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Third Edition, Revised and Expanded
COLONEL WM. T. MCLYMAN
Kg Magnetics, Inc. Idyllwild, California, U.S.A.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author(s) nor the publisher, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage, or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 0824753933 This book is printed on acidfree paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A. tel: 2126969000; fax: 2126854540 Distribution and Customer Service Marcel Dekker, Inc. Cimarron Road, Monticello, New York 12701, U.S.A. tel: 8002281160; fax: 8457961772 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41612606300; fax: 41612606333 World Wide Web http://www.dekker.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
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ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
A Series of Reference Books and Textbooks
FOUNDING EDITOR Martin O. Thurston Department of Electrical Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio
1. Rational Fault Analysis, edited by Richard Saeks and S. R. Liberty 2. Nonparametric Methods in Communications, edited by P. PapantoniKazakos and Dimitri Kazakos 3. Interactive Pattern Recognition, Yitzuu Chien 4. SolidState Electronics, Lawrence E. Murr 5. Electronic, Magnetic, and Thermal Properties of Solid Materials, Klaus Schroder 6. MagneticBubble Memory Technology, Hsu Chang 7. Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman 8. Electromagnetics: Classical and Modern Theory and Applications, Samuel See// and Alexander D, Poularikas 9. OneDimensional Digital Signal Processing, ChiTsong Chen 10. Interconnected Dynamical Systems, Raymond A. DeCar/o and Richard Saeks 11. Modern Digital Control Systems, Raymond G. Jacquot 12. Hybrid Circuit Design and Manufacture, Roydn D. Jones 13. Magnetic Core Selection for Transformers and Inductors: A User's Guide to Practice and Specification, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman 14. Static and Rotating Electromagnetic Devices, Richard H. Engelmann 15. EnergyEfficient Electric Motors: Selection and Application, John C. Andreas 16. Electromagnetic Compossibility, Heinz M. Schlicke 17. Electronics: Models, Analysis, and Systems, James G. Gottling 18. Digital Filter Design Handbook, Fred J. Taylor 19. Multivariable Control: An Introduction, P. K. Sinha 20. Flexible Circuits: Design and Applications, Steve Gurley, with contributions by Carl A. Edstrom, Jr., Ray D. Greenway, and William P. Kelly 21. Circuit Interruption: Theory and Techniques, Thomas E. Browne, Jr. 22. Switch Mode Power Conversion: Basic Theory and Design, K. Kit Sum 23. Pattern Recognition: Applications to Large DataSet Problems, SingTze Bow 24. CustomSpecific Integrated Circuits: Design and Fabrication, Stanley L. Hurst 25. Digital Circuits: Logic and Design, Ronald C. Emery 26. LargeScale Control Systems: Theories and Techniques, Magdi S. Mahmoud, Mohamed F. Hassan, and Mohamed G. Darwish 27. Microprocessor Software Project Management, Eli T. Fathi and Cedric V. W. Armstrong (Sponsored by Ontario Centre for Microelectronics) 28. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Design, Michael P. Perry 29. Multidimensional Systems: Techniques and Applications, edited by Spyros G. Tzafestas 30. AC Motors for HighPerformance Applications: Analysis and Control, Sakae Yamamura
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31. Ceramic Motors for Electronics: Processing, Properties, and Applications, edited by Relva C. Buchanan 32. Microcomputer Bus Structures and Bus Interface Design, Arthur L. Dexter 33. End User's Guide to Innovative Flexible Circuit Packaging, Jay J. Miniet 34. Reliability Engineering for Electronic Design, Norman B. Fuqua 35. Design Fundamentals for LowVoltage Distribution and Control, Frank W. Kussy and Jack L. Warren 36. Encapsulation of Electronic Devices and Components, Edward R. Salmon 37. Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, J. Lewis Blackburn 38. Testing Active and Passive Electronic Components, Richard F. Powell 39. Adaptive Control Systems: Techniques and Applications, V. V. Chalam 40. ComputerAided Analysis of Power Electronic Systems, Venkatachari Rajagopalan 41. Integrated Circuit Quality and Reliability, Eugene R. Hnatek 42. Systolic Signal Processing Systems, edited by Earl E. Swartzlander, Jr. 43. Adaptive Digital Filters and Signal Analysis, Maurice G. Bel/anger 44. Electronic Ceramics: Properties, Configuration, and Applications, edited by Lionel M. Levinson 45. Computer Systems Engineering Management, Robert S. Alford 46. Systems Modeling and Computer Simulation, edited by Nairn A. Kheir 47. RigidFlex Printed Wiring Design for Production Readiness, Walter S. Rigling 48. Analog Methods for ComputerAided Circuit Analysis and Diagnosis, edited by Takao Ozawa 49. Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman 50. Power System Grounding and Transients: An Introduction, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos 51. Signal Processing Handbook, edited by C. H. Chen 52. Electronic Product Design for Automated Manufacturing, H. Richard Stillwell 53. Dynamic Models and Discrete Event Simulation, William Delaney and Erminia Vaccari 54. FET Technology and Application: An Introduction, Edwin S. Oxner 55. Digital Speech Processing, Synthesis, and Recognition, SadaokiFurui 56. VLSI RISC Architecture and Organization, Stephen B. Furber 57. Surface Mount and Related Technologies, Gerald Ginsberg 58. Uninterruptible Power Supplies: Power Conditioners for Critical Equipment, David C. Griffith 59. Polyphase Induction Motors: Analysis, Design, and Application, Paul L. Cochran 60. Battery Technology Handbook, edited by H. A. Kiehne 61. Network Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis, edited by Ricardo F. Garzia and Mario R. Garzia 62. Linear Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing: Advanced Theory and Applications, edited by Nobuo Nagai 63. HighVoltage Engineering: Theory and Practice, edited by M. Khalifa 64. LargeScale Systems Control and Decision Making, edited by Hiroyuki Tamura and Tsuneo Yoshikawa 65. Industrial Power Distribution and Illuminating Systems, Kao Chen 66. Distributed Computer Control for Industrial Automation, Dobrivoje Popovic and Vijay P. Bhatkar 67. ComputerAided Analysis of Active Circuits, Adrian loinovici 68. Designing with Analog Switches, Steve Moore
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Contamination Effects on Electronic Products, CarlJ. Tautscher ComputerOperated Systems Control, Magdi S. Mahmoud Integrated Microwave Circuits, edited by Yoshihiro Konishi Ceramic Materials for Electronics: Processing, Properties, and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Relva C. Buchanan 73. Electromagnetic Compatibility: Principles and Applications, David A. Weston 74. Intelligent Robotic Systems, edited by Spyros G. Tzafestas 75. Switching Phenomena in HighVoltage Circuit Breakers, edited by Kunio Nakanishi 76. Advances in Speech Signal Processing, edited by Sadaoki Furui and M. Mohan Sondhi 77. Pattern Recognition and Image Preprocessing, SingTze Bow 78. EnergyEfficient Electric Motors: Selection and Application, Second Edition, John C. Andreas 79. Stochastic LargeScale Engineering Systems, edited by Spyros G. Tzafestas and Keigo Watanabe 80. TwoDimensional Digital Filters, WuSheng Lu and Andreas Antoniou 81. ComputerAided Analysis and Design of SwitchMode Power Supplies, YimShu Lee 82. Placement and Routing of Electronic Modules, edited by Michael Pecht 83. Applied Control: Current Trends and Modern Methodologies, edited by Spyros G. Tzafestas 84. Algorithms for ComputerAided Design of Multivariable Control Systems, Stanoje Bingulac and Hugh F. VanLandingham 85. Symmetrical Components for Power Systems Engineering, J. Lewis Blackburn 86. Advanced Digital Signal Processing: Theory and Applications, Glenn Zelniker and Fred J. Taylor 87. Neural Networks and Simulation Methods, JianKang Wu 88. Power Distribution Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications, James J. Burke 89. Modern Digital Control Systems: Second Edition, Raymond G. Jacquot 90. Adaptive IIR Filtering in Signal Processing and Control, Phillip A. Regalia 91. Integrated Circuit Quality and Reliability: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Eugene R. Hnatek 92. Handbook of Electric Motors, edited by Richard H. Engelmann and William H. Middendorf 93. PowerSwitching Converters, Simon S. Ang 94. Systems Modeling and Computer Simulation: Second Edition, Nairn A. Kheir 95. EMI Filter Design, Richard Lee Ozenbaugh 96. Power Hybrid Circuit Design and Manufacture, Haim Taraseiskey 97. Robust Control System Design: Advanced State Space Techniques, ChiaChi Tsui 98. Spatial Electric Load Forecasting, H. Lee Willis 99. Permanent Magnet Motor Technology: Design and Applications, Jacek F. Gieras and Mitchell Wing 100. High Voltage Circuit Breakers: Design and Applications, Ruben D. Garzon 101. Integrating Electrical Heating Elements in Appliance Design, Thor Hegbom 102. Magnetic Core Selection for Transformers and Inductors: A User' s Guide to Practice and Specification, Second Edition, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman 103. Statistical Methods in Control and Signal Processing, edited by Tohru Katayama and Sueo Sugimoto 104. Radio Receiver Design, Robert C. Dixon 105. Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, edited by Paul G. Slade
69. 70. 71. 72.
