. Parabolas. b 0 =− =0 Vertex: − 2a 2(−1) –5 –9 f (0) = 9 − 02 = 9 ⇒ Vertex = (0. y-intercept (0. b = –7. so x = 3. c = 5. –1 6 y 23. 9) y 25 x –3 x 3 5 5 24. there is no t-intercept. –7) 22. –3. Slope = −5. s = g (t ) = 5 − 3t + t 2 has the quadratic form 2 y x g (t ) = at 2 + bt + c . 9) y-intercept: c = 9 x-intercepts: 9 − x 2 = (3 − x)(3 + x) = 0 . where a = −5 and b = 17. y = f(x) = 17 − 5x has the linear form f(x) = ax + b. b = –4. 126 2 5 t . 10 y (0. where a = 1. where a = –1. s –7 25. where a = 1. b = 0 and c = 9. Slope = 3. where a = 3. ⎟ ⎝2 4 ⎠ s-intercept: c = 5 t-intercepts: Because the parabola opens upward (a > 0) and the vertex is above the t-axis.Chapter 3: Lines. y = f ( x) = 9 − x 2 has the quadratic form –1 2 f ( x) = ax + bx + c . b = –3. b −4 =− =2 Vertex: − 2a 2 ⋅1 8 h(2) = 22 − 4(2) − 5 = −9 ⇒ Vertex = (2. 17). –9) y-intercept: c = –5 t -intercepts: t 2 − 4t − 5 = (t − 5)(t + 1) = 0 t ⇒ t = 5. y = h(t ) = t 2 − 4t − 5 has the quadratic form h(t ) = at 2 + bt + c . and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 21. y-intercept (0. and c = –5.

c = 1. Slope = −7. 5 27. p-intercept (0. where a = −7 and b = 0. p = g(t) = −7t has the linear form g(t) = at + b. b = −3. so x = y 1 1 2 1 2 ⎧2 x − y = 6. y = k(t) = −3 − 3t has the linear form k(t) = at + b. –2) 3 30. −3) 5 ) 29. 3 1 Slope = . and c = –3 b −2 =− = −1 Vertex: − 2a 2(−1) y t F (−1) = − ⎡(−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3⎤ = −2 ⎣ ⎦ ⇒ Vertex = (–1. Substituting in Eq. where a = −3. b −4 1 =− = Vertex: − 2a 2⋅4 2 5 y 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎡ ⎛1⎞ ⎤ F ⎜ ⎟ = ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ = 0 ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ⎝2⎠ ⎦ x ⎛1 ⎞ ⇒ Vertex = ⎜ . (1).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review ( 26. 0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ y-intercept: c = 1 –2 x-intercepts: (2 x − 1)2 = 0 . 31. y=− . y-intercept (0. y = F ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x + 3 = − x 2 − 2 x − 3 has the quadratic form F ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c . 8 (1) (2) From Eq. 0) 2 y x p –1 10 –2 –3 5 t 5 x 1 − 2 = x − 2 has the linear form 3 3 1 f(x) = ax + b. b = –2. Slope = −3. –2) y-intercept: c = –3 x-intercepts: Because the parabola opens downward (a < 0) and the vertex is below the x-axis. y-intercept (0. there is no x-intercept. where a = –1. 7x = 17 17 17 8 ⇒ y = 2x − 6 = 2 ⋅ − 6 = − . where a = . y = F ( x) = (2 x − 1) 2 = 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 has the quadratic form F ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c . y = f ( x) = 28. b = –2. ⎨ ⎩3x + 2 y = 5. where a = 4. (2) gives 3x + 2(2x – 6) = 5 7x – 12 = 5. b = –4. x= 7 7 7 17 8 Thus x = . 7 7 x 5 127 . y = 2x – 6.

(1). ⎨2 x + y + z = 1. 35. There is no solution. z = 0. (2) from Eq. ⎨ ⎩3 x + 4 y = 4. 36. ⎪⎩ 3 3 4 1 Adding gives 4 y = ⇒ y = . (2) Multiplying Eq. 1 3 (8) − y = −4 4 2 3 − y = −6 2 y=4 Thus x = 8. x = −2y + 4. 3 3 4 ⎛1⎞ 5 x + 3⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⎝3⎠ 3 ⎧7 x + 5 y = 5 33. ⎪⎩ 4 2 Adding the first equation to the second gives 5 x = 20 2 x=8 From Eq. or 9 9 5y = −9. (2) to Eq. y= . ⎩ (1) (2) (1) (2) (3) Subtracting Eq. Thus x = 2. 5 5 ⎧2 x + 4 y = 8 (1) 34. (1) by –4 gives 1 ⎧ 4 ⎪⎪− 3 x + y = − 3 . we get 3(0) – 2(1) + z = –2 z=0 Thus x = 0. (3) gives ⎧ x − 3 y = −3. y = r. (2) by 3 gives 3 ⎧1 ⎪⎪ 4 x − 2 y = −4. ⎨ ⎪ 3 x + 1 y = 8. where r is any real number. ⎪⎩ 3 3 (2) Replacing y by 2x – 4 in Eq. ⎩ Adding gives 0 = 0. (1) by 3 and Eq. (1) and adding Eq. Multiplying the first equation by –3 gives ⎧−3x + 9 y = 9. we get x – 3(1) = –3 x=0 From 3x – 2y + z = –2. 3 2 ⎧3x − 2 y + z = −2. From Eq. 3 ⎧1 ⎪⎪ 4 x − 2 y = −4. Thus. ⎨ ⎪ 4 x + 3y = 5 .Chapter 3: Lines. y = − . Parabolas. Multiplying Eq. 128 . y = 4. 32. ⎪⎩ 4 2 (1) 4 2 x= 3 3 1 x= 2 Thus x = 1 1 . ⎨ ⎩ y = 2 x − 4. (1) gives 8x – 4(2x – 4) = 7 16 = 7. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis (1) 1 1 ⎧1 ⎪⎪ 3 x − 4 y = 12 . (1). ⎪ 37. which is never true. ⎨ ⎩ 3x + 6 y = 12 (2) Multiplying Eq. Then 7(2) + 5y = 5. (2) by −2 gives ⎧ 6 x + 12 y = 24 ⎨−6 x − 12 y = −24. y = 1. ⎪ x + 3 y − z = 3. Adding the first equation to the second gives 13y = 13 y=1 From the equation x – 3y = –3. Letting y = r gives the parametric solution x = −2r + 4. From EQ. and Systems ⎧8 x − 4 y = 7. the equations are equivalent. ⎨ ⎪ 4 x + 3y = 5 . ⎨ ⎩3 x + 4 y = 4. ⎨ ⎪ 9 x + 3 y = 24. ⎨ ⎩6 x + 5 y = 3 Subtracting the second equation from the first equation gives x = 2. so y = − . (2).

and x = –10. where r is any real number.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review ⎧2 x + 3 y + x = 9 ⎪ 3 38. Letting z = r gives the parametric solution x = –2 – 2r. 39. ⎪ 42. ⎩ The first two equations state that y = 0. y= . 4 8 (1) (2) From Eq. ⎪y = 40. ⎨ 5x+2 y ⎪⎩ y + 4 = 7 simplifies to ⎧7 x + 3 y = 27 (1) ⎨5 x + 6 y = 28 (2) ⎩ x= −5 − 65 −21 − 5 65 . (1) by −2 gives ⎧−14 x − 6 y = −54 ⎨ 5 x + 6 y = 28 ⎩ Adding the equations gives −9 x = −26 26 x= 9 Multiplying Eq. ⎨ x − y + z = 0. (1) by −5 and Eq. then y = –10 + 7 = –3. y = 0. where r is any real number. (1) we have 18 x+7 = x+4 (x + 7)(x + 4) = 18 x 2 + 11x + 28 = 18 x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 (x + 1)(x + 10) = 0 Thus x = –1. if x = –1. so y = 7 + z. (2). ⎪ x + z = 0. Letting z = r gives the parametric solution x = –r. the two solutions are y= 129 . z = r. y = 6. ⎪ ⎨− y = 0. (2). if x = . (1) ⎧ x + 2 z = −2. then y = –1 + 7 = 6. −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−5) = 2(2) −5 ± 65 = 4 −5 + 65 . ⎩ Multiplying Eq. (1) we have x = –2 – 2z. y= . if x = –10. Thus the two solutions are x = –1. and the third implies that x = –z. y = x + 7. ⎨ x+4 ⎪ x − y + 7 = 0. 8 Thus. x = 9 27 ⎧⎪ x 2 − y + 5 x = 2. ⎨ 2 ⎪⎩ x + y = 3. Thus. if x = −21 − 5 65 . (1) and (2) gives ⎧ y = 0. Substituting in Eq. then 8 4 Since y = 3 − x 2 . y = 3 − x 2 . (1) (2) From Eq. (2) by 7 gives ⎧−35 x − 15 y = −135 ⎨ 35 x + 42 y = 196 ⎩ Adding the equations gives 27 y = 61 61 y= 27 26 61 . 41. y= . y = –3. and 4 8 18 ⎧ . From Eq. ⎪ x + z = 0. x= 2 −b ± b − 4ac 2a (1) (2) (3) Subtracting Eq. then 4 −21 + 5 65 −5 − 65 y= . z = r. –10. (1) gives x 2 − (3 − x 2 ) + 5 x = 2 ⎧ x + y + z = 0. From y = x + 7. Substituting in Eq. y = 7 + r. Substituting in Eq. ⎨ (2) ⎩ x + y + z = 5. (2) gives –2 – 2z + y + z = 5. ⎩ 2 2 x + 5x − 5 = 0 x= −5 + 65 −21 + 5 65 . (3) from both Eqs.

then 2a −4 r = [200 – 2(50)](50) = $5000.05 p2 . then r = 14T − 298 = 14(27) − 298 = 80.5 ⎧ ⎨1. or 1440 p= ≈ 6. the prices are 1.05 times the first equation to the second equation gives 0 = 0. 44. ⎨ ⎩100 p + q − 1200 = 0. 51. c = 0.05 p = 4. before the tax.05 p2 . Letting y = r and z = s gives 2 2 1 5 the parametric solution x = + r − 3s .05 p − 1. Since a < 0. Since f(2) = 5. where r and s are any real numbers. Adding the first equation to the second gives ⎧−4 x + 10 y − 12 z = −2. ⎨ ⎩0 = 0. Thus this scenario is not possible. so x = y. we have 1 5 x = + y − 3 z . Solving the first equation for x. or 4. 130 . z = 0. 220 b.55. which indicates that the system does not have a solution. ⎨ ⎩2 x − 2 y + 3 z = 0. a. Slope is (2) f(1) = 5. r −r 122 − 206 −84 = = 14 Thus m = 2 1 = T2 − T1 30 − 36 −6 r − 206 = 14(T − 36) r = 14T − 298 Adding gives 220p − 1440 = 0. From the second equation. and Systems ⎧ x − y − z = 0. Adding the first equation to the second gives ⎧−2 x + 2 y + 2 z = 0. If q = 50. y = r.1. Multiplying Eq. (1) gives x – y – 0 = 0.05 p1 − 1. 5 = –2 + b b=7 Thus f(x) = –x + 7.1 1 2 ⎩ 45. Let p1 and p2 be the prices (in dollars) of the two items. The slope of f is (1) (2) 49. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis (1) 47. which is a quadratic function with a = –2. b2 − b1 3 − 2 1 Thus an equation relating a and b is a − 1 = 4(b − 2) a − 1 = 4b − 8 a − 4b = −7 When b = 5. Parabolas. r = 122 when T = 30. a = 5 when b = 3. 3 3 5−8 −3 = = −1 . y = r. 48. Letting y = r gives the parametric solution x = r. ⎧120 p − q − 240 = 0. b = 200.425. Thus f ( x) = − 4 19 x+ . r = 206 when T = 36. −4 4 ⇒ f ( x) = ax + b = − x + b . ⎨ ⎩5 z = 0. r has a maximum value when b 200 q=− =− = 50 units. 43. (1) by –2 gives ⎧−4 x + 10 y − 12 z = −2.Chapter 3: Lines. 4 5 = − (1) + b 3 19 b= 3 Multiplying Eq. so their difference is 1. Since 3 3 Adding −1. ⎨ ⎩4 x − 10 y + 12 z = 2. where r is any real number. ⎨ ⎩4 x − 10 y + 12 z = 2. After the tax. 50. Thus 2 − (−1) 3 f(x) = ax + b = –x + b.05 p1 and 1. a = 1 when b = 2. ⎧2 x − 5 y + 6 z = 1. 2 2 z = s. then a = 4b − 7 = 4(5) − 7 = 13.5. This gives the system p1 − p2 = 3. If T = 27. so a −a 5 −1 4 m= 2 1 = = = 4. Substituting in Eq. respectively. At the time the difference in prices is p1 − p2 = 3. r = pq = (200 − 2q )q = 200q − 2q 2 . z = 0. (1) by –2 gives ⎧−2 x + 2 y + 2 z = 0. ⎨ ⎩2 x − 2 y + 3 z = 0. 46.

042 0. P6 is best for usage of greater than 4200 minutes. x = 0. x = 2. yTC = 8q + 10. 6. 53.25(t − 2000) = 149. The graph shows that P2 and P3 intersect when the second branch of P2 crosses the first branch of P3 .0378 = 0. 0 = (32) + b .99 + 0.68 Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 3 1. 100) lie on the graph of the function. No.75. Thus its slope is 100 − 0 100 5 5 = = . 5. 57. then R = 75(1) + 1310 = 1385 milliseconds.0183 − p p 0. Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 3 R = aL + b. x = 3.14 and 2200 minutes.0005 + 0. y = 0.14 minutes. so 9 160 5 160 . then yTR = 16(1250) = 20. y = –4 7.14 P3 is best for usage between 950 and 1407. the slope is 75. x = 12. He loses $2537. c.000) or 1250 units.000 8q = 10. The slope gives the change in R for each 1-unit increase in L.99 + 0. then C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10 . The points (32. Letting yTR = yTC gives 16q = 8q + 10.99 t ≈ 1407. x = 7.0178 = p 0.99 + 0. C = aF + b. Since R = 1460 when L = 2. 55.99 b.36 tons per square kilometer. When 9 5 5 F = 50. If L = 1. So R = aL + 1310.50 by using P1. y = 1.042 p ≈ 2.99 t = 950 P2 is best for usage between 494. Since R = 75L + 1310. so C = F + b . 0) and (212.0042 0.45(6000 − 450) = 2537.000. Thus 59.99 t = 2200 P4 is best for usage between 1407.000 q = 1250 If q = 1250. Thus C = F − or b=− 9 9 9 5 C = ( F − 32) . 1460 = a(2) + 1310 150 = 2a a = 75 Thus R = 75L + 1310. 56. The graph shows that P4 and P5 intersect when the second branch of P4 crosses the first branch of P5 Thus 99.49 P6 (6000) = 199. If L = 0. then R = 1310.43 60. a.0178 p = 0. yTR = 16q . 20. 2. 000 .99 t = 4200 P5 is best for usage between 2200 and 4200 minutes. $20. 3. Since 212 − 32 180 9 9 5 C = 0 when F = 32.02.49 − $199.14 59.25(t − 4000) = 199.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 52. 58. Thus the time necessary to travel from one level to the next level is 75 milliseconds. 9 9 4. or b = 1310.99 + 0. P1 (6000) = 39. y = −0. 000 . Equating L-values gives 0. The graph shows that P5 and P6 intersect when the second branch of P5 crosses the first branch of P6 Thus 149.40(t − 900) = 79.35(t − 1350) = 99.99 + 0. The graph shows that P3 and P4 intersect when the second branch of P3 crosses the first branch of P4 Thus 79.78 131 . answers may vary.99 = $2337. Thus we have 1310 = 0 · L + b.29. Thus the break-even point is (1250.44 and 950 minutes. 54.36 The equilibrium pollution level is about 2.

since r = 0. Since r = 0.13)5 = 2000(1. Year Multiplicative Decrease Expression 0 1 0.21 1.87.1 1.128 Thus. the investment has grown from P to P + Pr = P(1 + r). after the second year the value of the car is 6. Multiplicative Increase Expression 0 1 1. where t is in years.85.10)2 = (1. If V = the value of the car and r = the annual rate at which V depreciates.2) 4 = 5(2.10. t – 3 = the time when George began saving. account y = 1.61 0. the depreciation is exponential with a base of 1 – r = 1 – 0.13)5 ≈ 3684.12 3 1.10 2 1 1. but will be shifted 3 units to the right. Let t = the time at which George’s sister began saving.1. Let N(t) = the number of employees at time t. there will be 117 employees at the end of 4 years.853 2. The value of A scales the value of any point by A.850 1 0.852 3 0.87 – 2000 = $1684. we obtain the following.33 1. then since George is 3 years behind. This pattern will continue as shown in the table.1 = 1. Similarly.15.1 = 1. the factor by which V decreases for the first year is 1 – r = 1 – 0. the multiplicative increase for the second year is (1 + 0.85 0. y 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 x years 5.15 = 0.21.46 4 4 y 1 2 3 4 5 4. Since r = 0. 1.11 1 2 1.13 1. The interest earned over the first 5 years is 3684.Chapter 4 Principles in Practice 4. If P = the amount of money invested and r = the annual rate at which P increases.1) 2 = 1. Again. This pattern will continue as shown in the table. the factor by which P increases for the first year is 1 + r = 1 + 0. the multiplicative decrease for the 132 .72 0. If we graph the multiplicative decrease as a function of years. If we graph the multiplicative increase as a function of years we obtain the following.08t −3 represents the multiplicative increase in George’s account.85. 3.15)2 = 0.15.15 = 0. then after 1 year.87 The value of the investment after 5 years will be $3684. then after 1 year the value of the car is V – rV = V(1 – r).1. S = P(1 + r ) n x years S = 2000(1 + 0. Year Thus. since r = 0. The shapes of the graphs are the same.08t represents the multiplicative increase in George’s sister’s Thus. Again. A graph showing the projected increase in George’s money will have the same shape as the graph of the projected increase in his sister’s account. during the second year the investment grows from P(1 + r) to P (1 + r ) + r[ P (1 + r )] = P (1 + r )2 .10.87. Similarly. V (1 − r ) − r[V (1 − r )] = V (1 − r ) 2 .1 second year is (1 − r )2 = (1 − 0. 1.72 . the growth of the initial investment is exponential with a base of 1 + r = 1 + 0. Then. N (4) = 5(1 + 1.851 2 0.1 Therefore. if y = 1.2) 4 = 117.

62 10 0.79 6 0. P = e−0. y y 9 x x 5 5 133 . 0. 8 6.06t ⎛1⎞ 7.1 1. the graph is that of an e exponential function falling from left to right. y 8 x x 5 5 2.06t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 Since 0 < < 1 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4. y 60 x 10 P 5. 8 y 7.55 8 y x 5 4.1 3.70 8 0. y 8 1 10 20 t years x 5 Problems 4. x y 0 1 2 0.89 4 0.

49 – 5000 = $8266.015)1 = 1. With c = . 11.75 13. 700(1. the bases involved are 0. Thus the graph is A. 9677.527. 8 1 1⎛1⎞ 17.527.76 – 700 = $1264. and in the first quadrant it rises faster than the 23. 8 ( ) y 18. so 20 P = 125.76 b. 000(1. 5 20.983. For 2000. 8 16. 8 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y 14.0875 ⎞ 3000 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 64 ≈ 11. a. For 2015 we have t = 20.983. the curve rises from left to right. Thus the graph of y = 5 x is B. P = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ 2⎝2⎠ 2 y n −1 1 1 1 ⎛1⎞ n = 1: P = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − = 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1 3 ⎛1⎞ n = 2: P = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − = 4 4 ⎝2⎠ 3 x 1 7 ⎛1⎞ n = 3: P = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ = 1 − = 8 8 ⎝2⎠ 5 11. Thus y = 8 x . x 5 9.4 x has base b = 0. 000(1. ⎝2⎠ . 000(1. 4000(1. a. a.05)20 ≈ $13. y = 23 x = 23 19.015) 2 ≈ 1.0375)24 ≈ $9677.52 – 4000 = $2014. t = 2 and P = 1.4 and 0 < b < 1.75 – 4000 = $5677. curve for base 2. a. 000(1. 2. a. ⎛ 0.4. 750 .035)30 ≈ $1964. For base 5.06)7 ≈ $6014.549. t = 1 and P = 1. 8 = 8 x .11) 20 = 125.11)1 = 138.154 x 5 10. and 5.49 21. x y 5000(1. 4000(1.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 8.573.37 134 n ⎛1⎞ = 1− ⎜ ⎟ . y = 0. so its graph falls from left to right.905 b.76 x 10 22. 1964.266. y For 1999.37 − 3000 = $8983.52 b.52 x 12.37 b. 6014. For the curves. 266. 15. a. 13.49 b.75 b.

the number of bacteria present b. after the second hour.900 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100.69 28. 000 This pattern will continue as shown in the table.11 ⎞ 500 ⎜ 1 + 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ≈ $854. after the first hour. 854. then.04 ⎞ 29. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2 2 72. t Thus. a. Again.05)4 ≈ 486.36 – 5000 = $1256. Similarly. the number of bacteria remaining is N(1 – r) – r[N(1 – r)] = N (1 − r ) 2 = 100. increases from P to P + rP = P(1 + r).32 3 2.33 .000 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100.1) 2 = 100.3. 4599.1 48 ≈ $4599. When t = 3. then N = 400(1. since r = 0. ⎛ 0.20 b.69 – 8000 = $1649. ⎝ 10 ⎠ 24 ≈ $8253. If N = N(t) = the number of bacteria present at any time t.07 – 500 = $354.69 b.000. a.0075)30 ≈ $6256. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 3 3 65. 000(1 − 0.3 1.03)t N = 400(1.30 1 1.28 33.000 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100.69 .07 ⎞ 2000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ Section 4.3)2 = (1. and if r = the rate at which the bacteria are reduced. year is (1 + r ) 2 = (1 + 0. the number of bacteria remaining is N – rN = N(1 – r) = 100.1) = 100. since r = 0.3 = 1. b.20 − 2000 = $2599.03)3 ≈ 5464. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1 90. Hours Bacteria Expression 0 100. Then after the first year. 10 900(1. the factor by which P increases for the first year. a. 6500 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ t ⎛ 9 ⎞ after t hours is given by N (t ) = 100.0225) 30.9) = 90. in general.3. 32. the amount of plastic recycled increases from P(1 + r) to P = 5000(1.56 ⎛ 0.3) 2 = 1.31 2 1.20 25.69 1. a.000 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100.07 b. ⎛ 0. 31.610 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100.07 27. This pattern will continue as shown in the table. where t is in hours. When t = 1.36 b. during the second year.05)t b.000(1 – 0. ≈ $1124. Similarly. is 1 + r = 1 + 0.9)2 = 81. 000(0. 9649. a. ⎛ 9 ⎞ 100. a.20 1.28 900(1. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ t P(1 + r) + r[ P (1 + r )] = P (1 + r )2 . 6256.05)1 = 420. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 4 4 1 5000(1. then N = 400(1.3. a. the multiplicative increase for the second When t = 4. c. ⎛ 0. then P = 5000(1.000(0.36 10 26.0625 ⎞ 8000 ⎜ 1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 0 3(365) ≈ $9649. 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 81. the amount of plastic recycled.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 24. 000 ⎜ ⎟ .045)5 ≈ $1121. 135 Year Multiplicative Increase Expression 0 1 1. Let P = the amount of plastic recycled and let r = the rate at which P increases each year.

When t = 44. 000(1 − 0. When t = 10. Because 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ = .4966 40. 000(1 − 0. f(0) ≈ 0. 29.242 ( ) 34.4817 38. For x = 3. 5 y x 5 y 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 x years 43. P = 350. 0. When t = 12. 70.015)t = 350.031(44) = 12e−1. E = 14. 0. When t = 3.985)t . Because 16 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ .31 = 8. 35. 000(0. t = bt . N = 12e −0. 1 of the 4 initial amount remains.2240 3! 48. After 44 hours.04) . where E is the enrollment after t years. 000(0. 36. 2 2 ⎝2⎠ 4 Continuing in this manner. where b = e k x 1 ⎛1⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ = b x . 37.3. Difference in populations: 46. After one half-life. 485.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus. Population of city B after 5 years: 60.3 = 1.03)t = 14. This corresponds 16 to 4 · 8 = 32 years. f(–1) = f(1) ≈ 0.031(0) = 12 ⋅1 = 12. approximately E = 14. P = From the graph it appears that recycling will triple after about 4 years. Thus the half-life is approximately 22 hours. c.05)5 . 000(1.97)t . half-lives. Population of city A after 5 years: 45.364 ≈ 3. 000(1. P = 350.045(10) ≈ 48 y 2 49. the increase in recycling is exponential with a base = 1 + r = 1 + 0. 42. After two 2 2 1 1 ⎛1⎞ 1 ⋅ = ⎜ ⎟ = gram remains. x 5 1 gram remains. n 4 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ gram remains. e kt = e k 5 70. 000(1. N = 12e −0. 000(1.9641 39.985)3 ≈ 334.8. 44 hours corresponds to 2 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ half-lives. gram remains. d. after n half-lives.399.05)5 ≈ 8589 . e−3 33 ≈ 0.5134 41. b. 4. where P is the population after t years.1. 136 .031(10) = 12e−0. 000(0. after ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 4 half-lives. a. 000(0. N = 75e −0. 44. If we graph the multiplicative increase as function of years. we obtaining the following.97)12 ≈ 9714.05)5 − 60. N = 12e −0. When t = 0. where b = x e ⎝e⎠ e 1 47.

5) y Thus. If the amount being recycled increases by 50% every year. 53.2 –5 The intersection point is (0.95123 ≈ e −0.5 (0.1465 2! Section 4. then ⎝ I0 ⎠ I = 108. b.5 x = y .71 R (1 + r ) y = R (1 + 0.5x 3 4.05(10) ≈ 6065 . 8 –5 ⎛ I ⎞ 2. 300 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ y 6 4. 54. 5 52. 0. then 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 50.5) 2 ≈ 0. c.05 . 0. f ( x) = e −0. where t represents the number of times the bacteria have doubled. If we let 56.2 minutes 5 137 10 x multiplicative increase . 0.3 is the exponential form.05. When p = 10. Thus.0758 2! f ( x) = e −4 4 x x! f (2) = e −4 42 ≈ 0.5) y and. P = 1000(1. 000(0.05 p q = 10. ( ) p q = 10. then q = 10. Using a graphics calculator. The first integer t for which the graph of P = 2500(1. a. in logarithmic form.17 y years is (1. log1. 1). Thus. then x = (1. 000e−0. then the amount recycled at the end of y years is y = 2a ⋅ 2 x = 2 x + a = f ( x + a). ⎛4⎞ 57. If 16 = 2t is the exponential form then t = log 2 16 is the logarithmic form.1 ≈ 976 y = log1.3 = log10 ⎜ ⎟ is the logarithmic form.5 (0. Let R = the amount of material recycled every year. 000(0. = 10. 2 –2 Principles in Practice 4. The first integer t for which the graph of x = the multiplicative increase.2 ⎛4⎞ 300 ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1004 ⎝3⎠ 4. 000 e−0. I0 5 –2 If f ( x) = 2 x . 51. 1.5) y = R (1. If 8. 59. 3. 000e −0.05 .2 58.5) x x! f (2) = e−0.5) y .95123) p ≈ 10.95123)10 ≈ 6065 .07)t lies on or above the horizontal line P = 3000 is 17. the graph of y = 2a ⋅ 2 x is the graph of y = 2 x shifted a units to the left. the multiplicative increase in recycling at the end of 55.043)t lies on or above the horizontal line P = 5000 is 17.95123 = e − x when x ≈ 0.

100.2%. Thus. to triple your investment in 12 years.0855 = 3 years is (0.8x x 1 x multiplicative decrease 5. When this equation is graphed we find t (r ) that the annual rate r needed to quadruple the investment in 10 years is approximately 13. 5 y x 5 12. Let V = the value of the boat. then x = (0.139 or ≈ 13.092 = r Thus.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4.6990 = 5 y 9. ln 1. ln 20.8 x = y 7. 8 4 5 y y = log0. 26 = 64 138 .02) y = V (0.4 = 0.8) y and. in logarithmic form. (12)2 = 144 3.33647 x = the multiplicative decrease. 5 y 5x Problems 4. Since m = e rt . ln 3 =r 12 0.000 = 4 2.9% 10 6. ln(4) r= t (r ) r= r= 5 y 5x 11.8) y . ln 4 .8) y . log 10. log8 4 = V (1 − r ) y = V (1. Alternatively. then ln m = rt. we can solve for r by setting t(r) = 10. ln m = rt ln m =r t Let m = 3 and t = 12.9%.09861 = 3 8. The equation t (r ) = 5 ln 4 can be rewritten as r 10. the multiplicative decrease in value at the end of y 2 3 5. log 0. e1. then at the end of y years the value of the boat is 4. invest at an annual percentage rate of 9. ln(4) ≈ 0. If we let 6.2 1. If the value depreciates by 20% every year.

log 6 36 = 2 35. log10. Because 41/ 5 = 5 4.01 = −2 y 1 24. log5 25 25 1 28. 5 29. log 7 7 = 1 38. x3 = 8 x=2 1 20. log 2 3 2 = . Because 104 = 10.01. 3 x 8 25. e −3 = x 18. Because 21/ 3 = 3 2.2 23. e1 = x x=e 17. log3 27 = 3 37. Because 2−3 = . log 0. 36. 28 = x x = 256 x 5 31. Because 50 = 1. log5 1 = 0 14. Because 62 = 36 . 5 32. log16 4 = 2 21. x1/ 2 = 3 x=9 22. x −1 = x=6 139 1 6 . 53 = x x = 125 16. Because 33 = 27. 19. Because 71 = 7. 40 = x x=1 y 33. 34 = x x = 81 y 30. x 2 = 25 Since x > 0. we choose x = 5. 000. 5 Section 4. log 4 5 4 = . 5 26. Because 26 = 64. Because 10−2 = 0. Because 161/ 2 = 4. 10−1 = x 1 x= 10 x 5 34. log 2 64 = 6. 5 1 1 = −2 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 13. Because 5−2 = y 1 1 27. log 2 = −3 8 8 x 5 15. 000 = 4 39.

we choose x = 2.45161 55. then at the end of y years the value of the antique is x2 − 2 x − 8 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 2) = 0 The roots of this equation are 4 and –2. 44.10) y . 2. 3−3 = x 1 x= 27 50.1x = 5 0. the multiplicative increase in value at the end of 48. 0. x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 The roots of the equation are 3 and −1.10) y .5 e0.1e0. V (1 + r ) y = V (1 + 0.00013 56.10) y . and. we choose x = 4. If V = the value of the antique. x 2 = 2 x + 8 57. 2 + log 2 4 = 3x − 1 2 + 2 = 3x – 1 5 = 3x 5 x= 3 e2 x = 1 2 3 2 1 4 1 4 1 1 x = ln 2 4 2 x = ln 46. 3−2 = x + 2 1 = x+2 9 17 x=− 9 53. we choose x = 3.10 x = y .1x = ln 5 x = 10 ln 5 1 42. 1. 6e2 x − 1 = 8 x −1 = 64 x–1=2 x=3 6e 2 x = 45. x 2 = 6 + 4 x − x 2 y years is (1. then x = (1.10) y = V (1. If the value appreciates by 10% every year. 1. 140 .60944 54.1x = 0. But since x > 0. If we let 2 2x − 4x − 6 = 0 x = the multiplicative increase. But since x > 0. log8 64 = x − 1 52.30058 47. Thus. e2 x −5 + 1 = 4 2 e 2 x −5 = 3 2x – 5 = ln 3 5 + ln 3 x= 2 x + x−6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 The roots of this equation are –3 and 2. e3 x = 2 3x = ln 2 ln 2 x= 3 41. 2. x = 2 x − 3 x=3 43. in logarithm form. But since x > 0. y = x1 x=y 49. x 2 = 6 − x 51. log1.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 40.

5 × 10 ⎠ E 101. 58.01920 64. c. p = log ⎢10 + = log[10 + 990] = log1000 2 ⎥⎦ ⎣ =3 ⎛ ⎞ E 60. a. Thus z 2 = y 3 or z = y 2 .5 × 1011 101.03194 x 0 1 2 Multiplicative increase 65. 0) x22 2 A ( ) u0 − x 2 2 2 A 141 .5 M 61.7 years 0. ( ) = 2N 1 If t = k. u0 = A ln ( x1 ) + u0 − (0. y 3 = x .5 × 1011+1. 1.5M 3e2 y = 8 − x 8− x e2 y = 3 ⎡8 − x ⎤ ln[e2 y ] = ln ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎡8 − x ⎤ 2 y = ln ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 ⎦ 1 ⎡8 − x ⎤ y = ln ⎢ 2 ⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ ) E = 2. From log y x = 3 . x + 3e2 y − 8 = 0 1980 ⎤ ⎡ 59. from log z x = 2 . 3 0 –1 4 –2 t N1 = N 0 2 k a.5M = 2. 3 z 2 = x . b.37. [−0. From part (a).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.1 minutes 0. –1 x22 2 x1 = e 4 –1 x2 u0 − 2 = A ln ( x1 ) 2 ln ( x1 ) = 4 N1 N0 62. T = ln 2 ≈ 21. then N = N 0 2 67.25 66. 1) (1.5M = log ⎜ 11 ⎟ ⎝ 2. T = ln 2 ≈ 36. ∞) N t = log 2 1 k N0 t = k log 2 68. N = 2 N 0 when t = k. Thus k is the time it takes for the population to double. c = 3(6) ln 6 + 12 ≈ 44.5 × 1011 ( )( E = 2.2 Years y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 63. t N1 = 2k N0 b.

then 3 = e x or x = ln 3. log 30 = log(2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5) = log 2 + log 3 + log 5 = a+b+c 4 2. The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake ⎛ I ⎞ is given by R = log ⎜ ⎟ where I is the intensity ⎝ I0 ⎠ 5. –5 From the graph of y = ln x. log 5 = log 5 − log 2 = c − a 2 –1 1. then 2 = ln x or x = e2 . level earthquake.06 Principles in Practice 4. zero-level reference earthquake. log16 = log 24 = 4 log 2 = 4a 0 5 3. For y = ln x. 10 2. 000 = log 100 = log102 = 2 log 10 9000 10 R = log 10.3 2 x = e ≈ 7. if I0 70. 10 = log –10 =2 Thus. 71. log of the earthquake and I 0 is the intensity of a 6.39 . when y = 2. of the earthquake and I 0 is the intensity of a I = how I0 many times greater the earthquake is than a zeroI = 10.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis R1 − R2 = log(900. 000 . when y = 3. The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake ⎛ I ⎞ is given by R = log ⎜ ⎟ where I is the intensity ⎝ I0 ⎠ –10 From the graph of y = e x . R1 = log(900.3 8 = log 8 − log 3 = log 23 − log 3 3 = 3 log 2 – log 3 = 3a – b 1. 1. For y = e x . Thus. 3. log 2 = log 2 − log 3 = a − b 3 4. 000.10. 000) When I = 9000 I0 R2 = log(9000) 142 6 2⋅3 = log 25 52 = log 2 + log 3 − 2 log 5 = a + b − 2c . log 36 = log(2 ⋅ 3)2 = 2 log(2 ⋅ 3) = 2(log 2 + log 3) = 2(a + b) zero-level reference earthquake. 000) − log 9000 69. 5 0 900. log I = how I0 many times greater the earthquake is than a zeroI = 900.41. then x = ln 3 ≈ 1.000 = log104 = 4 log 10 = 4 The earthquake measures 4 on the Richter scale. then level earthquake. Thus. when y = 2. if y = 3. then Problems 4. the two earthquakes differ by 2 on the Richter scale. when I0 7.

log 2 3 = log10 3 log 3 b = = log10 2 log 2 a 10. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 19. ln[ x( x + 1)]3 = 3ln[ x( x + 1)] = 3[ln x + ln( x + 1)] = log 3 + log10−5 = log 3 − 5log10 = log 3 − 5log(2 ⋅ 5) = log 3 − 5(log 2 + log 5) = b − 5(a + c) = −5a + b − 5c 9. ln e = log e e = 1 2 x 29. ln e5. log5 5 5 5 5 15 15 ⎛ 3⎞ = log5 ⎜ 5 2 ⎟ = log5 5 2 = 2 ⎝ ⎠ 28. ln ⎡ x( x + 1)2 ⎤ = ln x + ln( x + 1) 2 ⎣ ⎦ = ln x + 2 ln( x + 1) 2 = ln x5 1 ( x + 2)( x + 1) 5 2 1 ⎡ ⎤ = ln x 5 − ln ⎢ ( x + 2)( x + 1) 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 2 ⎡ ⎤ = ln x − ⎢ ln( x + 2) + ln( x + 1) 5 ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 = ln x − ln( x + 2) − ln( x + 1) 5 5 1 x 1 = ln x 2 − ln( x + 1) = ln x − ln( x + 1) x +1 2 x2 = ln x 2 − ln( x + 1)3 ( x + 1)3 = 2 ln x − 3ln( x + 1) 23. ln 14. ln 15.00003 = log(3 ⋅10−5 ) 24.4 = 10log10 3. ln x = ln x − [ln( x + 1) + ln( x + 2)] ( x + 1)( x + 2) = ln x − ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2) 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 ⎤ ⎛ x2 ⎞ 5 ⎥ x 1 ⎢ 31.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4. eln π = elog e π = π 22.01 = 5. ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ = ln ⎢ x + 2 ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎢ x + 2 x +1 ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ 20. ln x = ln x − ln[( x + 1)( x + 2)] ( x + 1)( x + 2) 143 .01 = log e e5.3 8. log 7 7 48 4 x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 25. log 0. ln ⎜ = 4[ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2)] ⎟ = 4 ln x + 2 x +2 ⎝ ⎠ 26. log 0. ln = ln x − [ln( x + 1) + ln( x + 2)] = ln x − ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2) = 48 ( ) 12. ln 1 = ln x 2 − ln ⎡( x + 1)2 ( x + 2)3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 1)2 ( x + 2)3 1 = ln x − ⎡ln( x + 1) 2 + ln( x + 2)3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 = ln x − [2 ln( x + 1) + 3ln( x + 2)] 2 1 = ln x − 2 ln( x + 1) − 3ln( x + 2) 2 16. ln 1 1 + ln e3 = log10 + log e e3 = −1 + 3 = 2 10 10 21. log3 5 = log10 5 log 5 c = = log10 3 log 3 b 11.0000001 = log10−7 = −7 17. ln x( x + 1)( x + 2) = ln[ x( x + 1)( x + 2)]1/ 2 1 = [ln x( x + 1)( x + 2)] 2 1 = [ln x + ln( x + 1) ln( x + 2)] 2 27.4 e = − ln e2 = − log e e2 = −2 18. log 30. 10log 3.01 1 x 2 ( x + 1) = ln ⎡ x 2 ( x + 1) ⎤ − ln( x + 2) ⎣ ⎦ x+2 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2) = 2 ln x + ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2) 13.4 = 3.

log 215 + log 6 − log169 = log 2 2 1693 ( = log 41.05)10 = log ⎡100(1. eln(2 x ) = 5 2x = 5 5 x= 2 x−2 37. m = 2x + 1.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. ln 3 x3 ( x + 2)2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ ⎤ 42. 4log 4 ( x ) + log 4 (2) = 3 38. e ) eln x = 8 x3 = 8 x=2 215(6)8 49. log (6 · 4) = log 24 44. log 2 ⎢ ln ⎛⎜ 5 + e2 + 5 ⎞⎟ + ln ⎛⎜ 5 + e2 − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ ⎤ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 2 2 = log 2 ⎢ ln ⎜ 5 + e + 5 ⎟ ⎜ 5 + e − 5 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 2 = log 2 [ln(5 + e − 5)] 1 x3 ( x + 2) 2 = ln 3 ( x + 1)3 1 = ln[ x3 ( x + 2)2 ] − ln( x + 1)3 3 1 = [ln x3 + ln( x + 2)2 − ln( x + 1)3 ] 3 1 = [3ln x + 2 ln( x + 2) − 3ln( x + 1)] 3 2 = ln x + ln( x + 2) − ln( x + 1) 3 ( x + 1)3 { } = log 2 [ln e2 ] = log 2 (2) =1 43. log3 ⎜ ⎟ = log3 2 ⎝ 5⎠ 35. log x 2 − log x − 2 = log x2 45. we have log e (2 x + 1) ln(2 x + 1) log 2 (2 x + 1) = = log e 2 ln 2 1693 4 ln 3−3ln 4 =e 54 = log 6 6 = 1 9 ln 34 − ln 43 4 ln ⎛⎜ 33 ⎞⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ =e = 34 3 4 = 81 64 144 . 10log x = 4 x2 = 4 x=±2 39. log 2 = log3 31/ 2 + log 2 21/ 3 − log5 51/ 4 1 1 1 = + − 2 3 4 7 = 12 2x x +1 36.05)10 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 48. and a = e. e3ln x = 8 ( ) 3 215 68 1 1 8 3 40. 5(log x 2 + log y 3 − log z 2 ) ⎛ x2 y3 ⎞ = 5log ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ z2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡ ⎛ 2 3 ⎞5 ⎤ x y = log ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ z 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢⎝ 4log 4 (2 x ) = 3 2x = 3 3 x= 2 2 47. log3 3 + log 2 3 2 − log5 4 5 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 34. log100 + log(1. log 6 54 − log 6 9 = log 6 33. 5log 2 10 + 2 log 2 13 = log 2 105 + log 2 132 = log 2 (105 ⋅132 ) 46. From the change of base formula with b = 2.

y = log 4 ( x + 2) = 53. 5 M = log(10) + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4 145 . 57. 59. By the change of base formula. where A = log b and B = log a. y = ab x so ln x . log e x 2 + 1 2 log e 3 ln 3 ln x ln 6 2 0 10 52.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4. This is a linear expression because it is in the form Ax + B. let 50. Thus the graph of y = ln(4x) is the graph of y = ln x shifted ln 4 units upward. 4 55. y = log 6 x = m = x 2 + 1 . and a = e. If f(x) = ln x. ln10 ln x Thus the graphs of y = log x and y = are ln10 identical. m = x 2 + 2 x + 2 and a = e. From the change of base formula with b = 3. M = log (10 A1 ) + 3 log e ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) log3 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) = log e 3 = M = log10 + log ( A1 ) + 3 M = 1 + ⎡⎣ log ( A1 ) + 3⎤⎦ ln( x 2 + 2 x + 2) ln 3 M = 1 + M1 51. From the change of base formula with b = 3. From the change of base formula with b = 5. we have ( log5 9 − x 2 )= ( log e 9 − x 2 log3 5 ) = ln (9 − x ) –2 2 ln 5 58. 56. 60. C = B + E ⎛ E⎞ C = B ⎜1 + ⎟ B⎠ ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ E ⎞⎤ ln C = ln ⎢ B ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎥ B ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 0 –1 ⎛ E⎞ ln C = ln B + ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ B⎠ ⎝ y = ln(4x) = ln 4 + ln x. then y = ln(4x) = f(x) + ln 4. and a = e. log x = x log y = log(ab ) = log a + log b x = log a + x log b. Given M1 = log ( A1 ) + 3 . eln z = 7e y ln( x + 2) ln 4 4 z = 7e y z = ey 7 z y = ln 7 –3 10 –4 54. M = log(A) + 3 a. m = 9 − x 2 .3 b. we have ( ) log3 x 2 + 1 = ( ) = ln ( x + 1) .

75 × 105 − 4 = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ log 6. the graph of y = ln(6x) is the graph of y = ln(2x) shifted ln 3 units upward.829 = I0 x ⋅ 32 y = x ⋅ 4(3 y −9) 32 y = 4(3 y −9) ( log 32 y = log 4(3 y −9) y log 32 = (3y – 9) log 4 y log 32 = 3y log 4 – 9 log 4 y(log 32 – 3 log 4) = –9 log 4 −9 log 4 −18log 2 −18log 2 y= = = − log 2 log 1 log 323 2 4 y = 18 Thus. 000) − 4 = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ log 6. Greg used 32 to the power of 18. –2 ln(6x) = ln(3 ⋅ 2x) = ln 3 + ln(2x). The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake ⎛ I ⎞ is given by R = log ⎜ ⎟ where I is the intensity ⎝ I0 ⎠ of the earthquake and I 0 is the intensity of a 8 I = how I0 many times greater the earthquake is than a zerolevel earthquake. Let x = the number and let y = the unknown exponent.1d Problems 4.4 −0. log x − log 5 = log 7 log x = log 5 + log 7 log x = log 35 x = 35 =d 20 = d Thus.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 8 61. 000) zero-level reference earthquake.1d log ⎜ ⎟ 800 ⎝3⎠ 450 log 800 ( ) −0. he should start the new campaign 20 days after the last one ends.1d ⎛4⎞ 450 = 800 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ −0. ⎛4⎞ S = 800 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ 450 ⎛ 4 ⎞ = 800 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ log I I0 Thus.829 = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ I 101. then y = ln(6x) = f(x) + ln 3. Let S = 450. 2.5 = −0. ⎛ I ⎞ R2 = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ Since R1 − 4 = R2 Principles in Practice 4. 67.1log 43 ) 2. R1 = log(675. Then ⎛ I ⎞ log(675. log(3x + 2) = log(2 x + 5) 3x + 2 = 2 x + 5 x=3 450 ⎛4⎞ = −0. 146 .75 + 5log10 − 4 = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ 1.1d 1.5 times as intense as a zero-level earthquake. –2 3. If f(x) = ln(2x).4 1. the other earthquake is 67. Thus.

099 12.125 16 8 2 x 2 x 2 x 10. e 2 x e5 x = e14 e7 x = e14 7x = 14 x=2 147 . ln(− x) = ln x 2 − 6 = 3−1 36 x +3 = 3−1 6x + 3 = –1 6x = –4 2 x = − ≈ −0. x = –3 is the only value that satisfies the original equation.4 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.5 since x > 0 2 ( 5. (27) 2 x +1 = 3−1 (3 ) 3 8x2 = 2 1 x2 = 4 1 x = = 0.667 3 ) 11.75 4 4. ln(4 – x) + ln 2 = 2 ln x ln[(4 − x)2] = ln x 2 x+1 3 4 4 x = ln 2 (4 − x)2 = x 2 x= x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 (x + 4)(x – 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 However. e4 x = 6. x = 2 is the only value that satisfies the original equation. log 7 – log(x – 1) = log 4 7 log = log 4 x −1 7 =4 x −1 7 = 4x – 4 4x = 11 11 x= = 2. x=2 ln 3 4 ( 34 ) ≈ −0. 2e5 x + 2 = 17 17 e5 x + 2 = 2 ⎛ 17 ⎞ 5 x + 2 = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 17 ⎞ 5 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ − 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ 17 ⎞ ⎤ x = ⎢ ln ⎜ ⎟ − 2 ⎥ ≈ 0. (e3 x − 2 )3 = e3 e3(3 x − 2) = e3 3(3 x − 2) = 3 3x − 2 = 1 3x = 3 x =1 9. x = −3 ex = 3 x = ln 3 ≈ 1. (81) 4 x = 9 (34 ) 4 x = 32 316 x = 32 16 x = 2 2 1 x= = = 0. e 2 x = 9 − x = x2 − 6 (e x ) 2 = 32 x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = 2 However. log 2 x + log 2 23 = log 2 log 2 (8 x) = log 2 8x = 8.028 5⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ 7.072 4 13.

322 ln 4 ( 75 ) ≈ −0. 2(10) x + (10) x +1 = 4 2(10) x + 10(10) x = 4 12(10) x = 4 23. 10 x = 6 4 = log 6 x 4 x= ≈ 5.870 =7 5 7 102 x = 2 x = log x= ln 73 x − 2 = ln 5 (3x − 2) ln 7 = ln 5 ln 5 3x − 2 = ln 7 ln 5 +2 3x = ln 7 ln 5 + 2 x = ln 7 ≈ 0.477 3 (10) x = − 23x ln 2 − = − 23x 4 5 = ln 4 5 2x 4 ln 2 = ln 3 5 ( ) 4 2 x ln 5 − = 3 ln 2 x=− 148 3ln ( 54 ) ≈ 0. 5e2 x −1 − 2 = 23 19.2 102 x log 73 x − 2 = 5 21.935 x= ⎜ 2 ⎝ ln 7 ⎠ 4 15. ( ) ≈ 2. 4(10)0.322 ln 2 e2 x −1 = 5 2 x − 1 = ln 5 1 + ln 5 x= ≈ 1.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 14. x 22.140 log 6 16. 4 2 = 20 x 5 7 ln 4 2 = ln 20 x ln 4 = ln 20 2 x ln 20 = 2 ln 4 2 ln 20 x= ≈ 4.305 2 ln(7 2 x +3 ) = ln 9 (2 x + 3) ln 7 = ln 9 ln 9 2x + 3 = ln 7 ln 9 2x = −3 ln 7 1 ⎛ ln 9 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ ≈ −0.2 x = 4 15 0.073 2 18.2 x =3 5 15 (10)0.2 x = log 4 x= 17.483 2 ln 2 . 2 1 3 1 x = log ≈ −0.942 3 0. log 15 4 5 72 x +3 = 9 20. 2 x = 5 5e2 x −1 = 25 ln 2 x = ln 5 x ln 2 = ln 5 ln 5 x= ≈ 2.

353 is the only value that satisfies the original equation.887 However. (4)53− x − 7 = 2 53− x = 9 4 (3 − x) ln 5 = ln 3− x = x = 3− 26.353 149 .496 ln 5 7 = 13 3x 7 = 3x 13 ⎛7⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln(3x ) ⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎛7⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln 3 ⎝ 13 ⎠ 7 ln 13 x= ≈ −0.353 or x ≈ −0. log 2 ( x + 1) = 4 24 = x + 1 x = 24 − 1 = 15 log 2 (5 x + 1) = 4 − log 2 (3x − 2) log 2 (5 x + 1) + log 2 (3x − 2) = 4 log[(5 x + 1)(3 x − 2)] = 4 (5 x + 1)(3x − 2) = 24 15 x 2 − 7 x − 2 = 16 15 x 2 − 7 x − 18 = 0 x ≈ 1.317 is the only value that satisfies the original equation.563 ln 3 32. log 4 9 4 ln 53− x = ln ln ( 94 ) 2 x + 4 = 3 ⋅ 43 9 4 x= 3 ⋅ 43 − 4 188 = = 94 2 2 31. log( x − 3) + log( x − 5) = 1 log[( x − 3)( x − 5)] = 1 x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 10 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 ( ) x= 27. log(x – 3) = 3 8 ± (−8)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) = 4 ± 11 However. x = 4 + 11 ≈ 7. log 4 (9 x − 4) = 2 24. 28. log(3x – 1) – log(x – 3) = 2 3x − 1 log =2 x−3 3x − 1 102 = x −3 100(x – 3) = 3x – 1 97x = 299 299 x= ≈ 3.4 ) 29. 5 3x − 6 = 10 42 = 9 x − 4 3x − 6 = 2 9 x = 42 + 4 3x = 8 x= ln 3x = ln 8 x ln 3 = ln 8 ln 8 x= ≈ 1. x ≈ 1.317 103 = x − 3 x = 103 + 3 = 1003 33. x ≈ 1.082 97 ln 5 ln 42 + 4 20 = ≈ 2.893 ln 3 30.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( Section 4. x ≈ 7. log 4 (2 x + 4) − 3 = log 4 3 log 4 (2 x + 4) − log 4 3 = 3 2x + 4 =3 3 2x + 4 43 = 3 25.222 9 9 ( 94 ) ≈ 2.

26 log A log S = log12.4 A0.462 2 e3 − 1 However.4 + log A0.26 150 . The equation has no solution.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 34.4 + 0.5 2 ln( x − 2) = ln(2 x − 1) + 3 ln( x − 2) − ln(2 x − 1) = 3 ⎛ x−2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ 2x −1 ⎠ x−2 = e3 2x −1 e3 (2 x − 1) = x − 2 2e3 x − e3 = x − 2 x(2e3 − 1) = −2 + e3 x= −2 + e3 ≈ 0. 2 1 = 0. 37. log S = log 12. log( x + 2)2 = 2 2 log(x + 2) = 2 log(x + 2) = 1 101 = x + 2 x=8 ⎛2⎞ 35. this value does not satisfy the original equation. 1 is the only value that satisfies the original equation.26 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ S = 12.4 A0. log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 3 + log 2 x ⎝x⎠ ⎛2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ − log 2 x = 3 ⎝x⎠ log 2 log 2 23 = 2 x x 2 =3 x2 2 =3 x2 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 However. x = x= 36.26 log S = log ⎡12.

5 t= ≈ 20.02)t 1.035 − N 40.1334 log P )⎤⎦⎥ T = 50 P 0.5 = (1. then 20 = 100e −0.035t ln 5 t= ≈ 46 0.5 = ln(1.02)t ln1. 000. If Q = 20.7 + 0. 000(1.02 ln1.5 ln1. log T = 1. 000 = 1.500.500. b. then 1. Solving for t gives 20 = e −0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4. When t = 0.1334(log P)(log P) log T = log 50 + 0.5 = t ln 1.2068 log P + [–0. a.02)t .1334 log P ] ( log T = log ⎡ (50) P 0.035t 5 –ln 5 = –0. 000. Solving for t gives 1.035(0) = 100e0 = 100 ⋅1 = 100 .02 151 . Q = 100e −0.500. 000 = (1.4 38. If P = 1.2068 log P – 0.2068 + log P[ −0.1334(log P )2 log T = log 50 + 0.1334 log P ) (logb x)2 = (logb x)(logb x) = logb ( x logb x ) 39.02)t ln 1.035t .2068 ⎣⎢ )( P −0.2068−(0. 100 = 225e 225 N 225 9 e 225 = = 100 4 N 9 = ln 225 4 9 N = 225ln ≈ 182 4 41.2068log P − 0.000.035t 5 1 ln = −0.035t 100 1 = e−0.1334 log P] log P log T = log 50 + log P 0. 000 1.

0.2 log q = 3 + 0. Thus q ⎡1 + eC ( p + q ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 0.8) x x log y = log A + a x log b log y − log A = a x log b log y − log A ax = log b ⎛ log y − log A ⎞ log a x = log ⎜ ⎟ log b ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ log y − log A ⎞ x log a = log ⎜ ⎟ log b ⎝ ⎠ 2 p = 80 − q log 2 p = log(80 − q ) p log 2 = log(80 − q) log(80 − q) log 2 log 20 When q = 60. Thus 2 P = P (1.8t log 2 ( log y = log A + log b a 43. then p = ≈ 4.2 ≈ 91 .105 ln 2 ≈7 t= ln1.2t = 5 1 −0.2t 5 1 e−0.8) = log ⎜ ⎟. c. ( 0. then 0 = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus q − pe−C ( p + q ) . The investment doubles when A = 2P. ) ( ) If t = 1.105 46. a = 0. 1 A = 1000. and x = t.8.2t 4 = 1 − e−0. Solving for t gives ( ln 2 = ln(1. 2 44.8t (− log 2) 152 ) . b = . then q = 500 1 − e−0.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42.105)t ln 2 = t ln1. or 2 = (1.32 . q = 1000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ log y = Ab a 1 q C=− ln . then q = 500 1 − e−2 ≈ 432 . p+q p p= log(q) − 3 3 − log q = − log 2 log 2 ) b.8t We solve the equation ( 400 = 500 1 − e−0. q = 500 1 − e−0. log 2 x= log ( log y − log A log b ) log a The previous solution was the special case y = q.2t = ln = − ln 5 5 ln 5 ≈8 t= 0.2t a. ⎝ log 2 ⎠ = −q q p t= q −C ( p + q ) = ln p 3− log q log 2 ) log(0. If F(0) = 0. q = 80 − 2 p ⎛1⎞ 45.8t ⎛1⎞ log q = log1000 + log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 log q = 3 + 0.8t (− log 2) log(q) − 3 = 0.105)t .8t = q − pe−C ( p + q ) = 0 − pe −C ( p + q ) e −C ( p + q ) = ⎛ 3 − log q ⎞ t log(0. If t = 10.105)t .

log 4 2 = y 50. 9. 5 x = 625 x=4 1 = −4 81 1 x −4 = 81 1 1 = 4 81 x 14. 54 = 625 –5 From the graph of this function. Because 3−4 = 10 1 1 = −4 . or y= ln( x + 4) ln x . log3 81 81 3 1 1 ⎛1⎞ 10. log 4 16 = 2 1. (3)2 − 4 x = 5 (3)2 y = 4 x + 5 4x + 5 2y = 3 ⎛ 4x + 5 ⎞ y ln 2 = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 4x + 5 ⎞ y ln 2 = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ln 4 x3+5 y= ln 2 The graph of the original equation is the graph of ( 13. log x ) x 4 = 81 x=3 153 3 1 2 .33 1 12. ln 2 8 –2 5 8 –2 0 Chapter 4 Review Problems 10 1. log 1 9 = −2 3. Because ⎜ ⎟ = . log 2 x = 5 − log 2 ( x + 4) is equivalent to 0 = 5 − log 2 ( x + 4) − log 2 x . y = 5− − ln 2 ln 2 ln ( 4 x3+5 ) . Thus 4 is the only solution of the original equation. 814 = 3 4. Because 42 = 16 . log 100.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 4 Review 47. 4 64 64 ⎝4⎠ 10 –10 ⎛1⎞ 11. log3 243 = 5 2. the only zero is x = 4. 1 3.000 = 5 20 5. Because 4 2 = 2 . 48. Because ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ –10 −2 = 32 = 9 .20 49. ln 54. Because 53 = 125 . log 1 = 3.598 = 4 6. Thus the solutions of the 0 = 5− − ln 2 ln 2 original equation are the zeros of the function ln( x + 4) ln x . log5 125 = 3 0 2 8. 91 = 9 0 7.

e x = 20. x+4=7 x=3 = log − ⎡ log 2 ( x + 1)3 + log 2 ( x + 2) 4 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 9 17. 2 ln x + ln y − 3ln z = ln x 2 + ln y − ln z 3 x2 y 1 ln x − 2(ln y + ln z ) 2 4 z3 ( ( = 4 ln x + ln y 3 − ln z 2 9⎤ = log 6 2 − ⎡ log 6 4 + log 6 3 ⎣ ⎦ ) ( yz )2 ⎡ xy 3 ⎤ xy 3 30. log 8000 = log(2 ⋅10)3 = 3log(2 ⋅10) = 3(log 2 + log10) = 3(a + 1) 2 x2 26. ln ⎢ = 4 ln = 4 ln xy 3 − ln z 2 ⎥ 2 2 z ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ 24. 1 log 2 x + 2 log 2 x 2 − 3log 2 ( x + 1) − 4 log 2 ( x + 2) 2 1 = e −1 e x = –1 = log 2 0 e = 2x + 3 1 = 2x + 3 2 x = −2 x = −1 ( x + 1)3 ( x + 2) 4 = log x 4 + log y 2 − 3log zw = log x 4 + log y 2 − log( zw)3 = log x 4 y 2 − log z 3 w3 = log 19. ln 3 xyz = ln( xyz ) 3 = ln( xyz ) 3 1 = (ln x + ln y + ln z ) 3 22. log ( ) 1 = log 2 x 2 + log 2 x 2 32 1 27. 5ln x + 2 ln y + ln z = ln x5 + ln y 2 + ln z = ln x 2 y − ln z 3 = ln x = log 6 2 − log 6 4 ⋅ 39 = log 6 ) ) = 4(ln x + 3ln y − 2 ln z ) 2 9 4⋅3 = log 6 1 39.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 15. ln ⎢ ⎣⎢ x () y⎤ ⎥ = ln y z 1/ 2 1 ⎛ y ⎞2 = ln ⎜ ⎟ − ln x ⎝z⎠ z ⎥⎦ x 1 y 1 = ln − ln x = (ln y − ln z ) − ln x 2 z 2 154 . 2−5 = x 1 1 = x= 5 32 2 25. ln(2 x + 3) = 0 9 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = log 2 ⎜ x 2 x 4 ⎟ − log 2 ⎡ ( x + 1)3 ( x + 2)4 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ 16. log 6 2 − log 6 4 − 9 log 6 3 ( 1 = ln x − ln( yz )2 = ln x 2 − 2 ln( yz ) 1 1 29.366 ⎡1 31. ln x4 y 2 z 3 w3 x3 y 2 = ln x3 y 2 − ln z −5 z −5 = ln x3 + ln y 2 − ln z −5 = 3ln x + 2 ln y + 5ln z 1 = log 32 − log 2 2 22 1 1 a = 2 log 3 − log 2 = 2b − a = 2b − 2 2 2 21. Because eln( x + 4) = x + 4 . ln 73 = 52 = ln( x5 y 2 z ) 23. 4 log x + 2 log y − 3(log z + log w) 18. 3log 7 − 2 log 5 = log 73 − log 52 = log 28.

log3 ( x + 5) = 5 log e ( x + 5) ln( x + 5) = log e 3 ln 3 43. ln 16 3 = ln 42 + ln 3 = 2 ln 4 + 38. log y 5 x 1 ln 3 2 5 45. ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = ln = ln x5 − ln y 2 z 3 2 3 ⎢⎝ y ⎠ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎥ y z ⎣ ⎦ ( 5 y y = 3x y = log 3 x ) x = ln x5 − ln y 2 + ln z 3 = 5ln x − 2 ln y − 3ln z 33. log 3x + log 3 = 2 log 9 x = 2 5 = log x3 + log 3 x + 1 − log x 2 + 2 1 1 = 3log x + log( x + 1) − log( x 2 + 2) 3 5 9 x = 102 9 x = 100 100 x= 9 39.8295 log 2 5 2.3219 5 44. 34 x = 9 x +1 ( ) =2+3–5=0 41.2479 = ≈ 1. 10log x + log10 x + log10 = x + x + 1 = 2 x + 1 ( ) 40.1610 36.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 4 Review 42. ⎡⎛ x ⎞ 2 x 3 ⎤ x5 ⎛ ⎞ ⎢ 32. log102 + log(1000) − 5 = log102 + log 103 − 5 47. log10 (7 x3 + 5) 34. log 4 5 = ln 4 ( ) = 2y + 1 x 2 37. y = e x 34 x = 32 2 y +2 x +1 34 x = 32( x +1) 4x = 2(x + 1) 4x = 2x + 2 2x = 2 x=1 . 155 . ln 5 ≈ 1. log5 19 = log(7 x3 + 5) log 2 x log 2 19 4. log 2 (7 x + 5) = log10 2 9 3 = 35. log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4 x + 6 x=5 x3 3 x + 1 5 2 x +2 5 = log x3 3 x + 1 − log x 2 + 2 46. In exponential form.

43− x = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3x 1 16 54.04 – 2600 = $1229.222 x = 101 = 10 50.015 4 1 yr = 26 quarters 2 2600(1. 4 x +3 = 7 2 x1 = 3−e 1 x= 2 3e ) 55. ln(log x 3) = 2 log x 3 = e 2 x= 2 xe = 3 2 2 ( x e ) −e = 3−e 2 52.04 b. e3 x = 14 3x = ln 14 ln14 x= ≈ 0. 7e3 x −1 − 2 = 1 7e3 x −1 = 3 3 e3 x −1 = 7 3x − 1 = ln 3x = ln 51.466 3 43− x = 4−2 3 – x = –2 x=5 49. log 2 ( x + 4) = log 2 ( x − 2) + 3 ⎛ x+4⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−2⎠ x+4 = 23 = 8 x−2 x + 4 = 8( x − 2) = 8 x − 16 20 = 7 x 20 x= 7 56.596 ln 4 2 2 2 x e ⋅−e = 3− e log 2 x + 3 7 57. 53.051 ln 4 x +3 = ln 7 (x + 3)ln 4 = ln 7 ln 7 x+3= ln 4 ln 7 x= − 3 ≈ −1.880 3 0.06 = 0. Quarterly rate = x = 22 x=4 6 a. 3829. log x + log(10x) = 3 log x + log 10 + log x = 3 2 log(x) + 1 = 3 2 log(x) = 2 log x = 1 ( 10 x + 4 − 3 = 3 10 x + 4 = 6 x + 4 = log 6 x = log(6) – 4 ≈ –3. 3 10 x + 4 − 3 = 9 58.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 48.015) 26 ≈ $3829. log 2 x + log 4 x = 3 log 2 x =3 log 2 4 log 2 x + log 2 x =3 2 3 +1 7 ln 73 + 1 3 ≈ 0.04 156 . 3 log 2 x = 3 2 log 2 x = 2 35 / x = 2 5 ln 3 = ln 2 x 5ln 3 x= ≈ 7. 10 2 = 5 3x = log 5 2 2 x = log 5 ≈ 0.925 ln 2 59.

then P = 6000(0.6 ≈ 109.4 ≈ 134. (0.7 0. b. 000e −0. When t = 5. N = 600(1. ⎛ 0. 064 69. When t = 2.05)1 = 630.41t . then 1 = 10e −0. N = 600(1. a.9 b. R = 10e 5 = 10e t − 40 . R = 10e ⎛ 1 ⎞ 61. . Solving for t gives 1 = e−0. R = 200.41 157 − 12 .995) d ln(0. it will take 3 · 10 = 30 days = 8 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ≈6.005)] or P = 6000(0. 12 ⎜ 1 % ⎟ = 14% ⎝ 6 ⎠ 1 ⎛1⎞ . 1 of the initial amount to be present.82 ≈ 4.41t 10 1 −0. N = 600(1. a. 8 67.11 12 3 66. d 63.41t = ln = − ln10 10 ln10 t= ≈ 5.2 mg d.11 ⎞ 4000 ⎜1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ Chapter 4 Review 0. When t = 10. Tt − Te (Tt − Te )o Tt − Te (Tt − Te )o T −T 1 a = − ln t e t (Tt − Te )o 1 (Tt − Te )o a = ln t Tt − Te If N = 1.6 0.0017 20 20 ln 0. then N = 10e0 = 10 ⋅1 = 10 mg −at = ln b.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 60. Monthly rate = 5 yr = 60 mo. 000e −0.41 e. When t = 1. Let d = depth in centimeters. If t = 2. N = 10e −0. Thus − b.995)10 ≈ 5707. When t = 10. then N = 10e−0. Tt − Te = (Tt − Te )o e − at If t = 3. 64.1 ≈ 0.4 mg c.9) 20 = 0.66 62.9) 20 = ln 0. R = 200.41t a. 762 e − at = 65. c. a.0017 d= ≈ 1210 cm ln 0.0017 t d ln 0. 68. Because 60 for ≈ $6915.0017 t P = 6000[1 + (−0. then N = 10e −4.05)t t − 40 If t = 20.9 = ln 0. When t = 0. − 20 40 1 =e 2 t − 40 = 10e t 1 = ln = − ln 2 40 2 t = 40 ln 2 ≈ 28.05)5 ≈ 766. ln 2 ≈ 1.

–3. 5 0 76. 1.93.37] 72. ⎝ N⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 700 = 1800 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 48 ⎠ n 700 ⎛ 46 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ 1800 ⎝ 48 ⎠ 7 ⎛ 23 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ 18 ⎝ 24 ⎠ 10 –10 n –10 2. y = log 2 x + 1 = 0 10 5 ( ) ln x 2 + 1 ln 2 8 –2 –2 –10 (−∞. the 73.53 n 20 74. For double-declining balance depreciation. ( 1 71.60) –3 158 . (2. (6)5 y + x = 2 10 2− x 6 2− x ln 5 y = ln 6 2− x y ln 5 = ln 6 5y = –10 10 –10 10 y= –10 ln 2−6 x ln 5 1 10 –10 3 –10 (–1.Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 70.37 The value drops below $700 at about 22 months. n ⎛7⎞ ⎛ 23 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 18 ⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎛7⎞ ⎛ 23 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = n ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ 7 ln 18 n= ≈ 22 23 ln 24 ( ) ( ) –5 0. 0.17). n 10 2⎞ ⎛ equation is V = C ⎜ 1 − ⎟ .96. ) 2 75.

⎝ ⎠ P − T e kI − 1 P e kI ln 2 ln 2 = H 8 −3⋅ ln 2 ⋅4 ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎜1 − e 8 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎡ eln 2 ⎤ 2 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ Pe− dkI = P − T e kI − 1 e − dkI = ( P 1− e 1 − dkI T ekI − 1 = P − Pe − dkI ( T= − dkI ⎛ 100 ⎜ 1 − ⎡eln 2 ⎤ ⎜ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ = −1 ) ) 3. P = 100. Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 4 2. ( ( T (e T e kI kI 1− e b. From part (a). H= k H ln 2 then k = . I = 4. equivalently. d = 3. If H = I. Thus I − d ⋅ lnI 2 ⋅ I ⎞ ⎛ P ⎜1 − e ⎟ P 1 − e− dkI ⎠ T= = ⎝ ln 2 kI ⋅ I e −1 e I −1 8 –5 5 ( –2 y= 3x 3x = = 3x − 2 . H = 8. 159 . k = Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 4 P 1 − e − dkI ) ⎥ ⎦⎥ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 0 10 As d changes. the half-life H is given by ln 2 ln 2 or. T = a. then we have y = 3 x −2 −d ⎞ ⎛ P ⎜ 1 − ⎡ eln 2 ⎤ ⎟ P 1 − 2− d ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ = = ⎝ ln 2 2 −1 e −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = P 1 − 2− d = ⎜ 1 − ⎟P . k = .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 77. From the text. Thus the graph of y = 1. Thus ⎠ 5 ) ⎤⎥ kI ⎡ 1 ⎢ P − T e −1 d = − ln kI ⎢ P ⎣⎢ ⎡ 1 ⎢ P d = ln ⎢ kI kI ⎢⎣ P − T e − 1 −1 R = P 1 − e− dkI . ) ( ) − 1) T (e = P or P = −1 = P 1− e − dkI − dkI ( kI 1− e ) ) ( ) b. 9 32 x If f ( x) = 3 . ) e kI − 1 a. ( ⎡ P − T ekI − 1 −dkI = ln ⎢ ⎢ P ⎢⎣ ) −3 ⎛ P 1 − e− dkI = 100 ⎜ 1 − 2 2 ⎝ − 32 ⎞ ⎛ R = 100 ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ≈ 65. x ( 3 is the graph of y = 3x 9 shifted 2 units to the right. some of the coefficients need to change from P to Y1 or vice versa. ⎝ 2d ⎠ ( = f ( x − 2) . ) ( ) ⎤⎥ ( ( ) 4. ⎥ ⎥⎦ e − 32 ( ln 2 ⋅4 8 −1 ⎞ 3 ⎟⎟ 100 ⎜⎛1 − 2− 2 ⎟⎞ ⎠= ⎝ ⎠ ≈ 156 1 2 2 −1 ) ) ⎞ ⎟ .

052.Chapter 5 Principles in Practice 5.1125 ⎞ r = 0. 11.11: 12 0 ⎛ 0. when the 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ nominal rate r = 11% is compounded monthly. the effective rate re = 0.52 The $10.57% . S at the end of n years.1173)20 ≈ 89. and.7208%.2% compounded daily.58 −1 160 . S = P(1 + r ) n 0.1157 . With P = 10. the effective rate is re = 11.99 0 S2 (20) = 9700(1.1173 800 S2 = P (1 + r )n = 9700(1 + 0. or 7 years and 16 days for 365 $520 to grow to $750 at the nominal rate of 5.049. S = 600.1 By graphing re as a function of r. 000(1 + 0. To find the better investment.2 400 2.08)8 ≈ $11.11 ⎞ re = ⎜1 + − 1 ≈ 0. Hence. This is the better effective rate of interest.9% compounded daily. at the nominal rate of 4. 000(1. in the second case. when P = 9700 and re = 0. it will take 2571 ≈ 7. we find that.052 ⎞ S = 520 ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. Let n = 12. Thus. 3000 500 Problems 5.1125: re = ⎜1 + − 1 ≈ 0. the effective rate is re = 11.58 – 6000 = $5105.25% is compounded quarterly. 1. n ⎛ r⎞ re = ⎜1 + ⎟ − 1 ⎝ n⎠ b.1157 . The respective effective rates of interest are n ⎛ r⎞ found using the formula re = ⎜1 + ⎟ − 1 .1157)n . Let P = 520 and let r = 0. ⎝ n⎠ Let n = 12 when r = 0. 0 1000 0.105. n n ⎛ 365.159. a.08 or 8%.73% .044 years. S = 750.077208 or 7. S1 = P (1 + r )n = 10. Thus. S1 (20) = 10. we find that when n = 2571.58 12 r ⎞ ⎛ re = ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 6000(1.1157)20 ≈ 89. compare the compound amounts. we find that when r = 0.052 ⎞ S = 520 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 365 ⎠ By graphing S as a function of n.000 investment is slightly better over 20 years. S = P(1 + r ) n 4 ⎛ 0. when the nominal rate r = 0. When 0. 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ Hence in the second case when the nominal rate r = 11.319. 1.1173 .1 0 4. Let P = 518 and let n = 3(365) = 1095.105.1173)n . the initial amount of $518 will grow to $600 after 3 years.1 3.1 1095 r ⎞ ⎛ S = 518 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 365 ⎠ By graphing S as a function of the nominal rate r.000 and re = 0.

25% ⎝ ⎠ c.05 ⎞ 4 4. ⎛ 0. given by n = ln(1.05095 or 4 ⎠ ⎝ 5.10 ⎞ ⎜1 + 365 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 8.07 ⎞ (ii) ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ − 1 ≈ 0. n.471% 365 − 1 ≈ 0.70% compounded monthly. ⎛ 0.07250 or 7.05) 12 ⎛ 0. ⎛ 0.95 161 .10381 or 10.095% ⎛ 0. (i) 1000 ⎜1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ − 1000 ≈ $417.07 ⎞ (ii) ⎜1 + − 1 ≈ 0.1 750(1.06 ⎞ 6.023% 52(5) − 1000 ≈ $418. From Example 6. 282. 6000(1.186% 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 11. re = 5 4 10.09) 12(5) ⎛ 0.0870 ≈ 8.63 12.381% ⎝ ⎠ 2950 2000 2950 2000 2950 −1 2000 re ≈ 0.0 years. ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 365 7. is ln 2 ≈ 8.10 ⎞ ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ − 1 ≈ 0.07 ⎞ (i) 1000 ⎜ 1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4(5) − 1000 ≈ $414.78 4 ⎛ 0.04081 or 4. Let re be the effective rate. a.07186 or 7.10 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ − 1 = 0.10516 or 10.10471 or 10.2 years. (i) 1000 ⎜ 1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.250% 9. Then 2000 (1 + re ) = 2950 5 − 1 ≈ 0.50 c.08%.07 ⎞ (ii) ⎜1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ − 1 ≈ 0. the number of years.07229 or 7.73 52 − 1 ≈ 0.50 ⎛ 0. Then (1 + r )84 = 1835 1835 (1 + r )84 = 1000 1835 1 + r = 84 1000 1835 −1 r = 84 1000 r = 0. 12 d.07 ⎞ b. Section 5. (1.06183 or 6. the number of years.07 ⎞ (i) 1000 ⎜1 + 52 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.10 ⎞ ⎜1 + 12 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ e. ⎜1 + ⎟ − 1 = (1.183% (1 + re )5 = A nominal rate compounded yearly is the same as the effective rate. is ln 2 given by n = ≈ 14.07 ⎞ d.07246 or 7.07 ⎞ (ii) ⎜1 + 52 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 3.0072529) = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2. a.030225 or 3.5 – 750 = $52.516% ⎛ 0.07) = $802. a.0072529 This gives a nominal rate of approximately 12(0.246% 4 ⎛ 0. 1 + re = 5 2 b.0808 or 8. b. ⎛ 0.04 ⎞ 5. Let r be the monthly rate.229% 13.015) 2 − 1 ≈ 0. 802.08)7 ≈ $10. ln(1.081% 365(5) − 1000 ≈ $419.1025 or 10. From Example 6. ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 365 ⎛ 0.02 365 − 1 ≈ 0. n. ⎛ 0. so the effective rate is 10%. − 1 ≈ 0.0125) − 1 ≈ 0.

Thus 8% compounded annually. 14.045 r 12 = 1.08 = 1.1956 or 19. 21. 7.02) ln(1. which is the effective rate.93% − 1 ≈ 0. 247.02) n 25.61%.9521%.1161 or 11.4) n= ≈ 17 quarters or 4 years.0475 ⎞ ⎜1 + 360 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 365 23. ⎣ ⎦ r 8 801.015)(12) = 0. a. ⎛ 0.01)n 2 = (1.03)8 ≈ $3198.01) ⎛ 0.8% compounded semiannually is equivalent to an effective rate of (1. 8 ⎛ r⎞ 801. 000 = 100. The compound amount after the first four years 1+ is 2000(1. Let r be the nominal rate. a.06)4 . 700 = 500(1. 2 P = P (1. 300.02) ln(1. 3 months ln(1. 000 (1 + re ) 1. (0.500 ⎜ 1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ − 1 = 0. − 1 ≈ 0.0493 or 4.06 ⎞ r = 4⎜ 8 − 1⎟ ≈ 0.039)2 − 1 = 0.045 − 1 12 r = 12 ⎡12 1.18 or 18% (1.045 40 ≈ $26.079521 or 7. Let re = effective rate.0680 or 6.503.015)12 − 1 ≈ 0. 162 .01)n ln 2 = n ln(1.0475 ⎞ ⎜1 + 365 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 365 b. is the better rate.06) 17.045 12 r 12 = 1.54 . 12 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + 12 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1+ ≈ $38. 21. b.23 ⎛ 0.80% ⎜ ⎟ 700 ⎝ ⎠ 20.01) ln 2 n= ≈ 70 months ln(1.045 − 1⎤ ≈ 0.0441 ⎣ ⎦ or 4.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 22.86% 24.0486 or 4.06 = 700 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 19.06 = 4 700 ⎛ 801. After the next four years the compound amount is ⎡ 2000(1. 3P = P (1 + r ) n 12 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + 12 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3 = (1 + r )n ln 3 = n ln(1 + r) ln 3 n= ln(1 + r ) 10 15. Let r be the required nominal rate.06) 4 ⎤ (1.02) n 10 (1 + re )10 = 3 1 + re = 10 3 re = 10 3 − 1 ≈ 0.56% 18.4) = n ln(1.4 = (1.41%. 21.02 ⎞ 16.500(1.

3500(1. 000(1. Let x be the payment 2 years from now. 000 ⎜ 1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 27.03) −22 ≈ $14.91 Problems 5.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.89 −2 ≈ $11.0725 ⎞ ln ⎜ 1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ or ≈ 9.83 4.01)20 = 1000(0. 10. 1000(1 − 0.99) 20 ≈ $817. n = number of days.94 3.04)−4 x ≈ $1238.58 28.2 26.191. 500 ⎜ 1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ n ⎛ 0.10 ⎞ 6. 550(1.55 ⎛ 0.025) −16 + 550(1.381.95 13. The equation of value at year 2 is ⎡ 50 ⎤ r = 2 ⎢ 28 − 1⎥ ≈ 0.071 ⎞ 12.0725 ⎞ ln 2 = n ln ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ln 2 n= ≈ 3489. 9000 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ −4(365) −78 ⎛ 0. 6000 ⎜ 1 + 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ≈ $6838. ⎛ 0.025)−20 ≈ $706. 12.98 days ⎛ 0.053 ⎞ 11. 091.0725 ⎞ 2 = ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.06)−8 ≈ $2195.035)−24 ≈ $1751.095 ⎞ 9.10 1000 50 = 420 21 ⎛ 0. 12. 000 ⎜ 1 + 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ r⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1+ 28 = = 1000 −12 ≈ $11.93 −60 ≈ $4862.31 163 . 27. 1250 ⎜1 + 52 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.0629 or 6. Let r = the required nominal rate.29% ⎣⎢ 21 ⎥⎦ x = 600(1. 8000 ⎜ 1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ≈ $1021. 000 ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ n ⎛ 0. 1740(1.56 years ⎛ r⎞ 420 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ −12 −13 ≈ $3181. 4000(1.31 15.08 ⎞ 5.0725 ⎞ 2 P = P ⎜1 + 365 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.65 ⎛ 0.135 ⎞ 10.14 r 28 50 = 2 21 −22 ≈ $5821. 6000(1.0875 ⎞ 8. Let P = average price of such a good.04) −2 + 800(1.05) −20 ≈ $2261.13 14.21 ⎛ 0.015) −24 = $1217.34 2.10 ⎞ 7. 28 ≈ $385.2 1.

07) + x = 3500(1.07)3 + x(1.03)16 ≈ $16. 000(1. the investment is profitable. 18.025)−4 − 2000(1.07)2 + 2. 000(1. The payments due B are 1000(1. the investment is not profitable.07)−3 − 1500(1. Let x be the payment at the end of 6 years. a.07)−1 + 5000(1.07)−3 − 1500(1.03) −6 + 10.07)−1 + 5000(1.08 ⎞ 3000 ⎜ 1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 60 + x = 7000 ⎛ 0.025) 4 + 4000(1.07)3 x= 3500(1.04)14 (1. 000(1.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 16. Let x be the payment at the end of 5 years. 000(1. 1000 ⎜1 + 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ −80 ⎛ 0. 047.03) −8 + 14.07) −3 x[(1. 6500 ⎜ 1 + 360 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ≈ $226. Since NPV > 0.72 b.62 b.025) 2 x ≈ $3244.04)14 at year 7. a.07) 2 + x(1.025) 4 − 4000(1.07)5 (1.67 164 .07)5 at year 5 and 2000(1.07) −1 + 5000(1.63. NPV = 8000(1. 000 ≈ $515.075 ⎞ 23.07)3 (1.025) 2 + x = 5000(1.015) −4 x ≈ $4751.03) −12 − 25.025) + 5000(1. 22.025) −4 x = 5000(1. 000 ≈ −$586.015)4 + 2000(1. The equation of value at year 6 is 2000(1. The equation of value at year 5 is ⎛ 0.44 19. Thus the better choice is the savings account. The business investment has a value of $16.025) −6 + 10.025) −8 + 14.06. 000(1. The equation of value at year 3 is 1500(1.025)−12 − 25. NPV = 8000(1.07 x ≈ $1715.73 ⎛ 0. We consider the value of each investment at the end of eight years. 21. 20.08 ⎞ x = 7000 − 3000 ⎜ 1 + 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x ≈ $2530.058 ⎞ 24.07)2 + 1.46 60 17. The equation of value at year 6 is x = 1000(1.07 + 1] = 3500(1.25 −1460 ≈ $5137.025) + 5000(1. Let x be the payment at the end of 6 years. The savings account has a value of 10. Since NPV < 0.000. Let x be the amount of each of the equal payments.

03 − 1 ≈ 0.03 3.23 3 = e0.03)2 r = ln(1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5. With option (a).0955 or 9. 15.33% 18. S = 1000e0.07t 0.97 5819.08% 6. a. 081e − (0. after 18 months they have 50.03(8) ≈ $1271.08 − 1 ≈ 0. P = 1.51 b.1163 Answer: 11.87 17. Then ⎛ r⎞ 4700 = 10. S = 4000e0.91% 2. P = 2500e−0. 1020(1. 000e −0.97 Per = P (1.0675(8) ≈ $1456.25 11.869.0833 Answer: 8.97 − 4000 = $1819. 500e(0. e0.05 ≈ 0. P = 2500e−0.93 = $1072.045)(25) ≈ $19. compounded quarterly.30 c. r = ln 1.42 10.035)(2) ≈ $1072. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 10.0125)6 ≈ $53. 25.18 . 000(1 + 0. Answer: 4. 491.05 = e r − 1 . This amount must equal the compound amount of P dollars at a nominal rate of 6% compounded Problems 5. Thus 1.035) 25 = $59.07t 4.5) ≈ $53. S = 100e0. Let r be the nominal discount rate. Effective rate = e r − 1 . 081 165 a. e0.05(5) ≈ $778.55% r = 4 ⎢32 ⎢⎣ 47 ⎥⎦ of a principal of P dollars is Per (1) = Per .07t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 16 t= 0.0625(6) ≈ $5819.800. Thus 0.045(2) ≈ $109.0488.03)2 . 000 4700 = 32 1 + 4r ( ⎛ r⎞ ⎜1 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1+ b.88% r 32 100 = 4 47 16.78 12.03 ≈ 0.3 semiannually. e0.181 50.16 with option (b). If r is the annual rate compounded continuously.11 − 1 = 0.3 25. The accumulated amounts under each option are: 9.05% 8.06(30) ≈ $8264. e0.25 + 535.03 – 4000 = $2864.08(8) ≈ $1318. which is P (1.03 6864. −32 14.046 30 Answer: 5% 7.045)(1. then at the end of 1 year the compound amount ⎡ 100 ⎤ − 1⎥ ≈ 0. 000.05 . S = 4000e0. 4 P = Per (30) 4 = e30r 30r = ln 4 ln 4 r= ≈ 0.0408 Answer: 4.0175) 4 ≈ 536.035)(2) + 500(1. 000e(0.63% 19.0175) 4 ≈ $1093. 10.03) 2 r = 2 ln 1.04 − 1 ≈ 0.51 . 1000e(0.07 Answer: 16 years 5.0591 Answer: 5.09(6) ≈ $6864.0305 Answer: 3.03) 2 e r = (1. 000(1 + 0. 000e −0.94 13. they have ) 32 = P = 59. P = 50. 3P = Pe0. 000 100 = 4700 47 e r = 1.

and n = 24.5. 3797.51 5.41 . 2011 the accumulated amount is (0. 64 ⎜ ⎟ .062 or 6. the company earned $176.82 .015 2.03. r = 1. Then.25(1. Let a = 500 and let r = 1.030405) = 101. 4 5 ≈ 3500(37. 36 ft. Thus. b. 500(1. s= ( 2000 1 − (1.5) .012 0.97 Thus. the present value A of the annuity is given by ⎛ 1 − (1 + r ) − n ⎞ ⎛ 1 − (1 + r ) −72 ⎞ A = R⎜ ⎟ = 500 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ r r ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ By graphing A as a function of r. 64 ⎜ ⎟ . Thus. 16 4 6. After one year the accumulated amount of the investment is 10. A = 15. the number of bacteria at the end of each minute for the first six minutes is 500(1.000 Principles in Practice 5. 6 500(1.5)2 . 500(1. 64 ⎜ ⎟ . we find that when R = 723. 000e ≈ $14. a. we find that when r ≈ 0. Then. A = 30.705879) − 1500(20.1) 24 ) ≈ 176. list price was 101. Then. 2 If a = 6 and r = . and n = 24.000 = $121. The amount of profit earned in the first two years is the sum of the monthly profits.012. The payoff for the loan (including interest) is 1000 + 1000(0.1.65 in the first two years. which is $312. if the present value of the annuity is $30.4 1. 000(1.000. 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝4⎠ 3 4 0 10. 5695.055 ≈ $10.5) .08) = $1080. the monthly interest rate is 0.005167.918. 1125.51 = $26.04)(10) 14.918.045)15 ≈ $19. Let a = 2000. 000e0.03 if the present value of the 7. Since the man made an initial down payment of $20. the next five 4 2 ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ heights of the ball are 64 ⎜ ⎟ . a. 500(1. 1.925. 1.1 Thus. 500(1. and 15 ft.000.015 − 1500a24 0.5) .0125) 4 ≈ $9458.90.565.352.05 0.012 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ By Graphing A as a function of R. Let a = 64 and let r = 3 .012) −24 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − (1.41.565. or 48 ft.012)−24 ⎞ A = R⎜ ⎟ = R⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 0.924.89 . ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 3 1 27 ft. and the nominal rate is 12(0.000. Let R = 500 and let n = 72.994. 3. Thus. the present value is 3500a56 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. On Nov.925 + 20.5)3 .925.93 more than the amount in part (a). Let r = ( ) 166 .000. Thus the monthly payment is $723. 50.000 5 ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ . then when the ball hits the 3 ground for the twelfth time.048 = 0. the present value of the payments is $101. 4 ⎛ 1 − (1 + r ) − n ⎞ A = R⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ r ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 − (1 + 0. 21. we can consider the payments to be an annuity of $3500 for 14 years minus an annuity of $1500 for 6 years so that the first 24 payments are $2000 each. 039.65 1 − 1.005167) = 0. 20 ft.5). The net return is 10.2%. 10.41 – 9458.25 .05)5 ≈ $19. 1688. this strategy is better by 9485. or 750. 2531. Since the man pays $2000 for 6 years and $3500 for 8 years.994. On Nov.72 meters ( ) 0.5167%. n = 12 and the distance traveled in the air is 12 ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎡ a 1− rn ⎤ ⎢ 6 ⎜1 − 3 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎥ ⎥ = 2⎢ ⎝ 2s = 2 ⎢ ⎢ 1− r ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 − 23 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 35. 2006 the accumulated amount is 10.41 – 1080 = $9485. b. The total vertical distance traveled in the air after n bounces is equal to 2 times the sum of heights. 9000(1.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance 20.

Thus.095.057.000.068 ⎟ ≈ 1200(1 + 10.01 Thus.02) 2 = 104.01. ⎜ ⎟ r ⎝ ⎠ Let n = 15. at the end of 15 years the IRA will be worth $45. Find the annuity due. Problems 5. 100(1.124 78.67 at the end of 15 years. 100 100(1.057)16 − 1 ⎞ S = 2000 ⎜ ⎟ − 2000 ≈ 48. 4 ⎛1⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝2⎠ 2.000 1.531 15. the value of the IRA at the end of 15 years.057)15 − 1 ⎞ S = 2000 ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 45.962.4 20. 095.635005) 11 ⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 13. s = 4 7 ( ) 5 ⎡ 4 ⎤ ⎢1 − 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 − 74 = 4 ⎡ 15. he should pay $13.502.057.06 ⎜ ⎟ 0. 044 16.4 annuity is $15.783 ⎤ 7 ⎣ 16. n = 11.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.057 ⎝ ⎠ Thus.04 4. The present R = 1200. is given by ⎛ (1 + r )n − 1 ⎞ S = R⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ r ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ (1 + 0.807 ⎦ 3 7 = 21.502. Let R = 2000 and let r = 0. and r = 12 value of the annuity due is ⎛ ⎞ 1200 ⎜1 + a 0. 81 ⎛1⎞ 81⎜ ⎟ = 27 ⎝3⎠ 2 ⎛1⎞ 81⎜ ⎟ = 9 ⎝3⎠ 3 ⎛1⎞ 81⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⎝3⎠ 10. the IRA is worth $48. Since the deposits are made at the beginning of each year.962. Let R = 2000 and let r = 0. when n = 15. 625 .807 () 7⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢1 − 15 ⎥ ⎦= 6.068 .125 4 5 = 19. 2 2(–3) = –6 2(−3) 2 = 18 2(−3)3 = −54 3. 64 ⎛1⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ = 32 ⎝2⎠ 2 0 0 ⎛1⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ = 16 ⎝2⎠ 1000 3 ⎛1⎞ 64 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎝2⎠ 8. ⎛ (1 + 0.67 ⎜ ⎟ 0. The man makes an initial payment of $1200 followed by an ordinary annuity of $1200 for 11 months. s = ⎣ 1 − 15 167 78. 5.06. the value of the IRA at the end of 15 years is given by ⎛ (1 + r )n +1 − 1 ⎞ S = R⎜ ⎟−R.02) = 102 9.057 ⎝ ⎠ Thus. let 0. Then.

0125 ≈ 150 + 150(49.16 0.463213) ≈ 6463.385074) ≈ $5346.16 ≈ 9. 3000 + 250a12 0.495297 − 1) ⎠ ≈ $24. 600s16 0.607687). 175a 6⎤ ⎥ ⎡ ⎦ = 10 ⎢1 − ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎥ ≈ 4. 2000s20 0.881321) ≈ $5106.005)24 15. 2000a18 16.24 18.107914 11.06 0.75 168 48.097832)(1. 600 ⎜ s31 ⎝ 10 . Observe that (1.005 ⎟ (1.1 11 11 0. 11 and r = s= 1 10 10 = .04 8 12 ≈ 175(30.000271 − 1) ⎠ ≈ $27.49 31.664613 26.889440) ≈ $8834.001551) ⎛ ⎞ 275. a35 0.36 0.005) ⎝ ⎠ ≈ 50(54.02 ≈ 2000(14.07 22. s11 0.07 13.917324) ≈ $2950. 000 = R + Ra9 0. 3048.21 ⎛ ⎞ 24 ⎜ 50s48 0.977.115505) ≈ $90.816448 .1) −1 = ( ) 10 ⎡1 − 10 11 ⎢ 11 ⎣ 1 − 10 11 9. 000. s8 13.11111 7.1 8.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛ 23. 000 = R ⎜ 1 + a9 0. 600a6 ⎛ 24.713937 0. 800 + 800a11 ≈ $3048. a15 0. 000 48.907505 28.27 ≈ 18.08 5000 5000 ≈ ≈ $458.0075 12. 740.85 ≈ 1500(14.015 10. 205.04 ≈ 3000 + 250(9.984.12 s10 0.02 ≈ 600(18.07 12 0.27 ≈ 600(4. R = ≈ 2000(45.39 29.07 6⎤ 25. 275.995492) ≈ $204.035 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 275.035 30.01 20.1)6 ⎤ ⎦ = 1.594. 150 + 150a 59 19.992031) ≈ $29.870374) ≈ 53.025 ⎞ − 1⎟ ≈ 600(46.57 21. 1200 ⎜ s13 ⎝ 1 ⎡1 − (0. 1500 + 1500a5 0.948. R = ≈ 8.03 ≈ 5000(40. 1000a8 27.0075 0.355 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 11 ⎠ ⎥⎦ 32 ⎞ − 1⎟ ≈ 1200(21.46 ≈ 2000(26. 231.304595) − 25(7. Thus a = 1.000 ≈ R(8. s = ⎣ 1 − 0. R ≈ $31.639285) ≈ $11.04 10.0075 17. 1500a15 0.40 a12 0. Let R be the yearly payment. 5000s20 0.183.796588) ≈ $7619. ≈ 1000(6.213180 0.85 – 48(50) = $648.49 0. 000 ≈ ≈ $3474.05 ≈ 1500 + 1500(4. a.035 ≈ 800 + 800(9.0125 ≈ 11.04 12 − 25a 0.136995) ≈ $21.85 b.19 ≈ $8001. 2000s36 0.06 14.

000 4⎥ ⎢ xs4 0.06 six years the value of the fund is 25. 000 − ⎢ s25.06 39.000 s6 0.01 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ≈ 230.10) −19 ⎤ = 200.052) −9 ≈ 7. 1 0. 6 0.06 (1.052 37.06 (1.06 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 50.800 .08 = ⎡ 1 − (1. [50. 000 x= ≈ ≈ $320.01375 3000(0.017 0. 1000 s120 33. 000 − s6 0.08x] s10 0.07 − 1⎟ ⎥ (1.4 32. 000 − 0.24 ) −180 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 43.992710)] ≈ $1598.055 12 ⎡ 0.10 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ≈ $1.08 ⎟ + x(1.06 5000 = 1000a5 ⎞ ⎠ 0.017)60 − 1 ≈ 102. 000 . 038.0135) −480 ⎤ = 750 ⎢ ⎥ 0.08)6 [5000 − 1000(3.01 0.08 x + ⎛ x = (1.02 25. 466.0135 10 0.07 0.073.08)−6 Thus 169 .017 x s10 36.04494 0.07 = 25.06 ⎥ ⎢s ⎢⎣ 10 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.975319)(1.10 $650(12)(15) = $117. 000 = 0.01375)20 − 1 ≈ $131. 000 s ⎥ (1. 000 + 200.01375) (1.07 ⎥⎦ ≈ $225.06 ⎦ x= s4 0.06 6 0.57 41.06 = 0. 000 50.18 a60 0. The original annual payment is (1. 750a480 25.1 −60 12 12 ( 0.08 x = 50.06 ⎥⎦ 40.07)4 ⎥ ⎣ 10 0.06 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎟ 50. 000 + 200. For the first situation. b. so the net earnings are 225.08 1 − (1.08 + s 1 0.07)30 ⎢⎣ 0.08)6 ⎜ 5000 − 1000a5 ⎝ ≈ (1.000 = $205.34 ( 0. 0. a.180795 (6. Let x be the final payment.07)4 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ x≈ 4.08) −6 ⎡ (1.07) 4 . 000 = x ⎜ 0.08 + 13. 000 s . ⎡ ⎤ 25. 200.073 – 20.055 ⎢ 12 ⎣ ≈ $79.1 ) ) 25. R = 42.0135 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ≈ 55.06 ⎥⎦ Let x be the amount of the new payment.984. = x(1.000 650a 180 ( 0.01)120 − 1 ⎤ = 1000 ⎢ ⎥ 0. 000 − 0.055 ⎢ 1 − 1 + 12 = 650 ⎢ 0. s60 0.439943 x ≈ $1725 5000 − 1000a5 3000 s20 ⎡ 1 − (1. 000 ⎢ ⎥ 0. 000 = ≈ $531.180795 = 0.06 = x 50.44 x s10 35. 0.08 + ⎜⎜ s10 0. the compound amount is ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ 30 ⎢ 2000 ⎜ s11 0. s10 0.052 ⎡ (1. 000 12 25.1 1 − 1 + 0. a9 0. In the same manner as in Example 12. Let x be the purchase price. 000 − ⎡ 13.91305 0.69 38.551.000 25.872.073. After s10 0.07) ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 34. 000a19 ⎡ ⎤ 25. R = This accumulates to ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ 25.07) ⎢s ⎥ ⎢⎣ 10 0.07)11 − 1 ⎤ = 2000 ⎢ − 1⎥ (1.

19 a36 0.01 ≈ 50(30.43 R= 35.5 1.05(20) ≈ $1264 0.146 – 60.07)31 − 1 ⎤ ⎛ ⎞ 2000 ⎜ s31 0.43 a36 0. 0. so the net earnings are 202. a. 269. 000 1 − e−0.50 = $623. a. 35. 12(45. 100 1 − e−0.42 a36 0. 7500 c. R = 8000 8000 ≈ ≈ $273.14 29.078 = $227.0125 500 ≈ $45.146.13) – 500 = $41.07 − 1⎟ = 2000 ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎢⎣ 0.84 4.25 0. a. 000 ≈ ≈ $851.17 a48 0.000 = $142. 40.17 − 227.078 41. 000 35.04(5) ≈ $181. A = 50a36 3.258904 12 2.079312 b.107505) ≈ $1505.56 5.38 8000 8000 ≈ ≈ $236.119856 12 0. 000 c.13 11.04 = $25 12 221.67 170 .05 45.04 33. R= 500 a12 ≈ 0. the compound amount is ⎡ (1.43 – 25 = $196.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis For the second situation. 44.50 12 b. R = 0.146.04 33.07 ⎥⎦ ≈ $202.04 Problems 5.19) – 8000 = $502.870766 12 Finance charge = 36(236. 851.870766 12 b. 6. R= 7500 7500 ≈ ≈ $221.

96. at Beginning Int. Period Prin.18 1378. Note the adjustment in the final payment.52 179.51 1378. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 3 is 8049.46 1144.50 1378. Repaid at End 1 5000.04 − 996.96 = $8049.97 3 2668.56 5904.5 5000 5000 ≈ ≈ $1476.46 1256.00 Total 171 .86 271.31 7 2572.57 96.07)(3873.01 5 4916.00 Total 8.14 a4 0.86) = $271.57 1476.93 62.46 1093.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 7. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 9000 − 950.97.00 1476.57 904.0475 ≈ 9000 ≈ $1378. Outs. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 1378. R = Pmt.93 2027.04. Repaid at End 1 9000.14 – 350 = $1126.17 1476.53 1378.91 335.46 1043.46 996.96 2 8049.33.33 = $996.97 = $2668.33 1378.14 1204.46 6. The interest for period 2 is (0.387211 The interest for the first period is (0.17 = $1204. Period Prin. Continuing in this manner.91. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 3 is 3873.89.89 186.01 1378. for Period Prin.50. Outs. R = Section 5.00 427. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 1476.46 950.46 285.45 1378. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 5000 – 1126.0475)(9000) = $427. we construct the following amortization schedule.0475)(8049.32 4 1379.93 6 3771.07)(5000) = $350.56 5000.14.13 3 7052. Continuing in this manner. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 1476.13 = $7052.04) = $382.86. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 1378. we construct the following amortization schedule.14 1126.28 8 1315.50 = $950. at End Prin.17. for Period Pmt.14 2 3873.66 9000.14 1379.15 1378.45 4 6009.45 233. at End 9000 a8 0.44 1315.21 122.66 11. at Beginning Int.46 1199.04 382.529036 The interest for the first period is (0.14 – 271.14 1289.14 = $3873.07 3.46 − 382.13.82 1476.00 350. The interest for period 2 is (0.027.86 – 1204.46 − 427.

0075)(10. for Period Prin.13 10.22 1970.22 2045.22 2 728. R = Pmt. at End 1 10. 000 10. n= ln(1. Repaid at End 1 900.67 a48 0. at Beginning Int.50 = $553.22 – 75 = $1970.22. The interest for period 2 is (0.00 22.50.83 193.268 .00 Total 10. Repaid at End 2000 2000 ≈ ≈ $52. Note the adjustment in the final payment.00 68.25 2030.88 5 2030.89 4 313. Period Prin. 000 ≈ ≈ $2045.02) ⎣ ⎦⎥ ≈ 11.22 – 60.50 193. at End 10.78 18. R = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 900 900 ≈ ≈ $193.02) Thus the number of full payments is 11.22.645828 The interest for period 1 is (0.78 – 175. 12. From Eq. Period Prin. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 2045. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 900 – 171.0075 4.78 – 1985 = $6044. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 193. Continuing in this manner.22 2014.72 a5 0.01 37.00 75.22 2 8029.73 193.22.889440 The interest for period 1 is (0. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 10.78.22 = $1985. The interest for that period is (0.39 9.72 179. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 2045.39 5 189.0075)(8029. 100 ⎤ ln ⎡⎢ 100−1000(0.50.22 = $175.13 10. for Period Pmt.78.50 3 553.22 a5 0.00 4.23 2045. a.025 4.22.973959 172 .61 900.22 193.72 – 22.00 2045.78 45.78. we obtain the following amortization schedule.00 3 6044.72 171.22 1985. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 193. (1).72 – 18. we construct the following amortization schedule.025)(900) = $22.34 2045.72 175.78 60.02 15.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance 9.88 4 4044.61 968.00 Total 11.50 = $171.28 13.000) = $75. Note the adjustment in the final payment.33 193. Prin.22 1999.72 184. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 728.02 226.28. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 8029.000 – 1970.22 = $728. at Beginning Int.22 = $8029.78) = $18. Outs.90 30.78) = $60.34 2045. Outs. Continuing in this manner.73 189.000.025)(728.000.226.

000 0. n = ln1.035 9500 a60 0. 12 ⎡ 0. 0. 2089.092 ⎢ 1 − 1 + 12 12 ⎣ ≈ $2089. R = 15. R = 18. 52.33 = $211.20 ⎛ 0.005 ⎣⎢ 1 − (1 + 0. 245.0125) ≈ $38.0125 − 25.132 = 0.69) – 245.75x = 84. Each of the original payments is .907 16.0125 ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 0. Thus the new payments is ⎢ ⎢a ⎥ 11 0.092 0.302 18.67 a13 0.49 a60 0.0077) ⎦⎥ ≈ $198.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b. 000 ⎢ a300 0.005 ⎥ = 240.31 After two years the value of the remaining ⎡ ⎤ 18. 300(2089.760477 ≈ $1606.28 e.011 = 8500 ⎢ ⎥ − 48 a48 0. the monthly payment is ⎡ ⎤ 240.005) ⎦⎥ 0.01) −60 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 − (1.896.36 d.133740) b. 48(228.69 – 1878. 2000 2000(0.24 ≈ $639.88) – 8500 = $2486.39 d.32) − 240.005 )−180 ⎥ a180 0.67) – 2000 = $528. 000 ⎢ 12 = 245.88 173 .956.01 = 25.67 – 6. a.014) −60 Monthly interest rate is Monthly payment is ≈ $2025.26 The finance charge is 180(2025.80 = $99.01 ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ = 25. 000 a60 0.011 ⎢⎣ 1 − (1.005 = 240. 000 13.69 ( ) ⎤ ⎥ −300 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ≈ $1546.035 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ semi-annual payment is 18. (639. 52.0125 0. 000 ⎢ ⎢ 1 − (1 + 0.80 For the 25-year mortgage.08)(0.092 ⎞ b. 000a11 0.005 ⎣ ⎦ ( = 14.32 The finance charge is 300(1546.014) = ≈ $49.076 = 600 ⎢ ⎥ 0. the monthly payment is ⎡ ⎤ 240.014 1 − (1.976.076 ⎢ 1 − 1 + 12 ⎥ 600a360 0.0077 = 9500 ⎢ ⎥ −60 ⎣⎢ 1 − (1.0077 ⎡ ⎤ 0. a. 000 ⎥ a .011 .39 = $46.000 = $124. 000 a60 0.000 = 223. 000 ⎢ ⎥ − 300 a300 0.5 ≈ 52.349.001551) 1 ⋅ 11.67(12.546.976. 000 0.01) ≈ $6. Monthly interest rate is ) 25.16 18. Present value of mortgage payments is −360 ⎤ ⎡ 0. 21. a15 0. Thus the 17.076 12 ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ $84.01 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 60 0.015 number of full payments is 23.000 = $381.00 − 124. 100 ⎤ ln ⎡⎢ 100− 2000(0.84 x = $113.011) ⎥⎦ ≈ $228.26) – 240.84 This amount is 75% of the purchase price x. 20.04 19. For the 15-year mortgage.546. 000 − ⎢a ⎥ a 60 0.45 ≈ $113.092 . 000(9.00 Thus the savings is 223.035 1 ⋅ a15 0.035 a11 0. 12 Monthly payment is ⎡ ⎤ 8500 0.302.035 15 0.64 0.01 Section 5.517411 8.08 c.015) ⎥⎦ ⎣ ≈ 23.33 ⎝ 12 ⎠ c.000 ⎜ ⎟ = $1878. 000 ⎢ − ⎥ −60 1 − (1.896.092 245. 48(52.

Continuing.23.23 − 1166.04)−4 + 1000(1.0925 a 0. a.60 6.0512 or 5.03) −8 ≈ 250(42.005 500(1. we R= 4.0925 12 S = 200s13 0. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 1198.04 ≈ 200(16.637093 12.37%. The equation of value now is x + 2 x(1.0925 ⎥ 1 − 1 + 0.04 33.035) −8 − 7000 ≈ −$1379.63.04 − 150 = 150(18.04)−8 − 1000(1.025 ≈ $2506. The equation of value at the end of year 2 is 1000(1.89 ( ≈ 200(9. s = 3 + 2 + 2 ⋅ + " + 3 ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝3⎠ 6⎤ ⎡ 3 ⎢1 − 23 ⎥ 3 ⎡ 665 ⎤ ⎦ = ⎣ 729 ⎦ = 665 = ⎣ 2 1 81 1− 3 3 b.12 ( ) 13.30. 250a48 0.06 5.04 12 ⎣⎢ ( ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦⎥ 9.16 5. ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ − 1 ≈ 0. Thus the better choice is 8.77.13 = $1150.04 60 12 ⎣⎢ 60 12 ⎡ a 0.05 ⎞ 2. Let x be the payment at the end of 2 years.0925 7.12% x= 1 + 2(1.626838) ≈ $3325.79 ⎡ 1−(1+ 0.04) −8 x = 1200(1.77 = $2349.90 − 32. 8.90 − 48. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 3500 − 1150.04) 4 + x = 1200(1.08 12 7000 7000 ≈ ≈ $206.01375)(2349.5% compounded annually.07) −3 ⎤ = 500(1. The interest for that period is (0. ) − 200 ≈ 200(13.870766 12 5 2 ⎛2⎞ 1.035) −4 + 3500(1.0925 0. 0.03) −8 x ⎡1 + 2(1.67 a36 0.04 12 ) ⎢ 0.0925 )−60 12 ⎢ 0.59 ≈ 250(15. Chapter 5 Review Problems 0.041)2 − 1 = 0.23) = $32.04)4 ≈ $586.98 s5 0.985648) 11. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 2349.04 ⎥ ⎢ 1 − 1 + 12 = 5000 ⎢1 − ⋅ −60 0. 36(206. A = 200a13 0.30 = $1166.01375)(3500) = $48.04 ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ $589. 200 s13 10.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 22. The principal repaid at the end of that period is 1198.04 ≈ $1997.0925 ⎢ 12 = 5000 ⎢1 − −60 1−(1+ 0.05)−3 + 500(1.07)−3 x ≈ $314. 250a20 ) −60 ⎡ ⎤ 0.07) −3 = 500(1.60.01375) ⎦⎥ ≈ $1198. ⎣⎢ 1 − (1.01375 ⎤ = 3500 ⎢ ⎥ −3 a3 0.532926) − 200 0.291911) − 150 ≈ 2593.580318) ≈ $10.13. 645.01375 14.04 ⎢⎣ 12 ⎤ ⎥a ⎥ 60 ⎦⎥ b.03) −8 ⎣ ⎦ 12 ⎛ 0.13 12 ⎡ 5000 5000 =⎢ − ⎢ a 0. Let x be the first payment.083681 or 8.04) −4 + 1000(1.00 3.67) – 7000 = $440.0925 60 12 = 5000 ⎢1 − ⎢ a60 0. NPV = 3400(1.08 174 3500 .90 The interest for the first period is (0.2% compounded semiannually corresponds to an effective rate of (1.37 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ 8. 150 s14 0. ⎡ 0.05) −3 + 500(1.60 = $1182.29 5000 5000 ≈ ≈ $886. a.589162) ≈ $3897.05)−3 + 500(1. The government’s payment is ( y − x)a60 0.

36 ( ) 175 .63 96.000.66) = $90.10 12 ) −84 ⎤ ⎡ 0.000 = $1279.10 ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎣ ⎦ 17.89 1182.044.97 22.69 3596. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 2 is 15.84 3067. Outs.66 90. Period Int.00 48.66 – 2977.527.00 Total 15.34 = $12.26 1198.81 3044.33 = $2977.044.84 3022.51 3 9067. at End Prin.044.339. 000 ≈ ≈ $3067.0075)(15.84 2977.17 15.044. at Beginning Prin.84 – 112.34 5 3044. Note the adjustment in the final payment.34. at Beginning Pmt.31 45.23 32. The interest for period 2 is 0.90 1166.0075(12. Continuing.60 3 1182.000 112. we obtain the following amortization schedule.17 15. 540a84 ( 0.00 Total 16.69 3500. at End 15.000 – 2955.50 = $2955.10 ⎢ 1 − 1 + 12 ⎥ = 540 ⎢ ⎥ ≈ $32. 000 ⎢ ⎥ ≈ $255.63 16.82) – 11.51.66. 000 15.15 68. 000 ⎢ ⎥ 12 = 11. for Period Prin.80 0.84 – 90.889440 The interest for period 1 is (0. The monthly payment is ⎡ ⎤ 0. for Period Prin.30 1198.84 2955.82 48 − a48 0.055 0.00 3067.15. Period Int.51 = $9067.33 3067.84 2999.84 4 6067.34 2 12.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 5 Review obtain the following amortization schedule. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 3067.84 a5 0.50 3067.90 1150. Repaid at End 1 3500. Note the adjustment in the final payment.0075 4. so the principal repaid at the end of that period is 3067.50 3067.77 2 2349.33.055 11. Repaid at End 1 15.13 1198.50. Outs.000) = $112. Principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 12. R = Pmt.055 − + 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 12 12 ⎣ ⎦ The finance charge is 48(255.97 339.

which force the investor to find a new investment in a short time. By contrast. The yield is 5. 0. The normal yield curve assumes a stable economic climate.102.0825 − 1 ≈ $26. more favorable. let Y1 = 10.0425. are correspondingly less attractive. 176 .50 ⋅ 1.389 and Y2 = 10. 3.0425(25. The curves intersect at 0.0825) −25 P = 25.9%.50. interest rates.000) = 1062. thus R = 0. they will gladly give up liquidity for long-term investment at current.000(1 + x)^ – 7 + 325(1 – (1 + x)^ – 7)/ ( ) (1 + x) − 1 . if investors are expecting a drop in interest rates. 2 1 − (1.0825)−25 + 1062.0325(10.000) = 325.0325 . 000(1. 0.085 = 0.13 2.Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 5 1. and so prices drop and yields rise. 2 On a graphics calculator. T-bills.0590. thus R = 0. and with it a drop in yields from future investments.065 = 0.

1. D is 2 × 2. one for each source. The second column consists of 2’s for each phase of project 2 and so on. and J is 1 × 1. A square matrix has the same number of rows as columns. Thus the order of A is 4. A column vector (or column matrix) has only one column. Thus H and J are upper triangular.1 1. Thus a55 does not exist. C is 3 × 2. Thus. 4. ⎡ 2 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 3 4 5⎤ 4 5 6 ⎥⎥ 0 6 7⎥ ⎥ 0 0 8 ⎦⎥ 177 . There are 3 rows. a14 is the entry in the 1st row and 4th column. a55 is the entry in the 5th row and 5th column. a44 is the entry in the 4th row and 4th column. But A has only 4 rows and 4 columns. 6. Alternatively. she could use a 2 × 3 matrix. c. D. b. The size is the number of rows by the columns. 8. e. a21 is the entry in the 2nd row and 1st column. Thus F and J are row vectors. a34 is the entry in the 3rd row and 4th column. namely 4. Thus D and J are lower triangular. F is 1 × 2. An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix where all entries below the main diagonal are zeros. namely 0. each representing the 2n hours needed for each phase of project n. H. namely 6. ⎡1 2 4 8 16 ⎤ ⎢1 2 4 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣1 2 4 8 16 ⎥⎦ Problems 6. 3. the size of the matrix is 3 × 2. a. The first column consists of 1’s each representing the 1 hour needed for each phase of project 1. namely 6. d.Chapter 6 Principles in Practice 6. A row vector (or row matrix) has only one row. There are two columns. E. The main diagonal entries are the entries on the diagonal extending from the upper left corner to the lower right corner. 10. Thus G and J are column vectors. Thus A is 2 × 3. 7. namely 0. and J. A has 4 rows and 4 columns. a32 is the entry in the 3rd row and 2nd column. B is 3 × 3. G is 3 × 1. E is 4 × 4. 2. 5. 2. H is 3 × 3. Thus the main diagonal entries are 7. 2. 0. Thus the square matrices are B.1 1. one for each raw material. 9. A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix where all entries above the main diagonal are zeros. The time-analysis matrix is as follows. In general the nth column will consist of 2n ’s.

a. so a33 = 1. A T = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣2 4⎦ ⎣ −3 4 ⎦ 18. a52 = 0. 10 = 0. ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ 16. For a10.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 11. A T = ⎢⎢ 3 2 −2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ 7 −2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ −4 5 0 1⎦⎥ 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 0 178 . y. A T = [ 2 4 6 8] T ⎡ 2⎤ ⎢ 4⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢6⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 8 ⎦⎥ 3 −4 ⎤ T ⎡1 ⎡ 1 3 7 3⎤ ⎢3 2 5⎥⎥ 19. ⎡ −2 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅1 −2 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅ 2 −2 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅ 3 −2 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅ 4 −2 ⋅ 1 + 3 ⋅ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 1 4 7 10 13⎤ ⎢ −2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅1 −2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ 2 −2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ 3 −2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4 −2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ 5⎥ = ⎢ −1 2 5 8 11⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅1 −2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 2 −2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 3 −2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 4 −2 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 5 ⎦ ⎣ −3 0 3 6 9 ⎦ ( ( 1+1 2 ⎡ 1 + 12 12. 12 · 10 = 120. 1. 0. 14. i = 10 = j. If A is 7 × 9. –5. Since 5 ≠ 2. i = 3 = j. 2 b. Since 12 ≠ 10. so a10. ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ b. T ⎡ 6 −3⎤ ⎡ 6 2⎤ =⎢ 17. x. then A T is 9 × 7. so A has 120 entries. z 15. The main diagonal is the diagonal extending from the upper left corner to the lower right corner. 10 . a. A zero matrix is a matrix in which all entries are zeros. 10 = 1. ⎢ (−1) ⎢ 2 +1 2 2 + 12 ⎢⎣ (−1) ) ) ( ( ) ) (−1)1+ 2 12 + 22 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −5⎤ ⎥ =⎢ 2+ 2 2 2 ⎥ ⎣ −5 8⎥⎦ (−1) 2 +2 ⎥ ⎦ 13. a12. For a33 .

(x + 2001)(x – 1) = 0. 25. All other producers have to increase it by (0. 3 2 26. e. 7 w= . 3y = 2. Industry B has to increase output by (0. Now 2y = y yields y = 0. so x = –2001. 710.03 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1. y = . and 2z = 7. 7 white super-duper models were sold. first equation. 7 = 7. so there is no solution. For J the entry is 2 and for F the entry is 4. The sum of the entries in the rows are 680. ⎡ 1 7⎤ T ⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎢ 0 0⎥ 23. f. The amount an industry consumes is equal to the amount of its output. By equating entries we find that x must satisfy x 2 + 2000 x = 2001 and x 2 = − x . ⎢ 1⎥⎥ ⎢ −4 ⎢⎣ 5 6 ⎥⎦ ⎡3 33. Equating corresponding entries gives 6 = 6. column 3) sold the same number of units (3). From F. g. T Since A T = A. the matrix of Problem 20 is symmetric. In January a total of 2 + 0 + 2 = 4 red widgets were sold. Thus in January. Thus 2 7 x = 6.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. a. a. 31. z = 0. y = 0. T ⎡ 2 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 22. Thus in February. 1510. 710. T ⎡ 2 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ T 20. 3 blue deluxe models were sold.20)(90) = 18 units and industry C has to increase output by (0. A = ⎢ −1 5 1⎥ = ⎢⎢ −1 5 1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 3⎥⎦ 21. The entries in row 1 (regular) and column 4 (purple) give the number of purple regular models sold. while in February a total of 0 + 2 + 4 = 6 red widgets were sold. z = . y = 6. and 3w = 7. Equating corresponding entries gives 2x = 4.95⎤ ⎢1. The sums of the entries in the columns are 680. x 2 + 2000 x − 2001 = 0 . 3 30. the entry in row 2 (deluxe) and column 3 (blue) is 3. Thus x = 2. In February a total of 2 + 3 + 3 + 2 = 10 deluxe models were sold. The solution is x = 0. 2 = 2. 7 = 7. and 2y = y. the deluxe blue models (row 2. In January a total of 0 + 1 + 3 + 5 = 9 deluxe models were sold. so x = 0. c. A and C are diagonal matrices. ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢4 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 2 From J. the entry in row 3 (super-duper) and column 2 (white) is 7. x = 6. Thus from 2x = y we get 2x = 0. and 6690. [125 275 ⎡ 0. The second equation implies that x < 0. b. Thus more purple regular models were sold in February.1 b. A = −1 5 1 = ⎢ −1 5 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 1 3⎦ ⎣ 0 1 3⎦ d. 400] ⎡ 3 −2 ⎤ 32. Adding all entries in matrix J yields that a total of 38 widgets were sold in January. Thus more red widgets were sold in February. All are them are triangular matrices. 179 1 7 3 6 1⎤ 4 ⎥⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎦⎥ . In both January and February. 1510. and 6690. y = 6. z = 0. Thus more deluxe models were sold in February.20)(120) = 24 units. 28. 7 = 7. which is never true.20)(420) = 84 units.25 ⎦ 29. From the 27. Equating entries in the 3rd row and 3rd column gives 7 = 8. A T = ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣7 0 9 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −1 9 ⎦ T ⎡ 1 7⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎢ (A ) = 0 0⎥ = ⎢ =A ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 7 0 9 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −1 9 ⎦ T T 24. Equating corresponding entries gives 2x = y.

8 x3 − 60 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1064 ⎥⎦ Solve 0.8 x3 − 60 = 1064 to get x3 = 1405 . [7 7 ] is a matrix and 66 is a number. ⎢ = ⎥ + ⎢ −2 ⎥ + ⎢ 7 2 ⎥ = ⎢ −6 + (−2) + 7 6 4 1 4 + 1 + 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −1 7 ⎥⎦ − ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 1 4 ⎤ ⎡ 6 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 − 6 4 − (−1) ⎤ ⎡ −5 5⎤ 7 − 2⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −9 5⎥⎥ 3. T = J + F = ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ ⎣105 130 ⎦ ⎣ 85 125⎦ ⎡120 + 110 80 + 140 ⎤ ⎡ 230 220 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 105 + 85 130 + 125⎦ ⎣190 255⎦ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 40 ⎤ ⎡ 248⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2.8 x − 30 ⎥ = ⎢ 638⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.2 −3 + 4 ⎤ ⎡ 4 −3 1⎤ 2 + 2 0 + (−3) ⎡ 2 0 −3⎤ ⎡ 2 −3 4 ⎤ ⎡ 4+6 0 + 5⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −2 10 5⎥⎥ 1.8 x1 − 40 = 496 to get x1 = 670 .8 x1 ⎤ ⎡ 40 ⎤ ⎡ 496 ⎤ ⎢ 0.2 ⎡120 80 ⎤ ⎡110 140 ⎤ 1. 2[2 −1 3] + 4[−2 0 1] − 0[2 3 1] = [4 −2 6] + [−8 0 4] − [0 0 0] = [4 − 8 − 0 −2 + 0 − 0 6 + 4 − 0] = [−4 −2 10] 6. Solve 0. ⎢⎢ −1 4 0 ⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢ −1 6 5⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −1 + (−1) ⎢⎣ 1 −6 5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 9 11 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 + 9 −6 + 11 5 + (−2) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 10 5 3⎥⎦ 2 + 7 + 2 −7 + (−4) + 7 ⎤ ⎡11 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −7 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 2 7 ⎤ ⎡ 2.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Principles in Practice 6.8 x1 − 40 ⎤ ⎡ 496 ⎤ ⎢ 0.8 ⎢ x2 ⎥ − ⎢ 30 ⎥ = 2 ⎢⎢319 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ x3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 60 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣532 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.8 x2 − 30 = 638 to get x2 = 835 . Solve 0.8 x ⎥ − ⎢ 30 ⎥ = ⎢ 638⎥ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. so the sum is not defined.8 x3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 60 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1064 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0. 2 10 −12 ⎥⎥ = ⎢ 12 ⋅ 2 ⎢ 2⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 8⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⋅ 0 ⎣2 1 (−2) 2 1 ⋅10 2 1 ⋅0 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ 2 −1 3⎤ 1 ( −12) ⎥ = ⎢ 1 5 −6 ⎥⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 4 ⎥⎦ 1 ⋅ 8 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 2 ⎦ 1 ⋅6 2 5. 0. Problems 6. ⎢⎢ −2 7 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 7 2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −2 − 7 ⎢⎣ 6 9 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 6 − 1 9 − 0⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 5 9⎥⎦ ⎡1 6⎤ ⎢ 2 ⋅ 4 ⎡ 4 −2 1⎢ 4. 180 .

3(2A – 3B) = 3 ⎨2 ⎢ ⎥ − 3 ⎢ 2 −3⎥ ⎬ = 3 ⎨ ⎢ 6 −6 ⎥ − ⎢ 6 −9 ⎥ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ 0 3⎥ = ⎢ 0 9⎥ − 3 3 ⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩⎪ ⎣ ⎡ −4 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ 18. and ⎣3 4 ⎦ Section 6. Thus the sum is not defined.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 2 ⎤ 7. A − B + C = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3 − 2 + (−3) −3 − (−3) + 3⎦ ⎣ −2 3⎦ ⎧⎪ ⎡ 4 2 ⎤ ⎡ −18 −15⎤ ⎫⎪ 1⎤ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎡ 22 17 ⎤ ⎡ 66 51⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ 2 17. 3 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ − 3 ⎜ ⎢0 −2 1⎥ − ⎢ −3 21 −9 ⎥ ⎟ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎟ ⎢ 1 0 ⎦ ⎠⎟ ⎣ 0 ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ ⎝ ⎣0 0 1⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎡3 = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 = ⎡ 12 ⎢ −9 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ −3 3 0⎥ − 3 ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 3⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −9 3 0⎥ − ⎢ 9 ⎥ ⎢ 0 3⎦ ⎣ 0 6⎤ −12 72 −30 ⎥ ⎥ 3 0⎦ 4 −2 ⎤ −23 10 ⎥ ⎥ −1 1⎦ 12 −6 ⎤ −69 30 ⎥ ⎥ −3 3⎦ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎡ −1(−6) −1(−5) ⎤ ⎡ 6 5⎤ = (−1) ⎢ 13. −( A − B) = − ⎢ ⎥ = − ⎢1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −1 0 ⎥ 3 − 2 − 3 − ( − 3) ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡0 0⎤ ⎡ 2 ⋅ 0 2 ⋅ 0⎤ ⎡0 0⎤ 15.2 ⎡7 ⎤ ⎢ 2 ⎥ has size 2 × 1. 2O = 2 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=O ⎣0 0⎦ ⎣ 2 ⋅ 0 2 ⋅ 0⎦ ⎣0 0⎦ ⎡ 2 − (−6) + (−2) 1 − (−5) + (−1) ⎤ ⎡ 6 5⎤ 16. −B = − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 −3⎦ ⎣ 2 −3⎦ ⎣ −1(2) −1(−3) ⎦ ⎣ −2 3⎦ 1 − (−5) ⎤ ⎡ 2 − (−6) ⎡8 6 ⎤ ⎡ −8 −6 ⎤ 14. ⎢ ⎥ has size 2 × 2. −6 ⎢ = =⎢ ⎥ 1 6 −2 ⎦ ⎣ −6 ⋅ 7 −6 ⋅1 –6 ⋅ 6 −6(−2) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −42 −6 −36 12 ⎥⎦ ⎣7 ⎡ 1 −1⎤ ⎡ −6 9 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1⎤ ⎡ −18 ⎢2 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 3 ⎢ 2 6⎥ = ⎢ 2 0⎥ − ⎢ 6 10. ⎢ ⎢ 3 −6 ⎥ ⎢ 1 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 3 −6 ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣⎢ 4 9 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 5⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 4 9 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 12 27 ⎤ ⎡ 19 −28⎤ 18⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ −4 −18⎥⎥ = −6 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 15⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ −8 −6 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 −5 0 ⎤ ⎡10 0 30 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −5 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 6 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −5 6 ⎤ 1⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 11. 0(A + B) = 0 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=O ⎣ 5 −6 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ⎦ 181 . ⎢ + 3⎢ ⎥ ⎥=⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣7 4⎦ ⎣0 0⎦ ⎣7 4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0⎦ ⎣7 4⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ −6 ⋅ 2 −6(−6) −6 ⋅ 7 −6 ⋅ 1⎤ ⎡ −12 36 −42 −6 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −6 7 9. ⎢ −2 7 0 ⎥ + ⎢ 0 5 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −2 7 0 ⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −2 8 0 ⎥⎥ 5 ⎣⎢ 4 6 10 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 5 20 25⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 6 10 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 1 4 5 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 5 10 15⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡ 1 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 4 −2 2 ⎤ ⎞ ⎡ 3 12. ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 2 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1⎤ 8.