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106. Handbook of Electrical Engineering Calculations, edited by Arun G. Phadke 107. Reliability Control for Electronic Systems, Donald J. LaCombe 108. Embedded Systems Design with 8051 Microcontrollers: Hardware and Software, Zdravko Karakehayov, Knud Smed Christensen, and Ole Winther 109. Pilot Protective Relaying, edited by Walter A. Elmore 110. HighVoltage Engineering: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Mazen AbdelSalam, Hussein An/'s, Ahdab EIMorshedy, and Roshdy Radwan 111. EMI Filter Design: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Richard Lee Ozenbaugh 112. Electromagnetic Compatibility: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, David Weston 113. Permanent Magnet Motor Technology: Design and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Jacek F. Gieras and Mitchell Wing 114. High Voltage Circuit Breakers: Design and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Ruben D. Garzon 115. High Reliability Magnetic Devices: Design and Fabrication, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman 116. Practical Reliability of Electronic Equipment and Products, Eugene R, Hnatek 117. Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods, Joao Pedro A. Bastos and Nelson Sadowski 118. Battery Technology Handbook: Second Edition, edited by H. A. Kiehne 119. Power Converter Circuits, William Shepherd and Li Zhang 120. Handbook of Electric Motors: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Hamid A. Toliyat and Gerald B. Kliman 121. Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, Colonel Wm. T. McLyman
Additional Volumes in Preparation
EnergyEfficient Electric Motors: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, AH Emadi
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
To My Wife, Bonnie
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Foreword
Colonel McLyman is a wellknown author, lecturer, and magnetic circuit designer. His previous books on transformer and inductor design, magnetic core characteristics, and design methods for converter circuits have been widely used by magnetics circuit designers.
In this book, Colonel McLyman has combined and updated the information found in his previous books. He has also added several new subjects such as rotary transformer design, planar transformer design, and planar construction. The author covers magnetic design theory with all of the relevant formulas along with complete information on magnetic materials and core characteristics. In addition, he provides realworld, stepbystep design examples.
This book is a must for engineers working in magnetic design. Whether you are working on high "rel" stateoftheart design or highvolume or lowcost production, this book is essential. Thanks, Colonel, for a welldone, useful book.
Robert G. Noah Application Engineering Manager (Retired) Magnetics, Division of Spang and Company Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Preface
I have had many requests to update Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook, because of the way power electronics has changed over the past few years. This new edition includes 21 chapters, with new topics such as: The forward converter, flyback converter, quiet converter, rotary transformers, and planar transformers, with even more design examples than the previous edition. This book offers a practical approach, with design examples for design engineers and system engineers in the electronics and aerospace industries. Transformers are found in virtually all electronic circuits. This book can easily be used to design lightweight, highfrequency aerospace transformers or lowfrequency commercial transformers. It is, therefore, a design manual. The conversion process in power electronics requires the use of transformers, components that frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest item in the conversion circuit. Transformer components also have a significant effect on the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important influence on overall system weight, power conversion efficiency, and cost. Because of the interdependence and interaction of these parameters, judicious tradeoffs are necessary to achieve design optimization. Manufacturers have, for years, assigned numeric codes to their cores to indicate their powerhandling ability. This method assigns to each core a number called the area product, Ap, that is the product of its window area, Wa, and core crosssection area, Ac. These numbers are used by core suppliers to summarize dimensional and electrical properties in their catalogs. The product of the window area, Wa, and the core area, Ac, gives the area Product, Ap, a dimension to the fourth power. I have developed a new equation for the powerhandling ability of the core, the core geometry, Kg. Kg has a dimension to the fifth power. This new equation provides engineers with faster and tighter control of their design. It is a relatively new concept, and magnetic core manufacturers are now beginning to include it in their catalogs. Because of their significance, the area product, Ap, and the core geometry, Kg, are treated extensively in this handbook. A great deal of other information is also presented for the convenience of the designer. Much of the material is in tabular form to assist the designer in making the tradeoffs best suited for a particular application in a minimum amount of time. Designers have used various approaches in arriving at suitable transformer and inductor designs. For example, in many cases a rule of thumb used for dealing with current density is that a good working level is 1000 circular mils per ampere. This is satisfactory in many instances; however, the wire size used to meet this requirement may produce a heavier and bulkier inductor than desired or required. The information
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
presented here will make it possible to avoid the use of this and other rules of thumb, and to develop a more economical and better design. While other books are available on electronic transformers, none of them seems to have been written with the user's viewpoint in mind. The material in this book is organized so that the student engineer or technician—starting at the beginning of the book and continuing through the end— will gain a comprehensive knowledge of the state of the art in transformer and inductor design. No responsibility is assumed by the author or the publisher for any infringement of patent or other rights of third parties that may result from the use of circuits, systems, or processes described or referred to in this handbook.
Acknowledgments
In gathering the material for this book, I have been fortunate in having the assistance and cooperation of several companies and many colleagues. I wish to express my gratitude to all of them. The list is too long to mention them all. However, there are some individuals and companies whose contributions have been especially significant. Colleagues who have retired from Magnetics include Robert Noah and Harry Savisky, who helped so greatly with the editing of the final draft. Other contributions were made by my colleagues at Magnetics, Lowell Bosley and his staff for sending uptodate catalogs and sample cores. I would like to thank colleagues at Micrometals Corp., Jim Cox and Dale Nicol, and George Orenchak of TSC International. I would like to give special thanks to Richard (Oz) Ozenbaugh of Linear Magnetics
Corp. for his assistance in the detailed derivations of many of the equations and his efforts in checking the design examples. I also give special thanks to Steve Freeman of Rodon Products, Inc., for building and testing the magnetics components used in the design examples. I am also grateful to: Dr. Vatche Vorperian of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for his help in generating and clarifying equations for the Quiet Converter; Jerry Fridenberg of Fridenberg Research, Inc., for modeling circuits on his SPICE program; Dr. Gene Wester of JPL for his input; and Kit Sum for his assistance in the energystorage equations. encouragement over the years. Colonel Wm. T. McLyman I also thank the late Robert Yahiro for his help and
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Three Ph8«« Mag Amp.kgmagnetics. Galileo. colonel@kgmagnetics. and many others. Inc. Idyllwild. 2000. T. Buck/Boost OC Ind Resistance i Low Current Ind . He has worked on projects for NASA including the Pathfinder Mission to Mars. and Europe on the design and fabrication of magnetic components. which specializes in power magnetics design. This program operates on Windows 95. . Cassini.com Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Through his 30 years at JPL. McLyman recently retired as a Senior Member of the Avionics Equipment Section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) affiliated with the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.. Inc. Buck BucfoBoostlso. Current : Short CraA — Spec! • Forward Cow. • i Core Conversiai 1 ^p^olaKy i v I AfrCore > i Rotary Transformer j •! •i : w. California 92549. Discontinuous Boost Buck Buck/Boost Im j j .. Hubble Space Telescope. Colonel Wm.  Spec IIICoupled Ind ) Mag. California. T. Computer Design Program Main Menu. a magnetics design and analysis software computer program called "Titan" for transformers and inductors (see Figure 1).. and TechBriefs on the subject of magnetics and circuit designs for power conversion. he has written over 70 JPL Technical Memorandums. Inc. Sinewave Inverter Current Transformer . McLyman.S. Inc. and NT. He has 47 years of experience in the field of Magnetics. All Rights Reserved. U. j' . Magellan. New Technology Reports. Buck/Boost Inv. Canada. Magnetic Espwtions Resistor Trta ii Corn Mode Ind Single Layer tnd : Inv. Inc. He is currently the President of his own company. (President) Kg Magnetics. i. Kg Magnetics. AC Inductor OC Inductor : Transformer Transformer DC Inductor ACInductoi •jr . Voyager. MVM. and holds 14 United States Patents on magneticsrelated concepts. ! . —Spec II . Viking. .• i. He has been on the lecture circuit for over 20 years speaking in the United States.).About the Author Colonel Wm.com. www. through Kg Magnetics. He is known as a recognized authority in magnetic design.• . He also markets. He recently completed a book entitled. _ . Continuous Boost '... High Reliability Magnetic Devices: Design and Fabrication (Marcel Dekker. iKG Maanehcs Main Menu Cadit — . 98. : " '' ' ' Analysis Mag Amp.. I Figure 1. . Mexico.A.
Noah Preface About the Author Symbols Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Magnetics Chapter 2 Magnetic Materials and Their Characteristics Chapter 3 Magnetic Cores Chapter 4 Window Utilization. Regulation. Transformer Design Chapter 14 Forward Converter. and Output Inductor Design Chapter 15 Input Filter Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and Insulation Chapter 5 Transformer Design TradeOffs Chapter 6 TransformerInductor Efficiency.Contents Foreword Robert G. Inc. Transformer Design. Magnet Wire. and Temperature Rise Chapter 7 Power Transformer Design Chapter 8 DC Inductor Design Using Gapped Cores Chapter 9 DC Inductor Design Using Powder Cores Chapter 10 AC Inductor Design Chapter 11 Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) Chapter 12 ThreePhase Transformer Design Chapter 13 Flyback Converter. All Rights Reserved. .
All Rights Reserved. . Inc.Chapter 16 Current Transformer Design Chapter 17 Winding Capacitance and Leakage Inductance Chapter 18 Quiet Converter Design Chapter 19 Rotary Transformer Design Chapter 20 Planar Transformers Chapter 21 Derivations for the Design Equations Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
tesla peak flux density. cm primary wire area. tesla residual flux density. tesla direct current flux density. tesla capacitance new capacitance lumped capacitance circular mils wire diameter. cm2 bare wire area. . tesla saturation flux density.Symbols a Ac Ap At Aw AW(B) Aw(i) Awp Aws AT AWG B Bac AB Bdc Bm Bmax B0 Bpi( Br Bs C Cn Cp CM DAWG D(min) D(max) Dx E ELine Ephase Energy regulation. cm minimum duty ratio maximum duty ratio dwell time duty ratio voltage line to line voltage line to neutral voltage energy. tesla maximum flux density. cm amp turn American Wire Gage flux. tesla flux density. cm2 insulated wire area. tesla alternating current flux density. tesla change in flux. All Rights Reserved. tesla operating peak flux density. cm4 surface area of the transformer. wattsecond Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. cm'2 wire area. Inc. % effective cross section of the core. cm2 secondary wire area. cm'2 area product.
All Rights Reserved. amps delta current. amps maximum load current. in gramspercm2 skin depth. amps secondary phase current. amps charge current. amps input line current. amps minimum load current. amps load current. amps current density. oersteds current. amps per cm2 copper loss constant quasivoltage waveform factor electrical coefficient Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.L. cm magnetizing force. amps primary current. Hz fringing flux factor magnetomotive force.ESR t f F Fm F. amps dc current. amps input current. amps input phase current. amps magnetizing current. Ke equivalent series resistance efficiency frequency. Inc. G y e H Hc AH H0 Hs I Ic AI Idc Ijn ILine Iphase Im I0 lo(max) lo(min) IP Is Is(Fhase) Is(Line) J KC K<. cm density. amps secondary line current. oersteds delta magnetizing force. mmf full load winding length. . amps secondary current. oersteds operating peak magnetizing force magnetizing force at saturation. oersteds magnetizing force required to return flux to zero.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Fm magnetic path length. grams per cm3 gap. cm magnetic path length. . cm constant related to current density constant related to surface area window utilization factor primary window utilization factor secondary window utilization factor constant related to volume constant related to weight inductance.Kf Kg KJ Ks Ku Kup Kus Kvoi Kw L Lc Lp 1 L(crt) X lg waveform coefficient core geometry coefficient. cm milliwattspergram permeability initial permeability incremental permeability core material permeability permeability of air relative permeability effective permeability turns ratio turns no load lm lt mks MLT mmf MPL mW/g a Ui UA um u0 ur ue n N N. Inc. cm meterskilogramseconds mean length turn. All Rights Reserved. henry is a linear dimension critical inductance density.L. cm magnetomotive force. cm total path length. henry open circuit inductance. henry primary inductance.
watts gap loss.NL Nn Np Ns P Pcu Pfe Pg (> Pin PL P0 Pp Ps PX P. watts primary copper loss. p inductor turns new turns primary turns secondary turns watts copper loss. ohmcm Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . watts magnetic flux input power. watts total apparent power. ohms equivalent core loss (shunt) resistance. ohms reluctance of the gap reluctance total reluctance load resistance. ohms primary resistance. watts primary voltamps resistance. ohms ac resistance. ohms reflected load resistance. watts output power. watts inductor copper loss. ohms resistivity. warts secondary copper loss. ohms total resistance. ohms reflected load resistance. ohms ac/dc resistance ratio secondary resistance. watts core loss. All Rights Reserved. watts total loss (core and copper). PVA R Rac RCU Rdc Re Rg Rm Rmt RO RO(R) Rm(equiv) Rp RR Rs R. ohms copper resistance. ohms dc resistance. Inc.
seconds temperature rise. volts control voltage. volts minimum input voltage. . volts diode voltage drop. °C multiplication factor voltamps applied voltage. volts secondary line to neutral voltage.n Vin(max) Vjn(. Inc. volts capacitor ESR voltage. volts secondary line to line voltage. seconds dwell time. seconds off time. volts delta primary voltage.51 52 83 S4 Snp Sns SVA T t0ff ton tw Tr U VA Vac Vc VC(pk) Vd V. All Rights Reserved. volts delta secondary voltage. volts Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. volts input voltage.nin) Vn V0 Vp Vp(rms) conductor area/wire area wound area/usable window usable window area/window area usable window area/usable window area + insulation area number of primary strands number of secondary strands secondary voltamps total period. seconds on time. volts output voltage. volts new voltage. volts primary voltage. volts maximum input voltage. volts peak voltage. volts primary rms voltage. volts Vr(pk) Vs AVCc AVcR AVp AVS peak ripple voltage secondary voltage. volts capacitor voltage.
grams iron weight. grams copper weight. cm2 primary window area. cm2 wattseconds weight. Inc. cm2 effective window area. . ohms Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. grams inductive reactance. cm2 secondary window area.W W/kg Wa Wap Was Wa(efi) ws Wt Wtcu Wtfe XL watts wattsperkilogram window area.
Inc. .Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Magnetics Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction
Considerable difficulty is encountered in mastering the field of magnetics because of the use of so many different systems of units  the centimetergramsecond (cgs) system, the meterkilogramsecond (mks) system, and the mixed English units system. Magnetics can be treated in a simple way by using the cgs system. There always seems to be one exception to every rule and that is permeability.
Magnetic Properties in Free Space
A long wire with a dc current, I, flowing through it, produces a circulatory magnetizing force, H, and a magnetic field, B, around the conductor, as shown in Figure 11, where the relationship is:
B = fi0H,
[gauss]
1
H = ^—, [oersteds]
H
Bm=—T, [gauss] cm Figure 11. A Magnetic Field Generated by a Current Carrying Conductor. The direction of the line of flux around a straight conductor may be determined by using the "right hand rule" as follows: When the conductor is grasped with the right hand, so that the thumb points in the direction of the current flow, the fingers point in the direction of the magnetic lines of force. This is based on socalled conventional current flow, not the electron flow. When a current is passed through the wire in one direction, as shown in Figure l2(a), the needle in the compass will point in one direction. When the current in the wire is reversed, as in Figure l2(b), the needle will also reverse direction. This shows that the magnetic field has polarity and that, when the current I, is reversed, the magnetizing force, H, will follow the current reversals.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Compass
(b)
Figure 12. The Compass Illustrates How the Magnetic Field Changes Polarity.
Intensifying the Magnetic Field
When a current passes through a wire, a magnetic field is set up around the wire. If the conductors, as shown in Figure 13, carrying current in the same direction are separated by a relatively large distance, the magnetic fields generated will not influence each other. If the same two conductors are placed close to each other, as shown in Figure 14, the magnetic fields add, and the field intensity doubles.
B2
r
[energy density]
[11]
If the wire is wound on a dowel, its magnetic field is greatly intensified. The coil, in fact, exhibits a magnetic field exactly like that of a bar magnet, as shown in Figure 15. Like the bar magnet, the coil has a north pole and a neutral center region. Moreover, the polarity can be reversed by reversing the current, I, through the coil. Again, this demonstrates the dependence of the magnetic field on the current direction.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Magnetic Field
Current Carrying Conductor Large distance between conductors. Figure 13. Magnetic Fields Produced Around Spaced Conductors.
Magnetic Field
r
Current Carrying Conductors Conductors are in Close Proximity Figure 14. Magnetic Fields Produced Around Adjacent Conductors. The magnetic circuit is the space in which the flux travels around the coil. The magnitude of the flux is determined by the product of the current, I, and the number of turns, N, in the coil. The force, NI, required to create the flux is magnetomotive force (mmf). The relationship between flux density, B, and magnetizing force, H, for an aircore coil is shown in Figure 16. The ratio of B to H is called the permeability, \i, and for this aircore coil the ratio is unity in the cgs system, where it is expressed in units of gauss per oersteds, (gauss/oersteds).
^:=l „ [12]
If the battery, in Figure 15, were replaced with an ac source, as shown in Figure 17, the relationship between B and H would have the characteristics shown in Figure 18. The linearity of the relationship between B and H represents the main advantage of aircore coils. Since the relationship is linear, increasing H increases B, and therefore the flux in the coil, and, in this way, very large fields can be produced with large currents. There is obviously a practical limit to this, which depends on the maximum allowable current in the conductor and the resulting rise.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Magnetic Field \ /
/
\
an
1r V V V
—^ N
/,
/
i
VT7
I = Direct Current
tI
4
Magnetic Path
Figure 15. AirCore Coil with dc excitation
B, (tesla)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I H, ( oersteds)
Figure 16. Relationship Between B and H with dc Excitation.
'(i i\^' \
1
v
» . \
•!
I..
000000
—IT'
II 
'
'
'
*^
\\) \11 i / J'
\ \
f /
Magnetic Field
'/
,
i'' r l\ \ \ V
\ —
I = Alternating Current
uuuuu
\\
Magnetic Path
Figure 17. AirCore Coil Driven from an ac Source.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Fields of the order of 0.1 tesla are feasible for a 40° C temperature rise above room ambient temperature. With super cooled coils, fields of 10 tesla have been obtained.
1——I
1 H, ( oersteds)
Figure 18. Relationship Between B and H with ac Excitation.