(2 + 3) A = 5A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣15 −15⎦ 3⎤ ⎡10 5⎤ ⎡ 4 2⎤ ⎡6 2A + 3A = ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢9 −9 ⎥ = ⎢15 −15⎥ − 6 6 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Thus (2 + 3)A = 2A + 3A. ⎧⎪ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ 1⎤ ⎡ −2 −1⎤ ⎫⎪ 1 1 ⎡2 A − 2(B + 2C) = ⎢ ⎥ − 2 ⎨ ⎢ 2 −3⎥ + 2 ⎢ −3 3⎥ ⎬ − 3 3 2 2⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ ⎣ 1 ⎡1 ⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎡ −4 −2 ⎤ ⎪⎫ 2⎥ =⎢ − 2 ⎨⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥⎬ 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪⎩ ⎣ 2 −3⎦ ⎣ −6 6 ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣2 − 2⎦ 29 ⎤ 1⎤ 1⎤ ⎡ 21 ⎡1 ⎡ −10 −7 ⎤ ⎡⎢ 1 2⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎡ −20 −14 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎢ =⎢ −2⎢ = − = ⎥ ⎢3 ⎢ −8 ⎥ ⎢ 19 3 15 ⎢3 − 3⎥ − 4 3 ⎥ 6 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣2 − 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 2 − 2 ⎥⎦ 2⎦ ⎣2 24. 5⎤ ⎡10 26. 3C − 2B = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −9 9 ⎦ ⎣ 4 −6 ⎦ ⎣ −13 15⎦ 23.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 19. Therefore 3(A – C) + 6 is not defined. 3( A + B) = 3 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5 −6 ⎦ ⎣ 15 −18⎦ 3⎤ ⎡ −18 −15⎤ ⎡ −12 −12 ⎤ ⎡6 3A + 3B = ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 9 −9 ⎦ ⎣ 6 −9 ⎦ ⎣ 15 −18⎦ Thus 3(A + B) = 3A + 3B. ⎡ 2k 27. 1⎤ ⎡ –2 + (−6) −1 + (−5) ⎤ ⎡ 2 + (−8) 1 + (−6) ⎤ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎡2 = = 20. A + (C + B) = ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ −3 + 2 − 3 3 3 + (−3) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣3 + (−1) −3 + 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 −3⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 1⎤ ⎡ −6 −5⎤ ⎡2 ⎡ −2 −1⎤ − 3⎢ + 2⎢ 21. 3(A – C) is a 2 × 2 matrix and 6 is a number. 1⎤ 1⎤ ⎡ 41 61 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎡ −8 −6 ⎤ ⎡⎢ 1 1 2⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎡ 40 30 ⎤ ⎢ 2⎥ −5⎢ = + = A − 5(B + C) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢3 ⎢ 5 0 ⎥ ⎢ 13 3 1 0 ⎢3 − 3⎥ − ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣2 − 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 2 − 32 ⎥⎦ 2⎦ ⎣2 ⎡ −4 −4 ⎤ ⎡ −12 −12 ⎤ 25. k1 ( k2 A ) = k1 ⎢ 2 ⎣ 3k2 ⎡ 2k k ( k1k2 ) A = ⎢ 3k1k2 k2 ⎤ ⎡ 2k1k2 = −3k2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3k1k2 k1k2 ⎤ −3k1k2 ⎥⎦ k1k2 ⎤ −3k1k2 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 1 2 Thus k1 ( k2 A ) = ( k1k2 ) A. 2B − 3A + 2C = 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 2 −3⎦ ⎣ 3 −3⎦ ⎣ −3 3⎦ 3⎤ ⎡ −4 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −12 −10 ⎤ ⎡ 6 =⎢ −⎢ ⎥ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 −6 ⎦ ⎣ 9 −9 ⎦ ⎣ −6 6 ⎦ ⎡ −18 −13⎤ ⎡ −4 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −22 −15⎤ =⎢ + = 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −6 6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −11 9 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −5 ⎡ −6 −3⎤ ⎡ −12 −10 ⎤ ⎡ 6 7 ⎤ 22. 182 .

(B − C) = ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ − ⎢1 2 ⎥ ⎬ = ⎢ 3 −3⎥ = ⎢ 3 −3⎥ − 4 1 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩⎪ ⎣ T ⎡ 1 4⎤ ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 8 ⎤ ⎡ 3 3 ⎤ ⎡ −1 5 ⎤ 31. C − D = ⎢ is impossible because CT and D are not of the same size. k ( A − 2B + C) = k ⎜⎜ ⎢ ⎟⎟ = k ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −4 6 ⎦ ⎣ − 4 k 6 k ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ 3 −3⎦ ⎣ 4 −6 ⎦ ⎣ −3 3⎦ ⎠ k ⎤ ⎡ −12k −10k ⎤ ⎡ −2k − k ⎤ ⎡ 12k 10k ⎤ ⎡ 2k kA − 2kB + kC = ⎢ + = ⎥−⎢ −6k ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −3k 3k ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −4k 6k ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3k −3k ⎦ ⎣ 4k Thus k(A − 2B + C) = kA − 2kB + kC.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. 2B + BT = 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥+⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎣ 4 −1⎦ ⎣3 −1⎦ ⎣ 8 −2⎦ ⎣3 −1⎦ ⎣11 −3⎦ T ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 2 −1⎤ −⎢ 33. ( D − 2AT ) T T ⎧⎪ ⎡1 2 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 7 ⎤ ⎫⎪ = ⎨⎢ −2⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎬ ⎣ 2 −1 0 ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ ⎣1 0 2 ⎦ T ⎧⎪ ⎡1 2 −1⎤ ⎡ 2 0 14 ⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎡ −1 2 −15⎤ = ⎨⎢ ⎥ − ⎢ 4 −2 0 ⎥ ⎬ = ⎢ −3 2 1 0 2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣ ⎩⎪ ⎣ ⎡ −1 −3⎤ = ⎢⎢ 2 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ −15 2 ⎥⎦ T ⎡ 3⎤ ⎡ −4 ⎤ ⎡2⎤ 35. x ⎢ ⎥ − y ⎢ ⎥ = 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2⎦ ⎣ 7⎦ ⎣4⎦ ⎡ 3x ⎤ ⎡ −4 y ⎤ ⎡ 6⎤ ⎡ 3 x + 4 y ⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎤ ⎢ 2 x ⎥ − ⎢ 7 y ⎥ = ⎢12⎥ = ⎢ 2 x − 7 y ⎥ = ⎢12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Equating corresponding entries gives ⎧3x + 4 y = 6 ⎨2 x − 7 y = 12 ⎩ Multiply the first equation by 2 and the second equation by −3 to get ⎧ 6 x + 8 y = 12 ⎨−6 x + 21y = −36 ⎩ Now add the two equations to get 183 . 3A + D = 3 ⎢⎢ 0 −1⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢ 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 −3⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢ 2 0⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 2 −3⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 7 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 21 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −1 2⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 20 2 ⎥⎦ T T T ⎡ 0 3⎤ ⎡ 0 3⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ 1 3⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎪⎫ 30. ⎡ 1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 3 6 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 4 7 ⎤ 29.2 ⎛ ⎡2 1⎤ ⎡ −12 −10 ⎤ ⎡ −2 −1⎤ ⎞ ⎡ 12 10 ⎤ ⎡ 12k 10k ⎤ −⎢ +⎢ 28. ⎥ ⎥ ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣1 0 2 ⎦ T 34. 2BT − 3CT = 2 ⎢ − 3⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ =⎢ ⎣3 −1⎦ ⎣ 0 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 −2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 6 ⎦ ⎣ 6 −8⎦ ⎡ 1 3⎤ ⎡ 1 4 ⎤ ⎡ 2 6⎤ ⎡ 1 4 ⎤ ⎡ 3 10 ⎤ 32.

y = 3. 2x = 12. 4x = 28. 2y = –28. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −16 −3 −36 ⎦ 184 . 6 + 8z = 14. 4 + 2y = –24. 2x = –12.1 p1 1. which is true for all values of x and y. ⎡ 2 x − 4 y ⎤ ⎡16 ⎤ 36. Thus x = 7. 2B − A = 2 ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 460 320 750 ⎦ ⎣ 450 280 850 ⎦ ⎡ 2 ⋅ 380 2 ⋅ 330 2 ⋅ 220 ⎤ ⎡ 400 350 150 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⋅ 460 2 ⋅ 320 2 ⋅ 750 ⎦ ⎣ 450 280 850 ⎦ ⎡760 =⎢ ⎣920 ⎡360 =⎢ ⎣ 470 ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ 7⎤ ⎡− x ⎤ 38.1. 3 4 Thus x = 6. 2y = –6. 3x = 18.1 p2 0. 8z = 8. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 7 30 ⎦ ⎡ 2 + 2 x ⎤ ⎡ −10 ⎤ ⎢ 4 + 2 y ⎥ = ⎢ −24 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 6 + 8 z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 14 ⎥⎦ 2 + 2x = –10. 2x + 12 − 5y = 2x + 12 − 5y. y = –3. or y = . ⎢ 4 ⎥ + 2 ⎢⎢ y ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −24⎥⎥ ⎣⎢ 6 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 z ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 14 ⎦⎥ = A T − BT [definition of subtraction] ⎡15 −4 26 ⎤ 45.1P Thus P must be multiplied by 1. X + Y = ⎢⎢800 720 ⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢960 800 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 25 30 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 10 5 ⎥⎦ 50 + 25 ⎤ ⎡ 45 75⎤ ⎡ 30 + 15 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎢800 + 960 720 + 800 ⎥ = ⎢1760 1520 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 25 + 10 30 + 5 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 35 35⎥⎦ ⎡2⎤ ⎡ −4 ⎤ ⎡ 16 ⎤ x⎢ ⎥+ y⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎦ ⎣ −3⎦ ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎡ 6⎤ 37.1 p1 0. Thus x = –6. 3 ⎡ 380 330 220 ⎤ ⎡ 400 350 150 ⎤ 42.1P = [ p1 p2 p3 ] + [0.1 p3 ] = [1. ( A − B)T = [ A + (−1)B]T [definition of subtraction] = A T + [(−1)B]T [transpose of a sum] = A T + (−1)BT [transpose of a scalar multiple] ⎡ 2⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ −10⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 39. P + 0. or x = 7. 660 440 ⎤ ⎡ 400 350 150 ⎤ − 640 1500 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 450 280 850 ⎥⎦ 310 290 ⎤ 360 650 ⎥⎦ 43. y = .1 p3 ] = 1. y=− . or y = –3. 44. or x = 6. ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 5 x + 7 y ⎦ ⎣ − 3⎦ ⎡ 2 x ⎤ ⎡ −4 y ⎤ ⎡16 ⎤ ⎢ 5 x ⎥ + ⎢ 7 y ⎥ = ⎢ −3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 30 50 ⎤ ⎡ 15 25 ⎤ 41. 29 29 10 ⎡2⎤ ⎡ −1⎤ ⎡ 0⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ 6 40. 4 3y – 12 = –8. ⎡ −16 −11 −24 ⎤ 46.1 p2 1.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 29 y = −24 24 y=− 29 Therefore ⎛ 24 ⎞ 270 3x = 6 − 4 ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎝ 29 ⎠ 29 90 x= 29 90 24 The solution is x = . or z = 1. 3y = 4. 2y = 6 or y = 3. 3 ⎢ ⎥ − 4 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣2⎦ ⎣− y ⎦ ⎣2 y ⎦ ⎡3x − 28⎤ ⎡ − x ⎤ ⎢ 6 + 4 y ⎥ = ⎢2 y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3x – 28 = –x. 6 + 4y = 2y. 3 ⎢ ⎥ − 3 ⎢ ⎥ = 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ y⎦ ⎣ 4⎦ ⎣ −2 ⎦ ⎡ 3x + 6 ⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎤ ⎢3 y − 12 ⎥ = ⎢ −8⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3x + 6 = 24. Thus x = 6. y = –14. x ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ + 2 ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ + y ⎢⎢ 2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 x + 12 − 5 y ⎥⎦ 10 ⎡ 2x − 2 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 2 6 y ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 x + 12 − 5 y ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 x + 12 − 5 y ⎥⎦ 2x − 2 = 10. or x = –6. or x = 6. or y = –14. z = 1.

A is 2 × 3 and E is 3 × 2. c12 = 1(−2) + 3(4) + (−2)(1) = 8 Principles in Practice 6. 15. Represent the value of each book by [ 28 22 16] and the number of each book by 8.3 ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 18. 3. 293. ET is 2 × 3. 11. I 6 = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 1.75 + 4987.25 34. 4 · 1 = 4 entries. c11 = 1(0) + 3(−2) + (−2)(3) = −12 2.75] The total cost is $22. so AE is 2 × 2. 1. Thus E(FB) is 3 × 1. E is 3 × 2. 12.75. 3 ⋅ 1 = 3 entries. ⎡100 ⎤ ⎢ 70 ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 24 36 −44 ⎦ 6. D is 4 × 3 and E is 3 × 2. A is 2 × 3 and E is 3 × 2. 2. so AE is 2 × 2. so F + A is 2 × 3.50] ⎢⎢ 325 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣175 ⎥⎦ 13. F is 2 × 3 and B is 3 × 1. ⎢1 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎣3⎦ 16. 4 · 2 = 8 entries. c32 = 0(−2) + 4(4) + 3(1) = 19 4. Both F and A are 2 × 3. 3 · 5 = 15 entries. F is 2 × 3 and B is 3 × 1. E is 3 × 2. and B is 3 × 1. D is 4 × 3 and B is 3 × 1.3 5. ⎡ 250 ⎤ PQ = [ 26. 5⎥ ⎢ ⎢1 1 ⎥ x ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎣3⎦ Then the pair of lines is equivalent to the matrix ⎡1 8 ⎤ ⎡ y ⎤ ⎡ 8 ⎤ 5 5⎥ equation AX = B or ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. X = ⎢ ⎥ .3 7. 2 · 2 = 4 entries. 10.5 + 11. 8 8 ⎧ ⎪⎪ y + 5 x = 5 ⎨ ⎪y + 1 x = 5 ⎪⎩ 3 3 ⎡8⎤ ⎡1 8 ⎤ ⎡ y⎤ 5 5⎥ Let A = ⎢ . and B = ⎢ ⎥ . First. ⎡1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎢0 1 0 0⎥ ⎥ I4 = ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ Problems 6. Thus E(AE) is 3 × 2. The total cost is given by the matrix product PQ. c33 = 0(3) + 4(−2) + 3(−1) = −11 185 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎥⎦ . B is 3 × 1 and C is 2 × 5. so FB is 2 × 1. so DE is 4 × 2. 2 · 1 = 2 entries. so DB is 4 × 1. The total value is given by the following matrix product. c31 = 0(0) + 4(−2) + 3(3) = 1 ⎡ −10 22 12 ⎤ 47. Because the number of columns of B does not equal the number of rows of C. ⎡100 ⎤ [ 28 22 16] ⎢⎢ 70 ⎥⎥ = [2800 + 1540 + 1440] ⎢⎣ 90 ⎥⎦ = [5780] The total value is $5780. 3 · 1 = 3 entries. 14. Because B is 3 × 1. so FB is 2 × 1. c23 = −2(3) + 1(−2) + (−1)(−1) = −7 3. 2 · 1 = 2 entries. (F + A)B is 2 × 1. = [ 6562.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.843. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 90 ⎥⎦ 9. 3 · 2 = 6 entries. so EC is 3 × 5. write the equations with the variable terms on the left-hand side. E is 3 × 2 and C is 2 × 5. BC is not defined.75 28. An identity matrix is a square matrix (in this case 4 × 4) with 1's on the main diagonal and all other entries 0's.5] = [22. so EET B is 3 × 1.843. 17.

so the product is not defined. ⎢ = ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ 3(0) + 2(3) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣10 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 2 ⎦ ⎣ −1 3⎦ ⎣3(4) + 2(−1) ⎡ −1 1⎤ ⎡ −1(1) + 1(3) −1(−2) + 1(4) ⎤ ⎡ 2 6 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 20. [1 − 2 5] ⎢ 0 0 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 −3⎦ ⎣ −1 0 = [1 + 0 − 5 5 + 0 + 0 −2 − 4 + 5 −1 − 2 − 15] = [−4 5 −1 −18] 26.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 2 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 4 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2(4) + (−4)(−1) 2(0) + (−4)(3) ⎤ ⎡12 −12 ⎤ 19. ⎢ 0 4 ⎥ ⎢ = 0(1) + 4(3) 0(−2) + 4(4) ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢12 16 ⎥⎥ 3 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢⎣ 2(1) + 1(3) 2(−2) + 1(4) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 5 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 2 1⎦⎥ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ 2(1) + 0(4) + 3(7) ⎤ ⎡ 23⎤ 21. [1 0 6 2] ⎢ ⎥ = [1(0) + 0(1) + 6(2) + 2(3)] = [18] ⎢2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 3 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 4 −1⎤ ⎡ 2 1 23. 186 . The first matrix is 1 × 2 and the second is 3 × 2. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢4⎥ = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1 4 5⎦ ⎢7 ⎥ ⎣ −1(1) + 4(4) + 5(7) ⎦ ⎣50 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡0⎤ ⎢1 ⎥ 22. ⎢⎢ 3 10 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎣⎢ 1 0 2 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 1 0 ⎡ 4(3) + 2(0) + (−2)(0) ⎢ = ⎢ 3(3) + 10(0) + 0(0) ⎢⎣ 1(3) + 0(0) + 2(0) ⎡12 2 4 −2 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 9 3 3 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 3 1 2 ⎥⎦ 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 1⎦⎥ 4(1) + 2(0) + (−2)(1) 4(1) + 2(0) + (−2)(0) 4(0) + 2(0) + (−2)(1) ⎤ 3(1) + 10(0) + 0(1) 3(1) + 10(0) + 0(0) 3(0) + 10(0) + 0(1) ⎥⎥ 1(1) + 0(0) + 2(0) 1(0) + 0(0) + 2(1) ⎥⎦ 1(1) + 0(0) + 2(1) ⎡ 1 5 −2 −1⎤ 1⎥ 25. ⎢⎢ 0 0 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 −1 ⎣⎢ −2 1 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 1 ⎡1(2) + 4(0) + (−1)1 = ⎢⎢ 0(2) + 0(0) + 2(1) ⎢⎣ −2(2) + 1(0) + 1(1) 0⎤ 1⎥⎥ 2 ⎦⎥ 1(1) + 4(−1) + (−1)(1) 1(0) + 4(1) + (−1)(2) ⎤ ⎡ 1 −4 2 ⎤ 0(1) + 0(−1) + 2(1) 0(0) + 0(1) + 2(2) ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 2 2 4 ⎥⎥ −2(1) + 1(−1) + 1(1) −2(0) + 1(1) + 1(2) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −3 −2 3⎥⎦ ⎡ 4 2 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 3 1 1 24.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3 6 −4 6⎤ ⎡ 2⎤ ⎡ 2(2) 2(3) 2(−2) 2(3) ⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢ 3⎥ ⎢ 3(2) ⎥ ⎢ 6 9 6 9 ⎥⎥ 3(3) 3( − 2) 3(3) − ⎥ =⎢ 27. ⎢ ⎣ 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 1 2 1 1⎥⎦ ⎡1(−1) + (−1)(2) 1(0) + (−1)(1) 1(−1) + (−1)(2) 1(0) + (−1)(1) 1(0) + (−1)(1) ⎤ =⎢ 0(0) + 3(1) 0(−1) + 3(2) 0(0) + 3(1) 0(0) + 3(1) ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0(−1) + 3(2) = ⎡ −3 1 −3 −1 −1⎤ ⎢⎣ 6 3 6 3 3 ⎥⎦ ⎧ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎫ 1⎤ ⎢ ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎡ 2 0 ⎪ ⎡1 2⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ 2 + 0 + 3 −4 + 0 + 0 ⎤ ⎪⎫ 1⎥⎥ ⎬ = ⎢ 31. 3 ⎢ − 4 ⎨⎢ − 4 ⎨I ⎢ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎬ ⎪⎩ ⎣0 1⎦ ⎣ 6 1⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣ −3 12 ⎦ ⎪⎩ ⎣ 6 1⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣ −1 4 ⎦ ⎧⎪ ⎡ −2 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎡ 3 6 ⎤ ⎡ −8 16 ⎤ ⎡ 11 −10 ⎤ ⎡ 3 6⎤ =⎢ − 4 ⎨⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎬ = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ 8⎥⎦ ⎣ −3 12 ⎦ ⎩⎪ ⎣ 6 1⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎣ −3 12 ⎦ ⎣ 24 4 ⎦ ⎣ −27 187 . ⎢ ⎥ [ 2 3 −2 3] = ⎢ ⎢ −4 ⎥ ⎢ −4(2) −4(3) −4(−2) −4(3) ⎥ ⎢ −8 −12 8 −12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 −2 3⎥⎦ 1(3) 1(−2) 1(3) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎢⎣ 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1(2) ⎡ 0 1⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡1 0 28. ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎢ 1 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎨⎢ ⎥⎬ 3 4 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 3 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣3 4⎦ ⎩⎪ ⎣1 + 0 − 6 −2 + 0 + 0⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 5 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 5 − 10 −4 − 4 ⎤ ⎡ −5 −8⎤ =⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣3 4 ⎦ ⎣ −5 −2 ⎦ ⎣15 − 20 −12 − 8⎦ ⎣ −5 −20⎦ ⎧⎪ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −2 4⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎡ 3 6 ⎤ ⎧⎪ ⎡ −2 4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎡ 1 2⎤ 32. ⎢ ⎥ ⎨⎢ ⎣ 2 3⎦ ⎩⎪ ⎣1 1 ⎡ 0(1) + 1(1) =⎢ ⎣ 2(1) + 3(1) 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 0 ⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎡ 0 1⎤ ⎡1 1 1⎤ + ⎬= 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎢⎣ 2 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 1 1⎥⎦ 0(1) + 1(1) 0(1) + 1(1) ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ = 2(1) + 3(1) 2(1) + 3(1) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣5 5 5⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎡ −1 0 2 ⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎢ ⎪⎧ ⎡ −2 0 2 ⎤ 29. 3 ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ + 2 ⎢ 1 1 −2 ⎥ ⎬ ⎢3 ⎪⎩ ⎣ 3 −1 1⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎢5 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎪⎧ ⎡ −2 0 2 ⎤ ⎡ −2 0 4 ⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎢ = 3 ⎨⎢ + ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎬ ⎢3 ⎩⎪ ⎣ 3 −1 1⎦ ⎣ 2 2 −4 ⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎢5 ⎣ 1 2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ −4 0 6 ⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎡ −12 0 = 3 ⎨⎢ 3 4 ⎥⎬ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎩⎪ ⎣ 5 1 −3⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎢5 6 ⎥ ⎣ 15 3 ⎣ ⎦ 2⎤ 4 ⎥⎥ 6 ⎥⎦ 2⎤ 4 ⎥⎥ 6 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 2 ⎤ 18⎤ ⎢ 3 4 ⎥⎥ −9 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎢⎣5 6 ⎥⎦ ⎡ −12(1) + 0(3) + 18(5) −12(2) + 0(4) + 18(6) ⎤ ⎡ 78 84 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣15(1) + 3(3) + (−9)(5) 15(2) + 3(4) + (−9)(6) ⎦ ⎣ −21 −12 ⎦ ⎡ 1 −1⎤ ⎡ −1 0 −1 0 0 ⎤ 30.

⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ y ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅ y + 0 ⋅ z ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ y ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 ⋅ x + 0 ⋅ y + 0 ⋅ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ a ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡a x + a x ⎤ ⎡a 34. B(D + E) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1 −4 1⎦ ⎢ 1 2 4 ⎥ ⎣ 4 + 0 + 1 0 − 28 + 2 0 − 4 + 4 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 21 3⎤ ⎡ −8 =⎢ 5 − 26 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 188 . 3A − 2BC = 3 ⎢ ⎥ − 2 ⎢ 1 −4 1⎥ ⎢ 0 3⎥ 0 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 2 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 3 −6 ⎤ ⎡ 2 + 0 + 0 −2 + 9 + 0 ⎤ =⎢ −2⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣0 9 ⎦ ⎣ −1 + 0 + 2 1 − 12 + 4 ⎦ ⎡ 3 −6 ⎤ ⎡ 4 14 ⎤ ⎡ −1 −20 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ 23⎥⎦ ⎣0 9 ⎦ ⎣ 2 −14 ⎦ ⎣ −2 ⎡4 0 0⎤ 3 0⎤ ⎢ ⎡ −2 ⎡ −8 + 0 + 0 0 + 21 + 0 0 + 3 + 0 ⎤ 0 7 1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢ 40. D − EI = D − E = ⎢0 1 1 ⎥ − ⎢ 0 6 0 ⎥⎥ 3 3 3 ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢1 2 1 ⎦⎥ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ = ⎢⎢0 1 1 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢0 2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 2 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡0 0 0 ⎤ = ⎢⎢0 −1 1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ 38. ⎢ 0 ⎥ x2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎢⎣ 2 x1 + x2 ⎥⎦ 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡3 0 0⎤ 1 1 1⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 37. ⎢ 11 12 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ = ⎢ 11 1 12 2 ⎥ ⎣ a21 a22 ⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎣ a21 x1 + a22 x2 ⎦ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 1 3 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ 2 x1 + x2 + 3x3 ⎤ 35.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⋅ x + 0 ⋅ y + 1⋅ z ⎤ ⎡ z ⎤ 33. DD = ⎢⎢ 0 1 1 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 1 1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 + 0 + 1 0 + 1 + 2 0 + 1 + 1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 1 3 2⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 2 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 2 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 + 0 + 1 0 + 2 + 2 0 + 2 + 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 4 3⎥⎦ ⎡ −1 1⎤ 3 0⎤ ⎢ ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎥ 39. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 4 9 7 ⎦ ⎢ x ⎥ ⎣ 4 x1 + 9 x2 + 7 x3 ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎡ 2 −3⎤ ⎡ 2 x1 − 3 x2 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ x2 36.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. Impossible: A is not a square matrix.3 ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎢3 ⎥ ⎡3 0 0⎤ 2 2 41. FE(D − I ) = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡1 = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 = ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣1 0 0⎤ 3 ⎥⎡ 1 0 ⎢0 ⎥ 6 ⎥⎢ 0 13 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ ⎡0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⎢ 0 1⎦ ⎣ 1 0 0⎤ 0 1⎥ ⎥ 2 0⎦ 0 7 3 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 7⎥ 3 ⎥⎦ 0 0⎤ ⎛ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎞ 6 0 ⎥ ⎜ ⎢0 1 1⎥ − ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎟ ⎥⎜⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎟ 0 3⎦ ⎜⎝ ⎣ 1 2 1⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ ⎟⎠ 0 0⎤ 0 1⎥ ⎥ 2 0⎦ ⎧ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1 1⎤ ⎫ ⎡ −1 + 0 + 0 ⎪⎢ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 43. so A 2 is not defined. ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 46. A A = ⎢ −1 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ −1 2 1⎥ 0 1 1 ⎦ ⎢ 0 1 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ T 189 . A(BC) = A ⎨ ⎢ 0 3⎥⎥ ⎬ = A ⎢ ⎥ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 −7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −1 + 0 + 2 1 − 12 + 4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎪ ⎣ 1 −4 1⎦ ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎡ 2 − 2 7 + 14 ⎤ ⎡ 0 21⎤ =⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 + 3 0 − 21⎦ ⎣ 3 −21⎦ 45. (DC) A = ⎨ ⎢0 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 3⎥ ⎬ A = ⎢⎢ 0 + 0 + 2 ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 ⎥ ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎢⎣ −1 + 0 + 2 ⎦⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩⎣ 2 + 3 ⎤ ⎡ −1 ⎡ −1 1⎤ ⎡ −1 + 0 ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 7⎥ ⎢ = 2 + 0 −4 + 21⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 2 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢⎣ 1 11⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 + 0 −2 + 33⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 1 + 0 + 0⎤ 0 + 3 + 4 ⎥⎥ A 1 + 6 + 4 ⎥⎦ 5⎤ 17 ⎥⎥ 31⎥⎦ ⎧ ⎡ –1 1⎤ ⎫ 3 0⎤ ⎢ ⎡ 2 + 0 + 0 −2 + 9 + 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 − 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 7 ⎤ ⎪ ⎡ −2 ⎪ 44. 3I − FE = 3I − ⎢ 0 16 0 ⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 6 0 ⎥⎥ ⎥ 3 3⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 ⎥⎦ 3⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎡ ⋅3+ 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0 ⎤ ⎢3 ⎥ 2⎢ 1 ⋅6 + 0 ⎥ 0+0+0 0 0 0 = 3I − + + 6 ⎥ 3⎢ ⎢ 0 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 1 ⋅ 3⎥ 3 ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 2 0 0⎤ ⎡ 7 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 3 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢3 2⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ = 3I − ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 3 0 ⎥ − 0 3 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 0 23 ⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢3 42.

( AIC)T = ⎜ ⎢ ⎜⎜ ⎣0 1 1⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎟⎟ ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ ⎣ 0 1⎦ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎡1 = ⎜⎢ ⎜⎜ ⎣0 ⎝ ⎡ −1 =⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎡ −1 =⎢ ⎣ 1 50. ( BA ) T T T T ⎧ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 3 0⎤ ⎪⎢ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎨ ⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ −1 1⎥ ⎬ = ⎢ 3 −1⎥⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1 −1 2 ⎦ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 190 .Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2 ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 3 2 47. B = B B = ⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥ B = ⎢⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ B ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0 0 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −4 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ −2 1 −2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 2 −1 −2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 8⎥⎦ ( ) ⎡ 0 2 0⎤ ⎡ 0 2 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 48. A T ( 2C ) T ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎞ −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 2 −1⎥ ⎟ 1 1⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎟⎟ ⎣ 0 1⎦ ⎠ T 1⎤ 0 ⎥⎦ 2⎤ 0 ⎥⎦ T ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 2 4 0⎤ ⎡2 4 0⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ −1 1⎥ ⎢ = −2 −6 2 ⎥⎥ 0 −2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢⎣ 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 2 ⎥⎦ T 51. A(B ) C = A ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎥ C ⎢⎣ −1 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −1 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0 −2 0 ⎤ = A ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ C ⎢⎣ −2 −2 4 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0 −2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ C =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0 1 1⎦ ⎢ −2 −2 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T 2 ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 0 −3 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 −1⎥ ⎣ −2 −1 4 ⎦ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −6 3⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −4 5 ⎦ ⎛ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎞ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 2 −1⎥ ⎟ 49.

AI = A. Since I is 3 × 3 and A has three columns. A(I – O) = A(I) = AI. so A T CT B is 3 × 3 and ( A T CT B)0 = I = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ .3 T ⎧ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 0 0 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 4 0⎤ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ T ⎪ ⎢ (2 ) 2 2 1 0 4 2 0 52. A T is 3 × 2. AX = B 1⎤ ⎡3 A=⎢ ⎥ − 2 9 ⎣ ⎦ 191 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 55. (2I ) − 2I = (2I ) − 2I = ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡4 = ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 2 0 ⎥⎥ 0 2 ⎥⎦ 0 0⎤ ⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡2 0 0⎤ 4 0 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥⎥ 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ 54.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis T Section 6. I O = IO = O = ⎢⎢0 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎥⎦ T ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎡ −2 1 −1⎤ T 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ ( AB)T = ⎢ 57. ( AB)( AB) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ( AB) ⎢ − 0 1 1 2 1 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 0 0 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −2 2 ⎤ ⎡ −2 1 −1⎤ ⎢ ⎡ 6 −7 ⎤ =⎢ 1 −1⎥⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 9 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 2 −1 2 ⎦ ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎣ −7 ⎣ ⎦ T 58. B 2 − 3B + 2I ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡0 = ⎢⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 −1 0 ⎥⎥ − 3 ⎢⎢ 2 ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡ 0 0 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 −3⎤ ⎡ 2 = ⎢⎢ −2 1 −2 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 6 −3 0 ⎥⎥ + ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −1⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤ −1 0 ⎥⎥ + 2 ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ 0 2 ⎥⎦ 0 0⎤ 2 0 ⎥⎥ 0 2 ⎥⎦ 1⎤ 1⎤ ⎡ 2 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 ⎡ 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ −8 4 −2 ⎥ + ⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −8 6 −2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ 59. B =⎨ ⎢ − ⎥⎬ = ⎢ − ⎥ = ⎢ 0 −2 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎢0 0 2⎥ ⎪ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −2 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 2 ⎡2 0 0⎤ ⎡2 2 2 2 53. and B is 3 × 3. ⎣ 0 1 1⎦ ⎡0 0 0 ⎤ 56. Thus A(I − O) = A = ⎢ ⎥. CT is 2 × 3.

5/ 6. 1. ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣5 −1 2 ⎦ ⎣ z ⎦ ⎣12 ⎦ 61. 3. 12. 1.” Taking the numbers two at a time as 2 × 1 matrices and multiplying them by E gives: ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡ 20 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅ 20 + 3 ⋅ 8 ⎤ ⎡ 20 + 24⎤ ⎡ 44⎤ ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎢ 8⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⋅ 20 + 4 ⋅ 8⎥ = ⎢ 40 + 32 ⎥ = ⎢ 72 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡5 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅ 5 + 3 ⋅ 6 ⎤ ⎡ 5 + 18 ⎤ ⎡ 23⎤ ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎢6 ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⋅ 5 + 4 ⋅ 6 ⎥ = ⎢10 + 24⎥ = ⎢34 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 192 . AX = B ⎡ 2 −1 3⎤ A = ⎢⎢ 5 −1 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 −2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡r ⎤ X = ⎢⎢ s ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ t ⎥⎦ ⎡ 9⎤ B = ⎢⎢ 5⎥⎥ ⎢⎣11⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 −1 3⎤ ⎡ r ⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎤ The system is represented by ⎢⎢ 5 −1 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ s ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 5⎥⎥ .Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ x⎤ X=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ y⎦ ⎡6⎤ B=⎢ ⎥ ⎣5⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡6 ⎤ ⎡3 The system is represented by ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . “the/falcon/has/landed” converted to corresponding numbers and slashes is “20. AX = B ⎡ 3 1 1⎤ A = ⎢⎢ 1 −1 1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣5 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ x⎤ X = ⎢⎢ y ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2⎤ B = ⎢⎢ 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣12 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 3 1 1⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ The system is represented by ⎢ 1 −1 1⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ = ⎢ 4 ⎥ . 14. 8. 1. 4. 4. 19/ 12. 15. 5. ⎣ 2 −9 ⎦ ⎣ y ⎦ ⎣5 ⎦ 60. ⎢⎣ 3 −2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ t ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣11⎥⎦ 62. 14/ 8.

28. ⎡100 ⎤ ⎢150 ⎥ ⎥ = [240. 44. 26.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ 3 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅12 ⎤ ⎡ 1 + 36 ⎤ ⎡37 ⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣12 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅1 + 4 ⋅12 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 + 48⎥⎦ ⎢⎣50 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ 3 ⎤ ⎡14 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅14 + 3 ⋅ 8 ⎤ ⎡14 + 24 ⎤ ⎡ 38 ⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅14 + 4 ⋅ 8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 28 + 32 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 60 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎣ 3 ⎤ ⎡12 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅12 + 3 ⋅1 ⎤ ⎡12 + 3 ⎤ ⎡15 ⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 24 + 4⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 28⎥⎦ Section 6.3 3 ⎤ ⎡ 3⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅15 ⎤ ⎡ 3 + 45 ⎤ ⎡ 48⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣15⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅ 3 + 4 ⋅15⎥⎦ ⎢⎣6 + 60 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 66 ⎥⎦ 3 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅1 + 3 ⋅19 ⎤ ⎡ 1 + 57 ⎤ ⎡ 58⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣19 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅1 + 4 ⋅19 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 + 76 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 78⎥⎦ 3 ⎤ ⎡14 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅14 + 3 ⋅ 4 ⎤ ⎡14 + 12 ⎤ ⎡ 26 ⎤ = = = 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⋅14 + 4 ⋅ 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 28 + 16⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 44 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎤ ⎡ 1 ⋅ 5 + 3 ⋅ 4 ⎤ ⎡ 5 + 12⎤ ⎡17 ⎤ ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎢ 4 ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⋅ 5 + 4 ⋅ 4 ⎥ = ⎢10 + 16 ⎥ = ⎢ 26 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The encoded message is 44. Q = [5 ⎡5 R = ⎢⎢ 7 ⎢⎣ 6 2 4] 20 16 7 17 ⎤ 18 12 9 21⎥⎥ 25 8 5 13⎥⎦ ⎡ 2500 ⎤ ⎢ 1200 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ C = ⎢ 800 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 150 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1500 ⎥⎦ 193 . 37. 66. 000] 64. 23/ 34. [ 200 300 500 250] ⎢ ⎢ 200 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣300 ⎥⎦ The total cost of the stocks is $240. 50. 38/ 60. 48. ⎡ 55 ⎤ 63.000. 26. 78/ 15. 72. 17. [ 6 10 7 ] ⎢⎢150 ⎥⎥ = [6 ⋅ 55 + 10 ⋅150 + 7 ⋅ 35] ⎢⎣ 35 ⎥⎦ = [330 + 1500 + 245] = [2075] The value of the inventory is $2075. 58. 65.

180] = [3. 000] ⎢⎣ 40.680] Amount spent on goods: ⎡10. ⎡1⎤ QRCZ = (QRC)Z = [ 2. 66.018. 000 ⎥⎦ The coal industry spends $180. 000 ⎤ steel industry: DS P = [30 5 0] ⎢⎢ 20.500 + 61.950] The total cost of raw materials is $828. 650)] = [828. 000 ⎥⎥ = [180.000. 000 + 1750 + 59. 250 2540 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣113.500 300 + 1250 + 800 + 50 + 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡124.500 61.950. 000 ⎥⎥ = [400. 750 + 1. 000 + 16. a. b. 000 14. 650 ⎥⎦ = [5(75. 000 + 12. 750 2920 ⎤ QRC = Q(RC) = [5 7 12] ⎢⎢139. 000 + 2250 + 73.500 250 + 1000 + 1600 + 70 + 0 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 24.500 + 27. and the steel industry spends 194 .500 + 30.500 + 8000 + 1250 + 45.180] c. 000 + 37.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡5 ⋅ 2500 + 20 ⋅1200 + 16 ⋅ 800 + 7 ⋅150 + 17 ⋅1500 ⎤ QRC = Q(RC) = Q ⎢⎢ 7 ⋅ 2500 + 18 ⋅1200 + 12 ⋅ 800 + 9 ⋅150 + 21 ⋅1500 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 6 ⋅ 2500 + 25 ⋅1200 + 8 ⋅ 800 + 5 ⋅150 + 13 ⋅1500 ⎥⎦ ⎡75.500 350 + 900 + 1200 + 90 + 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 21.180] ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1⎦ = [2. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡10.359.000. 780 + 28. 250 2540 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣113. a. 000 ⎤ elec. 000] ⎢⎣ 40. 000 ⎥⎥ = [520.957. 000] ⎢⎣ 40.800] = [ 2. 250 2400 ⎥⎦ = [ 623. ⎡3500 50 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ 5 20 16 7 17 ⎤ ⎢1500 50 ⎥ RC = ⎢⎢ 7 18 12 9 21⎥⎥ ⎢1000 100 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 6 25 8 5 13 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 250 10 ⎥ ⎢3500 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 17. 67. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡10.850 ⎤ = [5 2 4] ⎢⎢ 81.500 61.850) + 2(81.550 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 71.957. 250 2400 ⎥⎦ ⎡124. 600 + 17. industry: DE P = [ 20 0 8] ⎢⎢ 20.550) + 4(71.957. 000 ⎤ coal industry: DC P = [ 0 1 4] ⎢⎢ 20. the electric industry spends $520. 750 + 974. 750 2920 ⎤ = ⎢⎢139.

electricity. Thus the profit for coal is 10. = 2. respectively.000 + 380. 000] ⎢⎣ 40.3 $400. the profit for elec. (A + B)(A – B) = A(A – B) + B(A – B) [dist.390.000. ⎡a D1D2 = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡d D2 D1 = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 Both D1D2 0 0⎤ ⎡d b 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 0 c ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡a e 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 0 f ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 and D2 D1 ( 32 )⎤⎥ = ⎡0 ⎢ ( 32 )⎦⎥⎥ ⎣0 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ .000 + 270. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡10. 6. 000 129 .000(31) – 520.000. ⎡10. prop. 000 + 640. From (a).000 + 520. Let D1 = ⎢ 0 b 0 ⎥ and D2 = ⎢⎢ 0 e ⎢⎣ 0 0 c ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 a. 000] ⎢⎣ 40. 000 ⎥⎥ = [380.000.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. b.000(30) – 400. 000 239 68. 31. 000] ⎢⎣ 40. and steel are 57.000. given] = A2 − B2 ⎡ ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −3⎤ ⎢1(2) + (2)(−1) 1(−3) + 2 = 69. 000 ⎤ consumer 3: D3 P = [ 4 6 12] ⎢⎢ 20. the number of units sold of coal.000. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡10. 000 + 380. the total amount of money that is paid out by all the industries and consumers is 180.000 + 400.000. 000 + 520. = 2.000.000. 000 ⎤ consumer 1: D1P = [3 2 5] ⎢⎢ 20. d. 0 e 195 0⎤ 0 ⎦⎥ .] = A 2 − BA + BA − B 2 [AB = BA. 000 110 . f ⎥⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎡ ad 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 be 0 ⎥⎥ 0 f ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 cf ⎥⎦ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ ad 0 0 ⎤ b 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 be 0 ⎥⎥ 0 c ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 cf ⎥⎦ are diagonal matrices. and 30. From Example 3 of Sec. 000 ⎥⎥ = [270.390. consumer 2 pays $380.000 = $800. The proportion of the total amount in (c) paid out by the industries is 180.000 = $2. ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 3 ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣⎢ −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎢ 1(2) + 2(−1) 1(−3) + 2 ⎣ ⎡a 0 0⎤ ⎡d 0 ⎢ ⎥ 70. is 20. 000 + 400. 000 ⎥⎦ Consumer 1 pays $270. 000 239 The proportion of the total amount in (c) paid by consumers is 270. c. and consumer 3 pays $640.000(57) – 180. and the profit for steel is 40.000 = $100. 000 ⎥⎥ = [640.2.000 + 640. 000 ⎤ consumer 2: D2 P = [ 0 17 1] ⎢⎢ 20.000 = $390.] = A 2 − AB + BA − B 2 [dist prop.390.

⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 51.648⎤ 72. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −739. The system is 40x + 10y + 10z = 180 20x + 10y + 50z = 200 10x + 30y + 20z = 190 Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the system.32 ⎦ 2. From part (a).8⎤ ⎡ 72. 2 blocks of B. ⎡ 40 10 10 180 ⎤ ⎢ 20 10 50 200 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣10 30 20 190 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 23. 196 . y be the number of tablets of Y. ⎢ 7.164 64.] −9.32 −36. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣86.994 −20.44 −168.428 373.952 74.496 278.64 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 26. 4 tablets of Y.648⎦ Principles in Practice 6. ⎡ 6 1 3 35 ⎤ ⎢ 3 2 3 22 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣1 5 3 18 ⎥⎦ 3 2 19 ⎤ ⎡1 −2R1 + R 2 ⎢ > 0 −5 1 −18⎥⎥ −4R1 + R3 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 −11 −7 −58⎥⎦ 3 2 19 ⎤ ⎡1 − 15 R 2 ⎢ 18 ⎥ 1 1 −5 > ⎢0 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 11 7 58 − − − ⎣ ⎦ 13 41 ⎤ ⎡1 0 5 5 ⎥ ⎢ −3R 2 + R1 ⎢ 18 1 ⎥ > 0 1 −5 5⎥ 11R 2 + R3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 46 − 92 ⎥ 5 5 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 13 41 ⎡1 0 ⎤ 5 5 ⎥ 5 R ⎢ − 46 3 ⎥ > ⎢ 0 1 − 15 18 5⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎡1 5 3 18 ⎤ R1 ↔ R3 ⎢ > ⎢ 3 2 3 22 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 6 1 3 35 ⎥⎦ 5 3 18⎤ ⎡1 −3R1 + R 2 ⎢ > ⎢0 −13 −6 −32 ⎥⎥ −6R1 + R3 ⎢⎣0 −29 −15 −73⎥⎦ 5 3 18⎤ ⎡1 1 R − 13 ⎢ 2 6 32 ⎥ > ⎢0 1 13 13 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 −29 −15 −73⎦ 9 74 ⎤ ⎡1 0 13 13 ⎥ ⎢ −5R 2 + R1 ⎢ 6 32 ⎥ > 0 1 13 13 ⎥ 29R 2 + R 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 – 21 – 21 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 13 13 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 9 74 ⎤ 13 13 ⎥ 13 − 21 R3 ⎢ 6 32 ⎥ ⎢ > 0 1 13 13 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 1 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎡1 0 0 3 ⎤ − 13 R + R1 ⎢ 5 3 > ⎢0 1 0 4 ⎥⎥ 1R +R 2 5 3 ⎢⎣0 0 1 2 ⎥⎦ She should take 3 tablets of X. and 2 tablets of Z. D2 commute. all n × n diagonal matrices commute. Let x be the number of tablets of X. The corresponding system is ⎧ 6 A + B + 3C = 35 ⎪ ⎨3 A + 2 B + 3C = 22 ⎪⎩ A + 5 B + 3C = 18 Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the system.606 73. and z be the number of tablets of Z.056 ⎦ 54. [In fact.4 ⎡10 30 20 190 ⎤ R1 ↔ R3 ⎢ > ⎢ 20 10 50 200 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 40 10 10 180 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 3 2 19 ⎤ 1 R 10 1 > ⎢⎢ 2 1 5 20 ⎥⎥ 1 R 10 2 ⎢⎣ 4 1 1 18 ⎥⎦ 1 R 3 10 1.08⎤ ⎡ 15.82 71.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b.06 ⎤ ⎡11. D1D2 = D2 D1 . Thus D1 and ⎡1 0 0 5 ⎤ 9 R +R − 13 3 1 > ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ 6 R +R − 13 3 2 ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 1 ⎥⎦ Thus there should be 5 blocks of A. and 1 block of C suggested.832 −12.

In row 2. 000 ⎥⎥ ⎣⎢ 5 15 10 25 20. 2000 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 2 1 ⎢ > ⎢10 5 30 10 20. The first nonzero entry of row 2 is to the left of the first nonzero entry of row 1. 000 ⎥⎦ 1 R − 12 2 ⎡1 > ⎢ ⎣0 −3R 2 + R1 > 0 4 1 2000 ⎤ 1 −2 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 20 20 10. Reduced. b = 500. c. One specific solution is when r = 250. 000 Problems 6. and d cannot be negative. and d be the number of bags of foods A. 000 ⎥⎦ 6. 000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 5 15 10 25 20. b. 000 ⎥⎦ 3. ⎡ 5 5 10 5 10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ − 4 0 0 12 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ − 15 R 2 2 1 2000 ⎤ −2 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 20 10. and d = 250. ⎢ 1 2 3 ⎥ > ⎢ 1 2 3 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 4 6 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 2 3 ⎤ −R1 + R 2 ⎢ > 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ –2R1 + R 3 ⎢ ⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎥⎦ Letting d = r.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. then a = 750. 000 ⎤ ⎢10 5 30 10 20. hence not reduced. Let a. given the context. and D. 000 ⎪⎩5a + 15b + 10c + 25d = 20.4 1. 1 2000 ⎤ ⎡1 1 2 −10R1 + R 2 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 −5 10 0 0 ⎥⎥ –5R1 + R 3 ⎢⎣ 0 10 0 20 10. hence not reduced.4 3. 4. ⎢ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ ⎢ ⎣ 1 5 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 −3 0 2 ⎥⎦ 1 − R2 ⎡ 1 5 0 2⎤ 3 → ⎯⎯⎯⎯ ⎢0 1 0 − 2 ⎥ 3⎦ ⎣ 16 ⎤ −5R 2 + R1 ⎡ 1 0 0 3⎥ ⎢ ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ → ⎢⎣ 0 1 0 − 23 ⎥⎦ This reduced matrix corresponds to the system ⎧ a − 3d = 0 ⎪ ⎨b + 2d = 1000 ⎪⎩ c + d = 500 ⎡2 4 6⎤ ⎡1 2 3⎤ R1 ↔ R3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 9. the first nonzero entry is in column 2. hence not reduced. Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the system. ⎡1 1 > ⎢⎢ 0 1 ⎢⎣ 0 10 ⎡1 −R 2 + R1 > ⎢⎢ 0 −10R 2 + R 3 ⎢⎣ 0 3⎤ ⎡ 1 3⎤ −4R1 + R 2 ⎡ 1 > ⎢ 7. The first nonzero entry in row 2 is not to the right of the first nonzero entry in row 1. c. hence not reduced. C. The corresponding system is ⎧ 5a + 5b + 10c + 5d = 10. Reduced. 2. c = 250. hence 0 ≤ r ≤ 500. we get the general solution of the system: a = 3r b = –2r + 1000 c = –r + 500 d=r Note that a. 000 ⎦⎥ 1R 5 1 5. The first row consists entirely of zeros and is not below each row containing a nonzero entry. b. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0 0 4 0 2000 ⎤ R3 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 1 −2 0 0 ⎥⎥ 1 1 500 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 −3 −4R 3 + R1 ⎢ > 0 1 0 2 1000 ⎥⎥ 2R 3 + R 2 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 1 500 ⎥⎦ 1 20 3⎤ 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 0 −3 0 2 ⎤ R1 ↔ R 2 ⎡ 1 5 0 2 ⎤ 8. 000 ⎪ ⎨10a + 5b + 30c + 10d = 20. but not all other entries in column 2 are zeros. 197 . respectively. B.

⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 4 0 1 0 0 3 2 1 8 17 8 3 4 1⎤ 2⎥ 3⎥ 8 8 ⎥ 17 27 ⎥ 8 ⎥ − 34 ⎥⎦⎥ 4 0 3 2 ⎡1 ⎢ R3 ⎢0 > ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣⎢ 32 ⎤ 32 0 0 − 17 R + R1 ⎥ 17 4 3 3⎥− R + R2 1 0 17 ⎥ 17 4 27 ⎥ − 27 R 4 + R 3 0 1 17 ⎥ 17 0 0 1⎥⎦ 3⎤ 2⎥ ⎡2 0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 4 ⎡ 1 −6⎤ 6R 2 + R1 ⎢ 1⎥⎥ −32R 2 + R 3 ⎢0 > ⎢ 0 32⎥ −13R 2 + R 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 13⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 4 2 2⎤ ⎥ 1 18 83 ⎥ ⎥ 7 3 6⎥ 2 1 0 ⎥⎦ 0 1 3 2 1 8 0 1 0 3 4 1⎤ 2⎥ 3⎥ 8⎥ 27 ⎥ 17 ⎥ − 34 ⎥⎦⎥ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 3 ⎤ 3⎤ 2⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎥ 12 R1 ⎢ 0 0 2 ⎥ R 2 ↔ R3 > ⎢ > ⎥ 0⎥ 0 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 4 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎢ 1 0 ⎥ −4R 2 + R 4 ⎢ 0 > ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 4 1⎥⎦ 0 −6 ⎤ 1 R 15⎥⎥ 15 2 > 32 ⎥ ⎥ 13⎥⎦ 32 ⎤ 0 0 − 17 ⎥ 3⎥ 1 0 17 ⎥ 27 ⎥ 0 1 17 ⎥ 33 ⎥ 0 0 − 17 ⎥⎦ 2⎤ 3⎥⎥ R1 ↔ R 2 > 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎦⎥ ⎡1 ⎢ −R 2 ⎢0 > ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎤ 2⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 2⎥ 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎢ 1R 2 3> ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 198 3⎤ 2⎥ ⎡1 0 3 ⎤ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 2⎥ ⎢⎣0 4 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 + R1 ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ − > ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1⎥ −R 3 + R 4 ⎢ 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 0 3R 2 3 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦⎥ 0⎤ 1 ⎥⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ .Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra 3⎤ ⎡2 ⎢ 1 −6 ⎥ ⎥ R1 ↔ R 2> 10. ⎢ ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 1 −6 ⎤ –2R1 + R 2 ⎢ 3⎥⎥ –4R1 + R 3 ⎢2 > ⎢ 4 8⎥ −R1 + R 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 7 ⎥⎦ 2 3 1 1 2⎤ 1⎥⎥ 4⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 4 2 2⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 −2R1 + R 2 ⎢ 0 −8 −1 −3⎥ − 8 R 2 > > ⎢0 7 3 6⎥ R1 + R3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 2 1 0 ⎦⎥ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 3 2 3 2 1 1 1⎤ 2 ⎥⎥ R1 ↔ R 2 > 4⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎡1 −4R 2 + R1 ⎢ ⎢ −7 R 2 + R3 ⎢ 0 > −2 R 2 + R 4 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣⎢ ⎡1 ⎢ 1 − 8 R3 + R 2 ⎢0 > ⎢ − 34 R3 + R 4 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ − 23 R3 + R1 ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 − 17 R 33 4 > ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡0 0 ⎢2 0 12. ⎢ ⎢ 4 8⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 7 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎢ 1 11.

y = . ⎢ 2 2 3⎥ → ⎢ 0 8 3⎥ → ⎢0 1 8⎥ → 0 1 8⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 17 ⎥ ⎣⎢ 5 −1 1⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 14 1⎦⎥ ⎣0 14 1⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ From the third row.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. so there is no solution. 3 3 6 6 ⎡ 1 0 13 2 1⎤ ⎡1 3 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 3 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 3 2 →⎢ →⎢ 18. 13 13 ⎡ 1 −3 −11⎤ ⎡ 1 0 − 52 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −3 −11⎤ ⎡ 1 −3 −11⎤ ⎢ ⎥ → → 14. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −2 −4 6 1⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0 1⎦ The last row indicates that 0 = 1. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎢⎣0 1 6 ⎣3 0 2 5 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −6 −1 −7 ⎦ ⎡1 0 4⎤ ⎢ → ⎥ 7 ⎢0 1 ⎥ 6⎦ ⎣ 2 3 1 6 5⎤ 3⎥ 7⎥ 6⎦ . 1z= 7 + y ⎪⎩ 6 6 2 5 1 7 Thus. x = − r + . 2 2 2 2 9⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎡ 1 −3 0 ⎤ 8⎥ ⎡ 1 −3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −3 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 3⎥ ⎢ 19. y = r − . so there is no solution. where r is any real number. which is never true. which is never true. 0 = − 17 . z = r. which is never true. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 3 9 − − 0 1 ⎢0 1 − 3 ⎣1 1 5 10 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −2 3 9 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦ 2 ⎣ Thus x = − 29 ⎤ 2 ⎥ − 92 ⎥⎦ 13 29 3 9 r + . y = − r + . 4 199 . where r is any real number. ⎡1 2 1 ⎡1 2 1 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 1 4 ⎤ →⎢ →⎢ 17. ⎢ →⎢ →⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 −14 ⎥⎦ ⎣12 4 2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 −14 ⎦ The last row indicates 0 = 1. ⎢ ⎣ 1 3 10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 −7 50 ⎥⎦ 10 ⎤ ⎡1 3 3 10 ⎤ ⎡1 →⎢ → ⎢ 30 ⎥ ⎣ 0 −13 30 ⎦⎥ ⎣ 0 1 − 13 ⎦ ⎡ 1 0 220 ⎤ 13 ⎥ →⎢ 30 ⎢⎣ 0 1 − 13 ⎥⎦ 220 30 Thus x = and y = − . 0⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 2 −3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 −3 0 ⎤ 16. 5 15 4⎤ ⎡1 1 4 ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎡1 1 4⎤ ⎡ 3 1 4⎤ ⎡ 3 1 3 3⎥ → ⎢ 3 3⎥ → ⎢ 3 15. z = r. There is no solution.4 ⎡ 2 −7 50 ⎤ ⎡ 1 3 10 ⎤ → 13. ⎧x + 2 z = 5 ⎪ 3 3 which gives ⎨ . ⎢ ⎢ 53 ⎥ → ⎢ 53 ⎥ 0 1 15 9 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 15 53⎦⎥ ⎣4 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎣ 0 1 15 ⎦ 2 53 Thus x = − .

⎢ → ⎢1 1 4 1⎥ ⎢ 0 1 1 2⎥ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣⎢ 2 −3 3 −8⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 −3 −3 −6 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 −3 −3 −6 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 Thus x = –3r – 1. which is never true. y = 2. where r is any real number.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4 9⎤ ⎡ 1 4 9⎤ ⎡ 1 20. x = –3. ⎢⎢ 2 −1 −4 −8⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 ⎢⎣ 1 1 −1 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 ⎡ 1 0 −1 −3⎤ ⎡ 1 0 → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 Thus. There is no solution. z = 0. ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 −2 −1⎥ ⎢ 1 1 −2 −1⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢3 1 1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 1 ⎣⎢ 3 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −2 4⎤ ⎡1 ⎡ 1 0 −2 ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 −5⎥ ⎢ 0 1 0 −5⎥ →⎢ → →⎢ ⎢ 0 −2 0 10 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 7 −12 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 7 −7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 Thus x = 2. y = –r + 2. y = 2. ⎢ 2 −3 −2 4 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −5 0 −10 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 1 −1 −5 23⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −4 16 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡ 1 0 −1 5⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1 5⎤ ⎡ 1 → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 −4 20 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 −5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 Thus x = 0. z = –1. z = –5. 1 −1 7 ⎤ 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ −2 −4 16 ⎥⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ 0 1 −5⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 0 −4 8⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −2 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎢ 1 −2 −2 14 ⎥ ⎢ 1 −2 −2 14 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ 23. z = r. ⎡ 1 −1 −3 −5⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 21. −2 4⎤ 0 10 ⎥⎥ 0 −5 ⎥ ⎥ 7 −12 ⎦⎥ 0 −2 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 0 −5⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 → 0 1 −1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡ 1 0 3 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 3 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 3 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 3 2 11 1⎥ ⎢ 0 2 2 4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 1 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ 24. 200 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2⎤ 0 −5⎥⎥ 1 −1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥⎦ 3 −1⎤ 1 2 ⎥⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 ⎦⎥ . ⎢3 −1 6 ⎥ → ⎢0 −13 −21⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 −1 2 ⎦ ⎣0 −5 −7 ⎦ ⎡ 1 0 33 ⎤ ⎡ 1 4 9⎤ 13 ⎥ ⎢ 21 ⎥ → 0 1 21 → ⎢0 1 13 ⎢ ⎥ 13 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 14 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 13 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 0 33 ⎤ 13 ⎥ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ 21 → ⎢ 0 1 13 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣ The last row indicates that 0 = 1. −3 − 5 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 − 1 − 3 ⎤ 2 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 2 ⎥⎥ 2 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ 0 −3⎤ 0 2 ⎥⎥ 1 0 ⎥⎦ 7⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 1 −1 7 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 −1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 22. y = –5.

x1 = r . Then no.25 y = 78. 000 ⎤ →⎢ .000 and y = 24. ⎧ x + 0. ⎢ ⎢1 1 ⎢⎣1 1 ⎡1 ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡1 ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎣⎢ 0 ⎡1 ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎣⎢ 0 −1 −1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 0 ⎤ −1 −1 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 2 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 1 −1 −1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 2 2 0 0 0 ⎥ 1 1 −1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 2 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ −1 −1 −1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1 −1 −1 0 ⎤ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 2 2 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 0 2 0 0 0⎥ 2 2 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ 0 −1 −1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 −1 −1 0 ⎤ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ 0 2 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ 0 0 −1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎦⎥ Thus. 000 ⎤ ⎡1 0. Let x = federal tax and y = state tax. of units of A to be sold and y = no.000 = 80. so 2500 units of A and 2000 units of B must be sold. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 ⎣ Thus x = 72.25 ⎡1 −1. 27. ⎢ ⎢1 1 ⎢ ⎣⎢1 1 ⎡1 ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 1 −1 −1 −1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 −1 1 −1 1 −1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 → 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0⎤ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎥ 0 0⎥ →⎢ ⎢0 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 → −2 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ −2 2 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 1 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 ⎦⎥ 1 −2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 −1 1 −1 1 0 1 −1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 → 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 1 1 0 0 1 −1 0 ⎤ 1 −1 0 ⎥⎥ 1 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 ⎦⎥ Thus x1 = 0. Then x = 0. x2 = 0.25 y = 0. 29. 000 ⎦ ⎣ 0 21 42. 0.975 23.000 – y) and y = 0. 000 ⎤ ⎡1 0 72.000. of units of B to be sold.000 – x). 200 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0. x4 = 0. Equivalently.000 total cost: 4x + 5y + 7z + 17.25 . and z = number of units of C produced. ⎧ x − 1. x2 = 0. x4 = 0.10 x + y = 31.25(312.000 and the state tax is $24.000.25 78. 200. Let x = number of units of A produced. →⎢ → →⎢ ⎢8 ⎥ ⎥ 11 42. ⎨ ⎩8 x + 11y = 42. x = no.000 201 . 000 ⎨ ⎩0.25 78. so the federal tax is $72. →⎢ → ⎢ 0. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 24. Then x = 1.10(312. 400 ⎦ 1 24.10 ⎥ ⎥ 1 31. y = number of units of B produced. Equivalently. 000. 000 ⎦ 1 2000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 1 2000 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 ⎣ Thus x = 2500 and y = 2000. where r is any number. x3 = 0. 000 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0.000. of units: x + y + z = 11. 28. x3 = 0. 0 ⎤ ⎡1 −1.25 78.25y and 8x + 11y = 42. ⎡1 1 ⎢1 −1 26.25 0 ⎤ 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 2500 ⎤ ⎡1 −1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.4 ⎡1 −1 ⎢1 1 25. and x5 = r .

Considering the unit requirements gives the system ⎧2 x + 1y + 1z = 10 (vitamin A) ⎪ ⎨3x + 3 y + 0 z = 9 (vitamin D) ⎪5 x + 4 y + 1z = 19 (vitamin E) ⎩ 1 ⎡ 2 1 1 10 ⎤ ⎡⎢ 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 3 0 9 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 3 3 ⎢⎣ 5 4 1 19 ⎥⎦ ⎢5 4 ⎣ 5⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 9⎥ → ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 19 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 − 32 − 32 5⎤ ⎥ −6 ⎥ ⎥ −6 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎡1 1 5⎤ ⎡ 1 0 1 7 ⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 −1 −4 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 −1 −4 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎧x = 7 − r ⎪ Thus ⎨ y = r − 4 where r = 4. 000 ⎪ x + 2 y + 3z = 25. 000 ⎤ ⎢ 4 5 7 63. ⎪z = r ⎩ The only solutions for the problem are z = 4. z = 5. a. 000 ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 11. z = 7. and y = 0. 1 of Y.000 = 95y + 18. z = 6. 000 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 3 19. 7 of Z. 1 800 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 800 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 800 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 400⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢90 −95 −2000 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −185 −74. 2 of Y. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 2 14. 000 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 3 19. 000 ⎪ ⎨4 x + 5 y + 7 z = 63. 202 . 4 of Z. 4 of Z costs 15 cents a day. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 0 2000 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −2 −8. Then x + y = 800 and 90x +20. and z = 5000. and 39. 000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 2 3 25. 23. y = number of brand Y pills. 000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 5. 31. 5 of Z.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis total profit: x + 2y + 3z = 25. 000 ⎥⎦ Thus x = 2000. 3 of Y. x = 1. and y = 1. 31. The possible combinations are 3 of X. ⎧ x + y = 800 ⎨ ⎩90 x − 95 y = −2000. x = 0. 30. x = 2. Their respective costs (in cents) are 15. y = 4000. x = 3. and y = 3. so 2000 units of A. 6. Let x = number of desks to be produced at the East Coast plant and y = number of desks to be produced at the West Coast plant. 2 of X. 000 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −2 −8. and y = 2. 5. Equivalently. and z = number of brand Z pills. 1 of X.000. 7. 6 of Z. 000 ⎩ ⎡ 1 1 1 11. b. ⎧ x + y + z = 11. 4000 units of B and 5000 units of C should be produced. Let x = number of brand X pills. 000 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 3 19. 000 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 400 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 400⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ x = 400 and y = 400 Thus the production order is 400 units at the East Coast plant and 400 units at the West Coast plant. 000 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 4000 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 5000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −1 −5.000 Equivalently. The combination 3 of X.

and C.4 The least expensive combination is 3 of X. D. and G. z = 60 Thus. respectively. Let s.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis c. B. Let x. Section 6. 32. 76 units of B. and 60 units of C should be produced. Then ⎧12s + 20d + 32 g = 220 (stock A) ⎪ ⎨16s + 12d + 28 g = 176 (stock B) ⎪8s + 28d + 36 g = 264 (stock C) ⎩ ⎡12 20 32 220 ⎤ ⎢16 12 28 176 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 8 28 36 264 ⎥⎦ ( 14 ) R1> ( 14 ) R2 ( 18 ) R3 ⎡3 5 ⎢ ⎢4 3 ⎢ 7 ⎢⎣ 1 2 8 55⎤ ⎥ 7 44 ⎥ 9 33⎥ ⎥⎦ 2 ⎡ 1 7 9 33⎤ 2 2 ⎥ R1 ↔ R3 ⎢ > ⎢ 4 3 7 44 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 5 8 55⎥⎦ 7 9 ⎡1 33⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ −4R1 + R 2 > ⎢ 0 −11 −11 −88⎥ −3R1 + R3 ⎢ ⎥ 11 11 ⎢⎣ 0 − 2 − 2 −44 ⎥⎦ 1 R − 11 2 7 9 ⎡1 33⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢0 1 1 8⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 11 11 ⎢⎣ 0 − 2 − 2 −44 ⎥⎦ 203 . 7 of Z. 98 units of A. respectively. and g represent the number of units of S. ⎧3x + 1 y + 2 z = 490 (machine I) ⎪ ⎨1x + 2 y + 1z = 310 (machine (II) ⎪2 x + 4 y + 1z = 560 (machine III) ⎩ ⎡ 3 1 2 490 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 1 ⎢ 1 2 1 310 ⎥ → ⎢ 3 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 2 4 1 560 ⎦ ⎣ 2 4 1 ⎡ 1 2 1 310 ⎤ ⎡ 1 → ⎢ 0 −5 −1 −440 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 −1 −60 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎡1 ⎢ → ⎢0 ⎢ 0 ⎣⎢ ⎡1 → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 3 5 1 5 0 −1 0 0 1 0 0 1 310 ⎤ 490 ⎥ ⎥ 560 ⎦ 2 1 310 ⎤ 1 15 88⎥ ⎥ 0 −1 −60 ⎥⎦ 134 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 53 134 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 88⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 15 88⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −60 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 60 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 98⎤ 76 ⎥ ⎥ 60 ⎦ x = 98. y = 76. a. 4 of Z. d. and z be the numbers of units of A. the most expensive is 3 of Y. 33. y.

5 1. 2 2 5 R 22 2 Problems 6. The six possible combinations are given by COMBINATION r 0 1 2 3 4 5 S 5 4 3 2 1 0 D 8 7 6 5 4 3 G 0 1 2 3 4 5 b. where r is any real number. 4400. 2. d = 3. Buying 3 units of Deluxe and 5 units of Gold Star (s = 0. Computing the cost of each combination. y = 4 − 7r. 5. and g = r. z = r (where r is any real number). Write the coefficients matrix and reduce. 4600. ⎢⎢ 2 3 ⎢⎣ 2 1 ⎡1 → ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 204 . respectively. Principles in Practice 6.5 −1 −9 −3⎤ ⎡ 1 1 −1 − 9 3 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 9 − 3⎤ ⎡ 1 1 −1 −9 −3⎤ 2 15 12 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 4 33 18⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 4 33 18⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 4 33 18⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 4 23 14 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 8 56 32 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 7 4 ⎥⎦ 2 5 8⎥⎦ 1 0 −2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 −7 −1⎤ ⎥ 1 0 5 2 ⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 0 5 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣0 0 1 7 4 ⎥⎦ 0 1 7 4 ⎥⎦ Thus w = −1 + 7r. g = 5) minimizes the cost. 4300. ⎡1 1 1. and 4200 dollars. 1. 3. where r = 0. ⎡1 3 4 ⎤ ⎡5 3 4⎤ 1 5 5 ⎢ 6 8 7 ⎥ 5 R1> ⎢⎢ 6 8 7 ⎥⎥ −6R1 + R 2> ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −3R1 + R 3 ⎣⎢ 3 1 2 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 1 2 ⎥⎦ 3 ⎡1 5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 22 5 ⎢ ⎢0 − 4 5 ⎣ 4⎤ 5⎥ 11 ⎥ 5⎥ − 52 ⎥ ⎦ 3 4⎤ ⎡1 ⎡1 0 1 ⎤ 5 5⎥ 3 2⎥ ⎢ − 5 R 2 + R1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 > 0 > 0 1 2⎥ 2⎥ 4 R + R ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 2 3 ⎢0 − 4 − 2 ⎥ 5 ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 5 5⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ The system has infinitely many solutions since there are two nonzero rows in the reduced coefficient matrix.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 0 1 5 ⎤ − 27 R 2 + R1 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 1 1 8 ⎥⎥ 11 R + R 3 2 2 ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ Thus s = 5 – r. 4500. x = 2 − 5r. d = 8 – r. 4. we find that they are 4700. 1 x+ z =0 2 1 y+ z =0 2 1 1 Let z = r. so x = − r and y = − r .

y = r. z = s (where r and s are any real numbers). x = r – 3s. ⎢ 1 −5 2 15 −10 ⎥ → ⎢ 2 1 10 15 −5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 9⎦ 9⎦ ⎣ 1 1 6 12 ⎣ 1 1 6 12 15 −10 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −5 2 ⎡ 1 −5 2 15 −10 ⎤ ⎢ 6 15 ⎥ 1 11 − 15 → ⎢ 0 11 6 −15 15⎥ → 0 11 11 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 6 4 −3 19 ⎦ ⎣⎢0 6 4 −3 19 ⎦⎥ 90 − 35 ⎤ 90 − 35 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 52 ⎡ 1 0 52 11 11 ⎥ 11 11 11 ⎥ 11 ⎢ ⎢ 15 6 − 15 15 → 0 1 6 − 15 → ⎢ 0 1 11 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 11 11 11 11 11 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 57 119 ⎥ 8 57 119 ⎢⎣ 0 0 11 ⎢⎣0 0 1 8 8 ⎥⎦ 11 11 ⎥⎦ 51 147 ⎡1 0 0 − − 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 27 → ⎢ 0 1 0 − 21 − ⎥ 4 4 ⎢ ⎥ 57 119 ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 8 8 ⎥⎦ 57 119 51 147 21 27 . y = r. x = –r + 4. w = –r – 2s + 1. w = –2r + s – 2. y=− r+ Thus.5 1 10 15 −5⎤ ⎡2 ⎡ 1 −5 2 15 −10 ⎤ 2. w = –s. z = s (where r and s are any real numbers). x= r− . x = –3r – 4s + 2. 0 1 2 1⎤ 1 −1 3 0 ⎥⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ 2⎤ 2⎤ ⎡ 1 1 3 −1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 3 −1 ⎡ 1 1 3 −1 ⎡1 ⎢ 2 1 5 −2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 −1 0 −4 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢0 1 1 0 4⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 5. y = r.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. . ⎢ ⎢ 1 −3 4 −7 1⎥ ⎢0 −4 4 −12 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −4 4 −12 0 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 −1 3 0 ⎥⎦ 1 −1 3 0 ⎥⎦ 1 −1 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎢⎣0 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 Thus. ⎢ 2 −1 3 −2 −8⎥ → ⎢ 0 −3 −3 0 −12 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −3 −3 0 −12 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3 2 8 −3 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 −1 0 −4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 −1 0 −4 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 1 0 2 −1 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 −1 0 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 −1 0 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 Thus. w = r − 8 8 2 2 4 4 ⎡ 1 − 1 −1 − 1 − 2 ⎤ ⎡ 3 −1 −3 −1 −2 ⎤ 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 2 −2 −6 −6 −4 ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 6 6 4⎥ − − − − ⎥→ 3. z = s (where r and s are any real numbers). z = r (where r is any real number). 205 0 2 −1 −2 ⎤ 1 1 0 4 ⎥⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ . ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 −1 −3 −2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 −1 −3 −2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 3 7 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 ⎢⎣ 3 1 3 7 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1 −1 − 1 − 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 − 1 −1 − 1 − 2 ⎤ 3 3 3⎥ ⎡ 1 0 0 1 0⎤ 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 1 3 4 2⎥ 16 8 4 ⎢0 − −4 − 3 − 3 ⎥ ⎢0 1 3 4 2⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥→⎢ →⎢ → ⎥ 1 −1 − 4 − 2 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 − 1 −1 − 4 − 2 ⎥ − 0 ⎢ 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎦⎥ 2 6 8 4 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 2 6 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 Thus. 5 1⎤ 5 1⎤ 5 1⎤ ⎡1 1 0 ⎡1 1 0 ⎡1 1 0 ⎡1 ⎢ 1 0 1 2 1⎥ ⎢0 −1 1 −3 0 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 3 0 − ⎥→⎢ ⎥ →⎢ ⎥ → ⎢0 4.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2 4⎤ 2 4⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 2 4⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 ⎡1 1 1 ⎡1 ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 1 2 2 7 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 0 −2 −1⎥ 1 0 2 1⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ 6. Number of unknowns is n = 2. x2 = − r − 2 s + t + 4. 206 . s. 9. x3 = r . w = –r + 3. x1 = −2r + s − 2t + 1. 5⎤ 5⎤ ⎡ 3 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 5⎤ ⎡1 ⎡1 ⎡1 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎥ = A 11. x4 = s. ⎢ →⎢ ⎥ 1 5 0 3 6⎦ 1 5 0 3 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣2 ⎣2 1 5 0 3 6⎤ ⎡2 ⎡2 1 5 0 3 6⎤ →⎢ →⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ 0 −5 −5 −10 5 −20 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 1 2 −1 4 ⎦ ⎡ 2 0 4 −2 4 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 2 −1 2 1⎤ →⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 1 1 2 −1 4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 1 2 −1 4 ⎦ Thus. and t are any real numbers). z = s (where r and s are any real numbers). ⎢ 1 5⎥ → ⎢ 3 −4 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −19 ⎥ → ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 4 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −21⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −21⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎥⎦ A has k = 2 nonzero rows. so there are infinitely many solutions. The system is homogeneous with fewer equations than unknowns (2 < 4). Thus k = n. 7 7 7 7 3 1 4 3 1 4 1 −2 0 1 −2 0 −3 8 7 0 −3 −2 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 x3 = 1 12 7 32 7 15 7 16 7 20 15 − r. 10. 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 3⎤ 0 2 1⎥⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 4 −3 5 −10 11 −8⎤ ⎡ 0 −5 −5 −10 5 −20 ⎤ 7. 7 7 1⎤ 3 ⎡1 0 ⎢0 1 1 0 ⎥⎥ →⎢ ⎢ 0 0 −1 8⎥ ⎥ ⎢ −3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 −2 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 38 ⎥ ⎢0 1 0 7 ⎥ →⎢ 20 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 7 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 0 19 ⎥ 7 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 19 16 x4 = − r . Thus k < n. The system is homogeneous with fewer equations than unknowns (2 < 3). Number of unknowns is n = 3. ⎢ ⎢ 2 −2 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 1 → 3 10 15 10 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ 3 −2 2 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 ⎡1 1 4 1⎤ ⎡1 0 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 1 −2 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0⎥ ⎢ → →⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1 −4 −7 −8⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 −7 −16 −19 ⎥⎦ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 72 33 18 17 Thus x1 = − + r . y = r. 3 ⎡ 3 6⎤ ⎡1 3 6 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 3⎤ 3 12 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 6 ⎤ ⎢ 1 2 ⎡2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ → ⎢0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 2 ⎥⎥ = A 12. so the system has the trivial solution only. x = –2s + 1. ⎡1 0 ⎢0 1 8. ⎢ 3 −2 5⎥ → ⎢ 3 −2 5⎥ → ⎢ 0 − 13 1 2 13 − 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 14 ⎦⎥ ⎢ 4 1 14 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −5 −10 ⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ A has k = 2 nonzero rows. x5 = t (where r. x2 = − r . and 7 7 1⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 4 7 8⎥ ⎥ 1 −2 −3⎥⎦ ⎤ − 72 0 − 33 7 7 ⎥ 17 18 ⎥ 0 7 7⎥ 15 20 ⎥ 0 7 7 ⎥ 16 19 ⎥ 1 7 7 ⎦⎥ 1 4 −2 0 x5 = r . ⎢ 1 2 1 4 5⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 2 1⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 2 1⎥ → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3 −2 3 −4 7 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −5 0 −10 −5⎥ ⎢ 0 −5 0 −10 −5⎥ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 4 −3 4 −6 9 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −7 0 −14 −7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −7 0 −14 −7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 Thus. so there are infinitely many solutions. where r is any real number. so the system has infinitely many solutions.

z = r.5 ⎡1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ 1 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 ⎥⎥ = A 13. 2 6⎤ ⎡1 0 5⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 1 − 8 ⎥ 15 ⎦ ⎣ 6 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 6 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 6 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 →⎢ 17.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. ⎢ 3 −4 ⎥ → ⎢0 −7 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣5 −8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −13⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −13⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0⎥⎦ The solution is x = 0. y = r. 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 1 ⎢ 0 −7 −14 ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥→⎢ 21. y = 0. y = –2r. 0 −1⎤ 1 2 ⎥⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥⎦ 207 . Number of unknowns is n = 3. 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎡1 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎥ 19. Thus k = n. y = r . ⎢ 1 2 −1⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎣ 1 1 1⎦ ⎣ 1 1 1⎦ ⎣ 0 −5 −1⎦ ⎣0 0 −11⎦ ⎣ 0 0 ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ The solution is x = 0. ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡1 15. so the system has the trivial solution only. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥→⎢ 8⎥→ ⎣ 2 −3 4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −15 8⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 1 − 15 ⎦⎥ 6 8 The solution is x = − r . ⎢⎢1 0 −1⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 −1 −2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 ⎢⎣1 −2 −5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −3 −6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −3 −6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ A has k = 2 nonzero rows. Number of unknowns is n = 3. z = r. z = 0. so the system has infinitely many solutions. Thus k < n. ⎢⎢ 2 2 −2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 2 2 −2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 23 − 23 ⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 −1⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = A ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 5⎦⎥ 5⎥ ⎢ 0 −4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 1⎦⎥ 5 ⎣⎢ 0 −4 ⎣⎢ 0 0 1⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 −4 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ A has k = 3 nonzero rows. ⎢ → → ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0⎥ 8 20 − 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 5 The solution is x = r . 3⎤ ⎡ 1 0 3⎤ ⎡ 2 −3 1⎤ ⎡ 0 −5 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎡ 1 0 1⎤ 1 −2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 −2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 − 2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 − 2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ 20. ⎢ → ⎢ 0 −2 −4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 −4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 The solution is x = r. 5 15 7⎤ ⎡ 1 7 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 4 7 ⎤ ⎡ 1 74 ⎤ ⎡⎢ 1 4⎥ 4⎥ → →⎢ →⎢ 18. ⎢ ⎥→ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2 3 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 − 12 ⎥⎦ The solution is x = 0. 1⎤ ⎡1 0⎤ → 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 − 5 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −5⎤ ⎡ 2 −5⎤ 2⎥ 16. ⎢ →⎢ →⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣3 −4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −7 ⎦ ⎣0 The solution is x = 0. y = 0. ⎡1 2 − 2 ⎤ ⎡1 2 − 2⎤ 3 3⎥ ⎡ 3 2 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0⎤ 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 14. y = 0. y = 0.

5⎤ ⎡57 ⎤ ⎡15 ⎤ ⎡ O ⎤ = = −0.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 7⎤ 7 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎡ 1 1 7⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎡1 1 ⎢ 1 −1 −1⎥ ⎢ 0 −2 −8⎥ ⎢0 1 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ 22.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣84 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣18⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ R ⎥⎦ 1. z = s. y = –4r. ⎢ ⎢2 1 ⎢ − 1 3 ⎣⎢ 0 3⎤ 1 4 ⎥⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥⎦ 4⎤ 4⎤ 4⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎡1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 5⎥ 0 0 −1 1⎥ 0 −1 1 −4 ⎥⎥ →⎢ →⎢ ⎢0 −1 1 −4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 −1 3 4⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 −9 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 −4 1 −13⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 −4 1 −13⎦⎥ 1 0 4⎤ ⎡ 1 0 2 0⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 1 1 ⎢0 1 −1 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 1 −1 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 →⎢ → → ⎢ 0 0 −1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 0 −1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 −4 1 −13⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 −3 3⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 The solution is w = –2r.5⎤ ⎡ 65⎤ ⎡ 5 ⎤ ⎡ E ⎤ ⎢ 1 −0.5⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ 1. Principles in Practice 6.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣82 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 20 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ T ⎥⎦ 1.” 208 2⎤ 3⎥⎥ 0 1 −1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎦⎥ 0 0 1 0 0 1 5⎤ 1 1 2 ⎥⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ .5⎤ ⎡ 61⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ A ⎤ = = −0. x = –r – 2s. ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 4 ⎦ ⎣ 1 −0.5⎤ ⎡ 76 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ A ⎤ ⎢ 1 −0. x = –3r. they are inverses. → → →⎢ ⎢ 1 2 3 9⎥ ⎢0 ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 2 −3 −1 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −5 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −5 −5 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 The solution is w = –r – 5s. ⎢ → ⎢ 2 −3 −6 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −5 −20 ⎥ ⎢0 −5 −20 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 3 1 13⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −2 −8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 The solution is x = –3r.6 ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡ −2 1.5⎤ ⎡59 ⎤ ⎡14 ⎤ ⎡ N ⎤ = = −0.5⎤ ⎡ 28⎤ ⎡13⎤ ⎡ M ⎤ 2. y = r. 0⎤ ⎡1 ⎥ ⎢0 4⎥ →⎢ ⎢0 0 1 −1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 −3 3⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 2 1 −1 7⎤ ⎡ 1 1 2 7⎤ ⎡ 1 1 2 7⎤ ⎡1 1 2 ⎡1 ⎢ 1 −2 −1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 −3 −3 −6 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 24. ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 −0. y = r. ⎡ −2 1.5⎤ ⎡ 60 ⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎤ ⎡ F ⎤ = = −0. z = r.5⎥ ⎢90 ⎥ = ⎢ 20 ⎥ = ⎢ T ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ ⎡ −2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ ⎡ −2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ ⎡ −2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ ⎡ −2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ 1.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣34 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ D ⎥⎦ ⎡ −2 1.5⎦ ⎣ 46 ⎦ ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎣ E ⎦ ⎡ −2 1. ⎡1 1 ⎢1 1 23.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣86 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣14 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ N ⎥⎦ 1.5⎥ ⎢102 ⎥ = ⎢ 25⎥ = ⎢ Y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The message is “MEET AT NOON FRIDAY. z = r.5⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ Yes.5⎤ ⎡ 21⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎤ ⎡ I ⎤ = = −0.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣88 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣15⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ O ⎥⎦ 1.

Let x be the number of shares of A. and z be the number of shares of C.15(20y) + 0. x – 2z = 0 Simplify the third equation. ⎡⎣ E I ⎤⎦ = ⎢⎢ 2 2 2 0 ⎢⎣ 2 1 3 0 ⎡2 2 2 R1 ↔ R 2 ⎢ > ⎢3 1 2 ⎢⎣ 2 1 3 Section 6.6y – 1.4y + 9.10(80z) = 0.6z 0.000 Simplify the second equation.000 x = 2z 0. x – 2z = 0 5x + 6y – 16z = 0 5x + 2y + 8z = 50.5x + 3y + 8z = 6x + 2.000 ⎡ 1 0 −2 ⎤ The coefficient matrix is A = ⎢⎢5 6 −16 ⎥⎥ . ⎢⎣5 2 8⎥⎦ 1 ⎡1 1 1 0 0⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢0 1 −1 0 1 −1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 0⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −1 1 − 2 ⎦ 2 ⎡1 0 0 3 ⎢ −2R 3 + R1 ⎢ > 0 1 0 − 13 ⎢ R3 + R 2 ⎢0 0 1 − 1 3 ⎣ 1 ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0⎤ 2 2 ⎥ 2R 2 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 1 0 −3 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 0 −2 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 0 1 2 −1 0 ⎤ − 12 R 2 + R1 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 1 0 −3 2 0 ⎥⎥ −R 2 + R3 ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 −2 1⎥⎦ F does not reduce to I so F is not invertible.13(50x) + 0. 1 0⎤ ⎡1 1 1 0 2 ⎢ ⎥ −3R1 + R 2 ⎢ > 0 −2 −1 1 − 32 0 ⎥ ⎥ −2R1 + R3 ⎢ ⎢0 −1 1 0 −1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −R 2 1 2 1 2 − 13 ⎤ ⎥ − 13 ⎥ ⎥ 2⎥ 3⎦ − 13 ⎤ ⎥ − 13 ⎥ ⎥ 2⎥ 3⎦ 2 1 0 0⎤ 3 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ 4 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 0 −2 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡⎣ A I ⎤⎦ = ⎢⎢5 6 −16 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣5 2 8 0 0 1⎥⎦ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −2 −5R1 + R 2 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 6 −6 −5 1 0 ⎥⎥ 5 − R1 + R3 ⎢⎣ 0 2 18 −5 0 1⎥⎦ 209 .12(50x + 20y + 80z) Simplify the first equation.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡3 1 2 1 3. we solve the following system of equations. 6. We get the following equations from the given conditions. 50x + 20y + 80z = 500. 5x + 2y + 8z = 50. y be the number of shares of B.6z = 0 5x + 6y – 16z = 0 Thus.5x + 0.6 0 0⎤ 1 0 ⎥⎥ 0 1 ⎥⎦ 0 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢ 3 2 3 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4 3 4 0 0 1⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ 1R 2 1 ⎡1 ⎢ −3R1 + R 2 ⎢ > 0 −4R1 + R3 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ ⎡1 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢3 1 2 1 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 1 3 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ 1 2 1R 2 1 1 0⎤ ⎡1 1 1 0 2 ⎢ ⎥ R 2 ↔ R3 > ⎢ 0 −1 1 0 −1 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −1 1 − 2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 2 0 − 1 1⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ −R 2 + R1 > ⎢ 0 1 −1 0 1 −1⎥ 2R 2 + R 3 ⎢ 1 −2 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −3 1 ⎥⎦ 2 ⎡1 0 2 0 − 12 1⎤ ⎥ − 13 R3 ⎢ > ⎢0 1 −1 0 1 −1⎥ ⎢ 1 1 2⎥ ⎢⎣0 0 1 − 3 − 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 ⎢ 3 E−1 = ⎢ − 13 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 3 ⎡2 ⎡⎣ F I ⎤⎦ = ⎢⎢ 3 ⎢⎣ 4 − 16 5 6 − 16 1 2 3 − 16 5 6 1 −6 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎥ −2 0 1⎥ ⎦ 1 2 − 32 4.

000 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2500 ⎥⎦ 1 1 ⎥ − − 60 20 ⎣ 6 ⎦ They should buy 5000 shares of Company A.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ⎡ 1 0 −2 ⎢ > ⎢ 0 1 −1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 18 ⎡1 0 ⎢ −2 R 2 + R 3 ⎢ > 0 1 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎢⎣ ⎡ 1 0 −2 1 R ⎢ 20 3 > ⎢ 0 1 −1 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎣ 1R 6 2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 0 0⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 6 ⎥ −5 0 1⎦ − 56 −2 1 −1 − 56 20 − 10 3 1 0 − 56 − 16 1 6 1 − 60 2 − 1 ⎡1 0 0 3 30 ⎢ 2R3 + R1 ⎢ 3 > 0 1 0 −1 20 R3 + R 2 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 − 1 − 1 6 60 ⎣ ⎡ 2 − 1 30 ⎢ 3 −1 ⎢ 3 A = −1 20 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 60 ⎣ 6 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0⎥ 6 ⎥ − 13 1⎥⎥ ⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥ 20 ⎦ 1⎤ 10 ⎥ 1 ⎥ 20 ⎥ 1 ⎥ 20 ⎦ 1⎤ 10 ⎥ 1 ⎥ 20 ⎥ 1 ⎥ 20 ⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ 2 − 1 30 10 ⎥ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ 5000 ⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 2500 ⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ = ⎢ −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 20 20 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢⎣50. ⎣ 7 −6 ⎦ 1 1 ⎡1 2 ⎡ 2 4 1 0 ⎤ ⎡⎢1 2 2 0 ⎤⎥ 2 ⎢ 2. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎣ 7 1 0 1 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 7 1 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 6 ⎥→⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 − 6 1 6 1 6 7 −6 0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ 0 −1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1 1⎤ ⎡1 →⎢ ⎥→ 1 0 − 6 − 76 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 7 −6 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎦ ⎡ −1 1⎤ The inverse is ⎢ ⎥. 2500 shares of Company B. ⎢ → → ⎣ 3 6 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 2 0 13 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 − 12 The given matrix is not invertible. Problems 6. 0⎤ ⎥ 1 ⎥ 3⎦ ⎡ 2 2 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 2 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 12 0 ⎤ → →⎢ 3.6 ⎡ 6 1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 16 1. 210 . and 2500 shares of Company C. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 2 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 0 −1 1⎦ The given matrix is not invertible.

211 . ⎢⎢ −1 4 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ −1 4 0 ⎢⎣ 2 1 0 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎢ 2 1 0 ⎣ 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 1 2 ⎡ 1 0 4 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 0 4 1 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ → 0 4 4 2 1 0 → 0 1 1 18 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 −8 −1 0 1⎥ ⎢0 1 −8 −1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢ → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ ⎡1 ⎢ → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 4 1 1 0 −9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 4 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 1 4 ⎥ ⎢ 1 − 4 1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎦ 1 2 1 8 9 −8 0 − 19 2 0 9 1 18 1 36 ⎡0 − 1 9 ⎢ 2 ⎢ The inverse is 0 9 ⎢ 1 ⎢1 ⎣ 8 36 1 2 1 8 1 8 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0⎥ 4 ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 1 4 1 36 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ − 19 ⎥ ⎦ 4⎤ 9⎥ 1⎥ 9⎥ − 19 ⎥ ⎦ 4⎤ 9⎥ 1⎥ 9⎥ 1 − 9⎥ ⎦ .6 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 3 4 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 4 9⎤ 2 ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 0 −6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 1 0 −6 ⎦ ⎦ ⎡4 9⎤ The inverse is ⎢ ⎥.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3 ⎡1 4 8 ⎢ 4. ⎣ 0 −6 ⎦ ⎡ 0 ⎡ 1 0 0 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ 1 0 0 1 5. ⎢⎢ 0 −3 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 0 − 13 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣0 0 1 0 ⎡1 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢ The inverse is 0 − 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎣ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 4⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ . ⎢0 − 1 6 ⎣ Section 6. ⎥ 1⎥ 4⎦ ⎡ 2 0 8 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡⎢ 1 0 4 6.

B ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ ≠ I. ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎣0 0 ⎡ 1 2 −1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 −1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 4 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ 12.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 2 3 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 2 3 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 7. − 15 ⎥ 1⎥ 15 ⎦ 212 − 15 1 5 1 5 3⎤ 5⎥ 4⎥ − 15 ⎥ 1⎥ 15 ⎦ . ⎡1 0 0 ⎡2 0 0 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ 8. ⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡0 0 0⎤ 10. ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ Thus the matrix is not invertible. The matrix is not square. ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣⎢ 0 0 −4 0 0 1 ⎦⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎣ The given matrix is not invertible. For any 3 × 3 matrix B. ⎢ 0 0 4 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 0 1 0 14 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 5 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 0 5 0 0 1 ⎦ ⎡ 1 2 0 1 − 3 0⎤ 4 ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ → 0 0 1 0 0 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 − 5 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ The given matrix is not invertible. so it is not invertible. ⎡1 2 3 1 11. 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 − 14 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ 1 2 0 9. ⎢ 0 1 2 0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 0 ⎡1 0 0 → ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1 1 −2 0 ⎤ 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 2 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1 0 0 1⎦ −2 1⎤ 1 −2 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 The inverse is ⎢ 0 1 −2 ⎥ . ⎢ 0 1 4 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢0 ⎢⎣ 1 −1 2 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −3 3 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 2 ⎡1 0 0 1 −2 0 ⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 0 −9 1 −2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −9 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 4 → ⎢⎢ 0 1 4 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 4 0 1 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 15 ⎢ 1 1 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 15 −1 3 1⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 − 1 1 − 15 ⎢⎣ 5 15 ⎥⎦ 15 ⎣ ⎡ 2 ⎢ 5 4 The inverse is ⎢ 15 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 15 − 15 1 5 1 5 3⎤ 5⎥ 4 ⎥.

⎢⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ −3 0 ⎥ 1 0 0 1⎦ 1 ⎢⎣ −3 0 ⎡1 0 − 2 7 ⎢ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢⎣ 0 0 7 ⎡1 The inverse is ⎢⎢ 0 ⎣⎢ 3 1 7 0 3 7 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 2⎤ 1 0 ⎥⎥ . 0 7 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 2 3 −1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 14. ⎢⎢ 1 2 1 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 1 1 ⎢⎣ −1 −1 3 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 3 1 0 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 2 → ⎢⎢ 0 1 4 0 1 1⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 −1 −3 1 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 1 7 1 0 2⎤ ⎡1 0 0 1 0 2 ⎤ ⎥ 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ 3 0 1⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 1 3 0 7 ⎦⎥ ⎥⎦ 7 0 0 1 7 1 0 1 −3 0 0 −1 1 0 2 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 2 −1⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 1 0⎤ ⎡1 2 1 1⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 ⎢⎣0 0 −1 1⎥⎦ 1 0 1 −4 0 −1 −3 1 − 2 0 −1 2 0 −4 1 5 1 −1 0⎤ −1⎥⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 7 −8 5⎤ −3⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 −4 5 −3⎥⎥ 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 1 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 7 −8 5⎤ The inverse is ⎢⎢ −4 5 −3⎥⎥ . 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −1 1 −2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 213 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 −1 −2 ⎥ 1 −2 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎦ ⎦⎥ 5⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 3 3⎥ ⎢ 10 4 ⎢ The inverse is −1 − 3 ⎥.6 ⎡ 1 0 −2 ⎡ 7 0 −2 1 0 0 ⎤ 7 ⎢ 0 13. ⎢⎢ 4 −1 5 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 4 −1 ⎢⎣ 1 −1 2 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 −1 2 0 0 ⎢ ⎢ → ⎢ 0 3 −3 0 1 −4 ⎥⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 3 −4 1 0 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1⎤ 1 0 ⎥⎥ 0 1 0 0 ⎥⎦ −1 2 0 0 2 0 0 5 0 1 −1 0 3 −4 1 3 1 0 ⎡1 0 1 0 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 1 0 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ → ⎢ 0 1 −1 0 13 − 43 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 −1 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 −1 1 −1 ⎢0 0 1 −1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 1 3 1 3 1 1⎤ ⎥ − 43 ⎥ ⎥ −2 ⎦ 5⎤ ⎡1 0 0 1 − 2 − 13 ⎤ 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 10 4 4 ⎢ ⎥ − 3 → 0 1 0 −1 − 3 ⎥. ⎢⎣ 1 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 1 0 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 15.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ −1 2 −3 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 3 1 0 0 1 0⎥ → ⎢2 1 0 16. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 8 −6 5⎦ ⎡1 2 3 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 3 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 17. ⎢1 3 5 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 −1 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 5 12 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 3 9 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 11 −3 ⎡ 1 0 −1 3 −2 0 ⎤ 3 3⎥ ⎡ 1 0 −1 3 −2 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 7 2 → ⎢ 0 1 2 −1 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 2 −1 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 − 3 3 − 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 1 2 −1 1⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎣⎢ 0 0 3 2 −3 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 3 −1 3 ⎥⎦ 3 3⎦ ⎣ 1⎤ ⎡ 11 −3 3⎥ ⎢ 3 The inverse is ⎢ − 73 3 − 23 ⎥ . ⎢⎢ 0 2 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 2 ⎢⎣ 2 1 1 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 3 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 − 1 ⎡1 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 1 0 0 12 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 2 −2 −1 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡1 0 3 2 ⎢ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎣ 1 2 0 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 0 0⎤ 1 0 ⎥⎥ −2 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 3 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 −2 −1 −1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 3 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 − 14 − 12 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 −2 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎡− 1 − 1 2 ⎢ 4 1 The inverse is ⎢ 0 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 1 2 ⎣ 2 3⎤ 4⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ − 12 ⎥ ⎦ 3⎤ 4⎥ 0⎥ . ⎥ − 12 ⎥ ⎦ 214 . ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 4 2 5 0 0 1 4 2 5 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 1 − 2 ⎡ 3 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −2 1 → ⎢ 0 5 −6 2 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 6 7 4 0 1 − ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 6 3 1 2 ⎡1 0 ⎡1 0 −5 0⎤ 5 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 6 2 1 → ⎢0 1 − 5 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 5 5 ⎢ ⎢ 8 − 6 1⎥ 1 0 0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎥⎦ 5 5 5 ⎣⎢ ⎡ 1 0 0 −5 4 −3⎤ → ⎢ 0 1 0 10 −7 6 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 1 8 −6 5 ⎦ −1 0 0 3 6 −5 0 0⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ −1 0 0 ⎤ 2 1 0⎥ 5 5 ⎥ −7 4 0 1⎦⎥ 3 5 − 65 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 8 −6 5⎥ ⎦ − 15 1 2 5 2 5 1 5 ⎡ −5 4 −3⎤ The inverse is ⎢ 10 −7 6 ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎢ 2 −1 3⎦ ⎣ 3 ⎡ 2 −1 3 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −1 18.

y = r. The method of reduction yields ⎡ 2 6 8⎤ ⎡ 1 3 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1 3 4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥. y = −1 ⎣ −1⎦ 0⎤ ⎡ 1 3 ⎥→⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 13 1 3 1 3 1 2 2 − 1 3 4 3 0⎤ 3 −2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 3 −2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎥ →⎢ ⎥→⎢ 1 4 − 0 1 ⎥ − 0 1 4 3⎥⎦ 1 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 3 ⎦ ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ 3 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 26 ⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎤ −1 = ⇒ x = 4. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 5 ⎣ −1 3 0 1⎦ ⎢⎣ −1 3 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎡3 ⎡ x⎤ −1 ⎢ 10 = = A B ⎢ y⎥ ⎢1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 10 1 2 1 2 ⎡1 0 3 0⎤ 10 ⎥→⎢ ⎢0 1 1 1⎥⎦ 10 ⎣ 23 ⎤ − 52 ⎤ ⎡ 5⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ x = 23 . The method of reduction yields ⎡ 2 6 2 ⎤ ⎡1 3 1 ⎤ ⎡1 3 1 ⎤ ⎢ 3 9 3 ⎥ → ⎢ 3 9 3⎥ → ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ . 215 . y = −20 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 2 ⎡ 2 4 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 12 0 ⎤ →⎢ 22.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6. so there is no solution. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎣ 4 3 0 1 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 3 0⎤ ⎥ − 12 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ x = 2. x3 = 16 ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣16 ⎥⎦ 1⎤ ⎡6 5 1 0⎤ ⎡1 1 0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 0 ⎡ 1 1 0 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 1 −5⎤ 21. y = 7 ⎢ y ⎥ = A B = ⎢ −4 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣37 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 25.6 ⎡x ⎤ ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎡10 ⎤ 19. x2 = 20 ⎣8 1 ⎦ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎣ 20⎦ ⎣ x2 ⎦ ⎡ 1 0 1 ⎤ ⎡10 ⎤ ⎡ 9 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ −1 20. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. 26. y = 1 1 ⎥ −2 1 ⎥ 10 10 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ 10 5⎦ ⎦ 1 0⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎡ 1 1 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 1 ⎡3 1 1 0 ⎤ 3 3 3 3 3 23. ⎢ →⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎣3 −1 0 1⎦⎥ ⎢⎣0 1 ⎣3 −1 0 1⎦ ⎣ 0 −2 −1 1⎦ 1⎤ ⎡1 0 1 6 6⎥ →⎢ 1 1 ⎢⎣ 0 1 2 − 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 ⎡x⎤ −1 ⎢6 = = A B ⎣⎢ y ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 12 − 52 ⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ 5⎦ 1⎤ 6 ⎥ ⎡5 ⎤ 1 − 2 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢7 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 3 2 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 23 24. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. which is never true. ⎣ 3 9 7 ⎦ ⎣3 9 7 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 −5⎦ Second row indicates 0 = −5. x2 = 6. X = ⎢ ⎥ = A B = ⎢⎢ 0 3 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 6 ⎥⎥ ⇒ x1 = 9. ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 6 5 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −1 1 −6 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 −1 6 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 −1 6 ⎥ 1 1 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ x 1 − 5 2 17 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ −1 ⎢ y ⎥ = A B = ⎢ −1 6 ⎥ ⎢ −3⎥ = ⎢ −20⎥ ⇒ x = 17. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Thus x = –3r + 1. X = ⎢ 1 ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ x1 = 10.

x = 0. ⎢⎢1 −1 1 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 −2 0 −1 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 −1 −1 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −2 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎡1 1 1 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 12 − 12 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 1⎦ ⎢ 0 0 −2 ⎣ 0 −2 −2 −1 ⎣ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎣ 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 −2 1 2 ⎡1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 − 12 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ −1 1⎥ ⎦ 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 −2 0 1⎤ 2⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ − 12 ⎥⎦ − 12 1 2 0 1⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡1 0 2 ⎥ ⎡ 6 ⎤ ⎢ 5⎥ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢2 ⎢ y ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢⎢ −1⎥⎥ = ⎢ 72 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢ − 5 ⎥ ⎢0 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 2⎦ 7 5 Thus.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 2 1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 2 27. y = 1. z = 2. x = 5. z = − . ⎢⎢3 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 −6 −2 −3 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 −1 1 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −3 0 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 1 ⎡1 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎡1 2 1 1 3 3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎢ → ⎢0 1 3 2 − 6 0⎥ → 0 1 3 2 − 6 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 1 − 1 0 1⎦ ⎣ 0 −3 0 −1 2 2 ⎣ ⎡1 0 0 − 1 6 ⎢ 1 → ⎢0 1 0 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 0 1 2 ⎣ 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎥⎦ − 13 ⎤ ⎥ 0 − 13 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 1⎥⎦ 1 2 1 − 1⎤ ⎡− 1 2 3 ⎥ ⎡ 4⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ 6 ⎢ y ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢1 ⎥ 0 − ⎢ ⎥ 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 ⎣ 2 Thus. y = . 2 2 ⎡1 1 1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 29. ⎢1 −1 1 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 −2 0 −1 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 −1 −1 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −2 −1 0 1⎥⎦ 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎡1 1 1 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 12 − 12 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 1⎦ ⎢ 0 0 −2 ⎣ 0 −2 −2 −1 ⎣ 1 2 1 2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ −1 1⎥ ⎦ 1 2 − 12 216 . ⎡1 1 1 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0⎤ 28.

x = 0. x = 1. 1 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 1 1 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −2 −2 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −2 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ Thus. x = 1. The method of reduction yields 7⎤ ⎡ 1 3 3 7⎤ ⎡1 3 3 7 ⎤ ⎡1 3 3 ⎡1 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ 2 1 1 4 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −5 −5 −10 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ . 2 2 ⎡ 2 0 8 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −4 0 30. The coefficient matrix is not invertible.6 ⎡1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 − 12 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 1⎤ 2⎥ 0 − 12 0 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ − 12 ⎥⎦ 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎡ ⎤ 0 2 ⎥ ⎡ 2⎤ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢2 ⎢ y ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢⎢ 1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢0 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎣2⎦ 1 1 Thus. z = 1. y = 9. 217 4⎤ 9⎥ 1⎥ 9⎥ − 19 ⎥ ⎦ . 32. z = r. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. z = . ⎢⎢ −1 4 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 2 0 8 ⎢⎣ 2 1 0 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 1 0 ⎡ 1 −4 ⎡ 1 −4 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢0 8 8 1 2 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 9 0 0 2 1⎥⎦ ⎣0 9 0 −1 0 ⎤ 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 0 1⎥⎦ 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎥ 1 18 14 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 2 1⎦ 0 1 ⎡1 0 4 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 4 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 1 → ⎢0 1 1 8 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 −9 − 9 − 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ 8 4 4⎤ ⎡0 − 1 9 9 ⎥ ⎡ 8 ⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎡ x⎤ ⎢ ⎢ y ⎥ A −1B = ⎢ 0 2 1 ⎥ ⎢36 ⎥ = ⎢9 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 9 9 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎢1 − 9 ⎥ ⎣ 9 ⎦ ⎣1 ⎦ ⎣ 8 36 ⎦ Thus. which is never true. y = –r + 2. 1 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 1 1 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −2 −2 −3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 −2 −3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ The third row indicates that 0 = 1. so there is no solution. y = .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 0 1 ⎢ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎣ 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 − 12 1 2 Section 6. 1 2 1 8 1 8 0 1 4 1 36 ⎡1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 0⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 − 19 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 − 19 2 0 9 1 8 1 36 31. The method of reduction yields 7⎤ ⎡ 1 3 3 7⎤ ⎡1 3 3 7 ⎤ ⎡1 3 3 ⎡1 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ 2 1 1 4 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −5 −5 −10 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ .

218 1 2 1 −4 1 3 − 23 − 16 7 12 1 3 1 3 1 −6 5 − 12 0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 2 ⎦⎥ . z = 7. w = 1. ⎢ ⎢2 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 2 ⎡1 ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2 1 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎡1 0 2 ⎢ 0 −1 −2 0 2 0 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ →⎢ ⎢ 0 1 −4 0 1 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 −1 ⎡1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎢0 1 ⎥ 1 2 −1 1 −1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ →⎢ 0 0 0 −6 0 −3 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 −5 2 −3 2 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 −1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 −2 1 4 1 −4 1 2 − 14 ⎡ 1 ⎡ w⎤ ⎢ 4 ⎢x⎥ ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 4 ⎢ y⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢− 1 ⎢⎣ 4 1 1 0 0 0⎤ 1 −1 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ −1 −2 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 −1 0 0 1⎥⎦ 2 1 1 0 0 0⎤ 2 −1 1 −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ 1 0 12 − 16 − 16 0 ⎥ ⎥ −5 2 −3 2 0 1⎥⎦ 1 3 − 23 − 16 7 6 1 3 1 3 1 −6 − 56 ⎡1 0 0⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 1 0⎥ ⎥ →⎢ ⎢0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1⎥⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ − 14 3 4 1 − 12 − 16 5 − 12 − 12 ⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ 2⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 2 ⎥⎦ 1 − 12 − 16 7 12 − 14 1 − 12 − 16 7 12 3 4 1 − 12 − 16 5 − 12 0 1 0 0 −1 0 1 0 0 1 − 12 ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ 4 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ 1⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎢12 ⎥ ⎢ 3⎥ = 0 ⎥ ⎢12 ⎥ ⎢ −2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣12 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 7 ⎥⎦ 2 ⎥⎦ Thus.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ⎡1 0 ⎢ 1 −1 33. x = 3. y = –2.

6 1 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 → 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ 0⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢ 0 →⎢ − 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 −1 − 12 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢0 ⎥ 0 2 ⎥→⎢ ⎢0 −1 − 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦ 0 ⎡ 1 1 −1 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎢0 1 1 ⎥ 1 0 1 0 0⎥ ⎢ →⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 −1 0 2 −1 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 1 −1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 1 1 0 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ 1 1 − 12 1 − 12 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1 2 − 12 1 0 12 ⎥⎥⎦ −1 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 1 1 0 0 1 − 2 − 2⎥ ⎥ 1 0 − 12 1 −1 − 12 ⎥ ⎥ 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 ⎥⎦ 0 0 0 1 − 32 − 12 ⎤ ⎥ 1 0 1 ⎥ 0 0 0 2 2 ⎥ 1 0 − 12 1 −1 − 12 ⎥ ⎥ 1 1⎥ 0 1 0 0 2 2 ⎥⎦ 1 0 0 ⎡ 0 1 − 3 − 1⎤ 2 2 ⎥ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎡ w⎤ ⎢ 1 ⎢x⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 2 ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ y⎥ ⎢ − 1 1 −1 − 1 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ ⎢ −2 ⎥ 2⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢⎣ 2 2 ⎥⎦ Thus. x = 1. z = 1. y = −2. (I − A)−1 = ⎢ 16 ⎢⎣ 6 − 13 ⎤ ⎥. ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡5 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −4 2⎤ 35. ⎢ ⎢ −1 1 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 −1 −1 ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ →⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ →⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ ⎡1 ⎢ ⎢0 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 1 −1 ⎥ ⎢0 1 0 1 0 0⎥ 1 1 →⎢ ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 0 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 0 1 −1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 −1 −1 1 2 1 −2 0 0 1 2 −1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 − 12 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 −2 0 1 2 1 0 1 −1 0 0 Section 6.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 1 1 −1 ⎢ 0 1 1 34. I − A = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 2 ⎦ ⎣ −1 −1⎦ ⎡ −4 2 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1 −1 0 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 0 −1⎤ ⎢⎣ −1 −1 0 1⎥⎦ → ⎢⎣ −4 2 1 0 ⎥⎦ → ⎢⎣ −4 2 1 0 ⎥⎦ → ⎢⎣ 0 6 1 −4⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 − 16 − 13 ⎤ ⎥ →⎢ 1 2⎥ → ⎢ 1 −2 ⎥ ⎣ 0 1 6 − 3 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 6 3⎦ ⎡− 1 Thus. − 23 ⎥⎦ 219 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 −2 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ 2 ⎦⎥ . w = −2.

⎣14 10 ⎦ 7 ⎡10 7 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 10 ⎢14 10 0 1⎥ → ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣14 10 ⎡1 →⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 7 10 1 5 1 10 − 75 0⎤ ⎡1 ⎥→⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 0 1⎥⎦ 1 10 ⎡1 0 0⎤ 5 − 72 ⎤ ⎥ →⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 −7 5⎥⎦ 1 −7 5⎥⎦ 7 10 1 10 ⎡ 5 − 7 ⎤ ⎡ 800 ⎤ ⎡ 45⎤ ⎡ x⎤ −1 ⎡ 800 ⎤ 2⎥ A = = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ 5⎦⎥ ⎣1130 ⎦ ⎣50 ⎦ ⎣ y⎦ ⎣1130 ⎦ ⎣⎢ −7 Thus 45 of model A and 50 of model B can be produced. b.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −3 2 ⎤ ⎡ 4 −2 ⎤ 36. ⎢⎣ 2 1⎥⎦ 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 0⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎡ 1 1 1 0⎤ ⎡ 1 0 2 −2 ⎤ →⎢ ⎢1 ⎥→⎢ ⎥ →⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 1 1 ⎣ 0 1 −1 2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 −1 2 ⎦ ⎣⎢ 2 1 0 1 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 2 − 2 1⎥⎦ ⎡ x⎤ −1 ⎡100 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −2 ⎤ ⎡100 ⎤ ⎡ 40 ⎤ ⎢ y ⎥ = A ⎢ 80 ⎥ = ⎢ −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ 80 ⎥ = ⎢ 60 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Thus 40 of model A and 60 of model B can be produced. a. The system is (widgets) ⎧10 x + 7 y = 800 ⎨ x y (shims) 14 + 10 = 1130 ⎩ ⎡10 7 ⎤ Let A = ⎢ ⎥. I − A = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 4 3⎦ ⎣ −4 −2 ⎦ ⎡ 4 −2 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 − 12 14 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ −4 −2 0 1⎥ → ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ −4 −2 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡1 − 1 2 →⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 −4 1 ⎡1 − 1 0⎤ 2 4 ⎢ ⎥→ 1 ⎢0 − 1 1 1⎥⎦ 4 ⎣ 1 4 ⎡ 1 8 Thus (I − A) −1 = ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 4 1 ⎡1 0 0⎤ 8 ⎥ →⎢ 1 1 ⎢0 1 − − 4 ⎦⎥ 4 ⎣ − 18 ⎤ ⎥ − 14 ⎥⎦ − 18 ⎤ ⎥ − 14 ⎥⎦ 37. ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 1 b 0 0⎤ a 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎥⎡ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 b 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = I ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 c ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ c⎦ 220 . The system is ⎧⎪ x + y = 100 (painting) ⎨1 ⎪⎩ 2 x + y = 80 (polishing) ⎡ 1 1⎤ Let A = ⎢ 1 ⎥ . Let x = number of model A and y = number of model B. ⎡1 ⎢a 38.

7z = 8. Let x be the number of shares of D.000 Simplify the second equation.000 0. From Part (a). A −1 4⎤⎡3 5⎥⎢5 3⎥ ⎢4 5⎦ ⎣5 − 54 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎥= = I.6 −1 IB = B −1B = I Since an invertible matrix has exactly one inverse. Yes. y be the number of shares of E. (B −1 −1 A ) (AB) = B ( A A ) B = B −1 −1 Section 6.6y + 2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 39. ⎡ 3 5 41. a. 9.09(30z) = 0. ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 2 ⎤ ⎡ 4 6 ⎤ ( AB)−1 = B −1A −1 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣3 4 ⎦ ⎣ 7 10 ⎦ ⎡1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎤ 2⎥ T −1 ⎢ . so P T = P −1 . b. Left side: A T = ⎢ A We find that ( ) . and z be the number of shares of F.6x + 9. 6x + 8y + 3z = 50.208x + 10. Right side: A −1 = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ .344y – 1.16(60x) + 0. so ( A −1 )T = ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎣⎢ − 2 2 ⎦⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ Thus ( A T )−1 = ( A −1 )T .1368(60x + 80y + 30z) z = 4y Simplify the first equation. = ⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣0 2 ⎦ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 −2 ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎥.392x – 1.12(80y) + 0.404z = 0 1392x – 1344y – 1404z = 0 116x – 112y – 117z = 0 221 . B −1A −1 is the inverse of AB. 40. We get the following equations.944y + 4. a. 43. Just say no. P is orthogonal. P T P = ⎢ ⎢− 4 ⎣ 5 42.104z 1. 60x + 80y + 30z = 500. 3 ⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5⎦ ⎡ 14 −2 9 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ −6 1 −4 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 14 −2 9 ⎤ R1A = [33 87 70] ⎢⎢ −6 1 −4 ⎥⎥ = [10 21 19] ⎢⎣ 1 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 14 −2 9 ⎤ R 2 A −1 = [57 133 20] ⎢⎢ −6 1 −4 ⎥⎥ = [ 20 19 1] ⎢⎣ 1 0 1⎥⎦ ⎡ 14 −2 9 ⎤ −1 R 3 A = [38 90 33] ⎢⎢ −6 1 −4 ⎥⎥ = [ 25 14 15] ⎢⎣ 1 0 1⎥⎦ −1 b.

6y + 2. 6x + 8y + 3z = 50.7z = 8. 9.888x – 2.356z 0. 6x + 8x + 3z = 50.016y – 1. 000 ⎤ ⎡ 5000 ⎤ ⎢ y⎥ = ⎢ 1 − 3 ⎥ = ⎢1000 ⎥ 21 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2900 116 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ 2 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4000 ⎥⎦ 3 8 ⎥ − 725 − 29 ⎥ ⎣⎢ 25 ⎦ They should buy 5000 shares of company D. ⎢⎣ 0 2 −1⎥⎦ 8 3 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎡⎣ A I ⎤⎦ = ⎢⎢111 −252 −207 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 2 −1 0 0 1⎥⎦ 4 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 3 2 6 ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢111 −252 −207 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 −1 0 0 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎦ 1R 6 1 4 ⎤ 29 ⎥ 21 ⎥ 116 ⎥ 8 ⎥ − 29 ⎦⎥ 4 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 3 2 6 ⎢ ⎥ −111R1 + R 2 ⎢ 525 37 > 0 −400 − 2 − 2 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 2 0 0 1⎥ −1 ⎣ ⎦ 3 ⎤ − 29 ⎥ 21 ⎥ 116 ⎥ 8 ⎥ − 29 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 4 3 1 R ⎢ − 400 2 > ⎢0 1 ⎢ − 12 R3 ⎢0 −1 ⎣ 222 1 2 21 32 1 2 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0⎥ − 400 ⎥ 0 0 − 12 ⎥ ⎦ 1 6 37 800 0 .000 Simplify the second equation. 44.000 0. We get the following conditions.000 111x – 252y – 207z = 0 2y – z = 0 8 3⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎢ The coefficient matrix is A = ⎢111 −252 −207 ⎥⎥ . ⎢⎣ 0 4 −1⎥⎦ ⎡ 6 8 3 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡⎣ A I ⎤⎦ = ⎢116 −112 −117 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ 4 ⎣ 4 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 3 2 6 ⎢ ⎥ > ⎢116 −112 −117 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −1 0 0 1⎥ 4 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎦ 1R 6 1 4 1 1 0 0⎤ ⎡1 3 2 6 ⎢ ⎥ −116R1 + R 2 ⎢ 800 58 > 0 − 3 −175 − 3 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 4 −1 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 3 R ⎢ − 800 2 > ⎢0 ⎢ − 14 R3 ⎢0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢ R 2 + R3 ⎢ > 0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢⎣ ⎡1 4 3 32 R ⎢ 29 3 ⎢ > 0 1 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎢⎣ 0⎤ ⎥ 3 1 − 800 0⎥ ⎥ −1 0 0 − 14 ⎥ ⎦ 4 1 1 ⎤ 0 0 3 2 6 ⎥ 29 3 21 ⎥ 1 32 − 0 400 800 ⎥ 29 29 3 1 0 32 400 − 800 − 4 ⎥⎥ ⎦ 1 1 0 0⎤ 2 6 ⎥ 29 3 21 ⎥ − 0 32 400 800 ⎥ 3 8 ⎥ 2 − 725 − 29 1 25 ⎦⎥ − 12 R 3 + R1 > 21 R + R − 32 3 2 ⎡1 4 0 3 ⎢ ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢⎣ 4 3 1 2 21 32 1 4 ⎡1 0 0 − 43 R 2 + R1 ⎢ > ⎢0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢⎣ 1 6 29 400 19 150 1 50 2 25 1 10 1 50 2 25 0 3 1450 3 − 2900 3 − 725 1 290 3 − 2900 3 − 725 3 ⎤ 1 ⎡1 − 29 290 ⎡ x ⎤ ⎢ 10 ⎥ ⎡50. and 4000 shares of company F. 4y – z = 0 Thus we solve the following system of equations.09(30z) = 0. y be the number of shares of E. 6x + 8y + 3z = 50.6x + 9.1452(60x + 80y + 30z) z = 2y Simplify the first equation.616y + 4.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Simplify the third equation.16(60x) + 0.656z = 0 888x – 2016y – 1656z = 0 111x – 252y – 207z = 0 Simplify the third equation. 2y – z = 0 Thus we solve the following system of equations. 1000 shares of company E. and z be the number of shares of F. 60x + 80y + 30z = 500.12(80y) + 0.000 116x – 112y – 117z = 0 4y – z = 0 8 3⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎢ The coefficient matrix is A = ⎢116 −112 −117 ⎥⎥ .712x + 11. Let x be the number of shares of D.

33 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 −0.59 −1.5 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 7. A = ⎢ ⎢ 120 ⎣ 200 105 ⎤ 82 ⎥ 70 ⎥ 41 ⎦ a.7 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −1.03 0.03⎥ 9 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢8⎥=⎢ 49.06 −0.5⎤ X = (I − A)−1 D = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1125 ⎦ ⎡ −0.44. and 2000 shares of company F.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −2.28⎤ ⎢ 0.73 1. x = 0.33 Problems 6.07 0.75 −1. a. z = –2.02 0. y = –1.7 −1 1 1 ⎡1 4 0 0⎤ 3 2 6 ⎢ ⎥ R 2 + R3 ⎢ 37 21 1 ⎥ > 0 1 32 − 0 800 400 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 37 37 − 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 32 800 400 2 ⎦⎥ 1 1 ⎡1 4 0 0⎤ 3 2 6 32 R ⎢ ⎥ 37 3 37 21 1 ⎥ > ⎢ 0 1 32 − 0 800 400 ⎢ ⎥ 16 ⎥ 1 2 ⎢0 0 − − 1 ⎢⎣ 25 925 37 ⎥⎦ 8 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 4 0 11 3 75 925 37 ⎥ 1 ⎢ − 2 R 3 + R1 1 1 21 ⎥ > ⎢0 1 0 50 − 925 74 ⎥ 21 R + R ⎢ − 32 3 2 ⎢0 0 1 1 − 2 − 16 ⎥ 25 925 37 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 3 −4. a.70 ⎥⎦ x = 4.48 1.7 7 6 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 3 − 37 25 2775 4 ⎢ ⎥ − 3 R 2 + R1 1 1 21 ⎥ > ⎢0 1 0 50 − 925 74 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 1 − 2 − 16 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 25 925 37 ⎦⎥ 3 7 6 ⎡ − 37 ⎤ 50. 1000 shares of company E.43 0. ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢ 9 ⎥ ⎢ −0. 45.44 ⎤ ⎡ w⎤ ⎢ 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ 5 − 2 −4 −1⎥ ⎢ 7 ⎥ ⎢ 0.4 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 4.80 ⎥ ⎢ y⎥ ⎢0 1 − 94 6⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎢⎢ 10.22 0. b.78.70 −1 1 − 3⎤ ⎡2 14 4 2 7 ⎥ ⎡ 13 ⎤ ⎡ 14. ⎢ −0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.03.80.8 −0. A = ⎢ ⎢ 400 ⎣ 1200 ⎡ 600 ⎤ D=⎢ ⎥ ⎣805 ⎦ ⎡1290 ⎤ X = (I − A)−1 D = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1425⎦ The total value of other production costs is 600 800 PA + PB = (1290) + (1425) = 1405 1200 1500 ⎡ 2. z = 10.22 ⎦ 223 . 39 ⎤ − 323 ⎥ 15 ⎥ 323 ⎥ 4 ⎥ 323 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 64 ⎤ D=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 64 ⎦ ⎡ 220 ⎤ X = (I − A) −1 D = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 280 ⎦ ⎡ 2. 18 323 11 646 23 323 120 ⎤ 300 ⎥ 90 ⎥ 300 ⎦ ⎡ 200 ⎤ D=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 300 ⎦ ⎡812.9 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 48. 000 ⎡ x ⎤ ⎢ 25 2775 ⎤ ⎡ 6000 ⎤ ⎥⎡ ⎢ y⎥ = ⎢ 1 − 1 ⎥ = ⎢1000 ⎥ 21 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 925 74 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2000 ⎥⎦ 16 2 ⎥ − 925 − 37 ⎥ ⎣⎢ 25 ⎦ They should buy 6000 shares of company D.71⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 84 ⎢ 41 ⎢ 30 ⎣ 41 ⎡ 40 200 2.00 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −1.32 2.33. b.7 ⎤ ⎡ 13 ⎤ ⎡ 4. ⎢ y ⎥ = ⎢ 2 −0.05 1.10 0.12 ⎤ ⎢ 0. y = –0.05⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ −0. 46.01⎥⎦ ⎡ − 11 ⎢ 323 ⎢ 83 ⎢ 646 ⎢ − 32 ⎢⎣ 323 500 ⎤ 1500 ⎥ 200 ⎥ 1500 ⎦ b.33⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎦ ⎥ 1 0 4 − 3 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎢ 2 ⎦ w = 14.78 ⎤ ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 0. ⎡ 200 1200 1.11 ⎤ 47.13 0.

200 1000 400 1000 100 1000 200 ⎤ 1000 ⎥ 100 ⎥ 1000 ⎥ 300 ⎥ 1000 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 300 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢ 350 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 450 ⎥⎦ 1 1⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ 10 3 4 ⎥ 1 1 1 9.70 ⎤ . A = ⎢ 1000 ⎢ ⎢ 300 ⎣⎢ 1000 400 800 80 800 160 800 −1 3⎤ ⎡1 4⎥ 8.59 ⎤ X = (I − A) D = ⎢⎢ 84. results in ⎢ ⎣ 0 1 852.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ⎡ 15 ⎢ 100 25 3.70 units of agriculture and 852.04 ⎥⎦ −1 200 1000 400 1000 100 1000 200 ⎤ 1000 ⎥ 100 ⎥ 1000 ⎥ 300 ⎥ 1000 ⎥⎦ ⎡1382 ⎤ X = (I − A) D = ⎢⎢1344 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1301⎥⎦ 240 ⎤ 1200 ⎥ 480 ⎥ 1200 ⎥ 240 ⎥ 1200 ⎦⎥ ⎡500 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢150 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 700 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 400 ⎢ 1000 200 5.25 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 234. A = ⎢ 1000 1000 ⎢ ⎢ 200 100 ⎢⎣ 1000 1000 ⎡ 300 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢ 400 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 500 ⎥⎦ ⎡10 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢10 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣10 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 68. A = ⎢ 1000 ⎢ ⎢ 200 ⎣⎢ 1000 200 ⎤ 1000 ⎥ 100 ⎥ 1000 ⎥ 300 ⎥ 1000 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 250 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢ 300 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 350 ⎥⎦ ⎡15 ⎤ D = ⎢⎢10 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣35⎥⎦ ⎡134.17 units of milling need to be produced. A = ⎢ 1000 ⎢ ⎢ 200 ⎣⎢ 1000 ⎡1073⎤ X = (I − A)−1 D = ⎢⎢1016 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 952 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 400 200 ⎢ 1000 1000 200 400 7.50 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣108. A = ⎢ 10 ⎥ 10 3 ⎢1 1 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 10 10 10 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 300 ⎤ D = ⎢ 200 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 500 ⎦ ⎡1301⎤ X = (I − A)−1 D = ⎢⎢1215⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1188⎥⎦ (I − A)X = D 224 . A = ⎢ 31 ⎢⎣ 4 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡300 ⎤ D=⎢ ⎣500 ⎥⎦ (I − A)X = D ⎡ 2 − 3 300 ⎤ 4 ⎥ with a calculator Reducing ⎢ 13 1 500 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ − 4 ⎡ 1 0 1408.35⎥⎦ b.17 ⎥⎦ Thus 1408. A = ⎢ 100 ⎢ ⎢ 50 ⎣⎢ 100 a. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 45 ⎤ 180 ⎥ 60 ⎥ 180 ⎥ 60 ⎥ 180 ⎦⎥ 30 120 30 120 40 120 ⎡ 400 ⎢ 1000 200 6.29 ⎤ X = (I − A) −1 D = ⎢⎢162.69 ⎥⎦ −1 ⎡ 100 ⎢ 1000 100 4.81 ⎤ X = (I − A) D = ⎢⎢1112. ⎡1559.44 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1738.