Simple Transformer
A transformer in its simplest form is shown in Figure 19. This transformer has two air coils that share a common flux. The flux diverges from the ends of the primary coil in all directions. It is not concentrated or confined. The primary is connected to the source and carries the current that establishes a magnetic field. The other coil is opencircuited. Notice that the flux lines are not common to both coils. The difference between the two is the leakage flux; that is, leakage flux is the portion of the flux that does not link both coils. Leakage Flux Mutual Flux
i
FiplH
// ^" <^J 1 l /I
\\ ^
\
/y \\ \ v _ n n n n 0nnn ~\^^_f^\\\ \\ (j \j u E^\J u u u
—J)
\l
^ ^, 1 . f
Primary
^ \ ,
<^
Secondary
»
y/ —*'
I = Alternating Current
/ —\
f]
(.)
c^)
Figure 19. The Simplest Type of Transformer.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Magnetic Core
Most materials are poor conductors of magnetic flux; they have low permeability. A vacuum has a permeability of 1.0, and nonmagnetic materials, such as air, paper, and copper have permeabilities of the same order. There are a few materials, such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloys that have high permeability, sometimes ranging into the hundreds of thousands. To achieve an improvement over the aircoil, as shown in Figure 110, a magnetic core can be introduced, as shown in Figure 111. In addition to its high permeability, the advantages of the magnetic core over the aircore are that the magnetic path length (MPL) is welldefined, and the flux is essentially confined to the core, except in the immediate vicinity of the winding. There is a limit as to how much magnetic flux can be generated in a magnetic material before the magnetic core goes into saturation, and the coil reverts back to an aircore, as shown in Figure 112.
\ <>
\ <+~~ Magnetic Flux
\ I/
\
o
J
I
I
I
I
H, (oersteds)
Figure 110. AirCore Coil Emitting Magnetic Flux when Excited.
Magnetic Flux is Contained within Core
Q
Magnetic Core
H, (oersteds)
Figure 111. Introduction of a Magnetic Core.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Magnetic Flux
^ \ ^v \\ I [ / /
^
>
\ Top View
B, (tesla)
„
H
Magnetic Core H, (oersteds) Figure 112. Excited Magnetic Core Driven into Saturation.
Fundamental Characteristics of a Magnetic Core
The effect of exciting a completely demagnetized, ferromagnetic material, with an external magnetizing force, H, and increasing it slowly, from zero, is shown in Figure 113, where the resulting flux density is plotted as a function of the magnetizing force, H. Note that, at first, the flux density increases very slowly up to point A, then, increases very rapidly up to point B, and then, almost stops increasing. Point B is called the knee of the curve. At point C, the magnetic core material has saturated. From this point on, the slope of the curve is:
H
= 1, [gauss/oersteds] [13]
The coil is now behaving as if it had an aircore. When the magnetic core is in hard saturation, the coil has the same permeability as air, or unity. Following the magnetization curve in Figure 114, Figures 115 through Figures 116 show how the flux in the core is generated from the inside of the core to the outside until the core saturates. B, tesla
C
Q
8
i i i i i i i i H
Magnetizing Force Figure 113. Typical Magnetization Curve.
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1= 0
Magnetic Core
Mean Magnetic Path Length
Winding
Figure 114. Magnetic Core with Zero Excitation.
Magnetic Core
Magnetic Field at Low Excitation
o
Winding
Figure 115. Magnetic Core with Low Excitation.
Magnetic Core
Magnetic Field at High Excitation
O
Winding
Figure 116. Magnetic Core with High Excitation.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Hysteresis Loop (BH Loop)
An engineer can take a good look at the hysteresis loop and get a first order evaluation of the magnetic material. When the magnetic material is taken through a complete cycle of magnetization and It starts with a neutral magnetic material,
demagnetization, the results are as shown in Figure 117.
traversing the BH loop at the origin X. As H is increased, the flux density B increases along the dashed line to the saturation point, Bs. When H is now decreased and B is plotted, BH loop transverses a path to Br, where H is zero and the core is still magnetized. The flux at this point is called remanent flux, and has a flux density, Br. The magnetizing force, H, is now reversed in polarity to give a negative value. The magnetizing force required to reduce the flux Br to zero is called the coercive force, Hc. When the core is forced into saturation, the retentivity, Brs, is the remaining flux after saturation, and coercivity, Hcs, is the magnetizing force required to reset to zero. Along the initial magnetization curve at point X, the dashed line, in Figure 117, B increases from the origin nonlinearly with H, until the material saturates. In practice, the
magnetization of a core in an excited transformer never follows this curve, because the core is never in the totally demagnetized state, when the magnetizing force is first applied. The hysteresis loop represents energy lost in the core. The best way to display the hysteresis loop is to use a dc current, because the intensity of the magnetizing force must be so slowly changed that no eddy currents are generated in the material. Only under this condition is the area inside the closed BH loop indicative of the hysteresis. The enclosed area is a measure of energy lost in the core material during that cycle. In ac applications, this process is repeated continuously and the total hysteresis loss is dependent upon the frequency. (tesla)
* H (oersteds)
Figure 117. Typical Hysteresis Loop.
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Permeability
In magnetics, permeability is the ability of a material to conduct flux. The magnitude of the permeability at a given induction is the measure of the ease with which a core material can be magnetized to that induction. It is defined as the ratio of the flux density, B, to the magnetizing force, H. Manufacturers specify permeability in units of gauss per oersteds.
D
Permeability = — , H
_ oersteds]
I
[14]
The absolute permeability, u0 in cgs units is unity 1 (gauss per oersteds) in a vacuum. gauss [oersteds ~ tesla (10*) _ oersteds
cgs:
fja=l,
[15]
mks: /J0 = 0.4^(10~ s ), v ' — [ meter J
When B is plotted against H, as in Figure 118, the resulting curve is called the magnetization curve. These curves are idealized. The magnetic material is totally demagnetized and is then subjected to gradually increasing magnetizing force, while the flux density is plotted. The slope of this curve, at any given point gives the permeability at that point. Permeability can be plotted against a typical BH curve, as shown in Figure 119. Permeability is not constant; therefore, its value can be stated only at a given value of B or H. There are many different kinds of permeability, and each is designated by a different subscript on the symbol u.
(i0 Hi UA ie
Absolute permeability, defined as the permeability in a vacuum. Initial permeability is the slope of the initial magnetization curve at the origin. It is measured at very small induction, as shown in Figure 120. Incremental permeability is the slope of the magnetization curve for finite values of peaktopeak flux density with superimposed dc magnetization as shown in Figure 121. Effective permeability. If a magnetic circuit is not homogeneous (i.e., contains an air gap), the effective permeability is the permeability of hypothetical homogeneous (ungapped) structure of the same shape, dimensions, and reluctance that would give the inductance equivalent to the gapped structure. Relative permeability is the permeability of a material relative to that of free space. Normal permeability is the ratio of B/H at any point of the curve as shown in Figure 122. Maximum permeability is the slope of a straight line drawn from the origin tangent to the curve at its knee as shown in Figure 123. Pulse permeability is the ratio of peak B to peak H for unipolar excitation. Material permeability is the slope of the magnetization curve measure at less than 50 gauss as shown in Figure 124.
Uj un umax UP um
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Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. B. along the Magnetizing Curve. tesla B. Inc. Magnetizing Curve. tesla Permeability Q g ID PH 0> BH Curve Magnetizing Force 1—1 H Figure 119. Variation of Permeability (j. B. tesla <u Q i i i i I i I I I Magnetizing Force Figure 120. All Rights Reserved. Initial Permeability. . tesla 113 Q x J3 OJ Q x 0) E E I I I I I I I Magnetizing Force I H Magnetizing Force H Figure 118.Permeability B.
B. . Inc. tesla u Q X! a '\ I I I I I I I Magnetizing Force I Figure 122. tesla Q x E I I I I I I I I I Magnetizing Force H Figure 123. All Rights Reserved. B. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Maximum Permeability.H (oersteds) Figure 121. Incremental Permeability. Normal Permeability.
due to the existence of a magnetizing force H. Magnetomotive force should not be confused with magnetizing force. [oersteds] L J [18] Where.B. N is the number of turns and I is the current in amperes. H is a force field. If the flux is divided by the core area. depends on the permeability of the medium and the intensity of the magnetic field: /jH. or force per unit length: mmf MPL [gilberts • = oersteds cm H= [17] Substituting. mmf. Whereas mmf is the force.4. tesla Q x s '\ i i i i i i I i Magnetizing Force H Figure 124. H. Material Permeability. [gauss] [110] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Magnetomotive Force (mmf) and Magnetizing Force (H) There are two force functions commonly encountered in magnetics: magnetomotive force. in lines per unit area: B = £. [gilberts] [16] Where. we get flux density. . Ac. [gauss] [19] The flux density. and magnetizing force. in a magnetic medium. MPL = magnetic path length in cm. Magnetomotive force is given by the equation: mmf = 0. H= MPL . All Rights Reserved. B. the two are related as cause and effect.rM. Inc. B.
emf (£) = IR = Current x Resistance mmf (fm) = ^Rm = Flux x Reluctance [112] A poor conductor of flux has a high magnetic resistance. B (tesla) DC B 5. Reluctance The flux produced in a given material by magnetomotive force (mmf) depends on the material's resistance to flux. and magnetic reluctance is analogous to the relationship between emf. and resistance. Rm. magnetizing current. To determine the magnetizing force. Rm. All Rights Reserved. Figure 125. Typical BH Loops Operating at Various Frequencies. as shown in Figure 125. use the manufacturer's core loss curves at the appropriate frequency and operating flux density. the higher the magnetomotive force that is required to obtain a given magnetic field.000 Hertz 10. Inl.The peak.H (oersteds) H B. H0. for a wound core can be calculated from the following equation: H(MPL) I = —^'. The reluctance of a core depends on the composition of the material and its physical dimension and is similar in concept to electrical resistance. The greater the reluctance. Inc.000 Hertz ff. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The relationship between mmf. B0. . flux. as shown in Figure 126. [amps] [111] Where H0 is the field intensity at the peak operating point. current. which is called reluctance.
[ohms] [113] In the case of magnetics. 1/ia. Magnetic Core Magnetic Path Length. Ac. To find the resistance of a copper wire of any size or length. Magnetic Core Showing the Magnetic Path Length (MPL) and Iron Crosssection Ac. emf Magnetic Core Reluctance.Current. A typical magnetic core is shown in Figure 127 illustrating the magnetic path length MPL and the crosssectional area. . Rm Resistance. is the magnetic path length. The electrical resistance of a conductor is related to its length 1. crosssectional area Aw. R Figure 126. Ac t114! Figure 127. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The reluctance Rm of a magnetic circuit is given by: 4=^Where MPL. and divide by the crosssectional area: R = —. cm . (mmf) Electromotive Force. ti0 is the permeability of air. is analogous to p and is called reluctivity. Ac is the crosssection of the core. we merely multiply the resistivity by the length. Comparing Magnetic Reluctance and Electrical Resistance. Magnetomotive Force. I Flux. which is the resistance per unit length. cm. (MPL) Iron Crosssection. and specific resistance p. ur is the permeability of the magnetic material. of a C core.
in the same way that two series resistors are added in an electrical circuit. For all practical purposes. Inc. for the core shown in Figure 128 is therefore: Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. almost all of the reluctance in the circuit will be at the gap. Ac. The equation for calculating the air gap reluctance. the equation simplifies to: [116] Where: lg is the gap length. is used in place of the magnetic path length (MPL). which is otherwise composed of low reluctivity material like iron. Rmt. Rm. The total reluctance of the core is the sum of the iron reluctance and the air gap reluctance. The equation is as follows: But. L Iron Crosssection. is basically the same as the equation for calculating the reluctance of the magnetic material. If an air gap is included in a magnetic circuit as shown in Figure 128. Ac is the crosssection of the core. Ac Figure 128. (MPL) *— Gap. A Typical Magnetic Core with an Air Gap. u0 is the permeability of air. The total reluctance. lg. cm2. An example can best show this procedure. The difference is that the permeability of air is 1 and the gap length. because the reluctivity of air is much greater than that of a magnetic material. since uc = 1. controlling the size of the air gap controls the reluctance. Magnetic Core Magnetic Path Length. .Air Gap A high permeability material is one that has a low reluctance for a given magnetic path length (MPL) and iron crosssection. cm. All Rights Reserved. Rg.
e. The reason is because the magnetic material has a relatively high permeability.m Material Name Iron Alloys Ferrites Amorphous Permeability 0. l I MPL _ [123] / S +MPL He = lg_ Ho MPL HoHr Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker..e is the effective permeability. [120] /.8K to 20K 0. = / g + M P L Where 1. All Rights Reserved. Table 11. the effective permeability. [121] Simplifying yields: r^o t'o r^r Then: g _. can be calculated.8K to 25K 0.. Material Permeability Material Permeability. u. Inc. which is used exclusively with magnetic materials. is given by: Hm=Hrlio [119] gauss L oersteds [118] The reluctance of the gap is higher than that of the iron even when the gap is small.mi m g MPL [117] Where ur is the relative permeability. is the total path length and u. . _ n _ B pa //„//' The magnetic material permeability.8K to 80K After the total reluctance. So the total reluctance of the circuit depends more on the gap than on the iron. Rt. unl. \\. has been calculated. as shown in Table 11.".
or butt stacked laminations. „ The second equation is used. The first equation is used with powder cores. Powder cores are manufactured from very fine particles of magnetic materials. so is the reluctance. multiply both sides of the equation by (u r u 0 MPL)/ ( u r u 0 MPL). when the design calls for a gap to be placed in series with the magnetic path length (MPL). F 1241 Li^j MPL The classic equation is: [125] Introducing an air gap. but can sustain the dc flux. Controlling the dc Flux with an Air Gap There are two similar equations used to calculate the dc flux. ' Substitute (MPLum) /(MPLuJ for 1: // 1+ w r [gauss]i [1 27]  // * [128] "" MPL MPLn L +U '"'"MPL Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. lg. such as a ferrite cut core. a C core. This powder is coated with an inert insulation to minimize eddy currents losses and to introduce a distributed air gap into the core structure. All Rights Reserved. As the gap is increased. . For a given magnetomotive force.If 18 « MPL. to the core cannot correct for the dc flux. Inc. the flux density is controlled by the gap.
All Rights Reserved. R. and glass. . Magnetic Core Magnetic Path Length.„ Then. Mylar. If the gap is not proportioned in each leg.Then. When the gap is used as shown in Figure 130A. there are two types of gaps used in the design of magnetic components: bulk and distributed. and D. Placement of the gapping material is critical in keeping the core structurally balanced. The standard gap placement is shown in Figure 130A. (MPL) Gapping materials. C. and D. Inc. such as: paper. There are designs where it is important to place the gap in an area to minimize the noise that is caused by the fringing flux at the gap. C. Ar Figure 129. Iron Crosssection. simplify: [131] Types of Air Gaps Basically. such as paper. The gap placement for different core configurations is shown in Figure 130. are bestsuited. as shown in Figure 129. The gapping materials are designed to be inserted in series with the magnetic path to increase the reluctance. when the gap has to be isolated within the magnetic assembly to minimize fringing flux noise. then. or even glass. then the core will become unbalanced and create even more than the required gap. Bulk gaps are maintained with materials. only half the thickness of the calculated gap dimension is used in each leg of the core. The EE or EC cores shown in Figure 13OB. Placement of the Gapping Materials. mylar. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. simplify: [129] + /„ MPL MPL MPL +/ MPL / [gauss] [130] <".
Operating at high frequency has made the engineer very much aware of what fringing flux can do to hamper a design. It seems that when engineers do have a problem. Flux. or the engineer just located a hot spot during testing. This happens during the final test when the unit becomes unstable. by generating eddy currents that cause localized heating in the windings and/or the brackets. High frequency has really brought out the fringing flux and its parasitic eddy currents. Fringing Flux Introduction Fringing flux has been around since time began for the power conversion engineer. Gap Placement using Different Core Configurations. there will be premature core saturation. Inc. If the fringing flux is not handled correctly. !„ = 1/2 o i I Gap. . !„ = 1 EE & EC Type Cores B Flux. fringing flux must to be taken into consideration. Fringing flux can reduce the overall efficiency of the converter.Gap is across entire El surface. the inductor current is nonlinear. Designing power conversion magnetics that produce a minimum of fringing flux has always been a problem. Fringing flux can cause a multitude of problems. Gap is in the center leg. More and more magnetic components are now designed to operate in the submegahertz region. 1_ = 1/2 Toroidal Core C C Core D Figure 130. I Gap. All Rights Reserved. Engineers have learned to design around fringing flux. and minimize its effects. O Gap. When designing inductors. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. it is usually at the time when the design is finished and ready to go. It is then that the engineer will observe something that was not recognized before.
In a transformer design a small air gap. has a powerful effect by shearing over the BH loop. The material permeability. High permeability ferrites that are cut. In general. ue. B (tesla) Normal BH Loop Sheared BH Loop Figure 131. A small amount of air gap. less than 25 microns. pressure. The toroidal core. This change in inductance will have an effect on the exciting current. must have a stable permeability. The inductance change is directly proportional to the permeability change. are sensitive to temperature. . and frequency. This is because of the induced gap. that inductors that are designed into an LC. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. is the ideal shape to view the BH loop of a given material. Inc. ue. have only about 80 percent of the permeability. The BH loops that are normally seen in the manufacturers' catalogs are usually taken from a toroidal sample of the magnetic material. um. All Rights Reserved. lg. inserted into the magnetic path. exciting voltage. The Shearing of an Idealized BH Loop Due to an Air Gap. magnetic materials with highpermeability. This shearing over of the BH loop reduces the permeability. even though the mating surfaces are highly polished. tuned circuit. like E cores. It is very easy to see. will be seen at its highest in the toroidal shape. than that of a toroid of the same material. will lower and stabilize the effective permeability.Material Permeability. as shown in Figure 131. without a gap. 2 L= Ac A/u (l MPL [henrys] [132] Air Gaps Air gaps are introduced into magnetic cores for a variety of reasons.