96 units of railroad services need to be produced. ⎢ − = ⎜ ⎟= ⎣ −1 3⎥⎦ ⎝ ⎢⎣ 7 6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4 4 ⎥⎦ ⎠ ⎢⎣ −1 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣3 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 8 11⎥⎦ ⎡ 0 −5⎤ ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ ⎪⎧ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 −10 ⎤ ⎪⎫ 6. 10 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ 9 1 ⎣ 0 0 1 699.29 units of steel. and 699.96 ⎦ ⎢⎣ − 10 − 10 10 500 ⎥⎦ Thus 736. A(2I ) − AOT = 2( AI ) − AO = 2 A − O = 2 A = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ −2 4 ⎦ 225 . (2 A)T − 3I 2 = 2A T − 3I = 2 ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 3⎦ ⎡ 2 −2 ⎤ ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1 −2 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ 1⎥⎦ ⎣ 2 4⎦ ⎣0 3⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎡ 2 2⎤ 10. ⎢⎢ 2 −3⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 6 1⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎢⎣ 1 + 0 0 + 0 −2 + 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 0 −2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 3⎤ 4.39 ⎤ ⎢ 10 ⎥ 9 1 1 − − 200 Reducing ⎢ 10 ⎥ with a calculator results in ⎢ 0 1 0 563. 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ −5 1⎦ ⎣ 2 4 ⎦ ⎣ −10 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 12⎦ ⎣ −16 −10 ⎦ ⎡1 2⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 8 16 ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 6 16⎤ −2⎢ 2.29 ⎥ . ⎨ ⎬ ⎢3 6 ⎥ ⎢1 3⎥ ⎢1 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 3⎥ = ⎢1 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 9 ⎥ = ⎢1 22⎥ 3⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 −1⎤ ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ 9. [2 3 7] ⎢⎢ 0 −1⎥⎥ = [2(2) + 3(0) + 7(5) ⎢⎣ 5 2 ⎥⎦ 2(3) + 3(−1) + 7(2)] = [39 17] ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎛ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 8⎤ ⎞ ⎡ 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 −5⎤ ⎡11 −4⎤ 5.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 6 Review ⎡ 9 − 13 − 14 300 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 736. Chapter 6 Review Problems 8⎤ ⎡ 3 4⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 6 8⎤ ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 3 − 3⎢ =⎢ −⎢ =⎢ 1. 2 ⎢ = 2⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ [ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎣3 ⎣ 6 −5⎦ ⎣ −2 ⎦ ⎣16 ⎦ ⎣32 ⎦ 2 T 2 ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 4 ⎤ ⎡1 4 ⎤ 1 ⎡3 0 ⎤ ⎧⎪ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎫⎪ = 8.39 units of coal. − ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ + 2 ⎢ 6 −4 ⎥ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎢7 8 ⎥ + ⎢12 −8⎥ ⎬ 7 8 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ ⎣ ⎩⎪ ⎣ ⎡ 2 −10 ⎤ ⎡ −2 10 ⎤ = −⎢ = 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −19 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣19 2 ⎡ 1 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −5 −4 ⎤ ⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 3⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎤ T 1 −2] = 2 ⎢ 7. 563. 8 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥=⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣7 0 ⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎣56 0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 2 ⎦ ⎣56 −2⎦ 5⎤ ⎡ 1 7⎤ ⎡ 1 + 0 0 + 42 −2 + 7 ⎤ ⎡ 1 42 ⎡ 1 0 −2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 2 −18 −7 ⎥ = 2 + 0 0 − 18 − 4 − 3 3.

Thus x = 1. 2 + x 2 = 3 is true. z = r. y = r − 1 . or x = 1 For these values of x and y. or y = –1 1 + 3x = 4. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎣0 5 9⎦ ⎣0 0 7 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 ⎡2 4 7⎤ ⎡1 2 17. and 4 + xy = 3 is true. ⎢ 1 2 4 ⎥ → ⎢ 2 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 5 8 2⎦ ⎣5 8 ⎡ 1 2 4⎤ ⎡1 → ⎢0 1 9 ⎥ → ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 −1⎦ ⎣0 9⎤ 5⎥ ⎡0 1 0⎤ →⎢ ⎥ 1⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 0 1⎦ 4⎤ 4⎤ ⎡1 2 ⎡1 2 7 ⎥ → ⎢0 0 −1⎥ → ⎢0 −2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎦ ⎣0 −2 −18⎦ ⎣0 0 0 −14 ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −14 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 9⎥ → ⎢0 1 9⎥ → ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −1⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0 1⎦ ⎣ 0 4⎤ −18⎥ ⎥ −1⎦ 0 0⎤ 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ ⎡0 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0 ⎤ 18. ( ABA)T − A T BT A T = A T B T A T − A T B T A T = O = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 0⎦ ⎡ 5 x ⎤ ⎡15⎤ 13. 4 ⎤ ⎡1 4⎤ ⎡1 4 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎡1 0 ⎤ →⎢ →⎢ →⎢ 15. 7 · 3 = y. B3 + I 5 = ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢0 1 ⎥ = ⎢0 8 ⎥ + ⎢0 1⎥ = ⎢ 0 9⎥ 0 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡0 0⎤ 12. 3x = 3. ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 −5 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 −5 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 − 52 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ →⎢ 19. 2y = –2. or y = 21 ⎡ 2 + x 2 1 + 3 x ⎤ ⎡3 4 ⎤ 14. ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣7 x ⎦ ⎣ y ⎦ 5x = 15. 3 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 0 ⎡ 1 −1 3⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 2 3⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 2 4 ⎢ 20.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3 5 ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ 11. y = –1. or x = 3 7x = y. y = 0. ⎢ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ ⎥→⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ 4 3 0⎦ ⎣ 0 13 0 ⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 Thus x = 0. 4 4 226 2⎤ ⎥ −1⎥⎦ . ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 + xy 2 + 3 y ⎦⎥ ⎣3 y ⎦ 2 + 3y = y. ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 4 −5 −4 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 − 5 −1⎥ → ⎢ 5 3 1 1 5 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 1 − 4 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 4 3 5 Thus x = − r + 2 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣5 8 ⎦ ⎣0 −12 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦ ⎡0 0 7 ⎤ ⎡0 5 9 ⎤ ⎡0 1 →⎢ 16.

⎢ 1 1 2 −3⎥ → ⎢0 2 3 −4 ⎥ → 0 1 32 −2 → ⎢0 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 ⎢⎣0 2 4 −9 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 2 0 2 −7 ⎦ ⎣0 2 4 −9 ⎦ ⎢⎣ −1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 32 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −2 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 0 11 ⎥ 2 1 −5⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 −5⎥⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 1 2 3 2 3 11 Thus x = . z = −5. ⎢ −5 2 1 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 2 1 1 1 0 ⎥ → 0 1 2 2 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ −5 1 3 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 1 3 1 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 1 3 1 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎡1 0 0 1 ⎤ 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 5 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 − 1 ⎥ ⇒ A −1 = ⎢ 2 3 − 1 ⎥. ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎣3 9 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 −6 −3 1⎦ 5⎤ 5⎤ ⎡1 0 − 3 ⎡− 3 2 6⎥ 2 6⎥ →⎢ ⇒ A −1 = ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 2 6⎦ 6⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 2 1 1 2 0⎤ ⎥ − 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 0 1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 1 ⎤ −1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎤ 24. ⎢⎢ 3 −2 −4 −7 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢0 −5 −10 −10 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 2 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 1 2 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 −1 −2 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −3 −6 ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 6 ⎥⎦ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −3 −6 0 ⎥⎦ Row three indicates that 0 = 6. so there is no solution. ⎢ 4 1 0 0 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 −11 8 −4 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 −2 2 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −11 8 −3 0 1⎥⎦ 0 0⎤ 3 −2 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 3 −2 1 ⎡1 ⎢ 0 −11 8 −4 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 − 8 4 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 11 11 11 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 −1 1⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 0 − 0 1 1 1 ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 1 ⎡1 0 − 11 0⎤ 11 11 ⎢ ⎥ 8 4 − 1 0 ⎥ ⇒ no inverse exists → ⎢ 0 1 − 11 11 11 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 1 −1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 0 0 1 0 0⎤ 5 ⎡ 5 0 0 1 0 0⎤ ⎡5 0 0 1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎢ 26. 2 2 ⎡1 5 1 0⎤ ⎡1 5 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 5 →⎢ →⎢ 23. ⎡1 0 ⎡ 1 −1 −1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 −1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 −1 1⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 22. 1 0 ⎥ → ⎢0 1 0 2 → ⎢ 0 1 12 12 2 5 5 5⎥ 5 5⎥ ⎢ ⎢5 ⎢ ⎥ 2⎥ 2⎥ ⎢0 0 1 1 − 1 ⎢1 − 1 ⎢ 0 0 5 1 − 1 1⎥ 2 2 2 5 5 5⎦ 5 5⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣5 227 . which is never true. ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⇒ A = ⎢1 0 ⎥ 1 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 −2 1 0 0⎤ ⎡ 1 3 −2 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 6 Review 1⎤ 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 1 2 1⎤ ⎡1 1 2 ⎡1 1 ⎡ 1 0 0 −1⎤ 21. y = .

We found A −1 in Exercise 26. ⎡2 0⎤ 30. so A1000 = O. z = 0. A T = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 4⎦ 1 −1 ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ T ⎢ ⎥ = A ⎢0 1⎥ 4⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 1 0⎤ ⎥ A −1 = ⎢ 2 ⎢0 1⎥ 4⎦ ⎣ 1 0⎤ ⎡ T ⎥ A −1 = ⎢ 2 ⎢0 1⎥ 4⎦ ⎣ ( ) ( ) Thus ( A T )−1 = ( A −1 )T . y = 1.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 3 1 4 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 27. since there ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 0 1⎦ is no way to get a nonzero entry in the first column. 28. ⎢⎢1 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ → ⎢⎢ 3 1 ⎢⎣ 0 2 1 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 2 1 0⎤ ⎡1 0 1 0 ⎡1 ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 1 1 −3 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢ 0 ⎢⎣ 0 2 1 0 0 1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 0 1 0⎤ 4 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ 1 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ 0 1 0 1 0⎤ 1 1 1 −3 0 ⎥⎥ 0 −1 −2 6 1⎥⎦ 1 0⎤ ⎡1 0 1 0 ⎡ 1 0 0 −2 7 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ → ⎢ 0 1 1 1 −3 0 ⎥ → ⎢⎢0 1 0 −1 3 1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 2 −6 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 2 −6 −1⎥⎦ ⎡ x⎤ ⎡ −2 7 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ y ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ −1 3 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 −6 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ Thus x = 0. A = AA = ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 ⎡0 0 1⎤ ⎡0 A3 = A 2 A = ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣0 0 0 ⎦ ⎣0 2 1 1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 1⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0⎦ ⎣0 1 1⎤ ⎡ 0 0 1⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 1⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎦ 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ = O ⎥ 0 0⎦ Since A3 = O. ⎡0 1 1 1 0 0⎤ Looking at ⎢ 0 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ . it is clear that there is no way of transforming the left side into I3 . every higher power of A is also O. so ⎡3⎤ ⎡1 0 0⎤ 3 ⎡ x⎤ ⎢5 ⎥⎡ ⎤ ⎢5⎥ ⎢ y ⎥ = A −1B = ⎢ 2 3 − 1 ⎥ ⎢0⎥ = ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 5 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢5⎥ ⎢5 ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ 2 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 7 ⎥ ⎢1 − 1 ⎢⎣ 5 ⎥⎦ 5 5⎦ ⎣5 ⎡ 0 1 1⎤ ⎡ 0 29. 228 . Thus A does not have an inverse.

4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣15.4 5. where r = 0. ⎢⎢ y ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 3. IA = I. 2. 71. y = 0. B = C. respectively. 1. A −1A B = A −1A C . and 65 cents. II. y. (A ) −1 = A −1 ( ) (A A) A = (A ) ( A A ) A = A IA = A A = I 3 A 3 = A −1 −1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 ( ) IA 2 = A −1 2 A2 −1 Thus A3 is invertible. IB = IC. A = I.8⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −0. ⎡ 10 34 35. Then (vitamin A) ⎧ x + y + 4 z = 13 ⎪ (vitamin B) + 2 + 7 = 22 x y z ⎨ ⎪ x + 3 y + 10 z = 31 (vitamin C) ⎩ ⎡1 1 4 13⎤ ⎢1 2 7 22 ⎥ − R1 + R 2> ⎢ ⎥ −R + R 1 3 ⎢⎣1 3 10 31⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 0 1 4⎤ −R 2 + R1 > ⎢ 0 1 3 9 ⎥⎥ −2R 2 + R 3 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 1 1 4 13⎤ ⎢0 1 3 9⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 2 6 18⎥⎦ Thus x = 4 – r. z = −0. 3.57.95. a. y = 9 – 3r.30 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 4.7 ⎤ ⎡11. and z = r. and III. 32. c.9 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −0.2 −7. X = (I − A) −1 D = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣5⎦ ⎣ 35. and z represent the weekly doses of capsules of brand I. respectively. we find that they are 83.30. Chapter 6 Review Let x.8 −7.1⎤ ⎡ 1.9 −4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 31.95⎥⎦ Thus x = 1. Thus A −1 ( AB) = A −1 ( AC) .5 −6. 14 ⎥ 39 ⎦ ⎡10 ⎤ ⎡39. Thus A = I n . 77. y = −0. Thus combination 4. A = ⎢ ⎢ 15 ⎣ 34 20 ⎤ 39 ⎥ .3 2. z = 3. ⎡ 215 87 ⎤ 33.6 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢10. The four possible combinations are Combination x y z 1 4 9 0 2 3 6 1 3 2 3 2 4 1 0 3 b. AA = A ⇒ A −1AA = A −1A . namely x = 1. Computing the cost of each combination. ( ) ( ) b.1⎦ 229 .57 ⎤ 34. a.7 ⎤ D = ⎢ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 89 141⎦ −1 ⎡ x ⎤ ⎡ 7. AB = AC. minimizes weekly cost.

For example. guest 4: 20 days 3. It is not possible. guest 2: 10 days. guest 3: 14 days. ⎡ 20 40 30 10 ⎤ ⎢ 30 0 10 10 ⎥ ⎥ A=⎢ ⎢ 10 0 30 50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 1 1 1 1⎥⎦ ⎡1180 ⎤ ⎢ 580 ⎥ ⎥ B=⎢ ⎢1500 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 52 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 8⎤ ⎢ 10 ⎥ T = A −1B = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 14 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 20 ⎦⎥ Guest 1: 8 days.40. Different combinations of lengths of stays can cost the same. 2.140] ⎢⎣530 ⎥⎦ The cost is $151. To the linear system.50). A = ⎢⎢ 30 0 10 10 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 10 0 30 50 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 7⎤ ⎢10 ⎥ T=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 7⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 5⎥⎦ ⎡ 9⎤ C = ⎢⎢ 8⎥⎥ ⎢⎣10 ⎥⎦ ⎧ ⎡ 7⎤ ⎫ ⎡800 ⎤ ⎪ ⎡ 20 40 30 10 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 10 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎥ T T ⎪⎢ T⎢ ⎢ C ( AT) = C ⎨ ⎢ 30 0 10 10 ⎥ ⎬ = C ⎢330 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎢ 10 0 30 50 ⎥ ⎢ 7 ⎥ ⎪ ⎢⎣530 ⎥⎦ ⎦ 5 ⎪ ⎪⎣ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎡800 ⎤ = [9 8 10] ⎢⎢330 ⎥⎥ = [15.Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 6 ⎡ 20 40 30 10 ⎤ 1. guest 1 staying for 20 days and guest 3 staying for 17 days costs the same as guest 1 staying for 15 days and guest 3 staying for 21 days (each costs $214. add x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 52. 230 .

50y. 2. ⎨ x ≥ 0. x 4 Problems 7.Chapter 7 Principles in Practice 7. both x and y must be positive (negative numbers of magnets are not feasible).5 Sketch the dashed line y = –1.70y. The cost for producing x type A magnets and y type B magnets is 50 + 0. In addition. Let x = the number of type A magnets and y = the number of type B magnets.8y > –1.375x + 62. The system of inequalities is ⎧ x + y ≥ 50. 5 y The region consists of points on or above the x-axis and on or to the right of the y-axis. 10 y x 10 3. 1. In order to make a profit. Selling twice as many of type I as of type II corresponds to x ≥ 2y.5y > 50 + 0. to take reality into account. 5 y 6.1 2. ⎪⎩ y 10 x 10 5. x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0. Also. Revenue is greater than cost when 2x + 1. ⎪ y ≥ 0. Since negative numbers of cameras cannot be sold.90x + 0.9x + 0.375x + 62.1 1. 0.7y.5 and shade the half plane above the line. Selling at least 50 cameras per week corresponds to x + y ≥ 50. 10 y x 5 x 10 231 . 10 y x 10 4.00x + 1.1x + 50 y > –1. the number of magnets of types A and B must correspond to an ordered pair in the shaded region. the points must be on or above the line x + y = 50 and on or below the line x = 2y. The revenue for selling x type A magnets and y type B magnets is 2. ⎪⎪ x ≥ 2 y.

6 x 5 x 5 9. 5 y 14. 5 y x x 5 10. y y 5 x x 5 8.Chapter 7: Linear Programming 7. 5 y x x 5 5 232 . 10 5 y 15. 5 y 16. 5 5 y y 13. 5 y x 10 x 5 11. 5 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12.

25. 10 y x x 5 10 y 5 18. y 20 y x 20 x 5 20.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 17. 6x + 4y ≤ 20 y 8 7 y x x 5 5 21. 10 y x x 10 5 19. 5 Section 7. 5 24. 23.1 y 22. 10 y 26. 7x + 3y ≤ 25 y x 10 2 233 x 10 .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 27. 0 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3. 3). (0. ⎜ 0. The corner ⎛ 12 12 ⎞ ⎛ 99 99 ⎞ points are (8. we find ⎝ 11 ⎠ that Z has a minimum value of 3 when x = 3 and y = 0. x ≥ 0. ⎜ . 7) and ⎜ . we find that P 2 has a maximum value of 416 when x = 0 and 3 1 y = 83 . 0). Let x be the amount purchased from supplier A. 4. 3) Problems 7. y x + 2y = 225 100 x + y = 90 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. 3⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Evaluating P at each corner point. In addition. the points must be on or below the line 3x + 2y = 240 and on or below the line 1 x + y = 80 (or. equivalently x + 2y = 160). and y the amount purchased from B. ⎟ ⎝ 3 9 ⎠ x – 3y = 2 y x 25 (2. The corner ⎛ 47 41 ⎞ ⎛ 45 ⎞ points are (2. ⎨2 ⎪ x ≥ 0. The feasible region appears below. Since negative numbers of chairs cannot be produced. ⎝ 3 9 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Evaluating P at each corner point. ⎪ y ≥ 0. 7 ⎟ . The system of inequalities is ⎧ x + y ≤ 650. 0). 3 100 28. x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0. ⎨ ⎪⎩ y ≥ 0. 83 ⎟ . ⎟ . x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0. The system of inequalities is x + y ≤ 100. 0). The inequality 1 for painting time is x + y ≤ 80 . ⎟ . ⎜ . ⎪ x ≥ 0. 0 ⎟ . The feasible region appears below. y ≥ 0. The inequality for assembly time is 3x + 2y ≤ 240. 5). The region consists of points on or above the x-axis and on or to the right of the y-axis. 100 25 y P = 112 1 2 ⎛ 47 41 ⎞ ⎜ . (0. ⎝ 3 ⎠ Evaluating Z at each point. 0) x 2. 2 10 y y=7 3x − y = 3 Z = −10 x+y=5 (2. ⎜ . 83 ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 29. 234 . The corner ⎛ 10 ⎞ points are (2. 0). The system of 2 inequalities is ⎧3x + 2 y ≤ 240. ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . we find that Z has a maximum value of –10 when x = 2 and y = 3. (3. ⎩ 4x + 3y = 250 P = 416 2 3 x ⎛ 1 ⎞ 100 ⎜ 62 . ⎜ . Since negative numbers of computers cannot be produced. ⎟ ⎝ 7 7 ⎠ ⎝ 20 20 ⎠ ⎛ 27 ⎞ and ⎜ 8. The feasible region appears below. ⎪1 ⎪ x + y ≤ 80. ⎜ 62 . we find that P 1 45 has a maximum value of 112 when x = 2 2 and y = 0. The feasible region appears below. Producing at most 650 computers per week corresponds to x + y ≤ 650. The corner 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ points are (0. Evaluating Z at each point.2 x 10 1.

The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner points. 1) Z=3 10 (2. 10 y 2x + y = 10 5 y (0. The feasible region is a line segment.8 x=8 4x + 3y = 12 x x (3. so there is no optimum solution. The member (see dashed line) of the family of lines C = 3x + 2y which gives a minimum value of C. 5) 2x + y = 5 3x + y = 4 23 C= 3 ⎛7 1⎞ . ⎟ where C = 3 ⎝ 3 3⎠ 23 7 1 value of when x = and y = . The corner ⎛ 27 21 ⎞ points are (2. The feasible region is empty. 20) where C = 120. 5). [Note: 3 3 3 Here we chose the member of the family 1 y = (−3x + C ) whose y-intercept was closest 2 to the origin and which had at least one point in common with the feasible region. Z has a minimum value of 3 when x = 0 and y = 1.2 y 9x + 11y = 99 x−y=0 Z=3 Z = 0.] y 2x − y = 2 x − 4y = 4 x 10 6. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 3⎠ 8x + 7y = 56 3x + 4y = 24 x 10 x + 2y = 3 7. The corner points are (0. subject to the constraints. 0) and ⎜ . intersects the feasible region at corner point (40. ⎟. Thus C has a minimum value of 120 when x = 40 and y = 20. 0) 5 10. The feasible region is empty. The member (see dashed line) of the C which gives a family of lines y = − x + 2 minimum value of C.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 10 Section 7. y (4. 0) 9.8 for x = 2 and y = 0. 0) 10 5. ⎝ 17 17 ⎠ Z has a maximum value of 0. 5 x (3. subject to the constraints. 10 y 10 100 x y 5x + 2y = 200 5 8. 3x + 2y = 160 x + 2y = 80 C = 120 x 100 235 . so there is no optimum solution. intersects the feasible region at corner point 23 ⎛7 1⎞ Thus C has a minimum ⎜ . The feasible region is a line segment. 5) (0. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner points. 1) and (4.

(6. ⎧ ⎪⎪ y ≥ 0. respectively. 0). ⎨2 x + 2 y ≥ 16 (for carbohydrates). we find that P is maximized at corner point (6. Thus 6 of each model should be made each day in order to give a maximum profit of $780. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner points. (4. (0. Evaluating P at each corner point. we find that P is maximized at corner point (10. 8). Let x and y be the numbers of Vista and Xtreme models made each day. Then we are to minimize C = 1. 50).80y. where x≥0 ⎧ y≥0 ⎪⎪ ⎨ x + 3 y ≤ 24 (for machine A) ⎪ ⎪⎩2 x + 2 y ≤ 24 (for machine B) The feasible region is bounded. respectively.20x + 0. 4) where C = 8 (see the minimum cost line). 6) 13. C is minimized at corner point (4. Let x and y be the numbers of units of Food A and Food B. 20) y 5x + y = 70 Z = 70 x − 2y = 0 14. 0). (14. Evaluating P at each corner point. that are purchased. 20). The corner points are (0. 236 . Then we are to maximize P = 7x + 2y where x≥0 ⎧ ⎪ y≥0 ⎪ ⎨2 x + y ≤ 80 (for machine A) ⎪ 3 x + y ≤ 50 (for machine B) ⎪ 5 x + y ≤ 70 (for finishing) ⎩ The feasible region is bounded.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 11. The family of lines given by Z = y – x has members (see dashed lines for sample members) that have arbitrarily small values for Z and also intersect the feasible region. and (12. 0). The feasible region is unbounded with 2 corner points. where its value is 110. Let x and y be the number of trucks and spinning tops made per week. Thus10 trucks and 20 spinning tops should be made each week to give a maximum profit of $110. 0) and (10. 10 y Z = −1 x − 3y = −6 x=3 25 y Z = −7 x x + 3y = 6 x 50 Z = 50 2x – 2y = 24 10 (6. Thus 4 units of Food A and 4 units of Food B gives a minimum cost of $8. The feasible region is unbounded. ⎪ ⎪⎩ 4 x + y ≥ 20 (for protein). where x ≥ 0. Then we are to maximize P = 50x + 80y. The corner points are (0. The corner points are (8. Thus no optimum solution exists. The family of lines given by Z = 10x + 2y has members (see dashed lines for two sample members) that have arbitrarily large values of Z and that also intersect the feasible region. 6). 20). 20). 6) where its value is 780. Thus no optimum solution exists. x 10 x + 2y = 4 12. 10 50 y 3x + y = 50 Maximum Profit Line (10. 4) and (0. x + 3y = 24 x 25 15.

Evaluating C at each corner point.000x + 20.000. ⎪ ⎪⎩ 200 x + 50 y ≥ 2500 (for mineral B). 1 ⎪ ⎪⎩20 x + 30 y ≥ 420 (for polymer P2 ). ⎧ y ≥ 0. Then we are to minimize C = 8x + 10y where x ≥ 0. y 10 y 6x + 2y = 120 2000x + 1000y = 8000 2x + 2y = 80 Minimum Cost Line 3000x + 2000y = 14. ⎪3000 x + 2000 y ≥ 14. ⎪ ⎨ 2000 x + 1000 y ≥ 8000 (for low grade). where x ≥ 4. 100 50 18.000y where x ≥ 0. Thus the solution is 6 chambers of type A and 10 chambers of type B.2 y 50 y 200x + 50y = 2500 4x + y = 20 Minimum Cost Line 2x + 2y = 16 100x + 200y = 3000 x x 30 Minimum Cost Line 16. ⎪4 x + 12 y ≥ 240 (for Nutrient C). ⎪ ⎨ 2 x + 2 y ≥ 80 (for Nutrient A). C is minimized at the corner point (10.600. 10) where C = 6. 237 .000x + 300.000. ⎧ ⎪⎪ y ≥ 4. ⎧ ⎪ y ≥ 0. ⎧ ⎪ y ≥ 0. respectively. respectively. we find C is minimized at corner point (6. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner points. Let x and y be the numbers of units of Blend I and Blend II. that are processed. Let x and y be the number of days Refinery I and Refinery II are operated. Let x and y be the number of chambers of type A and B. that are bought each week.000. Thus. 10) where C = 340 (see the minimum cost line). Then we are to minimize C = 50x + 60y. Evaluating C at each corner point. ⎪⎪ ⎨100 x + 200 y ≥ 3000 (for mineral A).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 30 Section 7. ⎩ The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner points. ⎪ 6 x + 2 y ≥ 120 (for Nutrient B). ⎩ The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner points. Thus 10 tons of ore I and 10 tons of ore II give a minimum cost of $1100. we find that C is minimized at corner point (4. ⎨ 10 x + 4 y ≥ 100 (for polymer P ). Then we are to minimize C = 600. ⎪ 1000 x + 1000 y ≥ 5000 (for high grade). Let x and y be the numbers of tons of ores I and II. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner points. 000 (for medium grade).000y. operate Refinery I for 4 days and Refinery II for 1 day for a minimum cost of $120. thus each week the grower should buy 30 bags of Blend I and 10 bags of Blend II. C is minimized at the corner point (30. 19. respectively. 1) where C = 120. Then we are to minimize C = 25.000 1000x + 1000y = 5000 x 4x + 12y = 240 x 100 10 17. 10) where C = 1100 (see the minimum cost line). respectively. where x ≥ 0.

71 when x = 1. The corner points are (0.000 x 22. x + y ≤ 45. 25 – x + 30 – y ≤ 45 or x + y ≥ 10. 200). a. where x≥0 ⎧ ⎪⎪ y≥0 ⎨ 25 x + 15 y ≤ 12. y = 6.15y. That is. 500 – x – y ≤ 300. 200). ⎜ ⎟ . 25. we find that P is maximized at the corner point (400. The third constraint is the minimum contract for A. (300. 2200 − 2 x − 8 y ≥ 300. 000 (for particulate matter) c. which arises as follows: 1. The fourth constraint is the minimum contract for B. 24. y ≥ 0. The feasible region is empty. Using the hint. Since negative numbers of TV sets cannot be shipped. 100). The feasible region is bounded with three corner points. We need to minimize Z = 1050 – 6x – 6y subject 238 . since 300 km is the total being built. The second constraint is company B’s construction limit. where P = 160.74 A builds x km of highway and y km of expressway.3 b. Let x and y be the number of liters produced by the old and new processes.98 when x = 9. since warehouse D has only 40 TV sets. Thus daily production of 400 liters by only the old process maximizes daily profit at $160.48. the cost of shipping the TV sets is Z = 18x + 24(25 – x) + 9y + 15(30 – y) = 1050 – 6x – 6y. Z = –75. y = 16. the sixth constraint is the corresponding constraint for the amount of expressway. and 30 – y ≥ 0. x 500 23. respectively. y = 1. 0). D is maximized when x = 0. Z = 15. so B builds (300 – x) km of highway and (200 – y) km of expressway. The first constraint is company A’s construction limit. so there is no optimum solution. Evaluating D at each corner point. – x – y ≤ –200. x ≥ 0. Evaluating P at each corner point.525 (for carbon dioxide) ⎪ ⎩⎪50 x + 40 y ≤ 20. 500 y y y = 200 2x + 8y = 1900 x + y = 400 x = 300 25x + 15y = 12. Similarly.56. 200). Z = 2. 0). Thus D = 2x + 6y + 3(300 – x) + 5(200 – y) = 1900 – x + y. 1000 The feasible region (see below) is bounded. The fifth constraint reflects the fact that company A will not build more than 300 km of highway. 2 x + 8 y ≤ 1900. 0). which arises as follows: (300 – x) + (200 – y ) ≤ 300. −2 x − 8 y ≥ –1900. and 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 (200. x + y ≥ 200.54 when x = 2. (300.525 x + y = 200 50x + 40y = 20.4x + 0. ⎛ 650 550 ⎞ . y x=4 10x + 4y = 100 20x + 30y = 420 y=4 x 20 20. Since warehouse C has only 45 TV sets. 25 – x ≥ 0. where D = 2100. (150. y = 200. We want to maximize P = 0.43 1000 21.14.Chapter 7: Linear Programming 20 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2(300 – x) + 8(200 – y ) ≥ 300. we find that D is maximized at point (0.67 Principles in Practice 7.

The minimum cost is $780. The corner ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ 36 4 ⎞ points are (0. ⎟ and (6. y ≥ 0. 0). as well as at all points on the line segment. 0). Z ⎝ 5⎠ ⎝ 7 7⎠ ⎛ 36 4 ⎞ is maximized at ⎜ . 2. ( 163 . and F = (10. ⎟ and (6. x = (1 − t ) ⎜ ⎟ + t = 3 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ y = 30 C B x + y = 45 D x = 25 A x x + y = 10 F E 50 The feasible region shown has corners A = (0. where its value is 33. Since (5. 0). The feasible region appears below. 163 ) y 5 10 y 2x + 3y = 12 ⎛ 36 4 ⎞ ⎜ . The corner ⎛ 2 16 ⎞ ⎛ 16 2 ⎞ points are ⎜ .3 to the constraints x + y ≤ 45. for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. ⎜ 0. 3 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ y 50 16 14 ⎛ 16 ⎞ 2 − t . Z is minimized at corner points (2. 7 – x ≥ 0. 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 4 4 ⎛4⎞ y = (1 − t ) ⎜ ⎟ + 0t = − t and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. This is x = (1 – t)(15) + t(25) = 15 + 10t and y = (1 – t)(30) + t(20) = 30 – 10t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Thus. 3) 4. ⎟ . ship 10t + 15 TV sets from C to A. y ≤ 30. Thus the solution is Z = 12 when 2 14 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 16 x = (1 − t ) ⎜ ⎟ + t = + t . 2). 0). 30). – 10t + 30 TV sets from C to B. 3) and (5. Thus Z is maximized at both corner points. Thus Z is also maximized at all ⎛ 36 4 ⎞ points on the line segment joining ⎜ . 23 ) 5 x 3. 10). ⎟ and ⎜ . the cost of delivering the cars is Z = 60x + 45y + 50(7 – x) + 35(4 – y) = 490 + 10x + 10y. 2). The feasible region is a line segment. The feasible region is unbounded. 7 7 7 ⎝ ⎠ Problems 7. 3) and (5. 10 ( 23 . Evaluating the cost function at the corners gives Z(A) = 1050 – 6(0) – 6(10) = 990 Z(B) = 1050 – 6(0) – 6(30) = 870 Z(C) = 1050 – 6(15) – 6(30) = 780 Z(D) = 1050 – 6(25) – 6(20) = 780 Z(E) = 1050 – 6(25) – 6(0) = 900 Z(F) = 1050 – 6(10) – 6(0) = 990 The minimum value of Z is 780 which occurs at all points on the line segment joining C and D. ⎜ . 20). D = (25. At each of 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 3⎠ these points Z = 12. x ≥ 0. E = (25. ⎟ .3 1. C = (15. where its ⎝ 7 7⎠ value is 84. x ≤ 25. and 4 – y ≥ 0. 30). y ≥ 0. x ≥ 0. 0). 0). 2) x y = – 1 x + 11 3 3 x 10 10 239 . Using the hint. ⎟ and ⎝ 7 7⎠ (6. Z is also minimized at all points on the line segment joining (2. The solution is Z = 84 when 6 36 ⎛ 36 ⎞ x = (1 − t ) ⎜ ⎟ + 6t = t + . Since negative numbers of cars is not possible. ⎟ ⎝ 7 7⎠ y y = – 3x + 6 x + 5y = 8 2 y=x–3 (2. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. x + y ≥ 10. so the solution is Z = 33 when x = (1 – t)(2) + 5t = 2 + 3t y = (1 – t)(3) + 2t = 3 – t and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. B = (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. and 30 – (–10t + 30) = 10t TV sets from D to B. 25 – (10t + 15) = –10t + 10 TV sets from D to A.

Problems 7. the pivot entry is underlined. x2 = 72. 400 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The maximum value of P is 20. Type 2. 000 15 x1 + 15 x2 + 10 x3 ≤ 1200 2 x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 ≤ 180 x1 . x ≥ 0. x + y ≥ 3. we will use 3x1 + 3 x2 + 4 x3 ≤ 300 3x1 + 3 x2 + 2 x3 ≤ 240 2 x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 ≤ 180 x1 . x2 . Thus have 3t cars delivered from Concord to Atherton. and x3 be the numbers of Type 1. 0). C = (2. that the company produces. 4).Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis the warehouse in Concord has only 6 cars. 000 ⎥ 3 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 P b y x=7 B A y=4 C x+y=6 x+y=3 x E D 10 The feasible region shown has corners A = (0. Evaluating the cost function at the corners gives Z(A) = 490 + 10(0) + 10(3) = 520 Z(B) = 490 + 10(0) + 10(4) = 530 Z(C) = 490 + 10(2) + 10(4) = 550 Z(D) = 490 + 10(6) + 10(0) = 550 Z(E) = 490 + 10(3) + 10(0) = 520 The minimum value of Z is 520 which occurs at all points on the line segment joining A and E. The minimum cost is $520. 4). x2 . x3 ≥ 0 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 P b 3 3 4 1 0 0 0 300 ⎤ s1 ⎡ ⎢ 3 3 2 0 1 0 0 240 ⎥⎥ s2 ⎢ 2 2 3 0 0 1 0 180 ⎥ s3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0⎥ P ⎣⎢ –150 –250 –200 0 0 0 1 ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 P b s1 ⎡ 0 0 2 1 –1 0 0 60 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2 1 x2 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 80 ⎥ 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ 5 s3 ⎢ 0 0 0 – 32 1 0 20 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢100 0 – 100 0 250 0 1 20. 7 – 3t delivered from Dublin to Atherton. x ≤ 7. and x3 = 12 . respectively.400 when 72 Type 2 players and 12 Type 3 players are produced and sold. x + y ≤ 6. D = (6. x2 = 4 . The situation is to maximize the profit P = 150 x1 + 250 x2 + 200 x3 . y ≤ 4. The maximum profit is $20. Let x1 . since the Dublin warehouse has only 8 cars. x2 . –3t + 3 delivered from Concord to Berkeley. and 4 – (–3t + 3) = 3t + 1 delivered from Dublin to Berkeley. Similarly. 1. the pivot entry is underlined. Thus. 0). y ≥ 0.400 when x1 = 0. x3 ≥ 0 The constraint inequalities can be simplified by x1 ⎡ s1 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 2 Z ⎢ −1 ⎣ x1 ⎡4 s1 ⎢ 3 x2 ⎢⎢ 23 ⎢1 Z ⎢⎣ 3 x2 s1 s2 Z 8 ⎤8 ⎥ 3 0 1 0 12 ⎥ 4 −2 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎦ x2 s1 s2 Z 0 1 – 13 0 4 ⎤ ⎥ 1 0 4⎥ 1 0 ⎥ 3 2 1 8⎥ 0 0 ⎥⎦ 3 1 1 0 0 The solution is Z = 8 when x1 = 0. 240 . and E = (3.4 1. We need to minimize Z = 490 + 10x + 10y subject to the constraints x + y ≤ 6. 3). B = (0. subject to the constraints 300 x1 + 300 x2 + 400 x3 ≤ 30. 10 dividing by the greatest common factor of the numbers involved. and Type 3 players. In these problems. 7 – x + 4 – y ≤ 8 or 3 ≤ x + y. Principles in Practice 7. 36 ⎤ s1 ⎡ 0 0 0 1 – 15 – 65 0 ⎢ ⎥ 3 –2 0 x2 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 ⎥ 72 5 5 ⎢ ⎥ 3 0 2 ⎥ 12 x3 ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 0 – 5 5 ⎥ P ⎢100 0 0 0 70 20 1 20. for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.4 In these problems. This is x = (1 – t)(0) + t(3) = 3t and y = (1 – t)(3) + t(0) = –3t + 3 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

Section 7. 3. 7 7 7 0 0 x1 x2 s1 ⎡ 1 –1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ –1 1 s3 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ Z ⎣⎢ –2 6 s1 1 0 0 0 s2 0 1 0 0 s3 0 0 1 0 Z 0 0 0 1 x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z ⎡ x1 1 –1 1 0 0 0 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 0 0 s3 ⎢ 0 2 –1 0 1 0 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ 0 4 2 0 0 1 The solution is Z = 8 when 241 4⎤ 4 4 ⎥⎥ 6⎥ 6 ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ 4⎤ 8⎥⎥ 2⎥ ⎥ 8⎥ ⎦ x1 = 4. 4.4 x1 x1 x2 s1 s2 Z ⎡ s1 –1 1 1 0 0 4 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 1 0 6⎥ 6 s2 ⎢ 1 Z ⎢ –2 –1 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 Z ⎡ s1 0 2 1 1 0 10 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 1 0 1 0 6 ⎥ Z ⎢ 0 1 0 2 1 12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The solution is Z = 12 when x1 = 6. x1 x2 s1 s2 Z s1 ⎡ 3 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ –1 3 Z ⎢ 1 –2 ⎣ x1 x2 5 1 0 0 5⎤ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0 3⎥ 1 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ s1 s2 Z s1 ⎡ 11 0 1 – 2 0 3⎤ 3 ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 1⎥⎥ x2 ⎢ – 3 1 0 3 ⎢ 2 1 2⎥ Z ⎢ 13 0 0 ⎥⎦ 3 ⎣ The solution is Z = 2 when x1 = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2. s2 ⎢ 1 2 0 1 0 0 8 ⎥ 8 s3 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 5 ⎥ 5 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ –8 –2 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z x1 ⎡1 –1 1 0 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 3 –1 1 0 0 7 ⎥ 73 s3 ⎢ 0 2 –1 0 1 0 4 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 0 –10 8 0 0 1 8 ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z 1 0 1 0 ⎡ 3⎤ x1 1 0 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 –3 0 ⎥ 1 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 – 2 x2 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 3 0 5 1 28⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The solution is Z = 28 when x1 = 3. 6. x1 x2 s1 ⎡ 3 1 s1 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 5 0 Z ⎢ −4 –7 0 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 ⎡ 7 0 1 s1 ⎢ 5 x2 ⎢⎢ 15 1 0 ⎢ 0 0 Z ⎢ – 13 ⎣ 5 x1 x2 s1 ⎡ 5 x1 1 0 7 ⎢ x2 ⎢⎢ 0 1 – 17 ⎢ Z ⎢ 0 0 13 7 ⎣ x2 s1 s2 s3 Z s1 ⎡ 1 –1 1 0 0 0 1 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 5. x2 = 2 . x2 = . x2 = 0 . x2 = 1. x2 = 0 . s2 Z 9⎤ 3 ⎥ 1 0 10 ⎥ 2 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ s2 Z – 53 0 3⎤ 15 ⎥ 7 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ 10 5 7 1 14 ⎥ ⎥⎦ 5 s2 Z ⎤ – 73 0 15 7⎥ 2 0 11 ⎥ 7 7⎥ 2 1 137 ⎥ 7 7 ⎥⎦ 137 15 11 The solution is Z = when x1 = .

x1 s1 ⎡ 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ –1 2 1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ Z ⎢ –2 –1 1 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z x1 ⎡ 1 1 0 1 0 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 3 1 1 1 0 3⎥ Z ⎢0 1 1 2 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The solution is Z = 2 when x1 = 1. To obtain a standard linear programming problem. x3 = 0 .Chapter 7: Linear Programming x1 7. To obtain a standard linear programming problem. x2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus the maximum value of Z is 4. x3 = 0 . 1 0 0 4⎤ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0 2⎥ 2 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ s1 s2 Z 1 –2 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 1 0 2⎥ 0 2 1 4⎥ ⎦ 242 Z 0 0 0 0 1 1⎤ 1 2 ⎥⎥ 3⎥ 3 ⎥ 5⎥ 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ Z 0 0 0 0 1 1⎤ 3⎥⎥ 2⎥ ⎥ 5⎥ 3⎥⎥ ⎦ x1 = 0. we write the second constraint as – x1 + 2 x2 + x3 ≤ 2 . x3 s1 s2 Z ⎡ ⎤ s1 ⎢ 1 2 0 1 0 0 10 ⎥ 5 s2 ⎢ 2 2 1 0 1 0 10 ⎥ 5 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢ –3 –4 – 3 0 0 1 0 ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ choosing s2 as departing variable 9. x2 = 0. x2 = 5. then x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z 10. s1 ⎡ 2 1 –1 1 0 0 4 ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ 2 Z ⎢ –2 1 –1 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z 1 1 1 ⎡ 0 0 2⎤ x1 ⎢1 2 – 2 2 ⎥ 3 1 1 0 0⎥ 0 s2 ⎢ 0 12 – 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢ 0 2 –2 1 0 1 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z ⎡ 1 1 0 2⎤ x1 1 2 0 3 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 0⎥ 0 1 – ⎢ ⎥ 3 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ 8 1 4 1 4⎥ Z ⎢0 3 0 3 3 ⎣ ⎦ The solution is Z = 4 when x1 = 2. Choosing s2 as the departing variable x1 ⎡ s1 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 Z ⎢ –2 ⎣ x1 s1 ⎡ 0 ⎢ x1 ⎢ 1 Z ⎢0 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 s1 ⎡ 1 1 1 0 0 0 s2 ⎢ 1 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎢ s3 ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 0 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 1 0 0 0 0 1 Z ⎢⎢ 2 −3 0 0 0 0 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 x2 ⎡ 1 1 1 0 0 0 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 2 0 1 1 0 0 s3 ⎢ −2 0 −1 0 1 0 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 1 0 0 0 0 1 Z ⎢⎢⎣ 5 0 3 0 0 0 The solution is Z = 3 when x2 x3 s1 s2 Z 1 –1 1 1 1 –1 x2 x3 –1 –3 1 1 3 1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z 11. x2 = 0. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z s1 ⎡ 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ –1 s3 ⎢ 5 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 2 Z ⎢⎢⎣ –1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 –1 0 0 0 0 1 4 ⎤2 ⎥ 6⎥ 20 ⎥ 4 ⎥ 10 ⎥ 5 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ . x2 = 1 . x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z ⎡ ⎤ s1 ⎢ –1 0 –1 1 −1 0 0 ⎥ x2 ⎢⎢ 1 1 12 0 12 0 5⎥⎥ Z ⎢ 1 0 1 0 2 1 20 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 2 The solution is Z = 20 when x1 = 0. If s1 is the departing variable. when x1 = 2. we write the third constraint as − x1 + x2 ≤ 3. x3 = 0 8. x3 = 0 . x2 = 0.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 W s1 ⎡ 2 –1 –1 1 0 0 0 2 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥ 4 s3 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 6 ⎥ 6 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –2 –1 2 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 W x1 ⎡1 – 12 – 12 12 0 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 3 s2 ⎢ 0 – 1 1 1 0 0 3⎥ – 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 5 1 ⎢0 3 ⎥ 10 – 0 1 0 5 s3 ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎥ 3 W ⎢⎢ 0 –2 1 1 0 0 1 2 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 W 8⎤ 1 1 0 1 0 x1 ⎡ 1 0 3 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ 7 2 1 14 s2 ⎢ 0 0 –3 1 3 0 3⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 5 – 1 0 2 0 10 ⎥ 3 3 3 3⎥ x2 ⎢ ⎢ 13 26 1 4 0 3 1 3⎥ W ⎢0 0 3 3 ⎣ ⎦⎥ 4⎤ 6 ⎥⎥ 3 20 ⎥ 20 ⎥ 3 10 ⎥ 10 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ 243 . when 13 22 50 . To obtain a standard linear programming problem. 13 12.4 x1 x2 s1 choosing x1 as entering variable s1 ⎡ 3 0 ⎢ 2 x2 ⎢ 1 − 1 ⎢ 2 s3 ⎢ 13 0 ⎢ 2 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 52 0 Z ⎢ −3 0 ⎢⎣ 2 x1 x2 s1 s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎢ x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ Z ⎢0 0 0 ⎢⎣ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z 1 1 x1 ⎡⎢1 – 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 ⎤⎥ 16 1 s2 ⎢ 0 3 1 0 0 0 8⎥ 3 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 20 s3 ⎢ 0 11 − 5 0 1 0 0 10 ⎥ 11 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ s4 ⎢ 0 2 −1 0 0 1 0 6 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢0 – 3 1 0 0 0 1 2 ⎥ 2 2 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z 3 0 1 0 0 32 ⎤ 32 x1 ⎡ 1 0 11 11 11 ⎥ 3 ⎢ 13 1 − 3 0 0 58 ⎥ 58 s2 ⎢ 0 0 11 11 11 ⎥ 13 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 0 1 − 5 0 2 0 0 20 ⎥ ⎢ 11 11 11 ⎥ s4 ⎢ 0 0 − 1 0 − 4 1 0 26 ⎥ ⎢ 11 11 11 ⎥ 3 0 1 52 ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 − 2 0 ⎢⎣ 11 11 11 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z 2 22 ⎤ x1 ⎡1 0 0 − 3 0 0 13 13 13 ⎢ ⎥ s1 ⎢ 0 0 1 11 − 3 0 0 58 ⎥ 13 13 13 ⎥ ⎢ 5 50 ⎥ 1 x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 0 13 13 13 ⎢ ⎥ 5 1 0 36 ⎥ 1 s4 ⎢ 0 0 0 − 13 13 13 ⎥ ⎢ 3 72 ⎥ 2 Z ⎢0 0 0 0 1 13 13 13 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 72 Thus the maximum value of Z is . then we have: x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z s1 ⎡ 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ –1 s3 ⎢ 5 ⎢ s4 ⎢ 2 Z ⎢⎣⎢ –1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 –1 0 0 0 0 1 s2 s3 s4 Z 1 2 1 2 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 – 0 – 12 0 s2 11 13 5 13 3 – 13 1 13 2 13 The solution is Z = x2 = 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 s3 s4 Z 3 − 13 1 13 2 13 5 − 13 3 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 7⎤ 3 ⎥ 3⎥ ⎥ 22 11⎥ 13 ⎥ ⎥ 7 ⎥ 14 5 ⎥ 3⎥ ⎦ 14 58 ⎤ 13 ⎥ 50 ⎥ 13 ⎥ 22 ⎥ 13 ⎥ 36 ⎥ 13 ⎥ 72 ⎥ 13 ⎦⎥ 72 22 when x1 = . 13 13 50 . x2 = . If we choose x2 as the x1 = 13 13 entering variable. we write the first constraint as 2 x1 – x2 – x3 ≤ 2 .

x3 = 3 . To obtain a standard linear programming problem. we write the second constraint as − x1 – x2 + x3 ≤ 2 and the third constraint as x1 – x2 – x3 ≤ 1 . x3 = 0 . x3 = 0 . s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 s3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ –4 x1 ⎡ s1 0 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 0 x1 ⎢1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ 0 x1 ⎡ x2 ⎢ 0 s2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ x1 ⎢ 1 W ⎢0 ⎣⎢ 1 3 1 3 0 x2 x3 1 1 –1 1 –1 –1 0 1 1 3 4 3 s1 1 0 0 0 x2 x3 s1 2 2 1 0 2 0 –1 –1 0 –4 –3 0 x2 x3 s1 s2 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 s2 0 1 0 0 s3 0 0 1 0 s2 0 1 0 0 s3 –1 –1 1 4 W 0 6⎤ 6 0 10 ⎥⎥ 10 0 4⎥ 4 ⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎦ W 0 2 ⎤1 0 6 ⎥⎥ 0 4⎥ ⎥ 1 16 ⎥ ⎦ s3 W – 12 0 1⎤ ⎥ –1 0 6 ⎥ ⎥ 1 0 5⎥ 2 ⎥ 2 1 20 ⎥ ⎦ The solution is W = 20 when x1 = 5. 244 . 3 3 3 13. x1 14. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 W s1 ⎡ 4 3 –1 1 0 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ –1 –1 1 0 1 0 0 2 ⎥ 2 s3 ⎢ 1 –1 –1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢ –1 12 –4 0 0 0 1 0 ⎦⎥ x1 x2 x3 s1 3 2 0 1 ⎡ s1 ⎢ –1 –1 1 0 x3 ⎢ s3 ⎢ 0 –2 0 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ –5 8 0 0 s2 s3 W 1 0 0 3⎤ 1 1 0 0 2 ⎥⎥ 1 1 0 3⎥ ⎥ 4 0 1 8⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 2 x1 ⎡ 1 3 ⎢ x3 ⎢0 – 1 3 s3 ⎢ ⎢0 –2 ⎢ 34 W ⎢⎣0 3 s2 s3 W x3 s1 1⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 3⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1 0 3⎥ ⎥ 0 53 17 0 1 13⎥ 3 ⎦ The solution is W = 13 when x1 = 1. x2 = 0.Chapter 7: Linear Programming The solution is W = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 26 8 10 when x1 = . x2 = . x2 = 1.

⎢ 0 1 1 s3 0 ⎢ 0 0 1 –2 s4 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣⎢ –60 0 –90 0 x1 x2 –2 ⎡ s1 1 ⎢ 1 1 s2 ⎢ 0 x3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 s4 ⎢ 0 ⎢ –60 0 Z ⎢⎣ x3 x4 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 –3 0 90 s1 1 0 0 0 0 s1 1 0 0 0 0 s2 0 1 0 0 0 s3 0 0 1 0 0 s2 s3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 –1 0 90 s4 0 0 0 1 0 Section 7. x3 = 4. s ⎡ 1 0 1 −1 1 0 0 1 ⎢ 1 −1 0 1 0 1 0 s2 ⎢ s3 ⎢ 1 1 −1 1 0 0 1 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ −3 −2 2 1 0 0 0 Z 0 3⎤ 3 0 6 ⎥⎥ 6 0 5⎥ 5 ⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 Z 1 −1 1 0 0 0 3⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 ⎢ 0 −1 −1 2 −1 1 0 0 3⎥ s2 ⎢ ⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 1 −2 2 −1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 0 −2 5 −2 3 0 0 1 9 ⎥⎦ choosing x2 as the entering variable.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 x3 x4 –2 0 0 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 s2 ⎢ 15.4 Z 0 0 0 0 1 2⎤ 5 ⎥⎥ 4⎥ 4 ⎥ 7⎥ 7 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ s4 0 0 0 1 0 Z 0 2 ⎤2 0 5 ⎥⎥ 5 0 4 ⎥ ⎥ 0 3 ⎥ 1 360 ⎥⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z x1 ⎡1 –2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 ⎤ ⎢ 3 0 0 –1 1 0 0 0 3 ⎥⎥ 1 s2 ⎢0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥ x3 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 –3 0 0 –1 1 0 3 ⎥ s4 ⎢0 Z ⎢⎢⎣0 –120 0 90 60 0 90 0 1 480 ⎥⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z 1 2 x1 ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4⎤ 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 1 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4⎥ ⎥ s4 ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 –3 0 0 –1 1 0 3⎥ Z ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 90 20 40 90 0 1 600 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The solution is Z = 600 for x1 = 4. x2 = 1. 245 . x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 16. x4 = 0 .

and Z produced.50 x2 . Let x1 . and x3 denote the numbers of chairs. Y. We want to maximize P = 6x + 8y + 12z subject to x + 2 y + 3z ≤ 900. 18. y. y.800 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1200 ⎥ R ⎢ 14 0 12 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ Thus 0 boxes from A and 2400 from B give a maximum revenue of $1200. x3 ≥ 0. x2 = 2. y = 0. we have: x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 Z 1 −1 1 0 0 0 3⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 3 ⎢ 0 −1 −1 2 −1 1 0 0 3⎥⎥ 2 s2 ⎢ 1 −2 2 −1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ 1 s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ 5 −2 3 0 0 1 9 ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 0 −2 ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 Z 1 1 0 1 0 x1 ⎡ 1 0 0 4⎤ 8 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 −2 1 0 0 1 −1 0 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x4 ⎢ 0 12 −1 1 − 12 0 12 0 1⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 2 0 1 1 11⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 0 −1 3 0 ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 Z 1 −1 1 0 0 0 3⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 ⎢ 0 0 −3 4 −2 1 1 0 5⎥ s2 ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 −2 2 −1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 2 1 0 2 1 13⎥ Z ⎣⎢ 0 0 ⎦ The solution is Z = 13 when x1 = 3. x y z s1 s2 P s1 ⎡ 1 2 3 1 0 0 900 ⎤ 300 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 4 4 8 0 1 0 5000 ⎥ 625 P ⎢ –6 –8 –12 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 P 2 z ⎡1 1 13 0 0 300 ⎤ 900 3 ⎢3 ⎥ ⎢ 8 4 4 s2 ⎢ 3 – 3 0 – 3 1 0 2600 ⎥⎥ 1950 P ⎢ –2 0 0 4 0 1 3600 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ x y z s1 s2 P x ⎡1 2 3 1 0 0 900 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 –4 –4 –4 1 0 1400 ⎥ P ⎢ 0 4 6 6 0 1 5400 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ P is maximum when x = 900. Let x1 and x2 denote the numbers of boxes transported from A and B. x3 = 0.75 x1 + 0. 266 23 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢– 3 – 1 0 0 1 ⎥ 0 2 ⎣ 4 ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 R 1 1 0 0 1200 ⎤ 2400 x1 ⎡1 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 7 – 3 1 0 33. x1 + x2 + 2 x3 ≤ 500. x1 . We want to maximize R subject to 2 x1 + x2 ≤ 2400 (volume). 200 ⎥ 9485 5 s2 ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 7 ⎢ ⎥ 900 ⎥ R ⎢ 0 – 18 83 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ 19. The revenue received is R = 0. x1 x2 s1 s2 R ⎡ ⎤ s1 ⎢ 2 1 1 0 0 2400 ⎥ 1200 s2 ⎢ 3 5 0 1 0 36. Let x. 3x1 + 5 x2 ≤ 36. x. x1 . 2 x1 + 3x2 + 5 x3 ≤ 1450. 4 x + 4 y + 8 z ≤ 5000. and z denote the numbers of units of X. x4 = 0. x2 . x2 .800 ⎥ 12. and chaise lounges produced.800 (weight). This maximum profit is $5400. respectively. z ≥ 0. respectively. respectively. z = 0. We want to maximize R = 21x1 + 24 x2 + 36 x3 subject to x1 + x2 + x3 ≤ 400. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 1 1 1 0 0 0 400 ⎤ 400 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 500 ⎥⎥ 250 s2 ⎢ 3 5 0 0 1 0 1450 ⎥ 290 s3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ R ⎢⎣ –21 –24 –36 0 0 0 1 ⎦ 246 . s1 s2 s3 Z 1 0 0 0 3⎤ 4 −2 1 1 0 5⎥⎥ 2 −1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 2 1 13⎥ ⎦ Choosing x4 as the entering variable in the second table.Chapter 7: Linear Programming x1 x1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 0 x2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ Z ⎣⎢ 0 x2 x3 x4 0 1 −1 0 −3 1 −2 0 1 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 s1 s2 R ⎡ ⎤ x2 2 1 1 0 0 2400 ⎥ ⎢ s2 ⎢ −7 0 −5 1 0 24. rockers. x2 ≥ 0. 17.

no optimum solution (unbounded). x2 = 6.0 6. x2 = 0. Treating x2 as an entering variable.5 x1 + 6.18 0 0 0 34.27 ⎥ P ⎢⎣ 0 ⎦ An optimum solution is x1 = 35. and x1 .50 1.5 x1 + 6.00 1. the following table is obtained: x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 P b 1 0 0.5 6.55 ⎡ ⎤ x1 ⎢0 3 3. x2 . 6 3 and tie for being the 2 1 2.00 0 40. 247 x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 ⎡ s1 1 −1 1 0 0 0 ⎢ s2 ⎢ −1 1 0 1 0 0 s3 ⎢ 8 5 0 0 1 0 ⎢ 1 0 0 0 1 s4 ⎢ 2 Z ⎢⎢⎣ −2 −1 0 0 0 0 Z 0 0 0 0 1 7⎤ 7 5⎥⎥ 40 ⎥ 5 ⎥ 6⎥ 3 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ . for the table.09 0 0 1 1727.5 x2 + 6. Thus. for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. (1 – t)0 + 6t = 6t of device 2. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 P b s1 ⎡ 5.67 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 1727.79 −0.36 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0.5 x3 ≤ 165. Yes.73 0 0.36 –0.5 1 0 0 0 190 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 3. x3 = 0.5 0 0 1 0 165⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0⎥ P ⎢⎣ –50 –50 –50 0 0 0 1 ⎦ x1 x2 x2 s1 s2 s3 P b 1 1 1. Since the indicators are equal. and device 3.800. x3 ≥ 0 .5 1. device 2. Thus.5 Principles in Practice 7. although the exact values are used in the row operations.55⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 1.00 1 −2.82 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 9.5 so we check for multiple solutions.5 x1 + 5. 4. Problems 7.5 x3 ≤ 190.5 6. we choose the first column as the pivot column.09 ⎥⎥ s2 ⎢ 9.55 0 0. 3. and none of device 3.09 9. However.09 9.18 –0. and P = 1727. respectively. Yes.39 0.09 0 ⎦ Another optimum solution is x1 = 28. the optimum solution is for the company to produce (1 – t)35 + 28t = 35 – 7t of device 1. and the quotients smallest. s ⎡ 4 –3 1 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 3 –1 0 s3 ⎢ 5 0 0 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ –2 –7 0 s2 s3 Z 0 0 0 4⎤ 1 0 0 6 ⎥⎥ 0 1 0 8⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ The entering variable is x2 . x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 1 ⎡ 1 0 1 – 12 0 0 150 ⎤ 300 s1 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 250 ⎥ 500 x3 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 5 1 1 s3 – ⎢ 2 2 0 0 – 2 1 0 200 ⎥ 400 R ⎢⎢ –3 –6 0 0 18 0 1 9000 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 300 ⎤ ⎡ x2 1 1 0 2 –1 0 0 ⎢ 0 0 1 –1 1 0 0 100 ⎥⎥ x3 ⎢ 50 ⎥ s3 ⎢ –1 0 0 –1 –2 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢⎣ 3 0 0 12 12 0 1 10. corresponding to the given table has the basic variable x2 equal to 0.800 ⎥⎦ The production of 0 chairs. x2 is the entering variable 1.5 7.18 − ⎡ ⎤ x1 ⎢ 0 0 1. x3 = 0.5 5.00 ⎥ s2 ⎢ ⎥ 6. and 100 chaise lounges gives the maximum revenue of $10.F. x2 .0 x2 + 6.5 x2 + 7. x3 be the numbers of device 1.64 1 0 0 59.27 ⎥ P ⎢⎣ 0 0 9. and P = 1727. Let x1 . x1 x2 s1 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. that the company produces.S.67 0 28. The matrices are shown rounded to 2 decimal places. The situation is to maximize the profit P = 50 x1 + 50 x2 + 50 x3 subject to the constraints 5.5 6. 300 rockers.5 0 1 0 0 180 ⎥ s3 ⎢ 4. the B.18 0. x2 is a nonbasic variable and its indicator is 0.5 x3 ≤ 180. Since no quotients exist. the problem has an unbounded solution. 4.

we return to the second table. x2 = 2. To obtain a standard linear programming problem. 248 . x2 = . s2 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. 7 7 18 4 x2 = (1 − t )(2) + t = 2 + t . Thus 7 7 multiple optimum solutions exist. no optimum solution (unbounded). the problem has an unbounded solution. Hence Z is a 1 8 maximum when x1 = (1 − t )(3) + t = 3 − t . we write the second constraint as – x1 + x2 + x3 ≤ 4. For 7 7 the last table s3 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. s1 ⎡ 2 –2 1 0 0 0 4 ⎤ s2 ⎢ –1 2 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 1 0 6⎥ 6 s3 ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 4 −8 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z s1 ⎡ 1 0 1 1 0 0 8 ⎤ 8 ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ − 12 1 0 12 0 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ s3 ⎢ 72 0 0 − 12 1 0 4 ⎥ 87 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢ 0 0 0 4 0 1 16 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Z has a maximum of 16 when x1 = 0. For the 3 3 last table. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 Z s1 ⎡ 1 –1 4 1 0 0 0 6 ⎤ 6 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ –1 1 1 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥ s3 ⎢ 1 –6 1 0 0 1 0 8 ⎥ 8 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ –8 –2 –4 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 Z x1 ⎡ 1 –1 4 1 0 0 0 6 ⎤ ⎢ 0 5 1 1 0 0 10 ⎥⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 s3 ⎢ 0 –5 –3 –1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 0 –10 28 8 0 0 1 48⎥⎦ For the last table. 6. Hence Z is 8 8 maximum when x1 = (1 − t )(0) + t = t . If we continue the process for determining other optimum solutions. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z 5. x2 is the entering variable. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Since x1 is nonbasic for the last table and its indicator is 0. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z s1 ⎡ 0 − 3 1 0 0 − 1 0 4 ⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 3 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ 16 s2 ⎢ 0 8 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 3 s3 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 −4 0 16 ⎥ 16 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥6 x1 ⎢ 1 3 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The maximum value of Z is 6 when x1 = 3 and x2 = 0. If we continue the process for determining other optimum solutions. Thus 3 3 multiple optimum solutions exist. there may be multiple optimum solutions. Since x2 is nonbasic for the last table and its indicator is 0. Treating x1 as an entering variable. we have x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 12 ⎤ ⎢ 2 0 1 0 16 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 3 3 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 13 32 2 s3 ⎢ 0 0 0 − 1 − 0 3 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 − 0 0 13 ⎥ 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 16 Here Z = 6 when x1 = and x2 = . we return to the second table. Thus. there may be multiple optimum solutions. we have x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z 8 − 2 0 48 ⎤ s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 7 7 7 ⎥ ⎢ 3 1 0 18 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 7 7 7⎥ ⎢ 8⎥ 2 0 x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 − 1 7 7 7⎥ ⎢ Z ⎢0 0 0 4 0 1 16 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 8 18 Here Z = 16 when x1 = . Treating x2 as an entering variable and continuing. 3 3 16 16 x2 = (1 − t )(0) + t = t . Since no quotients exist.

Treating x2 as an entering variable. no optimum solution (unbounded). there may be multiple optimum solutions. x1 = (1 – t ) ⎜ ⎟ + 0t = 9 9 9 ⎝ ⎠ Z 0 10 ⎤ 53 0 1 ⎥⎥ 1 0 12 ⎥ 6 ⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎦ 1 9 1 9 1 –1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 Here Z = For the last table. Thus. x3 = 0. there may be multiple optimum solutions. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. x3 = 4. s1 ⎡ 9 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 4 s3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ –5 x1 ⎡3 s1 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ s3 ⎢ 9 Z ⎢7 ⎣⎢ x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 3 –2 1 0 0 2 –1 0 1 0 –4 1 0 0 1 –6 –1 0 0 0 x2 x3 s1 0 0 x1 ⎡ x2 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎢4 s3 ⎢ Z ⎢⎢ 0 ⎣ 5⎤ 5 3 2 ⎥⎥ 1 3⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ s2 s3 Z 0 0 2⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 1⎥ 2 ⎥ 2 1 0 7⎥ ⎥ 3 0 1 6⎥ ⎦ 1 – 32 0 – 12 1 – Z 0 0 0 1 Section 7. For the last table. x2 = . we return to the third table. x3 = 0. s ⎡ 6 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 s3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ –2 x1 s1 ⎡ 0 ⎢ x1 ⎢1 s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ Z ⎢⎣ 0 x1 ⎡ x2 ⎢ 0 x1 ⎢1 ⎢ ⎢ s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ Z ⎢0 ⎣ x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z s1 ⎡ 2 1 1 1 0 0 7 ⎤ 72 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 4 1 0 0 1 0 6 ⎥ 3 2 Z ⎢ –6 –2 –1 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z s1 ⎡ 0 1 1 1 – 12 0 4 ⎤ 4 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 1 1 x1 1 0 0 4 0 2 ⎥⎥ 4 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 3 1 Z ⎢ 0 – 2 –1 0 2 1 9 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z x3 ⎡ 0 12 1 1 – 12 0 4 ⎤ 8 ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢1 14 0 0 14 0 32 ⎥ 6 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 0 1 1 1 13⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Z has a maximum value of 13 when 3 x1 = . the problem has an unbounded solution. we have x1 = 249 . 3 3 Thus multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is maximum when 13 13 ⎛ 13 ⎞ – t. x2 = 0. To obtain a standard linear programming problem. x3 is the entering variable. Since no quotients exist. we have 4 ⎤ 9 ⎥ 13 ⎥ 9 ⎥ 13 3 86 ⎥ 9 ⎥ 10 ⎥ 3 ⎥⎦ 10 when 3 13 4 . Z 0 4⎤ 4 9 0 1 ⎥⎥ 0 10 ⎥ 10 ⎥ 1 2⎥ ⎦ s2 0 Z 10 10 when x1 = 0. we write the second constraint as 4 x1 + x 2 ≤ 6 . x1 8. 9 9 ⎝9⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x3 = (1 – t )(0) + 0t = 0.5 1 2 0 –1 0 –4 0 x2 x3 3 –3 –1 1 –1 2 –1 4 s1 1 0 0 0 s2 0 1 0 0 s3 0 0 1 0 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 9 –9 1 –6 0 –1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 –2 1 –3 6 0 2 0 x2 x3 s1 1 –1 s3 Z – 23 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 – 19 – 43 1 0 0 3 1 3 0 0 1 Z has a maximum value of 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 10 ⎤ 3⎥ 13 ⎥ 3⎥ 46 ⎥ 3 ⎥ 10 ⎥ 3 ⎦⎥ 4 26 ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ x2 = (1 – t ) ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ t = + t . x2 = . 9.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 7. Since x2 is nonbasic for 2 the last table and its indicator is 0. if we continue the process for determining other optimum solutions. x1 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. Since s2 is nonbasic 9 9 for the last table and its indicator is 0. Treating s2 as an entering variable.

there is no optimum solution. Hence Z is maximum when 3 3 ⎛3⎞ x1 = (1 – t ) ⎜ ⎟ + 0t = – t . respectively. x1 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. If we were to initially choose s2 as the departing variable. For the last table. x3 = 150. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 1 1 1 0 0 0 400 ⎤ 400 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 600 ⎥⎥ 300 s2 ⎢ 3 5 0 0 1 0 1500 ⎥ 300 s3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ R ⎣⎢ –24 –32 –48 0 0 0 1 ⎦ 250 . x3 = (1 – t )(4) + (1)t = 4 – 3t . x2 = 250. hence. x2 = 100. Thus. we return to the third table. Let x1 . and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. x2 . s ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 1 −1 0 0 1 0 0 3⎥ 3 1 −3 1 0 0 1 0 4⎥ 4 s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢⎣ −1 −2 −1 −2 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 P s1 ⎡ 1 0 −1 0 1 1 0 0 5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 −1 0 0 1 0 0 3⎥ 1 0 −1 1 0 1⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 0 −2 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢⎣ −1 0 −3 −2 0 2 0 1 6 ⎦⎥ Now x3 is the entering variable but no quotients exist. Thus multiple optimum solutions exist. 200 ⎥ ⎦ 0 – 12 1 – 12 0 0 0 Here R = 15. x1 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. x1 . then 11. we have 3 5 1 5 x2 = (1 – t )(0) + 6t = 6t . rockers.200 when x1 = 0. 2 5 – 15 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 5 1 0 x2 ⎡ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 0 s2 2 ⎢ ⎢– 0 1 – 32 x3 ⎢ 8 R ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 1 2 s3 R 250 ⎤ ⎥ 0 50 ⎥ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ 150 2 ⎥ 8 1 15. If we continue the process for determining other optimum solutions. there may be multiple optimum solutions. Since s2 is nonbasic for the last table and its indicator is 0. Thus multiple optimum solutions exist. the feasible region is unbounded and. x1 + x2 + 2 x3 ≤ 600. 400 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 100 ⎤ x2 ⎡ 0 1 0 1 –3 1 0 ⎢1 0 0 1 2 –1 0 100 ⎥⎥ 50 x1 ⎢ 200 ⎥ 200 x3 ⎢ 0 0 1 –1 1 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15. Treating s2 as an entering variable.200 when x1 = 100. If we continue the process for determining other optimum solutions. and chaise lounges produced. 200 ⎦⎥ The maximum value of R is 15. x3 = 200. we return to the fourth table. 400 ⎥ ⎣ 5 ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 100 ⎤ 100 s1 ⎡0 1 0 1 –3 1 0 ⎢1 –1 0 0 5 –2 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 x1 ⎢ 300 ⎥ 300 x3 ⎢0 1 1 0 –2 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢⎣0 –8 0 0 24 0 1 14.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis choosing s3 as departing variable x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z ⎡ x3 –2 0 1 1 –1 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 4 1 0 0 1 0 6 ⎥ Z ⎢ 0 0 0 1 1 1 13⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Here Z = 13 when x1 = 0. x3 = 1. x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 P 10. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. and x3 denote the numbers of chairs. x2 . Hence R is maximum when x1 = (1 – t )(100) + 0t = 100 – 100t . 2 2 ⎝2⎠ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R ⎡ 0 1 0 – 15 0 100 ⎤ 500 s1 ⎢ ⎥ 3 2 0 ⎢ ⎥0 0 0 1 – 0 s2 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ 3 1 1 0 0 5 0 300 ⎥ x3 ⎢ 5 5 750 ⎢ 24 ⎥ 16 48 R ⎢– – 5 0 0 0 5 1 14. x3 ≥ 0. We want to maximize R = 24 x1 + 32 x2 + 48 x3 subject to x1 + x2 + x3 ≤ 400. For the last table. 2 x1 + 3x2 + 5 x3 ≤ 1500. x2 = (1 – t )(100) + 250t = 100 + 150t x3 = (1 – t )(200) + 150t = 200 – 50t . x2 = 6.

000 subject to the constraints 251 . 400 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 1 1 1 ⎡ 50 ⎤ 100 s2 ⎢ 2 0 0 2 1 – 2 0 ⎥ ⎢– 1 0 1 – 3 0 1 0 150 ⎥ x3 ⎢ 2 2 2 ⎥ ⎢ 3 5 1 x2 ⎢ 2 1 0 2 0 – 2 0 250 ⎥⎥ 500 3 R ⎢ 0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15.200 when x1 = 100 – 100t . The quantity to be maximized is the profit P = 40 x1 + 60 x2 + 45(1000 – x1 ) + 50(800 – x2 ) = –5 x1 + 10 x2 + 85. x2 = 250.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 x3 1 1 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 s2 ⎢ ⎢ 2 3 5 s3 ⎢ R ⎣⎢ –24 –32 –48 Section 7. the maximum revenue is $15. 400 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 100 ⎤ 50 s1 ⎡ 1 0 0 1 2 –1 0 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 3 –1 0 300 ⎥⎥ 100 x3 ⎢ 0 ⎥ x2 ⎢ –1 1 0 0 –5 2 0 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢⎣ –8 0 0 0 –16 16 1 14.6 1. The constraints for plant I are x1 + x2 ≤ 1200 and x2 – x1 ≤ 200. Thus. x2 = 100 + 150t . s2 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. x3 = 200 – 50t . x3 = 200.200 when x1 = 100. For the last table. x3 = 150. we return to the table corresponding to the solution x1 = 0. x1 is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. 200 ⎥ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ the maximum value of R is 15. x2 = 250. we have x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 100 ⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 0 1 2 –1 0 ⎢ 0 0 1 –1 1 0 0 200 ⎥⎥ x3 ⎢ 100 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 1 –3 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ R ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15. Treating x1 as an entering variable.6 s1 s2 s3 R 1 0 0 0 400 ⎤ 400 0 1 0 0 600 ⎥⎥ 300 0 0 1 0 1500 ⎥ 300 ⎥ 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 R 1 ⎡ s1 12 0 1 – 12 0 0 100 ⎤ 200 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎥ 600 x3 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 300 2 2 ⎢ 2 ⎥ s3 ⎢ – 1 1 0 0 – 5 1 0 0 ⎥ 0 2 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ R ⎢⎢ 0 –8 0 0 24 0 1 14.200 when x1 = 0. and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 Principles in Practice 7. For the last table. The constraints for plant II are (1000 – x1 ) + (800 – x2 ) ≤ 1000 or x1 + x2 ≥ 800. If we continue the process of determining other optimum solutions. 200 ⎥⎦ Here R = 15. Using the hint. 1000 – x1 standard and 800 – x2 deluxe snowboards must be manufactured at plant II. x3 = 150. x2 = 100.

252 . Plant I should manufacture 500 standard and 700 deluxe snowboards. x1 + x2 – s3 + t = 800. and x1 . – x1 + x2 + s2 = 200. x2 ≥ 0 .500. The maximum profit is P = –5(500) + 10(700) + 85. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z s ⎡0 0 1 0 1 0 400 ⎤ 3 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 700 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 12 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 x1 ⎢ 1 0 2 − 2 0 0 500 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 5 15 0 0 4500 ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ Thus. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t W 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1200 ⎤ ⎡ s1 ⎢ –1 1 0 1 0 0 0 200 ⎥⎥ s2 ⎢ 1 0 0 −1 1 0 800 ⎥ t ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣5 – M –10 – M 0 0 M 0 1 −800M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t W 2 0 1 0 0 0 1000 −1 ⎤ s1 ⎡ ⎢ –1 ⎥ 1 0 1 0 0 0 200 x2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ −1 1 0 2 0 0 –1 600 t ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢ –5 – 2M 0 0 10 + M M 0 1 2000 − 600 M ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t W −1 0 400 ⎤ 0 1 s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 0 x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 −2 500 ⎥ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 – 1 − 1 300 ⎥ 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ – 52 52 + M 1 3500 ⎥ W ⎢ 0 0 0 15 2 ⎣ ⎦ Delete the t-column since t = 0 and return to Z. Note that maximizing Z = –5 x1 + 10 x2 also maximizes the profit. and Z = 4500. Plant II should manufacture 1000 – 500 = 500 standard and 800 – 700 = 100 deluxe snowboards. x2 = 700. The artificial objective equation is W = –5 x1 + 10 x2 – Mt. x1 = 500. The augmented coefficient matrix is: x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t W 1 1 0 0 0 0 1200 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ –1 1 0 1 0 0 0 200 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 –1 1 0 800 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎢⎣ 5 –10 0 0 0 M 1 ⎦ The simplex tables follow. – x1 + x2 ≤ 200. The corresponding equations are: x1 + x2 + s1 = 1200. x1 + x2 ≥ 800.000 = $89.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 + x2 ≤ 1200.

253 .6 x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W 1. x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W 2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. x2 = 5 . ⎡ 1 2 1 0 0 0 8⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 6 0 –1 1 0 12 ⎥ ⎢ –3 –4 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W 2 1 0 0 0 8 ⎤4 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 6 0 –1 1 0 12 ⎥ 2 t2 ⎢ 1 W ⎢ –3 – M –4 – 6 M 0 M 0 1 –12 M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W − 13 0 4⎤ 6 s1 ⎡ 23 0 1 13 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 −1 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ 12 x2 ⎢ 6 6 6 ⎢ 7 ⎥ 2 2 W ⎢− 3 0 0 − 3 3 + M 1 8⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 Z 3 1 0 x1 ⎡ 1 0 6⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 – 1 – 1 0 1 4 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 7 1 1 22 ⎥ 0 0 Z ⎢ ⎥⎦ 2 2 ⎣ The maximum is Z = 22 when x1 = 6. x2 = 1 . ⎡ 1 1 1 0 0 0 6⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ –1 1 0 –1 1 0 4 ⎥ ⎢ –2 –1 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W 1 1 0 0 0 6 ⎤6 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 –1 1 0 4 ⎥4 t2 ⎢ –1 W ⎢ –2 + M –1 – M 0 M 0 1 –4M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t2 W –1 0 2 ⎤ 1 s1 ⎡ 2 0 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 4⎥ x2 ⎢ –1 1 0 –1 W ⎢ –3 0 0 –1 M + 1 1 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 Z ⎡ 1 0 1⎤ x1 1 0 1 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 1 – 1 0 5⎥ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 1 1 7⎥ Z ⎢0 0 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ The maximum is Z = 7 when x1 = 1.6 Problems 7.

⎡ 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ –1 1 1 0 –1 1 0 1⎥ ⎢ –2 –1 1 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W ⎡ s1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 5 ⎤ 52 ⎢ ⎥ t2 ⎢ –1 1 1 0 –1 1 0 1 ⎥ 1 W ⎢ –2 + M –1 – M 1 – M 0 M 0 1 – M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W s1 ⎡ 3 0 –1 1 2 –2 0 3⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ –1 1 1 0 −1 1 0 1⎥ W ⎢ –3 0 2 0 –1 1 + M 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z 2 0 1⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 – 1 1 3 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ 2 1 – 1 0 2⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 3 3 3 ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢0 0 1 1 1 1 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The maximum is Z = 4 when x1 = 1. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 9⎤ ⎥ 4. ⎢ 1 0 –1 1 0 6 ⎥ ⎢ 1 –2 ⎢ –1 1 –4 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s1 ⎡ 1 1 1 1 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 1 –2 1 0 ⎢ W –1 – M 1 + 2M –4 – M 0 ⎣ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W s1 ⎡ 0 3 0 1 1 –1 0 ⎢ x3 ⎢1 –2 1 0 –1 1 0 ⎢ W 3 –7 0 0 –4 4 + M 1 ⎣ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z x2 ⎡ 0 1 0 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎢1 0 1 ⎢ Z ⎢3 0 0 ⎣ 1 3 1 3 2 3 7 3 – 13 – 53 s2 t2 W 0 0 0 9 ⎤9 ⎥ –1 1 0 6 ⎥6 M 0 1 –6 M ⎥ ⎦ 3 ⎤1 ⎥ 6⎥ 24 ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎤3 ⎥ 0 8 ⎥⎥ ⎥ 1 31⎥ ⎦ 0 254 .Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W 3. x3 = 0 . x2 = 2.

and x3 = 0. ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0 10 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 6⎥ ⎢ 1 −1 −1 0 ⎢ −3 −2 −1 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 t2 W s1 ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0 10 ⎤ 10 ⎢ ⎥ −1 −1 0 1 0 t2 ⎢ 1 6⎥ 6 W ⎢ −3 − M −2 + M −1 + M 0 0 1 −6M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 t2 W ⎡ s1 0 2 2 1 −1 0 4 ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 −1 −1 0 1 0 6⎥ W ⎢0 −5 −4 0 3 + M 1 18⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 W ⎡ x2 0 1 1 1 0 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢⎢ 1 0 0 12 0 8⎥⎥ Z ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 5 1 28⎥⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ The maximum is Z = 28 when x1 = 8.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. x2 = 2. x1 x2 x3 s1 t1 t2 W ⎡ 0 1 –2 −1 1 0 0 5⎤ 6. ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 7⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 ⎢ –2 –1 –3 0 M M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 t1 t2 W t1 ⎡ 0 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 1 W ⎢ –2 – M ⎣ x1 x2 ⎡ 0 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 1 W ⎢ –2 – M ⎣ 1 1 –1 – 2 M x2 –2 1 –3 + M x3 1 –2 0 3 0 –5 – 3M s1 –1 1 0 0 5 ⎤5 ⎥ 0 0 1 0 7 ⎥7 M 0 0 1 –12 M ⎥ ⎦ t1 t2 W –1 1 1 –1 –1 – M 1 + 2 M 0 0 5 ⎤ ⎥ 1 0 2 ⎥ 23 0 1 5 – 2M ⎥ ⎦ 255 . x1 x2 x3 s1 t2 W 5.6 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z ⎡ s2 0 3 0 1 1 0 3⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 1 1 1 1 0 0 9 ⎥ Z ⎢ 3 5 0 4 0 1 36 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The maximum is Z = 36 when x1 = 0. x3 = 9 . x2 = 0.

t3 = 0. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 W 7. The maximum is Z = –17 when x1 = 3. x3 = 0. Thus W = Z. x2 = 5. ⎡ 1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 1⎤ ⎢ 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 8⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 –1 1 0 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ –1 10 0 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 W 1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 1 ⎤1 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 8 ⎥⎥ 8 s2 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 1 0 5 ⎥5 t3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –1 – M 10 – M 0 0 M 0 1 –5M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 W –1 1 0 0 0 0 1 ⎤ x1 ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎥7 3 –1 1 0 0 0 7 s2 ⎢ ⎥3 2 –1 0 –1 1 0 4 ⎥2 t3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ 0 9 – 2M 1 + M 0 M 0 1 1 – 4M ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 W 1 0 –1 1 0 3⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 0 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 3 3 0 1 1 s2 ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ – 1 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 – 1 0 – 1 2 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 9 – 9 + M 1 –17 ⎥ 0 W ⎢⎢ 0 0 11 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦⎥ For the above table. x2 = 2 .Chapter 7: Linear Programming x1 x2 x3 ⎡ x2 ⎢ 23 ⎢ x3 ⎢ 13 ⎢ 1 W ⎢⎣⎢ − 3 s1 t1 1 0 – 13 0 1 1 3 1 3 1 –3 0 0 2 3 – 23 + M x1 x2 x3 s1 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis t2 W 2 3 1 3 5 3 +M 0 19 ⎤ 19 3⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 1 25 3 ⎦⎥ 0 Z x2 ⎡ 0 1 −2 −1 0 5 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢1 0 3 1 0 2 ⎥ W ⎢0 0 1 1 1 9 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The maximum is Z = 9 when x1 = 2. 256 .

We write the third constraint as – x1 + x2 + x3 ≥ 6. ⎡ 1 1 –1 –1 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ –1 –4 1 0 x1 x2 t1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 t3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ –1 – 2M x1 s2 t1 s1 1 –1 –1 1 1 0 –1 1 0 –4 1 M x2 t3 W 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 M M x3 x3 Section 7. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1⎤ ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 –1 0 1 0 0 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ –1 1 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 6⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ –3 2 –1 0 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 ⎤1 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 –1 0 1 0 0 2 ⎥⎥ 2 t2 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 6 ⎥6 t3 ⎢ –1 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –3 2 –1 – 2 M 0 M M 0 0 1 –8M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1⎤ x3 ⎡ ⎢ 0 –2 0 –1 –1 0 1 0 0 1⎥⎥ t2 ⎢ –2 0 0 –1 0 –1 0 1 0 5⎥ t3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢ –2 + 2 M 3 + 2 M 0 1 + 2 M M M 0 0 1 1 – 6 M ⎦⎥ There is no solution (empty feasible region).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 x3 s1 8. 0 0 1 0 0 2⎤ 0 3⎥⎥ 0 4⎥ ⎥ 1 3 – 6M ⎥ ⎦ 9.6 0 0 0 1 s2 t1 0 1 0 0 s1 1 0 0 0 5⎤ 3⎥⎥ 7⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ t3 W 0 0 1 0 0 5 ⎤5 0 3 ⎥⎥ 3 0 7 ⎥7 ⎥ 1 –12M ⎥ ⎦ s2 t1 t3 W 0 –2 –1 –1 1 t1 ⎡0 ⎢1 1 1 0 1 0 x1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 –2 0 0 –1 0 t3 ⎢ W ⎢⎣0 –3 + 2 M 2 + 2M M 1 + 2 M 0 There is no solution (empty feasible region). 257 .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming x1 x2 10. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 1 0 1 0 2 0 –2 0 4⎤ 2 ⎡ s1 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 6 1 –6 0 0 ⎥⎥ 0 t2 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 2⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –1 – M 0 0 M –4 – 6M 0 4 + 7 M 1 8 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 2 1 1 ⎡ –3 0 0 4 ⎤ 12 s1 ⎢ 3 0 1 3 0 ⎥ ⎥ s3 ⎢ 1 0 0 – 1 1 1 –1 0 0 6 6 ⎢ 6 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ 1 0 1 1 0 – 0 0 2 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 6 6 6 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 2 2 W ⎢ – 3 0 0 – 3 0 3 + M M 1 8⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z ⎡ 2 0 3 1 0 0 12 ⎤ s2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 s3 ⎢ 2 0 2 0 1 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 ⎥ 2 2 Z ⎢ 1 0 2 0 0 1 16 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ Thus the maximum value of Z is 16. ⎡ 1 2 ⎢ 1 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 ⎢ –1 –4 ⎣⎢ x1 1 ⎡ s1 ⎢ 1 t2 ⎢ t3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ –1 – M s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 1 0 0 0 0 0 –1 0 1 0 0 0 –1 0 1 0 0 0 M M ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis W 0 0 0 1 x2 s1 s2 s3 2 1 0 0 6 0 –1 0 1 0 0 –1 –4 – 7 M 0 M M 8⎤ 12 ⎥⎥ 2⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ t2 0 1 0 0 t3 0 0 1 0 W 0 8 ⎤4 0 12 ⎥⎥ 2 0 2 ⎥2 ⎥ 1 –14 M ⎥ ⎦ Here we choose t3 as the departing variable. If we choose t2 as the original departing variable. x2 = 4. then x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 ⎤4 ⎡ s1 ⎢ 1 6 0 –1 0 1 0 0 12 ⎥⎥ 2 t2 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 2 ⎥2 t3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –1 – M –4 – 7 M 0 M M 0 0 1 –14 M ⎥⎦ 258 . when x1 = 0.

x2 = 4 . t2 = t3 = 0. The maximum is Z = 2 when x1 = 6. W 0 4 ⎤ 12 ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 1 8⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s3 t2 t3 W 11. ⎡ 1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 4 ⎤ ⎢ –1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 6⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 –2 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s3 t2 t3 W 1 –1 1 0 0 0 0 4 ⎤ ⎡ s1 ⎢ –1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥⎥ 4 t2 ⎢ 0 0 –1 0 1 0 6 ⎥ t3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ 3 –2 – M 0 M 0 0 1 –10 M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s3 t2 t3 W 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8 ⎤ s1 ⎡ ⎢ –1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 ⎥⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 0 –1 0 1 0 6 ⎥6 t3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣1 – M 0 0 M 2 + M 0 1 8 – 6M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 s1 s3 t2 t3 W 1 0 0 8⎤ s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ 0 1 0 –1 1 1 0 10 ⎥⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 6⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 1 2 + M –1 + M 1 2 ⎦⎥ For the above table.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. x2 = 10 . 259 . Thus W = Z.6 x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 2 1 1 ⎡ 0 1 0 –3 0 s1 ⎢ 3 3 1 1 x2 ⎢ 1 0 – 16 0 0 6 6 ⎢ 1 ⎢ –1 0 0 –1 – 16 1 6 6 t3 ⎢ ⎢ W ⎢– 1 + 1 M 0 0 – 2 – 1 M M 2 + 7 M 0 3 6 3 6 ⎣ 3 6 x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2 t3 W –2 0 4⎤ 2 s1 ⎡ 1 0 1 0 2 0 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 –1 0 1 0 2 ⎥⎥ x2 ⎢ 6 0 0⎥ s2 ⎢ –1 0 0 1 –6 –1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –1 0 0 0 –4 M 4 + M 1 8 ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z s3 ⎡ 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢2 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 ⎥ 2 ⎢2 ⎥ s2 ⎢ 2 0 3 1 0 0 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Z ⎢⎣ 1 0 2 0 0 1 16 ⎥⎦ The maximum is Z = 16 when x1 = 0.

x2 ≥ 0. x1 .Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12. Thus W = Z. We write the first constraint as − x1 + 2 x2 ≤ 12. x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 W 3 1 0 0 0 0 400 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ 3 4 0 1 0 0 0 500 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3 4 0 0 –1 1 0 250 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ –35 –40 0 0 0 M 1 0⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ x1 2 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 3 s2 ⎢ ⎢ 3 t3 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ –35 − 3M x2 s1 s2 s3 3 1 0 4 4 –40 – 4 M t3 W 400 ⎤ 400 3 0 1 0 0 0 500 ⎥⎥ 125 0 0 –1 1 0 250 ⎥ 125 ⎥ 2 0 0 M 0 1 –250M ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 260 . each week. 3x1 + 4 x2 ≤ 500. The maximum is Z = −40 when x1 = 4 and x2 = 6. t2 = t3 = 0. 3x1 + 4 x2 ≥ 250. 3 2 1 −2 1 2 1 2 1 −2 − 12 − 32 1 2 1 −2 13. The artificial objective function is W = P – Mt3 . respectively. Let x1 and x2 denote the numbers of Standard and Executive bookcases produced. x1 ⎡ −1 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ −2 x2 s1 2 1 1 8 s2 s3 t2 t3 W 1 0 0 0 0 0 −1 0 1 0 0 0 −1 0 1 0 0 0 M M x1 x2 s1 2 s1 ⎡ −1 ⎢ −1 1 t2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 t3 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ −2 8 − 2M x1 x2 1 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 1 − x2 ⎢ 2 t3 ⎢ ⎢ W ⎣⎢ 6 − 2M x1 x2 s1 0 1 0 0 s2 s3 0 12 ⎤ 0 2 ⎥⎥ 0 10 ⎥ ⎥ 1 0⎥ ⎦ t2 t3 W 1 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 −1 0 M M 0 1 0 0 s1 s3 s2 0 0 1 0 0 12 ⎤ 6 0 2 ⎥⎥ 2 0 10 ⎥ 10 ⎥ 1 −12 M ⎥ ⎦ t2 t3 W 1 2 0 −2 0 1 −1 0 0 1 −1 −1 0 8 − M M −8 + 2M s2 s3 t2 0 0 1 0 0 8⎤ 8 0 2 ⎥⎥ 0 8⎥ 4 ⎥ 1 −16 − 8M ⎥ ⎦ t3 W s1 ⎡ 0 0 1 − 12 0 4⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 6 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 4 2 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢0 0 0 5 3 −5 + M −3 + M 1 −40 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ For the above table. We want to maximize the profit function P = 35 x1 + 40 x2 subject to 2 x1 + 3x2 ≤ 400.

x. y and z denote the numbers of units of products X. Thus the company should produce 166 Standard and 0 Executive bookcases each week. the company should produce 14. x2 = 0 does not satisfy the constraint 3x1 + 4 x2 ≤ 500. while x1 = 166.6 W ⎤ 850 ⎥ 3 0 250 ⎥ 250 ⎥ 0 125 2 ⎥ ⎥ 1 2500 ⎥ ⎦ 0 425 2 s2 s3 P s1 ⎡ – 1 0 1 – 3 0 0 25 ⎤ 4 ⎢ 4 ⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 0 0 1 1 0 250 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 34 1 0 14 0 0 125 ⎥ 500 3 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢ –5 0 0 10 0 1 5000 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 P 200 ⎤ s1 ⎡0 1 1 – 2 0 0 3 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ s3 ⎢0 0 0 1 1 0 250 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 500 1 0 0 x1 ⎢ 1 4 0 3 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ P ⎢0 20 0 35 0 1 17. The artificial objective function is W = P – Mt3 . x2 = 0 satisfies all of the constraints. note that x1 = 167. and Z produced each week. z ≥ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 s1 s1 ⎡ – 1 0 1 ⎢ 4 s2 ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 3 1 0 4 ⎢ W ⎢ –5 0 0 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t3 0 3 4 – 3 4 1 1 –1 0 – 1 4 1 4 0 –10 10 + M Section 7. respectively. We want to maximize the profit function P = 50x + 60y + 75z subject to x + 2 y + 2 z ≤ 40. z ≥ 5. x + y + 2 z ≤ 30. Since an integer answer is preferable. This table indicates that.500 3 3 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 500 2 = 166 Standard and 0 Executive 3 3 bookcases. y. Let x. to maximize profit. Y. x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 30 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 0 –1 1 0 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ –50 –60 –75 0 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ x y z s1 2 2 1 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 s2 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 t3 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ –50 –60 –75 – M 0 s2 s3 t3 W 0 0 0 0 40 ⎤ 20 1 0 0 0 30 ⎥⎥ 15 0 –1 1 0 5 ⎥ 5 ⎥ 0 M 0 1 –5M ⎥ ⎦ 261 .

3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ –0. AA.08 x1I + 0.07 – 2M –0.06 x3 I .06 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s2 s3 t1 t2 W 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 ⎤ 1 ⎡ t1 ⎢ 0 1 1 –1 0 0 1 0 0. x1 + x2 ≤ 0.5 ⎥⎥ 0.50.5⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.08 x1 + 0. and AAA bonds.06 x3 .5M ⎥⎦ 262 .3 s3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –0.07 x2 I + 0.06 – 2 M M 0 0 0 1 –1. x1 .07 x2 + 0. x3 ≥ 0. x2 + x3 ≥ 0.3 ⎥ 0.08 –0. respectively. If Z is the total annual yield expressed as a proportion of I. We want to maximize Z subject to x1 + x2 + x3 = 1. x1 x2 x3 s2 s3 t1 t2 W 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 1 1 –1 0 0 1 0 0. The artificial objective function is W = Z – Mt1 – Mt2 .07 –0. Z = 0. Suppose I is the total investment. x2 . x2 . and x3 be the proportions invested in A.30. and 5 units of Z for a maximum profit of $1475 15.08 – M –0.Chapter 7: Linear Programming x y 2 s1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 s2 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 z ⎢ W ⎣⎢ –50 –60 z s1 s2 0 1 0 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis s3 2 t3 –2 0 0 1 2 –2 1 0 0 –1 1 0 0 0 –75 75 + M W 0 30 ⎤ 15 0 20 ⎥⎥ 10 0 5 ⎥ ⎥ 1 375⎥ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 P 1 0 1 –1 0 0 10 ⎤ 10 ⎡ 0 s1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 0 12 1 0 10 ⎥ 20 2 s3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 1 1 0 12 0 0 15 ⎥ 30 z⎢ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢ – 25 – 45 0 0 75 0 1 1125⎥ 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 P 0 1 0 1 –1 0 0 10 ⎤ ⎡ y ⎢ 1 ⎥ 0 0 – 12 1 1 0 5 ⎥ 10 s3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎥ 1 z⎢ 1 ⎥ 20 0 1 – 1 0 0 10 2 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 25 45 P ⎢⎢ – 2 0 0 2 15 0 1 1350 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 P 0 1 0 1 –1 0 0 10 ⎤ ⎡ y ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 2 2 0 10 ⎥⎥ x⎢ 5⎥ z ⎢ 0 0 1 0 0 –1 0 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 10 40 25 1 1475⎥⎦ The production order should be 10 units of X. 10 units of Y. or equivalently. Let x1 . then ZI = 0.5 t2 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.

06 + 2M 1 0.2 M ⎥ ⎦ s3 t1 t2 W –1 0 1 –1 1 –1 0 0.5M ⎥ ⎦ s2 s3 t1 t2 W 1 –1 1 –1 0 0. Problems 7.7 ⎥ 1 0 0.01 0 0.054 – 0.01 0 0 0.021 – 0. Thus W = Z. 0% in AA. t1 = t2 = 0.3 ⎥ –0.033 – 0.2 ⎥ –1 0 0 1 0 0.3 0 1 0 0 0 0.6%.2 ⎥ ⎥ 0.7 x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W 1.01 + M 0 –0.9 M ⎥ ⎦ t2 –1 ⎤ 0.06 + 2 M 1 0.07 + 2 M 0 x1 1 ⎡ t1 ⎢ –1 x3 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ –0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.2 ⎥ 0 0 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0 0.06 + M M 1 0.08 + M 0 0. and 70% in AAA for a yield of 6.7 ⎥⎥ x3 ⎢ 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.02 0. The fund should put 30% in A bonds. ⎡ 1 −1 –1 0 1 0 0 ⎢ 1 0 ⎢ 2 1 0 –1 0 ⎢2 5 0 0 M M 1 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 ⎡ t1 1 −1 –1 0 1 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 2 1 0 –1 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ 2 − 3M 5 M M 0 x1 x2 s1 s2 3 1 t1 ⎡0 −2 –1 2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x1 ⎢1 0 – 12 2 W ⎢⎢0 4 + 3 M M 1 − 1 M 2 2 ⎣ 7⎤ ⎥ 9⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ t2 W ⎤7 ⎥ 1 0 9 ⎥ 92 ⎥ 0 1 –16M ⎥ ⎦ t1 t2 W 0 0 7 1 − 12 0 1 2 −1 + 32 0 ⎤5 ⎥ ⎥ 9 0 2 ⎥ ⎥ 1 –9 − 52 M ⎥ ⎦ 0 M 5 2 263 .066 ⎥⎦ For the above table.3 ⎥ 0 1 0.2 ⎤ 0.5 ⎥ –1 –1 0 1 0 0.06 – M 0.5 ⎤ 0.7 x1 x2 x3 s2 s3 t1 0 0 1 0 –1 1 t1 ⎡ ⎢ –1 0 1 –1 –1 0 t2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 x2 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ –0.3 ⎥ –0.7 W 0 0.3⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣0 0.07 –M W ⎢⎣ x2 x3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 x1 x2 x3 0 –1 0 t1 ⎡ ⎢ 1 1 x3 ⎢0 1 0 x1 ⎢1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣0 0.06 – 2 M M 0.2 ⎤ s2 ⎡0 ⎢0 0 1 0 –1 1 0 0 0.2 ⎥ 0.07 + M 0 x1 x2 x3 s2 s2 1 s3 t1 0 1 t2 W 0 0 0.06 – M 0.

264 . ⎡ 2 2 –1 0 1 0 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 2⎥ ⎢ 1 3 0 –1 0 ⎢ 8 12 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s2 s3 t1 t2 W 1 t1 ⎡ 2 2 –1 0 1 0 0 1 ⎤2 ⎢ ⎥ t2 ⎢ 1 3 0 –1 0 1 0 2 ⎥ 23 W ⎢8 – 3M 12 – 5M M M 0 0 1 –3M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W ⎡ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ t2 ⎢ –2 W⎢ ⎢ –4 + 2M ⎣⎢ x1 x2 s1 ⎡ 1 0 x2 ⎢ s1 ⎢ – 0 1 ⎢ W⎢ 4 0 0 ⎣ 1 3 4 3 1 – 12 0 0 3 2 –1 0 6 – 32 M s2 t1 – 13 – 23 0 –1 M 1 2 – 23 –6 + 52 M t2 W 1 3 2 3 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥1 1 0 ⎥3 ⎥ 0 1 –6 – 12 M ⎥ ⎦⎥ 1 2 1 2 0 0 2⎤ 3⎥ 1⎥ 3⎥ 1 –8⎥ ⎦ 2 The minimum is Z = 8 when x1 = 0. −1 0 x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W 2. 4 M –4 + M x1 x2 x3 s t W 1 –1 –1 –1 1 0 18⎤ ⎡ ⎢12 6 3 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎦⎥ x1 x2 x3 s t W 1 –1 –1 –1 1 0 18 ⎤ 18 ⎡ t ⎢12 – M 6 + M 3 + M M 0 1 –18M ⎥ W ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ x1 x2 x3 s t W 1 0 18⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 –1 –1 –1 ⎢0 18 15 12 –12 + M 1 –216 ⎥ W ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ The minimum is Z = 216 when x1 = 18.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 ⎡ s2 0 −3 –2 1 2 ⎢ x1 ⎢ 1 −1 −1 0 1 ⎢ W 0 7 2 0 –2 + M ⎣ The minimum is Z = 14 when t2 W 5⎤ ⎥ 0 0 7⎥ M 1 –14 ⎥ ⎦ x1 = 7. x2 = 0. x2 = 0. x2 = . x3 = 0 . 3 3.

x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 W ⎡ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 6⎤ ⎢ –1 0 1 0 –1 0 1 0 4 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2 3 1 0 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 W 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 ⎤6 s1 ⎡ ⎢ –1 0 1 0 –1 0 1 0 4 ⎥⎥ 4 t2 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 ⎥5 s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ 2 + M 3 1 – M 0 M 0 0 1 –4 M ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 s3 t2 W –1 0 2 ⎤ s1 ⎡ 2 1 0 1 1 0 ⎢ –1 0 1 0 –1 0 1 0 4 ⎥⎥ x3 ⎢ –1 0 1⎥ s3 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢ 3 3 0 0 1 0 –1 + M 1 –4 ⎦⎥ The minimum is Z = 4 when x1 = 0. ⎡1 2 –1 –1 1 0 4 ⎤ ⎢1 1 2 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎦⎥ x1 x2 x3 s t W 2 –1 –1 1 0 4 ⎤2 t ⎡ 1 ⎢1 – M 1 – 2M 2 + M M 0 1 –4 M ⎥ W ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 1 0 x2 ⎡ 1 1 – 1 – 1 2⎤ 2 2 2 ⎢2 ⎥ 5 1 – 1 + M 1 –2 ⎥ ⎢1 0 2 2 2 W ⎣⎢ 2 ⎦⎥ The minimum is Z = 2 when x1 = 0. x3 = 0 . We write the second constraint as – x1 + x3 ≥ 4. x2 = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. x3 = 4 . x1 ⎡3 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢ 5 ⎣⎢ x2 x3 s1 s2 1 −1 1 0 2 1 1 t3 W 0 0 4⎤ 2 0 1 0 0 0 5⎥⎥ 1 0 0 −1 1 0 2 ⎥ ⎥ 3 0 0 0 M 1 0⎥ ⎦ x1 3 x2 1 s3 0 x3 s1 s2 s3 t3 W −1 1 0 0 0 0 4⎤ 4 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 5⎥⎥ 52 s2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 −1 1 0 2⎥ 2 t3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎣⎢5 − M 1 − M 3 − M 0 0 M 0 1 −2M ⎦⎥ 265 . 5. x2 = 2.7 x1 x2 x3 s t W 4. 6.

and x3 = 0. x2 = 0. x1 x2 x3 1 ⎡1 2 ⎢0 1 1 ⎢ ⎢1 1 0 ⎢ 1 –1 –3 ⎣⎢ s3 0 x1 1 ⎡ t1 ⎢ 0 t2 ⎢ s3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣1 – M x1 t1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 0 s3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣1 – M x1 x2 x1 ⎡1 0 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 0 1 s3 ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ 0 0 x2 2 x1 x1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ x3 ⎢ 0 s3 ⎢ 0 ⎢ – Z ⎣⎢ 0 t1 t2 W 1 0 0 4⎤ 0 0 1 0 1⎥⎥ 1 0 0 0 6⎥ ⎥ 0 M M 1 0⎥ ⎦ x3 1 s3 t1 t2 W 0 1 0 0 4 ⎤2 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥⎥ 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6 ⎥6 ⎥ –1 – 3M –3 – 2M 0 0 0 1 –5M ⎥ ⎦ x2 x3 s3 t1 t2 W 0 –1 0 1 –2 0 2 ⎤2 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥⎥ 0 –1 1 0 –1 0 5 ⎥5 ⎥ 0 –2 + M 0 0 1 + 3M 1 1 – 2 M ⎥ ⎦ x3 s3 t1 t2 W –1 0 1 –2 0 2⎤ 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥⎥ 1 0 1 –1 1 0 3⎥ ⎥ –1 0 –1 + M 3 + M 1 –1⎥ ⎦ x2 x3 s3 – Z 1 0 0 0 3⎤ 1 1 0 0 1⎥⎥ 0 0 1 0 3⎥ ⎥ 1 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎦ The minimum is Z = 0 when x1 = 3. 266 . x3 = 1 . x2 = 2. 7.Chapter 7: Linear Programming x1 s1 ⎡ 2 ⎢ s2 ⎢ −2 x2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎣⎢ 4 x2 x3 s1 s2 0 −2 1 0 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis s3 1 t3 W −1 0 2⎤ −2 0 0 0 1 2 1⎥⎥ 1 0 0 −1 1 0 2⎥ ⎥ 2 0 0 1 −1 + M 1 −2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 1 0 The minimum is Z = 2 when x1 = 0.

x1 x2 s1 t1 t2 Section 7. 267 . x3 = 5 . 0 −1 1 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 ⎡ 1 1 1 –1 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ –1 2 1 0 –1 0 ⎢ 1 8 5 0 0 M ⎣ x1 x2 x3 1 1 t1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ t2 ⎢ –1 2 1 ⎢ W 1 8 – 3M 5 – 2 M ⎣ x1 x2 x3 −1 0 3 t2 W 0 0 8⎤ ⎥ 1 0 2⎥ M 1 0⎥ ⎦ s1 s2 t1 t2 W –1 0 1 0 0 0 M s1 ⎤8 ⎥ –1 0 1 0 2 ⎥1 M 0 0 1 –10M ⎥ ⎦ s2 t1 t2 W 8 1 1 ⎤ 14 t1 ⎡ 3 0 –1 1 – 12 0 7 2 2 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 x2 ⎢ – 12 1 0 – 12 0 0 1 2 2 ⎥ W ⎢5 – 3 M 0 1 – 1 M M 4 – 1 M 0 –4 + 3 M 1 –8 – 7 M ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 2 2 2 2 x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 t2 W ⎤ x1 ⎡ 1 2 1 2 – 13 0 14 ⎢1 0 3 – 3 3 3 3 ⎥ 14 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 x2 ⎢ 0 1 23 – 13 – 13 0 10 5 3 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 10 7 2 ⎥ – 10 + M – 73 + M 1 – 94 W ⎢⎢⎣ 0 0 – 3 3 3 3 3 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 t2 W x1 ⎡ 1 1 1 – 12 0 – 12 – 12 0 3⎤ 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ 3 1 –1 –1 1 1 0 ⎥ x3 ⎢0 5 2 2 2 2 2 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢0 1 0 3 2 –3 + M –2 + M 1 –28⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The minimum is Z = 28 when x1 = 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 8. x2 = 0. but the artificial variable t1 is 3.) 9.7 W ⎡ −1 1 −1 1 0 0 ⎢ ⎢1 1 0 0 1 0 ⎢ 1 −1 0 M M 1 ⎣ x1 x2 s1 t1 4⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ t2 W −1 1 0 0 t1 ⎡ −1 1 4 ⎤4 ⎢ ⎥ t2 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢ 1 −1 − 2 M M 0 0 1 −5M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 t1 t2 W t1 ⎡ −2 ⎢ x2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ W ⎣2 + 2M ⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 1 0 1 ⎥ 0 M 0 1 + 2M 1 1 − 3M ⎥ ⎦ Since all of the indicators in the last table are positive. the feasible region is empty. (This can also be seen graphically.

If we choose s1 as the departing variable. –1 –1 1 0 0 0 268 . x3 = 0. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W ⎡ s1 0 0 –2 1 1 –1 0 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 –1 1 0 3⎥ W ⎢0 8 2 0 4 –4 + M 1 –12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Thus Z has a minimum value of 12 when x1 = 3. then x1 ⎡ s1 1 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 1 W ⎢4 – M ⎣ x1 x2 ⎡ x1 1 –1 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 0 0 W ⎢0 8 ⎣ x1 x2 x1 ⎡ 1 –1 ⎢ x3 ⎢0 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣0 8 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W 3 ⎤3 ⎥ –1 1 0 –1 1 0 3 ⎥3 4 + M 6 – M 0 M 0 1 –3M ⎥ ⎦ x3 s1 s2 t2 W –1 1 0 0 0 3 ⎤ ⎥ 2 –1 –1 1 0 0 ⎥ 0 10 – 2 M –4 + M M 0 1 –12 ⎥ ⎦ x3 s1 s2 t2 W 1 –1 1 0 0 3⎤ 2 2 2 ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ 1 – 12 – 12 0 2 ⎥ 0 1 5 –5 + M 1 –12 ⎥ ⎦ The minimum is Z = 12 when x1 = 3. x2 = 0. x3 = 0 .Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W ⎡ 1 –1 –1 1 0 0 0 3⎤ ⎥ 10. ⎢ ⎢ 1 –1 1 0 –1 1 0 3⎥ ⎢4 4 6 0 0 M 1 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W ⎡ s1 1 –1 –1 1 0 0 0 3 ⎤3 ⎢ ⎥ –1 1 0 –1 1 0 3 ⎥3 t2 ⎢ 1 W ⎢ 4 – M 4 + M 6 – M 0 M 0 1 –3M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Here we choose t2 as the departing variable. x2 = 0.

000 ⎥ 700.300.200. Let x1 . 000 t1 ⎢ 1 1 s2 ⎢⎢ 12 2 1 0 0 1.7 11. 000M ⎥ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ 5 x1 x2 x3 s2 t1 W 7 ⎡ 3 0 – 12 1 0 2. x3 ≥ 0. The plant should install device A on kilns producing 700.215. and device B on kilns producing 2.300. 600.300. 000 ⎥ 11. 000.000 barrels annually. 000 M ⎥ ⎢⎣ 4 4 ⎥⎦ 5 8 2 x1 x2 x3 s2 t1 W ⎡ 6 ⎤ 8 1 0 – 74 0 3. 600. and x3 denote the annual numbers of barrels of cement produced in kilns that use device A. 000 ⎥ 4. 000. 000 4 W ⎢ 1 – M 2 – M – M 0 0 1 –3. 000 ⎥⎥ 500. x2 = 2. 000 ⎥ 700. 000.600.000 x2 ⎢ 7 7 3 ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 17 0 1 74 – 17 0 100. 000. 000.000 when x1 = 700. 000. 000 8 t1 ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎥ 1 1 x3 ⎢⎢ 14 1 0 0 500. 000 ⎥ x1 ⎢ 1 0 7 4 0 ⎢ ⎥ 3 1 –1. 000 ⎤ 3. x1 x2 x3 s2 ⎡ ⎢1 ⎢1 ⎢2 ⎢1 ⎣⎢ 4 t1 W ⎤ 1 0 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.300. 000 8 2 W ⎢ 1 – 3 M 2 – 7 M 0 1 M 0 1 –2.000 barrels annually. 215. We want to minimize the annual emission control cost C (C in dollars) where 1 2 C = x1 + x2 + 0 x3 subject to 4 5 x1 + x2 + x3 = 3. 000 ⎥ 3. 000 ⎥ – C ⎢ 0 0 13 20 5 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ Thus the minimum value of C is 1. 280. respectively.800. device B.300. 000 ⎥⎥ ⎥ 0 0 M 1 0⎥ ⎦ x2 x3 s2 t1 W 1 1 0 1 4 2 5 x1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 0 1 0 3. 200. 1 1 x1 + x2 + 2 x3 ≤ 1. x2 . x2 . 000. x3 = 0. 269 .800. 2 4 x1 . 000 ⎥ 2 1 0 0 1. and no device. 000. 200. 000 ⎥ ⎢– 0 0 – 35 35 ⎢⎣ 140 ⎥⎦ x1 x2 x3 s2 – C ⎡ ⎤ x2 ⎢ 0 1 –6 –4 0 2. 000 ⎥ W ⎢ 13 8 16 + M 1 –1.

x2 . 270 . We want to minimize C = 5 x1 + 3x2 + 7 x3 + 2 x4 subject to x1 + x2 x3 + x4 x1 + x3 x2 + x4 x1 .40 0. x2 = number of DVD players shipped from Springfield to Columbus.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12. ≥ 0. x4 = 150. ≤ 150. x3 .60 x2 subject to 2 x1 + 2 x2 ≥ 12.00. 13. x1 .60 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W ⎡ ⎤ t1 ⎢ 2 2 –1 0 1 0 0 12 ⎥ 6 t2 ⎢ 1 3 0 –1 0 1 0 12 ⎥ 4 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢ 2 – 3M 3 – 5M M M 0 0 1 –24 M ⎥ 5 ⎣⎢ 5 ⎦⎥ x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W 2 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤3 0 −1 1 0 4 −3 3 t1 ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 x2 ⎢ 3 −3 ⎥ 12 3 W ⎢ 1 − 4 M 0 M 1 − 2 M 0 − 1 + 5 M 1 − 12 − 4 M ⎥ ⎢⎣ 5 3 ⎥⎦ 5 3 5 3 5 x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W ⎡ 3 3 1 – 12 0 3⎤ x1 ⎢ 1 0 – 4 2 4 ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 1 1 –2 –4 0 3⎥⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 4 2 W ⎢0 0 3 3 + M – 1 + M 1 –3⎥ 1 – 20 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 20 10 10 The minimum value of C is 3 when x1 = 3 and x2 = 3. The cost per mile is $3. = 150. x4 = number of DVD players shipped from Springfield to Dayton. x2 ≥ 0. x3 = number of DVD players shipped from Akron to Dayton. We want to minimize C = 0. They should rent 3 of type A and 3 of type B. x1 + 3 x2 ≥ 12. x2 = number of type B trucks rented. Let x1 = number of DVD players shipped from Akron to Columbus. ≤ 200. x1 x2 s1 s2 t1 t2 W ⎡ 2 2 –1 0 1 0 0 12 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 3 0 –1 0 1 0 12 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0. Let x1 = number of type A trucks rented.40 x1 + 0.

the result is the same.7 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x3 x4 s3 s4 t1 0 0 0 0 1 t2 W 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 −2 + M 1 x2 0 x3 x4 s3 1 0 0 s4 t1 −1 1 t2 W 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 −1 0 0 0 8− M 1 0 −1 0 0 0 −3 + M 0 1 1 150 ⎤ 150 ⎥⎥ 150 200 ⎥ ⎥ 150 ⎥ 150 −300M ⎥⎥ ⎦ 150 ⎤ 150 150 ⎥⎥ 200 ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0 −300 − 150 M ⎥⎥ ⎦ 150 ⎤ 150 ⎥ 150 ⎥ 200 ⎥ 200 ⎥ 0⎥ −300 − 150 M ⎥⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s3 s4 t1 t2 W x1 ⎡ 1 0 1 0 0 −1 1 1 0 150 ⎤ x4 ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150 ⎥⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 1 1 −1 −1 0 50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x2 ⎢ 0 1 −1 0 0 1 0 −1 0 0⎥ W ⎢⎢⎣ 0 0 3 0 0 2 −5 + M −4 + M 1 −1050 ⎥⎥⎦ The retailer should ship as follows: to Columbus. 150 from Akron and 0 from Springfield.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x1 ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢5 ⎢⎣ x2 x3 x4 s3 s4 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 t1 1 t2 W 0 0 150 ⎤ 0 1 0 150 ⎥⎥ 0 0 0 200 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 150 ⎥ M M 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ x3 x4 s3 s4 t1 t2 W 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 7 2 0 0 x1 x2 t1 ⎡ 1 1 t2 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 ⎢ s3 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ 0 1 0 1 s4 ⎢ ⎢ W ⎣⎢5 − M 3 − M 7 − M 2 − M x1 x2 t1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎢ 0 0 x4 ⎢ ⎢ 1 0 s3 ⎢ 0 1 s4 ⎢ W ⎢⎢⎣5 − M 3 − M x1 t1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 x4 ⎢ ⎢ s3 1 ⎢ 0 x2 ⎢ W ⎢⎢⎣5 − M Section 7. although the final table is different: x1 x2 x3 x4 s3 s4 t1 t2 W x1 ⎡ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 150 ⎤ ⎢ x3 ⎢ 0 −1 1 0 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥⎥ s3 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 1 1 −1 −1 0 50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ x4 ⎢ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 150 ⎥ W ⎢⎢ 0 3 0 0 0 5 −5 + M −7 + M 1 −1050 ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 271 . If s4 is chosen as the departing variable in the second table. to Dayton. 0 from Akron and 150 from Springfield. The transportation cost is $1050.

000M ⎦⎥⎥ t1 t2 t3 t5 W −1 0 0 1 0 4000 ⎤ 4000 0 1 0 0 0 5000 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0 3000 ⎥ −1 0 0 0 0 2000 ⎥ −1 0 0 1 0 2000 ⎥ 2000 0 −280 + 2M −300 + 2 M 0 1 −2. Let x A xB yA yB ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis = number of alternators from supplier X to plant A = number of alternators from supplier X to plant B = number of alternators from supplier Y to plant A = number of alternators from supplier Y to plant B We want to minimize C = 300 x A + 320 xB + 340 y A + 280 yB x A + y A = 7000 xB + y B = 5000 x A + xB ≥ 3000 x A + xB ≤ 5000 y A + yB ≥ 7000 x A . 000 − 12. y B ≥ 0 x A xB y A y B s3 s4 s5 t1 t2 t3 t5 W 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎢ − 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎢ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎢300 320 340 280 0 0 0 M M M M 1 ⎢⎣ xA xB yA yB s3 1 0 1 0 0 t1 ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 t2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 −1 t3 ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 s4 ⎢ 0 0 1 1 0 t5 ⎢ ⎢ W ⎣⎢300 − 2M 320 − 2 M 340 − 2 M 280 − 2M M xA 1 t1 ⎡ 0 yB ⎢ ⎢ 1 t3 ⎢ 1 s4 ⎢ ⎢ 0 t5 ⎢ W ⎣⎢300 − 2 M xB yA 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 −1 1 40 340 − 2 M yB s3 0 0 1 1 0 −1 0 0 0 0 0 M s4 s5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 M xA xB y A yB s3 s4 −1 1 0 1 0 t1 ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 0 yB ⎢0 ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 xA ⎢ 1 0 0 0 1 1 s4 ⎢ 0 −1 1 0 0 0 t5 ⎢ 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ 0 −260 + 2M 340 − 2 M 0 300 − M 0 x A xB t1 ⎡ 0 0 yB ⎢0 1 ⎢ xA ⎢ 1 1 s4 ⎢ 0 0 y A ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ 0 80 yA 0 0 0 0 1 0 yB s3 0 1 1 0 0 −1 0 1 0 0 0 300 − M s4 s5 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 −1 0 0 340 − M s5 0 0 0 0 −1 M subject to 7000 ⎤ 5000 ⎥ ⎥ 3000 ⎥ 5000 ⎥ 7000 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎥⎦ s4 s5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 M t1 t2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 −280 + 2 M t1 1 0 0 0 0 0 t3 0 0 1 0 0 0 t2 0 1 0 0 0 0 t5 0 0 0 0 1 0 t3 0 0 1 0 0 0 t5 0 0 0 0 1 0 W 0 7000 ⎤ 0 5000 ⎥ 5000 ⎥ 0 3000 ⎥ 0 5000 ⎥ 0 7000 ⎥ 7000 1 −22. 000 − 6000M ⎥⎦⎥ t1 t2 t3 t5 W 1 1 2000 ⎤ 2000 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0 3000 ⎥ 0 0 0 0 2000 ⎥ 2000 −1 0 −1 0 1 0 2000 ⎥ 0 60 −300 + 2 M −340 + 2M 1 2. 000 M ⎥⎦⎥ W 0 7000 ⎤ 7000 0 5000 ⎥ ⎥ 0 3000 ⎥ 3000 0 5000 ⎥ 5000 0 2000 ⎥ 1 −1.Chapter 7: Linear Programming 14. 272 . 400. y A . 000 − 2000 M ⎥⎥⎦ We choose t1 as the departing variable.980. xB .300.

000. x4 ≥ 0. 2000 from Y to A. s2 t1 t2 W ⎤ 50 ⎥ 0 –1 0 1 0 60 ⎥ 20 M M 0 0 1 –110 M ⎥ ⎦ s2 t1 t2 W –1 0 1 0 0 1 3 – 13 1 – 13 M 1 – 13 0 1 3 –1 + 43 0 t2 W – 1 9 1 3 – 23 + M 90 in. x3 . We want to minimize L = 3x1 + 8 x2 + 3x3 + 8 x4 subject to 3x1 + 2 x2 + x3 ≥ 50. and 5000 from Y to B. Roll width ⎧15" 3 2 1 0 ⎨10" 0 1 3 4 ⎩ Trim loss 3 8 3 8 b. x1 . x3 = 20. x2 + 3x3 + 4 x4 ≥ 60. (Note that the same result is obtained if s4 is chosen as the departing variable in the fifth table. x1 ⎡3 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢3 ⎣ x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 t1 t2 W 0 0 50 ⎤ ⎥ 1 3 4 0 –1 0 1 0 60 ⎥ 8 3 8 0 0 M M 1 0⎥ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 2 1 0 –1 0 1 t1 ⎡ 3 2 1 0 ⎢ t2 ⎢ 0 1 3 4 ⎢ W 3 – 3M 8 – 3M 3 – 4 M 8 – 4 M ⎣ x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 ⎡ 3 5 0 – 43 –1 t1 ⎢ 3 1 4 1 0 x3 ⎢⎢ 0 3 3 W ⎢3 – 3M 7 – 5 M 0 4 + 4 M M ⎢⎣ 3 3 x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 t1 ⎡1 5 0 – 4 – 1 1 1 x1 ⎢ 9 9 3 9 3 ⎢ 1 4 1 0 –3 0 x3 ⎢0 3 1 3 W ⎢0 16 0 16 2 –1 + M 1 ⎢⎣ 3 3 3 x1 = 10.580.580. x4 = 0. x2 . 000 ⎦⎥ The manufacturer should order 5000 alternators from X to be shipped to A.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7. c. 273 10 ⎤ ⎥ 0 20 ⎥⎥ ⎥ 1 –90 ⎥ ⎦ 0 50 ⎤ ⎥ 10 ⎥ 0 20 ⎥ ⎥ 1 –60 – 30M ⎥ ⎦ 0 M 30 . a.) 15. x2 = 0.7 x A xB y A yB s3 s4 s5 t1 t2 t3 t5 W 1 1 1 −1 2000 ⎤ −1 0 s3 ⎡ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000 ⎥ yB ⎢0 1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 0 5000 ⎥ −1 0 xA ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0⎥ −1 −1 0 s4 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 1 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 2000 ⎥ y A ⎢ 0 −1 1 0 0 0 −1 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ 0 80 0 0 0 0 40 −300 + M −240 + M M −40 + M 1 −3. The minimum cost is $3.

and y1 . respectively. 3. Type 2. y3 ≥ 0. 15 y1 + 30 y2 + 30 y3 ≥ 20. y2 . 8 x1 + 16 x2 ≥ 80. 40 x1 + 30 x2 + 25 x3 ≤ 600. x2 . x2 . subject to 300 x1 + 220 x2 + 180 x3 ≤ 60. Let x1 and x2 be the amounts. and y1 . and 3 produced. 180 y1 + 20 y2 + 2 y3 ≥ 200. and Type 3 gadgets produced. and x3 be the numbers. 20 x1 + 40 x2 + 20 x3 ≤ 2000. y3 ≥ 0. x3 ≥ 0. subject to 30 x1 + 15 x2 + 10 x3 ≤ 300. The original problem is to maximize P = 300 x1 + 200 x2 + 200 x3 . of devices 1. 000 y1 + 2000 y2 + 120 y3 . y2 . The dual problem is to maximize W = 98 y1 + 80 y2 . y1 y2 y3 s1 s2 s3 t1 t2 t3 Z 1 0 0 0 30 ⎤ ⎡ 30 20 40 −1 0 0 ⎢ 15 30 30 0 −1 0 0 1 0 0 20 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 10 20 25 0 0 −1 0 0 1 0 20 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 300 400 600 0 0 0 M M M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ 274 . The dual problem is to minimize W = 60. The original problem is to minimize C = 6 x1 + 2 x2 . The original problem is to maximize P = 30 x1 + 20 x2 + 20 x3 . The tablex to maximize Z = −W = −300 y1 − 400 y2 − 600 y3 follow. respectively of supplement 1 and supplement 2. Let x1 . 6 y1 + 16 y2 ≤ 2. x3 ≥ 0. 20 x1 + 30 x2 + 20 x3 ≤ 400. and y1 . and x3 be the numbers respectively. 2. Let x1 . 220 y1 + 40 y2 + y3 ≥ 200. subject to 20 y1 + 8 y2 ≤ 6. of Type 1. subject to 300 y1 + 20 y2 + 3 y3 ≥ 300. 10 y1 + 20 y2 + 25 y3 ≥ 20. 3 x1 + x2 + 2 x3 ≤ 120. and x1 . and x1 . 2.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Principles in Practice 7. and x1 . subject to 20 x1 + 6 x2 ≥ 98.8 1. y2 ≥ 0. The dual problem is to minimize W = 300 y1 + 400 y2 + 600 y3 . x2 ≥ 0. x2 . 000. subject to 30 y1 + 20 y2 + 40 y3 ≥ 30. x2 .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

y1
30
t1 ⎡

15
t2 ⎢

10
t3

Z ⎣⎢300 – 55M

Section 7.8

y2
20

y3
40

s1 s2 s3 t1 t2 t3 Z
–1 0 0 1 0 0 0

30

30

0

20

25

0

400 – 70 M

600 – 95M

M

30 ⎤
−1 0 0 1 0 0
20 ⎥⎥
0 −1 0 0 1 0
20 ⎥

M M 0 0 0 1 –70M ⎥

y1
y2
y3 s1
s2
s3 t1
t2
t3 Z
10
4
4
⎡ 10

−20
−3
0 −1
0 1
0 0
3
3

t1 ⎢
1
1
2
⎢ 1


1
1
0
0
0
0
0
y3 ⎢ 2
30
30
3

5
5
10

t3 ⎢ − 5



5
0
0
1
0
1
0
2
6
6
3


Z ⎢ 15
13
19
20
− M –200 + 25M 0 M 20 − 6 M M 0 −20 + 6 M 0 1 −400 − 3 M ⎥
⎢⎣ 2
⎥⎦
y1
y2
y3 s1
s2
s3
t1
t2
t3 Z
1
2
1
2
1
y1 ⎡1

−2
− 15
0 − 10
0
0 0
15
10
3


⎢0

1
1
1
1
1
− 10
2
1 20
0 − 20
0 0
y3 ⎢
10
2


7
7
25
1
1
t3 ⎢ 0




10
0
1
1
0


4
6
4
6
6

7M M
3 M −20 + 13 M 0 1 −400 − 25 M ⎥
1

+
M
M

0
200
10
0
20
Z ⎢
⎥⎦
4
6
4
6
6

y1
y2
y3
s1
s2 s3
t1
t2 t3 Z
15
3
3
5
s2 ⎡

−15
−4
−1 0 0
0
1 0
2
4
2


3
3
1
1
1



1
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
40
40
4
y3 ⎢

15
5
5
5

− 35


0
0
1
0
1
0
t3 ⎢
4
2
8
8
4




35
15
5
13
5
Z ⎢ −150 + 4 M 100 − 2 M 0 15 − 8 M 0 M −15 + 8 M M 0 1 −450 − 4 M ⎥


y1 y2 y3 s1 s2
s3
t1
t2
t3
Z
1
1
s2 ⎡ −10 0 0
−2
−1
1 −2
2
0
5 ⎤
2


1 0
1
1
1
2 ⎥
⎢ 4


0
1
0
0
15
15
15
15
3 ⎥
y3 ⎢ 3

1
2
1
2
1
y2 ⎢ − 7 1 0
− 12
0 − 15
0
0
⎢ 6
12
15
6 ⎥


− 20
+ M M − 40
+ M 1 − 1400
0 0 20
0 40
Z ⎢ − 100
⎥⎦
3
3
3
3
3
3

The t1 , t2 , and t3 columns are no longer needed.
y1 y2 y3
s1 s2
s3 Z
15
0 1 − 32 0
10 ⎤
s2 ⎡ 0 0 2


1
1⎥
y1 ⎢ 1 0 3 − 1 0
0
4
20
20
2⎥

7
3
3
1


y2 0 1
0 − 40 0
8
40
4⎥

Z ⎢ 0 0 25
5 0
15 1 −450 ⎥


From this table, the maximum profit of $450 corresponds to x1 = 5, x2 = 0, and x3 = 15.
The company should produce 5 of device 1 and 15 of device 3.