fringing flux at the gap. to handle the dc flux. and exciting voltage. as shown in Figure 133. Inc. Fringing Flux. increases the inductance by a factor. size. Pg. Inductor designs will normally require a large air gap. to a value greater than the one calculated. . F Fringing flux is completely around the gap and reenters the core in a direction of high loss.47r/V/ rfr (l(r 4 ) I _ _ ^ [cm] [134] Whenever an air gap is inserted into the magnetic path. as shown in Figure 132. The fringing flux effect is a function of gap dimension. 0. the shape of the pole faces. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. therefore. Fringing flux decreases the total reluctance of the magnetic path and. lg. and the shape. there is an induced. Accurate prediction of gap loss.[133] '(MPL ) This will result in a tighter control of the permeability change with temperature. Fringing Flux at the Gap. and location of the winding. Core I V ! t !t T i*!Ti Core Minimum Gap Small Gap Large Gap Figure 132. F. All Rights Reserved. Its net effect is to shorten the air gap. created by fringing flux is very difficult to calculate.
or is in close proximity so it conducts the magnetic field. [tesla] [135] The inductance of an ironcore inductor. Inc. dc Inductor Design The fringing flux factor. (such as copper. This is the same principle used in induction heating. In both cases. The magnetic material that has been selected will dictate the saturation flux density.Fringing flux Figure 133. carrying dc and having an air gap. thereby producing a higher inductance." Shorting the gap is the same as reducing the gap dimension. (MPL/um). All Rights Reserved. such as clamps. The final determination of the air gap size requires consideration of the fringing flux effect which is a function of the Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. When the engineer starts a design. or phosphor bronze). The basic equation for maximum flux density is: MPL . this is called "shorting the gap. and the ratio of the core magnetic path length to the material permeability. if the fringing flux is strong enough. The sensitivity is dependent on the intensity of the magnetomotive force. gap dimensions and the operating frequency. has an impact on the basic inductor design equations. . F. which is the sum of the air gap length. with High Loss Eddy Currents. If a metal bracket or banding material is used to secure the core. This area around the gap is very sensitive to metal objects. and could drive the core into saturation. Fringing Flux. and it passes over the gap. it will induce eddy currents that will cause localized heating. may be expressed as: MPL [henrys] [136] The inductance is dependent on the effective length of the magnetic path. which will not produce magnetic saturation. two things can happen: (1) If the material ferromagnetic is placed over the gap. lg. it will not short the gap or change the inductance. but not ferromagnetic. Gapped. he or she must determine the maximum values for Bdc and for Bac. brackets and banding materials. (2) If the material is metallic. than designed.
can now be included into Equation 135. The winding length. core saturation. F. This will check for premature. / \ «* ~\ \ 1 1 1 T 1 F J> E 1 ' a D V * r * J G D Figure 134. All Rights Reserved. Dimensional. Equation 136 can now be rewritten to include the fringing flux factor. the shape of the pole faces. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Equation 138 can be rewritten to solve for the required turns so that premature core saturation will not happen. The fringing flux decreases the total reluctance of the magnetic path length and. has a big influence on the fringing flux. size. [henrys] [138] The fringing flux factor. and location of the winding. The fringing flux factor is: [1. as shown: L =F . therefore. MPL . and the shape. or the G dimension of the core. F. increases the inductance by a factor of F to a value greater than that calculated. Call Out for C and E Cores. Figure 134 and Equation 137. the fringing flux factor has to be incorporated into Equation 136. .gap dimension. [tesla] [139] Now that the fringing flux factor. Inc.37] After the inductance has been calculated using Equation 136. See. is known and inserted into Equation 138.
the fringing flux will increase. The end result will not produce any fringing flux at all.47rA c F(lCr 8 )' [turns] [140] Fringing Flux and Coil Proximity As the air gap increases. Crowding Flux will always take the path of highest permeability. All Rights Reserved. I or E. At this point. . Fringing Flux No Fringing Flux Bobbin/Coil Form Magnetic Wire Figure 135. the fringing flux will increase until the coil distance from the core is equal to the gap dimension.Wound Coil.[o. j  ^3 I f rr Flux Interleave 1 x 1 Figure 136. the flux will jump to the adjacent lamination and bypass the mating point. Fringing flux will fringe out away from the gap by the distance of the gap. Comparing a Tightly. Fringing Flux. The flux will traverse along the lamination until it meets its mating. This can best be seen in transformers with interleave laminations. as shown in Figure 136. As the coil distance moves away from the core. If a coil was wound tightly around the core and encompasses the gap. Flux Crowding in Adjacent Laminations Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 135. the flux generated around the magnet wire will force the fringing flux back into the core. Inc.~=. Laminations E and I Flux Crowding Minute Air Gap —&. and a Coil Wound on a Coil Form.
using low permeability powder cores. medium and high flux levels. Inc. the permeability drops.This phenomena can best be seen by observing the exciting current at low. due to the flux taking the high permeability path. All Rights Reserved. by jumping to the adjacent lamination. the exciting current is almost square. Because of the fringing flux and a few turns. Low perm power cores (less than 60). This winding is done to control the fringing flux and get inductance repeatability from one core to another. Excitation Low Flux Medium Flux High Flux Figure 137. . as shown in Figure 137. Exciting Current. As the excitation is increased. the adjoining lamination will start to saturate. At low levels of excitation. as shown in Figure 136. Fringing Flux and Powder Cores Designing high frequency converters. It is then that the flux will go in a straight line and cross the minute air gap. Powder cores with a distributed gap will have fringing flux that shorts the gap and gives the impression of a core with a higher permeability. as shown in Figure 136. When the adjacent lamination approaches saturation. Evenly Spaced Winding Random Wound Fringing Flux Winding Powder Cores Winding Figure 138. Winding Methods. I. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. it is very important to wind uniformly and in a consistent manner. Comparing Toroidal. as shown in Figures 138 and 139. exhibit fringing flux. B. and the exciting current will increase and become nonlinear. at Different Levels of Flux Density. will usually require very few turns.
... ...." '' *. Winding Methods.. A A.. Inc.•''. Comparing EE Cores.Winding Evenly Wound i Y'"'V 'V 'V 'Y"%Y'"''i Winding Randomly Wound /' r V'"'Y " Y""V'"'\ Bobbin Fringing Flux '.. All Rights Reserved.•'"^L A. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Powder EE Cores Figure 139..
All Rights Reserved.Chapter 2 Magnetic Materials and Their Characteristics Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. .
H. resistivity p (core loss).Introduction The magnetic material is the paramount player in the design of magnetic components. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. sendust powder. does not cause useful increase in. to saturate the core are shown with dashed lines. size. The saturation flux density. B. The magnetics engineer is now designing magnetic components that operate from below the audio range to the megahertz range. From this group of magnetic materials. Bs. remanence Br. Typical BH or Hysteresis Loop of a Soft Magnetic Material. the engineer will make tradeoffs with the magnetic properties for his design. Inc. and the required magnetizing force. such as molypermalloy powder. He will be happy to stuff any two into the bag. Figure 21. permeability u. These properties are: saturation Bs. Today. This point is known as the saturation point of that material. and performance. nickel iron (permalloy). These also have spinoff material variants. a point is reached where further increase in. with the minimum of his parasitic friends' capacitance and leakage inductance. Saturation A typical hysteresis loop of a soft magnetic material is shown in Figure 21. and coercivity Hc. and ferrites. Hs. the magnetic materials the engineer has to work with are silicon steel. All Rights Reserved. . and iron powder cores. He is normally asked to design for maximum performance. The magnetics design engineer has three standard words when making the normal design tradeoff study: cost. When a high magnetizing force is encountered. amorphous metallic alloys. cobalt iron (permendur).
Remanence Flux. and Coercivity Hc In Figure 21 the hysteresis loop clearly shows the remanence flux density. It is the amount of magnetizing force required to bring the remanence flux density back to zero. B/H. Hc. the current will be low. u = Permeability 0 Magnetizing Force Figure 22. The remanence flux is the polarized flux remaining in the core after the excitation has been removed. is shown in Figure 22. [permeability] H [21] The relationship between B and H is not linear. In the norm. Permeability. . D = — . The hysteresis loss is the energy loss when the magnetic material is going through a cycling state. also varies. B. fi The permeability of a magnetic material is a measure of the ease in magnetizing the material. All Rights Reserved. therefore. The variation of permeability with flux density. Br. is a measure of the energy lost in the core material during that cycle. (permeability). inducing electrical currents in it. If the electrical resistance of the core is high. the core loss is a major design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Then. Inc. a feature of lowloss material is high electrical resistance. it is evident that the ratio. (core loss) The enclosed area within the hysteresis. when designing magnetic components. Resistivity. Permeability. B. Variation in Permeability n with B and H. u. Also. is the ratio of the flux density. Hysteresis Loss. p. is called coercivity. shown in Figure 21. it shows the flux density at which the permeability is at a maximum. H. This loss is made up in two components: (1) the hysteresis loss and (2) eddy current loss. Br. as shown in the hysteresis loop in Figure 21. The magnetizing force. The eddy current loss is caused when the lines of flux pass through the core. to the magnetizing force. These currents are called eddy currents and produce heat in the core.