275

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1. Minimize W = 5 y1 + 3 y2
subject to y1 − y2 ≥ 1
y1 + y2 ≥ 2
y1 , y2 ≥ 0

8. The second constraint can be written as
−8 x1 + 10 x2 ≥ −80.
Maximize W = −10 y1 − 80 y2
subject to −4 y1 − 8 y2 ≤ 5
3 y1 + 10 y2 ≤ 4
y1 , y2 ≥ 0

2. Minimize W = 3 y1 + 5 y2 subject to

9. The dual is: Maximize W = 2 y1 + 3 y2 subject to

Problems 7.8

2 y1 – y2
2 y1 + 4 y2
2 y2
y1 , y2

≥ 2,
≥ 1,
≥ –1,
≥ 0.

y1 – y2 ≤ 2,
– y1 + 2 y2 ≤ 2,
2 y1 + y2 ≤ 5,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1 y2 s1
s1 ⎡ 1 –1 1

s2 ⎢ –1 2 0
s3 ⎢ 2 1 0

W ⎢⎣ –2 –3 0
y1 y2 s1
s1 ⎡ 1 0 1
⎢ 2
y2 ⎢ – 1 1 0
⎢ 2
s3 ⎢ 52 0 0


W ⎢ – 72 0 0

y1 y2 s1

3. Maximize W = 8 y1 + 2 y2 subject to
y1 – y2
y1 + 2 y2
y1 + y2
y1 , y2

≤ 1,
≤ 8,
≤ 5,
≥ 0.

4. Maximize W = y1 + 2 y2 subject to
2 y1 + y2 ≤ 8,
2 y1 + 3 y2 ≤ 12,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.

5. The second and third constraints can be written
as x1 − x2 ≤ −3 and − x1 − x2 ≤ −11. Minimize
W = 13 y1 – 3 y2 –11 y3 subject to

s1 ⎡ 0

y2 ⎢ 0

y1 ⎢ 1

W ⎢⎢ 0

– y1 + y2 – y3 ≥ 1,
2 y1 – y2 – y3 ≥ –1,
y1 , y2 , y3 ≥ 0.

6. The second constraint can be written as
− x1 + 2 x2 − x3 ≤ −6. Minimize W = 9 y1 – 6 y2
subject to
y1 – y2 ≥ 1,
y1 + 2 y2 ≥ –1,
y1 – y2 ≥ 4,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.

0 1
1 0
0 0
0 0

s2
0
1
0
0

s3
0
0
1
0

W
0
0
0
1

2⎤
2 ⎥⎥ 1
5⎥ 5

0⎥

s2 s3 W
0 0 3⎤ 6

0 0 1⎥

1 0 4 ⎥ 85


0 1 3⎥

s3 W

1
2
1
2
– 12
3
2

s2

3
5
2
5
– 15
4
5

− 15

0

1
5
2
5
7
5

0

The minimum is Z =

0
1

11 ⎤
5⎥
9⎥
5⎥
8⎥
5⎥
43 ⎥
5 ⎥⎦

43
4
when x1 = 0, x2 = ,
5
5

7
x3 = .
5

10. The dual is: Maximize W = 28 y1 + 2 y2 + 16 y3
subject to
y1 + 2 y2 – 3 y3 ≤ 2,
4 y1 – y2 + 8 y3 ≤ 2,
y1 , y2 , y3 ≥ 0.

7. The first constraint can be written as
− x1 + x2 + x3 ≥ −3. Maximize W = –3 y1 + 3 y2
subject to
– y1 + y2 ≤ 4,
y1 – y2 ≤ 4,
y1 + y2 ≤ 6,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.

y1 y2 y3

2 −3
s1 1

–1 8
s2 ⎢ 4
W ⎢ –28 –2 –16

276

s1 s2 W
1 0 0 2⎤ 2

0 1 0 2 ⎥ 12
0 0 1 0⎥

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 7.8

y1 y2 y3 s1 s2 W
s1 ⎡
0 94 –5 1 – 14 0 23 ⎤ 2

⎥3

1
1
1
y1 1 – 4 2 0 4 0 2 ⎥


W ⎢ 0 –9 40 0 7 1 14 ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
y1 y2
y3 s1 s2 W
y2 ⎡
20
0 1 − 9 94 – 91 0 32 ⎤


13 1
2 0
2⎥
y1 ⎢ 1 0
9
9
9
3⎥

W ⎢0 0
20 4
6 1 20 ⎥
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
The minimum is Z = 20 when x1 = 4, x2 = 6 .

11. The dual is: Minimize W = 8 y1 + 12 y2 subject to
y1 + y2 ≥ 3,
2 y1 + 6 y2 ≥ 8,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1 y2 s1 s2 t1 t2 U
⎡ 1 1 –1 0
1 0 0 3⎤


1 0 8⎥
⎢ 2 6 0 –1 0
⎢ 8 12 0 0 M M 1 0 ⎥


y1
y2
s1 s2 t1 t2 U
1
–1 0 1 0 0
3 ⎤3
t1 ⎡ 1


6
0 –1 0 1 0
8 ⎥ 43
t2 ⎢ 2
U ⎢8 – 3M 12 – 7 M M M 0 0 1 –11M ⎥


y1 y2 s1
s2
t1
t2
U
5
1
⎡ 2
⎤5
0 –1
1
– 16
0
6
3
t1 ⎢ 3
⎥2
⎥4
1
4
y2 ⎢⎢ 13
1 0
– 16
0
0

6
3
U ⎢ 4 – 2 M 0 M 2 – 1 M 0 –2 + 7 M 1 –16 – 5 M ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
3
6
6
3
y1 y2 s1
s2
t1
t2 U
y1 ⎡
3
5⎤
1
1 0 – 32
– 14 0
4
2
2⎥

1 –1
1
1 0
1⎥

y2 ⎢ 0 1
2
4
2
4
2⎥

U ⎢0 0
6
1 –6 + M –1 + M 1 –26 ⎥


The maximum is Z = 26 when x1 = 6, x2 = 1 .

277

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

12. The dual is: Minimize W = 12 y1 + 8 y2 subject to
3 y1 + y2 ≥ 2,
y1 + y2 ≥ 6,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1
⎡ 3

⎢ 1
⎢12

y2 s1

s2

t1

t2 U

1 –1 0
1 0 0 2⎤

1 0 –1 0
1 0 6⎥
8 0 0 M M 1 0⎥

y1
y2
s1 s2 t1 t2 U

2
t1 ⎡ 3
1
–1 0 1 0 0
2 ⎤3


t2 ⎢ 1
1
0 –1 0 1 0
6 ⎥6
U ⎢12 – 4M 8 – 2M M M 0 0 1 –8M ⎥


y1
y2
s1
s2
t1
t2 U
1
1
2
y1 ⎡1
⎤2
– 13
0
0 0
3
3
3




16
2
1
1
t2 ⎢ 0
–1
–3
1 0
⎥8
3
3
3
U ⎢ 0 4 – 2 M 4 – 1 M M –4 + 4 M 0 1 –8 – 16 M ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
3
3
3
3
y1
y2
s1
s2
t1
t2 U


3
1
–1
0
1
0 0
2
y2


t2 ⎢
–2
0
1
–1
–1
1 0
4
⎥4
U ⎢ –12 + 2 M 0 8 – M M –8 + 2M 0 1 –16 – 4M ⎥


y1 y2 s1 s2 t1
t2 U
1 0
6⎤
y2 ⎡ 1 1 0 –1 0


s1 ⎢ –2 0 1 –1 –1
1 0
4⎥
U ⎢ 4 0 0 8 M –8 + M 1 –48⎥


The maximum is Z = 48 when x1 = 0, x2 = 8 .

13. The first constraint can be written as x1 − x2 ≥ −1. The dual is: Maximize W = – y1 + 3 y2 subject to
y1 + y2 ≤ 6,
– y1 + y2 ≤ 4,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1

s1 1

s2 ⎢ –1
W⎢1

y1

s1 2

y2 ⎢ –1
W ⎢ –2

y2 s1 s2 W

1 1 0 0 6⎤ 6

1 0 1 0 4⎥ 4
–3 0 0 1 0 ⎥

y2 s1 s2 W
0 1 –1 0 2 ⎤ 1

1 0 1 0 4⎥
0 0 3 1 12 ⎥

278

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

y1 y2 s1

Section 7.8

s2 W

y1
y2
s1
s2 W
1 ⎤ 1

80
1 – 54 0
s1 ⎢ 0
5 ⎥ 400
1
1
1 ⎥ 1
y1 ⎢1
0
0
2
50
50 ⎥ 25

W ⎢ 0 –20, 000 0 1600 1 1600 ⎥


y1 y2
s1
s2 W
1
1
1 ⎤

– 100
0
y2 0 1
80
400 ⎥

3 ⎥
1
1
y1 ⎢ 1 0 – 160
0
40
160 ⎥

W ⎢ 0 0 250 1400 1 1650 ⎥


The firm should spend $250 on newspaper
advertising and $1400 on radio advertising for a
cost of $1650.

y1 ⎡
1 0 12 – 12 0 1⎤


1 0

y2 ⎢ 0 1 12
5
2


W ⎢0 0 1
2 1 14 ⎥


The minimum is Z = 14 when x1 = 1, x2 = 2 .

14. The first constraint can be written as
−2 x1 + x2 + x3 ≥ −2. The dual is:
Maximize W = −2 y1 + 4 y2
subject to −2 y1 − y2 ≤ 2
y1 − y2 ≤ 1
y1 + 2 y2 ≤ 1
y1 , y2 ≥ 0
y1 y2 s1 s2 s3 W
s1 ⎡ −2 −1 1 0 0 0 2 ⎤
s2 ⎢ 1 −1 0 1 0 0 1⎥


s3 ⎢ 1 2 0 0 1 0 1⎥ 12
W ⎢⎣ 2 −4 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎦

16. Let x1 = number of type A trucks rented,
x2 = number of type B trucks rented.
We want to minimize C = 0.40 x1 + 0.60 x2
subject to
2 x1 + 2 x2 ≥ 12,
x1 + 3 x2 ≥ 12,
x1 , x2 ≥ 0.

y1 y2 s1 s2 s3 W
s1 ⎡ − 3
⎢ 2
s2 ⎢ 3
2

y2 ⎢ 1
2
W ⎢⎣ 4

0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 0 0

1
2
1
2
1
2

0
0

5⎤
2⎥
3

2
1⎥
2⎥

The dual is: Maximize W = 12 y1 + 12 y2 subject
to
2 y1 + y2 ≤ 0.40,
2 y1 + 3 y2 ≤ 0.60,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.

0
2 1 2 ⎥⎦

The minimum is Z = 2 when x1 = 0, x2 = 0,
x3 = 2.

y1
y2 s1 s2 W
s1 ⎡
2
1 1 0 0 52 ⎤ 15


3
s2 ⎢ 2
3 0 1 0 53 ⎥ 10


W ⎢ –12 –12 0 0 1 0 ⎥


Here we choose y1 as the entering variable.

15. Let x1 = amount spent on newspaper
advertising,
x2 = amount spent on radio advertising.
We want to minimize C = x1 + x2 subject to
40 x1 + 50 x2 ≥ 80, 000,
100 x1 + 25 x2 ≥ 60, 000,
x1 , x2 ≥ 0.
The dual is: Maximize
W = 80, 000 y1 + 60, 000 y2 subject to

y1 y2 s1 s2 W
⎡1 1
1
0 0 15 ⎤ 52
y1 ⎢
2
2


1
1
s2 ⎢ 0 2 –1 1 0 5 ⎥⎥ 10
W ⎢ 0 –6 6 0 1 12 ⎥
⎢⎣
5 ⎥⎦
y1 y2 s1 s2 W
y1 ⎡
3 –1 0
3 ⎤
1 0
4
4
20 ⎥

1 0
1⎥
y2 ⎢ 0 1 – 12
2
10 ⎥

W ⎢0 0
3
3 1 3⎥


Thus the maximum value of W, and hence the
minimum value of C, is 3.

40 y1 + 100 y2 ≤ 1,
50 y1 + 25 y2 ≤ 1,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1

y2

s1 s2 W

1

100
1 0 0 1 ⎤ 40
s1 ⎡ 40

⎥ 1
25
0 1 0 1 ⎥ 50
s2 ⎢ 50
W ⎢ –80, 000 –60, 000 0 0 1 0 ⎥


279

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

If we choose y2 as the entering variable, then
y1 y2 s1 s2 W

1 1 0 0 52 ⎤ 52
s1 ⎢ 2

3 0 1 0 53 ⎥ 15
s2 ⎢ 2


W ⎢ –12 –12 0 0 1 0 ⎥


y1 y2 s1 s2 W
⎡ 4 0 1 –1 0 1 ⎤ 3
3
5 ⎥ 20
s1 ⎢ 3

3
2
1
1
y2 ⎢ 3 1 0 3 0 5 ⎥⎥ 10
W ⎢ –4 0 0 4 1 12 ⎥
⎢⎣
5 ⎥⎦
y1 y2 s1 s2 W
3 –1 0
3 ⎤

y1 ⎢ 1 0
4
4
20 ⎥
1 0
1⎥
y2 ⎢ 0 1 – 12
2
10 ⎥

W ⎢0 0
3
3 1 3⎥


The minimum total cost per mile is $3.
17. Let y1 = number of shipping clerk apprentices,
y2 = number of shipping clerks,
y3 = number of semiskilled workers,
y4 = number of skilled workers.
We want to minimize W = 6 y1 + 9 y2 + 8 y3 + 14 y4 subject to
y1 + y2 ≥ 60,
–2 y1 + y2 ≥ 0,
y3 + y4 ≥ 90,
y3 – 2 y4 ≥ 0,
y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 ≥ 0.
The dual is: Maximize Z = 60 x1 + 0 x2 + 90 x3 + 0 x4 subject to
x1 – 2 x2 ≤ 6,
x1 + x2 ≤ 9,
x3 + x4 ≤ 8,
x3 – 2 x4 ≤ 14,
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ≥ 0.
x1
x2 x3 x4
0
s1 ⎡ 1 –2 0
⎢ 1
1
0
0
s2 ⎢

0
0
1
1
s3

0
1
–2
s4 ⎢ 0

Z ⎢⎣ –60 0 –90 0

s1
1
0
0
0
0

s2
0
1
0
0
0

s3
0
0
1
0
0

s4
0
0
0
1
0

Z
0 6⎤
0 9 ⎥⎥
0 8⎥ 8

0 14 ⎥ 14
1 0 ⎥⎥

280

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

x1
x2 x3 x4 s1
–2 0 0 1
s1 ⎡ 1

1 0 0 0
s2 ⎢ 1

0 1 1 0
x3 0

0
0 0 –3 0
s4 ⎢

Z ⎣⎢ –60 0 0 90 0

s2 s3
0 0
1 0
0 1
0 –1
0 90

Chapter 7 Review

s4
0
0
0
1
0

Z
0 6 ⎤6
0 9 ⎥⎥ 9
0 8 ⎥

0 6 ⎥
1 720 ⎥⎥

x1
x2 x3 x4 s1 s2 s3 s4 Z
1
–2
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
6 ⎤

x1
⎢0
3
0 0 –1 1 0 0 0
3 ⎥⎥ 1
s2 ⎢
0
1 1 0 0 1 0 0
8 ⎥
x3 ⎢0


0
0 –3 0 0 –1 1 0
6 ⎥
s4 ⎢0
Z ⎢⎢⎣0 –120 0 90 60 0 90 0 1 1080 ⎥⎥⎦
x1 x2 x3 x4 s1 s2
s3 s4 Z
1
2

0 0 0
8⎤
x1 ⎢ 1 0 0 0
3
3

1

x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 – 1
0
0
0
1
3
3


x3 ⎢ 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 0 0
8⎥

s4 ⎢ 0 0 0 –3
0 0 –1 1 0
6⎥

Z ⎢ 0 0 0 90 20 40 90 0 1 1200 ⎥
⎥⎦
⎣⎢
The company should employ 20 shipping clerk apprentices, 40 shipping clerks, 90 semiskilled workers, and
0 skilled workers for a total hourly wage of $1200.

Chapter 7 Review Problems
1.

5

y

x
5

2.

10

y

x
10

281

Chapter 7: Linear Programming
3.

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

y

8.

–5
3

5

y

x

x

5

4.

5

5

y

9.

10

y

x

x

10

5

5.

10

y

10.

10

y

x
10

6.

5

x
10

y

11. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),
(0, 2), (1, 3), (3, 1), (3, 0). Z is maximized at
(3, 0) where its value is 3.
Thus Z = 3 when x = 3 and y = 0.

x

5

5

y
y−x=2
x+y=4

7.

5

y

x=3
(3, 0)

x
5

282

x
5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Chapter 7 Review

12. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 1),
(0, 5), (4, 3), and (4, 1). Z is maximized at (4, 3)
where its value is 22. Thus Z = 22 when
x = 4 and y = 3.

10

y

x+y=5

y

10

⎛ 20 10 ⎞
⎜ , ⎟
⎝ 9 9⎠

x + 2y = 10

2x + 5y = 10
x

(4, 3)

(4, 0)
5x + 8y = 20

x=4
x

(5, 0)

16. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 4),
(0, 6), (6, 8), (6, 0), and (4, 0). Z is minimized at
(0, 4) and (4, 0) where its value is 8. Thus Z is
minimized at all points on the line segment
joining (0, 4) and (4, 0). The solution is
Z = 8 when x = (1 – t)(0) + 4t = 4t,
y = (1 – t)(4) + 0t = 4 – 4t, and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

10
y=1

13. Feasible region is unbounded. Z is minimized at
the corner point (0, 2) where its value is –2.
Thus Z = –2 when x = 0 and y = 2.
5

10

y

y

10

x − y = −2

−x + 3y = 18

(6, 8)

(0, 6)
(0, 2)

(0, 4)
x+y=1

x − 2y = 2
x

17. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),
(0, 4), (2, 3), and (4, 0). Z is maximized at (2, 3)
and (4, 0) where its value is 36. Thus Z is
maximized at all points on the line segment
joining (2, 3) and (4, 0). The solution is
Z = 36 when x = (1 – t)(2) + 4t = 2 + 2t,
y = (1 – t)(3) + 0t = 3 – 3t, and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

y

5

4x + 3y = 15

⎛ 10 5 ⎞
⎜ , ⎟
⎝ 3 9⎠
(0, 0)

x – 6y = 0

x
10

(4, 0)

14. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),
⎛ 10 5 ⎞
⎜ , ⎟ , and (0, 5). Z is minimized at (0, 0)
⎝ 3 9⎠
where its value is 0. Thus Z = 0 when x = 0 and
y = 0.

(0, 5)

(6, 0)

x+y=4

5

10

x=6

(0, 4)

x
10
(0, 0)

y
x + 2y = 8
(2, 3)

3x + 2y = 12
x
(4, 0) 5

15. Feasible region follows. Corner points are
⎛ 20 10 ⎞
⎜ , ⎟ , (5, 0), and (4, 0). Z is minimized at
⎝ 9 9⎠
70
70
⎛ 20 10 ⎞
. Thus Z =
⎜ , ⎟ where its value is
9
9
⎝ 9 9⎠
20
10
when x =
and y = .
9
9

18. Feasible region is unbounded. The family of
lines given by Z = 4x + y has members having
arbitrarily large values of Z and that also
intersect the feasible region. Thus no optimum
solution exists.

283

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

20

y

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

x1
x2
3
s1 ⎡ 2
⎢ 4
3
20. s2 ⎢

0
1
s3

Z ⎣⎢ –18 –20

s1 s2 s3 Z
1 0 0 0 18 ⎤ 6
0 1 0 0 24 ⎥⎥ 8
0 0 1 0 5 ⎥5

0 0 0 1 0⎥

x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z
3
s1 ⎡ 2 0 1 0 –3 0 3 ⎤ 2


s2 ⎢ 4 0 0 1 –3 0 9 ⎥ 9
4
x2 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 0 5 ⎥


Z ⎣⎢ –18 0 0 0 20 1 100 ⎦⎥

Z = 40

(0, 12)
(4, 6)

3x + 2y = 24

x + 2y = 16

Z = 16

(16, 0) x
20

x1

s1 1

19.
s2 ⎢ 1
Z ⎢ –4

x1

x2 s1

1 0 0 12 ⎤ 2

2 0 1 0 8 ⎥4
–5 0 0 1 0 ⎥

x2 s1 s2 Z
6

x2 ⎡ 1
⎢ 6

s2 ⎢ 23

19
Z ⎢⎣⎢ – 6
x1
x2 ⎡ 0

x1 ⎢⎢1
Z ⎢0
⎣⎢

s2 Z

0

0 0

5
6

0

x2 s1

s2

Z

1
4

1
4

0

1

0 – 12
0 – 34

3
2
19
4

x1 x2 s1 s2

s1 0 4 1 –1

x1 ⎢ 1 2 0 1
Z ⎢0 3 0 4

Thus Z = 32 when

s3

Z

0 –
0 32 ⎤
x1 ⎡1 0


s2 ⎢ 0 0 –2 1 3 0 3 ⎥ 1
x2 ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 0 1 0 5 ⎥⎥ 5
Z ⎢ 0 0 9 0 –7 1 127 ⎥


x1 x2 s1
s2 s3 Z
1
1 0 0
3⎤
x1 ⎡⎢ 1 0 – 2
2

1 1 0

s3 ⎢ 0 0 – 2
1
3
3


2 –1 0 0
⎢0 1

4
x2 ⎢
3
3

7 0 1 134 ⎥
Z ⎢ 0 0 13
3
3
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
Thus Z = 134 when x1 = 3 and x2 = 4 .
1
2


2 ⎥ 12

1 0 4⎥ 6

0 1 10 ⎥
⎦⎥

1
6
– 13

1

x1 x2 s1 s2

1 ⎤4

0 6 ⎥⎥

1 29 ⎥

Z
4⎤

0 8⎥
1 32 ⎥

x1 = 8 and x2 = 0.

0

284

3
2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

x1 x2 x3 s1 t1 W
21. ⎡ 1 2 3 –1 1 0 5⎤
⎢3 2 1 0 M 1 0 ⎥
⎢⎣
⎦⎥
x1
x2
x3
2
3
t1 ⎡ 1
⎢3 − M 2 − 2M 1 − 3M
W ⎢⎣
x1 x2 x3 s1
t1
1
2
1
1

x3 ⎢ 3 3 1 − 3
3
8
4
1
1

W
0
−3+M
3
⎢⎣ 3 3
5
Thus Z = when x1 = 0, x2
3
x1
⎡3
22. ⎢
⎢1
⎢1

x2

s1

s2 t1

t1 ⎡ 3

t2 ⎢ 1
W ⎢1 – 4M

x1

5
0
2 – 5M

Chapter 7 Review

s1 t1 W
5
−1 1 0
5 ⎤3
M 0 1 −5M ⎥⎥

W
5⎤
0
3⎥
5
1 − 3⎥
⎥⎦
5
= 0, and x3 = .
3

t2 W

5 –1 0
1 0 0 20 ⎤

0 0 –1 0
1 0 5⎥
2 0 0 M M 1 0⎥

x1
x2
s1 s2 t1 t2 W

–1 0 1 0 0
20 ⎤ 4

0 –1 0 1 0
5 ⎥
M M 0 0 1 –25M ⎥

s1 s2
t1
t2 W

x2

x2 ⎡ 3
1 – 15
⎢ 5
t2 ⎢ 1
0 0

1
W ⎢ − 5 − M 0 52

x1 x2 s1 s2
x2 ⎡ 0

x1 ⎢1

W ⎢0
⎢⎣
x1

s2 0

x1 ⎢⎢1

Z ⎢0

⎤ 20
⎥ 3
–1
0
1 0
5 ⎥ 5

M − 52 + M 0 1 –8 − 5M ⎥

t1
t2 W
1
5

0

0 0

1 – 15

3
5

1
5

− 53

0

0

–1

0

1

0

2
5

− 15

− 52 + M

x2

s1 s2 Z

5
3
5
3
1
3

Thus Z =

− 13 1 0
− 13

0 0

1
3

0 1

1
5

+M

4

1 ⎤5
⎥3
0 5⎥

1 –7 ⎥
⎥⎦
0

5 ⎤
3 ⎥
20 ⎥
3 ⎥

− 20
3 ⎥⎦

20
20
, x2 = 0.
when x1 =
3
3

285

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 t2
⎡ 1 1 1 0 0 0

1
23. ⎢ 1 1 0 –1 0
⎢ 1 0 0 0 1 0

–1 –2 0 0 0 M
⎣⎢
x1
1

s1
⎢ 1
t2 ⎢
s3 ⎢ 1

W ⎢⎣ –1 – M

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

W
0 12 ⎤
0 5⎥⎥
0 10 ⎥

1 0⎥

x2
s1 s2
1
1 0
1
0 –1
0
0 0
–2 – M 0 M

s3
0
0
1
0

t2
0
1
0
0

W
0 12 ⎤ 12
0
5 ⎥⎥ 5
0 10 ⎥

1 –5M ⎥

x1 x2 s1 s2 s3
t2
W
0
0
1
1
0
–1
0
7 ⎤7
s1 ⎡
⎢1 1 0 –1 0
1
0 5 ⎥⎥
x2 ⎢
0
0 10 ⎥
s3 ⎢1 0 0 0 1


W ⎢⎣1 0 0 –2 0 2 + M 1 10 ⎥⎦
x1 x2 s1 s2 s3 Z
s2 ⎡ 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 ⎤


x2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 0 12 ⎥
s3 ⎢ 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 ⎥


Z ⎢⎣ 1 0 2 0 0 1 24 ⎦⎥
Thus Z = 24 when x1 = 0 and x2 = 12.
x1
⎡1
24. ⎢
⎢1
⎢2

x2 s1

s2

t2 W

2 1 0 0 0 6⎤

1 0 –1 1 0 1⎥
1 0 0 M 1 0⎥

x1
x2 s1 s2 t2 W

s1 ⎡ 1
2
1 0 0 0 6 ⎤3


t2 ⎢ 1
1
0 –1 1 0 1 ⎥ 1
W ⎢2 – M 1 – M 0 M 0 1 – M ⎥


s1 ⎡ –1 0 1 2
–2 0 4 ⎤


x2 ⎢ 1 1 0 –1
1 0 1⎥
W ⎢ 1 0 0 1 –1 + M 1 –1⎥


Thus Z = 1 when x1 = 0 and x2 = 1.

25. We write the first constraint as – x1 + x2 + x3 ≥ 1.
x1

x2 x3

s1

t1

t2 W

⎡ –1 1 1 –1 1 0 0 1⎤


1 0 12 ⎥
⎢ 6 3 2 0 0
⎢ 1 2 1 0 M M 1 0⎥


286

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Chapter 7 Review

x1
x2
x3
s1 t1 t2 W

t1
–1
1
1
–1 1 0 0
1 ⎤


t2 ⎢ 6
3
2
0 0 1 0
12 ⎥ 2
W ⎢1 – 5M 2 – 4 M 1 – 3M M 0 0 1 –13M ⎥


x1
x2
x3
s1 t1
t2
W
3
4
1
t1 ⎡0
–1 1
0
3 ⎤2
2
3
6


⎥4
1
1
1
x1 ⎢⎢1
0
0
0
2

2
3
6
W ⎢0 3 – 3 M 2 – 4 M M 0 – 1 + 5 M 1 –2 – 3M ⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
2 2
3 3
6 6
x1 x2 x3
s1
t1
t2
W
2
1
x2 ⎡ 0 1 8 – 2
0 2 ⎤ 94
9
3
3
9



1
1
1
x1 ⎢⎢1 0 – 19

0
1

3
3
9
W ⎢ 0 0 – 2 1 –1 + M – 1 + M 1 –5⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
3
3
x1 x2 x3 s1 – Z
x3 ⎡
9⎤
0 98 1 – 34 0
4⎥



5
1
1
x1 ⎢ 1 8 0
0
4
4⎥
– Z ⎢0 3 0
1 1 – 7⎥
⎢⎣
4
2
2 ⎥⎦
7
5
9
when x1 = , x2 = 0, and x3 = .
Thus Z =
2
4
4
x1

x2 x3

s1

s2 t1 W

⎡ 1 1 3 –1 0
1 0 5⎤

26. ⎢
1 4 0 1 0 0 5⎥
⎢ 2
⎢ –2 –3 –5 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥


x1
x2
x3 s1

s2 t1 W

t1 ⎡
1
1
3 −1 0 1

s2 ⎢
2
1
4
0 1 0

W −2 − M −3 − M −5 − 3M M 0 0

x1
x2 x3 s1
s2
1
1

–2
0 –1
− 34
4
t1 ⎢
1
1 1
1
x3 ⎢⎢
0
2
4
4
⎢1 1
7−1M 0 M
5+3M
M

+
4 4
4 4
W ⎢⎣ 2 2
We choose t1 as the departing variable.

5

0
5⎤ 3

0
5⎥ 54
1 −5 M ⎥

t1 W
5⎤5
4⎥

1 0

5⎥
4⎥5

0 0
0 1

25
4

287


– 54 M ⎥

Chapter 7: Linear Programming

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis
Since s2 is nonbasic for the last table and its
indicator is 0, there may be multiple optimum
solutions. Treating s2 as an entering variable,
deleting the t2 -column, changing W to –Z, and
continuing, we have
x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 – Z
s2 ⎡ 1 1
0 12 1 0 1⎤
⎢2 2

x3 ⎢ 12 12 1 12 0 0 2 ⎥


– Z ⎢ 1 1 0 0 0 1 0⎥


Here Z = 0 when x1 = 0, x2 = 0, and x3 = 2. Thus
multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is
minimum when
x1 = (1 – t )(0) + 0t = 0,
x2 = (1 – t )(0) + 0t = 0,
x3 = (1 – t )(1) + 2t = 1 + t ,

x1 x2 x3 s1 s2
t1 W

x2 −2 1 0 −4 −3
4 0 5⎤


x3 ⎢ 1 0 1 1
−1 0 0 ⎥ 0
1
W ⎢ −3 0 0 −7 −4 7 + M 1 15⎥


x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z

x2 2 1 4 0 1 0 5⎤


s1 ⎢ 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 ⎥
Z ⎢ 4 0 7 0 3 1 15⎥


Thus Z = 15 when x1 = 0, x2 = 5, and x3 = 0.
Note that choosing x3 as the departing variable
results in the same solution.
x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z

s1 4 –1 0 1 0 0 2 ⎤


27.
s2 ⎢ –8 2
5 0 1 0 2⎥ 1


Z ⎢ –1 –4 –2 0 0 1 0 ⎥


x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 Z
s1 ⎡ 0 0 5 1 1 0 3⎤
2
2


5
1

x2 –4 1 2 0 2 0 1⎥


Z ⎢ –17 0 8 0 2 1 4 ⎥


For the last table, x1 is the entering variable.
Since no quotients exist, the problem has an
unbounded solution. That is, no optimum
solution (unbounded).
x1
⎡1
28. ⎢
⎢0
⎢1

x2 x3 s1

s2

and 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. For the last table, s1 is nonbasic
and its indicator is 0. If we continue the process
for determining other optimum solutions, we
return to a table corresponding to the third table.
29. The dual is: Maximize W = 35 y1 + 25 y2 subject
to
y1 + y2 ≤ 2,
2 y1 + y2 ≤ 7,
3 y1 + y2 ≤ 8,
y1 , y2 ≥ 0.
y1

y2

1
s1 ⎡ 1
⎢ 2
1
s2 ⎢
1
s3 ⎢ 3

W ⎢⎣ –35 –25

t2 W

1 2 1 0 0 0 4⎤

0 1 0 –1 1 0 1⎥
1 0 0 0 M 1 0⎥

x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t2 W
s1 ⎡1 1 2 1 0 0 0 4 ⎤ 2


t2 ⎢0 0 1 0 –1 1 0 1 ⎥ 1
W ⎢1 1 – M 0 M 0 1 – M ⎥


x1 x2 x3 s1 s2
t2 W

s1 1 1 0 1 2 –2 0 2 ⎤ 1


x3 ⎢0 0 1 0 –1 1 0 1 ⎥
W ⎢1 1 0 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥


The minimum value of Z is 0 for
x1 = 0, x2 = 0, and x3 = 1.

s1 s2 s3 W
1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

2⎤ 2
7 ⎥⎥ 72
8⎥ 8
⎥3
0⎥

y1 y2 s1 s2 s3 W

y1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 ⎤


s2 ⎢ 0 –1 –2 1 0 0 3⎥
s3 ⎢ 0 –2 –3 0 1 0 2 ⎥


W ⎢⎣ 0 10 35 0 0 1 70 ⎥⎦
Thus Z = 70 when x1 = 35, x2 = 0, and x3 = 0.

288

y3 ≥ 0. y2 . – y1 + 2 y2 – y3 ≥ –2. 289 . and z denote the numbers of units of X. y1 . U 0 1 ⎤1 ⎥ 0 2 ⎥2 1 –M ⎥ ⎦ 31. x + y + 2 z ≤ 34. y1 y2 y3 s1 s2 t1 U ⎡ 1 1 –4 –1 0 1 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 1 0 0 2⎥ ⎢ 1 –2 ⎢3 4 –2 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ y1 y2 y3 s1 s2 t1 ⎡ t1 1 1 –4 –1 0 1 ⎢ s2 ⎢ 1 –2 1 0 1 0 ⎢ U 3 – M 4 – M –2 + 4M M 0 0 ⎣ y1 y2 y3 s1 s2 t1 U ⎡ y1 1 1 –4 –1 0 1 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 –3 5 1 1 –1 0 1⎥ U ⎢0 1 10 3 0 –3 + M 1 –3⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Thus Z = 3 when x1 = 3 and x2 = 0. We write the second constraint of the dual as y1 – 2 y2 + y3 ≤ 2. Y. Let x. If P is the total profit obtained. 6 units of Y. x. x y z s1 s2 P ⎡ s1 1 2 2 1 0 0 40 ⎤ 20 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 34 ⎥ 17 P ⎢ –10 –15 –22 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 P ⎡ s1 0 1 0 1 –1 0 6 ⎤ 6 ⎢ ⎥ z ⎢ 12 12 1 0 12 0 17 ⎥ 34 ⎢ ⎥ P ⎢ 1 –4 0 0 11 1 374 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 –1 0 6⎤ y ⎡0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ z ⎢ 12 0 1 – 12 1 0 14 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ P⎢ 1 0 0 4 7 1 398⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Thus 0 units of X. we want to maximize P = 10x + 15y + 22z subject to x + 2 y + 2 z ≤ 40. We write the third constraint as −4 x1 − x2 ≤ −2. z ≥ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review 30. and 14 units of Z give a maximum profit of $398. and Z produced weekly. y. The dual is: Minimize W = 3 y1 + 4 y2 – 2 y3 subject to y1 + y2 – 4 y3 ≥ 1. respectively. y.

xBD ≤ 6. xBC . = 5. 6 units of Y. z ≥ 0. x. If C is the total transportation cost in thousands of dollars. 10 units of Z. 33. A to D. y. We want to maximize P = 10x + 15y + 22z subject to x + 2 y + 2 z ≤ 40. and xBD denote the amounts (in hundreds of thousands of gallons) transported from A to C. B to C. Let x AC . x AD . x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 34 ⎥⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 –1 1 0 24 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ –10 –15 –22 0 0 0 M 1 0 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40 ⎤ 20 s1 ⎡ ⎢ 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 34 ⎥⎥ 17 s2 ⎢ 1 1 1 0 0 –1 1 0 24 ⎥ 24 t3 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣ –10 – M –15 – M –22 – M 0 0 M 0 1 −24M ⎦⎥ x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 0 1 0 1 –1 0 0 0 6 ⎡ ⎤ 6 s1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 1 1 z⎢ 1 0 0 0 0 17 ⎥ 34 2 2 2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 14 1 1 0 0 –2 –1 1 0 7 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 t3 ⎢ ⎥ M M M W ⎢⎣1 – 2 –4 – 2 0 0 11 + 2 M 0 1 374 – 7 M ⎥⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 1 0 1 –1 0 0 0 6 ⎤ y⎡ 0 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 1 0 1 –2 1 0 0 0 14 z⎢ 2 ⎥ 28 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 0 0 – 12 0 –1 1 0 4 ⎢ 2 ⎥8 t3 ⎢ ⎥ M M W ⎢⎢1 – 2 0 0 4 + 2 7 M 0 1 398 – 4M ⎥⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x y z s1 s2 s3 t3 W 0 0 6⎤ y ⎡0 1 0 1 –1 0 ⎢0 0 1 0 1 1 –1 0 10 ⎥⎥ z⎢ 2 0 8⎥ x ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 0 –2 ⎢ ⎥ W ⎢⎣0 0 0 5 7 2 –2 + M 1 390 ⎥⎦ The company should produce 8 units of X. for a profit of $390. we want to minimize C = x AC + 2 x AD + 2 xBC + 4 xBD subject to x AC + x AD xBC + xBD x AC + xBC x AD + xBD x AC . ≤ 6. xBC . ≥ 0. = 5. x + y + 2 z ≤ 34. x + y + z ≥ 24.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 32. x AD . and B to D. 290 . respectively.

and 400. We want to maximize P = 5x + 9y subject to the constraints 30 x + 10 y ≤ 300 20 x + 10 y ≤ 200 10 x + 50 y ≤ 500 x. xBC = 4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x AC ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢1 ⎢⎣ x AD 1 0 0 1 2 x AC 1 ⎡ s1 ⎢ 0 s2 ⎢ t3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ t4 ⎢ 0 W ⎢⎢⎣1 – M xBC 0 1 1 0 2 xBD 0 1 0 1 4 x AD 1 0 0 1 2–M s1 s2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 xBC 0 1 1 0 2–M t3 0 0 1 0 M Chapter 7 Review t4 0 0 0 1 M xBD s1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 4–M 0 W 0 0 0 0 1 s2 0 1 0 0 0 t3 0 0 1 0 0 6⎤ 6 ⎥⎥ 5⎥ ⎥ 5⎥ 0 ⎥⎥ ⎦ t4 0 0 0 1 0 W 0 6 ⎤6 0 6 ⎥⎥ 0 5 ⎥5 ⎥ 0 5 ⎥ 1 –10M ⎥⎥ ⎦ W 0 1⎤ 1 0 6 ⎥⎥ 0 5⎥ ⎥ 0 5⎥ 5 1 –5 – 5M ⎥⎥ ⎦ W 0 1 ⎤ ⎥ 0 6 ⎥6 ⎥5 0 5 ⎥ 0 4 ⎥4 1 –7 – 4M ⎥⎥ ⎦ x AC x AD xBC xBD s1 s2 t3 t4 1 –1 0 1 0 –1 0 s1 ⎡ 0 ⎢0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 s2 ⎢ 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 x AC ⎢ 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 t4 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 4 – M 0 0 –1 + M 0 W ⎢⎣ 0 2 – M x AC x AD xBC xBD s1 s2 t3 t4 –1 0 1 0 –1 0 x AD ⎡ 0 1 ⎢0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 s2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 x AC ⎢ 1 1 –1 0 1 1 t4 ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ W ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 – M 4 – M –2 + M 0 1 0 x AC x AD xBC xBD s1 s2 t3 t4 W 0 1 0 5⎤ x AD ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 0 ⎢0 0 0 0 1 1 –1 –1 0 2 ⎥⎥ s2 ⎢ 0 –1 0 1⎥ x AC ⎢ 1 0 0 –1 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 4⎥ xBC ⎢ 0 0 1 1 –1 0 W ⎢⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 1 0 –2 + M –3 + M 1 –19 ⎥⎦⎥ The minimum value of C is 19.000 gal from A to C.000.000 gal from A to D. Thus 100. and xBD = 0.000 gal from B to C give a minimum cost of $19. respectively. Let x and y be the weekly sales of Space Traders and Green Dwarf. when x AC = 1. 500. x AD = 5. 34. y ≥ 0 The constraints can be written as 291 .

50 y 3x + y = 30 (0. 0). 39⎟ and (0. 0). Thus the animals should be fed 100 × 100 = 10. for a weekly profit of $106. We want to minimize C = 8x + 22y subject to the constraints 8 x + 4 y ≥ 176. ⎛5 ⎞ The feasible region is unbounded with corner points (100. 44). and (6. C has a minimum value at ⎝2 ⎠ (100.78. ⎟ = ⎜ 5 . 0) 35. 9) ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ ⎝ 9 9⎠ does not satisfy the second or third constraints. Let x and y represent daily consumption of foods A and B in 100-gram units. (0. However. y ≥ 0 970 ⎛ 50 80 ⎞ The feasible region has corner points (0. 0 0 50 Z = 0. 10).14 292 . 9). 10) 2x + y = 20 ⎛ 50 80 ⎞ ⎜ . and (10.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3 x + y ≤ 30 2 x + y ≤ 20 x + 5 y ≤ 50 x. 000 grams = 10 kilograms of food A each day. 0). the point (6. 100 y 8x + 4y = 176 2x + 5y = 200 x 100 20 36. 16 x + 32 y ≥ 1024. x ≥ 0. 2 x + 5 y ≥ 200. at ⎟ . 8 ⎟ . 0). ⎜ .89 when x = 4. P has a maximum of 9 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ ⎛ 50 80 ⎞ ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ . The possible integer values are (5. 8). y ≥ 0. (5. y = 9. ⎜ . ⎟ ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ x + 5y = 50 x 50 (10. (6. Evaluating P at the other three points gives that Jason should sell 5 copies of Space Trader and 9 copies of Green Dwarf. 8). 9).

We want to minimize the discomfort D. 5 x2 400x1 + 600x2 = 1400 (2. 400 x1 + 600 x2 ≤ 1400. where x1 . 7 7 ⎛ 7⎞ at ⎜ 0. and (2. Requirement Let x1 = number of ounces of drug and let x2 = number of minutes of radiation. 0 −2 10 Z = 129. ⎜ 0. x2 ≥ 0. 293 . ⎟ . 1) 500x1 + 1000x2 = 2000 x1 5 ⎛ 7⎞ The corner points are (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 7 10 37. 2). 2). D = 2 + 1 = 3. ⎟ . 3 3 ⎝ 3⎠ at (2. subject to 500 x1 + 1000 x2 ≥ 2000. The patient should get 0 ounces of drug and 2 minutes of radiation. D = 0 + = . where D = x1 + x2 . 2).38.83 when x = 9. D = 0 + 2 = 2. 1). Thus D is minimum at (0. 1). ⎝ 3⎠ At (0. y = 1.63 Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 7 CURATIVE UNITS TOXIC UNITS RELATIVE DISCOMFORT Drug (per ounce) 500 400 1 Radiation (per min) 1000 600 1 ≥ 2000 ≤1400 1.

00025 0 1.5 ounces of drug B.75 minutes of radiation. where D = x1 + 2 x2 + x3 .75⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The minimum value of D is 6. x2 = 2. 2. and 1.5 t1 ⎡ 100 400 0 −1 1 1 0 1000 ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 0. we maximize –D by considering the artificial objective function W = –D – Mt1 . x2 . The patient should get 0 ounces of drug A. We want to minimize the discomfort D.0025 –0. subject to 600 x1 + 500 x2 + 1000 x3 ≥ 3000.0025 0.5 0. 3.5.00475 + M 1 –6.00025 0.5⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x3 ⎢ 0. Requirement Let x1 = number of ounces of drug A. and x3 = 1.025 0 0 0. x3 ≥ 0 To minimize D. 500 x1 + 100 x2 + 1000 x3 ≤ 2000.475 0 1 0. x1 .75⎥ W ⎢ 0.00375 –0.001 + M 0 1 −2 − 1000 M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 W x2 ⎡ 0.75 when x1 = 0.5 –100M 1.75.9 – 400 M 0 M –0. x2 = number of ounces of drug B. and x3 = number of minutes of radiation.00125 –0. 294 .25 1 0 –0.001 0 0 2 ⎥ 20 ⎢ W 0.Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis CURATIVE UNITS TOXIC UNITS RELATIVE DISCOMFORT Drug A (per ounce) 600 500 1 Drug B (per ounce) 500 100 2 Radiation (per min) 1000 1000 1 ≥ 3000 ≤ 2000 2. Answers may vary.1 1 0 0. x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 W ⎡ 600 500 1000 –1 0 1 0 3000 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 500 100 1000 0 1 0 0 2000 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 0 0 M 1 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 W t1 ⎡ 600 500 1000 –1 0 1 0 3000 ⎤ 3 ⎢ ⎥ s2 ⎢ 500 100 1000 0 1 0 0 2000 ⎥ 2 W ⎢1 – 600M 2 – 500M 1 –1000 M M 0 0 1 –3000M ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ x1 x2 x3 s1 s2 t1 W ⎤ 2.0025 0 2.00475 0.

3 4 5. 3 4 2.000 – 1 3 3. 5 6 1. 5 6 4. 5 6 2. A Start Finishing Line D Production Route AD E AE D BD E BE D CD E CE B C Red Die 1 2 6 possible production routes 2. 3 4 4. 4 5 5. 6 36 possible results 295 . 6 3 6 model types Start 4 5 6 1 4.000 – 2 4 3. 1 2 2.000 Fan Model Speeds Type 1 6000 – 1 Green Die 1 Result 1. 3 4 6. 3 4 1. 1 2 4. Assembly Line 1. 1 2 5. 2 3 2. 1 2 8000 – 2 2 3. 2 1 10. 6 2 6000 – 2 1 8000 – 1 1 3. 6 1 5. 4 5 2. 4 5 6. 4 5 3. 4 5 4. 1 2 6.Chapter 8 Problems 8. 5 6 3. 3 2 10. 5 6 6. 2 3 1. 2 3 4. 1 2 1. 5 6 5. 4 5 1. 2 3 5. 2 3 6.1 3. 6 1 6. 6 1 2. BTU's 6000 Start 8000 10.

T 16 possible results 95! 95! = = 95 (95 − 1)! 94! 13.. the number of possible round-trip routes is 5 · 4 = 20. T. Thus the number of ways the matching can be done is 8 P6 = 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 = 20. T H H. the number of ways to answer the examination is 2 · 2 · . H. and 3 beverages. 9 P4 = 9! 9! = = 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 = 3024 (9 − 4)! 5! 15. H. H. the number of codes is 26 · 10 · 26 · 10 · 26 · 10 = 17. H. the number of possible results on 8 tosses is 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 28 = 256 . 23. 6. attempting to evaluate 1000! results in an error message (because of 999! the magnitude of the numbers involved). b. n Pr n! = n! ( n – r )! n! = 1 (n – r )! 20. H T T. For each of the 10 questions. H. T. the number of selections is 5 · 4 = 20. H T H. There are 2 appetizers. H. 6 P6 = 6! 6! 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = = = 720 (6 – 6)! 0! 1 14. 4 entrees. and 5 roads from B to A. T. T. there are 4 choices. 11. T. By the basic counting principle. T. By the basic counting principle. The number of ways of selecting 3 of 8 contestants in an order is 8 P3 = 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 = 336 . T. The number of ways to arrange 6 teams in an order is 6 P6 = 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 720 . Six out of eight items in column 2 must be selected in an order. T. T. = 99 P5 = (4 ⋅ 3)(5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3) = (12)(60) = 720 19. the number of possible complete dinners is 2 · 4 · 4 · 3 = 96. the number of ways to answer the questions is 22. T. Thus the number of possible firm names is 3 P3 = 3! = 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 6 . 12.000. On each roll of a die. there are 2 choices. H. there are only 4 possible roads from B to A. H. Since there are 26 letters. H. H. · 2 = 210 = 1024 . there are 6 possible outcomes.. For each of the 6 questions. fourth. T. T. 25. H. By the basic counting principle. H T H. T. there are 26 choices for the first. 95 P1 16. 4 P2 ⋅ 5 P3 There are 5 roads from A to B. By the basic counting principle. 4 desserts. T H T. H T H. Toss 1 Toss 2 Toss 3 H H T H H T T Start H H T T H T T Toss 4 H Result H. T H H. H. T H T. H. third and fifth symbols. the number of possible routes for a round trip is 5 · 5 = 25. on 4 rolls the number of possible results is 6 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 = 64 = 1296. 5. H T H. 10. By the basic counting principle. On each toss there are 2 possible outcomes. a. 4 · 4 · 4 · 4 · 4 · 4 = 46 = 4096 . By the basic counting principle. T H T. There are 5 possible roads from A to B. H. The number of ways of selecting 3 of the 12 students in an order is 12 P3 = 12 ⋅11 ⋅10 = 1320 . T H H. H T T. A name for the firm is an ordered arrangement of the three last names. T. Since a different road is to be used for the return trip. By the basic counting principle. 7. H T T. H T T. By the basic counting principle.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. 8. By the basic counting principle. 9. There are 5 science courses and 4 humanities courses. H. There are 10 possible digits (0 through 9) for the second. 99 P4 = 99 ⋅ 98 ⋅ 97 ⋅ 96 ⋅ 95 = 95 99 ⋅ 98 ⋅ 97 ⋅ 96 1000! 1000 ⋅ 999! = = 1000 999! 999! For most calculators. T H T. 21. 24. 6! 6! = = 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 = 120 (6 − 3)! 3! 296 . and sixth symbols. 6 P3 = 17.576.160 . T. 18. T. H.

Thus the number of possible lock combinations is 26 P3 = 15. all aces). 28. then the number of ways to place one of the two women on the left side is 2 P1 . 33. the number of line ups is 2 P1 ⋅ 3 P3 = (2)(3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1) = 12 . 36. Since the order of letters is important and no letter is used more than one time. Once a woman is chosen for the left side.. For the first letter there are two possibilities. 39. 297 . 34. to assign positions to the five-member team there are 2 ⋅ 4 P4 = 2(4!) = 2(24) = 48 ways. there are 4 P4 ways.144 . a. The number of ways to select four of the four different letters in the word DISC in an order is 4 P4 = 4! = 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 24 . 11 for vice president. 35. the number of possible results for the three rolls is 6 · 2 · 6 = 72. After that choice is made. The number of ways to line the three men in the middle is 3 P3 . the offices can be filled in 12 · 11 · 12 · 12 = 19. After a “four of a kind” hand is dealt. the number of “four of a kind” hands is 13 · 48 = 624. By the basic counting principle. the number of possible identifications is 2 · 26 · 26 · 25 = 33. 27. By the basic counting principle. 30. to fill the remaining four positions (and order is important).824 . Thus the number of ways of placing an order is 5 P2 = 5 ⋅ 4 = 20. The number of ways to select six of the six different letters in the word MEADOW in an order is 6 P6 = 6! = 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 720 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. the cards can be arranged so that the first four have the same face value. The number of ways the waitress can place five of the five different sandwiches (and order is important) is 5 P5 = 5! = 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 120. order is important. If a woman is to be at each end. there are 2 possible outcomes (a 1 or a 2). the number of ways to enter by one door and exit by a different door is 5 · 4 = 20. The number of ways a student can choose 4 of the 6 items in an order is 6 P4 = 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 = 360. A student can enter by any of 5 doors. The fifth card can be any one of the 48 cards that remain. By the basic counting principle. 40. .. 32. There are 24 possibilities for each of the three letters in a name. a.880 ways. There are 5 doors by which to enter and 5 doors by which to exit. a. For each of the other two rolls. and for the last letter there are 25 possibilities. 31. then there are 12 choices for president. there are 6 possible outcomes. On the second roll. After a door is chosen. 12 for secretary. Because order is important. If the president and vice president must be different members. By the basic counting principle. By the basic counting principle. b. and 12 for treasurer. There are 13 possibilities for the first four cards (all 2’s. and order is not important. 37..1 26. For the second and third letters there are 26 possibilities. By the basic counting principle. the student can exit by any of the 4 remaining doors. This can be done in 12 P4 = 12 ⋅11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 = 11. By the basic counting principle. By the basic counting principle. 600 . all 3’s. For an arrangement of books. 4 of 12 members must be selected. b. the other woman must be on the right side. 29. To fill the four offices by different people. the number of ways that the 5 people can line up is 5 P5 = 5! = 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 120 . and order is important. the total number of ways to enter and exit is 5 · 5 = 25. the number of names is 24 P3 = 24 ⋅ 23 ⋅ 22 = 12. Three of the 26 letters must be selected (without repetition) in an order.008 ways. There are 2 choices for the center position. Five colors are available. the number of names is 24 · 24 · 24 = 243 = 13. and two are selected so that order is important. 38.800. b. The number of ways to arrange 5 of 7 books is 7 P5 = 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 = 2520 . All 7 books can be arranged in 7 P7 = 7! = 5040 ways. By the basic counting principle.

there are 3 P4 and 4 P4 possible signals. The number of ways of selecting 4 of 17 people so that order is not important is 17! 17! = 17 C4 = 4!(17 – 4)! 4! ⋅13! = 17 ⋅16 ⋅15 ⋅14 ⋅13! = 2380 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1(13!) 10. Similarly for B and C. the order is not important. or third place. there are 4 P1 possible signals. In a deck of 52 cards. There are 3 P3 ways to select the first three batters (order is important) and there are 6 P6 ways to select the remaining batters. 1001! 1001! = 1!(1001 − 1)! 1!⋅1000! 1001 ⋅1000! = = 1001 1000! = 5 P3 ⋅ 4 C2 = = (4 ⋅ 3) Thus n Cr = n Cn – r . B. for exactly three and exactly four flags. Problems 8.950 4! 2!(4 − 2)! 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2! = 5⋅ 4⋅3 2!2! = 60 ⋅ 6 = 360 = 5⋅ 4⋅3 298 . 26 of the cards are red. If only one of the four flags is used. namely 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5! 8! 8! = = 56 . the number of possible batting orders is 3 P3 ⋅ 6 P6 = 3! ⋅ 6! = 6 ⋅ 720 = 4320. 1001 C1 5. Thus order is not important. = (4 ⋅ 3) 7. = 8 C3 = 3!(8 – 3)! 3! ⋅ 5! 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 5! 100! 1 1 = = =1 100!(100 – 100)! 0! 1 11. 1. 6. Four of four flags can be arranged (order is important) in 4 P4 = 4! = 24 ways. respectively. there are 4 P2 possible signals. = 8. Similarly. second. 100 C100 4. The number of ways in which 3 of 8 horses finish in the money is the number of ways of selecting 3 of the 8 without regard to order. Thus. In a four-card hand. 5! 3!(5 – 3)! 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3! = (12) ⋅10 = 120 3!⋅ 2! n! r !(n – r )! = n! n! = ⋅ (n – r )![n – (n – r )]! (n – r )!r ! n Cn = n! 1 1 = = =1. If exactly two flags are used. the number of possible signals is 4 P1 + 4 P2 + 4 P3 + 4 P4 =4+4·3+4·3·2+4·3·2·1 = 4 + 12 + 24 + 24 = 64. a. n !(n – n)! 0! 1 9. and C finish in the money.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 41. Thus if at least one flag is used. = 6! 6! 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! 6 ⋅ 5 = = = = 15 4!(6 – 4)! 4! ⋅ 2! 4!(2 ⋅1) 2 ⋅1 2. Thus 24 different signals are possible. 6 C2 = 6! 6! 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! 6 ⋅ 5 = = = = 15 2!(6 – 2)! 2! ⋅ 4! (2 ⋅1)4! 2 ⋅1 3. If horses A. The number of ways of selecting 9 out of 13 questions (without regard to order) is 13! 13! 13 ⋅12 ⋅11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9! = = 13 C9 = 9!(13 − 9)! 9! ⋅ 4! 9!⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 715. 42. By the basic counting principle.2 6 C4 n Cr n Cn – r b. then it does not matter if A finishes in first. the number of four-card hands from the 26 red cards is 26! 26 C4 = 4!(26 − 4)! 26 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 23 ⋅ 22! = 4!22! = 14. 4 P2 ⋅ 5C3 12.

one U. 650 . 2! ⋅ 3! ⋅1! (2)3! 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! = 3 ⋅ 35 = 105 . Thus the number of possible 74! 74! . 5 of which are T’s and 5 of which are F’s.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. 4!(3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1) 15. The number of ways to place the 12 members in three specific cars (cells). and one G. 5!⋅ 5! 5!(5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1) 299 . and 3 ties is 11! 11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5! = = 6930. two E’s. 9. The number of different responses is 10! 10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5! = = 252 . or 100. Since the order in which the calls are made is important. To score 80. 90. Thus the number of distinguishable arrangements is 11! 11! = = 1.2 13. or a tie cell. The word STREETSBORO has 11 letters with repetition: two S’s. C is 3!3!3! 16. 4 of the 7 types of jelly are selected (and order is not important). and 3 work on 9! = 1680 . or 10 questions must be correct. The number of ways to have 4 wins. By the basic counting principle. and one is 4. two A’s. each car. = samples 74 C10 = 10! ⋅ (74 – 10)! 10! ⋅ 64! 18. two R’s. and two O’s. it is 10! 10! = =1. respectively. exactly 8. 4! ⋅ 5! ⋅ 2! 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 5!⋅ 2 ⋅1 24. Thus the number of distinguishable arrangements is 11! 11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! = 1! ⋅ 2! ⋅ 4! ⋅ 2! ⋅1! ⋅1! (2)4!(2) = 415. the number of ways is 10! 10! 10 ⋅ 9! = = = 10 . three are 3’s. The number of ways in which 8 of 10 questions can be correct is 10! 10! 10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8! = = = 45 . A response to the true-false questions can be considered an ordered arrangement of 10 letters. 5 losses. 4! ⋅ 3! 4!(6) 20. 5! ⋅ 4! 5! ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 17.800. with 4 members in 12! = 34. one of the 3 boxes is selected. 21. 3 work on B. In the second stage. The order of selecting 10 of the 74 dresses is of no concern. This situation can be considered as a two-stage process. is 4! ⋅ 4! ⋅ 4! 23. 10 C8 = 8!(10 – 8)! 8! ⋅ 2! 8! ⋅ 2 ⋅1 For 9 of 10 questions. In the first stage. 2! ⋅ 2! ⋅ 2! ⋅ 2! ⋅1! ⋅ 2! 32 14. four S’s. Then the number of possible distinguishable arrangements is 9! 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5! = = 126. a loss cell. which can be done in 7 C4 ways. one B. 5 of which are female. 10 C10 = 10!(10 – 10)! 10! ⋅ 0! Thus the number of ways to score 80 or better is 45 + 10 + 1 = 56. The number of ways for the given outcome to occur is the number of distinguishable permutations of six numbers such that two are 2’s. There are 9 holly bushes. The number of ways to assign 9 scientists so 3 work on project A. 22. The number of ways 4 heads and 3 tails can occur in 7 tosses of a coin is the same as the number of distinguishable permutations in the “word” HHHHTTT. 25. two I’s. The word MISSISSAUGA has 11 letters with repetition: one M. Each of the 11 games can be assigned to one of three cells: a win cell. which is 6! 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3! = = 60 . 400. which is 7! 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! = = 35 . two T’s. 10 C9 = 9!(10 – 9)! 9! ⋅1! 9! ⋅1 and for 10 of 10 questions. the number of different gift boxes that are possible is 7! 7! 3 ⋅ 7 C4 = 3 ⋅ = 3⋅ 4!(7 – 4)! 4! ⋅ 3! = 3⋅ 19. and 4 of which are male. the number of possible schedules for the 6 calls is 6 P6 = 6! = 720 . 247.

Exactly 2. = 32. and two are yellow (type 3). then eight flags are involved and the number of different 8! = 560. 2 cheeseburgers (type 2). = 31. If exactly two yellow flags are used. Selecting 4 of the 4 females can be done in only 1 way. In the first stage. However. The number of ways to select 4 of 7 bonds is 7 C4 . By the basic counting principle. 2 of the 3 males are selected (and order is not important). caseworker is 5! ⋅ 5! ⋅ 5! 28. a. By the basic counting principle... or 4 females can serve on the subcommittee.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 26. The number of ways that 4 of the possible 7 games can be won is 7! 7! = = 35 . The order in which the securities go into the portfolio is not important. Thus if at least messages is 2! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 3! two yellow flags are used. the ways of selecting the subcommittee is 3! 4! ⋅ 3 C2 ⋅ 4 C2 = 2!(3 – 2)! 2!(4 – 2)! = 3! 4! ⋅ = 3 ⋅ 6 = 18 2! ⋅1! 2! ⋅ 2! 34. b. a. and 4 will not be hired (cell 3).. The order in which the 7 food items are placed is important. Thus the number of ways that at least 2 females can serve on the subcommittee is 4 C2 ⋅ 4 C2 + 4 C3 ⋅ 4 C1 + 1 30. Then the number of possible distinguishable ways of placing the 7! = 210 . The number of ways to select 8 of 12 stocks is 12 C8 . 7. 2 for the shipping department (cell 2). There are 4 cards of a given denomination and the number of ways of selecting 3 cards of that denomination is 4 C3 . 7 C4 = 4!(7 – 4)! 4! ⋅ 3! 27. . The number of ways of selecting 5 of the 10 remaining members so that order is important is 10! 10! 10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5! = = 10 P5 = (10 − 5)! 5! 5! = 30. the number of ways of selecting 3 cards of one denomination is 300 . 240. 3. Thus the number of distinguishable arrangements (messages) is 7! = 210. which can be done in 3 C2 ways. Suppose the possible games are numbered 1. The number of ways to assign 15 clients to 3 caseworkers (cells) with 5 clients to each 15! = 756. there are 3 hamburgers (type 1). Since there are 13 denominations. 2. 2! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 2! c. Following the procedure in Problem 33(c). positions is 4! ⋅ 2! ⋅ 4! 4! 4! 4! 4! ⋅ + ⋅ +1 2! ⋅ 2! 2! ⋅ 2! 3! ⋅1! 1! ⋅ 3! = 6 · 6 + 4 · 4 + 1 = 36 + 16 + 1 = 53. 29. 4 will be hired for the assembly department (cell 1). Selecting 2 males and 2 females can be considered as a two-stage process. In the second stage. and 2 steak sandwiches (type 3). If all different messages is 2! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 2! three yellow flags are used.325 . The order in which four games are won is not important. Thus the number of ways to fill the 10! = 3150 . then seven flags are involved and the number of 7! = 210. b. The number of ways exactly four females can serve is 1. the number of ways to create the portfolio is 35. 756. Selecting 3 of the 3 males can be done in only 1 way. three are green (type 2). items is 3! ⋅ 2! ⋅ 2! 12 C8 ⋅ 7 C4 12! 7! ⋅ 8!(12 – 8)! 4!(7 – 4)! 12! 7! 12 ⋅11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8! 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! ⋅ = ⋅ 8! ⋅ 4! 4! ⋅ 3! 8! ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 4! ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 = 495 ⋅ 35 = 17. The number of ways exactly 3 females can serve is 4 C3 ⋅ 4 C1 . 3. the number of ways exactly 2 females can serve is 4 C2 ⋅ 4C2 . which can be done in 4 C2 ways. 2 of the 4 females are selected. = 33. Of the 10 applicants. the number of different messages is 210 + 560 = 770. Seven flags must be arranged: two are red (type 1).

HTHT. GBBG. Problems 8. TTTT} 3. {BBBB. 5. it is 3 P2 . BEG. 8. TTHT. Since there are six possibilities for each die. By the basic counting principle the number of two-pair hands where one pair is 8’s is 4 C2 ⋅ 12 C1 ⋅ 4 C2 ⋅11 ⋅ 4 4! 12! 4! = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅11 ⋅ 4 2! ⋅ 2! 1! ⋅11! 2! ⋅ 2! = 19. the number of possible full-house hands is 4! 4! 13 ⋅ 4C3 ⋅12 ⋅ 4C2 = 13 ⋅ ⋅12 ⋅ 3! ⋅1! 2! ⋅ 2! = 13 · 4 · 12 · 6 = 3744. 40. by he basic counting principle. {RW. WR. 6H. For a given assignment of students to the three groups. BBGB. The number of ways to get a pair of 8’s is 4 C2 . This is a combination problem because the order in which the videos are selected is not important. [64. HTTT. 7. For the last card there are 11 denominations left. 1T. This can be done in 18! = 5. HHTH. 69. THTT. ADG. {HHHH. BB}. 4T. BW. 60. and 3 tourists remain at the bottom of the mountain. CDF. 4H. This situation can be considered as placing 18 tourists into 3 cells: 7 tourist go to the 7-passenger tram. RW. By the basic counting principle. 3T. This can be done in 10! = 4200 ways. 94. 96.586. 10] 6. {9D. AEG. RB. CEG} b. 41. BGGG. HHHT. with 4 in group A. 8 go to the 8-passenger tram. 10. WW. and for group C it is 3 P2 . 11. BDG. 6T} 37. GBBB. {1H. HHTT.3 1.814. TTHH. with 4 cards in each denomination. 5. 06. 4. b. 9. RB. 49. 01. the number of sample points is 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 = 26 = 64 . 9. there are 12 denominations left to choose from. BR. HTHH. 10. the 2 other cards must be of the same denomination (of which 12 denominations remain). 3H. 2H. THHH. AEF. {ADF. Since there are two possibilities for each toss (H or T). GBGG. GGGB.3 1.3 13 ⋅ 4C3 . 61. 7! ⋅ 8! ⋅ 3! 4. For the other pair. BGGB. 9H.400. BR. CEF. with 4 C2 ways to get such a pair. {2. THTH. the number of ways of selecting a group leader and a secretary for group A (order is important) is 4 P2 . 400! 400! = 400 C3 = 3!(400 – 3)! 3!397! 400 ⋅ 399 ⋅ 398 ⋅ 397! 3!397! 400 ⋅ 399 ⋅ 398 = 3⋅ 2 = 10. Sample space consists of ordered sets of six elements and each element is H or T. Principles in Practice 8. 9C. BW} 8. GBGB. 91. Sample space consists of ordered sets of five elements where each element is an integer between 1 and 6 inclusive. 4! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 3! {RR.800 = 36. by 301 . WB. and there are 5 dice. 5H. Thus for the remaining 2 cards there are 12 ⋅ 4 C2 selections. 04. 90. TTTH. CDG. GGBB. GGBG. and there are six tosses. a. 6. BGBB. 09. 3. and 3 in group C. WR. BDF. 5T. BBBG. BEF. BBGG. so 12 C1 possibilities. Thus the number of ways that the instructor can split the class into 3 groups and designate a group leader and secretary in each group is 4200 ⋅ 4 P2 ⋅ 3 P2 ⋅ 3 P2 = 4200(4 ⋅ 3)(3 ⋅ 2)(3 ⋅ 2) = 1. GGGG} The 10 students are to be placed in 3 groups. HTTH. After that selection is made. a. 19. THHT. 12} 38. for group B. BGBG. There are 13 denominations and four cards of each denomination. 008. 9S] 2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. 3 in group B. The number of possible choices is the number of ways 3 videos can be selected from 400 without regard to order. 14. WB.250. 46. 16. 7.960 ways. 2T.

THT. then both cards can neither be clubs nor 3’s. 17. E ∩ F = ∅ . 25. F ∩G ≠ ∅ . Thus the number of sample points is 52 C10 . and 9. HTT. 16. 6. If both cards are jacks. HTH. and for the third and fourth there are 7 and 6 possibilities. or in F.5. 26 · 26 · 26 · 26 = 264 = 456. 8. 6. TTT} b. HTH.8} ∩ {1. and 10. G∩H =∅.” For each of the four letters there are 26 possibilities. E and G. the number of sample points is 52 · 6 = 312. ( E1 ∪ E2 )′ = S ′ = ∅ 20. E1 ∩ E4 = ∅ . THH. 9. HTT. THH. then both cards cannot be 3’s. E1 ∩ E2 ≠ ∅ . f. The sample points that are either in E. 4. 2. THH. 23.5. H ∩I =∅.10} g. a. 4. 10} and G ′ = {1. G and I.976 . E ∩ I ≠ ∅ . and G and I are mutually exclusive. 10}. F ∩ H ≠ ∅ F ∩ I = ∅.9}′ = {2. HHT. The sample points in S that are not in F are 1. Sample space consists of ordered pairs where the first element indicates the card drawn (52 possibilities) and the second element indicates the number on the die (6 possibilities).9.10}. HTH. 6. 7. 8. 6. 5. 14. 27. THT. The sample points common to both E ′ and F are 7 and 9. TTH. 2. F ′ = {1. THH. 8} the basic counting principle. GG} . for the first draw there are 9 possibilities. 5. 3. THT. 302 {BB. 10}. G ∩ H = ∅ . G and H. TTT} d. 4. G∩I =∅. G and H. ( F ∩ G )′ = ∅′ = S 28. 9}. HHT. 7. 6. Thus E and G. Thus E ′ ∩ F = {7. a. 3. E1 ∩ E2 = {HHT. 9}. The sample points in S that are not in E are 2. E ∩ I ≠ ∅ . 5. F ∩I =∅. 2. E ∩ G = ∅ .8. E ∩ H ≠ ∅ . E ∩ H ≠ ∅. 7. E2 and E3 . F ∩ H ≠ ∅ . 9.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 22. 9. Since the rabbits are not replaced. H ∩ I ≠ ∅. and 10. 7. TTH. 24. E J and E3 . 5 11. E ∩ F ≠ ∅ . Thus F′ = {1. THH. 6. E1 ∪ E2 = {HHH. GB. TTT} 21. TTH. Thus E ′ = {2. and 10. HTT. TTH} c. 10}.3. Sample space consists of combinations of 52 cards taken 10 at a time. 9. 10}. TTH} 19. for the second draw there are 8 possibilities. the number of sample points is 26. 15. E J and EC . THT. TTT} = S e. 2. By the basic counting principle. 13. E ∩ G = ∅ . H and I are mutually exclusive. 6. HTH. F and I. F and I. so F ′ ∩ G ′ = {1. THH. 5.8. THT. 7. HTT. E1 = {HHH. 6. 4. 8. 2. E3 ∩ E4 = ∅ . E1 ∩ E3 ≠ ∅ . 7. E2 ∩ E4 ≠ ∅ . Sample space consists of all four letter “words. the number of sample points is 6 · 6 · 6 · 6 · 6 = 6 = 7776 . Thus EC ∩ E3 = ∅. G ∩ I = ∅. 6. If both cards are clubs. Thus E J ∩ EC = ∅ and E J ∩ E3 = ∅. 3. 3. or in both E and F are 1. TTH}′ = {HHH. 4.3. 4. and E3 and E4 are mutually exclusive. 8. E2 ∩ E3 = ∅ .8. 18. 12. 5. respectively. THT. S = {HHH. HHT. HTT. BG. Thus G ′= {1. ( E ∪ F )′ = {1. F ∩G ≠ ∅ . 4. EC and E3 are mutually exclusive. Sample space consists of ordered sets of four elements where the elements and their position indicate the rabbit selected on the respective draw. Thus E ∪ F = {1. HTH. 4. By the basic counting principle. ( E1 ∩ E2 )′ = {HHT. the number of sample points is 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 = 3024. HTT. HTH. 7. 3. Thus E and F. 4. 2. By the basic counting principle.10} = {1. The sample points in S that are not in G are 1. E2 = {HHT. 7. Thus E1 and E4 . ( E ∪ G ) ∩ F ′ = {1.

UXZ. {BG. VVX. 2). GG} c. UXX. or 5 ) = d. CAB. we have ( E ∩ F ) ∩ ( E ∩ F ′) = ( E ∩ F ∩ E ) ∩ F ′ [property 15] = ( E ∩ E ∩ F ) ∩ F ′ [property 11] = ( E ∩ E ) ∩ ( F ∩ F ′) [porperty 15] [property 5] = E ∩∅ [property 9] =∅ Thus ( E ∩ F ) ∩ ( E ∩ F ′) = ∅. VYX. UUX. VVX.1). WYZ} More than one supplier is used. (3. VUV. WXZ. WUW. VVW. VVZ. 6. E and F are not mutually exclusive.2 + 0. UVV.1 = 0. UYV. {BAC. WYV. 2).3 – 0. VYW.831 ≠ 0 . UYZ. BAC. VXW.4 b. 3000P(E) = 3000(0.1. VVZ. b.3). 6)} P ( E12 or 13 ) = 303 n( E12 or 13 ) 1 = n( S ) 36 . UXW. VUV. UVW. VXZ. E8 = {(2. (5. ACB. 2. WUV. UYX. 5).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. VYW. WXV. a. VYV. GB} 1. VXV. a. or 5 = {(1. Since it is given that P ( E ∩ F ) = 0. 1)} P ( E2 or 3 ) = c. UVX. UYW. WUX. Problems 8.45) = 3000(0. WUZ. (1. UXW. 6). WVV. WXZ. WVX. 2)} P ( E8 ) = b. VYZ. b. UXV. (3. WYW. VXW. 2).8 {UUV. WXX. UXX. UUZ. CBA} {UUV. WUZ. VXX. UUZ.4 1 3 = 4 4 P(E´) = 1 – P(E) = 1 – P ( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) = 1 1 1 5 + – = 4 2 8 8 5. 32. WUW. (6. 30. VXX. UYX. VYX. 7. (3. P ( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) = 0.2 = 0. CBA} 3. (2. P ( E ∪ F ) = P ( E ) + P( F ) − P( E ∩ F ) Thus P ( F ) = P ( E ∪ F ) + P( E ∩ F ) − P( E ) 13 1 1 1 = + − = . WYW. WXW. (1. GG}′ = {BB} ≠ event in (c) 29. UXV. VVV. WXV. UVZ. VUW. P(E′) = 1 – P(E) = 1 – 0. Using the properties in Table 8. WYX.55) = 1650 {ABC. UUW. VUW. GB.3). 3000P(E) = 3000[1 – P(E′)] = 3000(1 – 0. BCA. UVW. VUX. WVZ. so E ∩ F and E ∩ F ′ are mutually exclusive. then E∩F =∅ . VVW. or 5 ) n( S ) = 9 1 = 36 4 E12 or 13 = E12 . (4. WVW. 4. WUX. UUW. VUX. BCA. VXV. a. UYV. n( E3. UVZ. VYZ. (4. 4. VUZ. {BG. since E13 is an impossible event. WVZ. UYW.1)} P ( E3.4 {BB.25) = 750 d. BG. VYV. WYZ} 4. UVX. No.1. 1). {VVV} c. b. CAB. 20 10 2 4 31. b. WVV. GB. 4. (2. WXW. WYX. (1. WYV. WVW. VUZ. n( E8 ) 5 = n( S ) 36 E2 or 3 = {(1. (2. WVX. UVV. WUV. E12 = {(6. a. UXZ. UUX.1). If E and F are mutually exclusive. a. ACB} c. Using the properties in Table 8. 2). 4). VXZ. Thus P ( E ∩ F ) = P (∅) = 0 . 4). (2. WXX. we have ( E ∩ F ) ∪ ( E ∩ F ′) [property 16] = E ∩ ( F ∪ F ′) [property 4] = E∩S [property 7] =E n( E2 or 3 ) 3 1 = = 36 12 n( S ) E3. UYZ. {ABC. 3).

4). E2 or 3 shows = {(2. (4. n(S) = 2 · 6 = 12 a.3).5). Eclub and 4 = {4C} n( E3 ) 2 1 = =− n( S ) 12 6 n( Ehead and even ) = 1 ⋅ 3 = 3 P(head and even) n( Ehead and even ) 3 1 = = = n( S ) 12 4 .5). 6). n(S) = 52. (6. 6). 6)} Because a heart is not a club.5). ′ than 10 ) P ( Eless than 10 ) = 1 – P ( Eless =1– 6 30 5 = = . 36 36 6 g. 2).1)} e. (1. 6). 6). 3).5). (1. (2. 6). (5. 304 n( S ) = 1 12 n( Ehead ) 6 1 = = n( S ) 12 2 n( E3 ) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 P(3) = d. 6). (3.1)} E6 = {(1. (2. (2. (3. (2. Eheart ∩ Eclub = ∅ .5). n( EH. (5. (6.5).5 ) n( Ehead ) = 1 ⋅ 6 = 6 . 2). (3. (3. 1). 4). (6.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics e.5 = {H5} c. P(diamond) = n( S ) = 1 52 n( E jack ) = b. 1 1 P ( Eodd ) = 1 – P ( Eeven ) = 1 – = 2 2 g. P(club or 4) = P(club) + P(4) – P(club and 4) 13 4 1 16 4 = + – = = 52 52 52 52 13 h. E4 = {(1. (3. Thus P ( Eheart or club ) = P( Eheart ∪ Eclub ) = P ( Eheart ) + P ( Eclub ) = n( Eheart ) n( Eclub ) 13 13 + = + n( S ) n( S ) 52 52 = 26 1 = 52 2 P ( Eeven ) = P( E2 ) + P ( E4 ) + P ( E6 ) + P ( E8 ) + P ( E10 ) + P ( E12 ) = 1 3 5 5 3 1 18 1 + + + + + = = 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 2 f. 2). 3)} n( E2 or 3 shows ) 20 5 = = P ( E2 or 3 shows ) = n( S ) 36 9 a. (3. P(head) = 4 1 = 52 13 P(jack) = 2 1 = 52 26 P(head and 5) = n( E diamond ) 13 1 = = n( S ) 52 4 c.5)} ∪ {(6. 4)} ∪ {(5. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis E2 = {(1. 4). b. n( Eking of hearts ) n(Ered and king ) Thus P(spade and heart) = 0 9. (5. 6). 4)} E12 = {(6.3. (2. P(king of hearts) = n( Eclub and 4 ) 1 = n( S ) 52 P (red and king)= 8. 2). 6)} = {(4.3). (5. (3. 2). Ered and king = {KH. 3). 4). 6). (5. 3). ). 6)} . 2)} E10 = {(4. (6. 2). (3. 2). (4. (6. (2. 5). (6. (5. 4). 3). (5. ′ than 10 = E10 ∪ E11 ∪ E12 Eless = {(4. 1). (3. 2). (6. d n( Ered ) 26 1 P(red) = = = n( S ) 52 2 n( S ) Espade and heart = ∅ EH. (6. (5. n( S ) 10. KD} = i. 5).1)} E8 = {(2. 3). (2. P ( Eclub and 4 ) = f. (6. (4. (4.

3. 600 5525 P(blue) = n( Eblue ) 8 4 = = n( S ) 18 9 b. clubs. 3. queen of hearts) n( ET. Number of ways either first card is king of hearts and second card is a different heart. 2 or 3.600 a. n(S) = 52 · 52 = 2704 P(tail. 13. Thus. 1 169 P(3 girls) = n( E1 tail ) 3 P(1 tail) = = n( S ) 8 c. = b. P(not red) = 1 – P(red) n( Ered ) 7 11 =1– =1– = n( S ) 18 18 13 ⋅12 ⋅11 11 = 132.2 or 3. n(S) = 52 · 51 · 50 = 132.D ) 1 ⋅ 3 ⋅13 1 = = = n( S ) 624 16 a. b. a. Number of ways both cards are king of hearts: 1.HTH.Q ) 1 ⋅1 ⋅ 4 1 = = = n( S ) 624 156 c. P (all hearts) = n( E3 girls ) n( S ) = 1 8 E1 boy = {BGG. Number of ways either first card is king of diamonds.GGB} n( E1 boy ) = 3 8 n( Eno girl ) = n( S ) Eno girl = {BBB} P(no girl) = E no more than 1 tail = E0 tails ∪ E1 tail = {HHH} ∪ {HHT.THH} . n( Eboth kings ) P(both kings) = a. so probability of 103 . P(tail. number ways one card is a king and the other is a heart is 1 + 24 + 78 = 103. or vice versa: 2(3 · 13) = 78. 4⋅4 2704 15. n(S) = 8 P(3 heads) = n( S ) = b.3. or vice versa: 2(1 · 12) = 24.GBG. n(S) = 2 · 2 · 2 = 8 12. THH}.E. P(at least 1 girl) = 1 – P(no girl) 1 7 =1– = 8 8 16.QH ) 1 ⋅1 ⋅1 1 = = = n( S ) 624 624 a. and second card is a heart. 14. HHT.4 11.3. queen) n( EH. or spades. HTH.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. The sample space consists of 18 jelly beans. 600 850 305 . P(no more than 1 tail) n( Eno more than 1 tail ) 4 1 = = = 8 2 n( S ) P (all kings) = E3 girls = {GGG} P(1 boy) = n( S ) 1 8 d. b. given event is 2704 d. n(S) = 2 · 6 · 52 = 624 a. P(no more than 2 heads) = 1 – P(3 heads) 1 7 = 1– = 8 8 c. E1 tail = {HHT. E3 heads = {HHH} n( E3 heads ) 1 = n(S ) 8 d. P(head. Thus n(S) = 18. P(head. diamond) n( EH.THH} = {HHH. queen) n( ET. even.HTH.Q ) 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 4 1 = = = n( S ) 624 78 b. 4⋅3⋅ 2 1 = 132.

a. Thus P(red or white) = P(red) + P(white) 7 3 10 5 + = = = 18 18 18 9 d.4 = 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis c.95 =1– N P(both red) = n( ER. The events of drawing a red jelly bean and drawing a white jelly bean are mutually exclusive.6 P(A) = = 2 38 = = 0. P(one red and other green) n( ER. Then n(S) = N.05N an F.10 N + 0.4 N = 0. Eyellow = ∅ . or C ) 4 + 10 + 14 28 = = = 0.25N a D.1 n( S ) 40 10 b. n(S) = 5 · 9 = 45. 0. Ered ∩ Eyellow = ∅ d.35 40 306 15 + 8 23 = 45 45 .95 40 40 Let N = number of students.B. +0 = = 18 18 17. 10 a D.7 = n( S ) 40 40 n( EA or B ) 4 + 10 = n( S ) 40 14 = 0.05 N = 1 – 0.G ) + n( EG .4 N a.25N a B. a. 0. B. Let N = number of ties. or C) 0.35 N = N 0. P (not 100% silk) = 1 − P(100% pure silk) = 1 − 0. The sample space consists of 60 stocks.05 = 0. n(S) = 40 Of the 40 students. 14 a C. Thus P(yellow) = 0 f. 19. P(less than 6%) = 1 – P(6% or more) 4 1 =1– = 5 5 18.7 N P(no F) = 1 – P(F) 0. 10 a B. and 2 an F. and Bag 2 contains 9. P(A or B) = n ( EF ) n( S ) 20. Thus P(red or yellow) = P(red) + P(yellow) 7 7 . 0.R ) n( S ) = 3⋅ 4 4 = 45 15 b. 0. Then the number of pure silk ties is 0.25 N P(A or B) = N 0.10 N + 0. Of the N students. a. or C) n( EA. B. 4 received an A. Thus n(S) = 60.35 N P(neither D nor F) = P(A. P(no F) = 1 – P(F) = 1 – 3 1 = 18 6 =1– e.10 N = 0. P(neither D nor F) = P(A. Bag 1 contains 5 jelly beans. R ) 3 ⋅ 5 + 2 ⋅ 4 = = n( S ) 45 = n( EA ) 4 1 = = = 0. 0.70 N = = 0.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics c.1 P(A) = N 0.35N a C. P(neither red nor blue) = P(white) = e.4N.25 N + 0.10N received an A. P(6% or more) = = n( E6% or more ) n( S ) 48 4 = 60 5 b.35 N = = 0. 0. P (100% pure silk) = 0. b.

the number of possible committees consisting of a man and a woman is 3 · 2 = 6. P(100 points) = n( S ) 1024 n( Efour of a kind ) n( S ) 13 ⋅ 4C4 ⋅12 ⋅ 4C1 = 52 C5 13 ⋅12 ⋅ 4 = 52 C5 P(four of a kind) = b. = 32. 14 7 4 4 P ( E ′ ∪ F ) = P ( E ′) + P( F ) – P( E ′ ∩ F ) ⎛ 1⎞ 1 = ⎜1 − ⎟ + − P( E ′ ∩ F ) ⎝ 4⎠ 4 = 1 − P( E ′ ∩ F ) Since F = ( E ∩ F ) ∪ ( E ′ ∩ F ) and E ∩ F and E ′ ∩ F are mutually exclusive P ( F ) = P( E ∩ F ) + P( E ′ ∩ F ) . n( Eall correct ) 1 = P(all correct) = n( S ) 65. 4 34 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ . Thus n( Eman and woman ) . There is only one way to achieve 100 points. 768 = 6 3 = . The probability of answering one question correctly when answering in a random 1 and the probability of fashion is 4 3 answering incorrectly is . The sample space consists of combinations of 2 people selected from 5. Thus n( S ) = 52 C5 . there are 4 cards of a particular denomination. for a four of a kind. In 52 cards. the 4 probability of answering the first four questions correctly and the last four P( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) − P( E ∩ F ) Thus P ( F ) = P ( E ∪ F ) + P ( E ∩ F ) − P ( E ) 5 1 1 1 = + − = . 10 5 25. Number of ways to score 90 points = number of ways that exactly one question is answered incorrectly = 10. Number of ways to answer exam is 210 = 1024 = n( S ) . For the remaining card. Thus. a. namely to answer each question correctly. P(man and woman) = n( S ) = 34 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! 34 2 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 5 ⋅ ⋅ = 1 48 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 4! 48 2835 . Because there are 3 men and 2 women. a. 1 1 = + P( E ′ ∩ F ) 4 7 307 . 24. Thus 23. Thus P(90 or more points) = P(90 points) + P(100 points) 10 1 11 + = . Because there n(S) = 5 C2 = 2! ⋅ 3! 2 are only 2 women in the group. Thus n( E100 points ) 1 = . Thus n( E2 women ) 1 = . Since there incorrectly is ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 48 are 8 C4 distinguishable orders in which one can arrange 4 correct and 4 incorrect answers. P(2 women) = n( S ) 10 4 22. the number of possible 2-woman committees is 1. the number of ways of selecting 4 of 4 cards of a particular denomination is 4 C4 . there are 12 denominations that are possible. and since each arrangement has the same overall probability of occurring. = 1024 1024 1024 26.536 = n( S ) . the probability of 4 correct and 4 incorrect 34 34 8! ⋅ 8 C4 = ⋅ answers is 48 48 4!4! b. Number of ways to answer exam is 48 = 65.536 b. a. Since there are 13 denominations. 4 cards of the same denomination can be dealt in 13 ⋅ 4C4 ways. A poker hand is a 5-card deal from 52 cards.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. Thus.4 21. Thus 5! 5⋅4 = = 10 . and for each denomination there are 4 C1 ways of dealing a card.

Shiloh needs to win 3 more rounds to win the game and Caitlin needs to win 5 more rounds. Of the 100 voters. and p2 = P ( f ) = P( g ). p2 = b. Let p = P(1) = P(3) = P(5).026 . 3 1 1 5⎛1 ⎞ Thus p1 = − p2 and p2 = − ⎜ − p2 ⎟ . 161. Then 2p = P(2) = P(4) = P(6). 9 35! = 6545 3!⋅ 32! n( E3 females ) P ( E3 females ) = n( S ) n( E3 females ) = 35C3 = = 32. 700 3! ⋅ 97! of the pot is 31. 29. 100 1 4 ∑ 7 Ck 27 k = 0 1 = (7 C0 + 7 C1 + 7 C2 + 7 C3 + 7 C4 ) 27 1 = (1 + 7 + 21 + 35 + 35) 27 99 = 128 Shiloh’s share of the pot is then 99 ($25) ≈ $19. If it is also known that P ( S ) = 5( p1 ) + 2( p2 ) = 1.38 . 700 − 28.44 .03 . Then 6545 ≈ 0. 3 are Republican with no opinion. 2 2 Since p1 is not known. P(sale is for brand B) = 170 34 . 128 k =0 = 1651 ($50) ≈ $40. 51 favor the tax increase. Shiloh’s probability of winning is 7 C 3302 1651 ∑ 12212k = 4096 = 2048 . Shiloh’s probability of winning is 4 ∑ 7 Ck 7 3 1 2 2 p2 = − or p2 = and so P ( f ) = . p = p (1) = . For brand B. P(even number) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6) 2 1 1 4 2 = + + = = 10 10 10 10 5 33. then 1 3(p) + 3(2p) = 1. Of the 100 voters. Thus 3 P(is a Republican with no opinion) = 100 = 0. P ( E1 professor & 2 associate professers ) = 15 ⋅ = 1 P ({a. f }) = P(a ) + P( f ) = p1 + p2 = . 2 3 9 9 Of the 100 voters. Thus Shiloh’s share k =0 1 1 3 − = .34. 34. Here Shiloh needs to win 5 more rounds to win the game and Caitlin needs to win 8 more rounds. For the chain. Thus 65 13 = ≈ 0. 100 C3 = 100! = 161. it is not possible to determine P ( f ) = p2 . the number of ways of selecting two associate professors is 24 C2 . a. Hence. The number of ways of selecting one professor is 15. Since P(S) = 1. a. 100 b. 65 units per month are sold. then we have 3 24! = 15 ⋅ 276 = 4140 . 4 7 28 3 25 P( E ′ ∪ F ) = 1 − = . Thus n( E1 professor & 2 associate professors ) 1 P ({a. 28 28 Thus P ( E ′ ∩ F ) = 27.51 .Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 30. f }) = . 3 2 2⎝3 ⎠ 4140 ≈ 0. the total average number of sales is 170 units. Thus 44 P(opposes tax increase) = = 0.31. 700 1 5 − p1. Let p1 = P (a) = P(b) = P(c) = P(d ) = P(e). 9p = 1. n(S) = a. 44 oppose the tax increase.040 161. 51 Thus P(favors tax increase) = = 0. 2! ⋅ 22! Therefore. 2048 2 308 c.

9} so P ( E | F ′) = n( E ∩ F ′) 1 = . P(sale is for brand C given that it is at Exton 30 6 = ≈ 0. Since 95 units per month are sold at the Exton store.7 0. 4. n(G ∩ F ′) 2 = n( F ′) 3 5.75 0.7 7 = = = = P( E ′) 1 – P( E ) 1 – 0. e.001 0. P( E ) P( E ) = = P( E ′) 1 – P( E ) 1 – 4 5 ( 54 ) = 4 5 1 5 = P( E ′ | F ) = 1 – P( E | F ) = 1 – 4 1 The odds are 4:1. The odds of E not occurring are the odds of P ( E ′) P( E ′) 3 = = . 35. P (G | E ) = n(G ∩ E ) 2 = =1 n( E ) 2 42. In general. 2.43 309 .5} P (G | F ′) = 43.5 b. P(E F ) = n( E ∩ F ) 1 = n( F ) 5 b. then the odds that E does occur are b:a. Odds that it will rain tomorrow P (rain) 0.999 999 The odds are 1:999. a. P( E ′) 1 – P( E ) 1 – 1 6 ( ) 37.3 3 The odds are 7:3. 5 5 P( E ) = n( E ∩ ( F ∩ G )) 0 = = 0. Then event E ′ which is P ( E ′′) P( E ) 5 n( E ′ ∩ F ′) 1 = n( F ′) 3 3.5 1. store) = 95 19 Problems 8.57 = 0. P( E ) = P ( E ′) 1 P ( E ′) P( E ) = 1 3 5 E ′ = {3. P ( E ) = 100 100 = 100 + 1 101 c. 38.25 The odds are 3:1. n( F ′) 4 n( F ∩ E ) 1 = n( E ) 2 The odds are 1:5.001 1 = = = = P( E ′) 1 – P( E ) 1 – 0. n( F ∩ G ) 2 n( E ) 2 = n( S ) 5 39. P ( E ) = 7 7 = 7 + 5 12 b.5} P ( E ′ | F ′) = 44. P( E ) = a a 1 = = a + a 2a 2 e. if the odds of E not occurring are a:b. F ′ = {1. 1 4 = .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. F ∩ G = {5.75 0. P( E | F ) = n( E ∩ F ) 0 = =0 n( F ) 2 40. and 30 are of brand C. P( E | G ) = n( E ∩ G ) 2 = n(G ) 3 41. P( F | E ) = P( E ) P( E ) 0.32 . P ( E ′ | F ) = 1 – P( E | F ) = 1 – 0. 2. P( E | E ) = P( E ∩ E ) P( E ) = =1 P( E ) P( E ) 4. P(∅ | E ) = P(∅ ∩ E ) P(∅) 0 = = =0 P( E ) P( E ) P( E ) 5 = . c.001 0. so the odds that E does 3 occur are 5:3. 1 P( E ) P( E ) = = 6 = 36. 6} so P( E | F ∩ G ) = P( E ) P( E ) 0.8.75 = = = =3. 7. Using the result of part (a). P( E ) = 4 4 2 = = 4 + 10 14 7 d. f. P(no rain) 1 − 0.7 0. a. 1 6 5 6 1 = 5 F ′ = {3. d.

1 − 1/ 2 1/ 2 6 64 8 = 200 25 P(High|Private)= = 1 1 = + P ( E ∩ F ′) 4 6 1 1 1 so P ( E ∩ F ′) = – = . From part (b) P( F ) = b. P( F ) 1/ 2 3 n( F ∩ II) 35 = n(II) 58 b.. 2 P ( E ∩ F ) 1/ 6 1 Then P( E | F ) = = = . 4 3 4 Then P ( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) 1 1 1 = + − 4 3 4 1 = . P( F | E ) = P ( F ∩ E ) 1/ 6 2 = = P( E ) 1/ 4 3 c. P ( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ). b. P( F ) 3 /10 3 = P ( E ∩ F ) 1/ 6 1 P( E | F ) = = = P( F ) 1/ 3 2 P( F | E ) = P ( F ∩ E ) 1/ 6 2 = = P( E ) 1/ 4 3 11. a. P( F ) P( E ∩ F ) = P ( E F ) P( F ) = 3 1 1 ⋅ = . 12 4 6 2 125 5 = 200 8 126 70 60 136 + – = 175 175 175 175 . P ( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) 7 1 1 = + P( F ) – 12 4 6 7 1 1 1 Thus P ( F ) = − + = . P( F ) = 8. 4 6 12 P ( E ∩ F ′) Then P( E | F ′) = P( F ′) n(O ∩ I) 22 11 = = n(I) 78 39 P (Public|Middle)= = 1 . a. First we find P ( E ∩ F ) : P( E | F ) = P( E ∩ F ) . a. P ( E ) = P( E ∩ F ) + P( E ∩ F ′) = c. P (II | N ′) = n(II ∩ N ′) n( N ′) = 12. n(Public ∩ Middle) n(Middle) 55 11 = 80 16 n(High ∩ Private) n(Private) 14 2 = 49 7 n(Private ∩ High) n(High) 14 25 P (Public ∪ Low) =P (Public) + P (Low) – P (Public ∩ Low) = 310 35 + 15 50 25 = = 125 + 47 172 86 P(Private|High)= = 1/12 1/12 1 = = . P ( F | II) = c. P ( F | G ) = 7. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 10. P (III | O) = n(III ∩ O) 10 = n(O) 47 f.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics 6. d. 3 9. a. P (III) = e. b. P(O | I) = d. d. so P ( E ∩ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∪ F ) P ( F ∩ G ) P(∅) 0 = = =0 P (G ) P (G ) P (G ) 3 3 7 1 + – = 5 10 10 5 P( E ∩ F ) 1/ 5 2 Then P(E|F) = = = .

TTTT}. GBG. HTH. TTT}. (5.45 9 14. (2. where. TTTH. Thus P(two 1’s | at least one 1) n(two 1's ∩ at least one 1) n({(1. TTHT. Thus P(two 1’s | at least one 1) = 11 17. 2). P( E | G ) = n( E ∩ G ) 1 = n(G ) 4 n(< 4 ∩ odd) n({1. 6). HTT. having 6 outcomes. HTTT.13 13 = = 0. (5. (5. 3). P( E | G ) = n( E ∩ G ) 3 = n(G ) 4 21. GB}. GB} Let E = {at least one girl} = {BG. Method 1. a. Let E = {exactly two tails} = {HTT. Thus n( E ∩ F ) 2 1 P( F | E ) = = = .3. (5. S = {BB. THTT. that is. namely (red 5.19 19 19. green 6). (1. BGG. Then n( E ∩ F ) = 2 . ear pieces) = P(def. TTTT}. HTHT. BGB. P( E | F ) = n( E ∩ F ) 3 = n( F ) 7 b. GBG. THTT. (1. THTH. 1 to 7. TTHT. 5). BG. GGG}.20 1 = = P(B) 0. 1). n( E ∩ F ) 2 = . THTH. The usual sample space has 36 outcomes.20 4 = = P (A) 0. green 5) and (red 5. S = {BBB. HTHH. n( F ∩ R ) 6 3 P ( F R) = = = . THHH. BGB. P (< 4 | odd) = 15. GGB. P(B | A) = P(B ∩ A) 0. Note that {at least one 1}′ ={no 1's} . BBG. Method 1. GGG} Let E = {at least two girls} = {BGG. Let E = {5 on red}. BG. TTHH. TTTH. HHTT. 4). GBB. 6)}. HTTH. (1. GGB.5 18. Two pairs have a sum greater than 9. in each pair. the Since P ( E | F ) = n( F ) 8 corresponding odds are P( E | F ) 1/ 8 1 = = . 3). THHT. (3. ear pieces) 0. ear pieces) P(scratched screen ∩ def. BGG. n( E ) 6 3 311 . we find that the reduced sample space for “at least one 1” (which has 11 outcomes) is {(1. is {(5. F = {at least one boy} = {BBB. S = {HHHH. 1). F = {at least one boy} = {BB. GBB. Let F denote face card. where the event “two 1’s” is {(1. 4). 2).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. TTT}. The usual sample space has 36 outcomes. (5. HHTH. namely (5. S = {HHH. TTH. THHT. There are 3 face cards for each suit. 1 . a. (1. 6). GG. 5) and 2 1 (5. GBG. (1. Then n(E) = 6. n( E ∩ F ) 1 = . GB}. P( E | F ) = n( E ∩ F ) 2 1 = = n( F ) 4 2 b. Let F = {sum > 9}. F = {first toss is a tail} = {THHH. 1)}. so there are 26. P(A | B) = P(A ∩ B) 0.3}) 2 = = n(odd) n({1.5}) 3 22. (5. F = {second toss is a tail} = {HTH. GG. P( E ′ | F ) 1 – (1/ 8) 7 13. THT. TTHH. Let E = {four tails } = {TTTT}. GBG. THH. P (scratched screen|def. Thus P (sum>9|5 on red) = = . 1). 5). GGB. TTH. GGB}. the outcome 5 on the red die is given first. Thus P ( E | F ) = n( F ) 3 20. THT}. 6 3 Method 2. THT. Half the cards are red. HHT. and the event “no 1’s” occurs in 5 · 5 = 25 ways. (4. n( R ) 26 13 16. GGG}. TTH}. 1)}. THH. 1). G = {second toss is a head} = {HHH. Let R denote red card. The reduced sample space. HHT.1)}) 1 = = = 36 – 25 11 n(at least one 1) Method 2. G = {oldest is a girl} = {GBB. 1). From the usual sample space.40 2 b. a. HHHT. BBG.

we find that there are two possible paths such that the second card is a heart. = b. (3. 3). Using a probability tree. 17 . 5). where R = no. because the red die can show any of six numbers and the green any of three: 2. P ( K1 ∩ Q2 ∩ J 3 ) = P ( K1 ) P(Q2 | K1 ) P ( J 3 | ( K1 ∩ Q2 )) = 4 4 4 8 ⋅ ⋅ = 52 51 50 16. 52 51 Thus P ( D | R ) = n( H ∩ F ) 3 1 = = n( F ) 12 4 312 P( D ∩ R) = P( R) 13 ⋅ 12 52 51 26 52 = 2 . on green die. n( E ∩ F ) 3 1 = = n( S ) 36 12 33. 18 6 30. a heart followed by a heart. (5. (1. d). Let E = {sum is 6} and F = {second toss is neither 2 nor 4}. Thus P (total of 7|green even) = n(total of 7 ∩ green even) n(green even) = 3 1 = . Let D = {two diamonds} and R = {first card red}. Let E = {second card is not a face card} and F = {first card is a face card}. Thus P ( E F ) = n( F ) 18 3 = 4 3 2 1 ⋅ ⋅ = 52 51 50 5525 34. 5)} = 3. P( E ∩ F ) = 12 12 3 3 9 ⋅ = ⋅ = 52 52 13 13 169 31. 5). 600 n( E ∩ F ) 3 1 = = n( F ) 24 8 a. 3). 4). (4. (5. 4. 2). P ( H | F ) = P ( F1 ∩ F2 ) = P ( F1 ) P( F2 | F1 ) 13 12 ⋅ . and d is the number showing on the die. Let E = {total > 7} and F = {first toss > 3}. (6. 6)}) = 3. The usual sample space consists of ordered pairs (R. G). We have D ∩ R = {two diamonds} = D and n( E ∩ F ) 3 1 P( E | F ) = = = . 4). 3). a. P ( J1 ∩ J 2 ∩ J 3 ) = P ( J1 ) P ( J 2 | J1 ) P( J 3 | ( J1 ∩ J 2 )) 25. (6. Thus P ( H 2 ) = P( H1 ∩ H 2 ) + P ( H1′ ∩ H 2 ) = P ( H1 ) P( H 2 | H1 ) + P ( H1′ ) P ( H 2 | H1′ ) 26. or a nonheart followed by a heart. (3. 51−11 40 n( E ∩ F ) 12 ⋅ 51 P( E | F ) = = = 12 51 n( F ) 23. n(green is even) = 6 · 3 = 18. Now. (6. (6. Let E = {tails shows} and F = {die shows odd number). on red die and G = no. P ( K | H ) = = n( H ) 13 28. Then N(F) = 2 · 3 = 6 and n( E ∩ F ) = 1 ⋅ 3 = 3 . P( E | F ) = b. Let the sample space consist of ordered pairs (c. (4. 6)}) = 12 n( E ∩ F ) 12 2 = = . (5. n( F ) 6 2 P(D) = n( K ∩ H ) 1 27. 2). P ( AS1 ∩ AH 2 ∩ AD2 ) = P ( AS1 ) P ( AH 2 AS1 ) P ( AD2 ( AS1 ∩ AH 2 ) ) 1 1 1 1 = ⋅ ⋅ = . 52 51 50 132. Thus = 13 12 39 13 1 ⋅ + ⋅ = . 1). The usual sample space S consists of 36 ordered pairs. The usual sample space consists of 36 ordered pairs. 5).Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 29. 4). (1. namely. Then n(F) = 6 · 4 = 24 and n( E ∩ F ) = n{(5. n(total of 7 ∩ green even) = n({(5. Then n( F ) = 3 ⋅ 6 = 18 and n( E ∩ F ) = n({(4. 6). where c is T or H. (5. Also. or 6. 52 51 52 51 4 35. 4). (6. 12 11 11 ⋅ = 52 51 221 P ( F1 ∩ F2 ) = P ( F1 ) P( F2 | F1 ) = 24.575 32. 6).

00028) = 28 39.60)(0.85 37. if the rabbit drawn is red.1)(0. P (T ) = P (C ∩ T ) + P(C ′ ∩ T ) = P (C ) P (T | C ) + P (C ′) P(T | C ′) = (0. 3 P(second is yellow | first is red) = 4 b.35) 47 = 0. she gets the call and she is on time. a. then 4 rabbits remain.9)(0. P (W ) = P (Box 1 ∩ W) + P (Box 2 ∩ W) = P(Box 1)P(W | Box 1) + P(Box 2)P(W | Box 2) = 42. 1 1 1 P (G ) = P ( B3 ∩ G ) = P ( B3) P(G | B3) = ⋅ = 3 3 9 313 1 2 1 2 9 ⋅ + ⋅ = 2 5 2 4 20 . b. a.47 = 100 P( F | U ) = P( F ∩ U ) (0.60)(0. 3 P(second is yellow | first is red) = 5 40.000(0. a.5 36.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. namely. P (G2 ) = P (G1 ∩ G2 ) + P ( R1 ∩ G2 ) = P (G1 ) P (G2 | G1 ) + P( R1 ) P (G2 | R1 ) = 4 4 3 3 25 ⋅ + ⋅ = 7 7 7 7 49 41. After the first draw. P ( R ) = P ( B1 ∩ R) + P( B 2 ∩ R) + P( B3 ∩ R) = P(B1)P(R | B1) + P(B2)P(R | B2) + P(B3)P(R | B3) 1 2 1 3 1 2 122 = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = 3 5 3 7 3 6 315 c.02)(0. Using a probability tree. 3 of which are yellow.4) = 0. 38.45) 27 = = P (U ) 0.30)(0. 3 of which are yellow. After red rabbit is replaced.10)(0.45) + (0. or she doesn’t get the call and she is on time.00028 b.014) = 0.9) + (0. 5 rabbits remain.47 47 P (contact ∩ purchase) =P (contact)P (purchase|contact) = (0. P (U ) = P( F ∩ U ) + P (O ∩ U ) + P ( N ∩ U ) = P(F)P(U|F) + P(O)P(U|O) + P(N)P(U|N) = (0. a. 100.55) + (0. we find that there are two possible paths such that she will be on time. P (W ) = P ( B1 ∩ W ) + P ( B 2 ∩ W ) + P( B3 ∩ W ) = P(B1)P(W | B1) + P(B2)P(W | B2) + P(B3)P(W | B3) 1 3 1 4 1 2 158 = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = 3 5 3 7 3 6 315 b.

20)(0.155 50.15) = 0.25)(0.) = P (MS)P (Und.049 48.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 43. b. P ( D ∩ V ) = P( D ) P(V | D) = (0.0385 49. 000 100 60.06) + (0.70)(0.|MS) + P(DS)P(Und|DS) 20.) = P (MS ∩ Und.20) + (0.20)(0.10) = 0. 000 3 = ⋅ + ⋅ 60. of which Allison.04) + (0.35)(0. P (W2 ) = P( B1 ∩ G1 ∩ W2 ) + P ( B1 ∩ R1 ∩ W2 ) + P( B 2 ∩ W1 ∩ W2 ) = P ( B1) P ( G1 B1) P (W2 (G1 ∩ B1) ) + P( B1) P ( R1 B1) P (W2 ( R1 ∩ B1) ) + P( B 2) P (W1 B 2 ) P (W2 (W1 ∩ B 2) ) = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 44. Lesley. Tom.15) + (0. P (Def) = P(A ∩ Def)+P (B ∩ Def)+P(C ∩ Def) = P(A)P(Def | A) + P(B)P(Def | B) + P(C)P(Def | C) = (0.05) = 0. and Bronwyn form one sample point. 35 314 . P (5000) = P ( B1 ∩ 5000) + P ( B 2 ∩ 5000) + P( B3 ∩ 5000) = P(B1)P(5000|B1) + P(B2)P(5000|B2) + P(B3)P(5000|B3) 1 1 1 2 1 1 11 = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = 3 2 3 8 3 6 36 47.03) + (0.06 P (V ) = P ( D ∩ V ) + P ( R ∩ V ) + P ( I ∩ V ) = P(D)P(V | D) + P(R)P(V | R) + P(I)P(V | I) = (0.05) = 0. Thus 1 P (Allison.30)(0.40)(0.06) + (0. P (Def) = P(A ∩ Def) +P(B ∩ Def)+P(C ∩ Def)+P(D ∩ Def) = P(A)P(Def | A) + P(B)P(Def | B) + P(C)P(Def | C) + P(D)P(Def | D) = (0.35)(0. P ( D1 ∩ D2 ∩ D3 ∩ D4 ) = P ( D1 ) P ( D2 D1 ) P ( D3 ( D1 ∩ D2 ) ) P ( D4 ( D1 ∩ D2 ∩ D3 ) ) 5 4 3 2 1 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 10 9 8 7 42 45. the number of sample points in the reduced sample space is 7 C4 = 35. Because Richard was not hired. and Bronwyn were hired) = .) + P(DS ∩ Und.02) + (0. Lesley. 000 1 40.40)(0. Tom. 000 100 7 = 300 46. P (Und. a.15)(0.10)(0.

1 2 = 3 3 1 1 1 ⋅ = 3 4 12 8.1)(0. 3). Since 36 12 24 5 5 ⋅ = 36 36 54 .28)(0.1 0. P ( E ∩ F ′) = P ( E ) P ( F ′) = f. (5.6) = 0.6) = 0. Also. 130 26 and P(M ) = = 175 35 n( M ∩ C ) 55 11 P(M | C ) = = = n(C ) 80 16 Since P(M | C) ≠ P(M).18 c. G). (6. P ( E | F ′) = P ( E ∩ F ′) 1/12 1 = = P ( F ′) 1/ 4 3 2. P( E ′ | F ) = 1 – P( E | F ) = 1 – e.042 ≠ P ( E ∩ F ) . 2)}. Let S be the usual sample space consisting of ordered pairs of the form (R. For E. 1 3 1 ⋅ = 3 4 4 5. 6). Thus n( E ) = 4 ⋅ 6 = 24.108 n( E ∩ F ) = 3. 4). (6. P ( E ∩ F ) = P ( E ) P ( F ) . and the second component represents the number on the green die.6 1.18 P ( E (F ∩ G) ) = P ( E ′ ∩ F ∩ G ′) = P ( E ′) P ( F ) P(G ′) = (0. Then n( S ) = 6 ⋅ 6 = 36. 1 3 c.3) = 0. so n(F) = 5. E ∩ F = {(4. so E and F are dependent events. 1 2 = .03 b.018 = = 0. events E and F are independent. P ( F ∩ G ) = P ( F ) P(G ) = (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. e. (3. P( E | F ) = P( E ) = d. Thus P ( E ) P ( F ) = and P ( E ∩ F ) = 315 3 1 = . 4). P( E ∩ F ) = P( E ) P( F ) = 3 8 2 ⋅ = = P( E ∩ F ) 4 9 3 Since P ( E ) P ( F ) = P ( E ∩ F ) .3)(0. events M and C are dependent.018 d. For F we have F = {(2.9)(0.15) = 0. (4. 2)}. Let M = {male} and C = {cruncher}. P ( E ∩ F ) = P ( E ) P ( F ) = (0. P ( E ) P ( F ) = P( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) = 1 3 1 5 + – = 3 4 4 6 6. 5). b. where the first component of each pair represents the number showing on the red die. 3 11 3 so P ( E ′) = 1 – P ( E ) = 1 – Problems 8.3)(0.1)(0. 51. P ( E ∪ F ′) = P ( E ) + P ( F ′) – P( E ∩ F ′) 7. P(E)P(F) = (0. Let F = {full service} and I = {increase in value}. 1 1 1 1 = + – = 3 4 12 2 g. and any number on the green die. any number of four can occur on the red die. events F and I are independent. a.6 3. P ( E ) = P ( E | F ) = 1 . P(3 Fem|at least one Fem) P (3 Fem ∩ at least one Fem) = P (at least one Fem) 6 C3 1 2 1 7 7 = ⋅ P ( F ) so P ( F ) = ⋅ = 9 7 9 2 18 4 P (3 Fem) 4 C = = 11 3 = 33 = 2 C 5 3 1–P (no Fem) 1 – 1 – 33 31 C 4. so P( E ∩ F ∩ G ) P( F ∩ G) 0.3)(0. 3 3 9. 400 2 = P( F ) = 600 3 n( F ∩ I ) 320 2 and P ( F | I ) = = = n( I ) 480 3 Since P(F | I) = P(F).4) = 0. 3). P ( E ∩ F ∩ G ) = P ( E ) P ( F ) P (G ) = (0. a. (5.

3). Then n(S) = 7 · 7 = 49. c. TH} . n(E) = 1 · 7 = 7. 4). (3. E ∩ F = {HTT. 6)}. if the first chip is 2. 3. a. and E ∩ F = {HT. 10. THT. P ( E ) = b. P ( E ∩ F ) = P ( E ) P ( F | E ). TTT} and n(S) = 8. 5 or 7. 3 . E ∩ F ∩ G = ∅. 12. 49 49 343 Events F and G are dependent. (6. TTH. E and F are dependent. THH. and n(F) = 7 · 1 = 7. and 4 2 2 1 P ( E ∩ F ) = = . the second must be 1. For G. so events E 4 2 8 and F are dependent. events E and F are dependent. 49 Since 7 24 24 ⋅ = ≠ P( F ∩ G ) . (3. E ∩ G = {(3.4 Since P(E) = 0. a. P ( E ) P ( F ) P(G ) ≠ 0 = P ( E ∩ F ∩ G ) . 49 49 49 events E and F are independent. TTT} and n(E) = 4. TTH. (4. 52 13 52 26 1 3 3 Because P ( E ) P ( F ) = ⋅ = = P( E ∩ F ) . S = {HH. P( E ) P( F ) = 13.3)} so P( F ∩ G ) = 3 . 4 or 6. Let S be the set of ordered pairs whose first (second) component represents the number on the first (second) chip. 15. so P ( E ∩ F ∩ G ) = 0 . E ∩ F = {(3. so events E. F = {HT. However. P ( F ) P(G ) = d. Thus n(G) = 4 · 3 + 3 · 4 = 24. THT. E = {3} F = {5} E ∩ F = ∅ . Since 49 7 7 1 ⋅ = = P( E ∩ F ) . 2). P( E ) = P( F ) = 1 6 P( E ∩ F ) = 0 1 1 1 ⋅ = ≠ P( E ∩ F ) 6 6 36 Thus E and F are not independent. F and G are not independent. HHT. We have 4 2 3 1 3 P ( E ) P ( F ) = ⋅ = ≠ P ( E ∩ F ) . 3. F = {HHT. HTT. E = {HT. HTH. 3 Thus P ( E ) = 4 2 1 P ( F ) = = . and P ( E ∩ F ) = = . TH. HT.3). so P(E ∩ F )= 1 . P( E ) P( F ) = 26 1 = 52 2 12 3 6 3 P( F ) = = . so E and F are mutually exclusive. if the first chip is 1. 4 6 3 ⋅ = = P( E ∩ F ) .5 = P(E | F). E = {HTT. F ∩ G = {(2. TT}.3)}. HTH.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis P ( E ) P ( F ) ≠ P ( E ∩ F ). 4 or 6. Thus P ( E ) P ( F ) = b. P(E) = 316 . S = {HHH. Since 49 7 24 24 P ( E ) P (G ) = ⋅ = ≠ P( E ∩ G ) . THT. then the second chip must be 2. HTT. so P( E ∩ G ) = 11.75 ≠ 0.75 P( F | E ) 0. TTH} and n(F) = 6. TH}. THH. 14. 49 49 343 events E and G are dependent. thus P ( E ∩ F ) 0. THT. 2 13 26 events E and F are independent. TH.3 = = 0. TT}. 5 or 7. TTH} and n( E ∩ F ) = 3 . so E 8 8 8 and F are independent.

P (Bill gets A ∩ Jim gets A ∩ Linda gets A) = P(Bill gets A) · P(Jim gets A) · P(Linda gets A) 3 1 4 3 .6 16. P(double on any throw) = 21. 2. < 4. > 4. Let E = {red 4} and F = {green > 4}. Assume the outcomes on the rolls are independent events. Assume the Ei 's are independent. < 4. < 4. assume the cards selected on the draws are independent events. < 4. 5 5 25 6 1 = 36 6 Assume that the throws are independent. Ei = {2 or 3 shows on ith roll}. = ⋅ ⋅ = 4 2 5 10 317 . P (< 4. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 P ( E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ) = P ( E1 ) P ( E2 ) P ( E3 ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ 27 19. > 4. 1 1 1 P( E ∩ F ) = P( E ) P( F ) = ⋅ = 6 3 18 18. P (> 4. = ⋅ ⋅ = 6 6 6 216 20. > 4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. P(double on all three throws) = P(double on 1st) · P(double on 2nd) · P(double on 3rd) 1 1 1 1 . < 4. P ( E ∩ F ) = P( F ) P ( E | F ) . thus P ( F ) = P( E ∩ F ) = P( E | F ) 5 9 2 3 = 5 6 P ( E ∪ F ) = P ( E ) + P ( F ) – P ( E ∩ F ). > 4. so P( E ) = P( E ∪ F ) – P( F ) + P( E ∩ F ) = Since P ( E ) = 17 5 5 2 – + = 18 6 9 3 2 = P ( E | F ) . events E and F are independent. < 4) = 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 128 23. P(ace. > 4. 1 1 1 Then P ( F ∩ S ) = P ( F ) P( S ) = ⋅ = . then face card. 3. a. where i = 1. > 4) = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2187 b. Let F = {first person attends regularly} and S = {second person attends regularly}. 3 17. Because of replacement. Assume E and F are independent. then spade) = P(ace) · P(face card) · P(spade) 4 12 13 3 ⋅ ⋅ = = 52 52 52 676 22. a.

+ = 15 5 15 13 2 . Assume the colors selected on the draws are independent events. 7 6 7 ⋅ = 18 18 54 a.37)(0. Assume independence of rolls. P (Bill no A ∩ Jim no A ∩ Linda gets A) = P(Bill no A) · P(Jim no A) · P(Linda gets A) 1 1 4 1 = ⋅ ⋅ = 4 2 5 10 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 24. A ∩ B ′ and A′ ∩ B are mutually exclusive. P ( A′ ∩ B) = P( A′) P ( B ) = c. P(neither survives) = 1 – P(at least one survives) = 1 – 7 2 13 .Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics b. P[( R1 ∩ W2 ) ∪ (W1 ∩ R2 )] = P ( R1 ) P (W2 ) + P (W1 ) P ( R2 ) = 318 5 7 7 5 35 ⋅ + ⋅ = 18 18 18 18 162 . Assume that drawing a particular size of paper and a particular size of envelope are independent events. = 15 15 26. 1 3 1 ⋅ = 3 5 5 P[( A ∩ B ′) ∪ ( A′ ∩ B)] = P ( A) P ( B ′) + P ( A′) P( B ) = 2 2 1 3 7 ⋅ + ⋅ = 3 5 3 5 15 d. Let A = {A survives 15 more years}. P (Bill no A ∩ Jim no A ∩ Linda no A) = P(Bill no A) · P(Jim no A) · P(Linda no A) 1 1 1 1 = ⋅ ⋅ = 4 2 5 40 c.57) + (0. 2 3 2 ⋅ = 3 5 5 a. P (W1 ∩ G2 ) = P (W1 ) P (G2 ) = b.43) ≈ 0. P (paper A ∩ envelope A) + P (paper B ∩ envelope B) = (0. P(at least one survives) = P(exactly one survives) + P(both survive) = e.52 27. ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ 91 P(at least one 6) = 1 – P(no 6’s) = 1 – ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ 216 25. B = {B survives 15 more years}. P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A) P ( B) = b.63)(0.

Assume the throws are independent.6 28. 16). P(7 on a roll) = P{(1. P({TT33}) = P(T on 1st coin) P(T on 2nd coin) P(3 on 1st die) P(3 on 2nd die) 1 1 1 1 1 = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 2 2 6 6 144 b. P (particular 1st ticket ∩ particular 2nd ticket) 1 1 1 ⋅ = 20 20 400 P(sum is 35) = P{(20. there are 3 C1 = 3 ways. P(same number in 3 throws) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = 6 36 ⎝ ⎠ 31. a.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. 3 1 1 1 ⎛1⎞ . a. 1 1 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ = 12 12 12 1728 b. 15). (4. (19. (6. 4 13 2 1 ⋅ ⋅ = 52 52 52 1352 319 . (17. Assume that the selections are independent. 18). (15. a. 6). (2. 20)} 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 6⎜ = ⎟ ⎝ 400 ⎠ 200 = 32. (18. (16. Assume the rolls are independent. 1)} = P(12 on a roll) = P{(6. 3 3 7 7 9 9 139 P (both red ∪ both white ∪ both green) = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = 19 19 19 19 19 19 361 30. 3). Assume that the draws are independent. ⋅ ⋅ = 6 6 6 ⎜⎝ 6 ⎟⎠ Since the particular number can be any of 6 numbers. 19). 2). To get exactly one even. For a particular number. 4). 17). (5. 6)} = 6 1 = 36 6 1 36 P(7 on one roll and 12 on the other) = 1 1 1 1 1 ⋅ + ⋅ = 6 36 36 6 108 29. ⎝ 12 12 12 ⎠ 8 34. P(two heads. one 4 and one 6) = P(H on 1st coin) P(H on 2nd coin) P(4 on 1st die) P(6 on 2nd die) + P(H on 1st coin)P(H on 2nd coin) P(6 on 1st die) P(4 on 2nd die) 1 1 ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ = ⎜ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎟⋅2 = 72 ⎝2 2 6 6⎠ 33. 5). P(particular number on three throws) = 3 1 ⎛1⎞ . (3. P(one even and two odd) = 3[P(even 1st spin) · P(odd 2nd spin)·P(odd 3rd spin)] ⎛ 6 6 6⎞ 3 = 3⎜ ⋅ ⋅ ⎟ = .

3) + (0. so 3 ⋅ 35.5)(0. P(at least 4 correct) = P(exactly 4) + P(exactly 5) 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 1024 4 4 4 4 4 64 c. A wrong majority decision can occur in one of two mutually exclusive ways: exactly two wrong recommendations. = 1024 1024 probability of b.05)(0. Thus ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 4 4 4 4 4 1024 3 15 P(exactly 4 correct) = 5 ⋅ .3) = 0. so there are 3! = 6 orders. 320 .4)(0. P(all hit) = (0. P(only Linda hits) = (0. The number of ways of getting exactly three correct answers out of five is 1 1 1 3 3 9 .5)(0. Each of these ways has a 1 1 1 1 3 3 .9) + (0. The ace can come first.21 c.6)(0. or three wrong recommendations.7) = 0.5)(0. a. P(exactly one hits target) = P(only Bill) + P(only Jim) + P(only Linda) = (0.14 37.1) + (0.3) + (0.6)(0.5)(0.7) + (0.5)(0.95)(0.05)(0.7) = 0.6)(0.7) + (0.4)(0.1) = 0.1)] + (0. spade.5)(0.6)(0.7) = 0.04)(0. 52 52 52 2197 The number of ways of getting exactly four correct answers out of five is 5 C4 = 5 .4)(0. 4 4 4 1 ⋅ ⋅ = 52 52 52 2197 c. = + = 512 64 512 P(none hit) = (0. Thus = 1024 512 P(3 or more correct) = P(exactly 3) + P(at least 4) 45 1 53 .36 d.3) = 0. thus 4 13 2 3 6⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = .5)(0.96)(0. second.04)(0. Each of these ways has a probability of 4 4 4 4 4 1024 9 45 P(exactly 3 correct) = 10 ⋅ . 52 52 52 676 d.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b.09 b.0106. Thus P(wrong majority decision) = [(0.04)(0. P(exactly 2) = P(not Bill) + P(not Jim) + P(not Linda) = (0. 36. a. and black ace can be drawn in any order.4)(0.41 e.5)(0.6)(0. so ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = 5 C3 = 10 . 4 48 48 432 ⋅ ⋅ = . or third.5)(0. Exactly two wrong recommendations can occur in 3 C2 = 3 mutually exclusive ways.05)(0. The queen.

P( D) = 3000 3 3000 3 2 1 Note: 40% = and 10% = .453 386 P( D | V ) = 4. P ( D) P (V | D) P ( D) P(V | D) + P( R) P(V | R) + P( I ) P(V | I ) (0. 7 P ( E1 ) P ( S | E1 ) = P ( E1 ) P ( S | E1 ) + P( E2 ) P( S | E2 ) + P( E3 ) P( S | E3 ) 1⋅2 5 5 1⋅2+ 3 ⋅ 7 5 5 10 10 P ( E3 ) P ( S ′ | E3 ) = P ( E1 ) P ( S ′ | E1 ) + P ( E2 ) P ( S ′ | E2 ) + P( E3 ) P( S ′ | E3 ) 3. 27 = 25 . D = {tire is domestic} I = {tire is imported} S = {tire is all-season} 2000 2 1000 1 = and P ( I ) = = . Then = 10 10 P( F ) P( D′ | F ) = P( E ) P( D′ | E ) + P( F ) P( D ′ | F ) 3⋅4 5 5 2⋅ 9 + 3⋅4 5 10 5 5 = 4 .25) + (0. P ( E | D) = P( E ) P( D | E ) = P( E ) P( D | E ) + P( F ) P( D | F ) 2⋅ 1 5 10 2⋅ 1 + 3⋅1 5 10 5 5 For the second part.25) = (0. V = {voted}.15) 175 = ≈ 0.42)(0. P ( D′ | F ) = 1 – P ( D | F ) = 1 – P( D′ | E ) = 1 – P( D | E ) = 1 – P ( F | D ′) = 2. D = {is Democrat}.33)(0.27) + (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. 46 . 5 10 P( I ) P( S | I ) P(I|S) = P( I ) P( S | I ) + P( D) P( S | D) = = 1⋅ 1 3 10 1⋅ 1 + 2⋅2 3 10 3 5 = 1 9 321 + 1⋅1 2 2 1⋅3+ 3 ⋅ 3 5 5 10 10 1⋅1 2 2 + = 1⋅1 2 2 4 .7 Problems 8. R = {is Republican}.7 1.42)(0. and 5 5 1 9 .25)(0. P ( E1 | S ) = P ( E3 | S ′) = 1 4 1 4 = . I = {is Independent}.