which. It is used in applications requiring high performance and the losses will be at a minimum. that the importance of the NiFe alloys was realized. All Rights Reserved. therefore reducing the eddy current losses. the most. One of the drawbacks in using steel in the early years was." which has lower permeability and resistivity but higher saturation than the 78Permalloy. but also provides a "square" magnetization curve. "Hipernik. Improvements in the NiFe alloys were achieved by high temperature anneals in hydrogen atmosphere. Selecting the correct material. starting in about 1913. Using these two methods. Inc. called Supermalloy. which was also in a hydrogen atmosphere.5 tesla compared to 0. Silicon steel offers high saturation flux density. This work was done by Kelsall and Bozorth. and operating within its limits. It has a higher permeability. This M6 grainoriented steel has exceptionally low losses and high permeability. in a magnetic field. AISI type M6. and it also improved the material's stability with age. on properties in weak magnetic fields and effects of heattreatments. the losses would increase. One of the important improvements made to the silicon steel was in the process called coldrolled. was achieved. It has been greatly improved over the years and is probably. Although Hopkinson investigated nickeliron alloys as early as 1889. and about the same flux density as 78Permalloy. grainoriented. and a moderate loss at audio frequency. widely used magnetic material. a new material. Elmen called his NiFe alloys. not only increases permeability. Core loss can be controlled by selecting the right material and thickness. Introduction to Silicon Steel Silicon steel was one of the first alloys to be used in transformers and inductors. (1. will prevent overheating that could result in damage to the wire insulation and/or the potting compound. important in high frequency power conversion equipment. a relatively good permeability at high flux density. Introduction to Thin Tape Nickel Alloys High permeability metal alloys are based primarily on the nickeliron system. it was not until the studies by Elmen. The next improvement was done by using grainoriented material and annealing it. a lower coercive force.factor. making it more useful in power equipment. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker." and his first patent was filed in 1916. Yensen started an independent investigation that resulted in the 50Ni50Fe alloy. Perhaps the most important of these factors is the magnetic anneal.75 tesla). as first reported by Yensen. as the material became older. Shortly after Elmen. With the addition of silicon to the steel. . His preferred composition was the 78NiFe alloy. the advantages were twofold: it increased the electrical resistivity. pound for pound. "Permalloys.
2 8. x Silicon has unity weight factor. 1 mil. given in Table 21.63 1.25 and 0. Table 21 Magnetic Properties for Selected Iron Alloys Materials.24 1. The NiFe alloys are available in thicknesses of 2 mil. 7. Inc.8 °C 750 8 3% Si 97% Fe 1. He Oersteds 0.000 (23) Supermendur* 49% Co 49% Fe 2%V 0. The iron alloy properties for some of the most popular materials are shown in Table 21. The material comes with a round or square BH loop.04 8. Also. 0.2 940 0.125 mil.650. and thin films in the 1950's. The result was the development of thin tapes and powdered alloys in the 1920's.5 mil.15 1.020. This gives the engineer a wide range of sizes and configurations from which to select for a design.421.8 K 1.068 (24) Orthonol 50% Ni 50% Fe 2K 1. power conversion electronics from the mid 1960's to the present.76 1. and therefore lower core losses for high frequency applications. .150.73 1. All Rights Reserved. two approaches have been followed: (1) modification of the shape of metallic alloys and (2) development of magnetic oxides.51.58 500 0.40.82 460 0.6 Density grams/cm Weight Factor X Typical BH Loop Figures Hi Silicon Bs 1. Coercive Force. Iron Alloy Material Properties Material Name Initial Composition Permeability Flux Density Tesla Curie Temp.0030.35 8. is the Figure number for the BH loop of each of the magnetic materials.92. 0. The development of thin film has been spurred by the requirements of aerospace.148 (27) 17%Fe 5% Mo * Field Anneal.82 460 0. dc.008 8.10.5K.144 (26) 17%Fe 4% Mo Supermalloy 78% Ni 10K50K 0.080 (25) Permalloy 79% Ni 12K100K 0.660. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.In order to obtain high resistance.
2 1.8 .4 H.8 0.0.4 0.8 1. Inc.2 0. All Rights Reserved.8 0. t ssla 1.2 0.6 1.8 ^/ : ~ 1.6 H.B.4 .6 Figure 23.2 1 i 1.4 ( .4 0.8 1.2 0. 1.8 1.6 Supermendur DC Hysteresis Loop 1.6 1. Supermendur BH Loop: 49% Fe 49% Co 2% V. oersteds 1 " 0.20.4 0. oersteds Figure 24.6Magnesil DC Hysteresis Loop 1.6 1. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. .2 1. Silicon BH Loop: 97% Fe 3% Si.80.4 0.0.4 0.2 1.
Orthonol DC Hysteresis Loop 0.8 0.4 0. B.6 0.6 .: 0. tesla 0. Square Permalloy 80 BH loop: 79% Ni 17% Fe 4% Mo. All Rights Reserved. 10. Orthonol BH loop: 50% Fe 50% Ni.16 Figure 26.12 0.* H.08 0.4 0.DC Hysteresis Loop Of 4 .04 0.2 0. . 0. Inc.8r Square Permalloy 80 j . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. oersteds Figure 25.4 0.8 0.
Metallic glasses are generally produced. (up to three times higher)..16 Figure 27. Metallic glasses have since survived the transition from laboratory curiosities to useful products. The magnitude of the electrical resistivities and their temperature coefficients in the glassy and liquid states are almost identical. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Willens and Duwez reported that a liquid. Inc.04 0. tesla 0. than those of crystalline metals of similar compositions. would form an amorphous solid. by liquid quenching.B. in which a molten metal alloy is rapidly cooled. It was twelve years later that Chen and Polk produced ferrousbased metallic glasses in useful shapes with significant ductility. Metallic glasses do not have longrange structural order. occurred in 1960. All Rights Reserved. The basic difference between crystalline (standard magnetic material) and glassy metals is in their atomic structures.08 0. Introduction to Metallic Glass The first synthesis of a metallic glass drawing wide attention among material scientists. Despite their structural differences. crystalline and glassy metals of the same compositions exhibit nearly the same densities. through the temperature at which crystallization normally occurs. threedimensional arrays of atoms which exhibit longrange order. Klement. The electrical resistivities of metallic glasses are much larger.12 0. at rates on the order of 105 degrees/sec.8 r Supermalloy DC Hysteresis Loop 0. Crystalline metals are composed of regular. and currently are the focus of intensive technological and fundamental studies. when rapidly quenched to liquid nitrogen temperature. Supermalloy BH Loop: 78% Ni 17% Fe 5% Mo. AuSi alloy.
020. The obvious advantages of these new materials are in high frequency applications with their high induction. high saturation induction. Amorphous Material Properties Material Name Major Initial Flux Density Tesla Bs Curie Temperature dc.04 7. making it suitable for designing high frequency aerospace transformers and magamps. Inc. high squareness ratio Br/Bs.2 460 0. making it suitable for designing high frequency dc inductors.5% Si 30K80K 1. Coercive Force. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Also.013 (211) * Vitroperm is the trademark of Vacuumschmelze.5% Si 2714A 66% Co 15% Si 4% Fe 0.995 (29) 2714AF 66% Co 15% Si 4% Fe 2K 0.5%B 1. The amorphous properties for some of the most popular materials are shown in Table 22. The Vitroperm 500F is an iron based material with a saturation of 1. See Table 21.50. Material 2714A is a cobalt material that offers a unique combination of high resistivity. Material 2605SC offers a unique combination of high resistivity.957 (28) 3.5K 1.35 7.Metallic glasses are quite soft magnetically.6 7.40. There are four amorphous materials that have been used in high frequency applications: 2605SC.2 7. He Oersteds 0.73 1.995 (210) Nanocrystal Vitroperm 500F* 73.10. x Silicon has a unity weight factor.50. "soft. even operating at a high flux density.65 205 0. Magnetic Properties for Selected Amorphous Materials. 2714AF and Vitroperm 500F. A large magnetic response is desirable in such applications as transformers and inductors.01. and low core loss. is the Figure number for the BH loop of each of the magnetic materials.51. high permeability and low core loss. .8K 0. The term. All Rights Reserved. and very low core loss.32 0.2 tesla and is wellsuited for high frequency transformers and gapped inductors.150.65 205 0.6 Density Weight Typical Composition Permeability grams/cm" Factor BH Loop Mi 2605 SC °C 370 5 X Figures 81%Fe 13.5% Fe l%Cu 15. 2714A. The high frequency core loss for the nanocrystal 500F is lower than some ferrite.59 0. given in Table 22." refers to a large response of the magnetization to a smallapplied field.59 0. Table 22.
2 L 1. Tesla 0.05 0. oersted H—h H h H 1 1 1 1 1— 0. oersted 0.2 0.0.05 1  t 1 0.5% B 3.01 1 1  0..5 t ..0.8 0.4 H. 0.6 Figure 28. Amorphous 2714A BH Loop: 66% Co 15% Si 4% Fe.2 .4 0.6 0. Tesla 1.6 Metglas Type 2605SC DC Hysteresis Loop 1. Inc.0.3 .5 . All Rights Reserved.4 H.4 0.2 0. f Metglas Type 271 4 A DC Hysteresis Loop 0. Amorphous 2605SC BH Loop: 81% Fe 13.0.2 0.1 i i i i 0.6 O 4 H.B. oersted J ) 0.6 0.2 0.01 .03 1 1 1 0. .3 0. B.5% Si.03 u .6 Figure 29. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . 0 1 .4 0.8 1.