B1 = {Bowl I selected} B2 = {Bowl II selected} B3 = {Bowl III selected} W = {white ball selected} P ( B1 ) = P ( B2 ) = P ( B3 ) = P ( B1 | W ) = 1 3 P ( B1 ) P (W | B1 ) = P( B1 ) P (W | B1 ) + P ( B2 ) P(W | B2 ) + P( B3 ) P(W | B3 ) 9.97)(0. Note: 60% = 5 10 P( I | D) = P( I ) P( D | I ) = P ( I ) P ( D | I ) + P ( I ′) P ( D | I ′) 1⋅3 3 5 1⋅3+ 2⋅ 1 3 5 3 10 = 3 = 75% 4 7.03)(0.07) 937 b. 8 8. 300 3 = P ( A) = 800 8 500 5 P( B) = = 800 8 P( A | D) = P ( A) P ( D | A) = P ( A) P ( D | A) + P ( B) P( D | B ) 3⋅ 2 8 100 3⋅ 2 + 5⋅ 5 8 100 8 100 322 = 6 31 1⋅3 3 5 + 1⋅3 3 5 1⋅3 3 7 + 1⋅2 3 6 = 63 143 .005 P ( D) P ( N | D) + P ( D′) P ( N | D′) (0.86) 258 = = ≈ 0.275 P ( D) P( R | D) + P ( D′) P ( R | D′) (0.03)(0. P( D | R) = P( D) P( R | D) (0. I = {increase in earnings} D = {declare a dividend} 3 1 and 10% = . A = {unit from line A} B = {unit from line B} D = {defective unit}.97)(0.86) + (0. B1 = {first bag selected} B2 = {second bag selected} R = {red jelly bean drawn} 1 P ( B1 ) = P ( B2 ) = .03)(0. P( D | N ) = P( D) P( N | D) (0.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 5. D = {has the disease} D′ = {does not have the disease} R = {positive reaction} N = {negative reaction} = R ′ a. 2 P( B1 ) P( R | B1 ) = P ( B1 ) P ( R | B1 ) + P ( B2 ) P ( R | B2 ) P ( B1 | R ) = 1⋅4 2 6 1⋅4+1⋅2 2 6 2 5 = 5 .03)(0.14) 14 = = ≈ 0.14) + (0.93) 3021 6.

and (d) are similarly determined.35)(0. 323 1⋅ 9 2 10 1⋅ 9 +1⋅4 2 10 4 5 + 1⋅2 4 3 = 27 ≈ 0.05) + (0. 10 5 = 32 16 c.75) 119 12. W = {walking reported} B = {bicycling reported} R = {running reported} C = {completed requirement} P (W | C ) = P(W ) P (C | W ) = P(W ) P (C | W ) + P ( B ) P (C | B) + P ( R ) P (C | R) 55.30)(0.9) + (0.04) 32 Parts (b). 6 3 = 32 16 11.15)(0. = b. P( A | F ) = P ( A) P ( F | A) P ( A) P ( F | A) + P ( B ) P ( F | B ) + P (C ) P ( F | C ) + P ( D) P( F | D) (0.02) 7 = (0.35)(0. J D = {jar with dark chocolate only selected} J M = {jar with dark and milk chocolates selected} D = {dark chocolate selected} 1 P( J D ) = P( J M ) = 2 P( J D | D) = P( J D ) P( D | J D ) = P( J D ) P( D | J D ) + P( J M ) P( D | J M ) 1 ⋅ 50 2 50 1 ⋅ 50 + 1 ⋅ 20 2 50 2 50 = 5 7 13.1% would be expected to report walking.95)(0.03) + (0.02) + (0.958 (0.551 49 . C = {call made} T = {on time for meeting} P (C ) P (T | C ) P (C | T ) = P (C ) P (T | C ) + P (C ′) P (T | C ′) = (0. A = {unit from line A} B = {unit from line B} C = {unit from line C} D = {unit from line D} F = {defective unit} a.20)(0.95)(0.9) 114 = ≈ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. (c).7 10.05)(0. 9 32 d.

828 P( A | P) = P ( A) P( P | A) + P( A′) P ( P | A′) (0.20) 100 = = ≈ 0.75)(0.8) + (0.7) 11 21.75)(0.20) + (0.4)(0.995)(0. C = {charges battery} S = {car starts} P (C ′ | S ′) = P (C ′) P ( S ′ | C ′) = P (C ′) P( S ′ | C ′) + P(C ) P( S ′ | C ) 1 ⋅4 10 5 1 ⋅4 + 9 ⋅1 10 5 10 8 = 32 ≈ 0. AM = {A average at midterm} A = {A for course} ′ ) P ( A′M ) P( A | AM (0.364 P( A′M ) P ( A | A′M ) + P ( AM ) P( A | AM ) (0.80) + (0.7) + (0.15) 15.85) 84. P = {pass the exam} A = {answer every question} P ( A) P ( P | A) (0.005)(0.25)(0.995)(0. P( D | P) = P( D) P( P | D) (0. P( D | N ) = P( D) P( N | D) (0.9) 10 19. S = {signals sent} D = {signals detected} P( S | D) = P( S ) P( D | S ) = P ( S ) P ( D | S ) + P ( S ′) P ( D | S ′) 2⋅3 5 5 2⋅3+ 3⋅ 1 5 5 5 10 = 4 5 20.75)(0.005)(0.0261 P ( D) P( P | D) + P ( D′) P( P | D′) (0.7) 7 = = = 70% P ( P | S ′) = P( P ) P ( S ′ | P ) + P ( P′) P ( S ′ | P′) (0.50) 29 18. J = {had Japanese-made car} E = {had European-made car} A = {had American-made car} B = {buy same make again} P( J | B) = P( J ) P( B | J ) = P ( J ) P ( B | J ) + P ( E ) P ( B | E ) + P( A) P( B | A) 3 ⋅ 85 5 100 3 ⋅ 85 + 1 ⋅ 50 5 100 10 100 3 ⋅ 40 + 10 100 = 3 4 16. S = {movie is a success} U = {“Two Thumbs Up”} P(S | U ) = P( S ) P (U | S ) = P ( S ) P (U | S ) + P ( S ′) P(U | S ′) 8 ⋅ 70 10 100 8 ⋅ 70 + 2 ⋅ 20 10 100 10 100 324 = 14 ≈ 0.0012 P ( D) P ( N | D) + P( D′) P ( N | D′) (0.4)(0.25)(0.6)(0.416 77 15.75)(0.6) 4 P ( A′M | A) = = = ≈ 0.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 14.325 b.005)(0.8) 24 = = ≈ 0. P = {predicted smoking} S = {smoking now} P( P) P( S ′ | P) (0. D = {dalhousium is present} P = {positive test} N = {negative test} = P ′ a. 675 17.6) + (0.005)(0.80) 400 = = ≈ 0.933 15 .

17 = 17 100 24.25)(0.556 0. P (C ) = P ( S ) P(C | S ) + P( S ′) P(C | S ′) = (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8. (0.81) P( H | E ) = = P( M ) P( E | M ) P( L) P( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P( H ) P( E | H ) P( H ) P( E | H ) P( L) P ( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P ( H ) P ( E | H ) (0.7 22.25)(0.25) + (0.49) + (0.81) P(M | E ) = = c.15) = 0.15 15 P ( S ) P (C | S ) = = = ≈ 0.64) + (0. G1 = {green ball drawn from Bowl 1} R1 = {red ball drawn from Bowl 1} G2 = {green ball drawn from Bowl 2} P (G1 ) P (G2 | G1 ) = P (G1 | G2 ) = P (G1 ) P(G2 | G1 ) + P( R1 ) P (G2 | R1 ) 5⋅4 9 8 5⋅4 + 4⋅3 9 8 9 8 = 5 8 23.27 27 P ( S ) P (C | S ) + P ( S ′) P (C | S ′) = (0.18 (0.49) + (0.25)(0.25)(0.20)(0. High quality 325 3 3 2 .5)(0.80)(0. P( L) P( E | L) P ( L) P ( E | L) + P ( M ) P ( E | M ) + P ( H ) P( E | H ) (0.5)(0.75) + (0.64) + (0.20)(0.49) + (0.15) = 0. P(S | C ) = c.8)(0. S = {is substandard request} C = {is considered substandard request by Blackwell} a.25)(0.27 = b.23 (0. we want the probability that the third chest was selected given that a gold coin was found.5)(0. I = {first chest selected} II = {second chest selected} III = {third chest selected} G = {gold coin found}. P(Error) = P (C ′ ∩ S ) + P (C ∩ S ′) = P ( S ) P(C ′ | S ) + P( S ′) P(C | S ′) 27 100 (0.81) ≈ 0.75) 0.64) ≈ 0.64) + (0. P( L | E ) = = b.25)(0.59 (0. For the coin in the other drawer to be silver.5)(0. a.25)(0.20)(0.25)(0.81) d.49) ≈ 0.27 0. 1⋅1 P ( III ) P (G | III ) 1 3 2 = = P ( III | G ) = P( I ) P (G | I ) + P ( II ) P(G | II ) + P( III ) P(G | III ) 1 ⋅1 + 1 ⋅ 0 + 1 ⋅ 1 3 3 25.

5)(0.25)(0. 8 P3 2.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics 26. F = {fair weather} I = {inclement weather} W = {predict fair weather}.01) P( H | E ) = (c) P( M ) P( E | M ) P( L) P( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P( H ) P( E | H ) P( H ) P( E | H ) P( L) P ( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P ( H ) P ( E | H ) (0.32 .25)(0.04) + (0.5)(0.25)(0. (a) = P( L) P( E | L) P ( L) P ( E | L) + P ( M ) P ( E | M ) + P ( H ) P( E | H ) (0.07) + (0.6)(0.4)(0.7) + (0.01) ≈ 0.01) (d) Low quality = 27.04) + (0.04) + (0.32) + (0.32) + (0.44) + (0.5)(0.78 P( F | W ) = P( F ) P (W | F ) + P ( I ) P (W | I ) (0.6)(0.18) (d) Low quality P( L | E ) = b.29 (0.25)(0.25)(0.25)(0. 9 C7 = 9! 9! 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7! 9 ⋅ 8 = = = = 36 7!(9 – 7)! 7!⋅ 2! 7!⋅ 2 ⋅1 2 326 .25)(0.44) + (0. P( L | E ) = (a) = P( L) P( E | L) P ( L) P ( E | L) + P ( M ) P ( E | M ) + P ( H ) P( E | H ) (0.25)(0.31 (0.07) + (0.5)(0. a. P ( F ) P(W | F ) (0.54 (0.7) 7 = = ≈ 0.07) ≈ 0.25)(0.04) ≈ 0.25)(0.3) 9 Chapter 8 Review Problems = 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6 = 336 1.18) P( H ) P( E | H ) P( L) P ( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P ( H ) P ( E | H ) P( H | E ) = (c) ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis (0.25)(0. (0.18) P(M | E ) = (b) = = P( M ) P( E | M ) P( L) P( E | L) + P( M ) P( E | M ) + P( H ) P( E | H ) (0.44) ≈ 0.32) + (0.25)(0.5)(0.25)(0.32) ≈ 0.25)(0.01) P(M | E ) = (b) = (0.18) ≈ 0.5)(0.5)(0.39 (0.07) + (0.15 (0.44) + (0.25)(0.25)(0.5)(0. 20 P1 = 20 3.

4 S’s.576. and for the dessert it is 3. To score 90.880 . The first two can be placed on the top shelf. the number of complete dinners that are possible is 2 · 4 · 3 = 24. 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 21! 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 b. Thus the number of ways of selecting three bulbs such that one is defective is 23! 23! = 1 ⋅ 23C2 = 23C2 = 2!(23 – 2)! 2!⋅ 21! 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 = 25 = 32 . or more simply. 8.000. the number of different codes is 24 ⋅ 23 ⋅ 22 ⋅ 21! 24 ⋅ 23 ⋅ 22 = = 2024 . a. 12! 12 ⋅11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7! = = 792 5!(12 − 5)! 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 7! 5. Thus the number of ways to score 90 or better is 10! +1 3 ⋅ 10C9 + 1 = 3 ⋅ 9! ⋅1! = 3 · 10 + 1 = 31. 10.104.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. for the entrée it is 4. all ten questions must be correct. so there are 12 ⋅ 4 C2 ways of selecting two cards having a different face value. and 2 P’s. and the order of selection is not important. second. The other two bulbs must be selected from the 23 remaining bulbs and there are 23 C2 such selections possible. For each of the first 3 characters there are 26 choices. 6. Thus the number of possible selections is 24! 24! = 24 C3 = 3!(24 – 3)! 3!⋅ 21! = 7. Thus the number of groups that can board is 11! 11 ⋅10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 6! = = 462. 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 21! 2 ⋅1 9. The number of such selections is 9 P9 = 9! = 362. There are four cards with a particular face value and there are 4 C2 ways of selecting two of them. there are 11 letters with repetition: 1 M. another two with a different face value. 1!⋅ 4!⋅ 4!⋅ 2! 327 . the next three on the middle shelf. and the last with yet another face value is 4! 4! ⋅12 ⋅ ⋅ 44 13 ⋅ 4C2 ⋅12 ⋅ 4C 2 ⋅ 44 = 13 ⋅ 2!⋅ 2! 2!2! = 13 ⋅ 6 ⋅12 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 44 = 247. Thus the number of 5-card hands with two cards 15. 4 I’s. By the basic counting principle. 14. 11. to score 100. After making these selections. If exactly nine questions are answered correctly. and third place is a selection of three of the seven teams so that order is important. By the basic counting principle. 12 C5 = Chapter 8 Review of the same face value. The order of the group is not important. A batting order consists of nine names selected from nine names such that order is important. the number of ways of selecting two cards with the same face value is 13 ⋅ 4C2 . there are three ways of answering the tenth question incorrectly. The number of choices for appetizers is 2. The number of ways to answer all ten questions correctly is 10 C10 . the number of license plates that are possible is 26 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 = 17. But the number of ways of selecting nine of ten items is 10 C9 . The number of such arrangements is 9 P9 = 9! = 362. By the basic counting principle. 11 C6 = 6! ⋅ 5! 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 6! 12. There are 12 remaining face values. 1. while for each of the last 3 characters there are 10 choices. Thus the number of distinguishable permutations is 11! = 34. Only one bulb is defective and that bulb must be included in the selection. Three bulbs are selected from 24. 23 ⋅ 22 ⋅ 21! 23 ⋅ 22 = = 253 . A possibility for first.880 . 650 . In the word MISSISSIPPI. Thus the number of ways to score 90 is 3 ⋅ 10C9 . Thus the number of ways the season can end is 7 P3 = 7 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 5 = 210 . Each of the five switches has 2 possible positions. there are 44 cards available with a different face value. Nine of the nine trophies can be arranged so that order is important. and the last four on the bottom shelf. exactly nine questions must be correct. Because there are 13 different face values. 13.

there are three ways to answer a question incorrectly. 6T} 21. n( E ) 15 + 25 = = 0. E1 ∩ E2 = {4. a. 4T. R1G 2 R 3 . G1R 2 R 3 . Number of rats given D = 100(0. Number of ways to answer exam is 45 = 1024 = n( S ) . 6} ∩ {1. = 25.8})′ = {1.6 + P ( E2 ) – 0. If box is rejected.3. 5. G1R 2 G 3 . {2H. 3H. Thus n( E ) 90 45 = = . ( E1 ∩ E2′ )′ = ({1. then P(E) = n( S ) 100 If the experiment is repeated on a larger group of 300 rats but with the drugs given in the same proportion.25) = 25. Of the nine professors. If E = event that rat was injected with C or D.2 . so E1 and E2 are not mutually exclusive. Mary’s (Cell B). 5. 3T. 2. 7. 4H. 35 like both A and B. Nine flags must be arranged: two are red (type 1). 10 C2 24.8} d. the one defective chip must be in the two-chip sample and there are nine possibilities for the other chip. 4! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 2! 10! 10 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 8! 10 ⋅ 9 = = = 45 2!⋅ 8! 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 8! 2 ⋅1 Let E be the event that box is rejected. Number of rats given C = 100(0. G1R 2 R 3 } 328 Of the 200 cola drinkers. 6.25) = 75 and n( E ) 45 + 75 = = 0. Thus n(E) = 9 n( E ) 9 1 = = = 0. three are green (type 2) and four are white (type 3). then the number of rats given drug C is 300(0. By the basic can be done in 7! ⋅ 7! counting principle. {R1R 2 R 3 . 3. e.40. 7} b. 3 C2 ⋅ 7! ⋅ 7! 2! ⋅1! 7! ⋅ 7! 19. four go to Dalhousie University (Cell A). This 14! ways. 4H. 2T} c. R1R 2 G 3 . 5.3. the number of ways to assign the people to two vans is 14! 3! 14! = ⋅ = 10. 20.5. 5H. Thus the number of distinguishable 9! = 1260.5. The intersection of any event and its complement is ∅. 6.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 16. The number of ways of selecting two of the five 5! = 10 .15) = 45 and the number of rats given drug D is 300(0.8} ∪ {4. = P(likes both A and B) = 200 40 . b. 4.40. 8} f. 22. questions that are incorrect is 5 C2 = 2! ⋅ 3! However. 7. Let E = {exactly two questions are incorrect). three go to St. From (b). 296 . a. Two of the three vans can be selected in 3 C2 ways. {R1R 2 R 3 . 2H. G1G 2 R 3 . 5T. The number of possible assignments is 9! = 1260. permutations is 2! ⋅ 3! ⋅ 4! c. 2. 6} c. 6H} 26. Since two questions are incorrect n(E) = 10 · 3 · 3 = 90. 2. Percentage of rats given drug D = 100 – (35 + 25 + 15) = 25%. After two vans are chosen. 2T.5. a. 4. 1T. 6. P(E) = n( S ) 1024 512 b.7 = 0. 3}′ = {4. and two are not assigned (Cell C). {1H. P ( E1 ∪ E2 ) = P( E1 ) + P( E2 ) – P( E1 ∩ E2 ) 0. E1′ ∪ E2 = {7. 2. Thus 35 7 . n(S) = 18. R1G 2 G 3 . 7} = {4. G1G 2 G 3 } {2H. E1 ∪ E2 = {1. G1G 2 G 3 } {R1R 2 G 3 . a. and P(E) = n( S ) 45 5 23.15) = 15. the operator must assign 14 people so that 7 go to one van (cell 1) and 7 go to the other van (cell 2). 6. E1 ∩ E2 ≠ ∅ . R1G 2 R 3 . Thus there is no P( E ) = n( S ) 300 effect on the previous probability. 6H.2 P ( E2 ) = 0.3 17.

(2. 9. (6. (6. 6). (3. 4). a. 5). second. 6). (1. 10. or third card. 1). 5). 2). 4). (5. 5). Thus n( Eall black ) = 26 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 and P ( Eall black ) = 26 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 1 = . (3. (4. 52 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 52 16 329 . 2). 3). n(S) = 6 · 6 = 36 a. 6). 6). 9. (4. 5). 4). (6. (2. (5. (5. 5). a. or 12 = {(1. n( S ) 100 25 b. 6. (3. 4). 6)} n( Emultiple of 3 ) 12 1 = = P ( Emultiple of 3 ) = 36 3 n( S ) c. 3). (6. none of which are black. (1. 3). then E occurs if the diamond is the first. n(S) = 10 · 10 = 100 n( Eboth red ) = 4 ⋅ 4 = 16 Thus P ( Eboth red ) = n( Eboth red ) 16 4 = = . 10. P(likes A. 1). n(S) = 52 · 52 ⋅ 52. There are 13 diamonds in a deck. then the person likes A only. Emultiple of 3 = E3. 2). (6. 6)} n( E7. 2). 8. (4. Thus 3 ⋅13 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 3 n(E) = 13 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 + 26 ⋅ 13 ⋅ 26 + 26 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 13 = 3 ⋅ 13 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 26 and P ( E ) = = . (5. 11. There are 10 jelly beans in the bag. (2. (4. (4. 6). (3. (3. (6. 52 ⋅ 52 ⋅ 52 8 b. and conversely. 1). 11. If a person likes A but not B. (5. E2 or 7 = {(1. There are 26 black cards in a deck. (4. (5. (6. 1). 9 or 12 = {(1. 6). (3. 5). (5. (5. 6). 1). Thus 70 7 = . but not B) = 200 20 27. (2. 90 15 28. (2. 3). (6. 5). 8. (4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 8 Review b. 5). 3)} P ( E2 or 7 ) = n( E2 or 7 ) 7 = n( S ) 36 b. Eno less than 7 = E7. n(S) = 10 · 9 = 90 n( Eboth red ) = 4 ⋅ 3 = 12 Thus P ( Eboth red ) = 12 2 = . 4). 3). 4). or 12 ) 21 7 = = P ( Eno less than 7 ) = 36 12 n( S ) 29. 4). (6. 2). If E = event that two cards are black and the other is a diamond.

(2. (3. event is 36 18 b. (6. only one has a first toss that is less than 4. The reduced sample space consists of {(3. and (2. Out of these 10 points. 4). If E = event that one card is an ace and the other is a red king.08 8 2 () 33. (3. conditional probability is 10 3 or 3:5 5 P( F ′ ∩ H ) = P( H ) 10 52 1 4 = 41.92 0. Thus the probability of this 2 1 = . (6. 2). 4). 2). 38. P ( E ) = 6 6 = 6 +1 7 34. 4)}. 5). 3). 4)} a. 4). 4). 4). (3. 4). 4). 1326 17 b. (1. P( E ) = 8 = P( E ′) 1 – 3 8 32. 4)} ≠ ∅ . The reduced sample space consists of {(6. Thus 13! n( Eboth hearts ) = 13C2 = = 78 2! ⋅11! and P ( Eboth hearts ) = 78 1 = . Out of 36 sample points. 6)}. (6. Thus the 1 . E and F are not mutually exclusive. is the sum less than 7. (5. 6). The second number must be a 1 or 2. 37. 6).006. (4. 52! = 1326 2!⋅ 50! There are 13 hearts in a deck. b. 4). a. Thus.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics 30. (2. Thus the conditional 3 1 = . P( E ) 0. 2). 5). 3). then n(E) = 4 · 2 = 8 and 8 4 = ≈ 0. (4. 4). 330 Since E ∩ F = {(4. . (4. (6. In none of these 11 points. (4. 5). (6. (5. (6. (5. There are four aces and two red kings. 4). P ( S ∩ M ) = P ( S ) P ( M | S ) = (0.6)(0. It does not matter whether the first two cards are drawn or are left in place. 6). (4. the sum of the components is 7. 4). 6). probability is 12 4 42. Thus P(sum < 7 | a 6 shows) = 0. (6. 1). n(S) = a. (4. (6. 1). (3. (4. 6). the event {getting a total of 7 and having a 4 show} is {(4.92 0. E = {(4. Of these. 2). and no red king is an ace. 6). (2. 52 C2 = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 39. a. 4). 6). 1). (4. P(sum = 7 | a 4 shows) = 11 4 13 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ = 52 52 52 2704 P ( L′ | F ) = n( L′ ∩ F ) 160 1 = = n( F ) 480 3 400 2 = and 600 3 n( L ∩ M ) 80 2 = = . so the reduced sample space has 6 · 2 = 12 sample points. In two of these 11 points. P ( F ′ H ) = = 40. 5). (1. events L and M are independent. (4. P(L|M) = n( M ) 120 3 Since P(L|M) = P(L). 5). (1. 6). (4. 6)}. 6). 6)} F = {(1. imagine that they are merely lifted high enough for the third card to be drawn. the event {first number ≤ second number} consists of (1. (5. 5). P ( E ) = 3 3 = 3+ 4 7 35. (4. 4 10 13 36. (5. (6. P (Q ∩ H ∩ AC ) = P (Q) P ( H ) P ( AC ) = The reduced sample space consists of {(4. 4)}. P ( L) = 44. 4). (6.7) = 0. Thus 2 . (4. 4).92 92 23 = = = = or 23:2 P( E′) 1 – 0. The probability that this card is 1 a heart is . 2). (5. 3). (4. (4. (6.42 43. 3). P(E) = 1326 663 3 3 8 5 8 31. 3). 1).

Being effective for at least three of the persons means that it is effective for exactly three of them or for all four of them.75) ≈ 0.7)(0.7)(0.3483 48. or exactly two do.2646 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b. The number of ways the two that take root can be chosen from the four shrubs is 4 C2 . 45.75)(0.75)(0. a. P( E ) = 6 1 P( E ∩ F ) = = and P ( E | F ) = 36 6 P( F ) Chapter 8 Review 1 36 6 36 = 1 . P ( RII ) = P (GI ) P ( RII | GI ) + P ( RI ) P( RII | RI ) 3 4 2 5 22 .0081 b. events E and F are independent.7)2 (0. 1 1 1 19 + − = . either none does.7)(0.0081 + 0.3). = ⋅ + ⋅ = 5 9 5 9 45 50.3) = 0. c. The probability that a particular two shrubs take root and the remaining two do not is (0.2646 = 0. P ( E | F ) = P( E ∩ F ) P( F ) so P ( E ∩ F ) = P ( E F ) P ( F ) = 1 1 1 ⋅ = .75)(0. a. P (W ) = P ( BI ) P (W | BI ) + P ( BII ) P(W | BII ) = 1 2 1 3 1 3 7 ⋅ + ⋅ = + = 2 6 2 5 6 10 15 331 . Thus P(exactly three) + P(all four) = 4C3 (0. P(none) + P(exactly one) + P(exactly two) = 0.75)(0. 46.0081 + 4C1 (0. 4 3 18 36 P(none take root) = (0. For at most two shrubs to take root.738 49. events P and M are dependent. exactly one does.75)(0.3)2 = 0.3)(0.25) + (0. Thus P(exactly two take root) = 4 C2 (0. P = {attend public college} M = {from middle-class family} 125 5 = P( P) = 175 7 n( P ∩ M ) 55 11 = = P( P | M ) = n( M ) 80 16 Since P(P | M) ≠ P(P).3)(0.2646 = 0.3)(0.0756 + 0.3)(0.75)(0. 6 Since P(E) = P(E | F).3)3 + 0. thus 6 3 18 P( E ∪ F ) = P( E ) + P( F ) – P( E ∩ F ) = 47.

59 (0.4 4 52.1 1 = = P ( A) 0.00375 3 = = ≈ 0.00375 + 0. S = {live within the state} and F = {first time attending}. b.35)(0. P( S ′) P( F ′ | S ′) P ( S ′ | F ′) = P ( S ) P ( F ′ | S ) + P ( S ′) P ( F ′ | S ′) = 53. since a person who recovers from a disease is generally immune for some time afterward.475 95 332 . Some cells could be highly subject to neighbor influence while others were relatively immune. Trial and error should yield a critical value of around 0.28 56 = = ≈ 0. One could also use cellular automata to model the formation of political opinion blocks. a.01) + ⋅ (0.097 4531 F = {produced by first shift} S = {produced by second shift} D = {scratched} P(D) = P(F)P(D|F) + P(S)P(D|S) 3000 5000 = ⋅ (0. P (G | A) = = 1.35)(0. E = {passed the exam} S = {satisfactory performance}. 98 ⋅ 27 507 100 409 ⋅ 60 + 98 ⋅ 27 507 100 507 100 = 441 ≈ 0.Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics b.8) + (0. and a cell could be influenced by its neighbors. The rules would be similar to the fad model. P (G ∩ A) 0. 9 14 2.02) 8000 8000 = 0.01625 P( F ) P( D | F ) P( F ) P( D | F ) + P( S ) P( D | S ) 0.01625 13 P( F | D) = 54. P( E ) P( S | E ) P( E | S ) = P( E ) P( S | E ) + P ( E′) P ( S | E′) = (0.23 0.0125 = 0.65)(0.3) 0.8) 0. Possible answers: One could use cellular automata to model disease spread. Each cell could be in one of three of four states. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 8 P ( BII | W ) = P ( BII ) P (W | BII ) P ( BI ) P (W | BI ) + P( BII ) P (W | BII ) = 1⋅3 2 5 7 15 51.645.

1) + 12 (0.4) + 2(0.4 0.8 0.7)2 = 1.Chapter 9 Problems 9.2) + 3(0.4 0.6) = 4.3)] − (1.6875 16 .01 ≈ 1. µ = ∑ x f ( x) = 0(0.24 ≈ 0.1) + 1(0.1 1.6)2 = 0. µ = 1 2 3 ∑ x f ( x) = 4(0.1 x 0 2.5 f(x) 0.3 0.7 x Var( X ) = ∑ x2 f ( x) − µ 2 = [02 (0.83 16 4 333 2 = 11 = 0.01 x σ = Var( X ) = 1.0 f(x) 0.3) = 1.25 9 x Var( X ) = ⎡ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ∑ x2 f ( x) − µ 2 = ⎢⎣12 ⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ + 22 ⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ + 32 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠⎥⎦ − ⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ x σ= 11 11 = ≈ 0.2 x 5 3.6)] − (4.2 0.2) + 32 (0.49 1.6 0.6 x Var(X) = [42 (0.4) + 52 (0.24 σ = 0.4) + 5(0. µ = ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ∑ x f ( x) = 1⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ + 2 ⎜⎝ 4 ⎟⎠ + 3 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ = 4 = 2.4) + 22 (0.00 0.

1 Thus P(X = 2) = 6(0. a.2 = 1 ⇒ a = 0.22 9 9 . f (3) = 8 8 8 8 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 12 3 = = 1.4]= 0.6) + 4(0.2) = 3.1) + 52 (0.1 5.2) + 72 (0.2 + 0.3) + 62 (0. µ = 2(0. and P(X = 4) = 2(0.1) = 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ⎛1⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ∑ x f ( x) = 0 ⎜⎝ 7 ⎟⎠ + 1⎜⎝ 7 ⎟⎠ + 2 ⎜⎝ 7 ⎟⎠ + 3 ⎜⎝ 7 ⎟⎠ + 4 ⎜⎝ 7 ⎟⎠ = 7 4. b.5 E( X ) = x f ( x ) = 0 ⎜ ⎟ + 1⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ + 3 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ 8 2 ∑ x σ = Var( X ) = 2 ∑ x2 f ( x) − [ E ( x)]2 x ⎡ ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 3 ⎞ = ⎢ 02 ⎜ ⎟ + 12 ⎜ ⎟ + 22 ⎜ ⎟ + 32 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎦ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝8⎠ 24 9 6 3 = − = = = 0. f (2) = . a. µ = 14 =2 x ⎡ ⎛1⎞ 12 ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ≈ 1. 7. ∑ x2 f ( x) − µ 2 = [32 (0.3) + 6(0. Distribution of X: 1 3 3 1 f (0) = .2) + 6(0.2.2.2) + 7(0. ∑ x f ( x) = 3(0.56 x 6a + 2a + 0.1) + 5(0. Distribution of X: f (1) = 4 2 2 1 = .3 + 0.8 x σ2 = c.8)2 = 1.1) = 0. f (1) = .4)] − (5.47 9 334 16 2 = ≈ 0. f (2) = = 6 3 6 3 ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ 4 E ( X ) = 1⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ = ≈ 1.75 8 4 8 4 σ= 2 3 3 = ≈ 0.87 4 2 8.71 Var( X ) = ⎢ 02 ⎜ ⎟ + 12 ⎜ ⎟ + 22 ⎜ ⎟ + 32 ⎜ ⎟ + 42 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ − 22 = 7 7 7 7 7 7 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ 12 ≈ 1.4) = 5.31 7 σ= P(X = 3) = 1 − [P(X = 5) + P(X = 6) + P(X = 7)] = 1 − [0.33 ⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠ 3 σ2 = ⎡ ⎛2⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ∑ x2 f ( x) − [ E ( x)]2 = ⎢⎣12 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 22 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠⎥⎦ − ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ 2 = 2− x σ= 2 ≈ 0. µ= b. 6.6.

f (−30) = 7 7 12 2 3 = ≈ 0. P ( X = x) = ∑ x f ( x) 16. 000) = 0.65) + (–20. If X is the gain (in dollars) per game.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9. Let X = gain (in dollars) to the chain of a restaurant in a shopping center. f (4998) = f (−2) = 8000 8000 E ( x) = ∑ xf ( x) x ∑ 7999 1 + 4998 ⋅ 8000 8000 11. Distribution of X: f (75. f (4996) = 8000 8000 x ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 6 ⎞ = ⎢ 02 ⎜ ⎟ + 12 ⎜ ⎟ + 22 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ ⎟ 10 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ 9 36 9 = − = = 0.000)(0. 000 =− ≈ −$1.000(0.8 ⎡ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎟ + 1 ⎜ 25 ⎟ + 2 ⎜ 25 ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 28 16 12 = − = = 0. Distribution of X: 9 12 4 f (0) = .43 7 C ⋅ C 6 3 f (1) = P ( X = 1) = 3 1 2 1 = = 10 5 5 C2 C 3 f (2) = P( X = 2) = 3 2 = 10 5 C2 12. Distribution of X: 7999 1 . Distribution of X: 7998 2 f (−4) = .65. 10 10 10 5 C 3 f (2) = 3 2 = 10 10 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ E( X ) = x f ( x ) = 0 ⎜ ⎟ + 1⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 13. f (−6) = = 8 4 8 4 1 3 E( X ) = x f ( x) = 10 ⋅ + (−6) ⋅ 4 4 10.48 25 25 25 σ 2 = ⎢ 02 ⎜ σ= ∑ 2 x = −$2 (a loss) 15. C 1 f (0) = P ( X = 0) = 2 2 = 10 5 C2 x 4 3 = 200 ⋅ + (−30) ⋅ 7 7 710 = ≈ $101. then X = –2 or 4998. then X = 10 or –6.6 25 5 14.2 5 σ2 = ∑ x2 f ( x) − [ E ( x)]2 b. Here X = –4 or 4996.1 9.36 5 25 25 σ= 2 E ( X ) = ∑ xf ( x) x 7998 2 + 4996 ⋅ 8000 8000 = −$2. Distribution of X: 2 1 6 3 f (10) = = . The number of outcomes in the sample space is 5 C2 = 10 . Distribution of X: C ⋅ C C 1 3 f (0) = 2 2 = . a.35 E(X) = 75. f (2) = 25 25 25 ⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ 20 4 E ( X ) = 0 ⎜ ⎟ + 1⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ = = 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 25 5 = 0. f (−20. Let X = daily earnings (in dollars). f (1) = 2 1 3 1 = .69 25 5 E( X ) = 11. ⋅ 6C3− x 10 C3 4 Cx 335 . Distribution of X: 4 3 f (200) = .75 (a loss) = −4 ⋅ 9 3 = = 0.35) = $41. If X is the gain (in dollars).38 (a loss) 8000 = −2 ⋅ x 6 = = 1. f (1) = .750. 000) = 0.

998 p = 50 −360 + p = 50 p = $410 20. f (2 − p ) = 4 2 4 We set E(X) = 0: 1 1 1 (− p ) + (1 − p ) + (2 − p ) = 0 4 2 4 p 1 p 1 p − + − + − =0 4 2 2 2 4 1− p = 0 p =1 Thus you should pay $1 for a fair game.25 on each play.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 17. Let X = gain (in dollars) to the company from a policy.002) + p (0.000 – p). then X = 0 − 1.982. We set E(X) = 50: −(180. 4 1 If exactly 1 head shows.003 + 0.03 (a loss) 37 37 37 21.008) = $3. Distribution of X: 1 36 f (35) = .002.008 E ( X ) = 10(0.001 + 0. 000 − p )(0.982) + (−90)(0.003) + (–390)(0.05) = 3.10) + 2(0. For a fair game. 4 Distribution of X: ⎛ 5⎞ 1 ⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⎛3⎞ 1 f ⎜− ⎟ = .05) + 1(0.001) + (−190)(0. then X = 1. f (−190) = 0. If X = gain (in dollars) to the company from a policy. f (−490) = 0. let p = amount (in dollars) paid to play.982. f (1 − p ) = .25 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ Thus there is an expected loss of $0.002) + (−290)(0.00 − 1. f (−290) = 0. Let p = the annual premium (in dollars) per policy. 5 If 0 heads show.25 = . f (−1) = 37 37 1 36 1 E ( X ) = 35 ⋅ + (−1) ⋅ =− ≈ −$0.004) + (–490)(0.002 p + 0.20) + 4(0. f (−90) = 0. Let X = gain (in dollars) on a play.004 + 0. Distribution of X: f (10) = 0.002 + 0. The probability that a person in the group is not hospitalized is 1 – (0.10) + 7(0.15) + 5(0.15) + 3(0. f ⎜− ⎟ = . then X = 2. Distribution of X: 1 1 1 f (− p ) = . f (−390) = 0. f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 4⎠ 2 ⎝4⎠ 4 1 ⎛ 5 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ E ( X ) = ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = − = −0.00 18. 336 .001.25 = − .05) + 8(0.998) = 50 −360 + 0.70 19.004. E(X) = 0(0. then either X = p or X = –(180.25 = − .00 − 1. 4 3 If 2 heads show. Let X = player’s gain (in dollars) per play.003.15) + 6(0.008) = 0.

7) = 0.2 0 2. 3. 0 1 4 = 3 1 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 1 ⋅ 8 ⋅1 = 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 1 1 3 σ = npq = 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 2 2 2 P ( X = 3) = 4C3 (0.70.30.3)3 (0. q = 1 – p = 0.1296 f (1) = 4C1 (0. x = 0. 1 P ( X = 0) = 4C0 (0.0756 = 1 ⎛1⎞ f (3) = 3C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 µ = np = 3 ⋅ = 2 P ( X = 2) = 4C2 (0.7)3 = 0.4)0 (0. 000 3. 756 10. 000 0 81 10.3456 8 2 2 = 25 5 337 4! (0. 2 2 1 = 2.3) (0.6)4 = 0. 4 = 3 1 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f (0) = 3C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ = 2 2 8 8 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4.7)4 = 0.4)(0.6)3 = = 4(0. Here p = 0.4)(0.0081 1.4)1 (0.3)1 (0.2646 = 2 1 1 3 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f (2) = 3C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 2 2 4 2 8 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ P ( X = 1) = 4C1 (0.2401 2401 10.6)4 0!⋅ 4! = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ (0.6)3 = 0.4116 = 2 1 1 3 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f (1) = 3C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 2 4 8 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ P ( X = x) = n C x p x q n − x .3)0 (0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9. 2. = 1 ⋅ ⋅1 = 25 25 1 2 µ = np = 2 ⋅ = 5 5 1 4 σ = npq = 2 ⋅ ⋅ 5 5 = 0 1 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ f (0) = 3C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ = 27 27 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 3! 2 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⋅ ⋅ f (1) = 3C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1!⋅ 2! 3 9 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3⎠ 2 1 2 = 3⋅ ⋅ = 3 9 9 P ( X = 4) = 4 C4 (0.7) 2 = 0. 000 4116 10.7)1 = 0. σ = npq = 3 ⋅ ⋅ 3 3 3 2 6 = 3 3 f (0) = 4C0 (0.2 Principles in Practice 9. 1. 000 2646 10. 000 3 0 2 2! 16 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ f (0) = 2 C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅1 ⋅ 5 5 0! ⋅ 2! 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 16 16 = 1⋅1⋅ = 25 25 1 2 1 3 0 3! 8 ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⋅ ⋅1 f (3) = 3C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3!⋅ 0! 27 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3⎠ 8 8 = 1 ⋅ ⋅1 = 27 27 1 2! 1 4 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ f (1) = 2C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ ⋅ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 1!⋅1! 5 5 1 4 8 = 2⋅ ⋅ = 5 5 25 2 2 3! 4 1 ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⋅ ⋅ f (2) = 3C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 2!⋅1! 9 3 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3⎠ 4 1 4 = 3⋅ ⋅ = 9 3 9 Problems 9.2 µ = np = 3 ⋅ 0 2! 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ f (2) = 2C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ ⋅1 5 5 2! ⋅ 0! 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 .3) 2 (0. and n = 4.6)3 1!⋅ 3! .6)4 = 4! ⋅1 ⋅ (0. 1.

982 729 P ( X = 2) = 4C2 (0.6) 2 = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 11.6) 2 2!⋅ 2! = 6(0.4) 2 (0.n =6 4 27 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 3) = 6C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 20 ⋅ ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 46 540 = ≈ 0. 12 16 1 ⎛4⎞ ⎛1⎞ 7.8)3− x 338 .4) 2 (0.4)3 (0. Let X = number of heads that occurs.00032)(0. P ( X = 4) = 7 C4 (0. Let X = number of green marbles drawn. Let X = number of aces selected.2) x (0.9604) ≈ 0.4)(0. The probability of selecting a green marble on any 7 draw is . P ( X = 2) = 4 C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 6 ⋅ ⋅ 5 5 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 96 = = 0.4) 4 ⋅1 4!⋅ 0! = 1(0.6 12. 1 p = .8) = 6(0.016 2197 4 15. P ( X < 2) = P ( X = 0) + P ( X = 1) 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 1 1 6 3 = 1⋅1⋅ + 5 ⋅ ⋅ = = 32 2 16 32 16 2 ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ P ( X = 2) = 4 C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 49 25 1225 = 6⋅ ⋅ = ≈ 0. Let X = number of correct answers. n = 4.1536 625 0 1 .0016)(0. 52 13 n=3 9.8) = 0.8)3 = 35(0.4)4 (0.4)2 (0.002 16.0004)(0.3456 8 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ P ( X = 8) = 11C8 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 1 = 165 ⋅ ⋅ 256 8 165 = ≈ 0. n = 4.512) = 0. p = σ = npq = 4(0. p = 0. n = 3 P ( X = x) = 3C x (0.6)0 = 4! (0.028672 5 3 13. P(X = 5) = 6 C5 (0.02) 2 (0. P ( X ≥ 2) = 1 − [ P ( X = 0) + P ( X = 1)] 0 6 1 5 ⎡ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎤ = 1 − ⎢ 6 C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 6 C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦ 2 ⎤ 13 ⎡ 1 = 1 − ⎢1 ⋅ + 6⋅ ⎥ = 1 − 729 729 729 ⎣ ⎦ 716 = ≈ 0.6) 3!⋅1! 3 1 = 4(0. The probability that a switch is defective is p = 0.2.3292 9 27 243 2 14. 10.6) = 0.6) = (0. P ( X = 2) = 5C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 1 8 80 = 10 ⋅ ⋅ = ≈ 0. The probability 4 1 of selecting an ace on any draw is p = = . Let X = number of defective switches selected.0256 µ = np = 4(0.3545 144 144 3456 2 8.4) = 1.98) 2 = 6(0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability f (2) = 4C2 (0.02.6) ≈ 0.1536 f (4) = 4C4 (0.2) (0.6) 2 = 0.2)4 (0.132 4096 5.4)3 (0.98 3 5 1 2 3 ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ 6.4) (0.081 2048 4! f (3) = 4C3 (0. n = 11 2 4! (0.001536 2 3 2 1 1 12 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 12 ⎞ P ( X = 2) = 3C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⋅ ⋅ 169 13 ⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎝ 13 ⎠ 36 = ≈ 0.4)4 ⋅1 = 0.

3)1 + 5C5 (0. b.36015 + 0. n=6 5 P ( X ≤ 1) = P ( X = 0) + P ( X = 1) 0 6 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ = 6C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 6 C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 5 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠ 4096 1 1024 = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ + 6⋅ ⋅ 15.058 ⋅ 256 64 16. n = 5 P ( X ≥ 3) = P ( X = 3) + P ( X = 4) + P ( X = 5) = 5C3 (0.7)5 (0. P ( X ≥ 4) = P ( X = 4) + P ( X = 5) + P( X = 6) + P( X = 7) 5 2 6 1 7 945 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ + 7 C5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 7 C6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 7 C7 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 16.09) + 5(0. 2 1 3 0 1 .n =3 4 9 1 3 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 2) = 3C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⋅ ⋅ = 64 4 4 16 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 3) = 3C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅ ⋅1 = 64 4 4 64 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Thus 9 1 10 5 P ( X = 2) + P ( X = 3) = + = = 64 64 64 32 18.16807)(1) = 0. Let X = number of defective in sample.7) 4 (0. 240 2048 = = ≈ 0. 625 3125 5 20. Let X = number of heads that occurs.7.16807 = 0.7)3 (0.655 15.2 17.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9. 1 p= .3) + 1(0. 1 27 945 ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 4) = 7 C4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 35 ⋅ = ≈ 0.3) 2 + 5C4 (0. p = a. p = 0.n =7 52 4 4 3 a. Let X = number of hearts selected.384 1156 289 = = ≈ 0.3)0 = 10(0.3087 + 0.343)(0.384 4 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 945 1 9 1 3 1 = + 21 ⋅ ⋅ + 7⋅ ⋅ + 1⋅ ⋅1 16. Let X = number of persons with computer. 13 1 p= = .384 1024 16 4096 4 16.83692 339 0 . 625 5 3125 10.2401)(0.384 ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b.071 16.384 4096 = 19.

σ 2 = 2 Since µ = np. Let X = number of girls. 5⎤ 3 13 ⎡1 = P ( X ≥ 2) = 1 − [ P( X = 0) + P ( X = 1)] = 1 − ⎢ + ⎥ = 1 − 32 32 16 16 ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 3 . We must find 2 5 1 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ P ( X = 0) = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ = 2 2 32 32 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 4 1 1 5 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ P ( X = 1) = 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⋅ ⋅ = 2 16 32 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ Thus. q = 1 − p = 1 − = 5 5 5 2 3 σ 2 = npq = 50 ⋅ ⋅ = 12 5 5 24. Let X = number of hits in four at-bats. p = 1 − q = 1 − = . Here n = 4. n = 4 P ( X ≥ 1) = 1 − P( X = 0) = 1 − 4C0 (0. The probability that a child is a girl is p = P(X ≥ 2) = 1 – P(X < 2) = 1 – [P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)].0256 + 0.06)0 (0.234.6. then (np )q = 2.94)14 ≈ 0.1792 ≈ 0. The probability that a stock increases in value is p = 0.064) = 0.300)0 (0.94)15 + 15C1 (0.4) 4 = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ (0.82 23. µ = 3.6)1 (0.300.06)1 (0. or n = 9.7599 22. Since σ 2 = npq. or 3q = 2.6)(0. P ( X ≤ 1) = P( X = 0) + P ( X = 1) = 15C0 (0.94)14 = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ (0. 9 2187 2187 ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 26. Var( X ) = σ 2 = npq = 15(0.1536 P ( X ≥ 2) = 1 − P ( X < 2) = 1 − [0. Let X = number of stocks that increase in value. then n ⋅ 2 1 = 3. Here n = 5.06)(0. 3 3 3 .1536] = 1 − 0.846 c. P ( X = 0) = 4 C0 (0.0256 P ( X = 1) = 4C1 (0.77 340 2 2 1 . n = 50.0256) = 0.06) = 0.6)0 (0.06)(0.2401) = 0. p = 0. Thus 3 7 1 128 512 ⎛1⎞ ⎛2⎞ P ( X = 2) = 9C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 36 ⋅ ⋅ = ≈ 0. We must find P(X ≥ 2) = 1 – P(X < 2) = 1 − [P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)]. then np = 3.94)15 + 15(0. 0 1 . so q = Since np = 3. E ( X ) = µ = np = 15(0.4)3 = 4(0. p = 25.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 21. Thus.94) = 0. a.700) 4 = 1 − 1 ⋅1 ⋅ (0.9 b.

⎢ − 14 85 13 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 1 1⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 4 3 ⎦⎥ No.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9. ⎡ 0. ⎢⎢ 0. ⎢ ⎢a 1 ⎥ 4⎦ ⎣ 2 1 + a = 1. so a = . since all entries are nonnegative and the sum of the entries in each column is 1. 12 12 a+ ⎡ 0.4 0.3⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. so c = 0. ⎡1 ⎤ 12. 4 4 ⎡ 0.4 ⎤ 11.1 0. ⎢ 0.1. since all entries are nonnegative and the sum of the entries in each column is 1. ⎢⎢ 0. all entries are nonnegative and their sum is 1.3 0. so a = 0.4 0.3 b c ⎥⎦ 0.6 0. so b = . 0. since there is a negative entry.5 ⎤ 5. a + 0. all entries are nonnegative and their sum is 1.3 + 0.5 0.3⎤ 6.3 Problems 9. ⎡ 0.4 0 0.3 ⎡a 8. ⎢⎢ 0.3 = 1. + b + = 1.1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. 0. 3 3 1 3 b + = 1.2 0 ⎥⎦ No. ⎡ 0. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. 12 12 12 7 5 b + a = 1. ⎡ 0. ⎢ a ⎢ ⎣⎢ a ⎡ 0. b⎤ ⎥ a ⎦⎥ 5 5 7 = 1.2 ⎤ 13.3⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. ⎢ 5 ⎣⎢ 12 ⎡ 1 2⎤ 2 3⎥ 1. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.4 a a ⎤ 9.4 + a + 0. 341 . ⎢ −0.1 + b = 1.2 0. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0⎦ Yes.6 0 ⎤ 4. ⎢ ⎢− 3 1 ⎥ ⎣ 2 3⎦ No.6 + c = 1. a + b + c = 1. c = 3 12 4 a+b+ ⎡ 0.6 0. a = 1 3 1 1 1 5 = 1. the entry in the second row is negative. + + c = 1.1 0.9 0.9 ⎤ 14. b = 4 3 4 12 1 5 1 a + b + c = 1.6 ⎦ Yes. a b 1 4 a⎤ ⎥ b⎥ ⎥ c ⎦⎥ a + a + a = 1.3.2 0.7 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. the sum of the entries is not 1.1 0.1 1 ⎤ 2.4 ⎥⎦ No.2 ⎥⎦ Yes. 3a = 1. ⎡ 2 b⎤ 3 ⎥ 7.5 ⎦ No. so b = 0. since the sum of the entries in column 3 is not 1. ⎡a ⎢ 10.7 0.9 0 ⎦ Yes. since the sum of the entries in column 1 is not 1. ⎢⎢ a 0.2 ⎦ No.2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.6. so b = 1 − = . so a = 1 − = . since the entry at row 2 column 1 is negative. ⎡ 1 1 1⎤ ⎢ 2 8 3⎥ 3.1 b ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.1 + b = 1.3 + 0.

X1 = TX0 = ⎢ ⎣ 0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ 31 1 ⎢⎣ 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 34 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 12 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎡ 25 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 12 ⎥ = ⎢ 36 ⎥ X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ 31 1 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 12 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 11 36 ⎦ ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎡ 25 ⎤ ⎡ 83 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 36 ⎥ = ⎢ 108 ⎥ X3 = TX2 = ⎢ 31 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 11 36 ⎦ ⎣ 108 ⎦ ⎡1 16.308⎤ = 0.2 ⎢ ⎣ 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.74 ⎤ ⎡ 0.5096 ⎦ 342 .26 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.692 ⎥⎦ 0.7 ⎡ 0.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.302 ⎥ = ⎢ 0.3138 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ 0.6536 ⎤ = 0.1 X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ ⎣ 0.2 ⎤ ⎡ 0.1766 ⎤ 0.584 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.26 ⎤ 0.9 0.1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.4 0.3 17.2 ⎢ ⎣ 0.28 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0.46⎦ ⎣ 0.74 ⎤ = 0.3⎤ ⎡ 0.58 ⎥⎦ 0.1 X3 = TX2 = ⎢ ⎣0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ 12 ⎢⎣ 2 1⎤ ⎡1⎤ 4⎥ ⎢2⎥ 3 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥ 4⎦ ⎣2⎦ ⎡3⎤ = ⎢ 85 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 8 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ 12 ⎢⎣ 2 1 ⎤ ⎡3⎤ 4 ⎥ ⎢8 ⎥ 3 5 ⎥⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎦ ⎣8 ⎦ ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎥ = ⎢ 32 21 ⎢⎣ 32 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 X3 = TX2 = ⎢ 12 ⎢⎣ 2 1 ⎤ ⎡ 11 ⎤ 4 ⎥ ⎢ 32 ⎥ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 21 ⎥ 4 ⎦ ⎣ 32 ⎦ ⎡ 0.534 ⎦ ⎣ 0.3⎤ ⎡0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.26 ⎤ ⎡ 0.5⎤ ⎡0.2 ⎤ ⎡ 0.308 ⎤ ⎡0.3 0.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.5⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.6 0 0.9 ⎤ ⎡ 0.8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.46 ⎦ 0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ ⎣ 0.534⎦ 0.6 0 0.5⎤ ⎡ 0.7 ⎡ 0.58 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.3⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0.5⎤ ⎡ 0.7 0 0.4 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.4 0.2 ⎢ ⎣ 0.6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1 X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ 0.42 ⎤ ⎡0.42 ⎤ = 0.302⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0.1 X3 = TX2 = ⎢ 0.8⎦ ⎣ 0.9 ⎡ 0.1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ 0.28⎥ = ⎢ 0.9 ⎤ ⎡ 0.164 ⎤ ⎡ 0.1 19.26 ⎥⎦ 0.7 ⎡ 0.7 0.6 0.5832 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.416 ⎤ ⎡ 0.9 ⎡ 0.1 18.9 ⎤ ⎡ 0.584 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.3464 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.7 ⎡ 43 ⎤ ⎥ = ⎢ 128 85 ⎢⎣ 128 ⎥⎦ 0.3 X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ ⎣ 0.416 ⎤ = 0.164 ⎤ 0.692 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.4168 ⎤ = X3 = TX2 = ⎢ ⎣0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 2 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 4 ⎥ = ⎢ 12 ⎥ 15.4 ⎤ ⎡ 0.3⎤ ⎡ 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0.

8 b. 22.4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.080 0. a.4 ⎢⎣ 0.7 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0.1986 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ 0.3 0.3 0. ⎡1 T2 = ⎢ 4 ⎢3 ⎣4 3⎤ ⎡1 4⎥⎢4 1⎥⎢3 4⎦⎣4 ⎡5 8 T3 = T2 T = ⎢ ⎢3 ⎣8 3⎤ 4⎥ 1⎥ 4⎦ ⎡5 8 =⎢ ⎢3 ⎣8 3⎤ ⎡1 8⎥ ⎢4 5⎥ ⎢3 8⎦ ⎣4 3⎤ 4⎥ 1⎥ 4⎦ 3⎤ 8⎥ 5⎥ 8⎦ ⎡7 16 =⎢ ⎢9 ⎣ 16 9⎤ 16 ⎥ .200 ⎤ 0.2 0. Entry in row 2.3⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0. column 1.4 ⎥ ⎢ 0.130 ⎥⎦ ⎡0.21⎥ ⎢0.3 ⎡ 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0. 9 .40 0.08 0.543 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.4 0. column 2 of T3 is 31 ⎤ 72 ⎥ 41 ⎥ 72 ⎦ 5 .7 0.3⎤ ⎡0 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.21⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ 0.1 0.40. 9 31 .7 0.10 0.207 ⎥ ⎢ 0.2 0.5 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0.19 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0.3⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 0.4 ⎢ 0 20. a.2 0.1 0.2063⎤ 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.230 0.327 ⎤ 3 2 T = T T = ⎢⎢ 0.40 0.5 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1 0. Entry in row 2. of T2 is c.08 0.2 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.23 0.4621⎥ 0.4 ⎢ 0 X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ ⎢ 0.2 0.1 0.690 0.4 ⎢ 0 X3 = TX2 = ⎢ ⎢0.13⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.54 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0.3⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0.1 0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ ⎢ 0.5 0. 16 Entry in row 1.4 0.207 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ 0. column 1.4 0.19 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.1 0.4 ⎣⎢0.130 ⎥⎦ 2 b.1 0.1 0.27 ⎤ ⎡0 0.530 0.2 0.1 0. column 2 of T3 is ⎡1 3 T2 = ⎢ ⎢2 ⎣3 1⎤⎡1 2⎥⎢3 1⎥⎢2 2⎦⎣3 ⎡4 9 T3 = T2 T = ⎢ ⎢5 ⎣9 ⎡4 5 ⎤ 9 12 ⎥ =⎢ ⎢5 7 ⎥ ⎣ 9 12 ⎦ 5 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎡ 23 12 ⎥ ⎢ 3 2 ⎥ ⎢ 54 = 7 ⎥ ⎢ 2 1 ⎥ ⎢ 31 12 ⎦ ⎣ 3 2 ⎦ ⎣ 54 1⎤ 2⎥ 1⎥ 2⎦ b.49 ⎥ 0.27 ⎤ T = ⎢⎢1 0.1 0.50 0.4 ⎥ ⎢0.4 ⎥ ⎢ 0.17 ⎤ ⎡ 0.1 0.69 0.4 0.23 0.200 ⎤ ⎡ 0.3⎤ ⎡ 0. 72 ⎡ 0 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0.10 0.2 0. 343 .130 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.13⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.49 ⎥ ⎢ 0.4 ⎢⎣ 0.1 0.54 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 0.463 ⎥ ⎢ 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.1 0.369 0. Entry in row 2.3⎤ ⎡ 0.1330 ⎦⎥ 21. a.4 0. 23. of T2 is 0.1 0.69 0.3⎥ ⎢ 0. of T2 is c. Entry in row 1.4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0.1 0.4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.17 ⎤ 0.4 0.4 ⎥ ⎢ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9.3 0.463⎥ 0. 7⎥ 16 ⎦ 3 .101 0.50 0. column 1.1⎤ ⎡0.

Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability c.1⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Entry in row 1.1 0.11 0. 2⎤ ⎡ 1 2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 1 2 3⎥ 2 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 25.10 0.79 ⎥⎦ 2 24.2 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.1 0.79 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.10 0. ⎢⎣0.10 ⎤ 3 2 T = T T = ⎢⎢ 0.1⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.1 0.1 0.10 0.8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.10 ⎤ ⎡ 0.11 0.1 0.11. of T2 is 0. T − I = ⎢ ⎢1 ⎣2 ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎣ 2 1 1 4 − 14 1⎤ 4 ⎥ ⎡1 − 3 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎣ 4⎦ 1 0⎤ ⎡ − 2 ⎢ = 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎣ 2 1 ⎤ 4 ⎥ − 14 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎤ 1⎤ 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 0⎥ → " → ⎢0 1 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1⎤ 3 Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎣2⎦ ⎡ 1 3 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 4 3 ⎤ 5 5 ⎥ 5 5⎥ ⎢ 27.7 0.7 0. column 2 of T3 is 0. b.7 0. c.1 0.1 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.79 0.11 0.10.79 0. column 2 of T3 is 0.8 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0. ⎡ 0.8 0.79 0. T − I = − = ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 − 2 ⎥ 3⎦ ⎣2 3⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 4 ⎤ 1 1⎤ 7⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 0⎥ → " → ⎢0 1 3 ⎥ ⎢− 1 3 7⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 1 − 2 0⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 3 ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡4⎤ Q = ⎢ 73 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 7 ⎥⎦ ⎡1 2 26. T − I = −⎢ =⎢ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1⎦ − 53 ⎥ ⎣5 5⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 3 ⎤ 1 1⎤ 7⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 4 3 0⎥ → " → ⎢0 1 4 ⎥ 7⎥ ⎢ 5 5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 4 − 3 0⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 5 ⎥⎦ 5 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡3⎤ 7 Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎢4⎥ ⎣7⎦ 344 .11 0.10 0.11⎥⎥ .10 0.8 0.2 0.10 0. Entry in row 1. column 1.11⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1 0.2 0.1⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0.11 0.79 0.11⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.1 0.79 0.79⎥⎦ ⎡0.369. Entry in row 2.11 0.10 ⎤ T = ⎢⎢ 0.79 0. a.

4 0.814 ⎦ 345 .4 −0.7 0.2 −0.2 0.3 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 3 1 ⎤ 4 3⎥ 4 3 ⎥ ⎢ 28. T − I = ⎢⎢ 0.6 ⎤ 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.1 −0.4812 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0. and 12 days corresponds to 3 periods.19 0.3 0.4 29.7 0.5 ⎤ ⎢0 1 0 0.3 ⎢⎣ 0.8 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 120 ⎤ ⎡ 0.82 ⎦ ⎣ 0.6 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.3 −0.6 ⎤ 200 X0 = ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ → " → ⎢ 0 1 0 0.6 ⎤ ⎡ 0.1 0.7 0.1 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −0.81 0.1 0.4 −0.7 0 ⎥⎦ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎡ 0.6 0 ⎥⎥ ⎥ →" → ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0.3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1 ⎢⎣ 0.3⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.186 ⎤ X 2 = T2 X0 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥.4 ⎦ ⎣ 200 ⎦ If a period is 4 days.1 0.6 0.2 0.3 ⎤ 30.1 ⎥⎥ 0.2707 ⎤ Q ≈ ⎢⎢ 0. ⎣ 0. a.2481⎥ ⎢ 0. ⎢ 80 ⎥ ⎣ 0.9 0.9 0.6 ⎥⎦ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 0 0.9 0.25⎥ 0.3 0.3⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0.4 0.1⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 9. T − I = ⎢⎢ 0.6 ⎢ ⎢ 0.3 0 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 0.2 ⎤ T= No flu ⎢⎣ 0.3 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ −0.6 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎡ 0. then 8 days corresponds to 2 periods.7 0.7 ⎢ 0. The state vector corresponding to 8 days from now is ⎡ 0.2 −0.25⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.18⎤ ⎡ 0.6 0.3 −0.8 0.25⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.2707 ⎤ ⎢ −0.6 0. b.6 0. No flu Flu ⎡ 0.5 ⎤ Q = ⎢⎢ 0.7 ⎥⎦ 1 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0.4812 ⎥⎦ Flu 31.25⎥ 0.3 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. T − I = −⎢ =⎢ ⎥ 3 3 2 ⎢ ⎥ 0 1⎦ ⎢ − 13 ⎥ ⎣4 3⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 4 ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 4 ⎤ 1 1⎤ 13 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 3 1 0 ⎥ → " → ⎢0 1 9 ⎥ 13 ⎥ ⎢ 4 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3 − 1 0⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡4⎤ 13 Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎢9⎥ ⎣ 13 ⎦ ⎡ 0.4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.2481⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.8 0.

242.42 ⎤ = ⎢⎢0.3 ⎤ ⎡ 0. ⎡ 0.19 0.3835⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.25⎤ 32.30 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0.65⎤ X 2 = T X0 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.2 0 0.1 0.415 0.819 0. The state vector corresponding to 12 days from now is ⎡ 0.6165⎦ 38.67 0.8 0.6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0. ⎣0.8 0.1 0.48⎦ The probability is 0.14 0. U S R U ⎡0. T = ⎢⎢ 0.61 0.2 0.4 ⎦ ⎡0.6 ⎤ X3 = T3 X0 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣0.52 ⎤ T2 = ⎢ ⎥.1 0.45 0.2 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0.219 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. 22% to location 3 15 years corresponds to step 3.675⎦ ⎣ 0.40 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣0.61. A B A ⎡0.6 ⎥⎦ b.2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0. Wednesday corresponds to step 2.7 0.35⎦ ⎡ 0.5 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.55 0.40 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.818⎦ ⎣ 0.2 0. b.30 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0.65⎤ X0 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.2 ⎥⎥ O ⎢⎣0.68 0. column 2 of T3 is 0.2 ⎤ ⎡ 0.182 ⎤ ⎡ 0.48⎥⎥ ⎢⎣0.7 0. 2 c.196 0.35⎦ 35.22 ⎥⎦ ⎡0.2% to location 3 H L H ⎡0.219 0.585 0.4 ⎤ T= ⎢ B ⎣ 0.3 ⎤ T= ⎢ R ⎢0.1 0.192 ⎥⎦ X1 = TX0 ⎡0.29 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.1814(200) ≈ 36 students can be expected to have the flu 12 days from now.1 0.30 ⎥⎦ The probability is 0. a.2 0. ⎣ 0.19. 45. ⎡ 0.242.458 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣0.562 0.1⎥⎥ R ⎢⎣0.2 ⎤ ⎡ 0. D R O D ⎡0.75⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.242 0.18 0.2 0 0. ⎡ 0. a.585 ⎥⎦ The entry in row 3. 19.7 0.369 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Thus 0.1 0.41 ⎤ b.1 0. 34. so the probability is 0.8 0.5⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.20 ⎥⎦ ⎡0.18⎥⎦ 40% are expected to be Republican.22 ⎥⎦ a. 48% to location 2.8⎥⎦ X1 = TX0 ⎡0.181 0.325⎤ ⎡ 0. T = ⎢ L ⎣0. X 2 = TX1 ⎡0. 30% to location 1.5 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.350 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0.3 0.412 0.186(200) ≈ 37 students can be expected to have the flu 8 days from now.14 0.7 0.3⎥⎦ ⎡0.8% to location 2.39 0.2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.1 0. 35% to location 1.1814 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥.196 ⎤ T3 = ⎢⎢ 0.1 0.35% of the members will be performing highimpact exercising.40 ⎤ = ⎢⎢0.1 0. 2 33. 346 .48⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.1⎤ 36. T = ⎢ S ⎢0.8186 ⎦ Thus 0.1 0. a.1 0.8 0.6 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.8 0.

25 0. A can expect to control 60% of the market.7 ⎦ ⎣ 0.65⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0.25 0.2 0. Fords Non-Fords Fords ⎡ 0.3⎤ ⎡ 0.25 0.65⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣0.2 −0. 37.3⎤ T= Compet.304 ⎤ = ⎢⎢0.369 0.30475⎥⎥ ⎣⎢0.35⎦ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 0.70 ⎤ X1 = TX0 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. 38.4⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡0. a.65⎥⎦ ⎡ 0. A ⎡ 0.2 0. 30.33% of car purchases in the region are expected to be Fords.562 0.8 0. T= 1 2 5 3⎤ ⎡ 1 7 7 ⎢ ⎥ 2⎢2 4⎥ ⎣7 7⎦ 347 . A Compet.4167 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.35 0 ⎥ → … → ⎢ 0 1 0. 39.4167 ⎥⎦ In the long run.4 ⎦ In the long run.35 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.196 ⎤ ⎡ 0.219 0. ⎡ 0.2 −0.30 ⎦ ⎡0. a.5833⎤ Q≈⎢ ⎣ 0.3 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0.2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ −0.4% urban.6 ⎤ Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎣0.35⎤ T= Non-fords ⎢⎣ 0. 58.35⎤ T−I = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.75 0.35⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.7 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.2 0.50 ⎤ ⎡ 0. Section 9.585 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.475% suburban. a.219 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.3 0.125% rural.7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.412 0.25⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0.35⎦ A is expected to control 65% of the market.8 0.5833⎤ ⎢ −0.25 −0.6 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ → … → ⎢⎢ 0 1 0.3⎤ − = 0.8 T−I = ⎢ ⎣ 0.3⎥⎦ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0. 39.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b.39125⎦⎥ The population is expected to be 30.25 0. b.242 0.196 0. c.3 X3 = T3 X0 ⎡0. ⎢⎣ 0.25⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0.75 0.25 −0.2 0.3 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0. b.

4082 ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 49 49 ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 49 ⎦ ⎣ About 59.8 0. a.781 ⎦ The probability is 0. b.2 −0. the number of machines working properly is ⎜ ⎟ (42) = 14 .562 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 31 27 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 29 ⎤ ⎡ 0. ⎝3⎠ 348 .8 0.438 0.5918 ⎤ 49 49 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 49 ⎥ b. c.6 ⎤ 5 Q=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 0.18% in compartment 1 and 40.1⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎤ 1 1⎤ 3⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎢ −0.82% in compartment 2.2 0.1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1⎤ 3 Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎢2⎥ ⎣3⎦ ⎛1⎞ In the long run. Doesn't Works Work T= Works ⎡ 0. X 2 = T X0 = ⎢ = ≈ 18 22 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ ⎢ 0.1⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.2 0.1⎤ ⎢ Doesn't Work ⎣ 0. there will be 60% in compartment 1 and 40% in compartment 2.9 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0. 3⎤ ⎡ 5 3 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 2 7 7⎥ 7 7⎥ ⎢ ⎢ T−I = − = ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 2 − 3 ⎥ 7⎦ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 3⎤ 1 1⎤ 5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 2 3 0⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 2 ⎥ 5⎥ ⎢ 7 7 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 2 − 3 0⎥ ⎢0 0 0⎥ ⎢⎣ 7 ⎥⎦ 7 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 3 ⎤ ⎡ 0.2 0. 40. 2 c.1 0 ⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3⎥ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0. ⎡ 0.219 ⎤ T3 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.9 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0.1⎤ T−I = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.2 −0.2 0.562.4 ⎦ ⎣5⎦ In the long run.

2 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.22(500) = 110 to C.1 ⎥⎥ C ⎢⎣ 0.1 0.32 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 41.4 .3 1⎤ 2⎥ 1 − 2 ⎥⎦ 2⎤ 3⎥ 1⎥ 3⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡2⎤ 3 Q=⎢ ⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎣3⎦ b. = 0.1⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0.34(500) = 170 to B.8 0.1 0.16 0.4 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0. 66 23 − 50 50 ⋅100% = 2 2 . The probability that a customer goes to branch A is ⎡ 0.52 ⎥⎦ The probability is 0.22 ⎥⎦ Thus 0. or 66 % .8 0. of sales.44(500) = 220 customers can be expected to go to A on their next visit.2 ⎤ ⎡0. and 0. Thus X0 = ⎢⎢ 0.2 0.2 ⎤ T= ⎢ B ⎢ 0.52.1 0.1 0.4 ⎥⎥ .52 0. a. a.16 0. b.7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0.1 0.2 . 3 A B C A ⎡ 0. 349 200 = 0.34 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. Presently.7 0. and to branch C.1 0. = 0. Thus the 3 3 16 23 50 1 ⋅100% = 33 % .4 .44 ⎤ X1 = TX0 = ⎢⎢ 0.16 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0. A accounts for 50% of sales and in long run A will account for percentage increase in sales above the present level is 42. Initially 500 customers are to be considered.32 ⎤ T2 = ⎢⎢ 0.68 0.4 ⎤ 200 100 to branch B. 500 500 ⎢⎣ 0. c.2 0.7 0.4 ⎤ ⎡ 0. ⎡3 ⎢ T−I = 4 ⎢1 ⎣4 1⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎡1 − 1 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎣ 2⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎢ 4 ⎢ 1 ⎣ 4 ⎡1 0 1⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 1 1 2 − 12 0⎤ ⎡ − 4 =⎢ 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎣ 4 1 Section 9. 500 .16 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.7 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0. 0.

T2 = TT = ⎢ 2 ⎢1 ⎣2 1 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 12 1 ⎤ ⎡ 34 ⎥=⎢ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 14 1⎤ 2⎥ 1⎥ 2⎦ Since all entries of T2 are positive.7 0.3 0.1 −0.69 36 6 350 .25(500) = 125 to B.5 x Var( X ) = ∑ x2 f ( x) − µ 2 = ⎡⎣12 (0. 0. ⎡1 43.1 f(x) x 1 2.4 0.1 −0.65 ≈ 0.25(500) to C.2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.1 0.2 0.5)2 = 0.2 0.1 0.2) = 1.2)⎤⎦ − (1.2 0.8 0. ⎡0 1 ⎤ 2 n n 44.50 ⎤ ⎢ −0. and A = A if n is odd.8 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 0.2 ⎤ T − I = ⎢⎢ 0.81 1. 0. µ = ∑ xf ( x) = 1⋅ f (1) + 2 ⋅ f (2) + 3 ⋅ f (3) = 1(0.50(500) = 250 can be expected to go to A.7) + 2(0.1) + 32 (0.65 x σ = Var( X ) = 0.7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.1 ⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0.1 0.2 0. µ = 2 3 ∑ xf ( x) = 0 ⋅ 6 + 1⋅ 2 + 2 ⋅ 3 = 6 1 x Var( X ) = 1 1 7 ∑ x 2 f ( x) − µ 2 x 1 1 1⎤ ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎡ = ⎢ 02 ⋅ + 12 ⋅ + 22 ⋅ ⎥ − ⎜ ⎟ 6 2 3⎦ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎣ 11 49 17 = − = 6 36 36 σ= 2 17 17 = ≈ 0.25⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.9 0.5 0. and thus A is not regular.1) + 3(0.7 0.6 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability d.3 0.25⎥ ⎢ 0. Chapter 9 Review Problems 1.1 −0.1⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 0 0. A = I (the 2 × 2 identity matris). Thus A = I if n is even. T is regular.3 0.3⎥⎦ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 0 0.1 0 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 0.7) + 22 (0.2 0.1 −0. and 0.2 0.3 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢0 0 0 In the long run. For the matrix A = ⎢ ⎥ . 1 0 ⎣ ⎦ In either case there are nonpositive entries.0 0.1 0.1 0.

2!⋅ 2! 2 Therefore. f (2) = P ( E2 aces ) = = 1326 221 f (1) = P ( E1 ace ) = 1/3 1/6 b. f(2). 32 5.10 per play. Thus n ( Eno 10 ) = 48 ⋅ 48 . The event 1 12 Similarly. H5} .55) = 18. or vice versa. E1 = {T1. E( X ) = n ( E6 ) n( S ) 2 1 = 12 6 = 1 . f(4). E4 = {T4. Thus n ( E1 ace ) = 4 ⋅ 48 = 192 .45. Thus n ( Eone 10 ) = 4 ⋅ 48 + 48 ⋅ 4 = 2 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 48 . Thus 48! 48 ⋅ 47 n ( E0 aces ) = 48 C2 = = 2!⋅ 46! 2 = 1128 . = 1326 221 351 . H 3} . E( X ) = x 0 3. f(–10. In a 2!⋅ 50! 2 deck there are 4 aces and 48 non-aces. 4 4 n(S) = 52 · 52. For E1 ace to occur. of X: f(40. of X: ⎛ 1 ⎞ 48 ⋅ 48 144 . a. a. Let X = gain (in dollars) on a play. f ⎜− ⎟ = = ⎝ 4 ⎠ 52 ⋅ 52 169 1 1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 1 + + 6⋅ 12 6 12 15 6 36 = 0+ + = =3 6 12 12 = 0⋅ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 2 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 48 24 . In a deck.10 4 ⋅169 676 52 There is a loss of $0. then X = 0 − = − . E2 = {T 2. E3 = {T3. one card is an ace and the other is non-ace. H2} .45) + (–10.000)(0. x 4. f(3). ∑ xf ( x) Dist. if exactly one 10 4 4 1 3 appears. 6 1 12 n ( Etwo 10's ) = 4 ⋅ 4 .000) = 0.000)(0. Let X = gain (in dollars) to company. n ( E2 aces ) = 4 C2 = 6. If no 10 1 1 appears. then X = 1 − = . f ⎜ ⎟= = ⎝ 4 ⎠ 52 ⋅ 52 169 4⋅4 1 ⎛7⎞ . 1 = n(S) = 2 · 6 = 12 E0 = {H1}.55 E(X) = (40. = 1326 221 6 1 . there are 4 10’s and 48 non 10’s. and f(5) equal f (6) = P ( E6 ) = 188 x 2 f (0) = P ( E0 ) = ∑ xf ( x) = 0 ⋅ 221 + 1⋅ 221 + 2 ⋅ 221 1128 188 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1/2 Chapter 9 Review f(x) 192 32 .000 – 5500 = $12. 4 4 1 7 then X = 2 − = . f (0) = P ( E0 aces ) = 1 34 2 = 221 13 Eone 10 occurs if the first card is a 10 and the second is a non-10.500 per station 4! 4⋅3 = =6.45 = 0. H4} .000) = 1 – 0. f ⎜ ⎟= = ⎝ 4 ⎠ 52 ⋅ 52 169 1 144 3 24 7 1 E( X ) = − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ 4 169 4 169 4 169 −144 + 72 + 7 65 5 = =− =− ≈ −0. E6 = {T6} f (1) = P ( E1 ) = n ( E0 ) n( S ) n ( E1 ) n( S ) = = b. E5 = {T5. if two 10’s appear. Dist. H6} . 52! 52 ⋅ 51 n( S ) = 52 C2 = = = 1326 .

00 and 1 40.63 ⎝ 41.08 = 0.368 1!3! 1 5 6! ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ P ( X = 1) = 6C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1!⋅ 5! ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 243 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3⎠ f (2) = 4 C2 (0. 000.999.63 per play.999.522) 0!4! 6 6! ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ (1) ⎜ 12. then expected annual profit is 4000(176) = $704.003375)(0.08 and P(X = 200) = 1 – 0. 1 2 5 0 ⎛1⎞ f (5) = 5C5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ 1 µ = np = 5 ⋅ = 3 1 1 ⎛2⎞ ⋅1 = ⎜ ⎟ = 1⋅ 243 243 ⎝3⎠ 5 3 1 2 10 10 = = ≈ 1.0225)(0.614) = 0.15)1 (0.999. 000. P(X = –1. 000. E(X) = –100f(–100) + 200f(200) = –100(0.00) = 1 – = 41. 000 E(X) = 14.85) ≈ 0. 000 loses.15)3 (0.0005 4!0! µ = np = 4(0.71 352 . 000.999. 9.999 and 1 .7225) ≈ 0.999) = 41.92.85)2 4! = ⋅ (0. If the player wins.999 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 41. P ( X = 0) = 6 C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎟ 3 3 0! ⋅ 6! ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 729 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 1(1) ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ 729 ⎠ 729 f (1) = 4 C1 (0. 000 41. then x = 15.05 3 3 9 3 σ = npq = 5 ⋅ ⋅ 11. There are 41 million combinations from which to choose.098 2!2! ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 12 = 6⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 243 ⎠ 729 f (3) = 4C3 (0. 000.85) ≈ 0.6 = σ = npq = 4(0.15) = 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Let X = gain (in dollars) on each unit shipped.000.999 ⎞ – 1. = 0. a. 5 32 32 ⎛1⎞ ⎛2⎞ f (0) = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ = 3 3 243 243 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 0 4! ⋅1(0.15) 4 (0.15)2 (0.00) ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 14. Let x = gain (in dollars) per play.15)0 (0. 000 ⎠ There is a loss of about $0.00f (–1. If the player P(X = 14.000 – 1.522 3 1 4 40 ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ f (3) = 5C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 10 ⋅ ⋅ = 27 9 243 ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 4 1 1 2 10 ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ f (4) = 5C4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⋅ ⋅ = 3 3 81 3 243 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 8.85)1 4! = ⋅ (0.15)(0. 000 ⎠ f (0) = 4C0 (0.08) + 200(0. then X = –1.999) – 1.15)(0.999. P(X ≤ 1) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) 0 5 1 4 ⎛3⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 1 3 1 16 1 = 1⋅1⋅ + 5⋅ ⋅ = = 1024 4 256 1024 64 ⎛ 40.00 = 14.00 ⎜ ⎟ ≈ –0.999 . Then P(X = –100) = 0.85)0 4! ≈ ⋅ (0.000.999.85)3 4! ≈ ⋅ (0.85)4 ≈ 4 1 16 80 ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ f (1) = 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⋅ ⋅ = 3 81 243 ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 2 3 1 8 80 ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ = f (2) = 5C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 10 ⋅ ⋅ 9 27 243 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ b.999.011 3!1! 2 4 6! ⎛ 4 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛2⎞ ⎛1⎞ P ( X = 2) = 6C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎟ 2!⋅ 4! ⎜⎝ 9 ⎟⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝3⎠ ⎠⎝ 81 ⎠ 6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4! ⎛ 4 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 60 = 15 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 ⋅1 ⋅ 4! ⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ 81 ⎠ ⎝ 9 ⎠ ⎝ 81 ⎠ 729 P(X > 2) = 1 – P(X ≤ 2) = 1 – [P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2)] 12 60 ⎤ 73 656 ⎡ 1 = 1− ⎢ + + = 1− = ⎥ 729 729 ⎣ 729 729 729 ⎦ f (4) = 4C4 (0.92) = $176 per unit 0 10.000506)1 = 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability 7. Since the expected gain per unit is $176 and 4000 units are shipped per year.999f (14.

7 0. so 2a = 0.4 0. From column 1.3) = = 0. or a = 0. 1 − 2a 1 − 2(0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ 0. a + a + 0.5⎦ ⎣ 0. so 2b = 1 – 2a.3.1 + a + 0.3 = 0.10 ⎤ ⎡ 0.7 0.6 = 1. 0 ⎡ 0.1595⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. Let jelly bean is 10 5 X = number of red jelly beans selected in five 1 draws.715⎦ ⎡0.3.1 0.4 0. Let X = number of bushes that live.0001 15.10 ⎤ 19.715 ⎦ 16.1⎥ ⎢ 0. the probability of selecting a red 2 1 = .2 0. The probability that a 2 or 3 results on one roll is 2 1 = . a + b + c = 1.7 0.2. b + b + a = 1. On any draw.4 – 0.15⎥ = ⎢ 0.1⎤ ⎡0.2 0.8. 0 3 1 64 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ P ( X = 2) = 5C2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 10 ⋅ ⋅ 5 5 25 125 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 640 = 3125 P ( X ≤ 2) = P ( X = 0) + P( X = 1) + P( X = 2) 4 1 256 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ P ( X = 1) = 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⋅ ⋅ 5 625 ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠ 1280 = 3125 353 . or 1 − a 1 − 0. so c = 1 – a – b.3 0.7095⎦ 5 1024 ⎛1⎞ ⎛4⎞ P ( X = 0) = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ 5 5 3125 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1024 = 3125 1 1024 1280 640 2944 + + = = 0.3 0. 14.3 0. 5 243 243 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 0) = 5C0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 ⋅1 ⋅ = 3125 3125 ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠ 1 4 2 81 810 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛3⎞ P ( X = 1) = 5C1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 5 ⋅ ⋅ = 5 625 3125 ⎝ 5⎠ ⎝5⎠ P(X ≥ 2) = 1 – [P(X = 0) + P(X = 1)] 810 ⎤ 1053 2072 ⎡ 243 = 1− ⎢ + = 1− = ⎥ 3125 3125 ⎣ 3125 3125 ⎦ 18. Then X is binomial.3.1310 ⎤ = ⎢ 0. ⎡ 0. or c = 1 – 0.1 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.15 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. Then X is binomial with p = and 5 n = 5.3 0. Then X is binomial with p = and 3 n = 4. 0.75⎦ ⎡ 0.8⎦ ⎣ 0.155 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. Let X = number of heads that occur.130 ⎤ X3 = TX2 = ⎢ 0.4. or b = 2 2 From column 3.5. so 2b = 1 – a.3 – 0. Let X = number of 2’s or 3’s that appear 6 3 1 on 4 rolls.75⎦ ⎣ 0. From column 3.8⎦ ⎣ 0.4 b= = = 0.3 0.1 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.3 0.8⎦ ⎣ 0.1) 4 = 0. 3 2 1 1 2 8 ⎛1⎞ ⎛2⎞ P ( X = 3) = 4C3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⋅ ⋅ = 27 3 81 ⎝3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ = P ( X = 0) = 4C0 (0.1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0.5⎤ ⎡ 0.9)0 (0. From column 2. 2 2 From column 2. From column 1.1⎥ ⎢ 0. Then X is binomial. so c = 1 – a – b = 1 – 0.155⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. so a = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 9 Review 13.2 = 1.94208 3125 3125 3125 3125 17.2 0.2 = 0.4 0. a + b + c = 1. 2a + b + b = 1.130 ⎤ X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ 0.

1⎤ ⎡ 0. is 234 .1417 ⎤ = ⎢ 0.4 0.8 0. . Japanese Non-Japanese Japanese ⎡ 0.3 0.13⎤ 20. 0.2 0.5⎥⎥ ⎢⎣1 0.3489 ⎦ 21. column 1.3⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ 24.2 0.3 0.36 ⎤ Q ≈ ⎢ 0.36 ⎦ T2 = TT ⎡ 0 0.2 0. 22. column 2. T − I = ⎢ ⎢ 2 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 2 − 2 ⎥ 3⎦ ⎣3 3⎦ ⎣ 3 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 0 2 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 2 2 0⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 1 ⎥ 2⎥ ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 2 − 2 0⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3 ⎦ 1 ⎡ ⎤ Q = ⎢2⎥ ⎢1⎥ ⎣2⎦ ⎡ 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.6 0.350 ⎦ c.4 0.2 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ 0.4 0.25.6 0.4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ 0.24 0. entry in row 1. 354 ⎡ 0.1 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.6 ⎤ ⎡ 0.4⎦ ⎡0.6 0 ⎦⎥ ⎡ 1 0 0 0.13⎤ ⎡0.3 −0.21 0. is 0. a.2 0.4 0.36 ⎤ ⎢ 0 1 0 0.26 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0.2 ⎥⎦ 0.3 0.8 0.5094 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.2 ⎡0.55 0.4⎥⎦ a.3⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0 0.3⎤ ⎡ −0.3 0.139 ⎤ X 2 = TX1 = ⎢ 0.350 ⎦ ⎡0.3⎥ = ⎢ 0.76. ⎡ 1 2 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 2 2 ⎤ 3 3⎥ 3 3 ⎥ − =⎢ 23.6 0.36 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎦⎥ 15 .3⎤ 0.3 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.8 0. T = Non-Japanese ⎢⎣ 0.4 0.4 0.26 ⎤ ⎢ 0. column 1.3 0.3 0.32 ⎥⎥ 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.76 0.392 0. 343 ⎡ 0.139⎤ X3 = TX2 = ⎢ 0.2 0. entry in row 2.4 0. entry in row 1.5⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 0.27 ⎥ ⎥ →⎢ ⎢ 0 0 1 0.261 0.6 ⎥⎦ 1 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ −0.25 ⎢⎣0.3 0. X1 = TX0 = ⎢ 0.49 From T3 .6 ⎤ T2 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.4 0.3⎤ ⎡ 0 0.8 0.28 ⎦ From row 1.5 0.511⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.4 −0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.3 0.72 ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣0.21 0.1 0.433 ⎥⎦ b.4 −0.25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.1⎤ ⎡ 0. Thus 76% of people who currently own Japanese cars will own Japanese cars two cars later.24 0.6⎤ 25. column 1.50 ⎥ = ⎢ 0.3 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ 0. ⎡ 0.21.4 0.3⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. is 0.49 ⎦⎥ T3 = T2 T ⎡0.1⎤ ⎡ 0.3 −0. column 2.3 0. the probability that a person who currently owns a Japanese car will buy a Japanese car two cars later is 0.37 ⎦ ⎣0.2 0. a.37 ⎦ ⎡ 0.25 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 0.6 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 0. T − I = ⎢⎢ 0.247 ⎤ 0.3 0.27 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ 0.6 ⎦ ⎣ 0.5 ⎢⎣0.4 0.3 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ →… ⎢ 0. is c.4 0.511⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0. From T2 .1 0.50 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.347 0.6 0.55 0.26 = ⎢⎢0.2 ⎥⎦ = ⎡ 0.4 ⎢ = ⎢ 0. entry in row 2.3 = ⎢⎢0.3⎥⎥ − ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.4 ⎦ ⎣0.49 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 0.3 0.24 0. From T2 .5 ⎥⎥ 0. ⎡1 7 T2 = TT = ⎢ ⎢6 ⎣7 ⎡ 19 49 T =T T=⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ 49 ⎡ 109 117 ⎤ 343 343 ⎥ =⎢ ⎢ 234 226 ⎥ ⎣ 343 343 ⎦ 3 2 3⎤ ⎡1 7⎥ ⎢7 4⎥⎢6 7⎦ ⎣7 3⎤ 7⎥ 4⎥ 7⎦ 15 ⎤ ⎡ 1 49 ⎥ ⎢ 7 34 ⎥ ⎢ 6 49 ⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎡ 19 49 =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ 49 3⎤ 7⎥ 4⎥ 7⎦ 15 ⎤ 49 ⎥ 34 ⎥ 49 ⎦ b. 49 From T3 .3 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 0.5⎥ ⎢ 0.

24 ⎥⎦ 49% are expected to vote for party 1.4% Japanese.1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0. ⎡ 0.2 −0.1 0. we expect 74.5 ⎤ ⎡ 0.7 0.6 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0. ⎡ 0.1 0.1 0.24 0.6 ⎦ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 0 0. 27% for party 2.4 0.744 ⎤ X 2 = T2 X0 = ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.1 0.1 ⎤ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0. and 33% for party 3.5 0. b.3 0.28⎦ ⎣ 0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0.8⎦ ⎣ 0 b.3 0.27 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.1 ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0.5 for n = 7 or greater. For X0 = ⎢ ⎥ or ⎢ ⎥ . then ⎢0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.76 0.75⎤ Q=⎢ ⎣ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 9 ⎡ 0.2 0.5 0. 24% for party 3.1⎤ ⎡ 1 T − I = ⎢ 0. 43% will vote for party 1. If X0 = ⎢ ⎥ . 75% Japanese cars.2 0 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −0.25⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.4783⎥ ⎢⎣ 0. 25% non-Japanese cars.238 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0.5217 ⎤ ⎢ 0.1⎥ − ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 0.3 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0. 26.1 0.2 0.2 −0.72 ⎤ ⎡ 0.6 0 ⎥ → … → ⎢0 1 0.4 0.25⎥⎦ In the long run.1 −0.4 0.2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.4 0.2 −0.75⎤ ⎢ −0.2 0.6 ⎤ T−I = ⎢ ⎥−⎢ ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.2 ⎦ ⎡1 1⎤ ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎥⎥ →… → ⎢ 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 3⎤ 7 ⎥ 5⎥ 21 ⎥ 1 ⎥ 3⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡0.333 ⎦ In the long run.2 0.5 0.256 ⎦ Two cars from now.1⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0. ⎡0.4 ⎦ ⎣ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0. 1 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ −0.0000 ⎥ T X0 ≈ ⎢ ⎥.8 0.5 0.2 −0. ⎢ 0.49 ⎤ X1 = TX0 = ⎢⎢ 0.6 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 0.429 ⎤ Q ≈ ⎢0.7 0.0000 ⎥⎦ 7 355 .1⎤ ⎡ 0.2 0.1 −0.1 ⎢ ⎢ 0. Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 9 ⎡0 ⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎢1 ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ 1⎥ 1. a.8⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.6% non-Japanese.1 0.6 ⎤ ⎡ 0. c. the first entry of the state vector is greater than 0. 25. 24% for party 2.

1 1 0.81 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 1 1⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ 0 0.1 and defecting with probability 0.09 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 −0.9 0. 1 2 3 4 1 ⎡1 0.19 0 ⎥⎦ 0 1 0 0 ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎣ ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 0 ⎤ ⎡0 0. ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 0.9 ⎥⎦ Against Always Cooperate.01 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 0.9 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 0. T − I = ⎢ ⎢ 0 0.1 0 0 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 0 0 1 0. T= ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢0 0 0 0 ⎥ 4 ⎢⎣ 0 0.1⎥ . In this case.Chapter 9: Additional Topics in Probability ⎡ 1 0. ⎡1 ⎤ ⎢0⎥ With Player 2 playing standard Tit-for-tat.9 −1 0.9 −1 0.1⎥⎥ .09 0 ⎥ → … → ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0.01 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ 0 0 0.1⎥ probability 0. 1 2 3 4 1 ⎡1 0.09 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0.9 0.1⎤ 2 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ .9 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 4 ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎦⎥ Against regular Tit-for-tat.9 0.1 0.1 1 0.1 0. 1 2 3 4 1 ⎡0 0 0 0 ⎤ 2 ⎢1 0.09 ⎥⎥ = 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0.1 0. it takes only one “forgiving” Tit-for-tat-er to guarantee mutual cooperation in the long run. The steady state vector in this case is ⎢ ⎥ .9 ⎥⎦ With Player 2 always cooperating.9 0 0.9 ⎦⎥ 4. after one round the game is in a stable pattern of Player 1 cooperating with ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ 0. after one round the game settles into steady mutual cooperation. With Player 2 always defecting.1 0.09 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 −0. the probabilities gradually tilt toward mutual cooperation: ⎢ ⎥ is the ⎢0⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ steady state vector.09 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥−⎢ 2.01 ⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 −1 0.9 0 0.9 0 0.9. ⎥ 0⎥ 0 ⎥⎦ 3. 356 . T= ⎢ 3 ⎢ 0 0. T= ⎢ 3 ⎢ 0 0.19 ⎥⎦ 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1⎤ 0 ⎥⎥ 0⎥ .1 0. Against Always Defect.1 0.

125 + 2( x + h) − (125 + 2 x) lim h h →0 125 + 2 x + 2h − 125 − 2 x 2h = lim = lim h h→0 h →0 h = lim 2 = 2 .1) ≈ 0.01) = −4.1 Principles in Practice 10.5132 f(−0.001) ≈ 1. 1 c.03 f(−1. 1 5. a.1) ≈ 1. b.5001 estimate of limit: 0.001) ≈ 0.4999 9.4988 f(0.1 f(−3.1) ≈ 0. As h → 0 .0517 f(0.9) = −3.0050 f(0.1) = −4.9950 f(−0. lim p = lim ) = lim ⎡⎣⎢50 (t + 4t )⎤⎦⎥ + 3t + 20 lim ( t + 3t + 20 ) ( 50 t 2 + 4t t →2 t 2 3 –1 b.001) ≈ 0.9995 estimate of limit: 1 f(0.9) = −5.0005 8. The graph of the greatest integer function is shown.003 6. both the numerator and denominator approach 0. 1.001) = −6. For h ≠ 0.01) ≈ 0. a.7 f(−0.9516 f(−0.4881 f(0.01) = −6. lim f ( x) exists for all numbers which are not integers. a.99) = −5. ) x →8 = 500 lim x − 6 lim x 2 = 500(8) − 6(8) 2 x →8 x →8 = 4000 − 384 = 3616 4. f(−3.01 f(−3. 2 3. 4.997 estimate of limit: −4 f(−1.97 f(−0. does not exist x →a t →2 c.1 1.5 f(0.1) = −6. b. a.01) ≈ 0. 0 10 10 –10 lim f ( x) does not exist when a is an integer x →a since the limits are different depending on the side from which you approach the integer. lim R ( x) = lim 500 x − 6 x 2 x →8 x →8 c.1) ≈ 0. lim 2 x = 2(3) = 6 x →3 h→0 357 .Chapter 10 Problems 10.5013 f(−0. 2 c.001 estimate of limit: −6 f(−2.99) = −3.999) = −3. lim V ( r ) = lim π r 3 = π lim r 3 3 r →1 r →1 r →1 3 4 4 = π (1)3 = π 3 3 ( 3.9 f(−2.001) = −4. 1 –10 x →8 1 2 t →2 2 t →2 50 ⎡ 22 + 4(2) ⎤ 600 ⎣ ⎦= = 20 2 30 2 + 3(2) + 20 5.3 f(−1.001) ≈ 0. 4 4 2. does not exist = lim 500 x − lim 6 x 2 = 1 b.999) = −5.99 f(−2. 2. f(−0. lim 16 = 16 x→2 10.01) ≈ 0. f(−0.01) ≈ 1.999 7. f(−0.

lim 0 − 7(0) + 1 = ( h →0 ) x2 − 2 x x( x − 2) = lim = lim ( x − 2) = −2 x x x →0 x →0 x →0 lim h 2 − 7h + 1 h→0 28. ( ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ) lim t 2 − 5 = (−5) 2 − 5 = 25 − 5 = 20 t →−5 21. lim = t →0 t 2 (t − 4) x →3 x →−6 − 7h + 1 t 2 (t + 3) x2 − x − 6 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = lim x −3 x−3 x →3 x →3 = lim ( x + 2) 42 7 =− −12 2 2 − 4t 2 = lim 25. lim ( lim x 2 + 6 lim ( x − 6) ) = (−6) x →−6 +6 (−6) − 6 2 t2 − 4 (t + 2)(t − 2) = lim = lim(t + 2) = 4 t−2 t →2 t − 2 t →2 t →2 26. 13. lim x−3 x →3 x 2 0 30. lim = = = =− lim (t + 5) −3 + 5 2 2 t →−3 t + 5 h →0 h 2 = lim 1 = 1 x →2 4r − 3 4(9) − 3 36 − 3 33 = = = =3 14. 12. −9 x−3 1 1 = lim = x →3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) x →3 x + 3 6 = lim lim h x→4 18.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity 11. t →1/ 3 lim (3 x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 x − 3) 24. 02 + 1 x→4 x 4 − 81 lim x →−3 x 2 + 8 x + 15 lim y →15 y+3 = ( x − 4)( x − 5) ( x − 4)( x + 1) ( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) x →−3 ( x + 3)( x + 5) = lim ( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) ( x + 3)( x + 5) x →−3 = lim ( lim p 2 + p + 5 p →4 ) ( x 2 + 9)( x − 3) x+5 x →−3 = −54 = lim = 42 + 4 + 5 = 25 = 5 20. lim =0 z 2 − 5z − 4 z →0 z +1 2 29. t −3 3 =− 4 4 t − t →0 = lim =5 27. lim x +1 x2 − x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = lim x−2 x−2 x→2 x →2 = lim ( x + 1) = 3 = 3(−2)3 − 4(−2) 2 + 2(−2) − 3 = −24 − 16 − 4 − 3 = −47 = lim x →−1 x + 1 23. lim t →−3 h x →−1 t 3 + 3t 2 t →0 t 3 lim (t − 2) t − 2 t →−3 −3 − 2 −5 5 15. lim x →−2 x2 + 6 16. lim = z →0 lim ( z 2 + 1) lim p2 + p + 5 = = lim 2 z →0 02 − 5(0) − 4 = −4 p →4 x 2 − 9 x + 20 x − 3x − 4 x−5 1 = lim =− 5 x→4 x + 1 lim ( z 2 − 5 z − 4) = 19. 16 ⎛1⎞ lim (5t − 7) = 5 ⎜ ⎟ − 7 = − 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ 22. lim y →15 3x 2 − x − 10 =3 2 358 (3x + 5)( x − 2) x → 2 ( x + 7)( x − 2) = lim + 5 x − 14 3 x + 5 11 = lim = 9 x→2 x + 7 x→2 x 2 . lim 11 11 11 r →9 11 17. lim = t →−6 x − 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) = lim = lim x = −2 x →−2 x + 2 x →−2 x + 2 x →−2 lim lim ( y + 3) = 15 + 3 = 18 31.

lim 38. lim h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) [7 − 3( x + h)] − (7 − 3x) −3h = lim = lim = lim − 3 = −3 h h h →0 h →0 h →0 h h →0 37.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 32. lim h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) [2( x + h) + 3] − (2 x + 3) 2h = lim = lim = lim 2 = 2 h h h →0 h →0 h h→0 ( ⎡ ( x + h ) 2 − 3⎤ − x 2 − 3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) ⎦ 39. lim = lim (4 + h) = 4 = lim = lim = lim ⎣ h h h h h →0 h →0 h→0 h →0 h →0 ( x + 2) 2 − 4 x2 + 4 x = lim ( x + 4) = 4 = lim x x x →0 x →0 x →0 34. lim f ( x + h) − f ( x ) [( x + h)3 − 4( x + h)2 ] − [ x3 − 4 x 2 ] = lim h h h →0 h →0 3 2 2 x + 3 x h + 3xh + h3 − 4 x 2 − 8 xh − 4h 2 − x3 + 4 x 2 = lim h h →0 2 2 3 3 x h + 3xh + h − 8 xh − 4h 2 = lim h h →0 h(3x 2 + 3xh + h 2 − 8 x − 4h) = lim h h →0 = lim (3 x 2 + 3 xh + h 2 − 8 x − 4h) = 3x 2 − 8 x 41. x2 + 2 x − 8 lim x →−4 x 2 + 5x + 4 Section 10. lim 3( x + h) 2 + 7( x + h) − 3x 2 − 7 x 3 x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + 7 x + 7 h − 3 x 2 − 7 x = lim h h h →0 h →0 6 xh + 3h 2 + 7h h(6 x + 3h + 7) = lim = lim h h h →0 h →0 = lim (6 x + 3h + 7) = 6 x + 7 36.1 x−2 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = lim =2 x →−4 x + 1 x →−4 ( x + 4)( x + 1) = lim ⎡ 4 + 4h + h 2 ⎤ − 4 4h + h 2 h(4 + h) (2 + h) 2 − 22 ⎦ 33. lim ( x + h) 2 − x 2 2 xh + h 2 = lim (2 x + h) = 2 x = lim h h h →0 h→0 h→0 35. lim h →0 359 . lim = lim ⎣ h h h →0 h →0 = lim h →0 ( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 3 − x 2 − 3 ) = lim 2 xh + h h →0 h h 2 ) = lim (2 x + h) = 2 x h →0 ( ) ⎡ ( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 1⎤ − x 2 + x + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 2 xh + h 2 + h ⎦ = lim = lim (2 x + h + 1) = 2 x + 1 = lim ⎣ h h h h →0 h →0 h →0 h →0 40.

33 × 109 ft-lb 7 r 7. x2 + x + c x 2 + x − 12 ( x − 3)( x + 4) x+4 7 = lim = lim = lim = =7 lim 2 2 1 x →3 x − 5 x + 6 x →3 x − 5 x + 6 x →3 ( x − 3)( x − 2) x →3 x − 2 2 Th − Tc Th − 0 Th = = =1 Th Th Tc →0 Th 45.0 × 1017 =− =− × 1010 ≈ −9. lim x →6 ( x − 6) x →6 x−2 −2 ( x − 6) ( x − 2) − 4 = lim = lim ( ( x−2 +2 1 x−2 +2 44. x – 3 must be a factor of the numerator x 2 + x + c : x →3 ( x − 3)( x − 2) = lim x + x + c = ( x − 3)( x + r ) = x 2 + (r − 3) x − 3r Thus r – 3 = 1. 46. a.5 7. For lim = x−2 +2 x−2 +2 = lim x →6 ( x − 6) ) ) x−6 ( x−2 +2 ) 1 4 x2 + x + c x →3 x 2 ) ( )( − 5x + 6 x2 + x + c to exist.5 × 10 15 0 0 5 11.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f ( x + h) − f ( x ) [3 − ( x + h) + 4( x + h)2 ] − (3 − x + 4 x 2 ) = lim h h h →0 h →0 3 − x − h + 4 x 2 + 8 xh + 4h 2 − (3 − x + 4 x 2 ) = lim h h →0 − h + 8 xh + 4h 2 = lim h h →0 h(−1 + 8 x + 4h) = lim h h →0 = lim (−1 + 8 x + 4h) 42. E= lim r →7. lim h →0 = −1 + 8 x x−2 −2 = lim x−6 x →6 x →6 43.00 360 .5×107 47.5×107 − 7. lim lim r →7.0 7. lim Th − Tc Th − Th 0 = = =0 Th Th Tc →Th Th b. or r = 4. For c = –12. So c = –3r = –3(4) = –12.0 × 1017 7.

2 5 –5 Principles in Practice 10.00 50.2)2 − 800 x →53.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 10. 5 550 0. 0 3500 1000 0 From the graph it is apparent that lim C ( x) = ∞ . 1. it is apparent that lim y ( x) = 500 . The graph of C(p) is shown. 0 5 15 0 x →∞ quickly drops down toward zero. The greatest yearly sales that x →∞ 0 0 the company can expect is $500. This indicates that the cost x →∞ increases without bound the more units that you make.056 x →53.1(53.80 51. lim f ( x) does not exist since x →1 lim f ( x) = lim 100 = 100 while x →1− 361 x →1− .2 –5 1 1. even with unlimited spending on advertising.000. 2 0 0 10 0 From the graph.000. The graph of P(x) is shown with the value x = 53. so only the first quadrant is shown.) 0 100. The graph of C(x) is shown. the values of C(p) increase without bound. 0 0 75 4.2 indicated. a low price corresponds to a high demand and a high price corresponds to a low demand. so lim C ( p) does 3. The graph of p(x) is shown. 5 As p gets closer and closer to 0. lim P ( x) = 2343.056 2. (Negative amounts of impurities and money are not reasonable.000 10 49. The graph starts out high and 4. = 2343.2 5 48. The graph of y(x) is shown. According to this function.2) − 3. 10.2 lim P ( x) = 224(53.000 p →0 not exist. it is apparent that lim p( x) = 0 . 52.000 1000 0 From the graph.

14. –∞ c. 0 b. Problems 10. 13. 11. then x – 1 x →1+ ( ) lim 4 x − 1 = 4 ⋅ lim 16. 3 c. lim (t − 1)3 = ∞ t →∞ approaches 0 through positive values. x →−∞ x →−∞ 362 . lim 7 7 7 x→2 8. lim x + 10 = ∞ . 5. 1 h is close to 0 when h is 5−h = 0 lim h →5− lim x →−2 − −3 =∞ x+2 lim 21/ 2 = 21/ 2 x →0− ( ) lim 4 x − 1 . does not exist d. 2 f. k. a. 15. f ( x) = 250 6x lim x →0 − x 4 = lim x →0 − 6 x3 = −∞ since x3 is negative and close to 0 for x → 0− . Because square roots of very large numbers are very large. x →1+ x −1 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 . does not exist 3. Thus lim 5 x = −∞ .5 lim x →2.5− f ( x) = lim x →2. −∞ e. 1 2. Thus d. lim − 1 − 10 x = −∞. Because square roots of very large numbers are very large.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis lim f ( x) = lim 175 = 175 . ∞ 9. a. lim x 2 = ∞ since x 2 is positive for x → −∞ . 1 g. ∞ e. so does 5x.2 1. lim (1 − x 2 ) = 0 x →−1+ x →∞ 18. As x → 1+ . x →1+ 6. lim = = =7 lim ( x − 1) 1 x→2 x − 1 2 x →2 b. lim 5 x x →−∞ As x becomes very negative. ∞ g. So x − 1 → 0 . 1 j. x →1+ lim 19 = 19 x →−∞ lim f ( x) = 250 since x → 2.5+ 7. lim − 1 − 10 x x →−∞ As x becomes very negative. h. then x − 2 → 1 . 1 12. lim ( x − 2) 17. 10. h = 0 since lim h →0 + x →1+ + 4. lim ⎛⎜ x x 2 − 4 ⎞⎟ = 0 ⎠ x → 2+ ⎝ lim x →∞ x + 10 As x becomes very large. 0 i. x →3+ As x → 3 . x →−∞ positive and close to 0. ∞ f. 1 − 10x becomes very positive. so does x + 10.

then 3x → −9 and 9 − x 2 → 0 through negative values. 22. 5x −x +4 5 5 1 5 = lim = ⋅ lim = ⋅0 = 0 6 3 x →∞ x 6 3 x →∞ 3 x x →∞ 3 x 7 3 5w + 7 w − 1 2 w→∞ 4 − 3 x3 lim x3 − 1 x →∞ x →∞ 4 + 5x − 7 x 3 x − x3 lim x →−∞ x3 x →∞ 3 x 7 37. As x → −3− . r →∞ 3t 3 t →∞ 5t 7 − 5 x3 + 2 x 2 2 2 = lim = 5 x →−∞ 5 x →−∞ x+3 lim − x →3 34. 24.2 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 30. lim −3 x3 x3 x →∞ + x +1 2 x →−3 lim 2 2 (4 x − 1) ⋅ lim 3 = lim 1 43 x →−∞ x3 lim 3 − 4x − 2x 3 5x − 8x + 1 −2 2 = lim =− 5 x→∞ 5 x →∞ 3 2 43 = lim x →∞ 38. 36. 3 lim x →∞ x = 3 lim x →∞ −6 lim x →∞ 5 x 3 =− x 1 x Section 10.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 19. lim x →1 363 x 2 − 3x + 1 x2 + 1 = ( ) = −1 = − 1 lim x 2 − 3 x + 1 x →1 ( ) lim x 2 + 1 x →1 2 2 . −5 x3 x →−∞ = lim x −9 1 = lim = −∞ x →3− x − 3 2 −2 x3 = lim 32. 23. 20. 28. lim + 4x − 3 +1 = lim = lim = lim x →−∞ x3 r3 r →∞ r 2 3t 3 + 2t 2 + 9t − 1 5t − 5 2 t →∞ x2 x →−∞ 1 =0 x 33. Thus 3x = ∞. x +8 x = lim = lim 1 = 1 x →∞ x − 3 x →∞ x x →∞ lim lim x →∞ 2x − 4 2x = lim = lim (−1) = −1 3 − 2 x x →∞ −2 x x →∞ x2 − 1 lim x →−∞ x3 r3 lim r →∞ r 2 25. = lim 35. lim − x →−3 9 − x 2 = lim r = ∞ = lim 3 − 2 x − 2 x3 lim 3 5 x3 39. 6 1 6 lim = − ⋅0 = 0 4 / 3 5 x→∞ x 5 31. 5x lim x+3 x →3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) − 2 w2 − 3w + 4 lim = lim 26. 2 3t t →∞ 5 3 = lim t 5 t →∞ =∞ 27. lim x + 3x t 2 − 4t + 3 = lim (−1) = −1 x →−∞ = lim − (t − 1)(t − 3) t →3 (t + 1)(t − 3) − 2t − 3 t −1 2 1 = lim = = 2 t →3 t + 1 4 t →3 t 2 −2 x x3 x = −∞ x →∞ −7 = lim 2 (5 x − 1)( x + 3) x( x + 3) x →−3 5x − 1 = lim x x →−3− −16 = −3 16 = 3 2 ⋅0 = 0 −7 x = lim 2 x →−∞ 43 x 3 = 2 2 = 5 5 = lim (−3) = −3 − x3 x →−∞ 7 7 7 1 7 = lim = ⋅ lim = ⋅ 0 = 0 2 x →∞ x 2 x →∞ 2 x + 1 x →∞ 2 x x →−∞ w→∞ x3 x →∞ = lim 5w = lim 2 x →∞ = lim 5 x 2 + 14 x − 3 − 2 w2 w→∞ = lim 6 − 4 x 2 + x3 lim = lim lim = 29. 21.

Thus x −1 41. then x → −2 and through positive values.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity 3 x3 − x 2 = 40. then 7 ⎞ ⎛ lim ⎜ − = −∞ + − 3 ⎟⎠ x x →3 ⎝ 7 ⎞ ⎛ lim ⎜ − ⎟ = +∞ − x →3 ⎝ x − 3 ⎠ Answer: does not exist. Thus x 54. As x → −2+ . then 49. −1 x →−1 1 → ∞ . lim x →−1 2 x + 1 ( lim 3 x3 − x 2 x →−1 lim (2 x + 1) ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ) = −4 = 4 48. x →−∞ 43. x + x 2 approaches 0 through 5 positive values. x lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1 x →2+ x → 2+ lim f ( x) = lim 2 = 2 x →2− x →2− . b. lim − x5 + 2 x3 − 1 x5 − 4 x 2 = lim (−1) = −1 x →−∞ = lim − x →−∞ x5 x5 50. As x → ∞ . As x → −7 − . lim + 1− x x →1 1 ⎤ ⎡ lim ⎢1 + =∞ + x − 1 ⎥⎦ x →1 ⎣ 42. As x → 0+ . Thus. values. x lim = −∞. x 2 − 49 lim x = lim x = 0 x →0 + x →0 + lim x = lim (− x) = 0 x →0 − x →0 − Thus. lim = −∞ x →1− x − 1 x lim =∞ + x −1 x →1 Answer: does not exist 55. x 2 + 1 → 50 and x 2 − 49 approaches 0 through positive values. −2 x3 x3 = lim (−2) = −2 x →∞ ⎧2 if x ≤ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩1 if x > 2 a. 364 1 = ∞. Thus →∞. 1 → 0 . As x → 1+ . As x → 1+ . then 44. x⎠ x →∞ ⎝ lim x →−∞ x +1 x = lim = lim 1 = 1 x x →−∞ x x →−∞ ⎡ 3 2 x2 ⎤ 3 x 2 + 3 − 2 x3 lim ⎢ − = lim ⎥ x →∞ ⎢ x x 2 + 1 ⎥ x →∞ x3 + x ⎣ ⎦ = lim x →∞ x 47. lim 1 1 = lim = ∞ + x x →0 x lim 1 ⎛ 1⎞ = lim − =∞ x x→0− ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠ x →0 x →0 45. Thus x2 + 1 →∞. x + x2 46. lim x = 0. 1⎞ ⎛ lim ⎜ x + ⎟ = ∞ . + x →−2 16 − x 4 1 = −∞ 2x −1 1 lim =∞ + 2x −1 x →1/ 2 Answer: does not exist lim x →1/ 2− + − Thus. lim x →−7 x2 + 1 − x − 49 2 51. Thus. . lim x →0 53. then 1 − x → 0 through negative −5 = ∞. x →0 16 − x 4 → 0 52.

2 lim f ( x) ≠ lim f ( x) . Section 10. g ( x) = ⎨ ⎩− x if x > 0 a. lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1 5000 60. d. g ( x) = ⎨ ⎪⎩ x 12. e. x →−∞ b. so x →0 + x →0− c=7+ lim g ( x) = 0 x →0 12. lim g ( x) = lim (− x) = 0 x →0 + x →0 + q →∞ 7q + 12. x →0 + x →−∞ lim g ( x) = 0 if x ≤ 2 x →∞ x →2− 59. so c. x →−∞ ⎛ 5000 ⎞ lim c = lim ⎜ + 6⎟ = 0 + 6 = 6 q →−∞ q →∞ ⎝ q ⎠ lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) = 2 c x →2− lim f ( x) = lim (−2 + 4 x − x 2 ) = −∞ x →∞ x →∞ lim c = 6 q→∞ lim f ( x) = lim x = −∞ x →−∞ x →−∞ 6 q if x < 0 ⎧x 57. x →−∞ d. e. 000 ⎞ = lim ⎜ 7 + ⎟ = 7+0 = 7 q ⎠ q →∞ ⎝ lim g ( x) = lim x = 0 x →0 − lim c = lim q →∞ x →0 − c lim g ( x) = lim g ( x ) = 0 . c.000 x →−∞ 2000 ⎞ ⎛ 61. lim f ( x) = lim x = 2 x → 2+ lim g ( x) = lim x = ∞ d. x →∞ lim g ( x) = lim x 2 = ∞ e. lim g ( x) = lim x 2 = 0 b. so lim f ( x) does x →2+ x → 2− lim g ( x) = lim x = 0 a. 56. if x > 2 x →2+ x →2− x →0− x →0 lim f ( x) = lim (−2 + 4 x − x 2 ) = 2 x → 2+ x →0 − lim g ( x) = lim g ( x ) = 0 . lim f ( x) = lim 2 = 2 x→2 x →0 − x →∞ ⎧⎪ x f ( x) = ⎨ 2 ⎪⎩−2 + 4 x − x a. x →∞ b. 000 − = 50. x →2 x →0 + x →0 + not exist. 000 q ⎛ 12. 000 t + 1 ⎟⎠ t →∞ ⎝ if x < 0 if x > 0 365 . lim g ( x) = lim (− x ) = −∞ x →∞ 7 x →∞ q e. c.000 q lim c = 7 q→∞ d. lim ⎜ 50.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis c. lim g ( x) = lim x = −∞ x →−∞ ⎪⎧ x 2 58. 000 − 0 = 50.

x −3 . –1 0 366 −6 2 = −15 5 . 1.3 x→∞ x → 2− 11 b. 0. 1. lim y = lim x → 2− 0 x x →∞ 64. 0. Conclude that the limit is 0. So k = − . 0.368. 3. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis (iii) lim f ( x) = 0 x →−3 1 x−3 2 = . 3 x →2 2.525. 0. 0. 0.912. 10 68. then 8 + 3k = 0. 0. 0. 8 If lim f ( x) exists. conclude limit is 1. can’t do last two. f ( x) = x3 − 5 x. x = −3 5x (i) f is defined at x = −3: f (−3) = −44 66. 0.998.5.0000454.135. (ii) 4 67. 9 900 x 900 x = lim x →∞ x →∞ 10 + 45 x x →∞ 45 x = lim 20 = 20 lim f ( x) = lim 5 0 a.72 × 10 .00674. which exists 5 x →−3 5 x lim f ( x ) = lim x →−3 2 = f (−3) 5 Thus f is continuous at x = −3. (iii) lim f ( x) = −2 = f (2) lim f ( x) = lim ⎡ x3 + k ( x + 1) ⎤ = 8 + 3k ⎦ x → 2+ ⎣ x→2 x →2+ Thus f is continuous at x = 2. x2 + x + x + x − x2 = lim 63.986. does not exist Problems 10. f ( x) = 65. 0. x = 2 (i) f is defined at x = 2: f(2) = −2 ⎧⎪ 2 − x if x < 2 f ( x) = ⎨ 3 ⎪⎩ x + k ( x + 1) if x ≥ 2 (ii) lim f ( x) = lim ( x3 − 5 x ) = 23 − 5(2) = −2.631.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity 62. x→2 2− x = 0 x→2 which exists. lim ⎛⎜ x 2 + x − x ⎞⎟ x →∞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x2 + x − x ⎞ ⎛ x2 + x + x ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ = lim ⎝ x →∞ (x = lim x →∞ = lim x →∞ 2 ) x2 + x + x –5 = lim x →∞ x 1+ 1 +x x x ⎛ ⎞ 1 x ⎜⎜ 1 + + 1⎟⎟ x ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 = = 1+ 0 +1 2 –10 x –∞ ⎛ 1⎞ x 2 ⎜1 + ⎟ + x x⎠ ⎝ 69. = lim 20 x →∞ 0 1 1+ 1 +1 x c.

(i) f is defined at x = –1. which exists x →0 x →0 10. Thus f is continuous at x = –1. (ii) lim f ( x) = lim x →−1 x →−1 3 x = 3 −1 = −1 . ⎣ ⎦ exists.x=2 8 x → 2+ 2 1 (i) f is defined at x = 2. 5. g (0) = 2 . 4. f(–1) = –1. At x = –1. f is defined. 9. h (4) = 0. 4 x→2 Thus f is continuous at x = 2. 6. 8 4 x →2 lim f ( x) = lim x 2 = 0 . f is a polynomial function 2 3 1 2⎤ ⎡ ⎢ f ( x) = 5 + 5 x − 5 x ⎥ . f is a polynomial function. g ( x) = 2 − 3 x . f is a polynomial function ⎡ f ( x) = x − x 2 ⎤ . (ii) lim g ( x) = lim 2 − 3 x = 2 . lim f ( x) x →0 x →0 x →0 x does not exist. (i) h is defined at x = 4. because f is a polynomial function.3 8. 8 4 x→2 8 1 (iii) lim f ( x) = = f (2) . x = 0 (i) g is defined at x = 0. x−4 . f is a rational function and the denominator is never zero. (iii) lim f ( x) = −1 = f (−1) x →−1 15. which exists. Continuous at 2 and –2 because f is a polynomial function (which is continuous everywhere). f(0) = 0. f(2) = 4. Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0. 1 lim f ( x) = lim = −1 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 10. f (2) = = . f ( x) = 11. Answer: Discontinuous at 0. 16. Since x →−1 x →−1 x lim f ( x) = −1 = f (−1) . 1 ⎪⎧ f ( x) = ⎨ x ⎪⎩0 if x ≠ 0 if x = 0 1 = ∞ . x = –1 x = –1. 8 x→4 x→4 x + 4 + (iii) lim h( x ) = 0 = h(4) x→4 Thus h is continuous at x = 4. f is continuous at Because lim f ( x) = lim x−4 0 (ii) lim h( x) = lim = = 0 . f(–1) = –1. Since x →0 x →0 lim f ( x) = 4 = f (2) and lim f ( x) = 0 = f (0) . Discontinuous at 3 and −3 because at both points the denominator of this rational function is 0. x →2− lim f ( x) = 4 . 7. ⎣ ⎦ 17. Because lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 2) = 4 and + x →−1 f ( x) = 3 x . 367 . Answer: Continuous at 2 and 0. In addition. h( x) = x →2+ lim f ( x) = lim x 2 = 4 . Continuous at –2 and 0 because f is a rational function and at neither point is the denominator zero. 3. x 2 1 = = . None. Continuous at 2 and –2 because f is a rational function and at neither point is the denominator zero. (iii) lim g ( x) = 2 = g (0) x →0 Thus g is continuous at x = 0. x →2 x →0 f is continuous at both 2 and 0. we have x →2− (ii) lim f ( x ) = lim x→2 ⎧⎪ x + 2 if x ≥ 2 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 if x < 2 ⎪⎩ x f is defined at x = 2 and x = 0.x=4 x+4 12. 13. which exists. x . which 14. continuous at –1.

which is a polynomial and hence continuous. Discontinuous at 0. Discontinuous at x = . lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1 . which is a polynomial and hence continuous. 19. 34. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. Discontinuous at ±1. 23. x →0 − x →1+ Since lim f ( x ) = 0 = f (0) . Because lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1 and x →0 exist. x(x + 1) = 0. f(x) = 1. For x > 2. Discontinuous at –5 and 3. x = ±1. None. 2 33. x →1− x →1+ ) )( x →−1 if x ≤ 1 ⎧0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ x − 1 if x > 1 For x < 1. f(x) = 3 – 2x. Because lim f ( x) = lim (−1) = −1 and x →0 − x →0 + ⎧ x − 3 if x > 2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩3 − 2 x if x < 2 For x < 2. f ( x) = x2 which is continuous because x > 2 means that the denominator is never zero. x 4 − 1 = 0 . 368 . f(x) = –1. Thus f is discontinuous at x = –1. f(x) = 8x. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. ( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 . For x > 2. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. ±1. x →−1− 31. x x − 1 = 0 . f(x) = x – 3. Because f is not defined at x = 2. The denominator of this rational function is zero only when x = –4. x →1 32. f(x) = 1. it is discontinuous there. x 2 + x = 0 . None. because h is a polynomial function. because g is a polynomial function. 2 x →−1− lim f ( x ) = lim (2 x + 1) = −1 . ±1. because f is a polynomial function. for which the 2 denominator is zero. lim f ( x) x →−1+ 21. f is continuous at x = 0. f(x) = 3x − 2. For x > 2. x 2 + 1 x 2 − 1 = 0 . so no discontinuity exists. 8 6 12 4 18 2 9 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ g ( x) = 15 x − 5 x + 5 x − 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 ⎧2 x + 1 if x ≥ −1 f ( x) = ⎨ if x < −1 ⎩1 For x < –1. f(x) = 2x + 1. The denominator of this rational function is zero only when x = ±2. 29. 30. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. and hence continuous. ( x →−1+ does not exist. then lim f ( x) = 0 . ⎪⎧ x 2 + 1 if x > 2 f ( x) = ⎨ if x < 2 ⎪⎩8 x For x < 2. None. Because lim f ( x) = lim 0 = 0 and x →1− 25. f is defined [f(1) = 0]. Because f is not defined at x = 2. 3 26. ⎧1 if x ≥ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩−1 if x < 0 For x < 0. f(x) = x – 1. Thus f is discontinuous only at x = ±2. x − x = 0 . x 2 + 2 x − 15 = 0 . which is a polynomial and hence continuous. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. For x = 1. which is a polynomial 16 . Thus f is discontinuous only at x = –4. Discontinuous at 0 and –1. f has no discontinuities. 24. For x > 0.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 18. x = 0 or –1. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. x(x + 1)(x – 1) = 0. lim f ( x) does not x →0 + x →1 x = 1. 20. ( lim f ( x) = lim ( x − 1) = 0 . For x > 1. f ( x) = x 2 + 1. Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0. it is discontinuous there. ⎧ 16 if ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ x 2 ⎪3x − 2 if ⎩ x≥2 x<2 For x < 2. f(x) = 0. 27. x 2 + 1 = 0 has no real roots. 22. x = –5 or 3. ) 28. For x > –1. (x + 5)(x – 3) = 0.

16 0. 0. 1. 5). −2). 10 –10 = 4. ∞) x f is continuous at 2. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. x 2 − 3x − 10 ≤ 0 f(x) = (x + 2)(x − 5) has zeros −2 and 5. so V(x) > 0 on (5. However. V(4. –1). discontinuities at –3.4 For x = 2. 4). 4).5. ∞). or x = 0. f is discontinuous at 5. 20 3. Answer: (–∞.4 y 1. 35. so V(x) > 0 on (0. By considering the intervals (−∞. –1) and (4. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞.10 x 1 2 3 4 5 Discontinuous at 1. x→2 x2 Since lim f ( x) = 4 = f (2). 4). 5). we find the sign of V(x): V(–1) = (–)(+)(+) = –.28 0. f is discontinuous at 10. 3) and (5. x →2− lim f ( x) = lim 16 + x →2 + x→2 x = 2. (5. The volume is positive when 0 < x < 4 or 5 < x. 4. 0. x 2 − 8 x + 15 > 0 f ( x) = x 2 − 8 x + 15 = ( x − 3)( x − 5) has zeros 3 and 5.34 Answer: Yes –2 Principles in Practice 10. 0).5. Thus. 5] 369 . By considering the intervals (–∞. 3. 5). ∞). ∞). 5). ∞). – 1. (4. 5). 1. 1000 and 4. These zeros determine the intervals (–∞. x > 5 is unrealistic (as is x < 0) since the longest side of the piece of metal has length 2(5) = 10 inches. (–1. f is continuous at x→2 2 5 y x 5 Problems 10. 4. and 10 – 2x = 0. f has no discontinuities. and 6 for test points. and 5. and (5. The zeros of V(x) occur when x = 0. Using x = –1. 3). We need to solve V(x) > 0. By considering the intervals (–∞. 4. ∞) y 2. and (5. and (5. and (4. f is defined [f(2) = 4]. then lim f ( x) = 4. 3. Answer: (–∞. so V(x) < 0 on (–∞.5 ≤ x ≤ 3. 0) (0. 36.5) = (+)(–)(+) = –. x 2 − 3 x − 4 > 0 f ( x) = x 2 − 3x − 4 = ( x + 1)( x − 4) has zeros –1 For –3. V(1) = (+)(+)(+) = +. 3). so V(x) < 0 on (4. Answer: [−2. (3. 2. 2. ∞). ∞). (−2. ∞). Because lim f ( x) = lim (3 x − 2) = 4 and x →2− 38. we find f(x) < 0 on (−2. (4. 0. –2.4 1. V(6) = (+)(–)(–) = +. –1). 8 – 2x = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 10. 37. the volume is positive when 0 < x < 4.22 0.

–4). x 2 + 4 < 0 . f(x) = x(x – 5)(x + 4) has zeros. 0). By considering 6. Answer: no solution ⎞ ⎟⎟ . Answer: (–∞. and (2. By considering the intervals 4 ⎛ 1 − 17 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 17 1 + 17 ⎞ . (–2. ∞). 7) and (7. ⎟. –2) and (–2. (–1. and (–2. ∞). [–2. 0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 7 ⎞ Answer: ⎜ − . Since x 2 + 4 is always positive. or equivalently. –4). –2). and (1. we find f(x) > 0 on both intervals. [2. –4) and (0. By considering the intervals (−∞. we find f(x) < 0 on (–1. 0] ⎡ 1 − 17 1 + 17 ⎤ Answer: ⎢ . we find f(x) < 0 on (–2. (0. (0. we find f(x) > 0 on (0. –7). ⎠ 15. −5]. x 2 − 4 < 0 . we find f(x) ≥ 0 on (–∞. 1). 7] 5. 2) 13. 3). ∞) zeros ±2. (−3. 5). 3). ∞) 8. Answer: (–∞. ∞). 2). ∞). and (2. Answer: [0. –7) and (2. −2 and 7. –3. ∞). –6) and (–2. (−5. 2). −3). [−3. –2). ⎜⎜ 4 ⎝ 4 ) f ( x) = x x 2 + 4 has 0 as the only (real) zero. Answer: (–1. (–2. and 1. x3 + 8 x 2 + 15 x ≤ 0 f(x) = x(x + 3)(x + 5) has zeros 0. 0). − 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 12. 7). (x + 5)(x + 2)(x − 7) ≤ 0 f(x) = (x + 5)(x + 2)(x − 7) has zeros −5. 3. ∞) 10. 5) ⎛ 7 ⎞ f(x) < 0 on ⎜ − . 2 x 2 + 11x + 14 < 0 f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 11x + 14 = (2 x + 7)( x + 2) has zeros 7 and –2. we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. −5]. ∞). −2). Answer: (–∞. −5) and (−2. 5). and (0. By considering the intervals (–∞. (–2. ( x + 2)2 x 2 − 1 < 0 2 2 2 has zeros –2. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − x − 2 has zeros ( ) f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x − 1) = ( x + 2) ( x + 1)( x − 1) 1 ± 17 . 1) ⎛ 1 + 17 ⎞ . or equivalently.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 9. x 2 + 5 x − 14 ≥ 0 f ( x) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 = ( x + 7)( x − 2) has zeros –7 and 2. 1). –1. − 2 ⎟ . Answer: (−∞. we find ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ − 11. 5. ( x + 2)2 > 0 f ( x) = ( x + 2) 2 has –2 as zero. Answer: (–2. ∞). Answer: (−∞. inequality x 2 + 4 < 0 has no solution. 3] 4. By considering the intervals 2 7⎞ ⎛ 7 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ −∞. x3 + 4 x ≥ 0 7. and –6. − 2 ⎟ . (−5. and (3. (–6. (–4. ∞ ⎟ . –6). ∞). ∞). 0). −5). By considering the intervals (–∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 = ( x + 2)( x − 2) has the intervals (–∞. (x + 2)(x – 3)(x + 6) ≤ 0 f(x) = (x + 2)(x – 3)(x + 6) has zeros –2. and (5. –2). –1). x(x – 5)(x + 4) < 0. [−2. − 2 ⎟ . (–7. ∞). By considering the intervals (–∞. ∞). we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. and –4. 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≤ 0 . –2). ⎜ − 2 . 14 − 5 x − x 2 ≤ 0 . ⎜ ⎟ . ∞). ⎜⎜ −∞. ⎥ 4 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 4 370 . and 4 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 4 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14. By considering the intervals (–∞. the ( By considering the intervals (–∞. By considering the intervals (–∞. Answer: (–∞. –x(x – 5)(x + 4) > 0. −5) and (−3. and −5. −5). 0) and (0. By considering the intervals (−∞. we find f(x) < 0 on (−∞. –7]. we find f(x) < 0 on (−∞. (–2. (−2. –6]. we find f(x) < 0 on ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 1 − 17 1 + 17 . 2).

–1). −5). (3. 0 ⎟ . 0) and (0. 3). 1). (−3.and (3. 4 ≥0 x −1 3 x − 5x + 6 x2 + 4 x − 5 f ( x) = ≤0 2x +1 x2 3 2 = ≤0 2x +1 x2 is discontinuous at x = 0 and f has 1⎤ ⎛ Answer: ⎜ −∞. By considering the intervals (–∞. but is ( x − 2)( x − 3) discontinuous when x = 2. 1] is discontinuous when x = ±3. 3). Answer: ( −∞. 1) f ( x) = 19. we find f(x) < 0 on (−∞. we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. f has zeros 3 and –2. (−1. Answer: [−5. (0. −2). [–2. ∞). and (3. By considering the intervals 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. –5). ∞). (−5. Answer: (–∞. (1. ∞). By considering the intervals (–∞. (0. x 2 + 3x + 2 f ( x) = x f ( x) = x2 + 4 x − 5 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) is ( x + 5)( x − 1) 371 . x + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) but is discontinuous at x = –5 and x = –1. 1). Note also that f(x) ≠ 0 for any x. By considering the intervals (–∞. Answer: (1. and ( −1 + 3. (–2. 3). x 2 + 2 x − 2 ≥ 0 . (0.4 discontinuous at x = –5 and x = 1. –1). − 1 + 3 ) . − 1 − 3 ⎤ . −3). 1). or equivalently. and (3. − ⎟ . − 2 ⎟ . −1). 0). and x −1 f(x) = 0 has no root. we find that f(x) < 0 on (–5. 1) and (1. −2). we find f(x) < 0 on (−5. By considering the intervals (−∞. x3 + 6 x 2 + 9 x < 0 f ( x) = x( x 2 + 6 x + 9) = x( x + 3)2 has zeros −3 and 0. (–5. By considering the intervals (−∞. 2⎠ ⎝ >0 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 5)( x − 1) is ( x + 2)( x + 1) 1 as a zero. –1) and (0. <0 x2 − 1 <0 x 23. ∞). 1). –3). x x −9 2 22. 1). 3) 18. f has x zeros at ±1. 2) and (3. –5). –5). ⎜ − 2 . –5). f has zeros −5 and 1. (–5. ∞). (−2. 0) 17. − 1 − 3 ) and ( −1 + 3. 0). 0). we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. −3). ⎡ –1 + 3. By considering the intervals (–∞. = − f ( x) = x2 − x − 6 3 f ( x) = 4 is discontinuous when x = 1. ∞ ) ⎦ ⎣ considering the intervals – ∞. ∞). and (0. ∞ ) . 1). 3). (−1. –3) and (0. –2). 2). −2) and (−1. ∞) 2 2 3 is never zero. Answer: (–5. (0. (–2. x2 − 9 f has 0 as a zero. x2 + 4 x − 5 2 f ( x) = x2 − 1 is discontinuous at x = 0. ≤0 x + 3x + 2 discontinuous at x = −1 and −2. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 2 has zeros −1 ± 3 . −1). 3. (−3. 2). –3). Answer: (–∞. we find f(x) > 0 on (1. we find f(x) > 0 on ( −∞. (−1. By ( ) ( −1 − 3. Answer: (–∞. ∞). –1) f ( x) = 20. (–3. and (3. [3. –1). 24. and (1. and (–1. By considering the intervals (–∞. By considering the intervals (∞. − ⎥ 2⎦ ⎝ 25.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 10. ∞) 16. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. and (1. (2. Answer: (–∞. ∞). Answer: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞). ∞) 21. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. ∞). we find ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3 is never zero. ∞). ∞). 1). – 1 – 3 ≥0 x + 4x − 5 2 x + 6x + 5 1⎞ ⎛ f(x) < 0 on ⎜ −∞. x 2 + 2 x ≥ 2 . −3) and (−3.

Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity 26. Thus q 2 − 140q + 3750 ≤ 0 when 36. Then each of 50 + n persons will pay 50 – 0. By considering the intervals (–∞.50n) ≥ 50(50) 1 25n − n 2 ≥ 0 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ n ⎜ 25 − n ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎠ ⎝ Solving gives 0 ≤ n ≤ 50. so sales revenue will be at least $750 when between 37 and 103 units. are sold.667. Revenue = (no. and (2. Thus the size of the group is between 50 and 100 inclusive. (0. x 28. and 2. Let n = no. clearly. 103.09 ≤ q ≤ 103. [2. x 4 − 16 ≥ 0 . 10 31. Answer: 50 ≤ size of group ≤ 100 0.5). –0.72] 2 29. x cannot exceed . 2). inclusive. Answer: 17 in.09. From the 8 8 1 diagram. we have x ≥ 17. ( ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4( x − 8)2 ≥ 324 ) f ( x) = x 2 + 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) has (real) zeros –2 ( x − 8)2 ≥ 81 x 2 − 16 x − 17 ≥ 0 (x – 17)(x + 1) ≥ 0 Solving gives x ≤ –1 or x ≥ 17. ∞). Answer: (–∞. We want (50 + n)(50 – 0. of persons over the 50 that attend. We q (28 − 0. ∞). ∞) 4 4 4 4 If x is the length of a side of the piece of aluminum.2q ) ≥ 750 want 30. –2].91. x–8 4 10 (–∞. –2). –5 5 –5 (–∞. x x –10 2 (2 − 2 x)(1 − 2 x) ≥ 21 16 –10 64 x − 96 x + 11 ≥ 0 (8x – 11)(8x – 1) ≥ 0 1 11 Solving gives x ≤ or x ≥ .51) 5 33. x 1 –5 5 4 –5 x–8 (–∞. then the box will be 4 by x – 8 by x – 8. 372 .2q − 28q + 750 ≤ 0 2 q 2 − 140q + 3750 ≤ 0 Using the quadratic formula.50n. –2) and (2. q 2 − 140q + 3750 = 0 when q ≈ 36. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. (–2. by 17 in.91. 8 1 mi Answer: 8 4 4 5 32. Thus 2 1 x≤ . ∞) 27. 1. of units)(price per unit). Since x must be positive. –7.

x + 1 → ∞ . ( ) 12. = lim x2 16 8 = =− 3 −6 x →−4 x − 2 lim − x+3 x+3 x →3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = lim x −9 1 = lim = −∞ − x−3 x →3 x →3 2 − 2− x ⎡ x − 2⎤ = lim ⎢ − ⎥ = lim (−1) = −1 x→2 x − 2 x→2 ⎣ x − 2 ⎦ x →2 ( x − 1)( x + 2) x →1 ( x − 1)( x + 5) 20. t →3 t − 3 lim − x6 lim = lim x = −∞ x →−∞ x 5 x →−∞ x+3 lim x →−∞ 1 − x x→4 lim (2 x + 3) 17. 1) 11. lim 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 = x →0 lim 2 x 2 − 2 x →0 ( ) 1 1 =− −2 2 14. Thus lim x →∞ 5 –5 10. lim = lim + 4x − 5 x+2 3 1 = lim = = 6 2 x →1 x + 5 x →1 x 2 x = lim (−1) = −1 − x x →−∞ 18. lim = lim 2 x( x − 3) x →3 x − 3 x x →3 x+3 6 = lim = =2 3 x →3 x 2 2x + 3 15. x →∞ 373 . Thus + t −3 3 − t t →3 t →3 2t − 3 lim does not exist.62). As x → ∞. As x becomes large. so does 3x. 2t − 3 2t − 3 = −∞ and lim = ∞ . x2 + 1 lim x →∞ 2x 2 x2 = lim x →∞ 2x 2 = lim x →∞ 2 =0. lim 2 2 x − 3x + 1 2 2 x2 − 2 x →0 = 2 ( ) 13. 1 lim 21. lim 3x = ∞ . x −9 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 3. 9. lim =0 x →−∞ x 4 16. −1. (0. lim = = =− 2 12 12 x →−4 x 2 − 4 lim ( x − 4) 7. Because the square roots of large numbers are also large.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 10 Review 5 34. –5 (−2. lim 2 x + 6 x − 1 = 2(−1) + 6(−1) − 1 = −5 x →−1 2.62. lim lim x2 + x − 2 x →−∞ x→4 = lim h →0 6. lim 3 64 = lim 4 = 4 −5 5 4. x +1 1 1 = 2 2 2x + 5 2x 2 2 = lim = lim = x →∞ 7 x − 4 x →∞ 7 x x →∞ 7 7 lim Chapter 10 Review Problems 1. lim ( x + h) = x + 0 = x x2 − 1 lim x →∞ (3 x + 2)2 x 2 x →∞ 9 x x −4 2 = lim − 3x + 2 x+2 4 = lim = =4 1 x→2 x − 1 x →2 x 2 x→2 x3 + 4 x 2 lim x →−4 x 2 + 2x − 8 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x − 1) 2 = lim x →∞ 9 x 2 x2 − 1 + 12 x + 4 1 1 = 9 x →∞ 9 = lim x2 + x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = lim x −1 x −1 x →1 x →1 = lim ( x + 2) = 3 x →1 x 2 ( x + 4) x →−4 ( x + 4)( x − 2) 19. 5. lim = lim x →−4 x →−4 8.

lim − x100 x →∞ ( ) ( x3 π − x x 97 ⎡ 2( x + h)2 − 3⎤ − ⎡ 2 x 2 − 3⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h→0 = lim − x3 = −∞ x →∞ 24.1x x →∞ x →7 exists → −∞ . x = 7 (i) f is defined at x = 7. = lim Answer: 100 x−4 positive values and − 10 x x →∞ 1 + 0. f(x) = x + 5. 1 ⎞ ⎛ 31. lim ) ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h →0 x103 = lim 30. Thus lim x100 + 13 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h [8( x + h) − 2] − [8 x − 2] = lim h h→0 8h = lim = lim 8 = 8 h →0 h h →0 29. x →3 27. x 2 − 16 = lim 4− x x → 4+ lim x→4 + = lim − x→4 + 33. x →1 26. Thus x →7 x+4 lim x →5 + x 2 − 3x − 10 x −5 10 x x →∞ 0. lim y = lim x →∞ (iii) lim f ( x ) = 12 = f (7) x →7 = lim x →5 + = lim x →5+ Thus f is continuous at x = 7. lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 5) = 8 x →3− x →3− ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ lim y = lim ⎢ 23 ⎜ 1 − ⎥ = 23(1 − 0) = 23 1 + 2 x ⎟⎠ ⎦ x →∞ x →∞ ⎣ ⎝ Answer: 23 lim f ( x ) = lim 6 = 6 x →3+ x →3+ Because lim f ( x) ≠ lim f ( x) .1x = lim 100 = 100 x−4 x+4 −( x − 4) x+4 As x → 4+ . which x + 4 → 8 . values. y = 23 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 1 + 2x ⎠ 1 Considering . y – 5 approaches 0 through positive y → 5+ 23. Thus 2 x →∞ x 2 x →∞ 1 + 2 x lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 = 1 x →1− x →1− lim f ( x) = lim x = 1 x →1+ x →1+ Thus lim f ( x) = 1 . x−4 Answer: –∞ 28. we have 1 + 2x 1 1 1 1 lim = ⋅ lim = ⋅ 0 = 0 . f(7) = 12 x − 4 approaches 0 through (ii) lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 5) = 7 + 5 = 12 . ( x − 5)( x + 2) x−5 x − 5( x + 2) = 0⋅7 =0 374 . x →3− x →3+ lim f ( x ) does not exist. ex 2 − x 4 lim x →−∞ 31x − 2 x3 4 xh + 2h 2 h h→0 h(4 x + 2h) = lim = lim (4 x + 2h) = 4 x h h→0 h →0 − x4 = lim x →−∞ = lim −2 x3 x = −∞ x →−∞ 2 = lim 25. 32.Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 22. As y → 5+ . lim π− x x →∞ = lim x 97 x →∞ ( x3 x100 + 13 x →∞ x103 + 1 = lim πx3 − x100 h →0 y −5 = 0.

1 Because lim f ( x) = lim = 1 and x →1− x →1− x lim f ( x) = lim 1 = 1 . 0). f is defined [f(x) = 1]. (2. f ( x) = = x 2 + 3 x − 4 ( x + 4)( x − 1) function and the denominator is zero only when x = –4 or x = 1. (0. lim f ( x ) does exists x →−2+ x →−2+ x →−2 not exist. x5 ≤ 7 x 4 . By considering the intervals (–∞. Answer: (–∞. which is a polynomial and hence continuous. By considering the intervals (−∞. 44. 1. Answer: (−∞. 3x 2 − 3 x − 6 ≤ 0 40. f ( x) = f ( x) = if x < 1 If x < 1. and (2. ∞). Since f ( x) = if x ≥ 1 1 . f(x) = x + 4. (−1. 7). 2 46. 375 . 38. which is a rational x function whose denominator is zero when x = 0. If x > 1. 42. x 2 + 4 x − 12 > 0 f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 12 = ( x + 6)( x − 2) has zeros –6 and 2. f is continuous everywhere. Thus f is discontinuous at x = –3. At x = 1. f ( x) = 3x 2 − 3 x − 6 = 3( x − 2)( x + 1) has zeros −1 and 2. which a polynomial function and hence continuous. Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0. 7). 2). f is discontinuous at x = 0. Thus f is discontinuous at x = –2. is a rational function and the x3 denominator is zero at x = 0. –6). x5 − 7 x 4 ≤ 0 f ( x) = x5 − 7 x 4 = x 4 ( x − 7) has zeros 0 and 7. it is continuous everywhere. Because lim f ( x) = lim (3x + 6) = 0 and x →−2− x →−2− lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 4) = 2 . then f(x) = 1. Since f ( x) = x 2 is polynomial function. For x > –2. then lim f ( x) = 1 . ∞). x −5 x +2 2 Chapter 10 Review . then f ( x) = 36. Since f ( x) = x 2 − 2 is a polynomial function. so f is discontinuous at x = –4. we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. it is 5 continuous everywhere. (i) f is defined at x = 5. 1 35. x −1 x →1+ Since lim f ( x) = 1 = f (1) . By considering the intervals (−∞. ∞). Answer: [−1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 34. which 27 ⎧ x + 4 if x > −2 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩3x + 6 if x ≤ −2 For x < –2. we find f(x) < 0 on (−∞. 2] 4 − x2 4 − x2 is a rational 41. f is continuous at 0 39. f(5) = 0 (ii) lim f ( x) = lim x −5 x →5 x 2 x →5 +2 = 0 = 0. 37. (–6. x=5 43. it is continuous everywhere. x →1+ x →1 45. f(x) = 3x + 6. so f is discontinuous at x = 0. x2 is a rational function and the x+3 denominator is zero at x = –3. and (7. f ( x) = 2x + 6 x +x 3 = 2x + 6 ( ) x x2 + 1 x →1 x = 1. we find f(x) < 0 on (−1. Thus f is discontinuous at x = 0. ⎧⎪ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ x ⎪⎩1 47. −1). 0) and (0. 2). ∞) is a rational function 2x + 3 whose denominator is never zero. Since f ( x) = (2 − 3 x)3 is a polynomial function. 7] is a rational function and the denominator is zero only when x = 0. ∞). –6). 2). which is a polynomial and hence continuous. (iii) lim f ( x ) = 0 = f (5) x →5 Thus f is continuous at x = 5. and (2. –6) and (2.

–5 0 ≥0 2 = x( x + 3) is ( x + 4)( x − 2) 0. −3) and (3. ∞). ∞) we find f(x) < 0 on (−4. ∞) we find f(x) > 0 on (–∞. –8). −3). Answer: [–5. (–5. and (0. –5. and –8. we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. By considering the intervals (−∞. and f has –5 as a zero. x+5 x2 − 1 5 53. ∞). −4). we find f(x) < 0 on (–∞. ∞) 49. (0. ∞) ( x + 3)( x − 3) is discontinuous ( x + 4)( x − 4) 5 –10 10 58. 2 and has zeros x = −3. –3].50 = 5 –5 10 57. (–3. −3].00. Answer: (–∞. 0]. Answer: (–∞. –5 ≤0 [2. 4) 2 –5 –5 x2 + 3x x2 − 9 5 5 56. By considering the intervals (–∞. 5 –5 5 –10 (−1. By considering the intervals (–∞. x+5 is discontinuous when ( x + 1)( x − 1) x = ±1. 0 –1 0. 4). ∞). 0). 0). and (2. and (2. (–3. –4). and (1. (−4. (–5. ∞) 52. –5). –3). 0). and (0. (–5. (–4. 0). (–5. –5). (3. –5. –8) and (–5. x + 2x − 8 discontinuous when x = −4. –5) and (–1. (–3. (−3. and (4. ∞). –8). (–1. (–8. 1. x3 + 8 x 2 + 15 x ≥ 0 0 3 –5 1. 0.25 x( x + 5)( x + 8) <0 3 x( x + 5)( x + 8) f ( x) = has zeros 0. By considering the intervals (–∞.00 <0 1 54. Answer: (–∞. 48. ∞). 51. Answer: (−4. 3). (2. –1). –4). (–1. 2). –4). and –3. 1). 0) x 2 + 3x x2 + 2 x − 8 f ( x) = x2 − 9 x 2 − 16 f ( x) = 5 55. –5). 4).Chapter 10: Limits and Continuity ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f ( x) = x3 + 8 x 2 + 15 x = x( x + 5)( x + 3) has zeros 0.32] 376 . 1). –5). [–3. 3 By considering the intervals (–∞. –3). x − 16 when x = ±4 and has zeros x = ±3. 0). [3. [0. –3) and (0. we find f(x) > 0 and (–5. 1) f ( x) = 50.

D = 8432e −0.3%. 2 8432 = 8432e −0. 377 . D = 8432e − rt A year from now.053 8432 The rate is 5. 2.06t 2 1 −0.06t We want to find t when D = 8432 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 10 Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 10 1.06 0.06t 2 1 = e−0.06 It would take about 12 years. the repayment rate is constantly changing as a result of changing fiscal policy and other factors. 3. t = 1 and D = 8000. An exponential model assumes a fixed repayment rate.06t = ln 2 1 ln 2 ln 2 t= = ≈ 12 −0. Thus 8000 = 8432e − r 8000 e−r = 8432 8000 −r = ln 8432 8000 r = − ln ≈ 0. In reality.

01 0. 1− 0 0. f ( x) = x3 + 3 .25.5) − 1 ≈ 6.1 1. then mPQ = = 15. We estimate that mtan at P is 2. if x = −3. f ( x) = e 2 x . 2. If x = −2.5 0.5 − (−2) Continuing in this manner.2 −2. if x = 1. f(x) = x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) ( x + h) − x h = lim = lim = lim 1 = 1 h h h →0 h →0 h → 0 h h →0 f ′( x) = lim 378 .001 mPQ 19 15.1 −2. −3 − (−2) −2. ( ) dH d = 6 + 40t − 16t 2 dt dt H (t + h) − H (t ) = lim h h →0 ⎡ 6 + 40(t + h) − 16(t + h)2 ⎤ − 6 + 40t − 16t 2 ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h→0 ( ) 6 + 40t + 40h − 16t 2 − 32th − 16h 2 − 6 − 40t + 16t 2 h h →0 = lim 40h − 32th − 16h 2 = lim (40 − 32t − 16h) h h →0 h →0 = 40 – 32t dH = 40 − 32t dt = lim Problems 11.4591 2.3891 3.1 1.4366 .24 12. −5) [(−3)3 + 3] − (−5) [(−2.0060 We estimate that mtan at P is 12.5 − 0 Continuing in this manner.0020 b. a.5)3 + 3] − (−5) = 19.5 −2.0201 2. P = (0. x-value of Q −3 −2. then mPQ = ≈ 3.5. P = (−2.4366 2. 3. we complete the table: To begin.61 12. a.25 13. If x = 0. we complete the table: To begin.1 0.0601 12.01 −2.Chapter 11 Principles in Practice 11. then mPQ = x-value of Q mPQ 1 0.3891 .5. 1) e 2(1) − 1 e 2(0.001 6. then mPQ = b.2140 2.2 0.

( 6. Let y = f(x). y = f ( x) = x 2 + 5 x + 1 7. f(x) = 4x – 1 10. dy f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim dx h→0 h [3( x + h) + 5] − [3x + 5] = lim h h →0 3h = lim = lim 3 = 3 h →0 h h →0 11.1 4. p = f (q) = 3q 2 + 2q + 1 dp f ( q + h) − f ( q ) = lim dq h→0 h 1 ⎛ 1⎞ = lim ⎜ − ⎟ = − 2 h→0 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎡3(q + h)2 + 2(q + h) + 1⎤ − ⎡3q 2 + 2q + 1⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 9.01 − 7. d f ( x + h) − f ( x ) (5 − 4 x) = lim dx h h →0 [5 − 4( x + h)] − [5 − 4 x] = lim h h →0 −4h = lim = lim (−4) = −4 h →0 h h→0 8. Let f ( x) = 1 − f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h [( x + h) 2 + 5( x + h) + 1] − [ x 2 + 5 x + 1] = lim h h →0 x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 1 − x 2 − 5 x − 1 = lim h h →0 2 xh + h 2 + 5h = lim h h →0 = lim (2 x + h + 5) = 2 x + 0 + 5 = 2 x + 5 y ′ = lim h →0 x 2 h →0 ⎡1 − x + h ⎤ − ⎡1 − x ⎤ d ⎛ x⎞ 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ − = 1 lim ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ 2 ⎠ h→0 h = lim − h2 h →0 h ) d 2 x + 4x − 8 dx f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h h →0 ⎡ ( x + h)2 + 4( x + h) − 8⎤ − ⎡ x 2 + 4 x − 8⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 13. f(x) = 3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h →0 3−3 0 = lim = lim = lim 0 = 0 h →0 h h →0 h h → 0 f ′( x) = lim 6qh + 3h 2 + 2h h h →0 = lim (6q + 3h + 2) = 6q + 0 + 2 = 6q + 2 = lim h →0 379 . Let f(x) = 5 – 4x.01 = lim h h →0 0 = lim = lim 0 = 0 h → 0 h h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h [4( x + h) − 1] − [4 x − 1] = lim h h →0 4h = lim = lim 4 = 4 h →0 h h →0 f ′( x) = lim f ′( x) = lim h →0 h →0 5. y = 3x + 5.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11. dy f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim dx h→0 h [−5( x + h)] − [−5 x] = lim h h →0 −5h = lim = lim (−5) = −5 h →0 h h →0 x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 + 4 x + 4h − 8 − x 2 − 4 x + 8 h h →0 = lim 2 xh + h 2 + 4h h h →0 = lim (2 x + h + 4) = 2 x + 0 + 4 = 2 x + 4 = lim h →0 12. f(x) = 7.01 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7. y = –5x. Let f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 8. Let y = f(x).

H ( x) = 6 x 6 x+h = 3 x−2 H ( x + h) − H ( x ) h h →0 3 − 3 = lim x + h − 2 x − 2 h h →0 Multiplying the numerator and denominator by (x + h − 2)(x − 2) gives 3( x − 2) − 3( x + h − 2) H ′( x ) = lim h →0 h( x + h − 2)( x − 2) −3h = lim h →0 h( x + h − 2)( x − 2) −3 3 = lim =− h →0 ( x + h − 2)( x − 2) ( x − 2) 2 ⎡ 6 ⎤ 6 6 = lim ⎢ − =− ⎥=− x( x + 0) h → 0 ⎣ x ( x + h) ⎦ x2 16. y = f ( x) = ) h →0 18. = lim 17. 0) is y ′(1) = −2(1) = −2. y = f ( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎡ 7 + 2(q + h) − 3(q + h)2 ⎤ − ⎡ 7 + 2q − 3q 2 ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 ⎡ ( x + h) + 4 ⎤ − ⎡ x 2 + 4 ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h→0 y ′ = lim h →0 2h − 6qh − 3h 2 = lim (2 − 6q − 3h) h h →0 h →0 = 2 − 6q = lim 2 xh + h 2 = lim (2 x + h) = 2 x + 0 = 2 x h h→0 h →0 The slope at (–2. f ( x) = x + 2 f ′( x) = lim h →0 1 2 x+2 H ′( x ) = lim 6 x − f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h h h →0 h →0 Multiplying the numerator and denominator by x(x + h) gives 6 x − 6( x + h) −6h y ′ = lim = lim h →0 hx( x + h) h→0 hx( x + h) y ′ = lim 1 x+h+2 + x+2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 20. C = f (q) = 7 + 2q − 3q 2 dC f ( q + h) − f ( q ) = lim dq h→0 h 19. Let f ( x) = x 2 − x − 3. 8) is y ′(−2) = 2(−2) = −4 . y = f ( x) = 1 − x 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) y ′ = lim h h →0 ⎡1 − ( x + h)2 ⎤ − ⎡1 − x 2 ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 x+h+2 − x+2 h h →0 Rationalizing the numerator gives = lim −2 xh − h 2 h h →0 = lim (−2 x − h) = −2 x = lim h →0 The slope at (1.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 14. ( x+h+2 − x+2 h ) d 2 x − x−3 dx f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h ⎡ ( x + h ) 2 − ( x + h ) − 3⎤ − ⎡ x 2 − x − 3⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 x+h+2 − x+2 x+h+2 + x+2 ⋅ h x+h+2 + x+2 ( x + h + 2) − ( x + 2) 1 = = x+h+2 + x+2 h x+h+2 + x+2 = ( Thus f ′( x) = lim 2 xh + h 2 − h = lim = lim (2 x + h − 1) = 2 x − 1 h h →0 h →0 15. 380 .

then y ′ = 2(1) + 2 = 4. 1) is y – 1 = –2(x – 6). 5 1 − 3x y ′ = lim 5 1−3( x + h ) − 1−53 x h 5(1 − 3 x) − 5[1 − 3( x + h)] = lim h→0 h[1 − 3( x + h)](1 − 3 x) h →0 25. y = 3 x − 4 3 ( x − 1)2 3 If x = 2. 28. [3( x + h) 2 − 4] − [3x 2 − 4] y ′ = lim h h →0 6 xh + 3h 2 = lim = lim (6 x + 3h) = 6 x h h →0 h →0 If x = 1. or y = −3 x + 9 . then y ′ = − = −3 . y = 1 x . y = f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) y ′ = lim h h →0 ⎡ 4( x + h) 2 − 5⎤ − ⎡ 4 x 2 − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 ⎡ ( x + h)2 − 14( x + h) + 49 ⎤ − ⎡ x 2 − 14 x + 49 ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ′ = y lim ⎣ h h →0 2 xh + h 2 − 14h = lim (2 x + h − 14) = 2 x − 14 h h →0 h →0 If x = 6. or y = x − . 2 3 − 3 ( x + h ) −1 x −1 h h →0 3( x −1) −3( x + h −1) ( x + h −1)( x −1) = lim 23. 3) is y − 3 = −3( x − 2) . 7) is y – 7 = 1(x – 3). 15 (1 − 3 x)2 15 3 = . The tangent line at 1 (2. then y ′ = 2(6) − 14 = −2 . The tangent line at (6. or y = 4x + 2. The tangent line at 25 5 3 3 11 (2. y = The tangent line at (1. y = x 2 + 2 x + 3 ⎡ ( x + h)2 + 2( x + h) + 3⎤ − ⎡ x 2 + 2 x + 3⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ y ′ = lim ⎣ h h →0 15h h→0 h[1 − 3( x + h)](1 − 3 x) = lim 2 xh + h 2 + 2h h h →0 = lim (2 x + h + 2) = 2 x + 2 15 h→0 [1 − 3( x + h)](1 − 3 x) = lim = lim h →0 = If x = 1. or y = –2x + 13.1 26. 3 x −1 y ′ = lim 1 . then y ′ = 6(1) = 6. then y ′ = 1 . 5 5 5 If x = 2. 6) is y − 6 = 4(x − 1). or y = x + 4. = lim 8 xh + 4h 2 = lim (8 x + 4h) = 8 x h h→0 h →0 The slope when x = 0 is y ′(0) = 8(0) = 0 . As shown in Example 5. y = x + 4 h −3h −3 = lim = lim h→0 h( x + h − 1)( x − 1) h→0 ( x + h − 1)( x − 1) h →0 [( x + h) + 4] − [ x + 4] h = lim = 1 h h →0 h →0 h If x = 3. the slope is y ′(1) = ( x) = 2 27. −1) is y + 1 = 6(x − 1) or y = 6x − 7. = lim d 22. y ′ = lim =− 2 24. The tangent line at the point (1. y = ( x − 7) 2 = x 2 − 14 x + 49 21. dx If x = 1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11. then y ′ = 381 . –1) is y + 1 = ( x − 2) . The tangent line at the point (3.

or y = –3x – 4. 2) is y – 2 = –3(x + 2). = lim 7 –5 5 –3 5 35.565. r = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ rL − ⎟ η dD + 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ dC ⎞ ⎛ (1 + η )r = η ⎜ rL − ⎟ dD ⎠ ⎝ dC ⎞ ⎛ r + η r = η ⎜ rL − ⎟ dD ⎠ ⎝ dC ⎞ ⎛ r = η ⎜ rL − ⎟ −η r dD ⎠ ⎝ dC ⎛ ⎞ −r⎟ r = η ⎜ rL − dD ⎝ ⎠ r η= dC rL − r − dD 30. 1.120.369 33. The tangent line at the point (–2.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛ η ⎞⎛ dC ⎞ 29.000.680.038 34. 0. –5. then f ′( x) = −3 . 13. 1.470 31. –3. –5 5 –5 382 . 0. 1820.445 32. y = f ( x) = x 2 + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 ⎡ ( x + h) + ( x + h) ⎤ − ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h →0 f ′( x) = lim h →0 2 xh + h 2 + h = lim (2 x + h + 1) = 2 x + 1 h h →0 h →0 If x = –2.

1 For the x-values of the points where the tangent to the graph of f is horizontal. 3 36.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11. the corresponding values of f ′( x) are 0. n = 4: ( z − x) ∑ xi z 3−i = ( z − x)( z 3 + xz 2 + x 2 z + x3 ) i =0 = z 4 − xz 3 + xz 3 − x 2 z 2 + x 2 z 2 − x3 z + x3 z − x 4 = z 4 − x4 2 n = 3: ( z − x) ∑ xi z 2−i = ( z − x)( z 2 + xz + x 2 ) i =0 = z 3 − xz 2 + xz 2 − x 2 z + x 2 z − x3 = z 3 − x3 1 n = 2: ( z − x) ∑ xi z1−i = ( z − x)( z + x) = z 2 − x 2 4 i =0 3 f ( x) = 2 x + x − 3 x 2 f ( z ) − f ( x) z−x z→x 2 z 4 + z 3 − 3z 2 − (2 x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 ) = lim z−x z→x 2( z 4 − x 4 ) + ( z 3 − x3 ) − 3( z 2 − x 2 ) = lim z−x z→x 2( z − x)( z 3 + xz 2 + x 2 z + x3 ) + ( z − x)( z 2 + xz + x 2 ) − 3( z − x)( z + x) = lim z−x z→x = lim [2( z 3 + xz 2 + x 2 z + x3 ) + ( z 2 + xz + x 2 ) − 3( z + x)] f ′( x) = lim z→x = 2(4 x3 ) + (3 x 2 ) − 3(2 x) = 8 x3 + 3 x 2 − 6 x 4 37. This is expected because the slope of a horizontal line is zero and the derivative gives the slope of the tangent line. n = 5: ( z − x) ∑ xi z 4−i = ( z − x)( z 4 + xz 3 + x 2 z 2 + x3 z + x 4 ) i =0 = z 5 − xz 4 + xz 4 − x 2 z 3 + x 2 z 3 − x3 z 2 + x3 z 2 − x 4 z + x 4 z − x5 = z 5 − x5 2 n = 3: ( z − x) ∑ xi z 2−i = ( z − x)( z 2 + xz + x 2 ) i =0 = z 3 − xz 2 + xz 2 − x 2 z + x 2 z − x3 = z 3 − x3 f ( x ) = 4 x5 − 3 x3 383 .

2 1.6q . so f ′( x) = 0 2.3 . y ′ = 4 3 x3−1 = 12 x 2 9.3 x 4. g ′( w) = 8(7 w7 −1 ) = 56w6 384 . f(x) = 5 is a constant function.3 ( q 2 ) dq dq = 50(1) – 0. Problems 11. y = x80 . r ′(q) = ( ) d d = 50 (q ) − 0.3q 2 dq dq 1.3(2q) = 50 – 0.3 x5. ⎛6⎞ f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝7⎠ 2/3 is a constant function. y ′ = 5.3q 2 ) dq d d = (50q ) − 0. so f ′( x) = 0 3. dy = 80 x80−1 = 80 x79 dx 6. f ′( x) = 9 2 x 2−1 = 18 x ( ) 8. y = x5. g ( w) = 8w7 .6q The marginal revenue is r ′(q) = 50 − 0. y = x6 . ( ) f ( x) = 9 x 2 . f ′( x) = 21x 21−1 = 21x 20 5.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f ( z ) − f ( x) z−x z→x 4 z 5 − 3z 3 − (4 x5 − 3x3 ) = lim z−x z→x 4( z 5 − x5 ) − 3( z 3 − x3 ) = lim z−x z→x 4( z − x)( z 4 + xz 3 + x 2 z 2 + x3 z + x 4 ) − 3( z − x)( z 2 + xz + x 2 ) = lim z−x z→x = lim [4( z 4 + xz 3 + x 2 z 2 + x3 z + x 4 ) − 3( z 2 + xz + x 2 )] f ′( x) = lim z→x = 4(5 x 4 ) − 3(3x 2 ) = 20 x 4 − 9 x 2 Principles in Practice 11. y ′ = 6 x6−1 = 6 x5 4.3 7.3−1 = 5.2 d (50q − 0.

y ′ = 3 26. ⎛ 5 ( 5 )−1 ⎞ 3 − 1 10 2 3 ( 34 )−1 + 2⎜ x 3 ⎟ = x 4 + x3 x 4 3 ⎝3 ⎠ 4 2 −7 ⎛ 2 ⎞ −7 36.2 10. f ′( x) = 4 x 4−1 − 0 = 10 x3 2 2 29. 28 − 19 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ( − 14 )−1 f ′( x) = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ x 5 =− x 5 5 ⎝ 5⎠ 37. g ( x) = 1 f ( x) = 11 x = 11x 2 . y ′ = −8 4 x 4−1 + 0 = −32 x3 ( ) 3 4 7 3 x + x 10 3 3 7 6 f ′( x) = 4 x3 + 3 x 2 = x3 + 7 x 2 10 3 5 19. 9 2 x + 8x 2 9 + 3 x3−1 − (2 x) + 8(1) 2 f ( x) = 18. 11 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ( 1 )−1 11 − 1 f ′( x) = 11⎜ ⎟ x 2 = x 2 = 2 2 x ⎝2⎠ 24. 3 1 4 g ′( x) = 0 − 4 x 4−1 = − x3 3 3 27. 16. p ′( x) = ) f ′(t ) = −13 ( 2t ) + 14(1) + 0 = −26t + 14 1 ⎛ 1 1 −1 ⎞ 21. φ ′(t ) = 5(3t 3−1 − 0) = 15t 2 ( ( 39. f ′( x) = 4(2 x) − 2(1) + 0 = 8 x − 2 ( ) ( ) 32. k ′( x) = −2(2 x) + (1) + 0 = −4 x + 3 3 31. y ′ = 5(3x 2 ) − ⎜ − ⎟ x 5 = 15 x 2 + x 5 5 ⎝ 5⎠ ) 4 −1 3 35 −1 3 −2 / 5 = x x 5 5 f ′( x) = 23. f ′(r ) = 6 ⎜ r 3 ⎟ = 2r 3 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 −3 ⎛ 1 −3 ⎞ 40. y ′ = 4 x 4−1 = x3 3 3 3 ( f ′( p ) = 3 4 p 4−1 = 4 3 p3 13. y ′ = 3 x3−1 − ⎜ x 2 ⎟ = 3 x 2 − 2 x ⎝2 ⎠ ( ) 34. ( = 16 x3 + 3 x 2 − 9 x + 8 ) f ( x) = x + 3. y ′ = 4 ⎜ x 4 ⎟ = x 4 ⎝4 ⎠ ) 41. t7 1 7 f (t ) = . y = x7 / 2 . y ′ = −13 3x3−1 + 14(2 x) − 2(1) + 0 ( ( ) 1 2 2 7 x 6 + (1) = x 6 + 7 3 3 33. ( 5 4 5 x − 6 . 385 f ( x) = x −4 . y ′ = ( ( f ′( x) = 3(1) − 0 = 3 17. f ′( x) = 1 + 0 = 1 ) h′( x) = 4 4 x 4−1 1 7 x 7 −1 = x 6 7 15. 2 = −39 x + 28 x − 2 ( f ′( x) = 2 0 − 4 x ) ) = −8x 38. y = 28. f ′(t ) = (7t 7 −1 ) = t 6 25 25 25 14. ( ) 2 4 2 8 x . f ( x) = 7 72 −1 7 5 / 2 = x x 2 2 1 −2 ⎛ 1 −2 ⎞ f (r ) = 6r 3 . f ′( x) = −4 x −4−1 = −4 x −5 . ) 1 13 − x 4 . 35. y = 4 x 4 . g ′( p ) = 4 p 4−1 − 3 3 p3−1 − 0 = 4 p3 − 9 p 2 20. v ′( x) = exe −1 11. h( x) = 4 x 4 + x3 − ) 12. V ′(r ) = 8r 8−1 − 7 6r 6−1 + 3(2r ) + 0 = 8r 7 − 42r 5 + 6r 25. F ′( x) = 5(2 x) − 9(1) = 10 x − 9 ( ) 5 5 30. y ′ = 22.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11.

y = 3x 4 g ′( x) = −3 x −4 = −4 x −4 3 ( 3 2 x 9 −7 ⎛ 3 −7 ⎞ f ′( x) = 3 ⎜ − x 4 ⎟ = − x 4 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 −5 x 4 ( 1 3 2x 8 x 1⎛ 2 1 ⎞ q ′( x) = ⎜ − x −5 / 3 ⎟ = − x −5 / 3 2⎝ 3 3 ⎠ y ′ = 8 −5 x −6 = −40 x −6 48. q( x) = −4 = 8 x −5 x5 f ( x) = −9 x1/ 3 + 5 x −2 / 5 . y ′ = −2 x −3 5 2+( 1 ) ⎛ 1⎞ 61. y = 8 −4 ) = −6 x ( ) 1 5 = 58. g ( x) = ) 4 3 = 50. −4 − 5x −6 + 12 x ( ( ) 54. 1 x 2 1 = 2/3 = 1 −2 / 3 x 2 3 4 3 = 3x − 34 2 1 = 2x − 12 x2 −3 ⎛ 1 −3 ⎞ y′ = 2 ⎜ − x 2 ⎟ = − x 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 −3 x 3 ) 1 − 12 x 2 1 −3 y′ = − x 2 4 60. y = x 2 x = x 2 ⎜ x 2 ⎟ = x 2 = x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 32 y′ = x 2 1 ⎛1⎞ 1 f (t ) = ⎜ ⎟ = t −1 2⎝t ⎠ 2 1 1 f ′(t ) = −1 ⋅ t −2 = − t −2 2 2 ( f ( x) = 59. f ( x) = x −3 + x −5 − 2 x −6 . 3 1 Φ ′( x) = (3x 2 ) − 3(−3x −4 ) = x 2 + 9 x −4 3 −7 ⎛ 1 −1 ⎞ f ′( x) = 100 −3 x −4 + 10 ⎜ x 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ = −300 x −4 + 5 x 1 x + 7 x −1 7 1 1 f ′( x) = (1) + 7 −1x −2 = − 7 x −2 7 7 f ( x) = ) 7 −1 x 9 7 7 g ′( x) = (−1x −2 ) = − x −2 9 9 62. ( 53. Φ ( x) = ) − 12 55. f ( x) = 2 x −3 f ′( x) = 2(−3 x 47. ) 1 3 x − 3 x −3 . 56. −2 −7 ⎛ 1 −2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 −7 ⎞ f ′( x) = −9 ⎜ x 3 ⎟ + 5 ⎜ − x 5 ⎟ = −3 x 3 − 2 x 5 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 1 45. 4x 1 5 y ′ = −5 x −6 = − x −6 4 4 49. y = = x −1 x dy 1 = −1 ⋅ x −1−1 = − x −2 = − dx x2 46. y = −7 ⎛ 1 −3 ⎞ ⎛ 3 −7 ⎞ 3 −3 f ′( z ) = 3 ⎜ z 4 ⎟ − 0 − 8 ⎜ − z 4 ⎟ = z 4 + 6 z 4 ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 4 57.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 42. f ′( s ) = 2(−3s −4 ) = −6 s −4 43. y = 51. y = = x −2 . f ′( x) = 40 x 4 . ) ( f ′( x) = −3x −3−1 + −5 x −5−1 − 2 −6 x −6−1 = −3 x 44. g ( x) = 386 f ( x) = (8 x5 ). 52.

s ( x) = 3 x ( 4 x − 6 x + 3) = x1/ 3 ( x1/ 4 − 6 x + 3) = x 7 /12 − 6 x 4 / 3 + 3x1/ 3 7 s ′( x) = x −5 /12 − 8 x1/ 3 + x −2 / 3 12 67. y is a constant.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 63.2 ) f ( x) = x 3 x 2 − 10 x + 7 = 3x3 − 10 x 2 + 7 x 72. x2 76. f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 4) = x 4 + 2 x3 − 8 x 2 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x + 3) = x 2 + 4 x + 3 f ′( x) = 2 x + 4 = 2( x + 2) 387 2 x ) . v( x) = x v′( x) = 68. y ′ = 3 − 2 x −1/ 2 = 3 − 2 q2 y ′ x =4 = 2 7 y ′ x =9 = 3 13 y ′ x = 25 = 5 = w−4 − 5w−5 f ′( w) = −4w−5 + 25w−6 = − w−6 (4w − 25) 71. y ′ = 6 x + 4 − 32 1 − 23 10 − 53 1 − 35 x − x = x ( x − 10) 3 3 3 3 x 2 + x3 x2 x2 w′( x) = 0 + 1 = 1 f ′( x) = 27 x8 − 25 x 4 + 12 x 2 = x 2 27 x6 − 25 x 2 + 12 ( f ′( x) = 4 x3 + 6 x 2 − 16 x = 2 x 2 x 2 + 3 x − 8 f ′( x) = 9 x 2 − 20 x + 7 64. so y ′ = 0 for all x. −1 78. f ( x ) = 3 x9 − 5 x5 + 4 x3 73. w( x ) = ( 65. ( Section 11. x2 y ′ x =0 = 4 f ( x) = x 5 x 2 + 7 x + 11 = x 5 + 7 x 5 + 11x 5 ( = 75. y ′ = −6 − 6 x 2 ) = 3q + 4 − 2q f ( x) = x3 + y ′ x = 2 = 16 y ′ x =−3 = −14 13 8 56 3 33 − 2 f ′( x) = x 5 + x 5 + x 5 5 5 5 1 − 52 = x 13x 2 + 56 x + 33 5 69. − 23 1 ( x + 5) = x 3 + 5 x ( ) 13 f (q) = 8 3 f ( w) = w−5 w5 7 x3 + x 6 x 1 ⎛ 7 x3 x ⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ 1/ 2 1/ ⎜ 6⎝ x x 2 ⎟⎠ 1 = (7 x5 / 2 + x1/ 2 ) 6 1 ⎛ 35 1 ⎞ f ′( x) = ⎜ x3 / 2 + x −1/ 2 ⎟ 6⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 1 1/ 2 −1 = x (35 x + x ) 12 39 2 ′ y x =−3 = −60 y ′ x =3 / 2 = − 77. = 1+ x y ′ x =0 = −6 3q 2 + 4q − 2 3q 2 4q 2 = + − q q q q2 f ′(q ) = 3(1) + 0 − 2(− q −2 ) = 3 + 2q −2 = 3 + 70. 3 2 3 ) ( ) = 9x f ( x) = x (3 x) = x 9 x 2 74. 5 f ′( x) = 45 x 4 66.

or y = − x + . 83. so we set = x −3 y ′ = −3x −4 = − − 32 ) = x− 1 25 y ′ x =4 = − − 3 = − 8 8 When x = 4. or y = − x + . 5⎠ ⎝ 5⎠ ⎝ 1 −2 1 y′ = − x 3 = − 2 3 3x 3 1 1 1 y ′ x =8 = − =− =− 3⋅ 4 12 ⎛ 23 ⎞ 3⎜ 8 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ An equation of the tangent line is 1 4 1 y + 2 = − ( x − 8) . This gives the point (2. ⎝ 3 54 ⎠ 3 x4 3 16 An equation of the tangent line is 1 3 3 1 y − = − ( x − 2). y = 4 x 2 + 5 x + 6 y′ = 8x + 5 84. y ′ = 4 x3 − 31 If 4 x3 − 31 = 1. or y = − x + . When x = 2. 80. y = 3 + x − 5 x 2 + x 4 y ′ = 1 − 10 x + 4 x3 . then y = . –3). or y = − x − . x = 2. so we set 1 3 x 4 − 1 = 0 . then y = 0. y = x5 − x +1 5 y′ = x4 − 1 A horizontal tangent line has slope 0. then y = −35. If x = . 88. then y = –3. Then x(5 − 3x) = 0. This If x = 0. then y = –7. Then x 4 = 1 . y = x 4 − 31x + 11 When x = 0. y = 3 54 ⎛ 5 125 ⎞ gives the points (0. 8 16 16 2 y ′ x =2 = − 82. 3 5 125 . if x = –1.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 79. This gives the point (3. so x = 1 or x = –1. then y = 3 and y ′ = 1 . y = ( 2 − x2 ) = 2 x− 1 2 3 − x2 . or y = x + 3. then x3 = 8. ⎟ . x = 3. The tangent line is 25 25 11 y + 7 = − ( x − 4) . −35). 3 12 x 2 5 2 x − x3 2 5 x − 3x 2 = 0. or y = 13x + 2. x = 0 or 5 x= . then y = . y = x y′ = − x An equation of the tangent line is y – 15 = 13(x – 1). When x = 3. y = − 3 x = − x − 1 2 y ′ = 5 x − 3x 2 A horizontal tangent line has slope 0. y = y ′ x =1 = 13 ( 1 x3 ) 85. 5 5 5 81. 388 . If 1 9 x = 1. 8 8 2 1 1 − x2 5 1 y ′ = ( −2 x ) 5 8 y ′ x =4 = − 5 An equation of the tangent line is 8 8 17 y + 3 = − ( x − 4) . 12 3 12 87. Thus an equation of the tangent line is y – 3 = 1(x – 0). y = x 2 − 5 x + 3 y′ = 2 x − 5 Setting 2x – 5 = 1 gives 2x = 6. y = ( x 2 − x2 86. ⎟. This 5 5 9⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ gives the points ⎜1. 0) and ⎜ . ⎟ and ⎜ −1.

then over [1.2 r = 2 is V (2) 80 π 5 V (r ) = 5 –5 –2 92.3 1.5. gives = (1 + b) − 1+ b dwc dwc 2.5 units when the price is changed from 25 to 25. dwc ⎣ dwc 1 + b ⎦ 91. −2) is given by 1 4 1 y + 2 = ( x + 8). 2) is given by y – 2 = 9(x – 2). 1.5) = 16 − 16 = 0 dt t =0. Thus 2x x 2x x 2x x 1 x 2 x −1 f ′( x) = − 12 − dP = 5 and ∆p = 25. 1 −2 / 3 1 x = 3 2 3 3 x 1 y ′ x =−8 = 12 The tangent line at (−8. we obtain the following table: 1 –15 5 –3 389 .5) = 2. 12 3 12 y ′( x ) = Problems 11. 1. y = 3 x = x1/ 3 3 by 100 gives the percentage rate of change: (1. z = (1 + b) w p − bwc dw p dz = (1 + b) −b dwc dwc Rewriting the right side and factoring out 1 + b dw p b(1 + b) dz . then over [1. 3 3 3 The relative rate of change of the volume when V ′(2) 32π 6 = = = 1.5. y = x3 − 3x y ′( x ) = 3x 2 − 3 0 ( )−3 = 9 y ′ x =2 = 3 2 1 0 2 When t = 0. dp dP ∆p = 5(0.5 per unit.5 – 25 = 0. V ′(r ) = 4π(2) 2 + 8π(2) = 32π and 4 32π 80 π(2)3 + 4π(2)2 = + 16π = π .5 ∆t Continuing this way. ( ) dy d = 16t − 16t 2 = 16 − 16(2t ) = 16 − 32t dt dt dy = 16 − 32(0.5 dp The profit increases by 2. or y = 9x – 16.5 The graph of y(t) is shown. 2 −1 1 ∆t If ∆t = 0. Multiplying 1. the object is at the peak of its flight. s = f (t ) = 2t 2 + 3t If ∆t = 1. 2] we have ∆s f (2) − f (1) 14 − 5 = = = 9. 3.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 89. The tangent line at (2.5] we have ∆s f (1.3 Principles in Practice 11.5 − 1 0. 5 ⎡ dw p dz b ⎤ = (1 + b) ⎢ − ⎥.5. or y = x − .2)(100) = 120%.2 . 1 f ( x) = x + x 1 = x2 + x Section 11.3 − 12 1. ∆P ≈ 90. Here 1 − 32 1 1 x −1 − = x = 2 2 x 2x x 2x x x −1 x −1 − f ′( x) = − =0. V ′(r ) = 8 ( ) 4 π 3r 2 + 4π(2r ) = 4πr 2 + 8πr 3 When r = 2.5) − f (1) 9 − 5 = = = 8.

002 We estimate the velocity when t = 1 to be 7 m/s.5)] − 70 = = = 25 m/s ∆t 0. ∆s f (7.5 0. When t = 7. v= ds 1 1 = .5 m/s 0. 1 ∆s f (2. then s = 2(7 2 ) − 4(7) = 70 m. s = f (t ) = 2t 2 − 4t a. s = f (t ) = t + 1 2 a. dt . When t = 2.2889 ∆x ∆x 1 If ∆x = 0. If t = 7. dt t =1 2.1) + 1⎤⎦ − 2 = = = 0.1 0. If ∆x = 1. If t = 2. then v = 4(7) − 4 = 24 m/s dt 1 4.1 ∆t c.4 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 0.5) − f (3) 12 − 11 = = ≈ 0. 3.01 0.5 c.5] we have ∆y f (3.5 0.5)2 − 4(7. then over [3.5 0. 4] we have ∆y f (4) − f (3) 13 − 11 = = ≈ 0.2950 ∆x ∆x 0.001 ∆y ∆x 0.1 7.2 0.01 0.Chapter 11: Differentiation ∆t ∆s ∆t 1 0.2988 0.5 Continuing in this way we obtain the following table: ∆x 1 0.02 7.3015.5) − f (7) [2(7. v= ds = 4t − 4.5. y = f ( x) = 2 x + 5 .3015 We estimate the rate of change to be 0.3015.1 0.2889 0.2 0. With differentiation we get v = ds = 4(1) + 3 = 7 m/s. b.3002 0. ⎟ ⎜ Note: The actual rate of change is 11 ⎝ ⎠ 3. then over [3.2 9 8 7.2950 0. 1 ⎛ ⎞ ≈ 0. s = 1 (2) + 1 = 2 m.001 7. then v = m/s dt 2 2 390 ds = 4t + 3.1) − f (1) ⎡⎣ 2 (2.3014 0. 2 b.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11. dq dc = 0.2q + 3 . Evaluating when q = 15. ( ) When t = 1. 4 7/2⎤ ⎥⎦ − 0 1 4 ds 7 = 12t 3 − t 5 / 2 . dq ( ) ( ) v = 4 23 − 6 22 + 1 = 9 m/s a. s = f (t ) = t 4 − 2t 3 + t a. 2 v= dy 25 32 dy 25 = (27) = 337. When q = 5. v = 6(1)2 = 6 m/s 6.76π×10−8 dr ≈ 4. dx 2 dx 2 dT = 0 + 0. 1 m/s 64 ( 14 ) − ( 14 ) 11.3 × 10−4 . ds = 4t 3 − 6t 2 + 1.2(5) + 3 = 4. 16 and dq 17 gives 80. When t = 2. dq ∆s f (2. c = 5000 + 6q. ( ) 8. ∆s f (1. When q = 100.25) − f (1) = ∆t 0. = ∆s f (1. c = 500 + 10q.25 ⎡ −3(1. b. If t = 1.25 v= b. v = –4 m/s dt 4 − f (0) 10. then dt 9. =6. c. s = f (t ) = −3t 2 + 2t + 1 a. c.02)3 + 6 ⎤ − 8 ⎦ =⎣ 0. dV = 4πr 2 dr 13.261 m/s 0. 82 and 84. ds = 6t 2 .1 14.02) − f (1) = ∆t 0.6 .1208 m/s v= c.25) + 1⎤ − 0 ⎦ =⎣ = −4. s = −3 12 + 2(1) + 1 = 0 m. dq dq dc = 2q + 50 .1) − f (2) = ∆t 0.02 ⎡ 2(1. If x = 9. When t = 1. If t = 1.1)4 − 2(2.27(1 − 0) = 0.1)3 + 2. s = 2(1)3 + 6 = 8 m. 391 dc dc = 0. ∆s = ∆t f 16.988 × 10−6. s = f (t ) = 2t 3 + 6 a.25) 2 + 2(1. When q = 36. If t = 0. dV = 4π[6.02 = 6. 7. s = f (t ) = 3t − t 1 4 ⎡ ⎢3 ⋅ =⎣ dA dA = 2πr . dr dr ds = −6t + 2. dq dc = 10 .50 . s = 3 ⋅ 04 = 07 / 2 = 0. 15. dq dq dc = 0. then dt dc dc = 6 .3 × 10−4 ]2 = 158. respectively.2q + 3 . 17. b. c.1(2q ) + 3 = 0. = 3.1 ⎡(2. dc = 10 . = 2π(3) = 6π .3 5. If r = 3. .1⎤ − 2 ⎦ =⎣ = 10.27 dTe 12. v= ( ) 1 4 When r = 6. If t = 2.75 m/s 0. = x . then dt 2 7 v = 12(0)3 − (0)5 / 2 = 0 m/s. s = 24 − 2 23 + 2 = 2 m. 7/2 When t = 0. b. When q = 3.

79 + 0.12q 2 − q + 4.04284q − 0.69 c= = + 6. then dq dc = 38.01q + 5 + 500 q For q = 5. dq −10. 392 dv = −10. dt . r = q ⎜ 15 − q ⎟ = 15q − q 2 30 30 ⎝ ⎠ dr 1 = 15 − q dq 15 dc = 0. then dr 44 dr = .93 = 5.93 dR 23. c = cq = 0. respectively. 000 dc = 0.000328(2q) = 6.4. dq 25.00002q − 0.Chapter 11: Differentiation 18.750 − 0.500 for all t. respectively. Evaluating when dq q = 5.4q dq Evaluating when q = 10 and 20 gives 56 and 52.01q 2 + 5q + 500 q = 150. 650.4 and 119. 000 P = 5. 19.35. 850 and 625.750 − 0.000328q q q dc = 4. respectively.000656(2000) = 5.000656q dq dc = 6.93 dP = −4. = 14 .006q 2 − q + 60 dq If q = 15.004.2q 2 1000 20.6 . 54. dc =7 dq q =100 26.0003q 2 dq dc = 0. dq 30.69 + 6.5q 2 + 60q + 7000 28.7388 dq q =70 dc = 46. 484. c = cq = 0.000328(2000) 2000 = 0.4.02q + 6 dq dc = 6. 000. for dq 3 dq dc = −0.851655 c (2000) = 22.750 − 0. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 24. 10 and 25 gives 625. If q = 500.4 dq Evaluating when q = 5. 000 R −1. r = 0.750 − 0. c = 2 + q c = cq = 2q + 1000 dr = 60 − 0.00006q 2 − 0.750 − 0.8 for all q.8q dr = 0. then dq dc = 11 . r = 60q − 0. c = cq = 0. 484.02q + 5 dq dr = 250 + 90q − 3q 2 . dc = 0. 2 21. 25. dq 29. dc = 0. dc = 2 for all q dq 3 27. for q =15.438 dq q = 2000 c −10.75. 000 R −0. then dr =5. 000. PR 0. r = 250q + 45q 2 − q3 dc =6 dq q =50 If q = 100.01q + 6q + 20. If q = 25. and 1000 gives 2. c = 0.002q3 − 0.

9% 38. –42. a. ∆q 3− 2 1 33. a. 12 12 = ≈ 0. a. 3 3 = ≈ 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 31.6 = = =6.8% . 74 .1% 34.5 − 6 = −7. then dc dq c 393 (100) = 9.5 dx x =6 36. Section 11.3 e. then c = 74 and c.111 5+ 4 9 e.5 − x dx dy = −1. c = f (q ) = 0.8q + 4 dq If q = 2.5.6q + 3. then dc = 5. 37. a. a.5 – x = –6 gives x = 4. Over the interval [2.5 dq b.5 = 9.5 5−3 2 e. b. 27. y′ −3 x 2 = y 8 − x3 c. dy = −1. −3 3 = − ≈ −0.3q 2 + 3. 1 1 = ≈ 0. y′ 1 = y x+4 c. 32. −9 9 = − = −4. y ′(−1) = 2(−1) + 3 = 1 d. Setting –1.5. 11. c = 0.5 (100) ≈ 12.27% 39.429 8 −1 7 e. dq ∆c f (3) − f (2) 20. a. 3]. If dq q = 10. y′ 6x = y 3x 2 + 7 dc = 0. y ′(2) = 6(2) = 12 d.632 12 + 7 19 If q = 10.6(10) + 3. y′ = 1 63. a. y ′(1) = −3 d.2% y′ = 2 x + 3 b. 1 1 = − ≈ −0.167 1− 3 − 4 6 e. b. y ′(1) = −9 d.4q 2 + 4q + 5 dc = 0. y′ 2x + 3 = y x2 + 3x − 4 c. y′ = 6 x dc = 0.2727 3(6) − 7 11 e.5q + 9 35. –16. y ′ = −3 y ′ = −9 x 2 b. −9 x 2 y′ = y 5 − 3x3 c. −450% y′ = −3 x 2 b. y′ −3 3 = = y 7 − 3x 3x − 7 c.7% b.6 . y ′(6) = −3 d.6 − 14. y ′(5) = 1 d.

6q dq b. a.4(25) = = 0. They are equal. 394 .24 1.432 1. r 10(25) − 0. dx 100 y 10 41. c. r′ 30 − 6 24 4 = = = ≈ 0. R1′ 1855. If q = 10. 45. 42.Chapter 11: Differentiation 40. r 300 − 30 270 45 r′ 10 − 0. is the approximate cost of one additional bike.432 = = W t 2t 0.3 I 0.3 I 0. Thus the approximate cost of producing 21 bikes is $3000 + $125 = $3125. $125.3 = 1.3 = I R1 I 1855.3 = 1.09 .3 R2′ 1101.2(25) 2 0% W ′ 0.568 0.864t −0. y = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 100 = 100 x −1 x dy 100 = −100 x −2 = − dx x2 dy 100 y′ −1 =− = −1 and (100) = (100) = −10% .3 = I R2 I 1101. dr = 30 − 0.24 1. f ′ x nC1 x n −1 n = = f ( x) x C1 x n g ′( x ) nC2 x n −1 n = = g ( x) x C2 x n The rates are equal.3 44. c.4q dr b. If q = 25. The marginal cost. 9% dq = 10 − 0. c. If x = 10. 43.29 b.29 1. a. a. The cost of q = 20 bikes is qc = 20(150) = $3000 .

and the marginal cost 46. which is given to be : = .15 x) (225 + 20 x) + (225 + 20 x) (2 − 0.07 per unit 48. dR d d = (2 − 0.15 x) dx dx dx = (2 – 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11. The relative rate of change of c is .25 – 6x dR = 6. Without the product rule we have ( ) f ( x) = x 2 2 x 2 − 5 = 2 x 4 − 5 x 2 f ′( x) = 8 x3 − 10 x 8.25 − 6 x dx 1 2. Thus c dq q q c q ⎛ dc ⎞ function ⎜ ⎟ and the average cost function (c ) are equal.75 – 3x = 6.4 1. C ′( I ) = 2 I 2 − 3 (6 I − 4) + 3I 2 − 4 I + 1 (4 I ) = 12 I 3 − 8I 2 − 18I + 12 + 12 I 3 − 16 I 2 + 4 I = 2 12 I 3 − 12 I 2 − 7 I + 6 7. Without the product rule we have ( ) f ( x ) = 3 x3 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = 3 x5 − 6 x 4 + 6 x3 f ′( x) = 15 x 4 − 24 x3 + 18 x 2 395 ) .275 people per year Principles in Practice 11. f ′( x) = (3x − 1)(7) + (7 x + 2)(3) = 42 x − 1 3. s ′(t ) = (5 − 3t )(3t 2 − 4t ) + (t 3 − 2t 2 )(−3) = 15t 2 − 20t − 9t 3 + 12t 2 − 3t 3 + 6t 2 = −12t 3 + 33t 2 − 20t 4. ⎝ dq ⎠ 47. f ′( x) = (4 x + 1)(6) + (6 x + 3)(4) = 24x + 6 + 24x + 12 = 48x + 18 = 6(8x + 3) 2. T ( x) = x 2 − x3 3 T ′( x ) = 2x − x 2 When the dosage is 1 milligram the sensitivity is T ′(1) = 2(1) − 12 = 1 . ( ) ( ( ) ( ) f ′(r ) = 3r 2 − 4 (2r − 5) + r 2 − 5r + 1 (6r ) = 6r 3 − 15r 2 − 8r + 20 + 6r 3 − 30r 2 + 6r = 12r 3 − 45r 2 − 2r + 20 ) ( 6.4 dc dq dc 1 dq 1 dc c = = c . Q′( x) = (3 + x)(10 x) + (5 x 2 − 2)(1) = 15 x 2 + 30 x − 2 5. Problems 11. $5.15x)(20) + (225 + 20x)(–0. 11.15) = 40 – 3x – 33.4 1.

y = x3 − 6 x 2 + 11x − 6 y′ = 3x 2 − 12 x + 11 396 . h′( x) = 4 5 x 4 + 3 ⎡⎢ 8 x 2 − 5 (2) + (2 x + 2)(16 x) ⎤⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 20 x 4 + 3(16 x 2 − 10 + 32 x 2 + 32 x) = 20 x 4 + 144 x 2 + 96 x − 30 3 ⎡ 1/ 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ (5 p − 2)(3) + (3 p − 1) ⎜ 5 ⋅ p −1/ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ 3⎡ 15 5 ⎤ = ⎢15 p1/ 2 − 6 + p1/ 2 − p −1/ 2 ⎥ 2⎣ 2 2 ⎦ 3 −1/ 2 1/ 2 = [45 p − 12 − 5 p ] 4 15. g ′( x) = ( x1/ 2 + 5 x − 2) ⎜ x −2 / 3 − x −1/ 2 ⎟ + ( x1/ 3 − 3 x1/ 2 ) ⎜ x −1/ 2 + 5 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 −1/ 6 5 1/ 3 2 −2 / 3 3 15 1/ 2 1 3 = x + x − x − − x + 3 x −1/ 2 + x −1/ 6 + 5 x1/ 3 − − 15 x1/ 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 −1/ 6 −1/ 2 −2 / 3 1/ 2 1/ 3 = (−135 x + 40 x + 5 x + 18 x − 4x − 18) 6 17. f ′( w) = ( w2 + 3w − 7)(6 w2 ) + (2 w3 − 4)(2w + 3) = 6 w4 + 18w3 − 42 w2 + 4 w4 + 6 w3 − 8w − 12 = 10w4 + 24w3 − 42 w2 − 8w − 12 12.Chapter 11: Differentiation ( ) ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ) 9. y′ = x 2 + 3x − 2 (4 x − 1) + 2 x 2 − x − 3 (2 x + 3) ( ) ( = 4 x3 + 12 x 2 − 8 x − x 2 − 3x + 2 + 4 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 6 x 2 − 3x − 9 ) = 8 x3 + 15 x 2 − 20 x − 7 10. so y′ = 0 . F ′( p ) = 3 ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ 16. y = 7 ⋅ 2 is a constant function. ( ) ( ) f ′( x) = 3 x − x 2 (−1 − 2 x) + 3 − x − x 2 (3 − 2 x) = −3 x − 5 x 2 + 2 x3 + 9 − 3x − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 2 x 2 + 2 x3 = 4 x3 − 6 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ( )( ) ( ) 13. φ ′( x) = (3 − 5 x + 2 x 2 )(1 − 8 x) + (2 + x − 4 x 2 )(−5 + 4 x) = 3 − 5 x + 2 x 2 − 24 x + 40 x 2 − 16 x3 − 10 − 5 x + 20 x 2 + 8 x + 4 x 2 − 16 x3 = −32 x3 + 66 x 2 − 26 x − 7 11. 3 18. y′ = x 2 − 1 9 x 2 − 6 + 3 x3 − 6 x + 5 (2 x) − 4(8 x + 2) = 9 x 4 − 15 x 2 + 6 + 6 x 4 − 12 x 2 + 10 x − 32 x − 8 = 15 x 4 − 27 x 2 − 22 x − 2 ( ) ( ) 14.

y = 6 x3 + 47 x 2 + 31x − 28 y′ = 18 x 2 + 94 x + 31 20. 24. −13 f ( x) = 5 =− 13 −5 x 3 3x 13 65 f ′( x ) = − (−5 x −6 ) = 3 3x6 ( ) 5 2 x −2 7 5 10 f ′( x) = (2 x) = x 7 7 f ( x) = 25. H ′( x) = (5 − x)2 −25 + 5 x − 5 x 25 = =− 2 (5 − x) (5 − x) 2 23. h′( w) = = = ( ) ( w − 3)(6w + 5) − 3w2 + 5w − 1 (1) ( w − 3)2 6w2 − 13w − 15 − 3w2 − 5w + 1 ( w − 3) 2 3w2 − 18w − 14 ( w − 3)2 397 . 21. y′ = = ( x − 1)(1) − ( x + 2)(1) ( x − 1)2 x −1− x − 2 ( x − 1)2 =− 3 ( x − 1)2 26.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11.4 19. dy (4 x + 1)(2) − (2 x − 3)(4) 8 x + 2 − 8 x + 12 = = dx (4 x + 1)2 (4 x + 1)2 14 = (4 x + 1)2 ( x − 1)(5) − (5 x)(1) f ′( x) = =− ( x − 1) 2 = 5x − 5 − 5x ( x − 1)2 5 ( x − 1)2 (5 − x)(−5) − (−5 x)(−1) 22.

z ′ = = = (3x 2 + 5 x + 3) 2 12 x3 + 35 x 2 + 37 x + 15 − (12 x3 + 40 x 2 + 13x − 10) (3x 2 + 5 x + 3)2 2 −5 x + 24 x + 25 = (3x 2 + 5 x + 3) 2 ( x2 − 5x ) (16 x − 2) − (8x2 − 2x + 1) (2 x − 5) 2 ( x2 − 5x ) 16 x3 − 82 x 2 + 10 x − (16 x3 − 44 x 2 + 12 x − 5 ) −38 x 2 − 2 x + 5 = = 2 2 2 x − 5 x ( ) ( x2 − 5x ) 29.Chapter 11: Differentiation 27. y′ = 30. x 2 + 1)( 3x 2 − 2 x ) − ( x3 − x 2 + 1) (2 x) ( f ′( x) = 2 ( x2 + 1) = = 31. 3 x 4 − 2 x3 + 3 x 2 − 2 x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 2 x ( x x3 + 3 x − 4 ( x2 + 1) ) ( x 2 + 1) 2 2 2 x 2 − 3 x + 2 ) (2 x − 4) − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) (4 x − 3) ( y′ = 2 ( 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 ) 4 x3 − 14 x 2 + 16 x − 8 − ( 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 24 x − 9 ) = 2 ( 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 ) = 5x2 − 8x + 1 ( 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 ) 2 398 . ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis z 2 − 4 ) (−2) − (6 − 2 z )(2 z ) ( h′( z ) = 2 ( z2 − 4) = −2 z 2 + 8 − 12 z + 4 z 2 ( z2 − 4) 2 ( z2 − 6z + 4) = 2 ( z2 − 4) 2 2 z 2 − 12 z + 8 ( z2 − 4) 2 (3 x 2 + 5 x + 3)(4 x + 5) − (2 x 2 + 5 x − 2)(6 x + 5) 28.

u (v) = x 41. 1 3z 4 − 4 3 z 2 − 4 z −2 = . y′ = 3x2 − x − 1 1 5 3 ⎞ x+5 ⎟= 3 ⎟ ⎠ 16 x 2 2 3 = 3x − x − x = − 13 = x3 2 2 − 13 1 − 43 2 1 x + x = 5x 3 − 1 + 4 3 3 3x 3 3x 3 15 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3x 2 (3 x − 5)(5) − (5 x + 1)(3) (3 x − 5)2 28 (3 x − 5) 2 + 6 x −4 + 6 x −4 [( x + 2)( x − 4)](1) − ( x − 5)(2 x − 2) [( x + 2)( x − 4)]2 ) ( [( x + 2)( x − 4)] − x 2 − 10 x + 18 ) [( x + 2)( x − 4)]2 (9 x − 1)(3 x + 2) 27 x 2 + 15 x − 2 = 4 − 5x 4 − 5x ( ) (4 − 5 x)(54 x + 15) − 27 x 2 + 15 x − 2 (−5) (4 − 5 x) 2 −270 x 2 + 141x + 60 + 135 x 2 + 75 x − 10 =− 399 (3 x + 1)2 2 y′ = = (3x + 1)(2) − (2 x)(3) ( 42.3 x −0.2 x1.8 − 12 x 2. y = 35. y = 2 x 2. F ( z) = 3z 3 ( so F ′( z ) = 33.1 + 1) 2 ( x − 8) 4 2 = + 2 ( x − 8) (3 x + 1) 2 v3 − 8 v3 8 = − = v 2 − 8v −1 v v v 3x 2 − x − 1 0. or we can write z4 + 4 1 3 = z + 4 z −1 .7 2 x 2.4 x1.4 + 8.4 32.1 39.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 11.2 x1. The quotient rule can be used.3 − 2 )( 4.6 x1. y = 4 3 + x 2 − 2 x − 8 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 10 2 y′ = 5 x 3 − = ) ) 2 ( x − 8)(0) − (4)(1) = 6 x2 − 1⎛ 1 −1 ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 − 5x 2 ⎟ ⎠ 8 x 8⎝ 3 ( x0.3 1 + 28 x1. ) 38. y′ = − 4 ⎛ u′(v) = 2v + 8v −2 = 2 ⎜ v + v2 ⎝ 36.7 − 4.1 + 1 40.3x −0.1 + 1) (4 − 5 x) 2 135 x − 216 x − 50 (4 − 5 x)2 . q ′( x) = 6 x 2 + x−5 = 0.1 + 1)( 0. 3 3z 2 ( ) = x100 + 7 ) (0) − (1) (100 x99 ) ( 100 x99 g ′( x) = =− 2 2 ( x100 + 7 ) ( x100 + 7 ) = −9 9 = − x −5 5 2 2x 45 −6 y′ = x 2 34. y = ( (2 x 2.1 ) ( y′ = 2 ( 2x2.4 + 0.7 ) − ( x 0.1 ⎞ 2(v3 + 4) ⎟= v2 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 1 −1 5 −3 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 5 y′ = ⎜ x 2 + x 2 ⎟ = ⎜ 1 + 3 ⎜ 8⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 16 ⎝ x 2 x 2 37.

y = 4 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x3 + 7 x + 4 y′(−1) = (−3)(10) + (−4)(−6) = −6 400 −2 x5 + 12 x3 + 62 x [( x 2 + 2)( x 2 + 5)]2 . )( ) ) −3t 6 − 12t 5 + t 4 + 6t 3 − 21t 2 − 14t − 21 ( )( ) ⎡ t 2 −1 t3 + 7 ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 2 17 f ( s) = 3 5s − 10 s 2 + 4s 0 − 17 ⎡15s 2 − 20s + 4 ⎤ 17 15s 2 − 20s + 4 ⎣ ⎦ =− f ′( s ) = 2 2 5s3 − 10s 2 + 4 s 5s3 − 10s 2 + 4 s ( 45. f ′( x ) = 1 − 25 x +2 x2 + 5 3 = 3 − 12 x + x 2 + 2 −5 x2 + 2 2 x +5 = 3 − 12 x3 + ( x 4 + 7 x 2 + 10)(2 x) − ( x 2 − 3)(4 x3 + 14 x) ( x 4 + 7 x 2 + 10) 2 (a − x)(1) − (a + x)(−1) (a − x) 2 = x2 − 3 x 4 + 7 x 2 + 10 = −36 x 2 + 2a (a − x)2 x −1 + a −1 ax a + x ⋅ = x −1 − a −1 ax a − x (a − x)(1) − (a + x)(−1) 2a f ′( x ) = = 2 (a − x) (a − x)2 48. y = 3x − 2 x ( ( ) ) ) 2( x −1) −3 x x ( x −1) − x3−1 = 3x − x−2 x−2 x+2 x+2 = 3x + = 3x + 3 x( x − 1)( x − 2) x − 3x2 + 2 x y′ = 3 + = 3− ( x3 − 3 x 2 + 2 x)(1) − ( x + 2)(3 x 2 − 6 x + 2) [ x( x − 1)( x − 2)]2 2 x3 + 3 x 2 − 12 x + 4 [ x( x − 1)( x − 2)]2 3 46. y = 3 − 12 x + y ′ = −36 x 2 + 47. Simplifying. s′(t ) = ⎣ 2 ⎡ t 2 −1 t3 + 7 ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( = 44. f ( x) = ( )( ) y′ = ( 4 x 2 + 2 x − 5 )( 3 x 2 + 7 ) + ( x3 + 7 x + 4 ) (8 x + 2) 49.Chapter 11: Differentiation ( )( ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ) ( )( ⎡ t 2 − 1 t 3 + 7 ⎤ (2t + 3) − t 2 + 3t 5t 4 − 3t 2 + 14t ⎢ ⎦⎥ 43.

y = x +1 2 x ( x − 4) = x +1 3 x − 4 x2 x3 − 4 x 2 ) (1) − ( x + 1) ( 3 x 2 − 8 x ) ( y′ = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 ) y′(2) = (−8)(1) − (3)(–4) (−8) 2 The tangent line is y + = 4 1 = 64 16 3 1 1 1 = ( x − 2) .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 50. or y = 16x + 24. y = (2 x + 3) ⎡⎢ 2 x 4 − 5 x 2 + 4 ⎤⎥ ⎣ ⎦ y′(0) = (3)(0) + [2(4)](2) = 16 The tangent line is y – 24 = 16(x – 0). 8 16 16 2 401 .4 (2)(3) − (−1)(−4) (2) 6 x −1 ( x − 1)(0) − (6)(1) ( x − 1) y′(3) = − 6 2 2 2 =− = 2 1 2 6 =− ( x − 1) 2 3 2 3 3 15 The tangent line is y − 3 = − ( x − 3) . y = y′ = x3 x4 + 1 ( x 4 + 1)(3 x 2 ) − ( x3 )(4 x3 ) ( x 4 + 1)2 y′(−1) = 51. ( ) y′ = (2 x + 3) ⎡⎢ 2 ( 4 x3 − 10 x ) ⎤⎥ + ⎡⎢ 2 ( x 4 − 5 x 2 + 4 ) ⎤⎥ (2) ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 53. or y = x − . y = y′ = Section 11. 54. 2 2 2 52. or y = − x + . y = x+5 x2 = x −1 + 5 x −2 y ′ = − x −2 − 10 x −3 = − y ′(1) = −1 − 10 = −11 1 x 2 − 10 x3 The tangent line is y − 6 = −11(x − 1) or y = −11x + 17.

y −1 2 4 56. then y = = − and 2−6 4 −6 −6 3 y′ = = =− . dC = 0.500 (q + 50)2 63. = = y − 2 12 3 57. C = 3 + I 1/ 2 + 2 I 1/ 3 dC 1 2 1 2 = 0 + I −1/ 2 + I −2 / 3 = + dI 2 3 2 I 33 I 2 dC 1 2 7 = + = .Chapter 11: Differentiation 55.02q dq When I = 1. we choose t = 1.01q 2 dr = 50 − 0. s = 108 −3 q+2 65. then 1 − 402 dC 7 1 = 1− = − .712 dI t2 + 7 7 − 6t − t 2 −3 q + 750 q + 50 r = pq = t +3 = (q + 2)2 62.5 m/s.01q r = pq = 50q − 0. Since t is positive.672 dI 64. then v = − 216 (1 + x )2 . dC = 0. 8 (−4)2 16 61. y = y′ = x 2x − 6 (2 x − 6)(1) − x(2) (2 x − 6) 2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 500 q r = pq = 500 60. p = 3 y′ − 8 3 Thus = = = 1. y = y′ = r = pq = 1− x 1+ x (1 + x)(−1) − (1 − x)(1) (1 + x) 2 v= 2 = =− 2 t +1 58. p = 50 − 0. then . When t = 1. p = ds (t 3 + 1)(0) − 2(3t 2 ) 6t 2 = =− dt (t 3 + 1)2 (t 3 + 1)2 If t = 1. 4 ds (t 2 + 7)(1) − (t + 3)(2t ) = dt (t 2 + 7) 2 2 (t + 7) 2 = (7 + t )(1 − t ) 2 (t + 7) q 2 + 750q q + 50 ( ) 2 dr (q + 50)(2q + 750) − q + 750q (1) = dq (q + 50)2 q 2 + 100q + 37. s = v= = 6 = −1. p = = −6 (2 x − 6) 2 dr =0 dq 1 1 If x = 1. dI 6 6 . When I = 1. then dI 2 3 6 dS dC 1 2 = 1− = 1− − dI dI 2 I 33 I 2 2 v = 0 when t = −7 or t = 1. 3 108q − 3q q+2 dr (q + 2)(108) − (108q)(1) = −3 dq (q + 2) 2 1 y′ − 18 1 When x = 5. then s = 1 m. 59.5 .

7(25) − 0.2 I 2 a. dI I =150 2 ⋅ 150 dI I =150 71. Simplifying gives C = 10 + 0.75 ( ) ) I − 0.3 + = 0.7 − 0.2(5) 70.5 I 3 − 0.3 + dI dI I dS 0.1 = 1− = 0.04082 and ≈ 1 − 0. = dI ( I +5 ) ( 10I + 0. dI dI I =100 1 69.7 − dI I dS dC 0.7 − 0. so ≈ 1 − 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 66.393 = 0.04082 ≈ 0.9592.2 I − 0.32 dI I = 25 5 dC dI C when I = 25 is 0.4 dC 3 1 = − dI 4 6 I dC 43 dS 43 17 = . Simplifying S gives S= I − 2 I −8 ( I +2 )( I −4 )= I −4 I +2 I +2 dS 1 −1/ 2 1 Thus . dC 0.8 I 3 − 0.385 when I = 36. b.026 dc (q + 2)(2q ) − q 2 (1) q 2 + 4q 6q(q + 4) = 6⋅ = 6⋅ = dq (q + 2) 2 (q + 2) 2 (q + 2) 2 403 . Section 11.607 when I = 100.615 .1 −1 = 0. = ≈ 0.4 I ⎞⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ 2 I ( I +5 ) 2 dS dC ≈ 0.2 I ⎞⎟ 1 ⎝ ⎠ 2 I ( I +4 ) 2 dS dC ≈ 0.2 − ⎛⎜16 I + 0.1I 2 = 0.1 5 10 + 0.615 = 0.1 = 0.393 . = I = dI 2 2 I dS 1 dC = ≈ 0. so ≈ 1 − 0.4 − ⎛⎜ 20 I + 0. so = 1− = dI I = 25 60 dI I = 25 60 60 dC 67. dI dI I =36 dC 68.7 I − 0. = dI ( I +4 ( ) ) ) ( 8I + 1.

so increases by one unit.02744 x)(0. ⎛ dc ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ and the average ⎝ dq ⎠ 900 x 10 + 45 x dy (10 + 45 x)(900) − (900 x)(45) = dx (10 + 45 x )2 73. q⋅ = = c .02744 x)2 a (1 + x) − b(2 + n) x a (2 + n)(1 + x ) − b(2 + n) x For convenience let c = 2 + n. This rate of change means that if V dV .7355) − (0.05 A ( A + xV ) 2 Both numerator and denominator are always positive. so the marginal cost function =c.05V A + xV d ( A + xV )(0. y = dy (100)(900) − (1800)(45) 9 = = dx x = 2 10 (100)2 0. Then f ( x) = ac(1 + x) − bcx c a(1 + x) − bx f ( x) = 1 [a (1 + x) − bx](a − bc) − [a (1 + x) − bcx](a − b) f ′( x) = ⋅ c [a (1 + x) − bx]2 1 1 (−c + 1)ab −abc + ab = ⋅ = ⋅ c [a (1 + x) − bx]2 c [a(1 + x) − bx]2 = 1 [−1(2 + n) + 1]ab −(1 + n)ab ⋅ = 2 2 + n [a(1 + x) − bx] [a(1 + x) − bx]2 (2 + n) g ( x) = A + Bx C + Dx 404 d (RT) > 0 . a (1 + x) − bcx 1 a (1 + x) − bcx = ⋅ . RT = = 0. Thus 0 = .02744 x dy (1 + 0. 0.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis dc dc d ⎛ c ⎞ q ⋅ dq − c (1) d = 72. RT increases. dq dq dq q cost function ( c ) are equal. ⎜ ⎟= dq dq ⎝ q ⎠ dq q2 This implies that q ⋅ dc dc dc c −c = 0 .7355 x)(0. We assume that (c ) = 0 .7355 x 1 + 0.05V )( x) (RT) = dV ( A + xV ) 2 74.02744) = dx (1 + 0.7355 (1 + 0.02744 x )2 75. y = = 76.05) − (0. 0.

= ⋅ = (3u 2 ) ⎢ ⎥ = 3u ⎢ ⎥ . g ′( x) has the form given.5 (C + Dx )( B ) − ( A + Bx)( D) (C + Dx) 2 CB + BDx + AD − BDx (C + Dx)2 BC − AD (C + Dx )2 C⎞ ⎛ Thus.5 ( ) ( ) 1. ( )( ) ( )( ) dy dy dz 1 −3 / 4 4 5 x 4 − 4 x3 = ⋅ = z (5 x − 4 x3 ) = dx dz dx 4 4 ⎛⎜ 4 ( x5 − x 4 + 3)3 ⎞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎡ (t + 1) − (t − 1) ⎤ dw dw du 2 ⎤ 1 −1 dw ⎡2⎤ 2⎡ = 0. By the chain rule. dc − c(1) q ⋅ dq q 2 . = ⎜ ⎟= dq dq ⎝ q ⎠ 78. dt ( ) Problems 11. dy dy du = ⋅ = (2u − 2)(2 x − 1) = ⎡⎢ 2 x 2 − x − 2 ⎤⎥ (2 x − 1) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 2 (2 x − 1) = 4 x3 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ⎣ ⎦ dx du dx 2.5 1. then u = 2 2 dt du dt + 1 1 dt ⎣4⎦ t =1 ⎣⎢ (t + 1) ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ (t + 1) ⎦⎥ 405 . dy dy du = ⋅ = 6u 2 − 8 7 − 3x 2 = 2 3x6 − 42 x 4 + 147 x 2 − 4 7 − 3 x 2 dx du dx 3. dy dy dx d d = ⋅ = 4 x 2 ⋅ (6t ) = (8 x)(6) = 48 x . its sign is constant.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis g ′( x) = = = Section 11. When q = 20 we have dc dq c dc − c q⋅ dq = q2 = c 20(125) − 20(150) (20)2 150 =− 1 120 dy = (3)(2 x − 1)( x − 4) + (3 x + 1)(2)( x − 4) + (3 x + 1)(2 x − 1)(1) dx = 18 x 2 − 50 x + 3 Principles in Practice 11. = 48(6t ) = 288t . If t = 1. D⎠ ⎝ dc d ⎛c⎞ 77. dy dy dw ⎛ 2 ⎞ 2 2 = ⋅ = ⎜− ⎟ (−1) = 3 = 3 dx dw dx ⎝ w ⎠ w (2 − x)3 4. 5. so = 3(0) 2 ⎢ ⎥ = 0 . When g ′( x) is defined ⎜ for x ≠ ⎟ . dt dx dt dx dt dy Since x = 6t.

then dx du dx dy u = 3. y = 5 x 2 − x = 5 x 2 − x 12. so = ⎜ ⎟ (−4) = −10 ds s =−1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 14. If x = 1. y = 3x 2 − 7 = 3 x 2 − 7 y′ = ( ) (3x − 16 x + 1) 99 = 200 ( 3 x 2 − 16 x + 1)( x3 − 8 x 2 + x ) = 200 x − 8 x + x 99 −4 − 52 ( d 2 ( x + x) dx = 4( x 2 + x)3 (2 x + 1) 2 ) ) ( 7 − 4 x3 ) 19. y′ = 6(3 x + 2)5 ⋅ 4 ( dy dy dw 7. y ′ = 5(3 + 2 x3 ) 4 ⋅ ( ) ) 3 d ⎛ 5⎞ 17. y = 8 x 2 − 1 = 8 x 2 − 1 y′ = 406 ( ) 1 3 ( ) −2 −2 1 16 8 x 2 − 1 3 (16 x) = x 8 x 2 − 1 3 3 3 . so = (82)(5) = 410 dx x =1 9. y = 4 2 x − 1 = (2 x − 1) 4 y′ = 1 1 −3 −3 (2 x − 1) 4 (2) = (2 x − 1) 4 4 2 ( 3 ) 22. y ′ = 4( x 2 + x)3 3 ) ( = −6 7 − 4 x3 7 x − x 4 y′ = ⋅ ( d 2 x −2 dx (2 x) = −6 x x 2 − 2 ( = 30 x 2 (3 + 2 x3 ) 99 ⋅ ⎛ 3⎞ 18. y′ = −3 x 2 − 2 = 6(3x + 2)5 (3) = 18(3x + 2)5 ( ) ( ) 10. dx ( 2 x 2 + 1) ( y= 2 ( ) ) 1 2 ( ) −1 −1 1 3 x 2 − 7 2 (6 x) = 3 x 3 x 2 − 7 2 2 1 21. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis dz dz du ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⋅ = ⎜ 2u + ⎟ (4 s ) . y′ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 2)−12 / 7 ⋅ ( x 2 + 5 x − 2) dx ⎝ 7⎠ 10 2 −12 / 7 = − (2 x + 5)( x + 5 x − 2) 7 = 4 x − 4 (2 x) = 8 x x − 4 13. If s = –1. then dx dw dx dy = 0. ) 3 ( ( = −3 x 2 − 2 ( ( ) ( 3 2 ) 2 ) ( = = 4(2 x + 1)( x 2 + x)3 )( ) − 52 ( d 3 x − 8x2 + x dx ( 1 2 ) ( ) −1 1 (10 x − 1) 5 x 2 − x 2 2 ( ) ) −1 1 5 x 2 − x 2 (10 x − 1) 2 20. If x = 0. = ⋅ = (6w − 8)(4 x) . y′ = 2 ⋅100 x3 − 8 x 2 + x ) 16.Chapter 11: Differentiation 6. y′ = 4 ⎜ − ⎟ 7 x − x 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 d (3 + 2 x3 ) dx = 5(3 + 2 x3 ) 4 (6 x 2 ) ) −4 −4 d (2 x3 − 8 x) dx = −12(6 x 2 − 8)(2 x3 − 8 x) −13 11. y ′ = −12(2 x3 − 8 x) −13 ⋅ d (3 x + 2) dx d 2 x −4 dx ) 15. y′ = 4 x 2 − 4 ⋅ ( 4 1 2x2 + 1 2 2 3 d 1 2 y′ = ⋅ 4 2 x + 1 (2 x 2 + 1) 2 dx = = 2(2 x 2 + 1)3 (4 x) = 8 x 2 x 2 + 1 dy dy du 8. then ds du ds ⎝ 2 u⎠ dz ⎛5⎞ u = 1. = ⋅ = 9u 2 − 2u + 7 (5) .

y = = 4(9 x 2 + 1)−1/ 2 9x +1 ⎛ 1⎞ y′ = 4 ⎜ − ⎟ (9 x 2 + 1) −3 / 2 (18 x ) ⎝ 2⎠ = −36 x(9 x 2 + 1)−3 / 2 407 − 12 + 8x 5x + 1 . y′ = x 2 ⎡5( x − 4) 4 (1) ⎤ + ( x − 4)5 (2 x) ⎣ ⎦ −2 = x( x − 4)4 [5 x + 2( x − 4)] = x( x − 4)4 (7 x − 8) −2 34. y = ( 3 = 3 x4 + 2 4 x +2 ( y′ = 3(−1) x 4 + 2 27. y = 1 ( x 2 − 3x ) ( 2 28. y = 3 30. y ′ = x ⎡ 4( x + 4)3 (1) ⎤ + ( x + 4)4 (1) ⎣ ⎦ = ( x + 4)3 (4 x + x + 4) = ( x + 4)3 (5 x + 4) −3 1 35.5 2 5 3 5 6 2 2x − x +1 ( ( ) = 6 2x2 − x + 1 ) 2 y′ = 6(−1) 2 x − x + 1 −2 ( ) = −6(4 x − 1) 2 x 2 − x + 1 26.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ) ( ) − − 12 ⎛2⎞ y′ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x3 + 1) ( 3 x 2 ) = x 2 ( x3 + 1) 5 ⎝5⎠ 23. y = – 53 2x 1 −1 −3 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ y′ = ⎜ ⎟ (2 x) 2 (2) + ⎜ − ⎟ (2 x) 2 (2) ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (2 x − 3) = −2(2 x − 3) x 2 − 3x (6 x − 1) 1 7 −2 −2 y′ = (7 x) 3 (7) + 3 7(1) = (7 x) 3 + 3 7 3 3 −1 ) ( 4x3 ) = −12 x3 ( x4 + 2) −3 − 23 1 −2 ) ) 5 3 ) 31. y = 1 (2 + x) 4 32. y = 4 x 2 5 x + 1 = 4 x 2 (5 x + 1) 2 −1 ⎛1 ⎞ y ′ = 4 x 2 ⎜ (5 x + 1) 2 (5) ⎟ + 5 x + 1(8 x) 2 ⎝ ⎠ = (2 + x) −4 = 10 x 2 (5 x + 1) y ′ = −4(2 + x)−5 (1) = −4(2 + x)−5 29. y = 2 x + ) = (2 x) 4 2 1 1 = (2 x) 2 + (2 x) − 12 − 12 − (2 x) − 32 33. y = 7 3 ( x5 − 3)5 = 7( x5 − 3)5 / 3 5 y ′ = 7 ⋅ ( x5 − 3) 2 / 3 (5 x 4 ) 3 175 4 5 x ( x − 3) 2 / 3 = 3 25. y = 3 7 x + 3 7 x = (7 x) 3 + 3 7 x −2 ( ) ( −1 2 2 3 = −2(6 x − 1) 3 x 2 − x (4 x − 1) = x − 3x y′ = −2 x 2 − 3x ( ) ( = 3 3x 2 − x ( 3x2 − x ) − ⎛ 2⎞ y′ = 3 ⎜ − ⎟ ( 3 x 2 − x ) ⎝ 3⎠ 3 5 24. y = 2 5 x3 + 1 2 = 2 x3 + 1 Section 11.

Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 36. y′ = 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+2⎠ 3 1⎛ x−2⎞ 43. y′ = 12 ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ x + 2 ⎠ ⎣⎢ ( x + 2)2 ⎦⎥ 11 ⎡ 5 ⎤ ⎛ x −3 ⎞ = 12 ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ x + 2 ⎠ ⎢⎣ ( x + 2) 2 ⎥⎦ 60( x − 3)11 = ( x + 2)13 ⎛ 2x ⎞ 42. y′ = ⎜ ⎟ 2⎝ x+3⎠ ⎡ ( x + 2)(2) − 2 x(1) ⎤ 128 x3 ⎢ ⎥= ( x + 2)2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( x + 2)5 − 12 ⎡ ( x + 3)(1) − ( x − 2)(1) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ( x + 3)2 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎛ x−2⎞ = 2 ⎜⎝ x + 3 ⎟⎠ 2( x + 3) 5 − 12 = 5 2( x + 3) 2 x+3 x−2 408 . y′ = x 2 ⎢ 4 x3 − 1 3 x 2 ⎥ + x3 − 1 (2 x) ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( 3 )⎤⎥⎦ = 2 x ( 7 x3 − 1)( x3 − 1) 3 = 2 x x3 − 1 ⎡⎢ 6 x3 + x3 − 1 ⎣ 39. y = 4 x3 1 − x 2 = 4 x3 (1 − x 2 ) 2 ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤ y′ = 4 x3 ⎢⎜ ⎟ (1 − x 2 ) −1/ 2 (−2 x) ⎥ + 1 − x 2 (12 x 2 ) ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ 4 4x =− + 12 x 2 1 − x 2 2 1− x ( ) ( ) 3 2 ⎡ ⎤ 37. y′ = x 2 + 2 x − 1 (5) + (5 x) ⎢3 x 2 + 2 x − 1 (2 x + 2) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) 2 = 5 ( x 2 + 2 x − 1) ( 7 x 2 + 8 x − 1) 2 = 5 x 2 + 2 x − 1 ⎡⎢ x 2 + 2 x − 1 + 3 x(2 x + 2) ⎤⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( )( ) ( ) 3 4 ⎡ ⎤ 38. y′ = (8 x − 1)3 ⎡ 4(2 x + 1)3 (2) ⎤ + (2 x + 1) 4 ⎡3(8 x − 1)2 (8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = 8(8 x − 1) 2 (2 x + 1)3 [(8 x − 1) + 3(2 x + 1)] = 8(8 x − 1) 2 (2 x + 1)3 (14 x + 2) = 16(8 x − 1)2 (2 x + 1)3 (7 x + 1) 40. y ′ = (3x + 2)5 [2(4 x − 5)(4)] + (4 x − 5)2 [5(3 x + 2) 4 (3)] = (3x + 2) 4 (4 x − 5)[8(3 x + 2) + 15(4 x − 5)] = (3x + 2) 4 (4 x − 5)(84 x − 59) 11 ⎛ x − 3 ⎞ ⎡ ( x + 2)(1) − ( x − 3)(1) ⎤ 41.

5 ) ⎡ 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢ x + 2 (16 x) − 8 x − 3 (2 x) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ x2 + 2 ⎣ ⎦ − 23 − 23 ( ) 38 x ( x2 + 2) 2 38 x ( 3 8x2 − 3 ) ( x2 + 2) 2 3 ( x2 + 4) 3 45. y′ = 4 3 ( ⎡ (2) − (2 x − 5) ⎢3 x 2 + 4 ⎣ ) 2 ⎤ (2 x ) ⎥ ⎦ ( x2 + 4) 2 x 2 + 4 ) {( x 2 + 4 ) (2) − (2 x − 5)[3(2 x)]} ( = 6 ( x2 + 4) = = 2 x 2 + 8 − 12 x 2 + 30 x ( = = 47.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 ⎛ 8x2 − 3 ⎞ 44. y ′ = = 6 ( x2 + 4) = −10 x 2 + 30 x + 8 ) ( x2 + 4) 4 4 (3x 2 + 7)[4(4 x − 2)3 (4)] − (4 x − 2)4 (6 x) (3x 2 + 7) 2 3 (4 x − 2) [16(3x 2 + 7) − 6 x (4 x − 2)] (3 x 2 + 7)2 (4 x − 2)3 (24 x 2 + 12 x + 112) (3 x 2 + 7)2 (3 x − 1)3 ⎡5(8 x − 1)4 (8) ⎤ − (8 x − 1)5 ⎡3(3x − 1)2 (3) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 6 (3 x − 1) (3 x − 1)2 (8 x − 1) 4 [(3x − 1)(40) − (8 x − 1)(9)] (3 x − 1)6 (8 x − 1)4 (48 x − 31) (3x − 1) 4 409 . y′ = ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎜⎝ x 2 + 2 ⎟⎠ 1 ⎛ 8x2 − 3 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎜⎝ x 2 + 2 ⎟⎠ = ( ) ( Section 11. y′ = = ( x2 + 4) 4 −2 5 x 2 − 15 x − 4 46.

y′ = 8 + = 8+ (t + 4)(1) − (t − 1)(1) (t + 4) 5 (t + 4) 2 2 ⎛ 8t − 7 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟⎜ ⋅ 8 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ − (8t − 7) = 15 − 8t + 5 (t + 4)2 410 . y = 6 5 x 2 + 2 1 ⎡ ⎤ x4 + 5 = 6 ⎢ 5x2 + 2 x4 + 5 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ) ( )( ) 1 −1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 y′ = 6 ⎢ 5 x 2 + 2 ⋅ x 4 + 5 2 4 x3 + x 4 + 5 2 (10 x) ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 1 1 − ⎡ ⎤ = 6 ⎢ 5 x 2 + 2 x 4 + 5 2 2 x3 + x 4 + 5 2 (10 x) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 1 − ⎡ 2 ⎤ = 12 x ⎢ 5 x + 2 x 4 + 5 2 x 2 + x 4 + 5 2 (5) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ( )( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ) ( ) ( ( Factoring out x 4 + 5 ( ) ) − 12 ) gives ) ⎡⎢⎣(5x2 + 2)( x2 ) + ( x4 + 5) (5)⎤⎥⎦ − = 12 x ( x 4 + 5 ) (10 x 4 + 2 x 2 + 25 ) y′ = 12 x x 4 + 5 − 12 1 2 50.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 48. y = 3 ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 2) = [( x − 2) 2 ( x + 2)]1/ 3 1 y′ = [( x − 2) 2 ( x + 2)]−2 / 3 [(1)( x − 2)2 + 2( x − 2)( x + 2)] 3 1 = [( x − 2) 2 ( x + 2)]−2 / 3 ( x − 2)[ x − 2 + 2( x + 2)] 3 1 = [( x − 2) 2 ( x + 2)]−2 / 3 ( x − 2)(3 x + 2) 3 1 = ( x − 2)−1/ 3 ( x + 2)−2 / 3 (3 x + 2) 3 ( 49. y′ = 3 − 4 ⎡ x(2)(7 x + 1)(7) + (7 x + 1)2 (1) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 3 − 4 ⎡147 x 2 + 28 x + 1⎤ = −588 x 2 − 112 x − 1 ⎣ ⎦ 51.

1 58. y = y′ = = = = 53. y′ = (9 x − 3)2 55. dx dz dz dy dx = ⋅ ⋅ = (4 y − 4)(6)(2) dt dy dx dt When t = 1. then 56. then slope = y′ = 3(64 − 56 − 8) 2 (16 − 7) = 0 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 52. dt t =1 (2 x − 7) If x = 8. 6 y′ = 411 ( ) 2 ⎤ 2 ⎥ − x + 2 4 x − 1 (9) ⎦ 3 dy dy du ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ = ⋅ = 3(5u + 6)2 (5) ⎤ ⎢ 4 x 2 + 1 (2 x) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ dx du dx ⎣ ⎦ When x = 0. y = ( x + 1) 2 1 −1 ( x + 1) 2 2 1 If x = 8. then x = 2 and y = 7. y′ = 3 x 2 − 7 x − 8 ) 2 dz = (24)(6)(2) = 288 . 1 2 .5 14 x 4 − 10 x3 + 42 x − 30 (2 x + 4)2 (2 x + 4)2 (56 x3 − 30 x 2 + 42) − (14 x 4 − 10 x3 + 42 x − 30)[2(2 x + 4)(2)] (2 x + 4) 4 (2 x + 4)[(2 x + 4)(56 x3 − 30 x 2 + 42) − 4(14 x 4 − 10 x3 + 42 x − 30)] (2 x + 4) 4 112 x 4 − 60 x3 + 84 x + 224 x3 − 120 x 2 + 168 − 56 x 4 − 40 x3 − 168 x + 120 (2 x + 4)3 4(14 x 4 + 51x3 − 30 x 2 − 21x + 72) (2 x + 4)3 ( x3 − 5)5 [(2 x + 1)3 (2)( x + 3)(1) + ( x + 3)2 (3)(2 x + 1)2 (2)] − (2 x + 1)3 ( x + 3)2 [5( x3 − 5)4 (3 x 2 )] ( x3 − 5)10 ( ) ( ) ( 12 ) ( x + 2)− 2 ⎡ (9 x − 3) ⎢ x + 2(2) 4 x 2 − 1 (8 x) + 4 x 2 − 1 ⎣ 54. Thus ( 57. ( ) dy = 0. y′ = . y′ = (2 x3 + 6)(7 x − 5) (2 x + 4) 2 = Section 11.

so y′ 6(4)(25)2 24 (100) = (100) = (100) = 96% 3 y 25 (25) dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm r = pq = 525q . Thus = (26)(5) = 130. y = ) − 13 4x (2 x) = ( 3 x2 − 8 ) If x = −1.1q 2 + 70q . = 525 ⋅ = 2 dq (q + 3) (q + 3)2 412 . dm dm m =6 m = 40. then q = 320.2q + 70 . so 4 27 27 3 r = pq = −0. or y = 4x – 11. then y′ = 0 . The tangent line is y − 8 = 12(x + 1) or y = 12x + 20.8q + 50. q = 10m 2 m2 + 9 525 . If dq dq dq 1 =6. y ′ = 3(2)2 = 12. y = x 2 − 8 y′ = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 2 3 ( 2 2 x −8 3 64. so −3 y′ = −3(−3) 3x 2 + 1 dr dq dr = −0. q = 7 2 ( x − 1)4 1 12 4 and y ′ = − = − . then y = (25)3 and y′ = 6(4)(25) 2 . then y′ = − 12 1 2 . m = 40 dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm 66. . The tangent line is y + 3 = 0(x – 0).4q 2 + 50q. ( x + 1) 6x 2 65. then y′ = 7x + 2 ( )( ) − 3 = − 1 . y = 1 3 If x = 3. then q = 30. q = 5m. y = x 2 + 9 = −24 + 50 = 26. or y = –3. so dr = −64 + 70 = 6 . The 2 1 3 4 6 3 1 tangent line is y − = − ( x − 1) . dm m = 40 (6 x) and y′ = 6 x x 2 + 9 dq dr = 5. When m = 40. = (200 − 2m) . so (7) − 7 x + 2(1) Also. ( x + 1) 2 ( 72 ) 1 − 7 x+2 2 ( x + 1) If x = 1. 6 3 ( ) 62. p = –0.1q + 70. y ′ = 3( x + 3)2 (1) = 3( x + 3) 2 61.m=4 p= q+3 x = 4. 1 2 ( x − 1) 3 When x = 2. When 67. m = 6 dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm 60. = ( x + 1) ( ) (7 x + 2) m = 6. 63. For dq 1 200m − m 2 20 p = –0. dq m = 40 If x = 0. y = −3 3 x 2 + 1 ( ) −4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) dr = −0. y′ = and y ′ = − ⎛ y′ ⎞ 4 ⎜ ⎟ (100) = − ⋅ 27(100) = −400% y 27 ⎝ ⎠ 12 = 4 .Chapter 11: Differentiation ( ) 59. so q+3 dr (q + 3)(1) − q(1) 1575 . Thus the tangent line 3(1) is y – 1 = 4(x – 3). or 2 6 1 5 y = − x+ .4q + 50. dm dm 20 dr Thus = (6)(6) = 36 . m =6 r = pq = −0.

( =− ) ⎡ 20m m 2 + 9 − 10m3 ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 2 m +9 3 10m + 180m ( m2 + 9 ) =− c.m=9 p= q + 10 Thus q 2 + 20 ( 100m dq = dm = ⎡ 1 = 100 − ⎢ q ⋅ q 2 + 20 ⎣ 2 dr 9 272 = ⋅ ≈ 13. a. approximately 4802 2 q + 20 413 . so .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis dr dq If m = 4. then q = 90. the proportion discharged increases by 15 . = dq (q + 10) 2 q + 10 dr dq If m = 9. then q = 32.5. 1225 7 (m 2 +9 ) − 12 b. 3 2 70. q = f(m) q r = pq = k. so ( 2 m +9 dq = dm m2 + 9 ) ( = = ) 1 2 = m=4 (20m) − 10m2 ⋅ 12 2 Section 11. Thus = 0⋅ =0. = dm 10 72. 9 .5) dp dq dp When p = 85. Thus = = = 3 125 25 dm (25) 2 68. q = p (2m) m +9 − 12 dp dq ) − 12 (2q ) = dr dq dr = 0 . dm m = 4 7 25 r = pq = −q dr dq When m = 4. 100 − q 2 + 20 = 100 − m 2 + 19 4500 . dr 9 19 = ⋅ = 8. so 1900 q2 ) dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm 69. = 4802 Thus when t increases from 100 to 101.5.99 .4q )(−1. When m = 9. dm dm dq dc dc dq = ⋅ = (12 + 0. dm m =9 2 10 ( dp 1 = 0 − q 2 + 20 dq 2 2 q + 20 − 12 ⎤ (2q) + q 2 + 20(1) ⎥ ⎦ − q 2 + 20 k .5 1575 9 = . 000 4500q . so dc = −481. then q = 772. so ( m2 + 19) 3 2 = m =9 71. 2 . dp p =85 ⎛ 250 ⎞ f (t ) = 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 250 + t ⎠ 3 2 250 ⎤ ⎛ 250 ⎞ ⎡ f ′(t ) = −3 ⎜ ⎥ ⎟ ⎢− ⎝ 250 + t ⎠ ⎣⎢ (250 + t )2 ⎦⎥ −q 2 ⎛ 250 ⎞ ⎡ 250 ⎤ f ′(100) = −3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢− ⎥ ⎝ 350 ⎠ ⎣ 3502 ⎦ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ = −3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 49 ⎠ ⎝ 490 ⎠ 15 . then dq 10(64) + 180(4) 1360 272 .55 . p = q q 2 + 20 ⎛⎜ 100 − q 2 + 20 ⎞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ q 100 q 2 + 20 − q 2 − 20 r = pq = 100q − q q 2 + 20 dr 45. then dq 19 .

Chapter 11: Differentiation 73. d (I ) dx x Ix ≈ −256. E ≈ 13. a.8 = −1.8.484 If x = 65. 75. If E = 16.01356 x3 + 1.696 x − 34. ( ) ( ) dV dV dr = ⋅ = 4πr 2 ⎡10−8 (2t ) + 10−7 ⎤ . dx b.484 .01578 16. 236. (P + a)(v + b) = k k v+b = P+a k v= −b P+a v = k ( P + a ) −1 − b dv k = k (−1)( P + a )−2 = − dP ( P + a)2 414 −25. a. If x = 65. the percentage rate of change is d (I ) dx x Ix ⋅= 78. 16. Solving 680 E − 4360 = 5000 gives 680 E = 9360. 236. = 6520 . If x = 65. then r = 10−8 102 + 10−7 (10) = 10−6 + 10−6 = 2(10)−6 . dE dE b. dc = dq ( q 2 + 3) 1 2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎡ (10q ) − 5q 2 ⎢ 12 q 2 + 3 ⎣ q2 + 3 ( ) ( ) − 12 ⎤ (2q ) ⎥ ⎦ ( Multiplying numerator and denominator by q 2 + 3 ( ) ( ( ) 1 2 gives ) q 2 + 3 (10q) − 5q 2 (q ) 5q3 + 30q 5q q 2 + 6 dc .238. a. b. ⎣ ⎦ dt dr dt Thus 2 dV = 4π ⎡ 2(10) −6 ⎤ ⎡10−8 (2)(10) + 10−7 ⎤ = 4π ⎡ 4(10)−12 ⎤ ⎡⎢3 10−7 ⎤⎥ = 48π(10)−19 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ dt t =10 ( 76.578%.9 dx d ( I x ) = −256. When t = 10. 623. 77.238 ≈ −0. ( ) ) ( ) dS dS = 680 E − 4360 .001416 x3 + 0. ) dp 1 −1 −1 = (2 ρVI ) 2 (2 ρV ) = ρV (2 ρVI ) 2 dI 2 dp dI p = ρV (2 ρVI ) (2 ρVI ) − 12 1 2 = 1 2I d ( I x ) = −0. = = = 3 3 3 dq 2 2 2 2 2 2 q +3 q +3 q +3 74.

Therefore = ⎢ 2 ⎥ . 2 ⎥ dp ⎢⎣ 12 ⎥⎦ ( ) 80. b. 000 40 dr dr dq dr . so . the move should not be made. We are given that g(2) = 3. Thus dt dx dt dy dy dx = ⋅ = f ′(3) g ′(2) = 10(4) = 40 .01 ⎢ = −4 .01 . = q =3000 − 12 (3) 2750 11 = 10. From part (b) we know . q 3000 2 ( ) 1000 + 3q (50) − 50q 12 (1000 + 3q) dr = 1000 + 3q dq dr dq c. so dm dm m =12 ⎝2⎠ Thus 81.50 . 415 . so x = 3 when t = 2. a. 324q q 2 + 35 +5+ 19 q 18 q 2 + 35(324) − 324q ( 12 ) ( q2 + 35) q 2 + 35 − 12 (2q ) 19 + 18 =3 q =17 From part (b) the increase in cost of the additional unit is approximately $300. so r = 1500. When q = 200. dt t = 2 dx x = g (2) dt t = 2 82. = (2m) ⎜ ⎟ (2m + 1) 2 (2) + (2m + 1) 2 (2) . ⎛ 324 5 19 ⎞ 19 19 + + ⎟ = 0+0+ = lim c = lim ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 q 18 18 18 q →∞ q →∞ ⎝ q + 35 ⎠ c = cq = dc = dq dc dq c. We are given that q = = 100 p −1 . By the chain rule. Section 11. r 1500 1 Thus p = = = = $0.5 dq −100 dc dc dq 100 . dm m =12 40 4 dy dy dx = ⋅ = f ′( x) g ′(t ) . Thus = ⋅ = −100 p −2 = dp dp dq dp p p2 100 1 dc dc dc ⎡ −100 ⎤ = and we are given that = 0. dr 11 671 = ⋅ 610 = . When m = 12. then q = 3000. b. a. = ⋅ dm dq dm dq 3 1 dq dq ⎛3⎞ = 610 . Since the corresponding revenue increases by $275.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 79. then p = dp dq ⎢⎣ p ⎥⎦ 200 2 dq ⎡ ⎤ dc −100 ⎥ ⎢ = 0. Now.

111. 86. f ( x) = 2 − x 2 ( ⎡ 2 − ( x + h) 2 ⎤ − 2 − x 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) ⎦ f ′( x) = lim = lim ⎣ h h h →0 h →0 ⎡ 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 ⎤ − 2 − x 2 −2hx − h 2 ⎦ = lim ⎣ = lim h h h→0 h →0 −h(2 x + h) = lim = lim − (2 x + h) = −2 x h h→0 h →0 ( 2. 5.37 84.25 Chapter 11 Review Problems 1.Chapter 11: Differentiation ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 83. f ( x) = 3x f ′( x) = lim h →0 3( x + h) − 3x 3( x + h) + 3 x ⋅ h 3( x + h) + 3 x = lim h→0 = lim h→0 h = lim h→0 = 3( x + h) − 3x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h h h →0 ( 3( x + h) − 3 x 3( x + h) + 3x ) = lim h→0 h ( 3h 3( x + h) + 3x ) 3 3( x + h) + 3x 3 3x + 3x = 3 2 3x = 3 2 x 416 ) . ) f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 3 x + 1 f ′( x) = lim h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( ) ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − 3( x + h) + 1⎤ − 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h→0 ⎡ 2 x 2 + 4hx + 2h 2 − 3 x − 3h + 1⎤ − 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 ⎦ = lim ⎣ h h→0 ( ) 4hx + 2h 2 − 3h h(4 x + 2h − 3) = lim h h h→0 h→0 = lim (4 x + 2h − 3) = 4 x − 3 = lim h→0 3.

y′ = x 2 + 1 100 ( ) (1) + ( x − 6)(100) x 2 + 1 99 ( ) ( 201x2 − 1200 x + 1) (2 x) = ( x 2 + 1)99 [ x 2 + 1 + 200 x( x − 6)] = x 2 + 1 417 99 . so y′ = 0 . y′ = e(1) x1−1 = ex0 = e ( ) ( ) 7. 13. 6. y′ = 4(2 x + 0) − 7(1) = 8 x − 7 9. ( ) f ( s ) = s 2 s 2 + 2 = s 4 + 2s 2 ( ) f ′( s ) = 4s 3 + 2(2 s ) = 4 s3 + 4 s = 4 s s 2 + 1 1 10. y is a constant function. so y ′ = −1(−2) x −3 = 2 x −3 . f ( x) = Chapter 11 Review 2 1 + 4x 2 2 − f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 1+ 4( x + h ) 1+ 4 x = lim f ′( x) = lim h h h →0 h →0 2(1 + 4 x) − 2[1 + 4( x + h)] = lim h→0 h[1 + 4( x + h)](1 + 4 x) −8h h→0 h[1 + 4( x + h)](1 + 4 x) = lim −8 −8 = x h x x [1 + 4( + )](1 + 4 ) [1 + 4( )](1 + 4 x) h→0 = lim =− 8 (1 + 4 x)2 5. y = − 2 2x 2 = − x −2 . y ′ = ( x3 + 7 x 2 )(3x 2 − 2 x) + ( x3 − x 2 + 5)(3 x 2 + 14 x) = 3 x5 + 19 x 4 − 14 x3 + 3x5 + 11x 4 − 14 x3 + 15 x 2 + 70 x = 6 x5 + 30 x 4 − 28 x3 + 15 x 2 + 70 x ( ) 14. y′ = 7 4 x3 − 6 3 x 2 + 5(2 x) + 0 ( = 28 x3 − 18 x 2 + 10 x = 2 x 14 x 2 − 9 x + 5 ) 8. y = ( x + 3) 2 y′ = 1 1 −1 −1 ( x + 3) 2 (1) = ( x + 3) 2 2 2 ( ) 1 2 x +1 5 1 2x y′ = (2 x) = 5 5 11. y = 12.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4.

z 2 + 4 ) (2 z ) − ( z 2 − 1) (2 z ) ( 10 z f ′( z ) = = 2 2 ( z2 + 4) ( z2 + 4) 22. f ′( x) = 100 2 x 2 + 4 x 16. y = (1 − x 2 ) − 12 −3 −3 ⎛ 1⎞ y′ = ⎜ − ⎟ (1 − x 2 ) 2 (−2 x) = x(1 − x 2 ) 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 418 . so f ′( x) = 0. g ′( z ) = ⎜ ⎟ (2 z ) 5 (2) + 0 = (2 z ) 5 5 ⎝5⎠ 21. 25. y′ = ( x + 2)2 (1) − ( x − 5)(2)( x + 2) ( x + 2) 4 = 12 − x ( x + 2)3 1 23. f ( w) = w w + w2 = w 2 + w2 f ′( w) = 3 3 12 w + 2w 2 17. y = 3(2 x + 1)−1 y′ = 3(−1)(2 x + 1) −2 (2) = − 6 (2 x + 1)2 5x2 − 8x 5 = x−4 2x 2 5 y′ = 2 18. y′ = (8 + 2 x) ⎢ (4) x 2 + 1 (2 x) ⎥ + x 2 + 1 (2) ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) 3 = 2 ( x 2 + 1) ( 32 x + 8 x 2 + x 2 + 1) 3 = 2 ( x 2 + 1) ( 9 x 2 + 32 x + 1) 3 = 2 x 2 + 1 ⎡⎢ 4 x(8 + 2 x) + x 2 + 1 ⎤⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 −2 −2 ⎛3⎞ 20. y = ( ) ( ) 3 4 ⎡ ⎤ 19. y = (4 x − 1) 3 1 4 −2 −2 y′ = (4 x − 1) 3 (4) = (4 x − 1) 3 3 3 24.Chapter 11: Differentiation ( ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ) 99 (4 x + 4) = 400( x + 1)[(2 x)( x + 2)]99 15. f is a constant function.

x2 + 5) ( y′ = 1 2 ( (2 x) − x 2 + 6 ) ( 12 ) ( x2 + 5) − 12 (2 x) x2 + 5 ( Multiplying the numerator and denominator by x 2 + 5 x 2 + 5 ) (2 x) − x ( x 2 + 6 ) x ( x2 + 4 ) ( x3 + 4 x = = y′ = 2 2 ( x + 5) ( x + 5) ( x 2 + 5) 3 2 3 2 ) 3 2 419 1 2 gives − 12 ⎡1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 1 ⎤ ⎢4 ⎜ x ⎟ − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ x ⎦ . h′( x) = ( x − 6) 4 ⎢⎡3 ( x + 5 ) ⎥⎤ + ( x + 5)3 ⎡ 4( x − 6)3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = ( x − 6)3 ( x + 5)2 [3( x − 6) + 4( x + 5)] = ( x − 6)3 ( x + 5)2 (7 x + 2) 28. y = Chapter 11 Review x2 + x 2 x2 + 3 2 x 2 + 3) (2 x + 1) − ( x 2 + x ) (4 x) −2 x 2 + 6 x + 3 ( y′ = = 2 2 2 2 x + 3 ( ) ( 2 x 2 + 3) 2 27. y′ = ⎜ ⎟ 2⎝2⎠ − 12 ⎛1⎞ 1⎛2⎞ ⎜ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 2⎝ x⎠ − 12 ( 1 ) 1 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ −2 x −2 = ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ 4⎝ x⎠ x2 ⎝ x ⎠ − 12 ⎛2⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ 1 1 ⎤ x−2 x ⎛ x ⎞2 ⎡ 1 =⎜ ⎟ ⎢ − ⎥= ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ 2 x x2 ⎦ 2 x2 2 33. x(5)( x + 3) 4 − ( x + 3)5 (1) = x2 ( x + 6)(5) − (5 x − 4)(1) ( x + 6) 2 = ( x + 3)4 (4 x − 3) x2 34 ( x + 6)2 f ( x) = 5 x3 3 + 2 x 4 = 5 x3 (3 + 2 x 4 )1/ 2 ⎡1 ⎤ f ′( x) = (3 + 2 x 4 )1/ 2 (15 x 2 ) + 5 x3 ⎢ (3 + 2 x 4 ) −1/ 2 (8 x3 ) ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ = 15 x 2 (3 + 2 x 4 )1/ 2 + 20 x6 (3 + 2 x 4 )−1/ 2 3 − 11 3 ⎛ − 11 ⎞ − 11 − 11 ⎛ 3 ⎞ − 11 ⎛ 3 ⎞ 31.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 26. y′ = 30. y′ = 29. y′ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ x 8 + ⎜ − ⎟ (2 x) 8 (2) = − x 8 − ⎜ 2 8 ⎟ x 8 4 4⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 11 11 11 11 3 − ⎛ 3⎛ − ⎞ − ⎞ − = − x 8 ⎜1 + 2 8 ⎟ = − ⎜1 + 2 8 ⎟ x 8 4 4⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 1⎛ x⎞ 32.

so the percentage rate f (1) 5 of change is 80%. or y = –18x + 33.4[ x 2 (−3)( x + 1) −4 (1) + ( x + 1) −3 (2 x)] + 0 = 0. dc = 0.4%. 12 1 4 or y = x + .04q + 3 dq dc dq 420 =2 q =100 . y = x 2 − 6 x + 4 y′ = 2 x − 6 When x = 1. An equation of the tangent line is y – (–1) = –4(x – 1). so the f (1) 14 7 percentage rate of change is 71. r = q (20 − 0. change is 3 5z 4 + 2 44. then y = –1 and y′ = −4 . 39. then y = 2 and y′ = ) (3x2 + 12 x ) − 52 2 − 3 3 x + 6 x 2 + 9 5 (3x)( x + 4) 5 −2 9 = x( x + 4) x3 + 6 x 2 + 9 5 5 = ( ) x2 x − 12 42. y = −2 x3 + 6 x + 1 y′ = −6 x 2 + 6 When x = 2. y = 36. y = x 3 ) − 13 ( ( ( − 6 x ) = −4 x 7 − 3 x 3 3 x + 6 x2 + 9 5 ( ) ) y′ = 1 2 −3 1 . An equation of the tangent line is y – (–3) = –18(x – 2). or y = –4x + 3. f ( x) = f ′( x) = x x+4 ( x + 4)(1) − x(1) ( x + 4) 2 = 4 ( x + 4)2 1 4 and f ′(1) = . ) −4 3 5 z + 2z − 5 4 3 g ′( z ) = − (−4) z 5 + 2 z − 5 4 ( ( x − 12)(2 x) − x 2 (1) = x 2 − 24 x ( x − 12) 2 ( x − 12)2 When x = 13. = 0. An equation of the tangent line is y − 169 = −143(x − 13) or y = −143x + 2028. The relative rate of f ′(1) 10 5 = = ≈ 0. An 12 1 equation of the tangent line is y − 2 = ( x − 8) . then y = 169 and y ′ = −143. 12 3 When x = 8.Chapter 11: Differentiation ( 34. 45. y = 7 − 3 x 2 ) 2 3 ( 2 y′ = 7 − 3 x 2 3 35. then y = –3 and y′ = −18 .8 . The relative rate of 5 25 f ′(1) 4 change is = = 0. g ( z ) = − z ( z − 1)2 = − z 3 + 2 z 2 − z g ′( z ) = −3z 2 + 4 z − 1 ( = ( ) 5 ( z5 + 2 z − 5) 43.0003q 2 − 0. y′ = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 41. g ( z ) = − 1 − 23 x 3 ) (5z 4 + 2) −5 f ( x) = 4 x 2 + 2 x + 8 f ′( x) = 8 x + 2 f(1) = 14 and f ′(1) = 10 .2q dq 46.4( x + 1)−4 [−3x 2 + ( x + 1)(2 x)] y′ = 37. f (1) = 40.714 . z ′ = 0.1q 2 dr = 20 − 0.1q) = 20q − 0.4( x + 1)−4 (− x 2 + 2 x) 38.

3 50. q = 50m − m2 p = –0. dm dm dr Thus = (1)(30) = 30 .569. then V ′ = 8π . then r = pq = −0. V ′ = ) −2 (4t ) = −36t ( 2t 2 + 3) 2 36 m/s.6 − 0.2 .2 + . y = 12 − dy 36 = −12(−1)(1 + 3 x)−2 (3) = dx (1 + 3x)2 36 1 Setting = gives (1 + 3x) 2 = 108.06q + 1. Since p = −0. so the marginal propensity to save is 1 – 0. Because we must have x ≥ 0. 000 = 2q 2 + 10.2q + 3 . 000q −1 q dc 10. Thus dc dc = 0. 000 = 4q − 10. Set 128 – 32t = 64 to get t = 2.80. so dq dq 51. v = 128 – 32t. so dr = −0. then q = 400. ⎢3T − 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T =38 3 T =38 3 when T = 35 is 11 ⎤ 1 1 ⎡1 = = .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 47.03q + 1. = 30 . Chapter 11 Review 1 dC ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1 = 0.1q 2 + 500q.13. Thus 12 1 + 3x 10. s = 9 2t 2 + 3 = 0. m = 10 dr dr dq = ⋅ dm dq dm ) −1 ( ds = −9 2t 2 + 3 dt If t = 1. then q c = qc = 0.2q. so dr dq 59. ft 2 r = pq = −0. 2 dq (q + 5) (q + 5)2 dr = 500 − 0.6 − 2 dI I 8 ⎝ ⎠ dC ≈ 0.431. dq dt dT d dT 55.01q + 9. = 7. If m = 10. dt dT d dT b.569 dI I =16 Thus the marginal propensity to consume is 0.02q + 9 .00878q dq dc dq −1 ± 6 3 . If d = 4 ft.01q 2 + 9q . When m = 10. m =10 dq dq = 50 − 2m .2 . x = dp (q + 5)(1) − (q + 12)(1) 7 = =− 48. then x ≈ 3.125 + 0. 49. a.25 ⎜ ⎟ I 2 = 0. ⎢ 24 T + 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T =35 24 T =35 24 ( 56. 2 3 (1 + 3 x) 1 + 3 x = ±6 3. then v = − 57. 54.13 or 3 x ≈ −3. 000q −2 = 4q − dq q2 dy = 42 x 2 − 34 x − 16 dx dy = 84 eggs/mm dx x = 2 421 .1q + 500. Since c = 0. 25 ft 3 1 2 πd . q =100 when T = 38 is 175 ⎤ 4 4 ⎡4 = = . dq 58. x ≈ 3.569 = 0.03q 2 + 1. dm m =10 53. c = cq = 2q 2 + = −8 + 9 = 1 . dc = 0.7396 v= q = 70 52.

86)(9.000. dq ⎝2⎠ If m = 240. In the lowest quintile.456 1800 4900 = −0.7 . dr < 0.9667 × 1010 + 224.561.05 422 5.Chapter 11: Differentiation 60.15 the slope is above 0.456 dm m = 240 b. Since 62. Thus dm m = 240 ) − 12 (2m) . 11. No. the slope of the consumption curve is 0. You would expect the family to spend $561 and save $439. 3. –0.705.9. q = 10 m 2 + 4900 − 700 p = 19. The slope of the family consumption curve is 112. y = ( x3 + 2) x + 1 x4 + 2 x = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( x3 + 2) x + 1 x( x3 + 2) = 65. An dx x =1 4 equation of the tangent line is 3 3 7 y− 2 =− 2( x − 1) or y = − 2x + 2. In Fig. 11.300 − 8q .000 equals about 0.32 x +1 x Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 11 −1 ⎛ ⎞ x ⎜ 12 ( x + 1) 2 (1) ⎟ − x + 1(1) dy ⎠ = ⎝ dx x2 dy 3 =− 2 and y = 2 when x = 1. For x = 90. less is saved.456 r q =1800 −315. 4 4 4 61. then q = 1800. 2. there would be no dm additional revenue generated to offset the cost of $400.86.0025 c. 1. r = pq = q 19. dq m = 240 7 ( dq 1 = 10 ⋅ m2 + 4900 dm 2 dq = 9. the slope is ≈ 0.300 − 8q . 040 .6. $5. . so dr 230 =− ≈ −32.4. 0.094 63. 21. = ⋅ dm dq dm 4. More is spent. dr ≈ (−32.6) = −315. dr dm r = m = 240 = −315. the average family spends more than it earns. a.305 64. so dr −1 ⎛1⎞ = q ⎜ ⎟ (19. Answers may vary. In Problems 63 and 64 of Sec.300 − 8q ) 2 (−8) + 19. You would expect the family to spend $705 and save $295. which for 1. thus accumulating debt. 080x x = 25.300 − 8q (1). m = 240 dr dr dq .

( ) dq d ⎡ = 25 + 2 ln 3 p 2 + 4 ⎤ ⎦⎥ dp dp ⎣⎢ = 0+2 ( ) d ⎡ ln 3 p 2 + 4 ⎤ ⎦⎥ dp ⎣⎢ ⎛ 1 ⎞ d 2 3 p2 + 4 = (6 p) = 2⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ 3 p 2 + 4 ⎟ dp 3p + 4 ⎝ ⎠ 12 p = 3 p2 + 4 ( ) 2. dR d d ⎡ ln I ⎤ = [log I ] = dI dI dI ⎢⎣ ln10 ⎥⎦ 1 1 1 = ⋅ = ln10 I I ln10 Problems 12.1 1. dy d 1 4 = 4 ⋅ (ln x) = 4 ⋅ = dx dx x x 2. R(I) = log I. dy 1 6x + 2 (6 x + 2) = = 2 dx 3x 2 + 2 x + 1 3x + 2 x + 1 7. dy 5 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 5 = = dx 9 ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠ 9 x 3. With I 0 = 1 .1 1.Chapter 12 Principles in Practice 12. dy 1 5 = (5) = dx 5 x − 6 5x − 6 5. dy 1 2x ( −2 x ) = − = dx 1 − x 2 1 − x2 423 . dy 1 3 = (3) = dx 3x − 7 3x − 7 4. y = ln x 2 = 2 ln x dy 1 2 = 2⋅ = dx x x 6.

9. ⎛1⎞ f ′(t ) = t ⎜ ⎟ + (ln t )(1) = 1 + ln t ⎝t ⎠ 12. dy ⎡ 1 ⎤ = x3 ⎢ (2) ⎥ + ln(2 x + 5) ⋅ 3 x 2 dx ⎣ 2x + 5 ⎦ = 14. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis f ′(r ) = = = 1 6 3 (24 X 5 + 6 X 2 ) 4X + 2X 24 X 5 + 6 X 2 4X 6 + 2X 3 6 X 2 (4 X 3 + 1) 2 X 3 (2 X 3 + 1) 3(4 X 3 + 1) X (2 X 3 + 1) ( 8r + 2r + 1 1 4 2r − 3r 2 3 − 6r + 2 ) 8r 3 − 6r + 2 2r 4 − 3r 2 + 2r + 1 ( ) 2 4r 3 − 3r + 1 2r 4 − 3r 2 + 2r + 1 11. 2 x3 + 3x 2 ln(2 x + 5) 2x + 5 ⎡ 1 ⎤ dy = (ax + b)3 ⎢ (a ) ⎥ + [ln(ax + b)]3(ax + b) 2 (a ) dx ⎣ (ax + b) ⎦ = a(ax + b)2 + 3a (ax + b)2 ln(ax + b) = a(ax + b)2 [1 + 3ln(ax + b)] 424 . dy 1 −2 x + 6 (−2 x + 6) = = dx − x 2 + 6 x − x2 + 6 x −2( x − 3) 2( x − 3) = = − x( x − 6) x( x − 6) f ′( X ) = = = = 10. dy ⎛1⎞ = x 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(2 x) = x + 2 x ln x dx ⎝x⎠ = x(1 + 2 ln x) 13.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 8.

y = 9 ln 1 + x 2 = ln x 1 = ( x 2 ln x) ln 2 ln 2 ⎤ dy 1 ⎡ 2⎛1⎞ = + ln x(2 x) ⎥ ⎢x dx ln 2 ⎣ ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠ ⎦ x = (1 + 2 ln x) ln 2 20.1 ln(8 x − 1) ln 3 21. x[2 ln x − 1] ln 2 x 425 ) ⎛ ⎞ t5 f (t ) = ln ⎜ ⎟ = 5ln t − ln(1 + 3t 2 + t 4 ) ⎜ 1 + 3t 2 + t 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ f ′(t ) = 5 ⎜ ⎟ − (6t + 4t 3 ) ⎝ t ⎠ 1 + 3t 2 + t 4 5(1 + 3t 2 + t 4 ) − t (6t + 4t 3 ) = t (1 + 3t 2 + t 4 ) = 2 2 1 dy (ln x)(2 x) − x x = dx (ln x)2 = ( = 3ln x 2 + 4 x + 5 9 ln 1 + x 2 2 dy 9 1 9x = ⋅ (2 x) = dx 2 1 + x 2 1 + x2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦⎥ 18. y = ln x 2 + 4 x + 5 ( ( ) 2 2 ( ln x 2 + 4 ) ( ) ln 2 25. ( ) = ( f ( w) = log w2 + w = log10 w2 + w = ( ln w2 + w ) ) ( 23. ( 1z ) − (ln z)(1) = 1 − ln z z 2 z ( ) 2 x ln x − x 2 ln x = ) ( 27. y = x 2 log 2 x = x 2 ⋅ z 3 1 24.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 15. y = x + log 2 x + 4 = x + f ′( z ) = x(ln x )3 dy 1 100 = 100 ⋅ = dx x x 1 1 ⋅ f ′( w) = (2 w + 1) 2 ln10 w + w 2w + 1 = (ln10) w2 + w 19. 2 x 2 ln x − 2( x 2 + 3) 22. y = 6 ln 3 x = 6 ⋅ ln x = 2 ln x 3 dy 1 2 = 2⋅ = dx x x ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 dy (2 x) ⎥ = 2x + dx ln 2 ⎢⎣ x 2 + 4 ⎦ ⎡ 1 = 2 x ⎢1 + ⎢ (ln 2) x 2 + 4 ⎣⎢ ) dy 1 (2 x + 4) = 3⋅ 2 dx x + 4x + 5 3(2 x + 4) 6( x + 2) = = 2 2 x + 4x + 5 x + 4x + 5 ) 17. dy 1 d = ⋅ [ln(8 x − 1)] dx ln 3 dx 1 1 8 = ⋅ (8) = ln 3 8 x − 1 (8 x − 1)(ln 3) 16. y = ln x100 = 100 ln x ln10 2 2 2 1 dy (ln x) (2 x) − ( x + 3)2(ln x) x = dx (ln x) 4 t 4 + 9t 2 + 5 t (1 + 3t 2 + t 4 ) ⎛ 1+ l ⎞ f (l ) = ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln(1 + l ) − ln(1 − l ) ⎝ 1− l ⎠ 1 1 f ′(l ) = (−1) − 1+ l 1− l (1 − l ) + (1 + l ) 2 = = (1 + l )(1 − l ) 1− l2 . 26. y = log3 (8 x − 1) = Section 12.

y = ln 4 1 + x2 = ( ) ( 2 2 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 2x 1 − x + 2x 1 + x = 4⎢ 1 + x2 1 − x2 ⎢⎣ ( )( ) ) ⎤⎥ = ⎥ ⎥⎦ = 13ln x + 13ln(5 x + 2)1/ 3 13 = 26 ln x + ln(5 x + 2) 3 dy 1 1 26 65 ⎛ ⎞ 13 = 26 ⎜ ⎟ + ⋅ (5) = + dx x 3(5 x + 2) ⎝ x ⎠ 3 5x + 2 ) 1 = 6 ln x − 6 ln(2 x + 1) 2 2x +1 = 6 ln x − 3ln(2 x + 1) dy 6 1 6 6 = − 3⋅ (2) = − dx x 2x + 1 x 2x +1 x 1 − x4 35. y = ln 2 (2 x + 11) = [ln(2 x + 11)]2 dy 1 1 = 4⋅ (5) + 6 ⋅ (8) dx 5x + 2 8x − 3 20 48 = + 5x + 2 8x − 3 dy 1 4 ln(2 x + 11) = 2[ln(2 x + 11)] ⋅ (2) = dx 2 x + 11 2 x + 11 426 . y = ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln(2 x + 3) − ln(3 x − 4) ⎝ 3x − 4 ⎠ dy 2 3 = − dx 2 x + 3 3x − 4 2(3x − 4) − 3(2 x + 3) 17 = =− (2 x + 3)(3 x − 4) (2 x + 3)(3 x − 4) 29. y = 13ln x 2 3 5 x + 2 4x x2 + 2 + 38. y = ln ⎡ (5 x + 2)4 (8 x − 3)6 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 4 ln(5 x + 2) + 6 ln(8 x − 3) 40. 3x2 + 1 ( 3 1 + ln 2 x ) x dy = (ln 2) x (ln 2) −1 dx 39. ( ) + 2 x ln(2 x + 1) 2 x2 + 1 2x + 1 dy ⎡1 ⎤ = (ax + b) ⎢ (a ) ⎥ + ln(ax ) ⋅ (a ) dx ⎣ ax ⎦ = 2 x2 ) dy ⎡ 1 ⎤ (2) ⎥ + ln(2 x + 1) ⋅ (2 x) = x2 + 1 ⎢ dx ⎣ 2x + 1 ⎦ = dy 1 ⎡ 3x 2 3x 2 ⎤ = ⎢ − ⎥ dx 3 ⎢⎣ x3 − 1 x3 + 1 ⎦⎥ 1 ⎡ 3x 2 ( x3 + 1) − 3 x 2 ( x3 − 1) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢⎣ ( x3 − 1)( x3 + 1) ⎥⎦ ax + b + a ln(ax) x 37. y = ln 3 3 x +1 3 ( 36. y = ln ⎢ x 2 + 2 ⎣ 2 3 2 = 3 ( ) dy 1 1 = 2⋅ (2 x) + 3x 2 + 1 2 3 dx x +2 x + x −1 = x 34. y = ln x3 + ln 3 x = 3ln x + (ln x)3 x6 − 1 ( dy 1 1 3 3(ln x) 2 = 3 ⋅ + 3(ln x )2 ⋅ = + dx x x x x ) ( x + x − 1)⎤⎥⎦ = 2 ln ( x + 2 ) + ln ( x + x − 1) ⎡ 31.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ⎛ 2x + 3 ⎞ 28. 1 = [ln( x3 − 1) − ln( x3 + 1)] 30. y = 6 ln x3 − 1 = ) 2 1⎡ ln 1 + x 2 − ln 1 − x 2 ⎤ ⎦⎥ 4 ⎣⎢ 1 − x2 dy 1 ⎡ 2 x −2 x ⎤ = ⎢ − ⎥ 2 dx 4 ⎣ 1 + x 1 − x2 ⎦ ( ) ( 33. y = ln 4 (ax) = [ln(ax)]4 x3 + x − 1 3 dy ⎛ 1 ⎞ 4 ln (ax) = 4[ln(ax )]3 ⎜ ⋅ a ⎟ = dx x ⎝ ax ⎠ 32.

or y = 5x − 20. 49. x ln x 2x − 3 2 x − 3x − 3 The slope of the tangent line at x = 4 is 8−3 y′(4) = = 5. y = 4 + 3ln x = (4 + 3ln x ) 2 dy 1 = dx x + 1 + x 2 ( ) = ln x − 1 (ln x)(1) − x 1x When x = 3 the slope is y′(3) = 42. The equation of the tangent line is y – 0 = 1(x – e). or y = x – e. then 16 − 12 − 3 y = ln(16 − 12 − 3) = ln 1 = 0. = = dq q + 1 dq q =6 7 −1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 2 x 1 1 (2 x) ⎥ + + ⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 2 ) 1 + x2 + x 1 + x 2 ⎜⎛ x + 1 + x 2 ⎟⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 50. so r = pq = . so . y = x[ln(x) – 1] ⎛1⎞ y′ = x ⎜ ⎟ + [ln( x) − 1](1) = ln x ⎝x⎠ When x = e.1 1 x ln( x − 1) 2 47. c = 25 ln(q + 1) + 12 dc 25 dc 25 . dq d = [25 + 10 ln(2 p + 1)] dp dp = 0 + 10 46. Thus the ln(q + 2) ln(q + 2) marginal revenue is 1 ( 2 48.90 dq q =50 (ln 70)2 51. ( ) = 25 ⋅ (q + 2) ln(q + 2) − q (q + 2) ln 2 (q + 2) 1 q+2 . y = ln x3 4 2 x + 1 = 3ln x + 44. y = ⎤ dy 1 ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⎢x + ln( x − 1) ⋅ (1) ⎥ dx 2 ⎣ ⎜⎝ x − 1 ⎟⎠ ⎦ x = + ln x − 1 2( x − 1) ( y′ = ) 1 ln(2 x + 1) 4 dy 1 1 1 3 1 = 3⋅ + ⋅ (2) = + dx x 4 2x + 1 x 2(2 x + 1) x 1+ x 2 = = x + 1 + x2 1 = (ln 3) − 1 ln 2 3 . Also. 50 ln 70 − 70 dc = 500 ⋅ ≈ $97. y = x ln x − 1 = Section 12. y = 0 and y′ = 1 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 41. p = 43. = 427 ⎛ 1 ⎞ d d [ln(2 p + 1)] = 10 ⎜ ⎟ [2 p + 1] dp ⎝ 2 p + 1 ⎠ dp 10 20 (2) = 2 p +1 2 p +1 . if x = 4. Thus an equation of the tangent line is y – 0 = 5(x – 4). c = 500 ln(q + 20) c = cq = 1 + x2 500q ln(q + 20) ( ) 1 [ln(q + 20)](1) − q q + 20 dc = 500 ⋅ dq [ln(q + 20)]2 45. y = ln( x 2 − 3 x − 3) y′ = ln 2 x ln(q + 2)(1) − q dr = 25 ⋅ dq ln 2 (q + 2) 3 dy 1 −1 3 = (4 + 3ln x) 2 ⋅ = dx 2 x 2 x 4 + 3ln x 1+ ln x 25 25q .

65 2 2 + 4r + 4 + 6 x3 +1 ( −3q 2 +6 ) + 6 q −1 (6r + 4) = 2(3r + 2)e3r 2 + 4r + 4 (2 x + 18 x 2 ) 2 + 6 x3 +1 ( ) 9. y′ = x ⎡ e3 x (3) ⎤ + e3 x (1) = e3 x (3 x + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 428 . (k ) = Ckekt Problems 12. dT d ⎡ kt ⎤ d Ce = C ⎡ ekt ⎤ = ⎦ dt dt ⎣ dt ⎣ ⎦ dL d ⎡ I ⎤ d = 10 log ⎥ = 10 [log I − log17] dI dI ⎢⎣ 17 ⎦ dI = 10 = d dI ⎡ ln I ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎢ ln10 − log17 ⎥ = 10 ⎢ ln10 ⋅ I − 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 10 I ln10 ( ) dtd [kt ] = Ce = C ekt ⎛ T ⎞ 53. 17 1. y′ = e 2 x 2 +3 (4 x) = 4 xe2 x 2 +3 4. A = 6 ln ⎜ − a ⎟ . y ′ = e x 2 x 2 ⋅ 12 (2 x) − ln( x 2 ) ⋅ 2 x 3 ( du ⎛ 1 du ⎞ 1 = ( logb e ) ⎜ ⋅ ⎟ = ( logb e ) dx ⎝ u dx ⎠ u 56.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 52. then 55. T(t) has the form Ceu where C is a time is dt constant and u = kt. y′ = e 2 x 2 +5 (4 x) = 4 xe2 x 2 +5 + aT (a − T ) dy 1 f ′( x) = f ′( x) = . With I 0 = 17. y′ = e9−5 x ⋅ 54. f ′(q) = e− q = −3 q 2 − 2 e − q d d ln u ( logb u ) = ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ dx dx ⎝ ln b ⎠ = d ( 9 − 5 x ) = e9−5 x (−5) = −5e9−5 x dx 5. If y = ln f(x). Note that f(x) is defined for all x ≠ 0. 6.72 f ′( x) = + 6 q −1 ) 8. y′ = 3x 4 ⎡ e− x (−1) ⎤ + e− x (12 x3 ) = 3 x3e− x (4 − x) ⎣ ⎦ 57. Rate of change of A with ⎝ a −T ⎠ respect to T: ⎡ (a − T )(1) − T (−1) ⎤ dA 1 = 6⋅ ⎢ ⎥ T −a dT (a − T )2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ a −T = 6⋅ = 6⋅ = 1 T − a ( a −T ) a −T ⋅ 1. y ′ = 5 ⋅ 2. 1 d 1 ⎛ 1 du ⎞ ⋅ (ln u ) = ⋅ ln b dx ln b ⎜⎝ u dx ⎟⎠ x4 f ′( x) = 0 for x ≈ −1. y′ = x e x + e x (1) = e x ( x + 1) 10. y′ = x 2 ⎡ e − x (−2 x) ⎤ + e− x (2 x) ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 2 − 2 ln( x 2 ) x3 2 ( = 2 xe− x 1 − x 2 ) 12. 1. x f ′(r ) = e3r 3 = 2 x(1 + 9 x)e x f ′( x) = x (1 + 3ln x) f ′( x) = 0 for x ≈ 0.2 I .2 ⎡ ⎤ a ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢⎣ (a − T ) ⎥⎦ a −T kt = 2 2 11. The rate of change of temperature with respect to dT . 7. y′ = a T − a 2 + aT (a − T ) 2 6a (T − a 2 ) d x (e ) = 5e x dx 2e x 5 3. L( I ) = 10 log ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Principles in Practice 12.65. dx f ( x) f ( x) which is the relative rate of change of y = f(x) with respect to x.

Section 12. ) 1⎡ x e x − e− x e + e − x (−1) ⎤ = ⎦ 3⎣ 3 dy (e x + e − x )[e x − e− x (−1)] − (e x − e− x )[e x + e− x (−1)] = dx (e x + e − x ) 2 = 15.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( 1 x e + e− x 3 13. y ′ = 3(e2 x + 1) 2 (e2 x (2) + 0) = 6e2 x (e2 x + 1)2 21.2 (e x + e − x ) 2 − (e x − e − x ) 2 x (e + e −x 2 ) = 4 (e + e − x ) 2 x ( ) d 2 x3 d ⎡ (ln 5)2 x3 ⎤ = e 5 ⎥⎦ dx dx ⎢⎣ 3 = e(ln 5)2 x [(ln 5)6 x 2 ] 3 = (6 x 2 )52 x ln 5 16. y′ = e1+ x 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 12 ⎞ x− x ⎛ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − 2 x ⎟ = e ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 x⎠ 1+ x ⎛ 1 − 12 ⎞ e ⎜2x ⎟= ⎝ ⎠ 2 x 20. y = y′ = 14. y = x5 − 5 x = x5 − e(ln 5) x y′ = 5 x 4 − e(ln 5) x (ln 5) = 5 x 4 − 5 x ln 5 22. w2 ⎡ e2 w (2) ⎤ − e2 w [2 w] ⎣ ⎦ f ′( w) = w4 = 2e 2 w ( w − 1) w3 18. y′ = e x − x 19. y = 2 x x 2 = e(ln 2) x x 2 y ′ = e(ln 2) x (2 x) + x 2 ⎡ e(ln 2) x (ln 2) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) ( ) = 2 x 2 x + x 2 2 x (ln 2) = x 2 x (2 + x ln 2) 17. 2 f ( z ) = e−1/ z = e− z 2 −2 f ′( z ) = e−1/ z [−(−2 z −3 )] = 2 −1/ z 2 e z3 429 .

marginal cost function is 2 f ( x) = ee x e x = e1+ x + x dc = 10e0. w = e x f ′(1) = e0 (ln 5)[1 + 0] = ln 5 y′ = e−2 . then y = e−2 and −2 q +3 = 850 + 4000e 400 dc dc = 10e0. y ′ = e x When x = 1. x −1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ (t − 1) 2 ⎦⎥ ( of the tangent line is y − e = e(x − 1) or y = ex. c = .5 dq q =500 x ( e + 1) x dp = 15e−0.06e−2 dq q =300 25. f ( x) = 5 x 2 ln x ( ) = e ln 5 x 2 ln x =e c = cq = 850 + 4000e 37.001q (−0.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ( ) ( ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ) e x + 1 ⎡e x ⎤ − e x − 1 ⎡e x ⎤ dy ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 23. Thus an equation of the tangent line is y−e 3 −4 x q +3 dc = 10e 400 . When x = –2. dq q =97 dq q =197 2 = e(ln 5) x ln x (ln 5)[ x + 2 x ln x] −2 2q+6 800 The marginal cost function is (ln 5) x 2 ln x 2 ⎧ 1 ⎡ ⎤⎫ f ′( x) = e(ln 5) x ln x ⎨(ln 5) ⎢ x 2 ⋅ + (ln x)(2 x) ⎥ ⎬ x ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ −2 q dc ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 7000e 700 ⎜ ⎟ dq ⎝ 700 ⎠ ( t +1 t −1 dw dw dx = ⋅ dt dx dt ) ⎡ 3 ⎤ ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⎢e x − 4 x 3 x 2 − 4 + x ⎜ + [ln( x − 1)(1)]⎥ ⎟ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ −2 = e ( x + 2) . y = ln e x = x so y ′ = 1. so 29.06e dq ⎝ 750 ⎠ dp = −0. c = + 4000 q q 2 2 f ′(−1) = [1 + 2(−1)]e1+ ( −1) + ( −1) = −e 30. 24. so c = cq = 7000e 700 .25 and = 10e0. y = e and y ′ = e. y′ = e− x ⋅ + (ln x) −e− x = e− x ⎜ − ln x ⎟ x ⎝x ⎠ 27. y = e x .5 and dq q =350 dc = 10e . dp = −0. 31. dx 2 2q+6 2 f ′( x) = e1+ x + x (1 + 2 x) = (1 + 2 x)e1+ x + x 850 e 800 36.001q dq 2 34. = 2 dx ex +1 = 2e ( ) 33.001) = −0. y = ln e4 x +1 = 4 x + 1 .015e−0. y ′ = e x 2 ln x 2 = 2 xe ⎡ 2 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ x ⋅ 2 (2 x) + (ln x )(2 x) ⎥ x ⎣ ⎦ x 2 ln x 2 q = 10e 700 . q ( q 7000e 700 35.5 .015e−0. 430 ) . y′ = e2 x [1] + ( x + 6) ⎡ e2 x (2) ⎤ = e2 x (2 x + 13) ⎣ ⎦ dp ⎛ 5 ⎞ −5q / 750 = 9e−5q / 750 ⎜ − ⎟ = −0. The q ) 1 ⎛1 ⎞ 26. y′ = e x . or y = e x + 3e . dq q =700 dy = 4. Thus 2 (1 + ln x ) 28. ⎡ (t − 1)(1) − (t + 1)(1) ⎤ · ⎢ ⎥ (t − 1) 2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 32. dq + x ln( x − 1) and x = By the chain rule. Thus an equation 3 x ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎤ = ⎢ 3x2 − 4 e x −4 x + + ln( x − 1) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥.

01 f ′(2) −(ln10)10 = ≈ 0. Then d x d ⎡ ln c 39. Since c > 0. q = 500 1 − e−0. P = 1. Thus substitution.0176) dt = 0.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis When t = 3.92e0.2t d t [β ] dt = kα β ( β t ln α ) ln β 1 + + 0. (ln c)c – c = 0.2t dt dq Thus = 100e−2 . 2 43. dw ⎡ 1⎤ = [8 + 2 + 0] ⎢ − ⎥ = −5 . 1 + 10 dq = 500 −e−0. dt t =10 = 46.0374 2 − f (2) 10 + ln(10) + 0.01e x − 2 8+ x ) ) (−0.01 41. ) dy = K ⎡ −e− ax (−a ) ⎤ = aKe− ax ⎣ ⎦ dx Solving the original equation for e− ax gives y e− ax = − + 1 . ( ) ( ) f ( x) = 10 t t t = −(ln10)10 ( 45.92e0. Since S = Pert . so dM dN = 10 A−bM (ln10)(−b) = −b 10 A−bM ln10 dM ( 431 ) . or c = e. then dS dt x−2 S ( rPert Pert ( dS = Pert r = rPert .2t 47. we must have ln(c) – 1 = 0.2) = 100e d (ln β )t [e ] dt t + 0. Thus dt = r. dt ⎣ 2⎦ 38.0176t dP = 1. N = 10 A10−bM = 10 A−bM = e(ln10)( A−bM ) dN = e(ln10)( A−bM ) (ln10)(−b) . then x = Section 12. c − xc = e dx dx ⎢⎣ d ⎡ (ln c ) x = e − xc ⎤ ⎦ dx ⎣ 1 f ( x) = −0.242 2π f ′(1) = d dy [ f (u )] = and by the chain rule dx dx d dy dy du du [ f (u )] = = ⋅ = f ′(u ) = u3 ⋅ e x dx dx du dx dx = ( e x )3 ⋅ e x = e 3 x ⋅ e x = e 4 x x 2π 1 f ′( x) = f ′( x) = x3 and u = e x .2 3 +1 4 = = 2 and 3 −1 2 42.0176. = (ln c)e(ln c ) x − cx c −1 = (ln c)c x − cxc −1 −x e− x (− x) 2π 1 −1/ 2 e (−1) ≈ −0.01e x − 2 −x /2 Y ′ = ke(ln α ) β (ln α ) = kα β (ln α ) + ln(8 + x) + 0.0176P = kP for k = 0. or c[ln(c) – 1] = 0. ln c = 1.0176t (0. as dx ⎝ K ⎠ was to be shown. K dy ⎛ y ⎞ = aK ⎜ − + 1⎟ = a(− y + K ) = a (K – y).01e x − 2 8+ x −2 t = kα β (ln α )e(ln β )t (ln β ) = e(ln10)( − x ) + ln(8 + x) + 0. y = K 1 − e− ax 1 + 0. 40. Let y = f(u).0176) = P(0.01e 2 t −x ⎥ ⎦ f ′( x) = e(ln10)( − x ) (− ln10) + e− x /2 44. Y = kα β = ke(ln α ) β c⎤ d x (c − x c ) = (ln c)c − c dx x =1 If this is zero.

847 billion 3 = $(0. −0.008e −I I = ln − ( r )t ⎞ ⎤ R⎡ ⎛ = ⎢1 − ⎜ 1 − e V ⎟ ⎥ V ⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦⎥ 51. When q = 5 then p = 40 – 2(5) = 30. f ′( x) = 1 − e− x f ′( x) = 0 gives e x = 1 or x = 0. 0. − b.99(0. so f (t ) = 1 − e−0.85) This represents the rate of change of proportion of correct recalls with respect to length of recall interval. then dp = 0. b. = 0.10 dt 49. ⎞ ⎟ C (t ) ⎠ = 7 ≈ $0.3 R⎡ r ⎤ R r = ⎢1 − C (t ) ⎥ = − C (t ) V⎣ R ⎦ V V 1.5 −0. C (t ) = a.04 Because η > 1. −I 8 dI 8 3+ e 1 (e )(3 + e ) 8 1 1 = I 3e + 1 8 3e I + 1 = 8 7 eI = 3 dC R ⎡ r −( Vr )t ⎤ R −( Vr )t = ⎢ e ⎥= e dt r ⎣V ⎦ V = dC dS e− I 3 . C (t ) = C0 e 5 η= 30 5 = −3 −2 Because η > 1 . 52. demand is elastic. If 50. η = 432 .85) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ dt a. − ( r )t ⎞ ⎤ R⎡ r R⎛ ⎢1 − ⋅ ⎜ 1 − e V ⎟ ⎥ V ⎢⎣ R r ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ Problems 12.85)t ln(0. 3 2 f ′( x) = (6 x 2 + 2 x − 3)e2 x + x −3 x f ′( x) = 0 for x ≈ −0.8811(0.85)t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ a.85)t ln(0.89 ⎡ 0.56 54. demand is elastic. p = 0.85)2 ln(0.0036 p q 6 = 100 = −1. then = .85) ≈ −0. = 1− = 1− = −I dI dI 3+ e 3 + e− I I −( Vr )t ⎤ R⎡ ⎢1 − e ⎥ r ⎣ ⎦ C (0) = dC dS = 1− .89 ⎡0. 2. dI dI (e I ) e − I − ( r )t ⎛ r ⎞ dC = C0 e V ⎜ − ⎟ dt ⎝ V⎠ ⎞ ⎛r ⎟ = −⎜ V ⎠ ⎝ Recall that Thus ( Vr )t ⎛ r = [C (t ) ] ⎜ − ⎝ V 3+e = ln 5 − ln(3 + e− I ) −I dS 1 e− I (e− I )(−1) = =− dI 3 + e− I 3 + e− I b.008e−0.8 ≈ 0.01 + 0.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 48. η = p q dp dq = p q −2 .008t f ′(t ) = 0.847)(1000) million = $847 million R⎡ R 1 − e0 ⎤ = [1 − 1] = 0 ⎣ ⎦ r r 53.99(0. If t = 2. S = ln dP = 0.8811(0.89.008t f ′(100) = 0. dS 1 e− I 1 = .04 −0.

η=− 433 400 4 = − . unit elasticity. p = Section 12. q = 500 − p −e100 100 150 −e 100 e − 100 p q dp dq 50 dq = −1 . inelastic. demand is elastic. elastic 48 8. 2 p q −1000 q3 = If p = 4. p q − 1600 2 (2 q +1) p dq p ⋅ = (−150) q dp q 10. so 4 η= (−150) = −1. 200 q 12. η > 1 . then q = 1200 − 150(4) = 600.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 3. η = −e − q 200 p q dp dq = p dq ⋅ q dp p⎛ 1 ⎞ p ⎜− ⎟ = − 2 q ⎝ 2q ⎠ 2q If p = 400. then η = − = − . demand has 600 unit elasticity. 2100 21 . so demand has 200 −p 2500 − p 2 =− p⎛ p⎞ ⎜− ⎟ = − q⎝ q⎠ p q p2 q2 If p = 20. inelastic 2 [500 /( q + 2)] q − 500 2 ( q + 2) = =− η= 6. 50 dp 106 53 When q = 104. p q dp dq p q dp dq η= 200 = −1. so η=− p q 400 = −2. then q = 500 − 400 = 10. q = 2500 − p 2 ⎛ 150 ⎞ = −⎜ − 1⎟ . then q = 2100 . Because η > 1 . η = − = p dq ⋅ q dp ) − 12 dq 1 = 2500 − p 2 (−2 p) dp 2 q 200 q 200 p q dp dq ( demand is elastic. so we have unit elasticity. ⎝ e ⎠ η= − = 100e q 2 −e − =− 200 q = 2 When q = 200. so η = (−1) = −1 . η = = 800 /(2 q +1) q 1600 − (2 q +1) 2 When q = 24. η = − 7. then q = 50.3 9. η = p q dp dq = =− q+2 q η= 2q + 1 2q η= 49 . η = 5. then p = 150 – e and η= = 11. demand has unit elasticity. p q p dq ⋅ q dp −1 1 dq 1 −1 = (500 − p ) 2 (−1) = =− 2q dp 2 2 500 − p When q = 100. q = 100 – p When p = 50. Since η = 1. Because η = 1 . η = p q dp dq (500 / q ) = −1 = = p q − 500 2 ( q + 2) q 1000 − 3 q = 1 = − . Because 104 52 η > 1 . q = 1200 − 150p 3500 = 3500q −1 q η= dp 3500 = −3500q −2 = − dq q2 η= p q dp dq = p q − 3500 q2 = (3500 / q ) q − 3500 q2 4. so demand is elastic.

8%.50 = 1 %. 36 − 0. Thus demand decreases ⎝ ⎠ approximately 0. that is. 3200 2 q= = p dq ⋅ q dp =− 18.2) = −0. dq p = 2 p − 50. then q = 500 − 40(15) + 152 = 125. η = η demand 10 60 − 10 3 elastic 3 − 10 inelastic −1 unit elasticity 130 η= η= Setting = = p q dp dq = p dq ⋅ q dp −p 2500 − p p ⎛ −p ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=− q⎝ q ⎠ 2 = p2 q2 −p . Thus 2 20 1 η= (20 − 100) = − .25q −0.) p = 36 − 0. 15 6 (30 − 40) = − = −1. so dp 2 η= p = 300 − q 2 b. dp q If p = 20. Thus if the price of 15 increases p 3 = −1 yields q = ±10. Demand is inelastic. 125 5 (% change in price) · (η ) = % change in so η 15. (That is.5.05q η= −2q 2 When p = 15. If p = 20.6%. p = 13 – 0. a.2. or 2. so η = (2 p − 50). p dq ⋅ q dp q = 2500 − p 2 q 6. (40 − 50) = − 250 250 5 p q dp dq 300 − q 2 dq p = −40 + 2 p .25q 434 . ⎝ 16 ⎠ demand increases by 2. so q .25q 36 − 0. then q p q dp dq p q dp dq Since q > 0.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 13. Now. so (30) 2 9 = − = − . q = 500 − 40 p + p 2 p ( p − 100) . then demand would change by 30 ⎛ 9 ⎞ approximately −5 ⎜ − ⎟ %. q = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( p − 100) 2 2 p q dp dq η= = η= p dq ⋅ q dp η= (20 − 100) 2 = 3200 . if p = 30. dq 1 = (2)( p − 100)(1) = p − 100 . q = p 2 − 50 p + 850 η= = 17. and 20 200 4 η= = − . p 0.8%.6%. −0. inelastic. then q = 2500 − 302 = 40. If the price of 30 p =30 2 16 (40) decreases to 28. dp q 14. 2 then the change in demand is approximately ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 % ⎟ (−1.5 = −5%. then q = 250. so η = (2 p − 40).25q p q dp dq p =15 dq = dp η 16. Now.05q 200 p q dp dq demand. it changes by −1. we must have q = 10.25q = −1 yields q = 72.

c. so r is increasing. p = mq + b 19. then η = 0. then demand is inelastic. 1000 q2 b + cq 2 = a (b + cq 2 ) −1/ 2 p q dp dq = a(b + cq 2 ) −1/ 2 −acq 2 (b + cq 2 ) −3 / 2 =− b + cq 2 cq 2 ⎛ b ⎞ = −⎜ + 1⎟ 2 ⎜ ⎟ cq ⎝ cq ⎠ b If b. then r ′ > 0. then b cq 2 + 1 = 1. p q dp dq p−b m p q dp dq = p dq ⋅ q dp We differentiate implicitly for 1 =− 2 dq . p = p →b − p ( p −b ) / m = lim p = −∞ −b p p →b 20. then r ′ = 500 − 4q = 4(125 − q ). then + 1 > 1 so |η| > 1 and cq 2 demand is elastic. If demand is inelastic. we have q – 250 < –q. if 0 < q < 125. which can only occur if b = 0. p = 50 − 3q η= p q p →b − dp dq lim η = lim = lim Since Total Revenue = r = pq = 500q − 2q 2 . ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 3q ⎞ p ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = (50 − 3q) ⎜ 1 + ⎟ η 3 − 50 ⎠ q ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 3q − 50 + 3q ⎞ = (50 − 3q) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3q − 50 ⎠ dr = 50 − 6q = dq η= p p −b Thus if p = 0. so q < 125.3 22. demand is elastic. η=− b + cq 2 2 If |η| = 1. the inequality implies q > 125. Thus. 1000 r = pq = q 24. If 125 < q < 250. b. c > 0. 23. so r is decreasing. 3q − 50 = = −3 3q b. then η = a. then η = q For q > 0. p = 500 – 2q η= p q dp dq = 500 − 2 q q −2 = Note: q = q − 250 q q − 250 < −1. dp q 2 (1 + p) 2 = p ( ) ⎛ dq ⎞ q 2 ⋅ 2(1 + p)(1) + 1 + p 2 ⎜ 2q ⎟ = 1 ⎝ dp ⎠ dq 2q 2 (1 + p) + 2q (1 + p) 2 =1 dp ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1000 1000 dr p ⎜1 + ⎟ = (1 − 2) = − = 2 η dq q q2 ⎝ ⎠ 435 . Thus if 125 < q < 250. q − 250 > −1. a.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12. For q q > 0. η = dr 1000 = −1000q −2 = − dq q2 = a p= Thus η does not depend on a. then r ′ < 0. 2q < 250. If 0 < q < 125. η= η= 50 −3q q 1000 q3 − 2000 q3 − = −acq (b + cq 2 )−3 / 2 dr = 50 − 6q dq p q dp dq m p →b − dp 1 = − a (b + cq 2 )−3 / 2 (2cq) dq 2 r = pq = 50q − 3q 2 21. If demand is elastic.

26. Lowering the price increases revenue because demand is elastic.0256 −13 Thus demand is inelastic. η q =150 = p q dp dq q =150 dp ⎡ 13 0 ⎤ = 0. c.6(50) = $130.02(50) ⎢ − + ⎥ = −13 dq q =150 ⎣ 1 26 ⎦ 50 = 150 ≈ −0. 436 . a.6%. The manufacturer should increase the price because demand is inelastic.0256 ⎟⎠ Thus price per unit of $50 changes by 2. then q = 60 4 ⎡ 60 3(16) ⎤ 207 =− ≈ −13. c.8) = 27.8.6%.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics Thus ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis dq 1 − 2q 2 (1 + p) = dp 2q(1 + p) 2 q 2 (1 + p) 2 1 − 2q 2 (1 + p) 1 − 2q 2 (1 + p) ⋅ = q 2 2q(1 + p) 2 If p = 9. Thus η p =9 = = −0. so b. 0. so η = ⎢ − − 4 15 ⎣ 16 65 − 64 ⎥⎦ 15 b. (elasticity)(% change in price) = % change in demand −10 (−0. so q increases by approximately 27.0256)(% change in price) = ⋅100 150 100 ⎛ 1 ⎞ % change in price = − = 260% 15 ⎜⎝ −0. The percentage change in q is (–2)(–13.4 q= 10 2 25. so it is approximately 50 + 130 = $180. we find q from the given equation: Hence η = q 2 (1 + 9)2 = 9 q2 = 9 100 ( ) 2 3 1 − 2 10 (1 + 9) 3 since q > 0. then p = 50.02 ⎢ ⎥ p dq 2 q + 19 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 151 − q When q = 150.02 q +19 ⎤ p = 50 ⎡⎢ (151 − q ) ⎥⎦ ⎣ ln p = ln 50 + 0. + ln1 = 15 . ( q= 60 + ln 65 − p3 p η= p q dp dq = ) p dq p ⎡ 60 3 p2 ⎤ = ⎢− − ⎥ q dp q ⎢⎣ p 2 65 − p3 ⎦⎥ If p = 4. a. d. and demand is elastic.02 q + 19 ln(151 − q) ⎡ q + 19 ⎤ 1 dp 1 (−1) + ln(151 − q) ⋅ = 0 + 0.

dp −200 = 200(−1)(q + 5) −2 = dq (q + 5)2 Thus η = p q dp dq = 200 q ( q + 5) − 200 2 ( q + 5) For 5 ≤ q ≤ 95.5t with respect to t. η = 1 1000 − 2 q2 1000 2 − 1 2000 and η ′ = − . ⎝ 1− P ⎠ d dt ⎡ ⎛ P ⎞⎤ d ⎢ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = [0. since (elasticity)(% change in price) ≈ % change in demand. η = p q dp dq = 2000 − q 2 −2q 2 = For 5 ≤ q ≤ 40. Assume that P is a function of t and differentiate both sides of ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.4 ⎛ P ⎞ 1. η is decreasing on [5. 29.6 25 5 dr To estimate when p = 80. q q q2 Since η ′ < 0.5P (1 − P ) dt 437 .5t ] ⎣ ⎝ 1 − P ⎠ ⎦ dt ⎛ 1 ⎞d ⎡ P ⎤ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.5 P dt (1 − P )2 1 − P + P dP ⋅ = 0.4 −5 25 50 ⋅100 = − % and the percentage change in quantity is ⋅100 = 10%. The percentage change in price is 40 8 = − = −1. we have dq elasticity ≈ − ⎛ ⎛ 1⎞ dr 1 ⎞ ⎟ = 30.5 P (1 − P ) dt dP = 0. q 5 q+5 5 = 1 + and η ′ = − . 40] and thus η is 2 q3 q maximum at q = 5 and a minimum at q = 40. η is decreasing on [5. Principles in Practice 12. 95]. ⎛ 25 ⎞ (elasticity) ⎜ − ⎟ ≈ 10.5 ⎜ P ⎟ dt ⎢⎣ 1 − P ⎥⎦ ⎝ 1− P ⎠ 1 − P (1)(1 − P) − P (−1) dP ⋅ ⋅ = 0. 80 4 500 Thus. η = =− q+5 . Since η ′ < 0 . and thus η is maximum at q = 5 and minimum at q = 95.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12. ⎝ 4 ⎠ 27. = p ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = 80 ⎜1 + ⎜ −8 ⎟ dq ⎝ η⎠ 5⎠ ⎝ 28.

y = 8. 2x 3y x1/ 3 + y1/ 3 = 3 1 −2 / 3 1 −2 / 3 x + y y′ = 0 3 3 y −2 / 3 y ′ = − x − 2 / 3 y′ = − =− x −2 / 3 y −2 / 3 y2 / 3 x2 / 3 3 x + 8 = 100 =− x 2 = 100 − 64 = 36 x=6 = −3 2 2 When x = 6. 6 y 2 y ′ − 14 x = 0 14 x 7x y′ = = 2 6y 3y2 dV d ⎡4 dr dr ⎤ 4 = ⎢ πr 3 ⎥ = π 3r 2 = 4πr 2 dt dt ⎣ 3 3 dt dt ⎦ dr = 5 and r = 12. 6 x + 12 yy′ = 0 y′ = − 3 2 x 36 + 16 y′ = − y2 x 2y 438 y x . we can find x by using the Pythagorean theorem. d ⎡ 2 d x + y 2 ⎤ = [100] ⎦ dt dt ⎣ dx dy 2x + 2 y =0 dt dt When y = 8. 4. By the product rule xy′ + y (1) = 0 . and 2(6)(3) + 2(8) dx = 3 . ⎜ ⎟ x 4 + ⎜ ⎟ y 4 y′ = 0 ⎝4⎠ ⎝4⎠ 1 y′ = − y4 1 x4 Problems 12. The hypotenuse is the length of the ladder. 2 x + 8 yy′ = 0 x + 4 yy′ = 0 4 yy′ = − x y′ = 4 3y2 9. x 4y y′ = − 2. The balloon is dt increasing at the rate of 2880π cubic inches/minute. 4 x − 6 yy′ = 0 y′ = 5. Differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to t. When dt dV = 4π(12) 2 (5) = 2880π . ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ) 3. 4 4 y′ = − y5 4 x5 4 ⎛ y ⎞5 = −⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞ −1 ⎛ 3 ⎞ −1 7. 3 y 2 y′ = 4 1. xy′ = − y . 3. we have dt y2 x2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −4 ⎛ 1 ⎞ −4 6.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 2. thus the top of the ladder is sliding dt 4 9 down the wall at the rate of feet/sec. so x 2 + y 2 = 100 .4 8. ⎜ ⎟ x 5 + ⎜ ⎟ y 5 y′ = 0 ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠ dy =0 dt dy =0 dt dy 36 9 =− =− dt 16 4 dy 9 = − .

x3 3 y 2 y′ + y 3 3 x 2 + 1 = 0 y′ = − 1 + 3x2 y3 3 x3 y 2 439 . 6 x 2 + 3 y 2 y′ − 12 ( xy′ + y ) = 0 3 y 2 y′ − 12 xy′ = 12 y − 6 x 2 ( y′ ( y ) y′ 3 y 2 − 12 x = 12 y − 6 x 2 y′ = ) 2 − 4 x = 4 y − 2 x2 4 y − 2x2 y2 − 4x 14. xy′ + y (1) − y′ − 11 = 0 y′( x − 1) = 11 − y y′ = 11 − y x −1 3x 2 − 3 y 2 y ′ = 3x 2 y ′ + 6 xy − 3x(2 yy ′) − 3 y 2 12. x = 2 −y 2x 2 + y x + y2 y + 4 y = y1/ 2 + y1/ 4 1 −1/ 2 1 y y ′ + y −3 / 4 y ′ 2 4 ⎛ 2 y1/ 4 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = y′ ⎜ + = y′ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2 y1/ 2 4 y 3 / 4 ⎟ ⎜ 4 y3 / 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1= y′ = 4 y3 / 4 2 y1/ 4 + 1 ( ) ( ) 16.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12. y ′(−3 y 2 − 3x 2 + 6 xy ) = 6 xy − 3 y 2 − 3 x 2 y′ = 1 13. 6 x 2 + (3x) y′ + y (3) + 3 y 2 y′ = 0 ( ) y′ ( x + y ) = −2 x y ′ 3 x + 3 y 2 = −6 x 2 − 3 y 2 y′ = − 15.4 10. 2 x + xy ′ + y (1) − 4 yy ′ = 0 xy ′ − 4 yy ′ = −2 x − y −2 x − y 2x + y = y′ = −x + 4 y x − 4y 11.

1 (1 + y ′) x+ y 1 y′ e x + y + y ′e x + y = + x+ y x+ y ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 y′ ⎜ e x+ y − − e x+ y ⎟= x y x y + + ⎝ ⎠ y ′ = −1 e x + y (1 + y ′) = y′ = − xe y − y xy′ = − y ( x + 1) y ( x + 1) x ( ) 21. y′ = − x ⎡ ln( x) − xe y ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ y′ = − 3x 25. 2). y ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x ) y′ = x e y y′ + e y (1) ⎝x⎠ ⎡ ln( x ) − xe y ⎤ y′ = e y − y ⎣ ⎦ x 20. 2 1 + e3 x 3e3 x = 1 − 15 x 2 y 4 3x 20 x3 y 3 + 2 y 3x 1 x 1 (2 y + 1) y′ = x 1 y′ = x(2 y + 1) 18. dx 3 − 2 4 440 . ⎡ x e y y′ + e y (1) ⎤ + y′ = 0 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎛ ⎞ x y − x + 1 ⎟ y′ = − y +1 ⎜ ⎜ 2 y +1 ⎟ 2 x +1 ⎝ ⎠ xe y y′ + e y + y′ = 0 y y′ = − 1+ 2 3 =− . x ⎜ ⎜ 2 y +1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ = y⎜ ⎟ + x + 1( y′) ⎝ 2 x +1 ⎠ x y ⋅ y′ − x + 1 ⋅ y′ = − y +1 2 y +1 2 x +1 xy′ + y (1) +1 = 0 xy xy′ + y + xy = 0 ( xe + 1) y′ = −e 1+ y x + 2y At the point (1. 3). 8 x + 18 yy ′ = 0 8 x = −18 yy ′ 8x 4x y′ = − =− 18 y 9y dy 4 − 2 = = 1. 1+ 4 5 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⋅ y′ ⎟ + y + 1(1) 26.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( )( ) x +1 y (1 + y′) 6e (1 + e ) ( x + y ) = 1 + y′ y′ = 6e (1 + e ) ( x + y ) − 1 17. 2 yy′ + y′ = 24. 22. 1 + [ xy′ + y (1)] + 2 yy′ = 0 xy′ + 2 yy′ = −1 − y ( x + 2 y ) y′ = −(1 + y ) y ⎡ ln( x ) − xe y ⎤ y′ = xe − y ⎣ ⎦ x y′ = 3x y y′ = ey xe y + 1 y − 2 x +1 x − 2 y +1 y +1 x +1 3 At (3. ( ) ⎛1⎞ 19. 5 x3 (4 y 3 y ′) + 15 x 2 y 4 − 1 + 2 yy ′ = 0 y ′(20 x3 y 3 + 2 y ) = 1 − 15 x 2 y 4 y′ = 23.

Thus we can write as p dp 31. y′ = p= 10 2 q +3 d d ⎡ 10 ⎤ ( p) = ⎢ ⎥ dp dp ⎢⎣ q 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ 20q dq 1= − ⋅ 2 2 dp (q + 3) dq (q 2 + 3)2 =− dp 20q From the original equation. y ′ = −4 and the tangent line is given 34. 3). or y = x + 1. 3x 2 + xy ′ + y + 2 y ′ = 0 d d ( p) = 100 − q 2 dp dp 20 d d ⎡ 20 ⎤ ( p) = ⎢ ⎥ dp dp ⎢⎣ (q + 5)2 ⎥⎦ d d ⎡ ( p) = 20(q + 5)−2 ⎤ ⎦ dp dp ⎣ At (0. by y − 1 = −4[x − (−1)]. we have 10 dq q 2 + 3 = . 1= − 2 2 33. . at ( x0 . 1). p = 400 − q 8x 4x y′ = − =− 18 y 9y ( d d ( p) = 400 − q dp dp ⎛ 1⎞ Thus at ⎜ 0. 8 x + 18 yy′ = 0 32. or y = −4x − 3. p = 3 x + x yy ′ + xy + y y ′ = 2 yy ′ ( x 2 y + y 3 − 2 y ) y ′ = − x3 − xy 2 y′ = − x( x 2 + y 2 ) y ( x 2 + y 2 − 2) 40 (q + 5) 3 ⋅ dq dp dq (q + 5)3 =− dp 40 3x2 + y y′ = − x + 2y At (−1. y′ = 0. y ′ = 0. 2). y0 ) . ln 2 20q =− I = −λ t I0 ln I − ln I 0 = −λ t 1 dI = −λ I dt dI = −λ I dt 441 5 qp 2 . 2 2 At (4.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12.4 27. ⎝ 3⎠ 4 x0 y′ = − . ⎟ . 2 yy′ + [ xy′ + y (1)] − 2 x = 0 2x − y 2y + x 1 and the tangent line is given by 2 1 1 y − 3 = ( x − 4). p = 100 − q 2 ( (q + 5)2 1= − 29. 9 y0 28. y′ = 1 dq ⋅ 2 q dp dq = −2 q dp 2( x 2 + y 2 )(2 x + 2 yy ′) = 8 yy ′ ( x 2 + y 2 )( x + yy ′) = 2 yy ′ 3 ) ) ( ) dq =− 10 p dq 1 = −2q ⋅ dp dp dq 1 =− dp 2q 35. 30.

S 2 + ) ( ) ⎡ ln E ⎤ ⎢ ln10 − log ( 2.5E ln10 Thus df df f . Differentiating implicitly with respect 0 = f (1) + λ dC 2S + 2 − I = 1− . dI dI 2 dS 2S + 2 − I dS 2S + 2 − I (2 S − I ) = . From the original equation. dI 2 dI 2(2S − I ) 2S 11 1 ⎛ 1 dE ⎞ ⋅ ln10 ⎜⎝ E dM ⎟⎠ Marginal propensity to consume = dE = 1.5E ln10 dM d d ⎡ ln E ⎤ (1.5 × 10 ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡log E − log 2.5M ) = dM 1. dλ dλ λ Solving v = f λ for f and differentiating: f = λ f (t ) 1 +σ = C1 + C2t. = .5M ) = − log(2.5 × 1011 ) ⎥ dE dE ⎢⎣ ln10 ⎦ dM 1 1 1. dI 2(24 − 16) 16 16 8 ln f (t ) − ln[1 − f (t )] + σ [1 − f (t )]−1 = C1 + C2t . Differentiating implicitly 4 with respect to I: dS 1 dS ⎤ ⎡ 2S + I = ⎢ S (1) + I + 1. (P + a)(v + b) = k d d [( P + a )(v + b)] = (k ) dP dP dv ( P + a) + (v + b)(1) = 0 dP dv v+b =− .5 = d dM d dM ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 2 I = SI + I . which is the same 2 2 λ dλ λ λ as before. ⎡ [1 − f (t )]2 + f (t )[1 − f (t )] + σ f (t ) ⎤ f ′(t ) ⎢ ⎥ = C2 f (t )[1 − f (t )]2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎡ [1 − f (t )][1 − f (t ) + f (t )] + σ f (t ) ⎤ f ′(t ) ⎢ ⎥ = C2 f (t )[1 − f (t )]2 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎡ [1 − f (t )] + σ f (t ) ⎤ f ′(t ) ⎢ ⎥ = C2 2 ⎣⎢ f (t )[1 − f (t )] ⎦⎥ df v fλ f =− =− = − . dI 2 dI ⎥⎦ ⎣ 39. v = f λ.5M = log ⎜ 11 ⎟ ⎝ 2.5M ) = dM d (1. 40. 1. so 38. dP P+a dv k v+b = . Thus we can write as dP ( P + a) Thus f ′(t ) = dv k =− .5M = log E − log 2. dP ( P + a)2 442 C2 f (t )[1 − f (t )]2 σ f (t ) + [1 − f (t )] .Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ⎛ ⎞ E 36. 37.5 = ⋅ dE ln10 E dM 1 = dE 1. Thus 1 − f (t ) 1 − f (t ) f ′(t ) f ′(t ) σ f ′(t ) + + = C2 f (t ) 1 − f (t ) [1 − f (t )]2 to λ: v dC 24 + 2 − 16 10 6 3 = 1− = 1− = = . =− .5 × 1011 d (1.5 × 10 ⎠ ( 1.5 × 1011 ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ dS dS I −I = S +1− . = 1− dI dI ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 σ f ′(t ) ⎢ + + ⎥ = C2 2 ⎣⎢ f (t ) 1 − f (t ) [1 − f (t )] ⎦⎥ . ln dC dS . When I = 16 and dI 2(2 S − I ) S = 12.

2 x + x − 1 2 x + 3⎦ ⎣ Expressing y′ in terms of x. ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ Using properties of logarithms on the right side gives ( ) ln y = 2 ln( x + 1) + ln( x − 2) + ln x 2 + 3 . ln y = ln ⎢ (3 x + 4)(8 x − 1) 2 3x 2 + 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) = ln(3x + 4) + 2 ln(8 x − 1) + 4 ln 3 x 2 + 1 y′ 3 8 6x = + 2⋅ + 4⋅ y 3x + 4 8x −1 3x2 + 1 ⎡ 3 16 24 x ⎤ + + y′ = y ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 3x + 4 8 x − 1 3x2 + 1 ⎦ 4 ⎡ 3 16 24 x ⎤ + + = (3 x + 4)(8 x − 1)2 3 x 2 + 1 ⎢ ⎥ x + x − 3 4 8 1 3x2 + 1 ⎦ ⎣ ( ( ) ) 2 ⎡ ⎤ 3. Differentiating both sides with respect to x. Take natural logarithms of both sides.5 Problems 12. y = ( x + 1)2 ( x − 2) x 2 + 3 . ln y = ln ⎢ 3x3 − 1 (2 x + 5)3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) = 2 ln 3 x3 − 1 + 3ln(2 x + 5) y′ 9 x2 2 = 2⋅ + 3⋅ 3 +5 y 2 x 3x − 1 ⎡ 18 x 2 6 ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ + ⎥ 3 ⎢⎣ 3 x − 1 2 x + 5 ⎥⎦ ⎡ 18 x 2 2 6 ⎤ y′ = 3 x3 − 1 (2 x + 5)3 ⎢ + ⎥ 3 ⎢⎣ 3x − 1 2 x + 5 ⎥⎦ ( ) 443 . ( ) ⎡ 2 1 2x ⎤ + + y′ = ( x + 1)2 ( x − 2) x 2 + 3 ⎢ ⎥ 2 1 2 x + x − x + 3⎦ ⎣ ( ) 4⎤ ⎡ 2.5 ( ) 1. 2 y x +1 x − 2 x + 3 Solving for y′ . ( ) ln y = ln ⎡ ( x + 1) 2 ( x − 2) x 2 + 3 ⎤ . y′ 2 1 2x = + + . ⎡ 2 1 2x ⎤ + + y′ = y ⎢ ⎥.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12.

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 4. ln y = ln ⎡ (2 x + 1) x3 + 2 3 2 x + 5 ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 1 1 = ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x3 + 2) + ln(2 x + 5) 2 3 2 1 3x 2 1 2 y′ = + ⋅ + ⋅ 3 y 2x + 1 2 x + 2 3 2x + 5 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 3x2 2 + + y′ = y ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎣⎢ 2 x + 1 2( x + 2) 3(2 x + 5) ⎦⎥ ⎡ 2 ⎤ 3x 2 2 = (2 x + 1) x3 + 2 3 2 x + 5 ⎢ + + ⎥ 3 ⎢⎣ 2 x + 1 2( x + 2) 3(2 x + 5) ⎥⎦ 444 . y = x + 1 x 2 − 2 x + 4 ln y = ln ⎛⎜ x + 1 x 2 − 2 x + 4 ⎞⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 2 ln y = ln( x + 1) + ln x − 2 + ln( x + 4) 2 2 2 y′ 1 ⎡ 1 2x 1 ⎤ = + + y 2 ⎢⎣ x + 1 x 2 − 2 x + 4 ⎥⎦ ( y′ = = ) y⎡ 1 2x 1 ⎤ + + 2 ⎢⎣ x + 1 x 2 − 2 x + 4 ⎥⎦ x + 1 x2 − 2 x + 4 ⎡ 1 2x 1 ⎤ + + ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 ⎣ x +1 x − 2 x + 4 ⎦ 6. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y = (2 x 2 + 1) 8 x 2 − 1 ln y = ln ⎡⎢ (2 x 2 + 1) 8 x 2 − 1 ⎤⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 = ln(2 x 2 + 1) + ln(8 x 2 − 1) 2 y′ 4x 1 16 x = + ⋅ y 2 x2 + 1 2 8x2 − 1 ⎡ 4x 8x ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ + ⎥ 2 ⎣ 2 x + 1 8x2 − 1 ⎦ ⎡ 4x 8x ⎤ = (2 x 2 + 1) 8 x 2 − 1 ⎢ + ⎥ 2 ⎣ 2 x + 1 8x2 − 1 ⎦ 5.

x2 + 5 ⎡ 2 x 1 ⎤ − x + 9 ⎢⎣ x 2 + 5 x + 9 ⎥⎦ 1 2 ( 2x 2 +2 ) 2 ( x + 1)2 (3x + 2) ( ) 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ 2x + 2 ⎥ ln y = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ( x + 1) (3x + 2) ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( ) 2 = 2 ln 2 x + 2 − 2 ln( x + 1) − ln(3 x + 2) +2 ) ( ) ) 2 ⎡1 4x x ⎤ + − ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 + x2 ⎦ 2 + x2 ⎣ x 1 + x ( x + 3)( x − 2) 2x −1 ( x + 3)( x − 2) ln y = ln 2x −1 1 1 1 = ln( x + 3) + ln( x − 2) − ln(2 x − 1) 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 y′ 1 1 = ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ y 2 x + 3 2 x − 2 2 2x −1 1 2 ⎤ y⎡ 1 + − y′ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ x + 3 x − 2 2 x − 1 ⎥⎦ 1 ( x + 3)( x − 2) ⎡ 1 1 2 ⎤ = + − ⎢ ⎥ 2 2x −1 ⎣ x + 3 x − 2 2x −1⎦ y= 3 ( ) 6 x3 + 1 2 x 6 e−4 x ( ( ) ) 1⎡ ln(6) + 2 ln x3 + 1 − 6 ln( x) − (−4 x ) ln e ⎤ ⎦⎥ 3 ⎣⎢ 1 = ⎡ ln(6) + 2 ln x3 + 1 − 6 ln( x) + 4 x ⎤ ⎦⎥ 3 ⎣⎢ = ⎡ 8x 2 3 ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ − − 2 x 1 3 x + + 2 ⎦⎥ ⎣ 2x + 2 2 ( x 1 + x2 12. ln y = ln ( ) y′ = 9. ln y = ln y′ 4x 1 3 = 2⋅ − 2⋅ − 2 y x + 1 3x + 2 2x + 2 ( 2x ) ⎡1 4x x ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ + − ⎥ 2 x 1+ x 2 + x2 ⎦ ⎣ y′ 1 ⎡ 2 x 1 ⎤ = ⎢ − 2 y 2 ⎣ x + 5 x + 9 ⎥⎦ y ⎡ 2x 1 ⎤ y′ = ⎢ − 2 ⎣ x 2 + 5 x + 9 ⎥⎦ y′ = 2 2 + x2 ( x +5 1 ⎡ = ln x 2 + 5 − ln( x + 9) ⎤ ⎦⎥ x+9 2 ⎣⎢ 8.5 1 − x2 1 7. ln y = ln ) 1 = ln x + 2 ln 1 + x 2 − ln 2 + x 2 2 y′ 1 2x 1 2x = + 2⋅ − ⋅ y x 1 + x2 2 2 + x2 1 − x2 ⎡ x 2 ⎤ + ⎢ 2 1 − 2 x ⎣ x − 1 1 − 2 x ⎥⎦ 2 ( x 1 + x2 2 ⎤ y′ 1 ⎡ 3 x 2 6 = ⎢2 ⋅ − + 4⎥ y 3 ⎢⎣ x3 + 1 x ⎦⎥ 2 ⎤ y ⎡ 6x 6 − + 4⎥ y′ = ⎢ 3 3 ⎣⎢ x + 1 x ⎦⎥ ⎡ 4x 2 3 ⎤ = − − ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 ( x + 1) (3x + 2) ⎣ x + 1 x + 1 3 x + 2 ⎦ ( ) 3 1 3 6 x +1 y= 3 x 6 e−4 x 445 2 ⎡ 6 x2 ⎤ 6 − + 4⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎣⎢ x + 1 x ⎦⎥ . ln y = ln = ln 1 − x 2 − ln(1 − 2 x ) 1− 2x 2 y′ 1 −2 x −2 = ⋅ − y 2 1 − x2 1 − 2 x ⎡ x 2 ⎤ + y′ = y ⎢ − 2 1 − 2x ⎥ ⎣ 1− x ⎦ ( y′ = ) 10. y = 11.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12.

x ⎛ 3 ⎞ 16. Thus 15. y = (3 x + 1) 2 x .Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 2 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 17. x x 19. y = ⎜ ⎟ . Thus ln y = 2x ⎤ x ⎞⎤ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 3 ⎟ ⎥ = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎢ −2 + ln ⎜ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎣ ⎝x y′ ⎡ 1 ⎤ x = ex ⎢ ⎥ + [ln(ln x)]e y ⎣ x ln x ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ + ln(ln x) ⎥ e x y′ = y ⎢ x x ln ⎣ ⎦ x ⎡ 1 ⎤ = (ln x)e ⎢ + ln(ln x ) ⎥ e x x x ln ⎣ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ 446 . Thus ( = ln 4 + x + 3 x ln x. thus ln y = ln( x 2 + 1) x +1 = ( x + 1) ln( x 2 + 1). 1 ⎦⎥ ⎧ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎫ y′ = 2 ⎨x ⎜ ⎟ + [ln(3x + 1)](1) ⎬ + y 3 x 1 ⎠ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ . Thus 2 13. y = x x +1 . y = 4e x x3 x . Thus ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ln y = x ln ⎜ ⎟ = x[ln 3 − 2 ln x]. y = x x . thus ln y = ln x x +1 = ( x 2 + 1) ln x. Thus ln y = e x ln(ln x). ⎡ ⎛1⎞ ⎤ y′ = 1 + 3 ⎢ x ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(1) ⎥ y x ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ y′ = y (4 + 3ln x) 1 x x (1 − ln x) y′ = 4e x x3 x (4 + 3ln x) x2 x 20. y = (ln x)e . y′ 1 = ( x 2 + 1) ⋅ + (ln x)(2 x) y x 2 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ + 2 x ln x ⎟ y′ = y ⎜ ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛ ⎞ 2 + x 1 = x x +1 ⎜ + 2 x ln x ⎟ ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 14. y = ( x 2 + 1) x +1 . ⎝ x2 ⎠ y′ ⎛ 2⎞ = x ⎜ − ⎟ + (ln 3 − 2 ln x )(1) y ⎝ x⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞ = −2 + ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x2 ⎠ ⎡ ⎛ 3 y ′ = y ⎢ −2 + ln ⎜ ⎝ x2 ⎣ ) ln y = ln 4 + ln e x x3 x = ln 4 + ln e x + ln x3 x 1 y′ x x − (ln x)(1) = y x2 ⎡ 1 − ln x ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x2 ⎦ y′ = = 2 x ln(3 x + 1) ⎡ 3x ⎤ + ln(3 x + 1) ⎥ y′ = 2 y ⎢ + 3 x 1 ⎣ ⎦ ln y = ln(2 x) x = x [ln 2 + ln x ]. y = (2 x) x ln y = ln ⎡( 3x + 1) ⎣⎢ ⎡ 3x ⎤ = 2(3 x + 1) 2 x ⎢ + ln(3x + 1) ⎥ + 3 x 1 ⎣ ⎦ 18. y′ 2x = x + 1⋅ + ln( x 2 + 1) ⋅1 2 y x +1 ⎡ 2 x( x + 1) ⎤ + ln( x 2 + 1) ⎥ y′ = y ⎢ 2 ⎣ x +1 ⎦ + 2 x ( x 1) ⎡ ⎤ = ( x 2 + 1) x +1 ⎢ + ln( x 2 + 1) ⎥ 2 ⎣ x +1 ⎦ y′ 1 ⎡1⎤ = x ⎢ ⎥ + [ln 2 + ln x] ⋅ y 2 x ⎣x⎦ ⎡ 1 ln(2 x) ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ + ⎥ 2 x ⎦ ⎣ x ⎡ 2 + ln(2 x) ⎤ y′ = (2 x) x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 x ⎦ ( ) 1 ln x ln x = .

⎥=e . or y = (4e + 2e ln 2)x − 2e − 2e ln 2. then = 1 ⎢ + 2 ln(1) ⎥ = 12. y = (3x )−2 x ln y = –2x ln(3x) ⎧ ⎡1 ⎫ y′ ⎤ = −2 ⎨ x ⎢ (3) ⎥ + [ln(3 x)](1) ⎬ y ⎩ ⎣ 3x ⎦ ⎭ 23. dy 1 ⎡ 1 + ln(1) ⎤ −1 =1 ⎢ When x = e. y = [ f ( x)]g ( x ) ln y = g(x) ln[f(x)] ⎛ 1 ⎞ y′ = g ( x) ⎜ ⋅ f ′( x) ⎟ + ln[ f ( x)]g ′( x) y ⎝ f ( x) ⎠ tangent line is y − 1 = 1(x − 1) or y = x.3 y = xx ln y = x ln x y′ 1 = x ⋅ + (ln x )(1) = 1 + ln x y x y ′ = y (1 + ln x) = x x (1 + ln x) When x = 1. 24. ) = x + x ln x 2 + 1 3x = e −1. ⎡ 1 ln(ln x) ⎤ y′ = y ⎢ + x ⎥⎦ ⎣x ⎡ 1 + ln(ln x) ⎤ y′ = (ln x)ln x ⎢ ⎥ x ⎣ ⎦ ) y = xx ln y = x ln x y′ 1 = x ⋅ + (ln x )(1) = 1 + ln x y x When x = 1. y = e x ( x 2 + 1) x ln y = ln(4 x − 3) 2 x +1 = (2 x + 1) ln(4 x − 3) ln y = ln e x + ln( x 2 + 1) x ( y′ ⎡ 4 ⎤ = (2 x + 1) ⎢ ⎥ + [ln(4 x − 3)](2) y ⎣ 4x − 3 ⎦ ( ) ⎡ ⎛ 2 x ⎞⎤ ⎡ y′ 2 ⎤ = 1+ ⎢x ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + ⎣⎢ln x + 1 (1) ⎥⎦ 2 y ⎣ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎦ ⎡ 4(2 x + 1) ⎤ + 2 ln(4 x − 3) ⎥ y′ = y ⎢ − 4 x 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 2 x2 + ln x 2 + 1 ⎥ y′ = y ⎢1 + 2 ⎣⎢ x + 1 ⎦⎥ When x = 1. dx ⎣1 ⎦ 22. y 27. ⎛ ⎞ g ( x) y′ = y ⎜ f ′( x) + g ′( x) ln[ f ( x)] ⎟ f ( x) ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ g ( x) y′ = [ f ( x)]g ( x ) ⎜ f ′( x) + g ′( x) ln[ f ( x)] ⎟ f ( x) ⎝ ⎠ 447 . y = ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 3) 2 ln y = ln(x + 1) + 2 ln(x + 2) + 2 ln(x + 3) y′ 1 2 2 = + + y x +1 x + 2 x + 3 = –2[1 + ln(3x)] y′ ⋅100 gives the percentage rate of change. Thus an equation of the tangent line is y – 36 = 96(x – 0).3 1 x= 3e1. then y = 1 and y ′ = 11 (1 + ln1) = 1(1 + 0) = 1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 12.3 ln(3x) = –1. or y = 96x + 36.5 21. Thus an equation of the tangent line is y − 2e = 2e(2 + ln 2)(x − 1). then y = 2e and y′ = 2e[1 + 1 + ln(2)] = 2e(2 + ln 2). An equation of the 28. ( dy ⎡ 12 ⎤ When x = 1. dx ⎣ e ⎦ y′ = 1 + ln1 = 1 + 0 = 1. then y = 36 and y′ = 96. y = (ln x)ln x ln y = ln(ln x)ln x = (ln x) ln(ln x) y′ ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎛1⎞ = (ln x ) ⎢ ⋅ ⎥ + [ln(ln x)] ⎜ ⎟ y ⎣ ln x x ⎦ ⎝x⎠ 26. y = (4 x − 3) 2 x +1 25.3 2 2 ⎤ ⎡ 1 y′ = y ⎢ + + ⎥ ⎣ x +1 x + 2 x + 3⎦ When x = 0. y Thus –2[1 + ln(3x)](100) = 60 1 + ln(3x) = –0.

Let f ( x) = 20 x − 0.01xn2 − 850 + 3ln xn 20 − 0. which is a 0.82602) 448 ) . to find the break-even quantity between 10 and 50.1% change in 2 ⎝2 ⎠ revenue. ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis r′ p′ q′ ⋅100% = ⋅100% + ⋅100% r p q p′ = (1 + η ) 100% p where η = η= p q dp dq = p dq ⋅ .02 xn2 + 3 x2 = 50 − f (50) ≈ 42.6 3 1. x so we use 50 to be the first approximation.02 xn2 + 3 ( 20 xn2 − 0. then f ′( x) = 20 − 0.2) ⎜ % ⎟ = −0. r′ p′ q′ ⋅100% = ⋅100% + ⋅100% r p q p′ = (1 + η ) 100% p where η = p q dp dq = p dq ⋅ .Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics 29.01xn3 + 853 xn − 3xn ln xn 20 xn − 0.85459 f ′(42.02 xn2 +3 −0.2)(−10%) = 2% change in revenue.02 x + . x1 . then η = −1.1% decrease in revenue. q dp p 500 − 40 p + p 2 ⋅ (−40 + 2 p) 1 ⎛1 ⎞ % increase in price will result in a (1 − 1. When p = 15.82602) ≈ 42. xn +1 = xn − = xn − = = f ( xn ) f ′ ( xn ) = xn − 20 xn − 0. which is a 2% increase in revenue.2 and a 30.01x 2 − 850 + 3ln x.82602 − f (42.01xn3 − 850 xn + 3xn ln xn 20 xn − 0.2 and a 10% decrease in price will result in a (1 − 1. f(10) ≈ –644 and f(50) ≈ 137. q dp p η= ⋅ (−40 + 2 p) 500 − 40 p + p 2 When p = 15. Principles in Practice 12.01xn3 − 850 xn + 3 xn ln xn 20 xn − 0. then η = −1.82602 f ′(50) x3 = 42.02 xn3 + 3xn − 20 xn2 − 0.02 xn + 3 xn−1 20 xn2 − 0.

63703 − f (1958. 3 ⎛1⎞ 2.25410 0. the root is approximately x4 = 0. so we use 2000 to be the first approximation.6 f (42.0001.25000 0. Let f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 1.74457 f ′(1958.85459) ≈ 42.25410 Because x4 − x3 < 0.6 1.25410 3 0.74415 f ′(1957.85459 f ′(42. We have 2 ⎝2⎠ x3 + 2 xn2 − 1 f ′( x) = 3x 2 + 4 x.63703) x4 = 1957. f ⎜ ⎟ = − and 2 8 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛1⎞ f(1) = 2 (note the sign change). so there must be a root between 0 and 1.74415) ≈ 1957. we select x1 = .0001.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x4 = 42. so the recursion formula is xn +1 = xn − n 3 xn2 + 4 xn 449 . Moreover.0001. so we select x1 = 0 as our initial estimate.00000 0.74415) Since the values of x4 and x5 differ by less than 0. the recursion formula is xn +1 = xn − f ( xn ) x3 − 4 xn + 1 = xn − n .63703) ≈ 1957. We see that f(0) = 1 and f(1) = –2 have opposite signs. Since f ⎜ ⎟ is closer to 0 than is f(1).74415 − f (1957.85459 or 43 televisions. Thus we obtain: n xn xn +1 1 0.74457 − f (1957.85459) Since the values of x3 and x4 differ by less than 0.74415 or 1958 televisions.63703 f ′(2000) x3 = 1958. Problems 12. we take the first break-even quantity to be x ≈ 42. we take the second break-even quantity to be x ≈ 1957. We want a root of f ( x) = x3 − 4 x + 1 = 0. x2 = 2000 − f (2000) ≈ 1958.85459 − Section 12.74457) ≈ 1957.74415 f ′(1957. f(1900) ≈ 1073 and f(2000) ≈ –827. f(0) is closer to 0 than is f(1).74457) x5 = 1957.25410.25000 2 0. for the break-even quantity between 1900 and 2000. Since f ′( x) = 3x 2 − 4. f ′ ( xn ) 3 xn2 − 4 Simplifying gives xn +1 = 2 xn3 − 1 3 xn2 − 4 . x1 .

75000 2 −0.32472 1.0001. the recursion formula is approximately x6 = 1.09457 2.68233.63636 0. We have f(2.32472 3xn2 + 1 n xn xn +1 1 −1 −0.61803 4 2.32472 5 1.50000 2. Let f ( x) = x − x − 1. the recursion formula is 3 3. so xn +1 = xn − 2 xn3 − 1 Because x5 − x4 < 0. the root is approximately x4 = 2.61838 3 2.68605 −0.09455 Because x4 − x3 < 0. so we cannot use 0 for x1.) 5. Since f ′( x) = 3x 2 − 2.58974 0. We have f(2) = –1 and f(3) = 16.00000 1.68234 −0. Let f ( x) = x3 + x + 1.58425 2.875 and f(3) = 6.50000 0.61803 n xn 1 Since x5 − x4 < 0. We have f(1) = –1 and f(2) = 5 (note the sign change). We choose x1 = 2. Let f ( x) = x3 − 9 x + 6.5) = –0.61803 0.58425 2 0.5.0001. We have f ′( x) = 3x − 9 .68233 approximately x5 = −0.58423 2.34783 1.32520 4 1.10000 2. so f(2) is closer to 0 than is f(3).58423 3 0. xn3 − 2 xn − 5 3 xn2 − 2 = 2 xn3 + 5 3 xn2 − 2 n xn xn +1 1 2. approximately x5 = 0.0001. Choose x1 = −1.32520 1. x3 = 2 x + 5.58974 2. (Note that f ′(0) = 0.68605 3 −0. the root is Because x5 − x4 < 0.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis n xn xn +1 xn +1 1 2. we choose x1 = 1.09457 3 2.0001.68234 4 −0.00000 2.58423 4 0. the root is approximately x5 = 2.5) is closer to 0 than is f(3).58423. 6. so use f ( x) = x3 − 2 x − 5 = 0.61838 0.75000 −0.10000 2 2.63636 2 2. Since f(1) is closer to 0 than is f(2). Since f(2. the root is 2 xn3 − 9 xn + 6 3xn2 − 9 f ( xn ) x3 + xn + 1 = xn − n f ′( xn ) 3 xn2 + 1 .34783 3 1. Since f ′( x) = 3 x 2 + 1. 450 . the root is Since x6 − x5 < 0.09455. xn +1 = xn − 4.50000 1.50000 2 1. We xn +1 = xn − have f ′( x) = 3 x 2 − 1. We have f(−1) = −1 and f(0) = 1 (note the sign change).32472. we choose x1 = 2.61803. so the recursion formula is xn +1 = xn − = f ( xn ) f ′ ( xn ) 2 xn3 + 1 3xn2 = xn − = xn3 − xn − 1 3xn2 − 1 −1 n xn xn +1 1 1.0001.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 12.6

7. x 4 = 3x − 1 , so use f ( x) = x 4 − 3x + 1 = 0 . Since
f(0) = 1 and f(1) = –1 (note the sign change), f(0)
and f(1) are equally close to 0. We shall choose

9. Let f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 − 3. f(1) = –3 and
f(2) = 1 (note the sign change), so f(2) is closer
to 0 than is f(1). We choose x1 = 2. Since

x1 = 0. Since f ′( x) = 4 x3 − 3, the recursion
formula is
f ( xn )
x 4 − 3 xn + 1
= xn − n
xn +1 = xn −
f ′ ( xn )
4 xn3 − 3
=

f ′( x) = 4 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x, the recursion formula is
xn +1 = xn −

x 4 − 2 xn3 + xn2 − 3
f ( x)
= xn − n
f ′ ( xn )
4 xn3 − 6 xn2 + 2 xn

3xn4 − 1

n

xn

xn +1

4 xn3 − 3

1

2.00000

1.91667

2

1.91667

1.90794

3

1.90794

1.90785

n

xn

xn +1

1

0.00000

0.33333

2

0.33333

0.33766

3

0.33766

0.33767

Because x4 − x3 < 0.0001, the root is
approximately x4 = 1.90785.
10. Let f ( x) = x 4 − x3 + x − 2. f(1) = –1 and
f(2) = 8, so f(1) is closer to 0 than is f(2). We

Because x4 − x3 < 0.0001, the root is
approximately x4 = 0.33767.

choose x1 = 1. Since f ′( x) = 4 x3 − 3x 2 + 1, the
recursion formula is

8. Let f ( x) = x 4 + 4 x − 1. Since f(–2) = 7 and
f(–1) = –4, f(–1) is closer to 0 than is f(–2).
However, f ′(−1) = 0, so we shall choose

xn +1 = xn −

x1 = −2. Since f ′( x) = 4 x3 + 4, the recursion
formula is
xn +1 = xn −

xn4 + 4 xn − 1
4 xn3 + 4

=

3xn4 + 1
4 xn3 + 4

xn4 − xn3 + xn − 2
4 xn3 − 3 xn2 + 1

n

xn

xn +1

1

1.00000

1.50000

2

1.50000

1.34677

n

3

1.34677

1.31040

xn

xn +1

4

1.31040

1.30858

1

−2.00000

−1.75000

5

1.30858

1.30857

2

−1.75000

−1.67092

3

−1.67092

−1.66332

4

−1.66332

−1.66325

Because x6 − x5 < 0.0001, the root is
approximately x6 = 1.30857.
11. The desired number is x, where x3 = 71, or

Because x5 − x4 < 0.0001, the root is

x3 − 71 = 0. Thus we want to find a root of

approximately x5 = −1.66325.

f ( x) = x3 − 71 = 0. Since 43 = 64 , the solution
should be close to 4, so we choose x1 = 4 as our

initial estimate. We have f ′( x) = 3x 2 , so the
recursion formula is
f ( xn )
x3 − 71 2 xn3 + 71
= xn − n
=
xn +1 = xn −
f ′ ( xn )
3xn2
3xn2

451

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

n

xn

xn +1

n

xn

xn +1

1

4

4.146

1

3

2.37

2

4.146

4.141

2

2.37

2.03

4

4.141

4.141

3

2.03

1.94

4

1.94

1.94

Thus to three decimal places,

3

71 = 4.141.

Thus the solutions are –4.99 and 1.94.

12. The desired number is x, where x 4 = 19, or

14. We must solve ln x = 5 – x. That is, we must
determine all roots of f(x) = ln(x) + x – 5 = 0. A
rough sketch shows that the graph of the
logarithmic function y = ln x intersects the line
y = 5 – x at one point, where x is between 3 and
1
4. We choose x1 = 3. Since f ′( x) = + 1, the
x
recursion formula is
f ( xn )
ln( xn ) + xn − 5
= xn −
xn +1 = xn −
1 +1
f ′ ( xn )

x 4 − 19 = 0. Thus we want to find a root of
f ( x) = x 4 − 19. Since 24 = 16, the solution
should be close to 2, so we choose x1 = 2 as our

initial estimate. We have f ′( x) = 4 x3 , so the
recursion formula is
xn +1 = xn −
=

f ( xn )
x 4 − 19
= xn − n
f ′( xn )
4 xn3

3 xn4 + 19

xn

4 xn3

n

xn

xn +1

n

xn

xn +1

1

3

3.676

1

2

2.09

2

2.676

3.693

2

2.09

2.09

3

3.693

3.693

Thus to two decimal places,

4 19

Thus the solution is approximately 3.693.

= 2.09.

15. The break-even quantity is the value of q when
total revenue and total cost are equal: r = c, or
r – c = 0. Thus we must find a root of

13. We want real solutions to e x = x + 5. Thus we
want to find roots of f ( x) = e x − x − 5 = 0. A

(

f (q) = q − 250 + 0.1q3 = 0, so f ′(q) = 1 + 0.3q 2 .
The recursion formula is
f ( qn )
q − 250 + 0.1qn3
= qn − n
qn +1 = qn −
f ′ ( qn )
1 + 0.3qn 2

two roots. Since f ′( x) = e x − 1, the recursion
formula is
f ( xn )
e xn − xn − 5
= xn −
xn +1 = xn −
f ′ ( xn )
e xn − 1

We choose q1 = 13, as suggested.

If x1 = −5, we obtain
n

xn

xn +1

1

−5

−4.99

2

−4.99

−4.99

)

3q − 250 + 2q − 0.1q3 = 0, or

rough sketch of the exponential function y = e x
and the line y = x + 5 shows that there are two
intersection points: one when x is near –5, and
the other when x is near 3. Thus we must find

n

qn

qn +1

1

13

13.33

2

13.33

13.33

Thus q ≈ 13.33.

If x1 = 3, we obtain:
452

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis
16. a.

Section 12.6

The break-even quantity is the value of q
when total cost = total revenue: c = r,
c – r = 0. Thus we solve
q2
1
40 + 3q +
+ = 7 q. Multiplying both
1000 q
sides by q and simplifying, we see that the
problem is equivalent to solving
q3
f (q) =
− 4q 2 + 40q + 1 = 0.
1000

= qn −

qn

qn +1

1

3

2.875

2

2.875

2.880

3

2.880

2.880

Thus q ≈ 2.880.
18. In the same manner as problem 17, we must find
a root of f (q) = 0.2q3 + 1.5q − 8 = 0, so

3q 2
− 8q + 40, the recursion
b. Since f ′(q) =
1000
formula is
f ( qn )
qn +1 = qn −
f ′ ( qn )
qn3
− 4qn 2 + 40qn
1000
3qn2
− 8qn + 40
1000

n

f ′(q ) = 0.6q 2 + 1.5. The recursion formula is
qn +1 = qn −

f (qn )
0.2qn3 + 1.5qn − 8
= qn −
f ′(qn )
0.6qn2 + 1.5

We select q1 = 5 as suggested.

+1

We select q1 = 10 as suggested.

n

qn

qn +1

1

5

3.54

2

3.54

2.85

n

qn

qn +1

3

2.85

2.71

1

10

10.05

4

2.71

2.70

2

10.05

10.05

5

2.70

2.70

Thus q = 2.70, so p = 10 − 2.70 = 7.30 (from the
demand equation).

Thus q ≈ 10.05.
17. The equilibrium quantity is the value of q for
which supply and demand are equal, that is, it is
100
, or of
a root of 2q + 5 =
q2 + 1
100
f ( q ) = 2q + 5 −
= 0. Since
q2 + 1
200q
f ′(q) = 2 +
, the recursion formula is
2
2
q +1

(

qn +1 = qn −

19. For a critical value of f ( x) =

we want a root of f ′( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 5 = 0. Since
d
[ f ′( x)] = 2 x − 2, the recursion formula is
dx
xn 2 − 2 xn − 5
.
2 xn − 2
For the given interval [3, 4], note that
f ′(3) = −2 and f ′(4) = 3 have opposite signs.
Thus there is a root x between 3 and 4. Since 3 is
closer to 0, we shall select x1 = 3.
xn +1 = xn −

)

f ( qn )

f ′ ( qn )

= qn −

100
qn 2 +1
200 qn

2qn + 5 −
2+

( q +1)
n

2

x3
− x 2 − 5 x + 1,
3

2

A rough sketch shows that the graph of the
supply equation intersects the graph of the
demand equation when q is near 3. Thus we
select q1 = 3.

n

xn

xn +1

1

3.0

3.5

2

3.5

3.45

3

3.45

3.45

Thus x ≈ 3.45.
453

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Principles in Practice 12.7
1.

6.

dh
= 0 − 16(2t ) = −32t ft/sec
dt

d 2F
dq

d 2h

d
= [−32t ] = −32 feet/sec2
2
dt
dt
The acceleration of the rock at time t is
–32 feet/sec2 or 32 feet/sec2 downward.

dq

7.

2
(q + 1)3

1
= x −1
x

y′ = − x −2
y ′′ = 2 x −3
y ′′′ = −6 x −4 = −

2. y′ = 5 x 4 − 8 x3 + 14 x

9.

y ′′ = 20 x3 − 24 x 2 + 14
2

y ′′′ = 60 x − 48 x

f (q) =

1
2q

4

=

6
x4

1 −4
q
2

f ′(q) = −2q −5
f ′′(q ) = 10q −6

dy
3.
= −1
dx

f ′′′(q ) = −60q −7 = −

=0

10.

dy
= −1 − 2 x
dx
dx 2

(q + 1) 2

f ( x) = x 2 ln x

8. y =

1. y′ = 12 x 2 − 24 x + 6
y ′′ = 24 x − 24
y ′′′ = 24

d2y

=

1

⎛2⎞
f ′′( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ + (1 + 2 ln x)(1) = 3 + 2 ln x
⎝x⎠

Problems 12.7

4.

3

=−

⎛1⎞
f ′( x) = x 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(2 x) = x(1 + 2 ln x)
⎝ x⎠

c′(q) = 14q + 11
c′′ = 14
When x = 3, the rate of change of the marginal
cost function is 14 dollars/unit2.

dx 2

2

d 3F

2. The rate of change of the marginal cost function
with respect to x is c′′(q) .

d2y

dF
1
=
dq q + 1

60
q7

1

f ( x) = x = x 2
1 − 12
x
2
1 −3
1
f ′′( x) = − x 2 = − 3
4
4x 2
f ′( x) =

= −2

5. y′ = 3x 2 + e x

11.

y ′′ = 6 x + e x

1

f (r ) = 9 − r = (9 − r ) 2
1
−1
f ′(r ) = − (9 − r ) 2
2
1
1
−3
f ′′(r ) = − (9 − r ) 2 = −
3
4
4(9 − r ) 2

y ′′′ = 6 + e x
y (4) = e x

454

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

12. y = e−4 x

(2 x + 5)(5 x − 2)
x +1
= ln(2 x + 5) + ln(5 x − 2) − ln( x + 1)

2

18. y = ln

y′ = −8 xe−4 x

2

2

y ′′ = −8 ⎢ x ⎜⎛ −8 xe−4 x
⎣ ⎝

= 8e−4 x

13. y =

2

Section 12.7

(8x − 1)

⎞ −4 x 2 (1) ⎤
⎟+e
⎥⎦

2
5
1
+

2 x + 5 5x − 2 x + 1
4
25
1
y ′′ = −

+
2
2
(2 x + 5)
(5 x − 2)
( x + 1) 2

y′ =

2

1
= (2 x + 3)−1
2x + 3

19.

dx 2

= 8(2 x + 3)

−3

z

=

8

20. y =

4

y′ =
=−

( x − 1)

dx

= −2( x − 1)−2

y ′′ = 4( x − 1) −3 =
1
2

16. y = 2 x + (2 x)

( )

2

=

e x (−1) − (1 − x)e x

(e )
x

2

=

x−2
ex

21. y = e2 x + e3 x
dy
= 2e2 x + 3e3 x
dx

4
( x − 1)3

d2y
dx 2

1
2

1
−1
−1
−1
y′ = x + (2 x) 2 (2) = x 2 + (2 x) 2
2

1 −3 1
1
1
−3
y ′′ = − x 2 − (2 x) 2 (2) = − ⎢ 3 +
3
⎢ 2
2
2
(2 x) 2
⎣ 2x

ex

d2y

( x − 1) 2
2

x

( )

x +1
x −1
( x − 1)(1) − ( x + 1)(1)
2

z

x
x
dy e (1) − x e
1− x
=
=
2
dx
ex
ex

y ′′ = 180(3x + 7)3

15. y =

z

2

z

(2 x + 3)3

14. y = (3 x + 7)5
y′ = 15(3 x + 7)

( )
( )
f ′′( z ) = ( ze ) (1) + ( z + 2) ⎡ ze + e (1) ⎤


= e ( z + 4z + 2)

f ′( z ) = z 2 e z + e z (2 z ) = ze z ( z + 2)

dy
= −2(2 x + 3)−2
dx
d2y

f ( z) = z 2e z

d3y

− 12

dx3
d4y




dx

4

d5 y
dx

17. y = ln[ x( x + 6)] = ln( x) + ln( x + 6)

5

= 4e2 x + 9e3 x
= 8e2 x + 27e3 x
= 16e2 x + 81e3 x
= 32e2 x + 243e3 x

d5 y

1
1
+
= x −1 + ( x + 6)−1
x x+6
⎡ 1
1 ⎤
y ′′ = − x −2 + (−1)( x + 6) −2 = − ⎢ +

2
( x + 6)2 ⎥⎦
⎢⎣ x

y′ =

dx

455

5

= 32e0 + 243e0 = 32 + 243 = 275
x =0

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

22. y = e

(

) = eln( x +1)

2 ln x3 +1

3

(

2

(

)

= x3 + 1

)

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

26. 9 x 2 + 16 y 2 = 25
18 x + 32 yy ′ = 0

2

y′ = 6 x 2 x 3 + 1 = 6 x 5 + 6 x 2

y′ = −

y ′′ = 30 x 4 + 12 x
When x = 1, then y ′′ = 30 + 12 = 42.

27.

( ) = − 4y

16 y 2
=−

2

+ x2

16 y3

−1

y3

y ′′ =
=

x
y
y (1) − x( y′)
y

y 2 − x2
y

3

2

=

−16
y

3

=

y−x

=−

y

1
⎡ 12 ⎛ 1 − 12 ⎞
⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎤
x ⎜ 2 y y′ ⎟ − y 2 ⎜ 12 x 2 ⎟ ⎥

1


⎠⎥
y ′′ = − ⎢ ⎝
4⎢
x





1
1 ⎤
⎡ 1⎛
1
2 ⎞

⎢ x2 ⎜ − y ⎟ − y2 ⎥
1 − y2
1
1

1

⎢ ⎜


1
4x 2 ⎠ x 2 ⎥
1 y2
1 ⎢ 4 x2
=− ⎢ ⎝
=− ⎢

8⎢
8⎢
x
x





⎣⎢
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
1

2 ⎤
⎢ 1 + y1 ⎥
1
⎡ 12
4
2 ⎤
1⎢
x2 ⎥ 1 ⎢ x + 4y ⎥
= ⎢
=

8 ⎢ x ⎥ 8 ⎢ 4 x 32 ⎥




⎢⎣
⎥⎦
1⎡ 4 ⎤
1
= ⎢ 3⎥= 3
8 ⎢ 4 x 2 ⎥ 8x 2

()
x
y

2

16
y3

25. y 2 = 4 x
2 yy′ = 4
y′ =

2
= 2 y −1
y

(

)

y ′′ = −2 y −2 y′ = −2 y −2 2 y −1 = −

1

1 x 2
1 y2
y′ = − ⋅
=− ⋅ 1
1
2 2 y− 2
4 x2

1

24. x 2 − y 2 = 16
2 x − 2 yy′ = 0
y′ =

1

1 − 12
−1
x + 2 y 2 y′ = 0
2
1 −1
−1
2 y 2 y′ = − x 2
2

16 y 2

16 y 3

9 16 y 2 + 9 x 2
225

=−
3
16
16 y
256 y 3

x + 4y 2 = 4

4 y (1) − x(4 y′)

16

)

x +4 y = 4
1
2

4 y − 4 x − 4xy

=−
=−

=−

x
4y

y ′′ = −

(

9x
9 y (1) − xy ′
9 y − x − 16 y
y ′′ = − ⋅
=− ⋅
16
16
y2
y2

23. x 2 + 4 y 2 − 16 = 0
2 x + 8 yy′ = 0
8 yy′ = −2 x
y′ = −

9x
16 y

4
y3

456







⎦⎥

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 12.7
31. y = e x + y

28. y 2 − 6 xy = 4
2 yy′ − 6[ xy′ + y (1)] = 0
2 yy′ − 6 xy′ = 6 y
(2 y − 6 x) y′ = 6 y

y′ = e x + y (1 + y′)
y ′ − e x + y y′ = e x + y

(

y ′′ = 3 ⋅

( y − 3 x) y′ − y ( y′ − 3)
( y − 3x) 2

= 9⋅

= 9⋅

y − 6 xy
( y − 3 x)

3

= 9⋅

4
( y − 3x)

3

=

y − xy′

y ′′ =

36
3

=

29. xy + y – x = 4
xy′ + y (1) + y′ − 1 = 0
xy′ + y′ = 1 − y
( x + 1) y′ = 1 − y

=

(1 + x)2

=

(1 − y )

y
1− y

(1 − y )

2

=

2

=

y′
(1 − y ) 2

y
(1 − y )3

e x − e y y′ = 2 x + 2 yy′
y′ =

−2(1 − y )
(1 + x) 2

ex − 2x
ey + 2y

(e
y ′′ =

y

) (

)(

x

x

y

2( y − 1)
(1 + x) 2

y

30. x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = 1
2 x + 2 y + 2 xy ′ + 2 yy ′ = 0
( x + y ) y ′ = −( x + y )
y ′ = −1
y ′′ = 0

2

y

y

=

)(

+ 2 y e x − 2 − e x − 2 x e y y ′ + 2 y′

(e + 2 y )
( e + 2 y )( e − 2) − ( e − 2 x )( e + 2) y′
=
(e + 2 y )
( e + 2 y ) ( e − 2) − ( e − 2x ) ( e + 2)
=
(e + 2 y )

(1− y )
(1 + x) ⎡⎢ − (1+ x ) ⎤⎥ − (1 − y )

(1 + x)2
−(1 − y ) − (1 − y )

(1 − y ) y′ − y (− y′)

32. e x − e y = x 2 + y 2

1− y
y′ =
1+ x
(1 + x)(− y′) − (1 − y )(1)
y ′′ =
(1 + x) 2
=

x+ y

1 − e x+ y
y
y′ =
1− y

( y − 3x) 2

( y − 3x)

e

y′ =

3y
y − x ⎡⎢ y −3 x ⎤⎥

⎦ = 9 ⋅ y ( y − 3 x) − 3 xy
= 9⋅
2
( y − 3 x)
( y − 3 x )3
2

)

y′ 1 − e x + y = e x + y

6y
3y
y′ =
=
2 y − 6 x y − 3x

2

x

y

2

x

y

2

33. x 2 + 3x + y 2 = 4 y
2 x + 3 + 2 yy ′ = 4 y ′
2 yy ′ − 4 y ′ = −2 x − 3
2x + 3 2x + 3
y′ = −
=
2y − 4 4 − 2y

457

2

y

)

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

y ′′ =

=
=

(4 − 2 y )(2) − (2 x + 3)(−2 y ′)
(4 − 2 y ) 2
2(4 − 2 y ) + 2(2 x + 3)

( )
2 x +3
4− 2 y

(4 − 2 y )2
2(4 − 2 y ) 2 + 2(2 x + 3)2
(4 − 2 y )3

When x = 0 and y = 0, then
34.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

d2y
dx

2

=

2(4)2 + 2(3) 2
3

4

=

25
.
32

f ( x) = (3 x − 5)e−2 x
f ′( x) = (3x − 5) ⎡ −2e−2 x ⎤ + e−2 x [3] . Thus,


f ′( x) = e−2 x [−2(3x − 5) + 3] = (13 − 6 x)e−2 x
f ′′( x) = (13 − 6 x) ⎡ −2e−2 x ⎤ + e−2 x [−6]


= 2e−2 x [−(13 − 6 x) − 3]
= 4(3 x − 8)e−2 x
f ′′( x) + 4 f ′( x) + 4 f ( x)
= 4(3 x − 8)e−2 x + 4 ⎡ (13 − 6 x)e−2 x ⎤ + 4 ⎡ (3x − 5)e−2 x ⎤ = [4(3 x − 8) + 4(13 − 6 x) + 4(3 x − 5)]e−2 x




= [0]e−2 x = 0, as was to be shown.

35.

f ( x) = (5 x − 3)4
f ′( x) = 20(5 x − 3)3
f ′′( x) = 300(5 x − 3)2

36.

1
2

f ( x) = 6 x +
f ′( x) = 3x

− 12

x

− 12

6
−3

x 2

12
−5

3 −3 x 2
f ′′( x) = − x 2 +
2
8
−7

9 − 5 5x 2
f ′′′( x) = x 2 −
4
16

458

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

37.

Chapter 12 Review

dc
= 0.6q + 2
dq
d 2c
dq 2

= 0.6

d 2c
dq 2

42.

= 0.6
q =100

2

39.

2

2

= 3e x + 2 xe x + e2 xe

d r
dq 2

= −104.

f ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 5 x − 6
f ′( x) = 4 x − 12 x + 5
f ′′( x) = 12 x 2 − 12 = 12( x + 1)( x − 1)
Clearly f ′′( x) = 0 when x = ±1.

a.

y

=

b.

y ′′ =

=

41.

e y − 2ey

−2

y

( y − 2)2

( ) =−
y
y −2
2

( y − 2)
x

2y
( y − 2)3

=

=

2

3r + 7r + 1

+ 4 x +5

2

+ 4 x +5

(2 x + 4) = 2( x + 2)e x

f (t ) = log 6 t 2 + 1 =

)

(

3

8. y = 35 x = e(ln 3)5 x

(

2

+ 4 x +5

)

1
log 6 t 2 + 1
2

)

(

)

)

3

3
3
y ′ = e(ln 3)5 x (ln 3)(15 x 2 ) = 15 x 2 ln 3 ⎛⎜ 35 x ⎞⎟

−2 y′
( y − 2)2

9. y = ( x − 6)( x + 5)(9 − x)

2y

ln y = ln ( x − 6)( x + 5)(9 − x)

(2 − y )3

1
= [ln( x − 6) + ln( x + 5) + ln(9 − x)]
2
y′ 1 ⎡ 1
1
−1 ⎤
=
+
+
y 2 ⎢⎣ x − 6 x + 5 9 − x ⎥⎦

f ′( x) = 6e − 3x − 30 x

(

6r + 7
2

7. y′ = e x (2 x) + x 2 + 2 e x = e x x 2 + 2 x + 2

2

f ′′( x) = 6 e x − x − 5

3r + 7 r + 1

(6r + 7) =

(

1
y
=
=
2

y
2
1− y

( y − 2)( y′) − y ( y′)

1
2

(

2 x

⎛ y⎞
y2 ⎜ e 2 ⎟
y e
⎝y ⎠
y′ =
=
y
x
⎛ y⎞
e − 2 ye
ey − 2y ⎜ e2 ⎟
⎝y ⎠
e

f ′(r ) =

2
1 ln t + 1
= ⋅
. Thus
2
ln 6

1⎛ 1
1
t
.
f ′(t ) = ⎜

⋅ [2t ] ⎟ =
2 ⎝ ln 6 t 2 + 1
⎠ (ln 6) t 2 + 1

2 x

y

)

3.

6.

x

x

−1

f ′( w) = we w + e w + 2 w = we w + e w + 2 w

y′ = e x

( e ) + e (2 yy′)
( e − 2 ye ) y′ = y e
e y′ = y

x

−1

2.

5. y = e x

40. e y = y 2 e x
2

(

2

2

4. y = eln x = x. Thus y′ = 1.

3

y

x 4 x3 5 x 2
+
+
+x
4
3
2

1. y ′ = 3e x + 0 + e x (2 x) + (e2 ) xe

= −80 − 6q

When q = 4,

f ′( x) =

Chapter 12 Review Problems

dr
= 400 − 80q − 3q 2
dq
dq 2

x5 x 4 5 x3 x 2
+
+
+
20 12
6
2

f ′′( x) = x3 + x 2 + 5 x + 1
f ′′( x) = 0 when x ≈ −0.21.

38. r = pq = 400q − 40q 2 − q3

d 2r

f ( x) =

)

f ′′( x) = 0 when x ≈ –4.99 or 1.94.
459

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

y′ =
=

10.

=

ex

e1/ t
t

2

18. y′ =
=

e2 x
xe

2x

(

=

1 − x ln x
xe

)

x 2 e x − e− x − e x + e− x (2 x)
x4

x 2 e x − x 2 e− x − 2 xe x − 2 xe− x

x3

f (q) = ln ⎡(q + 1) 2 (q + 2)3 ⎤


= 2 ln(q + 1) + 3ln(q + 2)

21.

14. y = ( x + 2)3 ( x + 1)4 ( x − 2)2
ln y = 3 ln(x + 2) + 4 ln(x + 1) + 2 ln(x − 2)
y′
3
4
2
=
+
+
y x + 2 x +1 x − 2
4
2 ⎤
⎡ 3
+
+
y′ = y ⎢

⎣ x + 2 x +1 x − 2 ⎦
4
2 ⎤
⎡ 3
= ( x + 2)3 ( x + 1)4 ( x − 2)2 ⎢
+
+
x
+
x
+
x

2
1
2 ⎥⎦

ln 2 x

e x ( x ln x − 1)
x ln 2 x

(

)

1

⎡1 + 2l + 3l 2 ⎤

1 + l + l2 + l3 ⎣

1 + 2l + 3l 2
1 + l + l 2 + l3

22. y = ( x 2 ) x

2

ln y = x 2 ln x 2 = 2 x 2 ln x
y′
⎛1⎞
= 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x) ( 4 x )
y
⎝x⎠
y′ = 2 xy (1 + 2 ln x)
2

y′ = 2 x( x 2 ) x (1 + 2 ln x)

+ 2 x −5)(ln 2)

= (4 x + 2)(ln 2)2

( 1x ) = e x ( ln x − 1x )

f (l ) = ln 1 + l + l 2 + l 3

=

y′ = e

(ln x) 2

f ′(l ) =

2
3
f ′(q) =
+
q +1 q + 2

(2 x 2 + 2 x −5)(ln 2)

(ln x)e x − e x


⎟ = ln 5 − 2 ln x

1
2
y′ = 0 − 2 ⋅ = −
x
x

e x ( x − 2) − e− x ( x + 2)

2

4e2 x +1
x

⎛ 5
20. y = ln ⎜
⎝ x2

x4

15. y = e(2 x

=

19. y = log 2 (8 x + 5) 2 = 2 log 2 (8 x + 5)
ln(8 x + 5)
= 2⋅
ln 2
1
8
16
y′ = 2 ⋅

=
ln 2 8 x + 5 (8 x + 5) ln 2

x

) (

4e3 x

xe x −1
x ⎡ e2 x +1 (2) ⎤ − e2 x +1[1] 4e2 x +1 (2 x − 1)

=
y′ = 4 ⋅ ⎣
x2
x2

( 1x ) − (ln x) ( e x )

e x − xe x ln x

12. y′ =
=

17. y =

( x − 6)( x + 5)(9 − x) ⎡ 1
1
1 ⎤
+
+


2
⎣ x −6 x +5 x −9⎦

11. y′ =

13.

y⎡ 1
1
1 ⎤
+

2 ⎣⎢ x − 6 x + 5 9 − x ⎥⎦

f ′(t ) = e1/ t (−1 ⋅ t −2 ) = −

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

23. y = ( x + 1) x +1
ln y = ( x + 1) ln( x + 1)

(4 x + 2)(ln 2)

2 x 2 + 2 x −5

y′
1
= ( x + 1)
+ ln( x + 1)[1] = 1 + ln( x + 1)
y
x +1

16. y is a constant, so y′ = 0.

y′ = y[1 + ln( x + 1)] = ( x + 1) x +1[1 + ln( x + 1)]

460

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

(1 − e ) e − (1 + e )( −e ) = 2e
y′ =
(1 − e )
(1 − e )
x

24.

Chapter 12 Review

x

x

x

x

x

2

x

2

1
25. φ (t ) = ln ⎛⎜ t 4 − t 2 ⎞⎟ = ln t + ln(4 − t 2 )
2


1 1
1
1
t
φ ′(t ) = + ⋅
⋅ (−2t ) = −
2
t 2 4−t
t 4 − t2

26. y = ( x + 3)ln x
ln y = [ln x] ln(x + 3)
1
1
y′
= (ln x)
+ ln( x + 3) ⋅
y
x+3
x
⎡ ln x ln( x + 3) ⎤
y′ = y ⎢
+

x
⎣x+3

ln( x + 3) ⎤
ln x ⎡ ln x
= ( x + 3) ⎢
+

x
⎣x+3

27.

y=
ln y =
y′
=
y
y′ =
=

28. y′ =

( x 2 + 1)1/ 2 ( x 2 + 2)1/ 3
(2 x3 + 6 x) 2 / 5
1
1
2
ln( x 2 + 1) + ln( x 2 + 2) − ln(2 x3 + 6 x)
2
3
5
1⎛ 1 ⎞
1⎛ 1 ⎞
2⎛
1

2

⎟ (2 x) + ⎜ 2
⎟ (2 x) − ⎜ 3
⎟ (6 x + 6)
2 ⎝ x2 + 1 ⎠
3⎝ x + 2 ⎠
5 ⎝ 2x + 6x ⎠
⎡ x
2x
6( x 2 + 1) ⎤
y⎢
+


2
2
3
⎢⎣ x + 1 3( x + 2) 5( x + 3 x) ⎥⎦
2x
6( x 2 + 1) ⎤
( x 2 + 1)1/ 2 ( x 2 + 2)1/ 3 ⎡ x
+



2
2
3
(2 x3 + 6 x) 2 / 5
⎣⎢ x + 1 3( x + 2) 5( x + 3x) ⎦⎥
x

( 1x ) − ln x ( 12 ) x−

1
2

=

x

( )

29. y = x x

x

= xx

2 − ln x
3

2x 2

2

2

ln y = ln x x = x 2 ln x
y′
⎛1⎞
= x 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(2 x) = x + 2 x ln x
y
⎝x⎠

( )

y′ = y ( x + 2 x ln x) = x x

x

( x + 2 x ln x)

461

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

30. y = x

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

(x )
x

ln y = ln x

( x ) = x x ln x
x

( )

y′
d x
⎛1⎞
= x x ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x )
x
y
x
dx
⎝ ⎠

Note: If v = x x , then ln v = ln x x = x ln x;
v′
⎛1⎞
= x ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(1) = 1 + ln x
v
⎝x⎠
d x
v′ =
x = v(1 + ln x) = x x (1 + ln x)
dx
y′
⎛1⎞
Thus
= x x ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x) ⎡ x x (1 + ln x) ⎤


y
⎝x⎠

( )

⎡1

= x x ⎢ + (1 + ln x) ln x ⎥
⎣x

⎡1

y′ = yx x ⎢ + (1 + ln x) ln x ⎥
⎣x

=x

( x ) x x ⎡ 1 + (1 + ln x) ln x ⎤
x

⎢x


31. y = ( x + 1) ln x 2 = 2( x + 1) ln x


⎛1⎞
⎡ x +1

y′ = 2 ⎢( x + 1) ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(1) ⎥ = 2 ⎢
+ ln x ⎥
⎝x⎠
⎣ x



⎡2

When x = 1, then y′ = 2 ⎢ + ln1⎥ = 4.
⎣1

32. y =

ex

2

+1

x2 + 1

2
1
1
ln y = ln ⎛⎜ e x +1 ⎞⎟ − ln( x 2 + 1) = x 2 + 1 − ln( x 2 + 1)
2

⎠ 2

y′
1
1
1 ⎤
= 2x − ⋅
(2 x) = x ⎢ 2 −

2
y
2 x2 + 1
x + 1⎦


1 ⎤
y ′ = yx ⎢ 2 −

2
x + 1⎦

y′ =

ex

2

+1


1 ⎤
x ⎢2 −

2
x + 1⎦
x +1 ⎣
2

When x = 1, then y ′ =

e1+1

1 ⎤ 3e2 2

(1) ⎢ 2 −
⎥= 4 .
1 + 1 ⎣ 1 + 1⎦

462

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

33. y = e

e + x ln

Chapter 12 Review

( 1x ) = ee− x ln x

⎛ ⎡ ⎛1⎞
⎤⎞
y′ = ee− x ln x ⎜⎜ − ⎢ x ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(1) ⎥ ⎟⎟
⎦⎠
⎝ ⎣ ⎝x⎠
= −(1 + ln x)ee− x ln x

When x = e, then y′ = −(1 + ln e)ee −e ln e = −(2)e0 = −2.
⎡ 25 x ( x 2 − 3x + 5)1/ 3 ⎤
34. y = ⎢

2
3
⎣⎢ ( x − 3 x + 7)
⎦⎥

−1

1


ln y = −1 ⎢5 x ln 2 + ln( x 2 − 3x + 5) − 3ln( x 2 − 3 x + 7) ⎥
3



y′
1
2x − 3
2x − 3 ⎤
= − ⎢5ln 2 + ⋅
− 3⋅

2
2
y
3 x − 3x + 5
x − 3x + 7 ⎦


2x − 3
3(2 x − 3) ⎤
y′ = − y ⎢5ln 2 +


3( x 2 − 3 x + 5) x 2 − 3 x + 7 ⎦⎥
⎣⎢
⎡ 25 x ( x 2 − 3x + 5)1/ 3 ⎤
y′ = (−1) ⎢

2
3
⎣⎢ ( x − 3 x + 7)
⎦⎥

When x = 0, then y′ = −

−1


2x − 3
3(2 x − 3) ⎤
⎢5ln 2 +

2
3( x − 3x + 5) x 2 − 3x + 7 ⎦⎥
⎣⎢

343 ⎡
1 9⎤
1862
5ln 2 − + ⎥ = −343(ln 2)52 / 3 −
.
1/ 3 ⎢
5
7

5 ⎣
54 / 3

35. y = 3e x
y′ = 3e x

If x = ln 2, then y = 3eln 2 = 6 and y′ = 3eln 2 = 6.
An equation of the tangent line is y – 6 = 6(x – ln 2), y = 6x + 6 – 6 ln 2, y = 6x + 6(1 – ln 2). Alternatively, since
6 ln 2 = ln 26 = ln 64, the tangent line can be written as y = 6x + 6 – ln 64.

36. y = x + x 2 ln x
⎡ ⎛1⎞

y′ = 1 + ⎢ x 2 ⎜ ⎟ + (ln x)(2 x) ⎥ = 1 + x + 2 x ln x
x
⎣ ⎝ ⎠

When x = 1, then y = 1 + 1(0) = 1 and y′ = 1 + 1 + 2(0) = 2 . Thus an equation of the tangent line is y – 1 = 2(x – 1),
or y = 2x – 1.
2
37. y = x ⎛⎜ 22− x ⎞⎟ . To find y′ we shall use logarithmic differentiation.


⎡ ⎛ 2− x 2 ⎞ ⎤
2
ln y = ln ⎢ x ⎜ 2
⎟ ⎥ = ln x + 2 − x ln 2
⎠⎦
⎣ ⎝
y′ 1
= + (−2 x) ln 2
y x

(

)

⎡1

y′ = y ⎢ − 2(ln 2) x ⎥
⎣x

463

Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

When x = 1, then y = 2 and y′ = 2(1 − 2 ln 2). The equation of the tangent line is
y – 2 = 2(1 – 2 ln 2)(x – 1). The y-intercept of the tangent line corresponds to the point where x = 0:
y – 2 = 2(1 – 2 ln 2)(–1) = –2 + 4 ln 2
Thus y = 4 ln 2 and the y-intercept is (0, 4 ln 2).
38. w = 2 x +1 + ln(1 + x 2 ) = e(ln 2)( x +1) + ln(1 + x 2 )
2

x = log 2 (t 2 + 1) − e(t −1) =
dw dw dx
=

dt
dx dt

2x
= ⎜ 2 x +1 (ln 2) +
1 + x2

ln(t 2 + 1) (t −1)2
−e
ln 2


2
⎞⎛
2t
− e(t −1) [2(t − 1)] ⎟
⎟ ⎜⎜
2

⎠ ⎝ (ln 2)(t + 1)

2

When t = 1, x = log 2 (1 + 1) − e(1−1) = 1 − 1 = 0, w = 21 + ln1 = 2 + 0 = 2, and
39. y = e x

2

y′ = e x

− 2 x +1

2

− 2 x +1

[2 x − 2] = (2 x − 2)e x

y ′′ = 2( x − 1)e x
= 2e x

2

2

− 2 x +1

− 2 x +1

2

− 2 x +1

(2 x − 2) + 2e x

2

− 2 x +1

(2( x − 1)2 + 1)

At (1, 1), y ′′ = 2e0 (2(0) + 1) = 2.
40. y = x 2 e x

(

y′ = x 2 e x + e x (2 x) = e x x 2 + 2 x

(
y ′′′ = e (2 x + 4) + ( x

)

)

(

y ′′ = e x (2 x + 2) + x 2 + 2 x e x = e x x 2 + 4 x + 2
x

2

)

(

)

+ 4 x + 2 e x = e x x2 + 6 x + 6

)

At (1, e), y ′′′ = e(1 + 6 + 6) = 13e
41. y = ln(2x)
1
y′ =
(2) = x −1
2x
y ′′ = −1 ⋅ x −2 = − x −2
y ′′′ = −(−2) x −3 =

At (1, ln 2), y ′′′ =

2
x3
2
13

=2

464

dw
⎛ 2

= (21 ln 2 + 0) ⎜
− 1(0) ⎟ = 2.
dt
⎝ 2 ln 2

y e y x + 2y 49. e y = ( y + 1)e x y + 2 xy′ = x 2 yy′ + xy 2 2 y ln x 4 9 ( x + 2 y )2 2 At (–1. y′ = − and 3 45. 1). ln xy 2 = xy y′ = 9 = 48. x + xy + y = 5 1 + xy′ + y (1) + y′ = 0 ( x + 1) y′ = −1 − y 1+ y x +1 ( x + 1) y′ − (1 + y ) y ′′ = − ( x + 1) 2 1+1 2 At (2. xy + y 2 = 2 x( y′) + y (1) + 2 yy′ = 0 44. 2 xy + y 2 = 10 2 ( xy′ + y ) + 2 yy′ = 0 2 xy′ + 2 yy′ = −2 y ( x + y ) y′ = − y y′ = − y ′′ = − y x+ y y′ = −3 x 2 y 3 3 x3 y 2 y′ = − =− y ′′ = − y x ( ) ln x + 2 ln y = xy 1 2 + y′ = xy′ + y x y y ′′ = − 2 ) (e 2 xy − y 2 x − x2 y y ′[ y (2 + y ln x)] = − y2 x(2 + y ln x) 4 27 9 ) − e x y′ = ( y + 1)e x ( y + 1)e x 2 ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ y 2 ⎢e y ln x ⎜ y ⋅ + (ln x) y′ ⎟ ⎥ + e y ln x [ 2 yy′] = 0 ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ y′ = − y y′ = y 2 (ln x) y′ + 2 yy′ = − ( ) ( )= 3 − 23 − 2 − 13 e y y′ − e x y′ = ( y + 1)e x 2x − x 2 y y′ = xy 2 − y =e ( x + 2 y ) y′ − y (1 + 2 y′) e y y′ = ( y + 1)e x + e x ( y′) 2 2xy′ − x yy′ = xy − y 46. 3x 2 y3 + 3 x3 y 2 y ′ = 0 y ′(3x3 y 2 ) = −3x 2 y3 ( ( ) 3 − 23 − 2 = y3 x 1 1− y ′′ = 3 y x 465 e y − ex 1 y +1 = = ( )= −( ) e ( y + 1) ey ey y +1 ey y +1 ey y − ey y +1 y +1 y y ( y′) − ( y + 1)( y′) y 2 = − y′ y 2 =− y +1 y 2 y =− y +1 y3 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 12 Review 42. y′ = − = − and 2 +1 3 y′ = − 43. y ′′ = = 1 1 47. 0). 2). y = x ln x 1 y′ = x ⋅ + (ln x )(1) = 1 + ln x x 1 1 y ′′ = 0 + = x x 1 At (1.

Since η > 1.0002) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 500 / q q − 500 q2 = −1 56. so η > 1 and 3 demand is elastic. 1 −1/ 2 1 −1/ 2 dy x + y ⋅ =0 2 2 dx y dy =− dx x ( x ) ⎛⎜⎝ 2 1 y ⋅ dydx ⎞⎟⎠ − ( y ) ( 2 1 x ) =− 2 dx 2 ( x) = 51.0002t (−0. ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛ dN ⎞ log ⎜ − = log ⎜ ⋅N⎟ ⎟ ⎝ dM ⎠ ⎝ log e ⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ = log ⎜ ⎟ + log N ⎝ log e ⎠ f ′( x) = (12 x3 + 6 x 2 − 25)e3 x f ′( x) = 0 when x ≈ 1. p = 1 η= 2x x f ′(t ) = ⎡ −0.0002t 53. 500 q 3 + 2 x − 25 x = p q − 1 q = −p q = −p 10 − p 2 = 2p p − 20 2(8) 4 =− .57. = 0. 8 − 20 3 2p p − 20 20 .02q 0. d2y 1 2 f ( x) = 55. x1/ 2 + y1/ 2 = 1 54. η= ⎛b⎞ ⎛b⎞ = log ⎜ ⎟ + ( A − bM ) = A + log ⎜ ⎟ − bM q ⎝ ⎠ ⎝q⎠ 4 p q dp dq When q = 600.01t + 0. If p > 466 .02 =− 18 − 0. p = 18 – 0. log N = A – bM d d (log N ) = ( A − bM ) dM dM d ⎛ ln N ⎞ d ( A − bM ) = ⎜ ⎟ dM ⎝ ln10 ⎠ dM η= p q dp dq = 900 − q 2 q −2q =− 900 − q 2 2q 2 When q = 10. demand has unit elasticity when q = 200. then η = −4. demand is inelastic. When p = 8.008e−0. 1 1 dN ⋅ = −b ln10 N dM 1 dN (log e) = −b N dM dN bN − = dM log e 57.00004e−0. p = 900 − q 2 52.02q η= = 18−0.5.13.01) − 0. p q dp dq Since η = 1. then η < −1. then η = −0.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 50. demand is elastic.2e−0. then η = b. Because η < 1.02 q q −0. p = 20 − 2 q η= p q dp dq a. + y 2 x x = x+ y 2x x = x5 x 4 2 x3 + + + x2 + 1 10 6 3 f ′( x) = x 4 2 x3 + + 2 x2 + 2 x 2 3 f ′′( x) = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2 f ′′( x) = 0 when x ≈ −0.8e−0.02q 58.01t (−0.

610 2 0.619 e xn − 3 xn e xn − 3 . We want real solutions of e x = 3 x. Since f(2) is closer to 0 than is f(1). We want a root of f ( x) = x3 − 2 x − 2 = 0. we multiply both sides of the inequality by 2p – 200 and reverse the direction of the inequality 200 p > −2 p + 200.80000 1. if p = 30. Thus we must find −p p = = 2(100 − p) 2 p − 200 p < −1.67%.) 8 60.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 59. p > 3 200 < p < 100 for elastic demand. Because x5 − x4 < 0. p dq ⋅ q dp η= −p 2500 − p 2 = −p . and the other when x is near 1. Since f ′( x) = e x − 3. We have f ′( x) = 3x 2 − 2. η = p q dp dq = Chapter 12 Review 40 1 =− 80 − 200 3 % change in q ≈ (% change in price) (η ) η b. 3 p > 200. so η p =30 =− (30) 2 (40) 2 =− choose x1 = 2.76995 1.5. so the recursion formula is f ( xn ) x3 − 2 xn − 2 = xn − n xn +1 = xn − f ′ ( xn ) 3xn2 − 2 9 16 2 %.76995 3 1.5 0.80000 2 1.619 3 0.76929 4 1. then q⎝ q ⎠ q q = 2500 − 302 = 40. the root is dq −1 = .0001. demand ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ If the price of 30 decreases = 3 increases by approximately %.76929 q = 100 − p .610 0. we obtain 467 n xn xn +1 1 0.76929 1. a.00000 1. Thus dp 2 100 − p approximately x5 = 1. the recursion formula is xn +1 = xn − f ( xn ) f ′ ( xn ) = xn − If x1 = 0. η= p q dp dq = 5 ⎛ 1⎞ = 5 ⎜ − ⎟ % = − % = −1.619 0. Thus 3 For elastic demand we want two roots. We have f(1) = –3 and f(2) = 2 (note the sign change). A rough sketch of the exponential function y = e x and the line y = 3x shows that there are two intersection points: one when x is near 0. η= p 62. then demand 3 would change by approximately 3 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎜ − 3 ⎟ ⎜ − 16 ⎟ %. Now.5. Thus 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ demand decreases by approximately 1. q = 2500 − p 2 dq = dp p = 40 p dq = ⋅ q dp 2 xn3 + 2 3xn2 − 2 n xn xn +1 1 2. (That is. or 8 %. we p ⎛ −p ⎞ p2 ⎜ ⎟ = − 2 . 2 p − 200 Noting that the denominator is negative for 0 < p < 100. Thus we −1 ⋅ 100 − p 2 100 − p want to find roots of f ( x) = e x − 3 x = 0. so q 61.67%.7693.5. where 0 < p < 100.

V = 36. 2 FD 2(25)(3400) q= = ≈ 305. then the amount in stock at any time is increased by m units.5. F = 25. 2. we obtain n xn xn +1 1 1.05.5 1. Answers may vary. R = 0. D = 3400. Since 3. If the number of units maintained as a safety margin is denoted by m.Chapter 12: Additional Differentiation Topics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis If x1 = 1.05)(36.512.2 RV (0. the maintenance of a dq safetly margin does not affect the calculation of the economic order quantity.5. Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 12 1.512 2 1. to m + units.512 Thus the solutions are 0.512 1.619 and 1. The average inventory level is thus increased by m q units. The carrying cost is then 2 FD q⎞ ⎛ C (q) = + RV ⎜ m + ⎟ q 2⎠ ⎝ FD RVq = + + RVm q 2 d ( RVm) = 0. 468 .5) The economic order quantity is 305 units.

increasing on (–1. then c ′(q) = 6(−)(−) = + . no relative maximum. 1). increasing on (–1. we denote the critical value by CV. When t = 2. 469 . relative minimum (–1. relative maximum (3. –1). −3) and (1. ∞).14(t + 2) − 0. negative values of t are + not reasonable. If q < 2. If 0 ≤ t < 2. 3 – –1 + + 3 Decreasing on (–∞. c ′(q) = 6q 2 − 42q + 60 = 6(q 2 − 7q + 10) = 6(q – 5)(q – 2) c ′(q) = 0 when q = 2 or q = 5. 3) and (3. . 2(2)3 − 21(2) 2 + 60(2) + 500 = 552 .Chapter 13 maximum. –1) and (1. relative minima (–2. Decreasing on (–∞. 3). relative minima (–1. The drug is at its greatest concentration 2 hours after the injection. ∞).1 C(q) 1. ∞). C ′(t ) = = − . The relative maximum value is 3. 1). relative maximum when x = 0. increasing on (–1. 0. find C ′(t ) . 0) and (0. 1. 2). 6. 0) and (2.28 − 0. 0). When q = 2. Decreasing on (–∞. there is a relative maximum. so + − C(t) is increasing. since c′(q) changes from – to +. 4). 2. so c(q) is decreasing. 1) and (2. 2 1 + 2 Increasing on (−3. Decreasing on (–∞. then c′(q) = 6(+)(+) = + . increasing on (–2. so c(q) is increasing. –1) and (0.14(t + 2)2 − 0. The graph of c(q ) = 2q3 − 21q 2 + 60q + 500 is shown.14(2 − t ) = (t + 2)3 C ′(t ) = 0 when t = 2 and is undefined when t = –2. 1) and (2. If 2 < q < 5. C ′(t ) = = + .14t (2)(t + 2) (t + 2)4 0. ∞). relative maximum (0. 1). ∞).28t 0. The relative minimum value is CV: x = −3. –1). If 5 < q. 1. Problems 13. never increasing. since C ′(t ) changes from + to –. 1 + – 0 + 1 Increasing on (–∞. relative minimum when x = 1. ∞). 0) and (1. 5. decreasing on (−∞.1 1. relative minimum when x = –1. f ′( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 3)2 CV: x = –1. When q = 5. First. relative maximum when x = 1. –2) and (0. 4. since t denotes the number of hours after an injection. relative minima when x = −3. In the following problems. 2). 2 − C ′(t ) = 0. then c′(q) = 6(−)(+ ) = − . decreasing on (0. Decreasing on (–∞. Principles in Practice 13.14t = = (t + 2)3 (t + 2)3 0.14t (t + 2) 2 − + −3 2(5)3 − 21(5)2 + 60(5) + 500 = 525. 2. –1) and (3. with C (t ) = f ′( x) = ( x + 3)( x − 1)( x − 2) f ′( x) = 0 when x = −3. ∞). there is a relative f ′( x) = 2 x( x − 1)3 CV: x = 0. 2. so C(t) + is decreasing. no relative minimum. –1). If 2 < t. there is a relative minimum. no relative maximum. 7. 0) and (1. so c(q) is increasing. However. q 2 5 There looks to be a relative maximum at q = 2 and a relative minimum at q = 5. since c′(q) changes from + to –.

–5) and (1. y = 10. 0) and (0. ∞). –2) and (0.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 8. y = x3 − 2 1⎞ ⎛ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. 0). 2 3 470 . y = x 2 + 4 x + 3 y′ = 2 x + 4 = 2( x + 2) CV: x = –2 – + ( ) y′ = 4 x3 − 4 x = 4 x x 2 − 1 = 4 x( x + 1)( x − 1) CV: x = 0. decreasing 3⎠ ⎝ 7 2 x + 2x − 5 2 y′ = 3x 2 − 7 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)( x − 2) 1 CV: x = . 2 3 − 0 15. increasing on (–5. relative maximum when x = –2. increasing on (–2. 1 9. y = x − x 2 + 2 y′ = 1 − 2 x 3 x4 + x3 4 –3 –2 −1 1 CV: x = −3. relative minimum when x = –2. ∞). ∞). –2). relative maximum when x = − . 0). –1) and (0. relative minimum at x = −3. 0) and (1. relative minimum when x = –2. 1). f ′( x ) = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x( x + 2) 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ on ⎜ − . 1). − ⎟ and (2. decreasing on ⎜ . ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 relative maximum when x = . ∞). + – y ′ = x3 + 3x 2 = x 2 ( x + 3) + + + Decreasing on (–∞. relative minimum when x = –5. 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. relative maximum when x = 0. relative maximum when x = 1. increasing on (−3. increasing on (–2. no relative maximum or minimum – ) = −( x + 5)( x − 1) CV: x = –5. –2) and (2. relative minimum when x = 0. increasing on (–1. 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ relative minimum when x = 2. ∞ ⎟ . 0 Decreasing on (–∞. ∞). relative minima when x = ±1. y = x3 − + Decreasing on (−∞. –2 + – –2 + 0 13. decreasing on (–2. −3). ∞). 2). 2 x +1 CV: x = 0. ∞). ∞). 2 16. y = x 4 − 2 x 2 1 CV: x = 2 12. ( y′ = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = − x 2 + 4 x − 5 – y′ = 6 x2 CV: x = 0 –5 + 0 14. y = 2 x3 + 1 + x3 − 2 x2 + 5x − 2 3 + 17. 11. y = −3 + 12 x − x3 ( ) y′ = 12 − 3 x 2 = 3 4 − x 2 = 3(2 + x)(2 − x) 5 2 x − 2x + 6 2 CV: x = ±2 – y′ = 3x 2 − 5 x − 2 = (3x + 1)( x − 2) –2 + – 2 Decreasing on (–∞. ±1 – – + –1 1 2 – 0 + 1 Decreasing on (–∞. y = − Increasing on (–∞. Increasing on (−∞. 1 CV: x = − . relative maximum when x = 2. 2 ⎟ . increasing on (0.

2 ⎟ .1 21. 5. ∞). relative maxima when x = − 5 . 0) and (0. − ⎟ and 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 ⎞ . 11 2 x − 10 x + 2 2 22. 1). and 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛ 2⎞ 5. 5 ⎟⎟ . y = + )( – – 5 ( ) ( )( – 2 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis − + 1 3 Section 13. 3 2 – 5+ 3 minimum at x = 5 + 3. 5 3 y′ = 15 x 4 − 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) CV: x = 0. relative minimum when ⎝ 5 3⎠ 1 1 x = − . ∞). y ′ = 0 when x= ) (5 − Increasing on (–∞. decreasing on (–1. 2 5 CV: x = − . relative y′ = 6 x 2 − 11x − 10 = (2 x − 5)(3 x + 2) –2 or x = 5 ± 3. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . no relative maximum or relative minimum.± 5 3 + 2 3 )( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) ) – + 5 2 3 ⎛ 2 2⎞ Increasing on −∞. y = 2 y ′ = x 2 − 10 x + 22 1⎞ ⎛ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. relative maximum when x = . 5 − 3 . 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ 2 5 ⎛ ⎞ decreasing on ⎜ − . relative minimum when x = . ⎜⎜ − . decreasing on 2 – – 5– 3 + 19. relative minimum when x = 1. increasing on 5 + 3. decreasing on ⎜⎜ − 5. − ⎟ and ⎜ . ⎟ . Increasing on −∞. 18. relative maximum ⎝ 3 2⎠ 2 5 when x = − . –1) and (1. ∞ . 3 3 – 1 3 23. relative minima when x = − . ⎜⎜ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ( ( 2 y′ = −15 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = −(5 x + 1)(3 x − 1) 1 1 CV: − . 2) and (2. decreasing 3⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎛1 ⎞ on ⎜ . 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ relative minimum when x = 2. y = 2 x3 − 2(1) + CV: x = 2 + 10 ± (−10) 2 − 4(1)(22) CV: x = 5 ± 3 y′ = 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 3 x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 3( x − 2) 2 + x3 − 5 x 2 + 22 x + 1 3 + ) ) 2 2 . relative maximum when x = . 3 2 3 + relative maximum at x = 5 − 3. 5 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 1⎞ increasing on ⎜ − . 471 . y = 3x5 − 5 x3 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. ( 5 2 + ) = 3x − 2 3x + 2 + 3 ( y′ = 9 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 10 = 9 x 2 − 2 x 2 − 5 2⎞ ⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. relative maximum when x = –1. 5 + 3 . y = x3 − 6 x 2 + 12 x − 6 ( By the quadratic formula. ±1 + – –1 – 0 + 1 Increasing on (–∞. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . − ⎟ and ⎜ . ∞). ∞ . − 5 . y = −5 x + x + x − 7 –1 ) 3. 5 3 5 9 5 47 3 x − x + 10 x 5 3 CV: x = ± 20. ⎟ and (2.

y = ( x 2 − 1) 4 3x4 − 4 x3 + 17 26. 0 ) ⎛ 1 1⎞ Increasing on −∞. decreasing on (1. 3. relative minimum when x = . increasing on (2. – 2 and 0. 2). ∞ . ± 2 0 ) Increasing on (−1. 472 . −1) and (0. – 2 − + −1 + 3 y′ = 8 x( x 2 − 1)3 = 8 x( x + 1)3 ( x − 1)3 CV: 0. − ⎟ and ⎜ . y = y′ = 3 − 3x5 = 3(1 − x5 ) 4 3 ( 2 1 + 0 − ( ) + 0 1 30. y = − x5 − 5 x 4 + 200 –4 )( ) 1 CV: x = ± . 0). 1 + – 1 2 + 29. 1). –1. ∞). ∞). increasing on (–4.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 24. y = 8 x 4 − x8 ( = 8 x3 ( 2 + x 2 )( 2 − x 2 ) = 8 x3 ( 2 + x 2 ) ( 2 − x )( y′ = 32 x3 − 8 x7 = 8 x3 4 − x 4 ) 2+x y′ = ( decreasing on ( − ) – – 0 ) ( ) ( ) + 1 2 1 2 ⎛ 1⎞ Decreasing on (–∞. ⎝ 2 2⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ decreasing on ⎜ − 3. relative maxima when x = ± 2 . 0) and (0. relative maximum when x = 0. ∞ . 2. ⎟ . relative minima when x = ±1. increasing ⎝ 2⎠ 1 ⎛1 ⎞ on ⎜ . decreasing on (−∞. 0) and (1. ) Increasing on −∞. ⎜ − . 2 . 0 and 2 CV: x = 0. y = 3 x ( x − 2) 27. 0) and ⎜ 0. ∞). relative minimum when x = 0. ⎟ . y = 2 y ′ = 6 x3 − 12 x 2 = 6 x 2 ( x − 2) CV: x = 0. 2 Decreasing on (−∞. relative minimum at x = 2. relative 2 1 minima when x = − . relative minimum when x = –4. y = 3x − ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x6 2 28. relative maximum when x = 1. . 1). − 3 . relative maximum when x = 0. ∞ ⎟ . ± 3 2 – + )( = (2 x − 1)(2 x + 1) x + 3 x − 3 Increasing on (–∞. 2 – – + 2 y′ = −5 x 4 − 20 x3 = −5 x3 ( x + 4) CV: x = 0. ∞). 3 . no 2 ⎝2 ⎠ relative maximum. 3 ⎟ . –4) and (0. –4 – – – 3 –1 25. 2 + – ( Decreasing on (–∞. – 2 2(2 x − 1) 3x 3 CV: x = 0. 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 relative maxima when x = − 3. – ( y′ = 4 x 4 − 13x 2 + 3 = 4 x 2 − 1 x 2 − 3 = 3(1 − x)( x + x + x + x + 1) CV: x = 1 + 4 5 13 3 x − x + 3x + 4 5 3 2.

relative maximum when x = 4. – 32. [Note: x > 0] 5 y′ = 3x 2x + 5 3(2 x + 5) − (3 x)(2) (2 x + 5)2 (2 x + 5) 2 5 must be included in the 2 sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. y = < 0 for x > 0. 4). but x = 2 must be included in the CV: x = 0. but x = 1 must be included in the sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. ⎟ . 5 = 5( x − 1)−1 x −1 31. ∞). y = y′ = = = ( x + 1)( x + 3) – + –1 2x2 4 x 2 − 25 (4 x 2 − 25)(4 x) − (2 x 2 )(8 x) (4 x 2 − 25)2 100 x 100 x =− =− 2 2 (4 x − 25) (2 x − 5)2 (2 x + 5)2 x2 2− x 2 ( x + 2) –3 –2 2 (2 − x)(2 x) − x 2 (−1) ) 2 Increasing on (–∞. but x = ± 473 5 must be included in the 2 . − ⎟ and ⎜ − . no relative extremum. y = 1 x x2 x2 1 CV: x = . no 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ relative extremum x + 4x + 3 2 – 38. y = 4 x 2 + Decreasing on (–∞. ∞). ∞).1 sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. 0) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ 1⎞ and ⎜ 0. y = + ( x + 2) ( x + 2)2 CV: x = –3. 0) and (0. 10 − 0 – 33. decreasing on (–3. but x = 0 must be included in the sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. 2) and (2. –5 y′ = ( ( x + 2)(2 x ) − x 2 − 3 (1) 2 + + 35. 3 = 3 x −1 x – 4 36. relative minimum when x = . –3) and (–1. ∞ ⎟ . y′ = −3x −2 = − – Decreasing on (–∞. − x = 10 x y′ = −5 x − 32 − 12 . –1. –1). 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 0 Decreasing on (–∞. y = =− 1 ⎛1 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ . no relative extremum. ∞ ⎟ . 4. 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 5 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. ∞). x3 Decreasing on (0. 1) and (1. 0) and (4. relative minimum when x = 0. relative maximum when x = –3. – + x(4 − x) (2 − x) (2 − x)2 CV: x = 0. increasing on (0. relative minimum when x = –1. but x = 0 must be included in the 2 sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. decreasing on (−∞. 15 CV: None but x = − + (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) 1 2 y′ = = = = x2 − 3 x+2 37. 34. no relative extremum. ∞). but x = –2 must be included in the sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. –2) and (–2. y = + 2 0 ( x − 1)2 CV: None. y = y′ = −5( x − 1) −2 =− – 5 1 y′ = 8 x − 3 x2 CV: None.

⎟⎟ and 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −2 + 29 ⎞ . and (6. decreasing on (−∞. ∞). 3 . –1) and (0. by the quadratic = 2 x( x + 3)3 [2 x + ( x + 3)] −2 ± 29 5 formula. − 3 . relative minimum when x = 6. –3. relative minimum 5 5 ⎝ ⎠ ) ( 3x 2 − 9 ) = − 23 = x 2 ( x − 6)3 (7 x − 18) CV: x = 0. 5 y′ = – –3 –1 –2 – 29 –2 + 29 when x = + Increasing on (–3. y = x3 − 9 x ( 0 y′ = x3 ⎡ 4( x − 6)3 ⎤ + ( x − 6) 4 3 x 2 ⎣ ⎦ −2 − 29 . 6. ∞). ∞). 3 . ⎟ and ⎜ . – 18 7 18 7 + 6 ⎛ 18 ⎞ Increasing on (–∞. 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎞ 0⎟. 39. and 474 . ) 3. 0 and 0. + + – –3 – 3 0 – + 3 ( x + 3 )( x − 3 ) 2 [ x( x + 3)( x − 3)] 3 ( )( Increasing on (–∞. 6 ⎟ . relative maximum when ⎝7 ⎠ 18 . relative ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ maximum at x = 0. ⎝ 7⎠ ⎛ 18 ⎞ decreasing on ⎜ . decreasing on (–∞. ± 3 + ( ) = x 2 ( x − 6)3 [4 x + 3( x − 6)] 3 40. increasing on ⎜⎜ 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −2 − 29 −2 + 29 ⎞ . y = x 2 ( x + 3) 4 y′ = x 2 (4)( x + 3)3 + ( x + 3) 4 (2 x) y′ = 0 when −5 x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 . − ⎟ and ⎜ − .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( sign chart because they are points of discontinuity of y. ⎜ 0. ⎠ y′ = 2 2 ( x − 1)−1/ 3 = 3 3 3 x −1 CV: x = 1 y′ = − 5x + 2 1 ( x2 + 1) (5) − (5x + 2)(2 x) = −5x2 − 4 x + 5 2 2 ( x2 + 1) ( x2 + 1) 42. relative maximum when 5 1 3 x − 9x 3 + 43. x= 7 + 3 + 0 CV: x = ± 3. –3). 0). relative minimum when x = 1. + – + –5 2 – 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 5 Increasing on ⎜ −∞. 0). ∞ ⎟⎟ . −3. y = ( relative maximum when x = − 3 . relative minimum when x = 3 . –3) and (–1. ⎟ . relative maximum when x = –1. y = ( x − 1) 2 / 3 ⎛ 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎞ decreasing on ⎜ 0. 5 2 0 ) (3. 1). decreasing on − 3. y = x3 ( x − 6) 4 −2 + 29 x= . 0. relative minima when x = –3 and x = 0. –1 – −2 ± 29 5 + 5 ⎛ −2 − 29 ⎞ Decreasing on ⎜⎜ −∞. x2 + 1 CV: x = ) 41. ∞ ⎟ . ∞). ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ . x = – = 2 x( x + 3)3 (3x + 3) = 6 x( x + 3)3 ( x + 1) CV: x = 0. – 5 + Increasing on (1.

no relative extremum. 1). 1 7 + – 48.] y′ = 2 x − /2 y ′ = − xe− x CV: x = 0 + – + 0 −1 CV: x = 1 0 46. relative minimum when x = 1. ⎟ . Thus decreasing on Setting y′ = 0 gives e x − e− x = 0 . y = e x + e− x y′ = e x − e − x < 0 for all x.] ⎡ 1 ⎤ y′ = ⎢ x ⋅ + (ln x)(1) ⎥ − 1 = ln x x ⎣ ⎦ CV: x = 1 47. + 0 3 2 5 475 .1 ⎛ 3 2⎞ Decreasing on ⎜⎜ 0. y = x ln x. relative maximum at x = 0 51. or 0 + Increasing on (1. y = x −1e x ⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ y ′ = x −1e x − x −2 e x = e x ⎜ − ⎟ = e x ⎜ ⎟ 2 x x ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ x2 ⎠ CV: x = 1. relative maximum when x = . + 1 5 7 5⎞ ⎛ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. (Note: x > 0. ln x = –1. 1⎟ .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. increasing on (0. relative minimum when x = 1. ∞). y = e− x 2 1 e + ⎛ 1⎞ Decreasing on ⎜ 0. decreasing on (−∞. ∞⎟⎟ . decreasing 7⎠ ⎝ 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ on ⎜ . (−∞. ∞). decreasing on (0. ∞). 7 ⎝7 ⎠ relative minimum when x = 1. relative minimum when x = 0. ⎟ .) y′ = 1 + ln x y′ = 0 when 1 + ln x = 0. 0). y = x ln x – x. −πx +π y ′ = −πe −πx 45. – − 9 2 x2 − 9 = x x – 0 3 2 2 + 1 Decreasing on (0. . 1). ∞). 0) and (0. ∞⎟ . y = x(1 − x) 5 2 −3 ⎤ ⎡ 2 y′ = x ⎢ − (1 − x) 5 ⎥ + (1 − x) 5 (1) ⎣ 5 ⎦ − 35 ⎡ 2 −3 ⎛ 7 ⎤ ⎞ = (1 − x) ⎢ − x + (1 − x) ⎥ = −(1 − x) 5 ⎜ x − 1⎟ ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎝5 ⎠ 5 CV: x = . [Note: x > 0. ∞). y = x 2 − 9 ln x . no relative maximum. increasing on (1. [Note: x > 0. x = 0 CV: x = 0 – Decreasing on (–∞. but x = 0 must also be included in the sign chart because it is a point of discontinuity of y. increasing on 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2 ⎞ 3 2 . increasing on ⎝ e⎠ 1 relative minimum when x = . ⎟ and (1. 1 x=e = e 1 CV: x = e 50. e x = e− x . relative minimum when x = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 44. ∞). e ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . x = –x. 0). ⎝e ⎠ 2 /2 – 0 Increasing on (−∞. y = e − 49.

0). 54. 0 ⎟ . y = 2 x 2 − 5 x − 12 = (2 x + 3)( x − 4) y′ = 4 x 3 CV: x = 0 Decreasing on (–∞. (4. increasing on 2⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . 3 2 3⎞ ⎛ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. increasing on ⎜ . ⎟ .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( ) y′ = ( x 2 + 1)( −e− x ) + e− x (2 x) = −e− x ⎡⎢( x 2 + 1) − 2 x ⎤⎥ = −e− x ( x − 1) 2 ⎣ ⎦ 52. y = x 2 + 1 e− x 4 x 5 CV: x = 1 – y –12 – 1 Decreasing on (–∞. ∞ ⎟ . increasing on (–1. –1) and (1. 0). 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5 relative minimum when x = . relative minimum when x = . 1) and (1. y = x 4 − 16 = x 2 + 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Intercepts (±2. −10) y′ = 2 x − 3 y′ = 3 − 3 x 2 = 3(1 + x )(1 − x) CV: x = ±1 Decreasing on (–∞. relative minimum when x = –1. ± 3. 0 53. 0). ⎛ 3 ⎞ Intercepts ⎜ − . Intercepts (−2. no relative extremum. –12) ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5⎞ ⎛ y′ = 4 x − 5 = 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ 4⎠ ⎝ 5 CV: x = 4 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. increasing on (0. (0. –16) Symmetric about y-axis. y = 3x − x3 = x ( )( 3−x ) ) Symmetric about origin. 0). 0). (0. never increasing. 0). ⎟ . 2 ⎝2 ⎠ y 3+x Intercepts: (0. ∞). ∞). ∞ ⎟ . relative maximum when x = 1. relative minimum when x = 0. 4 4 y x –2 2 –16 476 5 . (0. y = x 2 − 3x − 10 = ( x + 2)( x − 5) CV: x = ( 5 y x 5 5 x 6 ( ) 56. 1). (5. 55. ∞).

0 ⎟ ⎝5 ⎠ y 5 4 y′ = 6 x5 − 6 x 4 = 6 x 4 ( x − 1) CV: x = 0. relative minimum when x = 1. 4). − ⎟ and (1. 0). 2 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞ on ⎜ − . y = ( x − 1) 2 ( x + 2)2 Intercepts: (1. ∞). decreasing on (−∞. ⎜ . ∞). x 1 2 2 5 y 2 58. y 4 x –2 477 1 5 . 0). relative minimum when x = 2. y = 2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 The x-intercept is not convenient to find. 4) y′ = ( x − 1) 2 ⋅ 2( x + 2) + ( x + 2) 2 ⋅ 2( x − 1) = 2(x – 1)(x + 2)[(x – 1) + (x + 2)] = 2(x – 1)(x + 2)(2x + 1) 1 CV: x = 1. 2 Increasing on (–∞. 2). 8 y x 5 59. 0) 8 y′ = 4 x3 + 12 x 2 + 8 x = 4 x( x + 1)( x + 2) CV: x = 0. 1⎟ . decreasing on (–∞. ∞). (–2. 1 Increasing on (1. y = x 4 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 = x 2 ( x + 2)2 Intercepts (0. 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ relative minimum when x = 1.1 ) y 8 Note that 2 x 2 − 9 x + 12 = 0 has no real roots.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( 57. 1⎟ . relative maximum when x = − . –2) and ⎜ − . (0. increasing ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ on ⎜ −2. –2. y-intercept is (0. 1). − ⎟ and (1. relative minima when 2⎠ ⎝ x = –2 or x = 1. –2 Increasing on (–2. ( y′ = 6 x 2 − 18 x + 12 = 6 x 2 − 3 x + 2 ) x = 6(x – 2)(x – 1) CV: x = 1. (–2. y ′ = 6 x 2 − 2 x − 4 = 2(3 x + 2)( x − 1) x 3 2 CV: x = − . ∞). 0). y = 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 12 x = x 2 x 2 − 9 x + 12 Section 13. decreasing 3⎠ ⎝ 61. y = x 6 − x5 = x5 ⎜ x − ⎟ 5 5⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 ⎞ Intercepts (0. − 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Decreasing on (–∞. 0). 1) and (2. 0). decreasing on (1. –2) and (–1. relative maximum when x = 1. ∞). –1) and (0. 8 –2 –1 6 6⎞ ⎛ 60. relative maximum when 1 x=− . relative maximum when x = –1. relative minima when x = –2 or x = 0. The only intercept is (0. 0) and (0. –1. 1 3 2⎞ ⎛ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. 0).

relative minimum when x = 0. (2. dq dc ⎤ d ⎡⎢ dq dc ⎣ ⎦⎥ < 0. 1). ∞). (–5. CV: x = 0. decreasing on (–2. y = x ( x 2 − x − 2) = x ( x − 2)( x + 1) [Note x ≥ 0. Thus is increasing when dq dq 2 64. so c f is a cf = − dq q2 ( ) y decreasing function for q > 0. 1 (x ≥ 0) Decreasing on (0. c f = 25. x 5 y 5 2 ( ) x 63. 1). relative minimum when x = 1. 0) 5 2 10 5( x + 2) y′ = x 3 + 1 = 1 3 3x 3 3x 3 when −6 + 6q > 0. ∞). 0). 0) 10 y = x5 / 2 − x3 / 2 − 2 x1/ 2 y x 10 –2 5 3 / 2 3 1/ 2 1 − x − 2 ⋅ x −1/ 2 x 2 2 2 1 2 = (5 x − 3 x − 2) 2 x 1 = (5 x + 2)( x − 1) 2 x CV: x = 0. 0). 000 q d 25. y = 2 x − x = x 2 − x . (4. 1 Increasing on (0. 0) 1 1− x y′ = −1 = x x CV: x = 0. decreasing on (1. y = x 3 + 5 x 3 = x 3 ( x + 5) Intercepts (0. ∞). –2 Increasing on (–∞. increasing on (1. 1 68. Hence q > 1. [Note: x ≥ 0. relative maximum when x = 1. relative maximum when x = –2. 5 4 67. 000 < 0 for q > 0. 0).] Intercepts (0. 000 cf = cf q = 25. 478 . –2) and (0. 0). that is. y′ = 5 65.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 62.] 1 Intercepts (0. y 10 y x 10 66. c = 3q − 3q 2 + q3 x 1 4 8 Marginal cost is given by 5 2 dc = 3 − 6q + 3q 2 .

300 b. Thus revenue is maximum for b−a p= . ⎡ 9k 2 − 144 ⎤ ⎡ 144 ⎤ C ′(k ) = 100 ⎢9 − = 100 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ k2 ⎦ k2 ⎣ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 72. If p > dc 1 =− < 0 for q > 0. then < 0 and r is 2b dp decreasing. Thus marginal revenue is never increasing. a. we have q = 40 as the only CV. then − <0.71⎜ c ⎜T2 dTh ⎝ h = 400q − 2q 2 Marginal revenue is r ′ = 400 − 4q . the only critical value is k = 4. 40) and decreasing on (40. If 1 ≤ k < 4. w p is function of wc . If p < . r = 2 F + ⎜ 1 − ⎟ p − p 2 + b ⎝ b⎠ dr ⎛ a ⎞ b−a ⎛b−a = ⎜1 − ⎟ − 2 p = − 2 p = 2⎜ − dp ⎝ b ⎠ b ⎝ 2b dr Setting = 0 gives the critical value dp 70. average cost is dq 2 q3 decreasing for q > 0.71⎜1 − c ⎟ ⎝ Th ⎠ ⎛T dE = 0. < 0 so z is a decreasing dwc b. Thus C has an absolute minimum for k = 4.200 . then 1 + b > 0. increases. c = q dc 1 Marginal cost = . z = (1 + b) w p − bwc . and ⎡ 9(k + 4)(k − 4) ⎤ = 100 ⎢ ⎥ k2 ⎣ ⎦ Since k ≥ 1. If 4 < k ≤ 100. E = 0. Thus from dz part (a). dwc b + 1 dwc b + 1 Because b > 0. dw p b b . C (k ) = 100 ⎢100 + 9k + . 2b 71. ∞). a2 ⎛ a⎞ 74. Marginal revenue is increasing when its derivative is positive. then C ′(k ) > 0 and C is increasing.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. ⎞ ⎟ > 0 . Since = q q 144 ⎤ ⎡ 75. then C ′(k ) < 0 and C is decreasing.1 69. 479 C(4) = 17. marginal cost is dq 4 q3 decreasing for q > 0. p = 400 – 2q Revenue is given by r = pq = (400 − 2q )q ⎛ T ⎞ 73. But (r′)′ = −4 < 0 . If ⎞ p⎟ ⎠ increasing. b > 0. 1 ≤ k ≤ 100 k ⎥⎦ ⎣ r ′ = 240 + 114q – 3q 2 = 3(40 − q )(2 + q ) Since q ≥ 0. C(1) = 25. r is a maximum when output is 40. then > 0 and r is 2b 2b dp b−a dr . dw p dz = (1 + b) − b(1) dwc dwc ⎡ dw p b ⎤ = (1 + b) ⎢ − ⎥ (factoring) ⎣ dwc 1 + b ⎦ dw p b−a b−a dr . E ⎟ ⎠ < function of wc . Since = dq 2 q dc ⎤ d ⎡⎢ dq ⎣ ⎥⎦ = − 1 < 0 for q > 0. Since r is increasing on (0. a. so as Th increases. Average cost = c = p= c 1 . r = 240q + 57 q 2 − q3 c.

P = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 100 1 + 100. f ′( x) = x 2 + x − 2 = ( x + 2)( x − 1) f ( x) = There are no critical values on (−1. 0.05) 81. Relative minimum: (−3.2 79.53.53.18.18. 4 2.69) 83. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x + 3 and f is continuous over [0. 0). f ′( x) < 0 on (–∞. −5. 5 –5 –5 c. relative maxima: 0.53. 1. 10 d. Relative minimum: (1. –2. 1 3 1 2 x + x − 2 x + 1 and f is continuous 3 2 over [−1.26.74) 1. f(1) = 2. (0.74) –1 5 –10 77. (0. Absolute maximum: f(3) = 6. We 2 3 19 ⎛ ⎞ have f(–3) = 5.32 78. 3) is x = 1. on (–∞. f is dec. f ( x) = −2 x 2 − 6 x + 5 and f is continuous over [–3. ∞). so we only have to evaluate f at the endpoints: 19 and f(0) = 1. 2]. f (−1) = 6 19 Absolute maximum: f (−1) = 6 Absolute minimum: f(0) = 1 f ′( x) > 0 on (–2.05. 3. ⎝ 2⎠ 2 absolute minimum: f(2) = –15 80.74. 3. Relative minima: 0. ⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⎛ 3 ⎞ 19 Absolute maximum: f ⎜ − ⎟ = .36h ( dP d ⎡ 100 1 + 100. 1.5 f ′( x) = 4 − 6 x − 3 x 2 10 b. 3⎞ ⎛ f ′( x) = −4 x − 6 = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3 The only critical value on (–3. on (–2. f ′( x) = 0 when x ≈ 0. 600.00. 2) is x = − .57. 000e−0. Relative maximum: (0.36 h = dh dh ⎢⎣ 3. 0. 0].Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 76.53). dh 84.53.74. 1. 2. 0. f has relative extrema when x ≈ 0. Problems 13. 3. f is inc.36h 1 + 100.53).77 82. –2. a.50. Relative maximum: (2. f ′( x) = 2 x − 2 = 2( x − 1) The only critical value on (0. and f(3) = 6.74). We evaluate f at this point and at the endpoints: f(0) = 3. f ⎜ − ⎟ = . relative minimum: (–2. 1.53). and f(2) = –15. P is an increasing function of h.5 –2.38. 000 = 2 e0.83. 3]. 480 .36 h ( Since ) −1 ⎤ –5 ⎥ ⎦ ) dP > 0 .53).38. 000e−0. 000e−0. absolute minimum: f(1) = 2 2. –3. ∞). f ′( x) = 4 x3 − 2 x − 2( x + 2) = 4 x3 − 4 x − 4 CV: x ≈ 1.

f ⎜ ⎟ = . = 15 x 2 (1 + x)(1 − x) The only critical value on (–2. 0) is x = –1. Absolute maximum: f 10. ⎛1 ⎞ The only critical value on ⎜ . f ′( x) = x3 − x = x( x 2 − 1) = x( x − 1)( x + 1) 2 f ( x) = x 3 and f is continuous over [–8. Section 13. 1). f(0) = 0. 2]. ) f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x6 and f is continuous over [–1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 4. ⎝ 7 ⎠ 49 Absolute maximum: f(3) = 73.2 1 4 3 2 x − x and f is continuous over 4 2 ( )( f ′( x) = x3 − 3 x = x x + 3 x − 3 8. Absolute maximum: f(–2) = 56. and f(3) = 73. We 7 ⎛ 3 ⎞ 13 have f(0) = 1. 2) are x = 0. 8]. ( ( 2) = 4 . ) f ′( x) = 7 x 2 + 4 x − 3 = (7 x − 3)( x + 1) There are no critical values on (0. f(1) = –8. f ( x) = [0. absolute minimum: f(2) = –16 f ′( x) = 7. 3]. 3) is x = f ( x) = 4 x3 + 3 x 2 − 18 x + 3 and f is continuous ⎡1 ⎤ over ⎢ . f(–1) = –2. 3 . 3]. 3 The only critical value on (–8. 3]. 1]. 5 absolute minimum: f (1) = − 4 5. We have f(–1) = –6. f(0) = 0. f(3) = 84. 3⎥ . f(0) = 2. x= = 2 2 481 . 11 1. We ⎝2 ⎠ evaluate f at this point and the endpoints: 19 ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = − . 0. The only critical value on (0. and f(8) = 4. so we only have to evaluate f at the end points: f(0) = 0 and 5 f (1) = − 4 Absolute maximum: f(0) = 0. f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 + 2 and f is continuous over [–1. absolute minimum: f(0) = 0 f ( x) = 1 4 1 2 x − x + 3 and f is continuous over 4 2 The critical values of f on (−2. 2 ( 2 9. f ( x) = ) 11. 3) are x = 0 and 3 3 2 . 4 ⎝2⎠ Absolute maximum: f(3) = 84. and f(0) = 0. f(0) = 3. ⎛ 3 ⎞ 13 absolute minimum: f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ 7 ⎠ 49 f ′( x) = 12 x3 − 6 x5 = 6 x3 2 − x 2 f ′( x) = 12 x + 6 x − 18 = 6 2 x + x − 3 6. and 2. f (1) = 4 4 75 Absolute maximum: f (3) = 4 11 Absolute minimum: f (−1) = f (1) = 4 f ( x) = −3x5 + 5 x3 and f is continuous over [–2. Absolute maximum: f(–8) = f(8) = 4. Thus there is an absolute maximum when x = –8 or x = 8. ( f ′( x) = 4 x3 − 18 x = 2 x 2 x 2 − 9 = 2x ( 2x − 3 )( 2x + 3 ) ) The only critical values on (–1. 3) are x = −1. [−2. 2 − 13 x . and an absolute minimum when x = 0. = 6x 3 ( ( 2−x )( 2+x ) ) = 6(2 x + 3)( x − 1) The only critical values on (–1. We have f(−2) = 5. absolute minimum: f(1) = –8 We have f(–1) = 2. We have f(–8) = 4. 3 ⎟ is x = 1. f ′( x) = −15 x 4 + 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 1 − x 2 ( 2 ) = 4 . ⎣2 ⎦ 7 3 x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 and f is continuous 3 over [0. 8) is x = 0. f f(2) = –16. We have f(–2) = 56. 0]. f (−1) = . 4 11 75 and f (3) = . absolute minimum: f(–1) = –2.

∞).and f (2) = . 5 –1 − + 2 –26 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3 x3 + 2 x − 3 f ′′( x) = 6 x(4 x + 3) 3 f ′′( x) is 0 when x = 0. concave up on (1. 14. but x = 1 must be considered in concavity analysis.22. 2 absolute minimum: f(0) = 0 13. Absolute maximum: f(−26) = f(28) = 9. –3. and f(3) = 2. Sign chart for f ′′ : 4 f ( x) = ( x − 1) 3 and f is continuous over [−26. 2 x +1 a.75 (1 + x)(1 − x) ( x2 + 1) 9 0 x 2 + 1) − x(2 x) ( 1 − x2 f ′( x) = = 2 2 ( x2 + 1) ( x2 + 1) = 10 15. –10 f ( x) = f ′′( x) = Absolute maximum f(0.8 2 + x − x2 x2 − 2 x + 1 2(7 − x) ( x − 1) 4 f ′′( x) is 0 when x = 7. 14.2 x3 − 3. 5 2 1 Absolute maximum: f (1) = . − ⎟ and (0.78 b. ∞).3 1. f (1) = . 0 ⎟ . –2) and (–2.28) ≈ 1. 3 −4 + 0 3⎞ ⎛ Concave up on ⎜ −∞. 1). absolute minimum: f(1) = 0 f ( x) = x5 x 4 + − 2 x2 20 4 f ′′( x) = ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 f ′′( x) is 0 when x = 1.283 Problems 13. Inflection points when ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3 x = − . f ( x) = –4 x and f is continuous over [0. d.28. − . f is not continuous at x = 1. 2 3. absolute minimum f(2) = −7. 4 10 28 –1 2. 28]. 2]. –2. So there is no inflection point when x = 1. 482 .6 x 2 + 2 x + 1 and f is continuous – over [−1. ⎛3 2 ⎞ 73 absolute minimum: f ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = − 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12. –0. 2. concave 4⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ down on ⎜ − . Inflection point when x = 1. 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Absolute maximum: f(0) = f(3) = 2. – –2 + 1 Concave down on (–∞. Although f ′′ is not defined when x = 1. . We 2 1 have f(0) = 0. 2]. c. 0. 9 2 The only critical value on (0. Sign chart for f ′′ : f ( x) = 0.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛3 2 ⎞ 73 f ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = − . 2) is x = 1.

Thus the graph is concave down on (–∞. that is. y = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + 5 x − 2 ) 2. inflection point when x = 2. f is not continuous at x = 1. No inflection 5⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 12 x − 10 = 12 ⎜ x − ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ point. ∞ . Although f ′′ is not defined 10. ∞). 0). 1⎟ and (1.3 Sign chart for f ′′ : + + 6. 2]. so the graph is concave ⎛ 1 ⎞ Concave up on ⎜ − . Sign chart of f ′′ : – + –1 –2 + 8. Although f ′′ is not 2 defined when x = 1. + 2 ( ) Concave up on −∞. but x = 1 must be considered in concavity analysis. ∞). y = −2 x 2 + 4 x y′ = −4 x + 4 y ′′ = −4 < 0 for all x. Inflection point when x = 7. y ′ = 6 x 2 − 10 x + 5 concave down on − 2. − 2 and ( 2 down for all x. 4. inflection point when x = –1. 2 . y = 4 x3 + 12 x 2 − 12 x 2 x +1 f ( x) = y′ = 12 x 2 + 24 x − 12 y ′′ = 24 x + 24 = 24( x + 1) Possible inflection point when x = –1. So there is no inflection point when x = 1. 1 2 9. concave up on (2. 2 x −2 f ′′( x) = ( ) = 6 ( 3x 2 + 2 ) 3 3 ( x2 − 2) ⎡⎣( x − 2 )( x + 2 )⎤⎦ 6 3x2 + 2 f ′′( x) is never 0. ( x − 1)2 2(2 x + 1) f ′′( x) = ( x − 1) 4 + 1 f ′′( x) = 0 when x = − . The only possible point of inflection occurs when x = 0. Concave down on (–∞. concave down on (0. ∞). 1) and (1. − ⎟ . ( 4 − x2 ) ) 3 2 Concave up on (–2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. Sign chart for f ′′ : x2 f ( x) = f ( x) = x 4 − x 2 ) ( 11. concave down on (7. Concave 6 483 . ∞). f is not continuous at x = ± 2 . y = x3 − 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 when x = ± 2 . – 1 7 f ′′( x) = Concave up on (–∞. but x = ± 2 must be considered in concavity analysis. f ′′( x) is 0 only when x = 0. y = −74 x 2 + 19 x − 37 y′ = −148 x + 19 y ′′ = −148 < 0 for all x. Inflection point when x = 0. 1⎞ ⎛ down on ⎜ −∞. ∞). –1): concave up on (–1. 7). 2⎠ ⎝ Inflection point when x = – 0 7. Sign chart of f ′′ : + – – 2 y′ = 3x 2 − 12 x + 9 y ′′ = 6 x − 12 = 6( x − 2) Possible inflection point when x = 2. 5 Possible inflection point when x = . ∞). concave ⎝ 2 ⎠ 5. on (–∞. Concave down on (–∞. 1 2 ( 2 x x2 − 6 Note that the domain of f is [–2. 2). 2). So there is no inflection point when x = ± 2 . f ′′ is not defined when x = ±2. which are the endpoints of the domain of f.

– . Thus there is a possible inflection point when x = 0. Thus there is no possible inflection point. ( ) Concave down on – ∞. − 3 and ( 84 x5 Although y ′′ is not defined when x = 0. 2). y is not continuous there. concave up on ⎜ . 5⎠ ⎝ ⎝6 ⎠ 484 . 0). Concave down on (−∞. inflection points when x = ± 3 . inflection points when 3 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x=± 7 ) ( ) 5 1 1 1 2 18. ∞). Concave up on (–∞. y = 2 x 5 2 − 54 x 5 8 −9 8 y ′′ = − x 5 = − 9 25 25 x 5 y′ = 12. 3 . y′ = 4 x3 − 16 x 4⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 12 x 2 − 16 = 12 ⎜ x 2 − ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3⎞ = 12 ⎜⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 16. no inflection point 2 3 . y = x 4 − 8 x 2 − 6 y ′′ is not defined when x = 0 and y is continuous there. ∞). 7 1 Possible inflection points when x = − . y = 2 x 4 − 48 x 2 + 7 x + 3 14. x = 0 must be considered in concavity analysis. . 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛ 7 1⎞ concave down on ⎜ − . − ⎟ and ⎜ . inflection point when x = 0. −2) and (2. concave down on (0. ∞ . 0). 2 3 7⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ Concave up on ⎜ −∞. . concave up on (0. Concave 3 ⎛ ⎛2 3 ⎞ 2 3⎞ up on ⎜⎜ −∞. y ′′ = −30 x 2 − x + 1 = −(5 x + 1)(6 x − 1) 1 1 Possible inflection points when x = − . ⎟ . 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5 inflection point when x = 6 15. y = x 4 19 x3 7 x 2 + − + x+5 2 6 2 19 y′ = 2 x 3 + x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 2 ′′ y = 6 x + 19 x − 7 = (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 17. ⎟ . ∞). ∞ ⎟ . inflection points when x = ±2. Concave up on (−∞. .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ down on ⎜ −∞. However. 2 3 x4 9 x2 + + 2x 4 2 y′ = − x 3 + 9 x + 2 y ′′ = −3x 2 + 9 = −3( x 2 − 3) ( )( ) Possible inflection points when x = ± 3 . concave ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 2 3 2 3⎞ down on ⎜⎜ − . 5 6 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ Concave down on ⎜ −∞. y = − x 3 y ′ = −21x −4 2 3 Possible inflection points x = ± . ⎟ . concave up on − 3. − ⎟ and ⎜ . concave down on (−2. y = y ′ = 8 x3 − 96 x + 7 y ′′ = 24 x 2 − 96 = 24( x 2 − 4) = 24( x + 2)( x − 2) Possible inflection points when x = ±2. ∞ ⎟ . 3 = −3 x + 3 x − 3 = 7 x −3 y ′′ = 84 x −5 = 13. ∞ ⎟ . y = − x 4 − x3 + x 2 + x − 2 6 2 3 5 1 1 y′ = −10 x3 − x 2 + x + 2 3 3. ∞ ⎟⎟ . inflection points ⎝ 2 3⎠ 7 1 when x = − .

Concave down on (−∞. ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 5 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ 6⎞ concave down on ⎜⎜ − . 2 23. Using the quadratic formula to solve x 2 − 3x + 1 = 0 gives 6 . ± 5 . )( 1 2 y ′′ = − )( x − 2 )( x + 5 )( x − 5 ) ( ( x − 1)2 ( x − 1)3 No possible inflection point. 5 ⎛ ⎛ 6 ⎞ 6⎞ Concave up on ⎜⎜ −∞. − 5 . and 485 . y = ( ) 5. concave up on (1. − 2. 5 x +1 x −1 −2 y ′′ = = 2 x( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+ 2 ) 2. 5 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 x − x + x − x− 20 4 6 2 3 1 4 1 1 y′ = x − x 3 + x 2 − 4 2 2 6⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 30 x 4 − 36 x 2 = 30 x 2 ⎜ x 2 − ⎟ 5⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 6 ⎞⎛ 6⎞ = 30 x 2 ⎜⎜ x − ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ x + ⎟ 5 ⎠⎝ 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ) y ′′ is 0 when x = 0 or x − 3x + 1 = 0 . inflection points when ⎝ 5 6⎠ 1 1 x=− . ∞). Thus possible inflection points 2 3± 5 occur when x = 0. concave up on 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3− 5 ⎞ ⎛ 3+ 5 ⎞ ⎜⎜ 0. Possible inflection points when x = 0. y = x 6 − 3 x 4 y ′′ = x3 − 3x 2 + x = x x 2 − 3 x + 1 when x = 0. ± 3± 5 . concave down on − 5. ( 6 . −3) and (0. ∞). . 19.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. but we consider x = 1 in the concavity analysis. − . inflection points when x = 0. y = 1 − y′ = x2 x3 6 x4 No possible inflection point. ± 2 . 0) and (0. ⎟ . − 2 and ) Concave up on −∞. y = 1 6 7 4 x − x + 5x2 + 2 x − 1 21. ∞ ⎟⎟ . 0) and ⎜⎜ . ⎟. ±3. inflection points ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x= Inflection points when x = ± 3± 5 . 2 ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 2 . but we must consider x = 0 in the concavity analysis. 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ Possible inflection points when x = 0. inflection points when y′ = 6 x5 − 12 x3 2 ( ) 22. Concave down on (–∞. ( x = ± 5. 0 ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 0. 3). y = y′ = 1 5 x − 3x3 + 17 x + 43 10 1 y′ = x 4 − 9 x 2 + 17 2 y ′′ = 2 x3 − 18 x = 2 x( x 2 − 9) 20. . ⎟ . concave up on (−3. 2 . Concave down on (−∞. ∞ . ∞ ⎟⎟ . ±3. ) Possible inflection points when x = ± 2.3 ( ( ⎛ 1 1⎞ concave up on ⎜ − . 0) and (3. ∞). y = 30 12 1 7 y′ = x5 − x3 + 10 x + 2 5 3 )( y ′′ = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 10 = x 2 − 2 x 2 − 5 4 24. 1). Concave down on 2 ⎛ 3− 5 3+ 5 ⎞ (–∞. 5 .

7 Possible inflection point when x = 28.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 25. –3). inflection points 3 3⎠ ⎝ 1 when x = ± . 0⎟. concave down on ⎜ − ⎟ . Possible inflection points when x = ± 6 . y = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x2 27. inflection ⎜ 3 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ points when x = ± 486 6 . ∞ ⎟ . 7⎠ ⎝ ⎛2 ⎞ concave up on ⎜ . 2⎞ ⎛ Concave down on (–∞. ∞⎟ . y = 2 x +1 x 2 + 1) (2 x) − x 2 (2 x) ( 2x y′ = = 2 2 ( x2 + 1) ( x2 + 1) 2 x 2 + 1) (2) − 2 x(2) ( x 2 + 1) (2 x) ( y ′′ = 4 ( x2 + 1) x 2 + 1) (2) − 8 x 2 ( = 3 ( x2 + 1) 2 (1 − 3x 2 ) 2 (1 + 3x )(1 − 3 x ) = = 3 3 2 x 1 + ( ) ( x2 + 1) Possible inflection points when x = ± y′ = 4 x2 x+3 y′ = y ′′ = = ( x + 3)(8 x) − 4 x 2 (1) ( x + 3) 2 = ( 4 x2 + 6 x 6( x + 3)2 1 ( x + 3) 2 (21) − (21x + 40)[2( x + 3)] ⋅ 6 ( x + 3)4 = 1 ( x + 3)(21) − (21x + 40)(2) ⋅ 6 ( x + 3)3 = 1 −21x − 17 1 21x + 17 ⋅ =− ⋅ 3 6 ( x + 3) 6 ( x + 3)3 3 2⎤ ⎡ 1 ( x + 3) (21) − (21x + 17) ⎣3( x + 3) ⎦ ′′ y =− ⋅ 6 ( x + 3)6 1 ( x + 3)(21) − (21x + 17)(3) =− ⋅ 6 ( x + 3) 4 1 −42 x + 12 7x − 2 =− ⋅ = 4 6 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)4 1 . 3 ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎞ . ⎟ . 3 26. Concave down on (–∞. inflection point when ⎝7 ⎠ 2 x= . Concave down on ⎜ −∞. − ⎟ and ⎜ 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . y = 3( x 2 − 2) 2 ) y ′ = 12 x( x 2 − 2) = 12( x3 − 2 x) 2⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 12(3x 2 − 2) = 36 ⎜ x 2 − ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 6 ⎞⎛ 6⎞ = 36 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ( x + 3) 2 ( x + 3)2 (4)(2 x + 6) − 4( x 2 + 6 x)(2)( x + 3) ( x + 3)4 72 ( x + 3)3 No possible inflection point. concave up on (–3. 3 ⎛ ⎛ 6 ⎞ 6⎞ Concave up on ⎜ −∞. ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 6 6⎞ . y = 21x + 40 2 (x = –3 7 must be considered in concavity analysis). ∞). concave up on ⎜ − ⎟ . − . 3 . but we must include x = –3 in the concavity analysis. –3) and ⎜ −3.

3. increasing on 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x ⋅ 1x − (ln x)(2) 25 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎜ 2 . ∞). concave up on ⎝ ⎠ 3 3 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 2 ⎜ e . Concave down on (–∞. y = e − e y′ = e + e y ′′ = e − e y′ = Setting y ′′ = 0 gives e x = e − x or. Concave up on (–∞.3 29. = 2 2 2 2 y′ = 2 x 2 e x + e x = e x (2 x 2 + 1) x2 2 y ′′ = e (4 x) + 2 x(2 x + 1)e x2 x2 ( ) 3e x (2 x) − x 2 + 1 3e x 9e 2x = ( 3e 3e x ( ) 3e x (2 − 2 x) − 2 x − x 2 − 1 3e x 9e 2 x ( ) (2 − 2 x) − 2 x − x 2 − 1 3e x x2 − 4 x + 3 x = ( x − 1)( x − 3) 35. inflection point when x = 1. 1) and (3. ⎝ ⎠ y′ = 5e x y ′′ = 5e x Thus y ′′ > 0 for all x. Concave down on (–∞. ∞). ⎟ . 0) 1⎞ ⎛ y′ = 2x − 1 = 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ concave up on (0. inflection point when x = –2. ln x = y 3 3 . –2). y = 5e x 3 ⎛ ⎞ Concave down on ⎜ 0. 0). inflection point when x = e . e 2 ⎟ . y = x 2 − x − 6 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) 3 = e (4 x + 6 x) Intercepts: (0. x = e2 . ∞). y = 3xe x x2 + 1 4x2 ( ) = 1 − ln x 2x2 2 x 2 − 1x − (1 − ln x)(4 x) 4 x4 −2 x − (1 − ln x)(4 x) 4 4 4x −1 − (1 − ln x)(2) 2 x3 = x 10 2 ln( x) − 3 2 x3 y ′′ is 0 if 2ln(x) – 3 = 0. ∞). 34. 3). y = x −x x −x x −x 30. Concave up on (−∞. CV: x = 33. ∞ ⎟ . equivalently. ∞ ⎟ . x2 ) 2 x − x2 + 1 3e 3e x Possible inflection points when x = 1. y ′′ = = 2 ln x .) 2x y′ = = x 2x − x −1 = 2 xe (2 x + 3) y ′′ = 0 when x = 0. inflection point when x = 0. concave up on (0. = x = 0. (3. 32. 0). ∞). 3. Concave up on (–∞. −6). ∞). Concave down on (–∞. 0) and (−2. ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ y ′′ = 2 No possible inflection point. y = xe x 3e x 2 y ′′ = 31. concave down on (1. 2 487 . concave up on (–2. relative minimum at ⎜ 2 . y′ = 3xe x + 3e x = 3e x ( x + 1) = y ′′ = 3e x (1) + 3( x + 1)e x = 3e x ( x + 2) y ′′ = 0 if x = –2.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. (Note: x > 0. − 4 ⎟ . y = 1 2 1⎞ ⎛ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. inflection point when x = 0.

4). 2) y′ = 1 − 2 x CV: x = y 50 3 ⎛ 50 ⎞ Increasing on (−∞. y = 5 x − 2 x 2 = x(5 − 2 x) ⎛5 ⎞ Intercepts (0. –3). 36. 8 5 x y 5 39. concave up on (3. 0) and (25. ⎟. ⎟ . relative ⎝ 3 ⎠ 1 2 62. 2). (–1. inflection point at (3. 3). 0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ y′ = 5 − 4 x CV: x = 5 4 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. 0). 38. 0). relative minimum at (4. relative minimum at (0. Concave down on (–∞. decreasing on (2. y = x − x 2 + 2 = −( x − 2)( x + 1) Intercepts (2. 0) 50 ⎞ ⎛ y ′ = 3 x 2 − 50 x = 3 x ⎜ x − ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ x 5 CV: x = 0. Symmetric about the y-axis. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ y ′′ = −2 No possible inflection point. y 8 y x 2 8 5 40. ∞). 0). –19).Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛1 9⎞ relative maximum at ⎜ . 2) y′ = 2 x CV: x = 0 Decreasing on (–∞. Concave down on (–∞. − 3 27 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. ⎟ . minimum at ⎜ . 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ 488 . ⎟ . y = x 2 + 2 Intercept (0. y ′′ = 2 No possible inflection point. ∞ ⎟ . ∞). 1). 0) and ⎜ . x = 4 Increasing on (–∞. –1). and (0. 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 5 25 ⎞ relative maximum at ⎜ . relative maximum at (0. ∞). decreasing on ⎜ . y = x3 − 25 x 2 = x 2 ( x − 25) Intercepts: (0. ∞ ⎟ . 0) and ⎜ . 2) and (4. ⎝4 8 ⎠ y ′′ = −4 No possible inflection point. ∞ ⎟ . Concave down on (–∞. the y-intercept is (0. x 5 y′ = 3x 2 − 18 x + 24 = 3( x − 2)( x − 4) CV: x = 2. increasing on (0. y = x3 − 9 x 2 + 24 x − 19 The x-intercepts are not convenient to find. y ′′ = 6 x − 18 = 6( x − 3) Possible inflection point when x = 3. 37. ∞). 0). ∞). decreasing ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 50 ⎞ on ⎜ 0.500 ⎞ ⎛ 50 . decreasing on ⎜ . relative maximum at (2. Concave up on (–∞. ∞).

concave up on (2. ∞ ⎟ . 0) 25 ⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 6 x − 50 = 6 ⎜ x − ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ y′ = 3x 2 − 12 x + 9 = 3( x − 1)( x − 3) CV: x = 1 and x = 3 Increasing on (–∞. ∞). no relative maximum or minimum y ′′ = 6( x − 1) Possible inflection point when x = 1. 3). y = x3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 3 Intercept (0. 25 . Concave down on (–∞. 0).3 42. 5⎤ ⎡ y ′′ = 12 x + 5 = 12 ⎢ x + ⎥ ⎣ 12 ⎦ Possible inflection point at x = − 489 5 . Symmetric about the origin. 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 31. relative 3⎠ ⎝ 16 ⎞ ⎛ minimum at ⎜ 2. decreasing on (1. 1) and (3. relative maximum at (1. ∞). 4). inflection point at (2. 10 5 y x 5 y 5 2 5 ⎛ ⎞ x + 2 x = x ⎜ 2x2 + x + 2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ Intercept (0. Concave 12 . relative minimum at (3. ∞). inflection point at (0. 2). 2). relative maximum at ⎜ −2. 0) and ±2 3. ∞). 2). Concave down on (–∞. inflection point at (1. –2). –2) and (2. 3 ⎝ ⎠ Possible inflection point when x = 25 ⎞ ⎛ . 0) 44. ∞). ∞). ∞). 0) and (3. concave up on (1. 0). down on ⎜ −∞. y ′′ = 6 x − 12 = 6( x − 2) Possible inflection point when x = 2. 250 ⎞ ⎛ 25 . decreasing on 16 ⎞ ⎛ (–2. concave up on (0. 1) and (1. inflection point at ⎜ . ) y′ = x 2 − 4 = ( x + 2)( x − 2) CV: x = ±2 Increasing on (–∞.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. ⎟ . 0). 3⎠ ⎝ y ′′ = 2 x Possible inflection point when x = 0. − ⎟ . y = x3 x3 − 12 x − 4x = 3 3 ( )( 1 = x x+2 3 x−2 3 3 ( 43. 1). Concave 3 ⎛ 25 ⎞ concave up on ⎜ . 0 y′ = 3x 2 − 6 x + 3 = 3( x − 1) 2 CV: x = 1 Increasing on (–∞. y = 2 x3 + x 10 y′ = 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 CV: none Increasing on (–∞. Concave down on (–∞. –3) ) Intercepts (0. y = x3 − 6 x 2 + 9 x = x( x − 3) 2 Intercepts (0. − 27 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 3 1200 y x 48 5 y x 8 41.

∞ ⎟ . ∞). ⎝ ⎠ 2 . y ′′ = −6 x Possible inflection point when x = 0. 1⎟ . ⎝3 ⎠ Possible inflection point when x = x 2⎞ ⎛ up on ⎜ −∞. y = −2 + 12 x − x3 Intercept (0. concave up on 12 ⎝ ⎠ 235 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎜ − . –2) 2 Possible inflection points at x = 0 and x = . increasing 3⎠ ⎝ y′ = 6(3 + 2 x)2 CV: x = − 490 3 2 . 2). –2) and (2. ∞). 0) and ⎝ 3⎠ ⎛ 2 16 ⎞ ⎜ . − ⎟.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 5⎞ ⎛ down on ⎜ −∞. ⎟ ⎝ 3 27 ⎠ 45. concave down on (0. 12 12 432 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ y ⎛1 ⎞ on ⎜ . relative minimum at (–2. ⎟ . 0) and (0. 27). Concave up on (–∞. relative maximum at (1. relative maximum at (2. –18). ⎟ . increasing on (–2. 4) y ′ = −3x 2 + 4 x − 1 = −(3 x − 1)( x − 1) 48. ⎜ − . y ′′ = 24 x − 36 x 2 = 12 x(2 − 3x) x 5 47. inflection point at ⎜ − . inflection point at (0. 3 ⎛2 ⎞ Concave down on (–∞. ⎟ and (1. ∞). 14). 0). 27 ⎟ . 0). relative minimum at ⎝3 ⎠ relative maximum at (1. concave ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ up on ⎜ 0. 1 3 ⎛ 3 ⎞ Intercepts (0. 0 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. ⎟ ⎝ 3 27 ⎠ 3 y′ = 12 − 3x 2 = 3(2 + x)(2 − x) CV: x = ±2 Decreasing on (–∞. y = (3 + 2 x)3 1 CV: x = . 1). 0 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ y′ = 12 x 2 − 12 x3 = 12 x 2 (1 − x) CV: x = 0 and x = 1 Increasing on (–∞. 1). inflection points at (0. ⎜ . y y 20 x 3 x 5 46. ∞). Concave 3 ⎛2 ⎞ concave down on ⎜ . y = − x3 + 2 x 2 − x + 4 Intercept (0. decreasing on (1. ∞ ⎟ . y = 4 x3 − 3 x 4 = x3 (4 − 3 x) 8 y ⎛4 ⎞ Intercepts (0. ∞ ⎟ . 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛ 2 106 ⎞ inflection point at ⎜ . − ⎟ . 4) 2⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = −6 x + 4 = −6 ⎜ x − ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎛ 1 104 ⎞ ⎜ 3 . –2). 0) and ⎜ .

3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 3 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. ) CV: x = ±1 Decreasing on (–∞. Concave up on (–∞. 0). 0 ⎟ . 4). (5. 4). ∞). 0) x 4 x3 x3 y′ = − = ( x − 4) 20 5 20 CV: x = 0 and x = 4 Increasing on (–∞. 0) and (0. y 3 5 x y 3 x 5 x5 x 4 x4 − = ( x − 5) 100 20 100 Intercepts (0. (1. y ′′ = 24(3 + 2 x) y ′′ = 3 . ∞). inflection point at (0. concave up on ⎜ − . 0 ) 51. 0). 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎛ ⎞ inflection point at ⎜ − .Concave 2 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 3 ⎞ down on ⎜ −∞. 0) and (4. inflection point at (3. y ′′ = 12( x − 1) Possible inflection point when x = 1. –1. − ⎟ and ⎜ − . ( ) ( = 5(1 − x)(1 + x) (1 + x 2 ) )( y′ = 5 − 5 x 4 = 5 1 − x 4 = 5 1 − x 2 1 + x 2 2 y′ = 6( x − 1) CV: x = 1 Increasing on (–∞. y = x 2 ( x − 1)2 Intercepts: (0. 0) and ( ± 4 5. 1) and (1. − ⎟ . relative maximum at (1. concave down on (0. ∞). ⎝ 2 ⎠ Possible inflection point at x = − 40 10 y x 10 y ( ) = x ( 5 + x 2 )( 5 − x 2 ) = x ( 5 + x 2 ) ( 4 5 + x )( 4 5 − x ) Intercepts (0. 0) y ′ = x 2 [2( x − 1)(1)] + 2 x( x − 1) 2 = 2 x( x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 4 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x CV: x = 0. 0). –2. relative maximum at (0. –4). relative minimum at (–1. concave up on (1. y ′′ = −20 x3 Possible inflection point when x = 0. 1 and x = 491 1 2 . relative minimum at (4. 3).3 x3 3 x 2 x 2 ( x − 3) − = 5 5 5 Possible inflection points when x = 0 and x = 3. decreasing on (0. y = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 2( x − 1)3 Intercepts (0. 0) Symmetric about the origin. –2). ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . 1). 0). no relative maximum or minimum. Concave down on (–∞. ∞).56).62). no 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ relative maximum or minimum. ∞). 50. (1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. y = 52. increasing on (–1. 0). ∞). –1) and (1. Concave down on (–∞. 0). concave up on (3. inflection point at (1. 1). y = 5 x − x5 = x 5 − x 4 x 5 49.

. 1). 2 ⎠ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 2 ⎞ concave up on ⎜⎜ − . ∞). concave 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ down on ⎜ 0. 0) and ⎜ . ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 0.− ⎟ . ⎟ . ⎟ . ∞ ⎟⎟ . (0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 7 2 inflection points at ⎜⎜ . 2 ⎛ ⎛ 2⎞ 2⎞ Concave down on ⎜⎜ −∞. increasing on (1. there are possible 3± 3 . relative minimum at (1. ⎝ 3 27 ⎠ y x 3 492 . inflection points at 6 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎛ 3− 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3+ 3 1 ⎞ . . 0 ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ Symmetric about the origin. ⎟ ⎝ 2 16 ⎠ y ′′ = 12 x 2 − 12 x + 2 = 2(6 x 2 − 6 x + 1) From the quadratic formula. y = 3x 4 − 4 x3 + 1 Intercepts (0. ∞ ⎟ . inflection points at (0. 0). ∞). No symmetry. 0) [the latter is found by inspection of the equation]. 0) and (0. y = 3x5 − 5 x3 = 3x3 ⎢ x 2 − ⎥ 3⎦ ⎣ ⎛ 5 ⎞⎛ 5⎞ = 3x3 ⎜⎜ x + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ x − ⎟ 3 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 5 ⎞ Intercepts (0. 1⎟ . − ⎟. relative minima at (0. y′ = 15 x 4 − 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) CV: x = 0 and x = ±1 Increasing on (–∞. 2 8 ⎟⎠ ⎝ Possible inflection points at x = 0 and x = ± 53. 0) ⎝ 2⎠ x 3 ⎛1 1 ⎞ and (1. concave ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ 6 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3− 3 3+ 3 ⎞ down on ⎜⎜ . relative maximum at (–1. ⎟ and (1. 36 ⎠ 36 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎝ 6 5 5⎤ ⎡ 54. and 2 8 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 7 2⎞ . 3 3 ⎛2 ⎞ Concave up on (–∞. y ′′ = 36 x 2 − 24 x = 12 x(3 x − 2) Possible inflection points at x = 0 and x = 2 . ∞). –2). Concave up inflection points when x = 6 ⎛ ⎛ 3+ 3 ⎞ 3− 3 ⎞ on ⎜⎜ −∞. 0). relative minimum at (1. 0 ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ . y′ = 12 x3 − 12 x 2 = 12 x 2 ( x − 1) CV: x = 0 and x = 1 Decreasing on (–∞. decreasing on (–1. ⎡ 2⎤⎡ 2⎤ y ′′ = 60 x3 − 30 x = 60 x ⎢ x + ⎥ ⎢x − ⎥ 2 ⎦⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ y x 5 2 . 1) and ⎝ 3⎠ ⎛ 2 11 ⎞ ⎜ . increasing ⎝2 ⎠ 3 y ⎛ 1⎞ on ⎜ 0. 0) and (0.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ⎛1 ⎞ Decreasing on (−∞. 2). 1). 0) and ⎜⎜ ± . 0) and ⎜ . –1) and (1. relative maximum at ⎜ . ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ ⎟. ∞ ⎟⎟ . ⎟. ⎜⎜ − ⎟. 1) and (1. 0).

relative minima at down on (–4. 2 5 4 6 ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎞ Concave up on ⎜ −∞. ⎟⎟ . Concave up on (–∞. inflection points at −4. y = x − x = x ( x + 1)( x − 1) Intercepts (0. concave y ′′ = ) 2x −1 1 2 ( 1 ⎞ 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. –4) and (0. relative minimum at (0. y 2 . 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ relative maximum at (0. 36 ⎠ 6 ⎝ ⎡2 ⎤ y ′′ = 8 − 12 x 2 = 12 ⎢ − x 2 ⎥ ⎣3 ⎦ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ = 12 ⎜⎜ − x ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ + x ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ Possible inflection points when 1 4 −2 / 3 16 −5 / 3 + x x 9 9 4⎡ 1 4 ⎤ 4( x + 4) = ⎢ + = 9 ⎣ x 2 / 3 x5 / 3 ⎥⎦ 9 x5 / 3 Possible inflection points when x = –4. − ⎟ and ⎜ 0. 0). Possible inflection points when x = ± Increasing on −∞. x=± 3 ⎛ 2 ⎞ . 4 ) . ∞ ⎟⎟ . ⎟ . 0) 4 8 y′ = x1/ 3 − x −2 / 3 3 3 4⎡ 2 ⎤ 4( x − 2) = ⎢ x1/ 3 − ⎥= 2 3⎣ x /3 ⎦ 3x2 / 3 CV: x = 0. ∞). 0) and (8. inflection 6 6⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1 5 ⎞ points at ⎜ ± . ∞). inflection points at ⎝ 3 3⎠ ⎛ 2 20 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ± . y′ = 4 x 3 − 2 x = 2 x CV: x = 0. 0) and (±2. y = x1/ 3 ( x − 8) = x 4 / 3 − 8 x1/ 3 Intercepts (0. 0). 0) Symmetric about the y-axis. 0 ) and ( 2. 0). ∞⎟ . − 63 2 ) ≈ ( 2.− ⎟ ⎜± 4⎠ 2 ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ y ′′ = 12 x 2 − 2 = 12 ⎜ x 2 − ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ ⎡ 1 ⎤⎡ 1 ⎤ = 12 ⎢ x + ⎥ ⎢x − ⎥ 6⎦⎣ 6⎦ ⎣ ) CV: x = 0. 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ increasing on ⎜ − . ⎝ 3 9 ⎠ 5 57. relative minimum at x ( 2. 2 Decreasing on (–∞. ⎟⎟ . (−1. 0). 0) Symmetric about the y-axis. ∞ ⎟. ± 2 ( ) ( ) decreasing on ( − 2. ± ( )( 2x + 1 3 x y 2 . ⎟ and ⎜ 6⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ concave down on ⎜ − . 2).ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. ⎟. 2 . and ⎜⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ Concave down on ⎜⎜ −∞. 0. ∞ ) . and (1. relative maxima at ( ± 2.56) . increasing on (2. 0) and (0. 12 3 4 ) and (0.3 55. − . Observe that at the origin the tangent line exists but it is vertical. − 7. 2 56. y = 4 x 2 − x 4 = x 2 (2 + x)(2 − x) Intercepts (0. 0). ( 3 y′ = 8 x − 4 x = 4 x 2 − x = 4x ( 2+x )( 2−x ) 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1 . 0 ⎟ and ⎜ . 493 . − ⎟. − 2 and 0. 0). − ⎟ 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 2⎞ concave up on ⎜⎜ − .

–1). increasing on (–1. 0) ⎤ 4 4 4⎡ 1 y′ = x −2 / 3 + x1/ 3 = ⎢ + x1/ 3 ⎥ 2 / 3 3 3 3 ⎣x ⎦ 4(1 + x) = 3x 2 / 3 CV: x = 0. ∞ ⎟ . ⎛ 1 81 ⎞ ⎜ − 2 . ∞). relative minimum at (−3. 1 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ Decreasing on (–∞. 0) y′ = ( x − 1)2 [2( x + 2)] + ( x + 2)2 [2( x − 1)] = 2(x – 1)(x + 2)(2x + 1) 1 CV: x = −2. concave ⎜⎜ −∞. ∞). 0) and 2. 1⎞ ⎛ on ⎜ −2. –1 Decreasing on (–∞. 1⎟ . 4). inflection point at (0. Concave up on (−4. –3) 8 4 4⎡ 1 2 ⎤ − y ′′ = − x −5 / 3 + x −2 / 3 = ⎢ ⎥ 2 / 3 5 9 9 9 ⎣x x /3 ⎦ x 16 8 3 (2. −3). ⎟ .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 21 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y 2 59. 6 2 ) (–2. 0) and (0. so ( ) y ′′ = 6 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 . 0) and (−4. 0). concave down on ( ) (0. 6 3 2 . 0). − . increasing on (−3. (–2. min at (–1. increasing ⎝ 2 ⎠ = 4( x − 2) 9 x5 / 3 Possible inflection points when x = 0. –6 2 ) 58. y = 4 x1/ 3 + x 4 / 3 = x1/ 3 (4 + x) Intercepts (0. 0) 1 y ′ = ( x + 1) ⋅ + x + 4(1) 2 x+4 1 [( x + 1) + 2( x + 4)] = 2 x+4 3( x + 3) = 2 x+4 CV: x = −3. relative minima at ⎝ ⎠ y 7 3 (2. 2. ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ –4 Intercepts (0. relative maximum at 2⎠ ⎝ Observe that at the origin the tangent line exists but it is vertical. Concave up on points at x = 2 ⎛ ⎛ −1 + 3 ⎞ −1 − 3 ⎞ . Setting y ′′ = 0 and using x the quadratic formula gives possible inflection −1 ± 3 . y = ( x − 1) 2 ( x + 2)2 Intercepts (0. 0) and (1. y = ( x + 1) x + 4 [Note: x ≥ −4] ⎛ −1 − 3 −1 + 3 ⎞ down on ⎜ . inflection points ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ when x = –1 y x ( 5 ) 3 2( x + 4) − ( x + 3) 3( x + 5) ⋅ = 3/ 2 4 ( x + 4) 4( x + 4)3 / 2 No possible inflection point. ∞). ∞). 0) and (2. − ⎟ and (1. 16 ⎟ . (1. −4 Decreasing on (−4. ∞). 2). 0) and (–4. (−1. = 494 . rel. 2). y′ = 2(2 x3 + 3 x 2 − 3x − 2). –2) and ⎜ − . −2) 1 3 x + 4(1) − ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x + 4 y ′′ = ⋅ 2 2 x+4 −1 ± 3 2 8 5 60. Concave up on (–∞.

8 8 y 4 x 300 4 x 2500 65. y ′ = 4 x −1/ 3 − y 8 y 4 x 2 64. 0) and (5. ∞). concave down on (–1. relative minimum at (0. ∞). relative minimum at (0. 4. ∞). 0) ⎞ 1⎛8− 3 x ⎞ 1 1⎛ 8 = ⎜ − 1⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ 3 x ⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 3 x ⎟⎠ CV: x = 0. 0) and (0. –1. 0). 2 Increasing on (0. 6). relative maximum at (512.76) 10 −4 / 3 10 −1/ 3 10(1 + x) − x =− x 9 9 9 x4 / 3 Possible inflection point when x = 0. 0) and (1728. 0).3 Observe that at the origin the tangent line exists but it is vertical. 5 8 y 1 x 1 62. Concave down on (−∞. 128). Concave up on (–∞. 3 4 ≈ (2. Intercepts (0. inflection point at (–1. relative ( 3 4 x ) 3 maximum at 2. 512). –1). y 8 y x 5 x 61. decreasing on (–∞. y = 6 x 2 / 3 − 8 ⎛ x1/ 3 ⎞ x = 6 x 2 / 3 ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2 12 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 63.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 5 Section 13. 0) and (2. Observe that at the origin the tangent line exists but it is vertical. 0). y ′′ = − 495 . and (0. ∞). 0) and (512. 512 Increasing on (0. y = 5 x 2 / 3 − x5 / 3 = x 2 / 3 (5 − x) Intercepts (0. 0) ⎤ 10 −1/ 3 5 2 / 3 5 ⎡ 2 − x = ⎢ − x2 / 3 ⎥ y′ = x 1/ 3 3 3 3⎣x ⎦ = 66. decreasing on (−∞. 8 5 y 5(2 − x) 3 x1/ 3 CV: x = 0. 2). 4 4 y ′′ = − x −4 / 3 = − 3 3x 4 / 3 Possible inflection point at x = 0.

If x > A . g ′( x) = − e U0 A ⎡ − x2 ⎤ ⎢ xe 2 A ⎥ A ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 496 7 − 0. 60 A2 U0 A concave down.0464t + 0. Also. d 2n 0. c 1 = q+2+ q q c′ = 1− U0 A A2 If 0 ≤ x < 68. dq 2 (q + 2)3 the demand curve is concave up. so the function is concave up.8(0.0464e > 0 .00 ⎡1 − e −(0. y = 12.0464t + 0.42) > 0 .1 7 0. so the graph is 71.5 + 5.42) Since ln(0.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 100 q+2 67. 2 q3 Since c′′ > 0 for q > 0. S = f ( A) = 12 4 A . Thus the graph is concave up.0670) = 0.1(140 − r ) = >0 r3 for 1 ≤ r ≤ 10.0464t + 0. − 34 values of A we have S ′ = 3 A > 0 and ⎛ 9 ⎞ −7 S ′′ = − ⎜ ⎟ A 4 < 0 . 0 ≤ A ≤ 625 .8(0. then g ′′( x) > 0 . Thus the graph of f is always falling.8(0. decreasing. 1 ≤ r ≤ 10 r dn 0.8 . the graph of the average cost function is concave up for q > 0. H = 1. g ( x) = e A e 2 A . so the graph is concave up.1(r − 70) = − = = <0 dr r r2 r2 r2 for 1 ≤ r ≤ 10. d 2H = −(0. A > 0.0670) < 0 .42) x ln 2 (0.0670 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ dH − (0. so H is dt increasing. x ≥ 0 (since x represents quantity).42) < 0. Since = c ′′ = 1 e U0 A 2 2 ⎡ −x ⎛ x ⎞ −x ⎤ ⎢x ⋅ e 2A ⎜ − ⎟ + e 2A ⎥ A ⎣⎢ ⎝ A⎠ ⎦⎥ 2 ⋅e − 2x A ⋅e − 2x A 2 (x 2 −A ) ( x + A )( x − A ) A . Thus y is increasing and ⎝4⎠ concave down. For the given 72.0464)2 e −(0. p = g ′′( x) = − dp 100 =− < 0 for q > 0. so the function is decreasing.1ln(r ) + a.1r =− + = 2 dr r 2 r3 r3 0. 69. n = f (r ) = 0.1r − 7 0. so H is dt 2 concave down. .42) x q2 y′ = 5. y ′′ = 5. c = q 2 + 2q + 1 c= e e S 73.1 14 14 − 0. A 625 U0 −x 2 70.42) x ln(0. we have y′ < 0 . so p is dq (q + 2)2 d2 p = 200 = > 0 for q > 0. then g ′′( x) < 0 .

Two inflection points 150 77. then y = 5 and y′ = 5 . 20 –20 –50 a. 0) and 3 ⎛ 2a ⎞ ⎛ 2a ⎞ ⎜ . the concavity of f must change from concave down to concave up. when x = 0 and x = . 497 .26 . concave down on ⎜ 0. Since ( f ′( x))′ = f ′′( x). y is concave up on (−∞. Thus the curve is concave up at x = 2. ∞ ⎟ .26. One inflection point 10 75. If a > 0. Thus an equation of the tangent line at x = 2 is y – 5 = 5(x – 2). One relative maximum point 10 b. In either case.61. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 3 x 2 − 6 x + 1 f ′( x) = 6 x 2 + 6 x − 6 f ′′( x) = 12 x + 6 –12 Two inflection points The relative minimum of f ′ occurs at a value of x for which ( f ′( x))′ = f ′′( x) = 0. ( f ′( x))′ goes from − to +. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 79. 3 6 2 76. Around this value of x. y has ⎝ 3 ⎠ 2a two points of inflection. –0. r 1 10 –3 c. 10 Section 13.26. One relative minimum point c.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis b. –2 74. If a < 0. f ( x ) = x 6 + 3 x5 − 4 x 4 + 2 x 2 + 1 f ′( x) = 6 x5 + 15 x 4 − 16 x3 + 4 x f ′′( x) = 30 x 4 + 60 x3 − 48 x 2 + 4 Inflection points of f when x ≈ –2. y = x3 − 2 x 2 + x + 3 y′ = 3 x 2 − 4 x + 1 When x = 2. Graphing the curve and the tangent line indicates that the curve lies above the tangent line around x = 2. so the rate of decrease is r =5 0. ∞).3 f(r) ⎛ 2a ⎞ concave downon ⎜ . dn dr 3 = −0. y = x5 ( x − a) = x 6 − ax5 y ′ = 6 x5 − 5ax 4 y ′′ = 30 x 4 − 20ax3 = 10 x3 (3 x − 2a) Possible inflection points when x = 0 and 2a x= . or y = 5x – 5. 0 ⎟ . ⎟ . ⎟ and (0. –2 –2 3 0 4 78. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2a ⎞ ⎛ y is concave up on ⎜ −∞.

4 1. the relative maximum is an absolute maximum. 2 Because there is only one relative extremum and f is continuous. 3. y = −4 x 2 + 2 x − 8 y′ = −8 x + 2 7.27. y = x3 − 12 x + 1 y′ = 3x 2 − 12 = 3( x + 2)( x − 2) CV: x = ±2 y ′′ = 6 x y ′′(−2) = −12 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when x = –2 y ′′(2) = 12 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x=2 Thus there is a relative minimum when x = −2. Thus there is a relative minimum when x = CV: x = −5. −0. y = − x3 + 3 x 2 + 1 1 CV: x = 4 y ′′ = −8 y′ = −3 x 2 + 6 x = −3x( x − 2) CV: x = 0. the relative minimum is an absolute minimum. y = 5 x + 20 x + 2 y′ = 10 x + 20 CV: x = −2 y ′′ = 10 y ′′(−2) = 10 > 0 6.00. y = 1 3 x + 2 x2 − 5x + 1 3 y ′ = x 2 + 4 x − 5 = ( x + 5)( x − 1) 5 . y = x 2 − 5 x + 6 y′ = 2 x − 5 CV: x = y ′′ = 2 5 6 5 . f ( x) = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x +1 1 . Because there is only one relative extremum and f is continuous. 2 y ′′ = −6 x + 6 y ′′(0) = 6 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = 0 ⎛1⎞ y ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = −8 < 0 ⎝4⎠ y ′′(2) = −6 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when x = 2 498 . the relative minimum is an absolute minimum. Thus there is a relative minimum when x = 5 2 ⎛5⎞ y ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = 2 > 0 ⎝2⎠ 5. y = 3x 2 − 5 x + 6 y′ = 6 x − 5 2 2 3 CV: x = Inflection points of f when x ≈ −3. 4 Because there is only one relative extremum and f is continuous. Thus there is a relative maximum when x = 2 x +1 f ′( x ) = − x2 + 2 x − 1 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 3 x − 3x − 1) f ′′( x) = ( x + 1) 2 2 3 4.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 80.73. 1. 6 Because there is only one relative extremum and f is continuous. 1 y ′′ = 2 x + 4 y ′′(−5) = −6 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when x = −5 y ′′(1) = 6 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = 1 2 2. the relative minimum is an absolute minimum. y ′′ = 6 ⎛5⎞ y ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = 6 > 0 ⎝6⎠ Problems 13.

y = − x3 + 3 x 2 + 9 x − 2 ⎛ 1⎞ y ′′ ⎜ − ⎟ = −60 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when ⎝ 3⎠ 1 x=− 3 y ′ = −3x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −3( x 2 − 2 x − 3) = −3( x + 1)( x − 3) CV: x = −1. using the first-derivative test. y = 7 − 2 x 4 y′ = −8 x3 CV: x = 0 y ′′ = −24 x 2 ⎛ 3⎞ y ′′ ⎜ − ⎟ = −68 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when ⎝ 5⎠ 3 x=− 5 ⎛7⎞ y ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = 68 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when ⎝ 11 ⎠ Since y ′′(0) = 0 . 3 y ′′ = −6 x + 6 y ′′(−1) = 12 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = −1 499 . − ) ( 7 2 ) y ′′ = 2 ⎡ x 2 + 7 x + 10 (2) + (2 x + 7)(2 x + 7) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ′′ y (−5) = 18 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = –5 ⎛ 7⎞ y ′′ ⎜ − ⎟ = −9 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when ⎝ 2⎠ ) ) = 5(3 x + 1)(3x − 1) 9 x 2 + 1 CV: x = ± 2 = 2( x + 2)( x + 5)(2 x + 7) = 5 9x −1 9x + 1 ( ( ) y′ = 2 x 2 + 7 x + 10 (2 x + 7) y′ = 81 ⋅ 5 x 4 − 5 = 5 81x 4 − 1 ( 11 7 13. –5. y = −2 x 7 y′ = −14 x 6 CV: x = 0 y ′′ = −84 x5 ( 11. 5 11 y ′′ = 110 x − 2 9. we see that f increases for x < 0 and f decreases for x > 0. y = x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since y ′′(0) = 0 . we see that f decreases for x < 0 and for x > 0. so there is a relative maximum when x = 0. However.4 8. so there is neither a relative maximum nor a relative minimum when x = 0. x= 10. y = 81x5 − 5 x ( )( 2 ) CV: x = –2. y = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 4 ⎛1⎞ y ′′ ⎜ ⎟ = 60 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when ⎝3⎠ 1 x= 3 y′ = 4 x3 − 4 x = 4 x( x + 1)( x − 1) CV: = 0. the second-derivative test fails. Using the first-derivative test. y = y ′′(−1) = 8 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = –1 y ′ = 55 x 2 − 2 x − 21 = (5 x + 3)(11x − 7) 3 7 CV: x = − .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. the second-derivative test fails. ±1 y ′′ = 12 x 2 − 4 y ′′(0) = −4 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when x = 0 y ′′(1) = 8 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = 1 12. 2 55 3 x − x 2 − 21x − 3 3 7 2 y ′′(−2) = 18 > 0 ⇒ relative minimum when x = –2 x=− 1 3 y ′′ = 81 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 x3 14.

y = f ( x) = x = 2 x →−∞ asymptote. lim f ( x) = lim = lim = . so there are no horizontal or vertical asymptotes. Hence there are no vertical or 2 horizontal asymptotes. Thus y = is a 3 3 x →−∞ horizontal asymptote. x = –2. 5. x +1 x When x = 0 the denominator is zero but the numerator is not. asymptote. y = f ( x) = Problems 13. Thus the line y = 1 is a 1. Similarly x →∞ ⎝ x2 ⎠ lim f ( x) = 1.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y ′′(3) = −12 < 0 ⇒ relative maximum when x=3 4 x When x = 0 the denominator is zero but the numerator is not zero. y = f ( x) = x →−∞ asymptote. 10. Thus y = 0 is a horizontal 8. so x →∞ ⎝ x ⎠ x →−∞ ⎝ x ⎠ y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 2 2 x →∞ x − 4 x →∞ x x →∞ x lim f ( x ) = 0 . y = f ( x) = = 500 x4 x3 − 4 = x4 x3 − (3 4) 3 x4 ( x − 22 / 3 )( x 2 + 22 / 3 x + 24 / 3 ) = x4 x3 − (22 / 3 )3 . y = f ( x) = 1 − x+2 3x − 5 5 When x = the denominator is zero but the 3 5 numerator is not. x x lim = lim = lim 1 = 1 . 9. Similarly. x →∞ x − 1 x →∞ x x →∞ Similarly lim f ( x) = 1 . y = f ( x) = x →−∞ horizontal asymptote. ⎛4⎞ ⎛4⎞ lim ⎜ ⎟ = 0. lim ⎜ ⎟ = 0. so y = 1 is a horizontal x →−∞ horizontal asymptote. 2 2 we have f(x) = 1. y = f ( x) = 2x + 1 Observe that both the numerator and 1 1 denominator are zero for x = − . f ( x) = 1 = 2 x →−∞ asymptote. y = f ( x) = x 2 − 5 x + 5 is a polynomial function. 2 x →∞ x − 1 x →∞ x 2 lim f ( x ) = 0 . For x ≠ − . Thus x = 0 is a vertical ⎛ 2 ⎞ asymptote. x ( x − 2)( x + 2) x −4 Vertical asymptotes: x = 2.5 x x −1 When x = 1 the denominator is zero but the numerator is not zero. 3. Similarly. x x 1 lim = lim = lim = 0 . Thus x = is a vertical 3 x 1 1 asymptote. Thus y = 1 is a 2. Thus x = 1 is a vertical asymptote. x →∞ x →∞ 3 x x →∞ 3 3 1 1 Similarly lim f ( x) = . 2 6. Thus y = 0 is a horizontal 7. lim x →∞ x x →∞ x x →∞ Similarly lim f ( x) = 1 . 1 1 lim = lim = 0 . 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 Vertical asymptotes are x = 1 and x = –1. Thus x = 0 is a vertical x +1 x = lim = lim 1 = 1 . Thus f is a constant function 1 for x ≠ − . lim ⎜ 1 − ⎟ = 1 − 0 = 1. y = f ( x) = = x2 − 2 x2 x2 When x = 0 the denominator is zero but the numerator is not. 2x + 1 4. Similarly. so x = 0 is a vertical asymptote.

and x →∞ x →∞ x 2 x →∞ lim f ( x) = 2 . y = f ( x) = x2 − 1 (2 x − 1)( x − 4) 3 − x4 = 3 − x4 x3 + x 2 x 2 ( x + 1) Vertical asymptotes are x = 0 and x = –1. x →−∞ asymptote. 3 − x4 3 − x2 so the line y = −x + 1 = −x +1+ x3 + x 2 x3 + x 2 is an oblique asyptote. x2 1 1 = lim = . f ( x) = 13. y = f ( x) = Vertical asymptotes are x = − 5 and x = 5. x3 is a polynomial function. Thus. x = 3 is a vertical asymptote. 5x = lim 5 = 5. and lim f ( x) = lim x →∞ x →∞ x x →∞ lim f ( x) = 5. we have x2 1 f ( x) = (1 + 4 x + 6 x 2 ) = (1 + 4 x + 6 x 2 ).and lim f ( x) = lim 2 x →∞ x →∞ 2 x 2 x →∞ 2 1 1 lim f ( x) = . and lim f ( x) = lim 2 4 x →∞ x →∞ 4 x x →∞ 4 1 1 lim f ( x) = . 2 x2 1 1 = lim = . x 2 + 4 x3 + 6 x 4 3x2 Observe that both the numerator and the denominator are zero when x = 0. = lim 2 = 2 x →∞ x2 Similarly.5 Vertical asymptote: x = 22 / 3. 2 x2 lim f ( x) = lim = lim 2 = 2 . y = f ( x) = 20. x4 4x = x+ so the line y = x is an x3 − 4 x3 − 4 oblique asymptote. x →−∞ 12. Thus y = 2 is a horizontal f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 + 1 3x(2 x − 1)(4 x − 3) 19. x = . 2 3 3x Thus f is a polynomial function for x ≠ 0. 2 x2 16. y = f ( x) = 1 + 4 x + 4 x2 = x4 + 1 1 − x4 = x4 + 1 (1 + x ) (1 − x)(1 + x) 2 From the denominator. = 17. lim f ( x) = lim 4 x→∞ x →∞ 24 x3 x →∞ 12 12 1 1 . 11.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. Thus y = is a horizontal 2 2 x →−∞ asymptote. and 2 3 2 x3 1 1 = lim = . For x ≠ 0. x = 2 5 x − 13 +5 = x−3 x−3 From the denominator. Hence there are neither horizontal nor vertical asymptotes. 14. y = 5 is a horizontal 15. lim f ( x) = 12 12 x →−∞ horizontal asymptote. y = f ( x) = 1 . so there are 5 no horizontal or vertical asymptotes. asymptote. lim = 2. so y = is a horizontal 4 4 x →−∞ asymptote. y = 2 x 2 + 3x + 1 2 x −5 = 2 x2 + 3x + 1 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 x2 x →∞ x →−∞ asymptote. vertical asymptotes are x = 1 and x = –1. 501 . Thus y = is a Similarly. lim f ( x) = lim 2x2 − 9 x + 4 = 1 and x = 4. Vertical asymptotes are x = 0. x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − 3x − 4 (1 + 2 x)2 1 From the denominator. x = − is a vertical 2 asymptote. x2 − 1 Vertical asymptotes are x = 2 x2 x 2 + x − 6 ( x + 3)( x − 2) Vertical asymptotes are x = –3 and x = 2. Thus y = 2 is a horizontal x →∞ f ( x) = 18.

y = 4 is a vertical asymptote. 25. 9 x 2 − 16 = (3 x + 4)(3 x − 4) 2(3 x + 4) 2(3 x + 4)2 4 When x = − . 3 y′ = − x2 CV: None. lim f ( x) = . ∞). ∞). and − x 4 x →∞ lim f ( x) = −1 . vertical 2 asymptotes are x = − and 3 x →−∞ x →−∞ is a horizontal asymptote. lim f ( x) = lim 2 4 x→∞ x →∞ 60 x x →∞ 5 5 2 2 Similarly.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching lim f ( x) = lim x4 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 24. both the numerator and 3 denominator are zero. − ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 . Thus y = is a 2 2 horizontal asymptote. There is no vertical asymptote because f(x) neither increases nor decreases without bound around any fixed value of x. y = 2 2x − 3 2⎞ ⎛ Intercept: ⎜ 0. Thus. Since 3x − 4 lim f ( x) = lim = −∞ . 502 . 2 lim y = 0 = lim y. Thus. Thus y = 0 x →−∞ = 2(0) + 4 = 4 Thus y = 4 is a horizontal asymptote. 26. 0) and (0. 2 x →∞ 2 = lim 1 1 . 3 4 but the numerator is not. but we include x = 0 in the concavity analysis. the + + 2(3 x + 4) x →−4 / 3 x →−4 / 3 line x = − lim x →∞ 2 3 x Symmetric about the origin. 4 y′ = − (2 x − 3) 2 x →∞ lim f ( x) = 2 ⋅ lim e x + lim 4 x →−∞ y x 2 1 When x = − or x = . so y = 0 is a horizontal Vertical asymptote is x = 23. x = . concave up on (0. 6 y ′′ = x3 No possible inflection point. y = is a 5 5 x →−∞ horizontal asymptote. lim f ( x) = x →−∞ 2 1 1 = .-dec. Concave down on (–∞. x →−∞ 21. the denominator is 0. Vertical asymptote 3 3 . 2 2x 24 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + = 5 12 x 2 + 5 x − 2 5(12 x 2 + 5 x − 2) 4( x + 1)(6 x − 1) = 5(3 x + 2)(4 x − 1) 22. however x = 0 must be included in the inc. so y = 0 is a is x = 0. Decreasing on (–∞. There is no vertical asymptote because f(x) neither increases nor decreases without bound around any fixed value of x. y = f ( x) = 5 5 1 24 x 2 2 2 = lim = . y = f ( x) = f ( x) = 12e− x lim f ( x) = 0 and lim f ( x) = +∞ . analysis. Thus y = –1 is a horizontal x →∞ x →∞ x →∞ asymptote. lim = 0 = lim x →∞ x x →−∞ x horizontal asymptote. 0). = lim − 1 = −1 . y = f ( x) = 2e x + 2 + 4 We have lim f ( x) = +∞ and x →∞ x →−∞ asymptote. 3 9 x 2 − 16 2(3x + 4) = lim 2 9 x2 x →∞ 18 x Similarly.

∞). y = CV: None. ∞). Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. 5 x 5 503 . –1) and (0. Decreasing on (–∞. 2). no horizontal asymptote exists. x →−∞ asymptote. analysis. 1). Setting 27. ∞ ⎟. but x = 5 10 28. Replacing x by –x yields symmetry about the y-axis. Concave up on (1. ∞). 1) and (1. so the line x = 0 is a vertical x →0+ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ 2 . 5 y′ = − < 0 for x > 0. Concave 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛3 ⎞ down on ⎜ −∞. so y = 1 is a horizontal x4 + 1 x 2 = 0 gives x = 0 as the only vertical asymptote. analysis.5 3 must be considered in the 2 3⎞ ⎛ inc. ⎟ . relative minima at (–1.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. 6 y ′′ = 2 + >0 x4 for all x ≠ 0. but x = 16 y y x 16 x 5 29. concave down on (−∞. 0) and (0. ⎟ and 2⎠ ⎝ (Note: x > 0) x lim y = 0 . so there is no y-intercept. ( x − 1)(1) − x(1) 1 y′ = =− 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 1)2 CV: None. ∞). Decreasing on (0. Because the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator. y = x2 x2 x ≠ 0. 2 y ′′ = ( x − 1)3 No possible inflection point. so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. dec. y = x 2 + x x −1 Intercept (0. 0) and (1. analysis.-dec. 0) Vertical asymptote is x = 1 lim y = 1 = lim y . x3 CV: x = ±1. 2) and (1.-dec. x →∞ lim y = +∞ . concave up on ⎜ . but x = 1 must be included in concavity analysis. ⎝ ⎠ 16 y ′′ = (2 x − 3)3 asymptote. y = x →∞ 1 y = x 2 + x −2 y′ = 2 x − 2 x = ( 2 ) −3 = 2x − 2 x 3 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 2 x4 − 2 x 3 = ( ) 2 x4 − 1 x 3 . 1). 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ No possible inflection point. 2 x5 3 must be 2 considered in the concavity analysis. Decreasing on (–∞. Concave up on (–∞. x3 15 y ′′ = > 0 for x > 0. ∞ ⎟ . Concave up on (0. but x = 0 must be included in the inc. ∞). but x = 1 must be included in the inc. Setting y = 0 ⇒ no x-intercept. ∞). increasing on (–1.

decreasing on ⎜⎜ . 2x y′ = − 2 2 x −1 31. ⎟ and 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ( x − 1) y ′′ = −2 ⋅ 2 = 2 ( ) (1) − x ⎡ 4 x x 2 − 1 ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( x − 1) ( x − 1) ⎡⎣⎢( x − 1) − 4x ⎤⎦⎥ = −2 ⋅ ( x − 1) 2 ( 3 x + 1) 2 ( 3 x + 1) = = ( x − 1) [( x + 1)( x − 1)] 2 ⎛6+ 3 ⎞ ⎛6− 3 ⎞ . so y = 0 is a lim x →∞ x 2 − 1 x →−∞ x 2 − 1 horizontal asymptote.-dec. 0). Increasing on ⎜⎜ −∞. –1). 5 2 ( x − 2) (6 x − 12) − (3 x − 12 x + 11)2( x − 2) y ( x − 2)4 ( x − 2)(6 x − 12) − 2(3 x 2 − 12 x + 11) x 5 ( x − 2)3 2 ( x − 2)3 No possible inflection point. 1). but x = ±1 must be considered in the concavity analysis. 2 ⎟⎟ and ⎜⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛ 6+ 3 ⎞ ⎜⎜ 2. ∞ ⎟⎟ . y = y′ = = ( x − 2)(6 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 5 x − 1)(1) ( x − 2)2 6± 3 . decreasing on (0. concave up on (2. but x = ±1 must be included in the inc. ∞) 504 . CV: x = y ′′ = = ( ( x − 2)2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 No possible inflection point.-dec. relative maximum at 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛6− 3 ⎞ . but x = 2 must be included in the concavity analysis. Increasing on (–∞. Concave up on (–∞. 1) and (1. ∞). ⎛ 6− 3 ⎞ analysis. concave down on (–1. –1) and (–1. 1 1 = 0 = lim . analysis. y = 30. relative maximum at (0. ∞). 2). –1) Symmetric about the y-axis. 7 − 2 3 ⎟⎟ .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 8 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y y 50 x 5 x 5 3x2 − 5 x − 1 x−2 ⎛ 1⎞ Intercept: ⎜ 0. relative minimum at ⎜⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛6+ 3 ⎞ . ⎟ . 3 but x = 2 must be included in the inc. Concave down on (−∞. ⎜⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = ) CV: x = 0. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ Vertical asymptote is x = 2. 7 + 2 3 ⎟⎟ . 3x 2 − 5 x − 1 1 = 3x + 1 + so y = 3x + 1 is an x−2 x−2 oblique asymptote. 3 x 2 − 12 x + 11 From the quadratic formula. 1 ( x 1)( x − 1) + x −1 Intercept (0. Vertical asymptotes are x = –1 and x = 1. –1) and (1.

0) Vertical asymptote is x = 0. analysis. but x = 0 must be included in the concavity analysis.-dec. 1 1 = 0 = lim . relative maximum at (0. 0) and (0. ∞). concave down 2⎞ ⎛ on (−∞. Concave up on (–∞. analysis. x = 1 is the only vertical asymptote. Concave up on (−3. ∞). 1) and (–1. 0). (1 − x)(1) − (1 + x )(−1) 2 = y′ = 2 (1 − x) (1 − x) 2 No critical values. ∞). 1) y ′′ = ( ) 2 3x 2 − 1 ( ) x2 + 1 34. but x = 1 must be included in the concavity analysis. 33. concave down on (1. relative 1⎞ ⎛ minimum at ⎜ −2. inflection point at ⎜ −3. −2) and (0. x +1 Intercept (0. 4⎠ ⎝ . ∞). but x = 0 must be included in the inc-dec. y = y 5 x 5 505 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. Increasing on (−2. − ⎟ . Since 1+ x x lim = lim = lim − 1 = −1 x →∞ 1 − x x →∞ − x x →∞ 1+ x = lim x →−∞ 1 − x the only horizontal asymptote is y = –1.5 1 32. ⎟ . Increasing on (–∞. so y = 0 is the only horizontal x →−∞ x 2 asymptote. 9⎠ ⎝ 1+ x 1− x Intercepts: (0. Concave ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎞ up on ⎜ −∞. inflection points at 3 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1 3⎞ . 1+ x x 1 = lim = lim = 0 lim x →∞ x 2 x →∞ x 2 x →∞ x 1+ x = lim . decreasing on (−∞. − ⎟ . but x = 1 must be considered in the ind. y = y ′′ = 2 (1 − x )3 No possible inflection point. 1) Symmetric about the y-axis. decreasing on (0. ⎟ ⎜± 3 4⎠ ⎝ 5 1+ x y x 5 y ′′ = 2(3 + x) x4 Possible inflection point when x = 3. 0). concave ⎟ and ⎜ 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ down on ⎜ − . ∞ ⎟ . ∞). − . 1). 1) and (1. −3). so y = 0 is a lim 2 2 x →∞ x + 1 x →−∞ x + 1 horizontal asymptote. −2 x y′ = 2 2 x +1 ( 4 y 3 5x ) CV: x = 0 Increasing on (–∞. y = 3 Possible inflection points at x = ± 1 3 x2 Intercept is (−1. 0). x+2 y′ = − x3 CV: x = −2.

∞ ⎟⎟ . inflection point at (–1. analysis. 0). − ⎟ 7⎠ ⎝ 2 = CV: x = 3 CV: x = 0. Increasing on ⎜ −∞. − ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ 2 4 Vertical asymptotes: x = − . (7 x + 4)(2 x) − x 2 (7) y′ = (7 x + 4)2 = 7 x2 + 8x (7 x + 4) 2 = Since y = x 2 + x −1 . 16 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 ⎜ − 7 . 7 7 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ No possible inflection point but x = − 37. − 49 ⎟ . but x = − must be included in 7 7 8⎞ ⎛ the inc. Since y 3 x 3 ( y = 9 9 x2 − 6 x − 8 506 ) −1 . ∞).Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis x2 7x + 4 Intercept: (0. ∞ ⎟ . − ⎟ . 0). –1) and (0. relative 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 8 4 . 33 ⎟ . x2 x x Possible inflection point when x = –1. analysis. no horizontal asymptote exists. increasing on ⎜⎜ 3 . y = 36. y = Vertical asymptote is x = − 4 . − ⎟ and 7⎠ ⎝ 7 y ′′ = 2 + 2 x ) 2 ( ) (14 x + 8) − 7 x 2 + 8 x [14(7 x + 4)] (7 x + 4)4 ( −3 2 = 2+ 3 10 = ( ) 2 x3 + 1 3 y ) (7 x + 4) ⎡ (7 x + 4)(14 x + 8) − 14 7 x 2 + 8 x ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ = 4 (7 x + 4) = . but x = 0 must be included in concavity analysis.2 dec. +4 x2 2 x3 − 1 1 . 35.-dec. 0) and ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜⎜ 0. . x = 3 3 9 1 lim y = lim = lim = 0 = lim y x →∞ x →∞ 9 x 2 x →∞ x 2 x →−∞ Thus y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 3 ⎟⎟ . Because the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator. y = 9 2 9x − 6x − 8 9 (3x + 2)(3 x − 4) = 9⎞ ⎛ Intercept: ⎜ 0. ⎜ 2 4 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 4⎞ ⎛ 8 and (0. but x = 0 must be included in inc. 0). − (7x y ′′ = 1 x 10 32 (7 x + 4)3 4 must be 7 included in concavity analysis. Concave down 4⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 4 ⎞ on ⎜ −∞. 0) x3 + 1 x Intercept: (–1. concave down on (–1. 7 1 4 x2 1 4 16 so y = x − = x− + 7 49 7x + 4 7 49 49(7 x + 4) is an oblique asymptote. Decreasing on (–∞. ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ relative minimum at (0. concave up on ⎜ − . relative maximum at ⎜ − 7 . decreasing on ⎜ − . y′ = 2 x − x −2 = 2 x − x(7 x + 8) (7 x + 4) 2 ⎛ 1 1⎞ minimum at ⎜ 3 . ∞). 0) Vertical asymptote is x = 0. Concave up on (–∞. 0 ⎟ .

3 ⎟ .5 (18 x − 6) 54(3x − 1) [(3x + 2)(3x − 4)]2 1 2 4 . but x = − and x = must be included in inc. ⎟ and ⎜ .-dec. Since y = 4 + y′ = − 3 −1 1 −2 x + x . y = 8 x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 8 x 2 + 3 x + 1 is never 0 and x cannot be zero. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3 3⎠ ⎝3 3⎠ CV: x = ⎛1 ⎞ relative maximum at ⎜ . No possible inflection points.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis ( y′ = 9(−1) 9 x 2 − 6 x − 8 =− ) −2 Section 13. analysis. ∞ ⎟ . Concave up on 3 3 ⎛4 ⎞ and ⎜ . − ⎟ and ⎜ − . lim y = lim x →∞ x →∞ 8x2 2x2 = lim 4 = 4 = lim y x →∞ x →−∞ Thus y = 4 is a horizontal asymptote. − 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 4⎞ ⎜− 3 . 3 3 3 2⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2 1⎞ ⎛1 4⎞ ⎛4 ⎞ Increasing on ⎜ −∞. decreasing on ⎜ . concave down on ⎝3 ⎠ 3 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. ⎝ ⎠ y x 3 38. we have 2 2 3 −2 1 3x + 2 x − x −3 = − x −3 (3 x + 2) = − 2 2 2 x3 507 . Vertical asymptote is x = 0. Thus no intercepts. Finding y ′′ gives: 3 ⎝ ⎠ (9x y ′′ = −54 ⋅ 2 − 6x − 8 ) 2 ( ) (3) − (3 x − 1) ⎡ 2 9 x 2 − 6 x − 8 (18 x − 6) ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ (9x 2 − 6x − 8 ) 4 )( ) ( 9 x − 6 x − 8) −162 ( −27 x + 18 x − 12 ) 486 ( 9 x − 6 x + 4 ) = = [(3x + 2)(3 x − 4)] 9 x − 6 x − 8 ( ) = −54 ⋅ ( 3 9 x 2 − 6 x − 8 ⎡ 9 x 2 − 6 x − 8 − 4(3x − 1)(3x − 1) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 4 2 2 2 3 2 3 Since 9 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 has no real roots. – 1⎟ . y ′′ is never zero. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . but x = − 2 4 and x = must be included in concavity analysis.

∞). 3 7⎞ ⎛ Concave down on ⎜ −∞. 27 ⎠ ⎝ 3 x 10 39. (6 x + 5)2 (3) − (3 x + 1)[12(6 x + 5)] y′ = (6 x + 5)4 3(6 x + 5)[(6 x + 5) − 4(3 x + 1)] = (6 x + 5)4 3(−6 x + 1) −3(6 x − 1) = = (6 x + 5)3 (6 x + 5)3 (3x − 2)2 (3) − (3 x + 1)(2)(3x − 2)(3) (3 x − 2) 4 3(3 x − 2)[(3 x − 2) − 2(3 x + 1)] =− 3x + 1 (3 x − 2) 4 3(3 x + 4) (3 x − 2)3 4 2 CV: x = − . − ⎟ and ⎜ . Concave down on (−∞. ⎟. 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝3 ⎠ 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ increasing on ⎜ − . ⎟ . ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ 2 Vertical asymptote is x = . 0 ⎟ . 16 (3x − 2)3 (3) − (3x + 4)(3)(3x − 2)2 (3) 40. inflection point at (−1. but x = must be included in 3 3 inc. − ⎟ and 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 (0. 4⎞ ⎛ ⎛2 ⎞ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. analysis. ⎜ 0. but 3 2 x = must be included in concavity analysis. dec. y = (3x − 2)6 (3x − 2)6 3(−6 x − 14) 18(3 x + 7) = −3 ⋅ = (3x − 2) 4 (3x − 2) 4 ⎛ 2 23 ⎞ minimum at ⎜ − . but x = 0 must be included in the concavity analysis. concave up on 3⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 7 2⎞ ⎛2 ⎞ ⎜ − . relative ⎠ = −3 ⋅ y y 2 3x + 1 (3 x − 2)2 x 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ Intercepts: ⎜ − . ⎜ 0. but x = 0 must be included in the 3 2⎞ ⎛ inc. Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. 3 12 ⎝ ⎠ 2 CV: x = − . ⎟ and ⎜ . − ⎟. concave up on (−1. x4 Possible inflection point when x = −1. 0 ⎟ . − ⎟. 0) and (0. ∞ ⎟ . increasing on ⎜ − . inflection point at 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 7 ⎜ − . − ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . relative minimum at ⎝ 3 3⎠ 508 . ⎝ 3 y ′′ = −3 ⋅ ⎞ 0 ⎟ . y′ = = 3(3 x − 2)2 [(3 x − 2) − 3(3x + 4)] 7 Possible inflection point when x = − .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ − . 3). −1). analysis. y = (6 x + 5)2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ Intercepts: ⎜ − . ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 5 Vertical asymptote is x = − . 6 3x 1 = lim = 0 = lim y lim y = lim 2 x →∞ x →∞ 36 x x →∞ 12 x x →−∞ Thus y = 0 is horizontal asymptote.-dec. ∞). ⎝ 3 8 ⎠ 3 y ′′ = 3 x −3 + 3x −4 = ( x + 1). 3 3x 1 lim y = lim = lim = 0 = lim y x →∞ x →∞ 9 x 2 x →∞ 3 x x →−∞ Thus y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.

but x = − must be included in 6 6 5⎞ ⎛ inc. 6 . − 6 and 0.-dec. 241 ) ( 23 . − 3 ) and 4 ( (6 x + 5)4 2 Possible inflection point when x = . but x = 0 must be included in the concavity analysis. so y = 0 is the only horizontal x →−∞ x 2 ⎛1 1 ⎞ maximum at ⎜ . relative ⎝ ⎠ = −3 ⋅ ( ( ) inc. 6 5⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 5 2⎞ Concave down on ⎜ −∞. Since y = x −1 − x −3 . ( ) concave up on ( − 6. 27 ⎟ . ⎟ and ⎜ 36 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ( 16 . ∞ . ⎜ 9 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛2 ⎞ concave up on ⎜ . ⎟ . Increasing on − 3. then 6(6 x + 5)2 [(6 x + 5) − 3(6 x − 1)] = −18 ⋅ = 72 ⋅ (6 x + 5)3 (6) − (6 x − 1) ⎡18(6 x + 5)2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 6 (6 x + 5) 3 = x x3 Intercepts are (–1. increasing on ⎝ ⎠ 41. 36 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 3 3 y 3 – 3 509 x 3 ) 6. analysis. ⎛ 5 6⎞ inflection points at ⎜ 6. 0). but 3 5 x = − must be included in concavity analysis. ∞ ⎟ . 0) and (1. Symmetric about the origin. analysis. decreasing on ( −∞. Finding y ′′ gives: ⎝ 6 24 ⎠ y ′′ = −3 ⋅ x2 − 1 . − ⎟ and ⎜ − . ∞ ⎟ . y = ⎛ 5 1⎞ ⎜ − 6 . − ⎟ and 6⎠ ⎝ CV: x = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 6 . 3 ) . ∞ .5 1 5 . ⎟. 0 ) and ( ( ) Concave down on −∞. − ⎟. but x = 0 must be included in the −12 x + 8 3 ) y′ = − x −2 + 3x −4 = x −4 − x 2 + 3 = (6 x + 5)6 (6 x + 5) 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) asymptote. ⎟ . relative maximum at ⎜ 3. ⎜ 9 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 3⎞ relative minimum at ⎜ − 3. x2 − 1 x2 1 lim = lim = lim 3 3 x →∞ x x →∞ x x →∞ x 1− x = 0 = lim . 271 ) 6 ⎛ 2 3⎞ 3.-dec. Vertical asymptote x = 0. ⎟. 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6 3⎠ ) ( ) y ′′ = 2 x −3 − 12 x −5 = 2 x −5 x 2 − 6 = ( 2 x2 − 6 5 ) x Possible inflection points when x = ± 6 . Decreasing on ⎜ −∞. 6 ⎟ . ⎛2 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3 .ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. inflection point at ⎝3 ⎠ –5 3 − x2 x4 CV: x = ± 3 . 0 and ( 0. ⎝ ⎠ y ⎛ −5 6 ⎞ ⎜⎜ − 6.

but x = –1 must be included in the inc. Concave down on (−∞. –2) and (0. relative maximum at (–1. x = –1 is the only vertical asymptote. 43. x 10 ( 3x 4 + 1 x y = 3x is an oblique asymptote. concave up on 1⎞ ⎛ (−4. 1). ∞). 2) and (2. y Since y = 3 x + x −3 . –4). inflection point at ⎜ −4. − ⎟ . analysis. but x = 0 must be included in the concavity analysis. decreasing on (–2.-dec. −2) and (2. ∞). relative minimum x 10 510 . analysis. y′ = 3 − 3 x = ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 1) ( x + 1)3 No possible inflection point. y = x is an oblique asymptote. 1 x2 + x + 1 = x +1 x +1 Intercept: (0. 0). Vertical asymptote is x = 0. concave up on (0.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 42. 0). y = x + ) ( x + 1)(2 x + 1) − x 2 + x + 1 ( x + 1) x2 + 2 x 2 = −4 = 3− 3 2 10 4 = ( 3 = 3x + 1 x3 so ) 3 x 2 + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x x4 CV: ±1. 4). ∞). analysis. but x = 2 must be included in the concavity analysis. relative maximum at (–2. Concave down on (–∞. Concave down on (–∞. relative minimum at (1. ∞). ∞). increasing on (−2. −4). 1). but x = 2 must be included in the inc. relative maximum 3⎞ ⎛ at ⎜ −2. 3x ( x − 2)2 Intercept (0. Decreasing on (−∞. y = ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis at (0. ( x − 2)4 Possible inflection point when x = −4. decreasing on (–1. Increasing on (–∞. 0) Vertical asymptote at x = 2 3x 3x 3 = lim = lim = 0 and lim 2 2 x →∞ x − 4 x + 4 x →∞ x x →∞ x 3x = 0. ∞). but x = –1 must be included in the concavity analysis. Increasing on (–∞. concave up on (–1. y = 3x 4 + 1 x3 No intercepts Symmetric about the origin. so y = 0 is the only lim x →−∞ x 2 − 4 x + 4 horizontal asymptote. −3( x + 2) y′ = ( x − 2)3 CV: x = −2. 3⎠ ⎝ y′ = ) ( x + 1)2 (2 x + 2) − x 2 + 2 x [2( x + 1)] y x( x + 2) ( x + 1) ( x + 1)2 CV: 0 and –2. 1). –1) and (–1. but x = 0 must be considered in the inc. − ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ y ′′ = y ′′ = = ( ( ) ( x + 1)(2 x + 2) − x 2 + 2 x [2] 3 = 2 y 5 x 5 6( x + 4) 16 44. –1) and (1. –1). 2).-dec. 0) and (0. 12 y ′′ = x5 No possible inflection point.dec. –3).

there is no possible inflection point. concave up on ⎜ − . increasing on ⎜ . ⎟ . relative minimum at 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ CV: x = ( 3x y ′′ = 12 ⋅ ( 3x = 12 ⋅ = 12 ⋅ 2 2 ) ( 3x ) ( 2 ) − 2x −1 4 ) − 2 x − 1 ⎡3 3 x 2 − 2 x − 1 − 2(3 x − 1)(6 x − 2) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ( 3x 2 ) − 2 x − 1 (3) − (3 x − 1) ⎡ 2 3 x 2 − 2 x − 1 (6 x − 2) ⎤ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ −27 x 2 + 18 x − 7 ( 3x ( 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎜3. 3 lim y = lim −3 x 2 = lim − 1 = −1 = lim y x →∞ x →−∞ 3x 2 Thus y = –1 is horizontal asymptote.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 45. analysis. 3 3 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ Decreasing on ⎜ −∞.-dec. − ⎟ and (1. ⎝ ⎠ ) − 2x −1 3 = 2 ) − 2x −1 ( 4 −12 27 x 2 − 18 x + 7 ) [(3x + 1)( x − 1)]3 1 and x = 1 must be included 3 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ in concavity analysis. 1⎟ . 1⎟ and (1. 2⎟. y = −3x 2 + 2 x − 5 −3 x 2 + 2 x − 5 (3 x + 1)( x − 1) = 3x2 − 2 x − 1 Section 13. Intercept: (0. − ⎟ and ⎜ − .5 Note that −3x 2 + 2 x − 5 is never zero. but x = − 511 . ∞). 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎠ Since 27 x 2 − 18 x + 7 is never zero. Concave down on ⎜ −∞. x →∞ x →∞ ( 3x y′ = 2 ) ( (3x − 2 x − 1) 2(3x − 1) ⎡( 3x − 2 x − 1) (−1) − ( −3 x ⎢⎣ = (3x − 2 x − 1) 2 2 2 12(3x − 1) ( 3x 2 ) − 2x −1 2 2 ) + 2x − 5 ⎤ ⎥⎦ 2 2 = ) − 2 x − 1 (−6 x + 2) − −3x 2 + 2 x − 5 (6 x − 2) 12(3 x − 1) = [(3x + 1)( x − 1)]2 1 1 . but x = − and x = 1 must be included in inc. ∞). 5) 1 Vertical asymptotes are x = − and x = 1.

relative maximum at (−1. ⎝ 3 ⎠ 18 y ′′ = −3(−2)(3 x + 2)−3 (3) = (3 x + 2)3 2 2⎞ ⎛ No possible inflection point. − ⎟ . − ⎟ and ⎜ − .Chapter 13: Curve Sketching 10 ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis y –1 3 5x 1 (3 x + 2)2 + 1 = 3x + 2 3x + 2 9 x 2 + 12 x + 5 = 3x + 2 46. Concave down on ⎜ −∞. ⎛ 5⎞ Intercept: ⎜ 0. ∞ ⎟ . −2). ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 Vertical asymptote is x = − . but x = − must be included in concavity analysis. Increasing on (−∞. −1) and 3 3 1 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 2 1⎞ ⎜ − . but x = − must be included in inc. 3 ⎝ ⎠ CV: x = − y 10 x 5 512 .-dec. 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 2 ⎞ concave up on ⎜ − . − ⎟ . oblique asymptote is y = 3x + 2. ∞ ⎟ . 2 ⎟. y = 3x + 2 + Note that 9 x 2 + 12 x + 5 is never zero. analysis. 3 y′ = 3 − = 3⋅ 3 = 3⋅ (3x + 2) 2 2 9 x + 12 x + 3 (3 x + 2) 2 (3 x + 2)2 − 1 (3 x + 2)2 = 9⋅ (3 x + 1)( x + 1) (3x + 2)2 1 2 and x = −1. decreasing on ⎜ −1. relative minimum at 3⎠ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .

5 x 16 1 y –15 15 x 5 –1 x ≈ –0. so the line x →∞ 48. 5 y = 6 – 3e–x y ( ) ⎛ 76 ⎞ 53. then a + bx = 0 so x = − is a b b vertical asymptote. b 8 –5 5 –8 x ≈ ±2.5 y 52. When x = − .45. lim 150 − 76e−t = lim ⎜150 − ⎟ t →∞ t →∞ ⎝ et ⎠ = 150 – 0 = 150 Thus y = 150 is a horizontal asymptote. a a 51. x ≈ 0. y = 2 56. For y = 6 − 3e− x we have ( ) ⎛ 3 ⎞ lim 6 − 3e− x = lim ⎜ 6 − ⎟ = 6 − 3(0) = 6 x →∞ x →∞ ⎝ ex ⎠ Thus the line y = 6 is a horizontal asymptote for x 5 the graph of y = 6 − 3e− x . y 16 x 5 y = 6 + 3e–x 8 4 49.08.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 47. x x 1 1 = lim = lim = lim b x →∞ a + bx x →∞ bx x →∞ b 1 Thus y = is a horizontal asymptote. x 5 54. 50.67. 10 –10 10 –10 513 . 5 Section 13. For y = 6 + 3e− x . y = 0 55. we ( ) obtain lim 6 + 3e− x = 6 + 3(0) = 6 . 5 y = 6 is also a horizontal asymptote for the graph y of y = 6 + 3e− x .

then y = 20. two vertical asymptotes of the form x = k.7 x x →∞ 4.71e0.15625 57. or 9000 − 15 x y= . 3 0.2 + 0. Thus P has a ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ from which x = 514 y y . so N ′′(60) > 0 and we have x3 a minimum.15625 relative and absolute maximum when x = The other number is 20 − x = –1. 3 ⎟ and P′ < 0 on ⎜ 3 . We want to maximize area A.6 1. By zooming around x = –4. The 18 dimensions are 300 ft by 250 ft.7 x 4. Thus three vertical asymptotes exist.71 = = y 0. Algebraically. we have lim ) 1 (9000 − 30 x) 18 Setting A′ = 0 ⇒ x = 300 .48. Thus N = 2(60) + 6(20) = 240 ft. We have ⎛ 1200 ⎞ N = 2x + 6 y = 2x + 6 ⎜ ⎟.32). 20 or x = 20. We 14. N′ = 2 − 7200 x2 Setting N′ = 0 yields x 2 = 3600 .34 ≈ 0.71e 0. are apparent (x ≈ 0. 20 .34e 0.7 x lim 0. we have a maximum at 18 9000 − 15(300) x = 300.34e0. ⎛ 9000 − 15 x ⎞ 1 2 A = xy = x ⎜ ⎟ = 18 9000 x − 15 x 18 ⎝ ⎠ –0. another vertical asymptote is apparent (x = –4). 400 have N ′′ = . 1 x →∞ 40 . P′ > 0 on 3 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎜ 0. If x = 60. Since 1 A′′(300) = (−30) < 0 .7 x e0. Then if P = x(82 − x) = 82 x − x 2 . Let the numbers be x and 20 – x. Let P = (2 x)(20 − x) 2 = 2 x3 − 80 x 2 + 800 x .7 x e y x 1200 . y dP = 0 gives Setting dx y y y x 2 P′ = 6 x − 160 x + 800 = 2(3 x − 20)( x − 20) = 0 . there is a maximum when x = 41. Since P ′′ = −2 < 0. Let the numbers be x and 82 − x. ( A′ = 0 25 0 From the graph. 3 3. We are given that xy = 1200. it appears that lim y ≈ 0. 20 ⎟ .71 Problems 13.34 = lim x →∞ 4. so x = 60. x> 0 ⎝ x ⎠ 4.7 x + 0. we have P ′ = 82 − 2 x. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 20. Thus y = = 250 . Setting P ′ = 0 ⇒ x = 41. and x want to minimize N = 2x + 6y. x →∞ Stream Thus a horizontal asymptote is y ≈ 0.54255 In the standard window.7 x 0.48 0 + 0. or y = 0. the required numbers are 41 and 41.48 . We are given that 15x + 9(2y) = 9000. Because 82 − x = 41.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 0.54255 –6. 2.2 + 0. 18 where A = xy.2 e0. where k > 0.68 and x ≈ 7.

05q )q − (600 + 35q ) = −(0. If s = 0. Setting = 0 gives 0. the maximum rate of dD 2 ⎝ dD ⎠ C change occurs when D = . Since r ′′ = −10 < 0 . a maximum ds 2 occurs when s = 50. so it doesn’t change q over time. we ( p + 10)3 have an absolute maximum of f(20) = 110 grams.05q 2 + 5q + 500 Avg.05 = a. = 1 . ( p + 10)2 p + 10 = ±30 . from which p = 20. p = 85 − 0.05q + 5 + q q . 000. q = Ae 900 . Since c′′ = > 0 for q > 0.08. insurance. Thus the minimum cost of $0.05 − 500 q2 500 1 . and so on. 2 . p + 10 900 6.1 < 0.05q c = 600 + 35q Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost P = pq − c = (85 − 0. Since ⎜ ⎟ dD ⎝ dD ⎠ 2 7. r = pq = (−5q + 30)q = −5q 2 + 30q Setting r ′ = −10q + 30 = 0 ⇒ q = 3 . This The rate of change of R is dD is the function to be maximized.900. revenue is maximum when p = c 500 = 0.1q − 50) = 0 yields q = 500.12 – 0. where 0 ≤ s ≤ dC 60. C = 0.96. 0. 2 − Bp Revenue = r = pq = pAe− Bp r ′ = A[e− Bp (1) + pe− Bp (− B)] = A(1 − Bp )e− Bp ⎛1 ⎞ = AB ⎜ − p ⎟ e− Bp ⎝B ⎠ 1 Critical value: p = B 1 If p < . r is maximum at q = 3 units.0024 < 0 . then C = 0. d 2C = −0. where 0 ≤ p ≤ 100. q = 10. Setting c ′ = 0 yields 9. Since P ′′(500) = −0. cost per unit = c = c ′ = 0. This corresponds to a price of p = 85 − 0.12s − 0.08 per hour occurs for s = 0 mi/h and might be due to depreciation. Setting C d ⎛ dR ⎞ = C − 2 D = 0 gives D = . 8. Thus B 11.ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 13. p = –5q + 30 Since total revenue = (price)(quantity). R = D 2 ⎜ − ⎟ = − 2 3 ⎝2 3⎠ dR = CD − D 2 . Thus a minimum can occur only at an endpoint of the domain. P is a maximum when q = 500 units.0024s = 0 ⇒ ds s = 50. if s = 60. 11 b. 9 . f(0) = 70 and f (100) = 51 2 D3 ⎛ C D ⎞ CD 10. 515 . q3 c is an absolute minimum when q = 100 units.0012 s 2 + 0. The answer B does not depend on A because A represents the initial value of q. Since f ( p) = 160 − p − d 2 ⎛ dR ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = −2 < 0 . q = ±100 .08 . for which the corresponding price is p = –5(3) + 30 = $15. Setting f ′( p) = 0 gives −1 + 900 ( p + 10)2 =0. Since f ′′( p ) = −1800 < 0 for p = 20. then r ′ > 0 and r is increasing. ( p + 10)2 = 900. then C = 2. then r ′ < 0 and r is decreasing. so we have an 11 9 absolute minimum of f (100) = 51 grams.05q 2 − 50q + 600) Setting P ′ = −(0. c = 0.05(500) = $60 and a profit of P = $11. If B 1 p > . We q2 exclude q = –100 because q represents the 1000 number of units.6 5.

2 25 . and the corresponding maximum profit is $86. 000 3 13. 14. ) P′ = −(8q − 40) Setting P′ = −(8q − 40) = 0 gives q = 5.67. Thus the minimum cost is when q = 7 + 11 ≈ 10. and 120 gives P(0) = –10.32. The so P is maximum when q = 9 corresponding price is p = $6.07. so production should be fixed at q = 10 for a minimum cost of $290. we have P ′′ = − q 2 < 0 for q > 0. ( q have MR = Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost P = pq – c ⎛ 10 ⎞ P=⎜ ⎟ q − (3q) = 10 q − 3q ⎜ q⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 25 5 − 3 = 0 yields q = Setting P′ = . so P has a maximum value when q = 5. P = pq − cq c= ⎛2 ⎞ = q3 − 100q 2 + 3200q − ⎜ q3 − 40q 2 + 10. 434 − 44 11 ≈ 288. Setting P ′ = q 3 Total cost = c = cq = q = 7 + 11 ≈ 10. it follows that P is a maximum when q = 3600.Chapter 13: Curve Sketching ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis 12. 7 − 11. 000 1 P (40) = = 43. 60 3 2 2 10. respectively. 9 q = − 4q 2 − 40q + 80 20 40 16. c(10) = 290 and c(11) = 298. 000 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = q3 − 60q 2 + 3200q − 10. 000 q − 40q + 3 q Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost Since total revenue r = pq and total cost = c = cq . 666 3 3 P(120) = 86. and 12 gives 570.68 or dq 1 2000 c= + 3 q q + 2000 3 Profit = Total Revenue − Total Cost q P = pq − c = 40 q − − 2000 3 20 1 − = 0 yields q = 3600.000 Thus the profit maximizing output is q = 120 units. p = q 2 − 100q + 3200 on [0.000. Cost per unit = $3 10 p= q MR = 20 1 = = MC. a. 434 + 44 11 ≈ 579.93. then for q = 3600 we 3 15. 7 + 11. Evaluating profit at q = 0. 80. 000 2 P (80) = = 32. 40. p = 1 and MC = . p = 42 – 4q 80 c = 2+ q Total Cost = c = cq = 2q + 80 Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost P = pq – c = (42 – 4q)q – (2q + 80) P′ = q 2 − 120q + 3200 = (q − 40)(q − 80) Setting P′ = 0 gives q = 40 or 80. q c = cq = 2q3 − 42q 2 + 228q + 210 dc = 6q 2 − 84q + 228 = 6(q 2 − 14q + 38) dq Using the quadratic formula to solve dc = 0 gives q = 7 − 11 ≈ 3. and 354. Since corresponding price is p = 60 516 .333 3 3 98. The 40 ≈ $0. 120] 5 −3 Moreover. We find that P ′′ = −8 < 0 .32. Since P ′′ = −10q −3 / 2 < 0 for q > 0.000 130. The corresponding price p is 42 – 4(5) = $22. Evaluating c at q = 3.

and the demand 100 . Given that x 2 y = 32 . The dimensions are 16 4 ft × 4 ft × 2 ft. Then the total profit P is given by P = (600)(40) + (40 − 0.50) = 300 –150x = 150(2 – x) Setting r ′ = 0 yields x = 2.000.) (no. then r is maximum when x = 5. x > 0 ⎜ 4x ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 1 3 2 V ′ = 192 − 3 x = 64 − x 2 4 4 Setting V ′ = 0 gives x = 8. When q = 625.10q Setting P ′ = 0 yields q = 400. so x = 8 gives ⎝4⎠ a maximum.6 b. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 36. If x = number of $0. and the total number of subscribers is 4800 + 150x. then 625 p = $4. the profit increases from 0 to (600)(400) = $24. we have ⎛ 32 ⎞ 128 S = 4 x ⎜ ⎟ + x2 = + x 2 . 2. ) we want to minimize S = 4( xy ) + x 2 . See the figure in the text.50x. we find that r is a maximum when x = 2. Note that as the number of units produced and sold increases from 0 to 600. When q = 625.05q 2 P ′ = 40 − 0.700. where x > 0. and 36. We want to maximize V = x 2 y given that 4 xy + x 2 = 192 . Evaluating r when x = 0. so the minimum cost still occurs when q = 7 + 11 ≈ 10. so x = 4 gives a minimum. of apt. then y = 4. This results in a monthly rate for an apartment of 400 + 10(5) = $450. We Setting P′ = 2 ⎜ ⎜ q ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y= 32 x2 . then the monthly fee for each subscriber is 18 – 0. Since S ′′ = +2. P is a maximum when q = 400. 18. If − 32 see that P ′′ = −25q < 0 for q > 0. Profit = Total Revenue – Total Cost P = pq – c 100 P= ⋅ q − (2q + 1200) q = 100 q − 2q − 1200 ( = 2 50 q − q − 600 21. Total fixed costs = $1200. Since ⎛ 25 ⎞ − 1⎟ = 0 yields q = 625. rented) r = (400 + 10x)(100 – 2x) r ′ = (400 + 10 x)(−2) + (100 − 2 x)(10) = 200 – 40x = 40(5 – x) Setting r′ = 0 yields x = 5.05q )q 17. If x = 8.50 decreases. so P is maximum when q = 625. Monthly revenue r is given by r = (rent/apt. Let q = number of units produced and sold beyond 600. x3 we get S ′′(4) > 0 . Let x = number of $10 per month increases so the monthly rate is 400 + 10x and the number of rented apartments is 100 – 2x. that is. This corresponds to a monthly fee of 18 – 0. Since ⎛3⎞ V ′′ =