All Rights Reserved. Vitroperm SOOF 10 Hz Figure 211. . Inc. Amorphous 2714AF BH Loop: 66% Co 15% Si 4% Fe. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5% Fe 15.5% Si 1% Cu. Vitroperm SOOF BH loop: 73.Metglas Type 2714AF DC Hysteresis Loop Figure 210.
a magnetic material that was particularly wellsuited for high frequency operation would result. All Rights Reserved. with the advent of higher frequencies. or manufacturing technology.5 Curie Temperature. Manufacturers do not like to handle manganesezinc in the same area. was no longer efficient or cost effective. Table 23.5 Resistivity Qcm 10100 106 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The biggest difference is ManganeseZinc has a higher permeability and NickelZinc has a higher resistivity. Snoek had laid down the basic fundamentals of the physics and technology of practical ferrite materials. the Neel Theory of ferromagnetism provided the theoretical understanding of this type of magnetic material. is the Figure number for the BH loop of each of the materials. the standard techniques of reducing eddy current losses. Shown in Table 24 are some of the most popular ferrite materials. the need for the indispensable magnetic material was served by iron and its magnetic alloys.30. In each of these categories.Introduction to Soft Ferrites In the early days of electrical industry. or building with nickelzinc. Ferrites are ceramic. which leads to poor performance yields. It was readily understood that. Snoek of the Philips' Research Laboratories in the period 19351945 in The Netherlands.25 0. (using laminations or iron powder cores).30. The two families of MnZn and NiZn ferrite materials complement each other. if the high electrical resistivity of oxides could be combined with desired magnetic characteristics. The basic difference between ManganeseZinc and NickelZinc is shown in Table 23. Takei.30. Inc. Hc Oersteds 0. Comparing ManganeseZinc and NickelZinc Basic Properties. iron oxide is their main constituent. and allow the use of soft ferrites from audio frequencies to several hundred megahertz. Soft ferrites can be divided into two major categories. In 1948. However. °C 100300 150450 dc. in 1909. Hilpert in Germany.5 0. such as V. By 1945. can manufacture many different MnZn and NiZn material grades. This realization stimulated a renewed interest in "magnetic insulators. Kawai in the 1930's in Japan. Basic Ferrite Material Properties Materials Manganese Zinc Nickel Zinc Initial Permeability Hi 75015 K 151500 Flux Density p D max Tesla 0. and N. homogeneous materials composed of oxides. T.040. given in Table 24." as first reported by S. and by J. Kato. Coercive Force. manganesezinc and nickelzinc. because one contaminates the other. changing the chemical composition. . Also. Research to develop such a material was being performed by scientists in various laboratories all over the world.
101 10.4 0. Coercive Force. has little influence on the effective permeability. The material permeability.101 10.101 10. as shown in Table 25.8 4.1 2T 0. Manganesezinc ferrites are primarily used at frequencies less than 2 MHz. cm **MPL.50T 0. Magnetic Properties for Selected Ferrite Materials.15 0. and is used in many more applications than the nickelzinc ferrites.07T 0.43T 0. Because of its high resistivity. um.1 2T 0.04 F 0. ue.18 0. a Division of Spang and Company **Core . several orders of magnitude higher than MnZn ferrites. He Oersteds 0. All Rights Reserved.7 4.50T 0.43T Tesla Br Curie Temperature °C dc.49T 0. Within the MnZn category. Inc. ETD44 "e 96 98 99 100 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Permeability.04 2300 0.07T >125 >125 0. a large variety of materials are possible.2 Density grams/cm 8 4. Comparing Material Permeabilities Gap.000 15.2 0.000 0.08T 0. Ferrites Material Properties *Magnetics Material Name K R P F W H Initial Permeability Flux Density Residual Flux Tesla B s @15Oe 0.15 *Magnetics.ManganeseZinc Ferrites This type of soft ferrite is the most common.1 OT >230 >230 >230 >250 0. NiZn ferrite is the material of choice for operating from 12 MHz to several hundred megahertz.101 10. inch *Material Gap.8 4.4 P 0. when the gap dimension is relatively large. a Division of Spang & Company Table 25.4 3000 *The materials are from Magnetics.18 0.04 2500 0.8 4.8 Typical BH Loop Figures (212) (213) (213) (214) (215) (215) m 1500 2300 2500 5000 10.8 4.04 K 0.48T 0. . Table 24. NickelZinc Ferrites This class of soft ferrite is characterized by its high material resistivity. and its Effect on Gapped Inductors. cm Um 0.4 1500 R 0.
O 25 °C 1.5 l.0 2.350T @ 15 oersted Figure 212. P & R Material at 25 and 100 ° C. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ferrite BH loop.375T @ 15 oersted Figure 213. K Material at 25 and 100 ° C.2 25 °C Bm .Bm.0 500T @ 15 oersted 100 °C Bm = 0. Inc.5 Bm = 0460T ig IS oersted 100 °C Bm = 0. All Rights Reserved. P & R Material 0.5 2. Tesla K Material 0. Ferrite BH loop. .
2 10 25 °C Bm = 0. Bm.490T @ 15 oersted 100 "C Bm = 0.4 0.5 2.Bm. All Rights Reserved.220T @ 15 oersted 0.3 0. Tesla W & H Material 1.0 0. Ferrite BH loop. oersted 25 °C Bm = 0. Ferrite BH loop.0 1.6 0.8 0. F Material at 25 and 100 ° C.2 0. Inc.5 —i 1 \ 1 1 H. Tesla 0.2 0. W & H Material at 25 and 100 ° C.5 1.340T @ 15 oersted Figure 214.5 T F Material 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.6 0.4 Figure 215.4 0.0 0.430T @ 15 oersted ° °C Bm = 0.8 1. .0 2.
MN67 1900 MN80 2000 HBM 2000 MN80 2000 B25 3000 MN8CX 3000 B3100 1000 TSF5099 TSF7099 TSF7070 TSF8040 TSF5000 TSF010K 2000 2000 2200 3100 5000 10000 1 . FairRite Permeability. Uj Siemens Permeability. has been put together using some of the leading ferrite manufacturers. u. Permeability. Table 26. u^ TDK Corp. This is because Magnetics has one of the broadest lines of standard ferrite materials. Table 26. . U. Ferrite Material Cross Reference Permeability Application Manufacturer's Magnetics Ferroxcube Permeability. 3. The ferrite materials have been organized and referenced under Magnetics materials. 2. Lowest loss at 80°100°C. Ferrite Int. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Ferrite Cross Reference The crossreference. u. u< Ceramic Mag Permeability. 25 kHz to 250 kHz. Lowest loss at 60°C80°C. Manufacturers' CrossReference. High Frequency power material 250 kHz & up. Permeability. Ferrite Materials. Inc. Uj Tokin Permeability. All Rights Reserved. u( MMG N49 N87 1 K 2 R 3F3 3 1500 Power 2300 Power 2500 Power P 3000 Power F 5000 Filter J 10000 Filter W 3E5 15000 Filter H 3E7 Material Designation 3F35 3C94 2300 78 3C81 2700 3E27 6000 75 1400 2000 10000 76 15000 2300 N67 T41 5000 T35 10000 T38 T46 1300 PC50 2200 PC40 2300 F44 2100 PC44 2400 F5 3000 H5A 6000 HP5 10000 H5C2 10000 15000 H5C3 15000 1400 3300 F5C 5000 F10 6000 MN60 6000 H5000 F39 10000 MC25 10000 HI 2000 MC15K 15000 Permeability.
input filters. a new material. In the power conversion field. The use of MPP cores and power MOSFET transistors has permitted increased frequency. "Magnetic Properties of Compressed Powdered Iron." in 1921. and transformers at audio and carrier frequencies in the telephone facility. Permalloy alloys were successfully used in powder cores. This new material was developed for loading coils. the system will last until it becomes obsolete. The use of such cores has been extended to many industrial and military circuits. is made by grinding hotrolled and embrittled cast ingots. using a moderate temperature rise. Inc. . the alloy is insulated and screened to a fineness of 120 mesh for use in audio frequency applications. temperature. issued in 1918. [2 Molybdenum (Mo)82 Nickel (Ni)16 Iron (Fe)]. 1274952. current transformers and pulse transformers.E. MPP cores are the only ones that will perform in the available space with the proper temperature rise. power transformers. using MPP cores. and flux level. trademarked Molybdenum Permalloy Powder (MPP). stemmed from efforts of Bell Telephone Laboratory engineers to find a substitute for fine ironwire cores. They cannot all be optimally designed. common mode filters. Patent No. The first iron powder cores of commercially valuable properties were described by Buckner Speed. This paper describes a Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. by Dolezalek in 1900. greatly contributing to the carrier wave communications of the time. Elman published a paper in the A. the MPP core has made its greatest impact in switching power supplies. But.I. The stability of permeability and core losses with time. In the early 1940's. filtering coils. Buckner Speed and G. in U. In these power systems there are switching inductors. The power supply is the heart of the system. smoothing choke coils. output filters. in 1887. was developed into cores by the Bell Telephone Laboratory and the Western Electric Company. resulting in greater compactness and weight reduction in computer systems. and again. The use of iron powder cores was suggested by Heaviside. in some cases.Introduction to Molypermalloy Powder Cores The nickeliron (NiFe) high permeability magnetic alloys (permalloy) were discovered in 1923 and 1927. Transactions. then. Molybdenum permalloy powder. are particularly important to engineers designing tuned circuits and timing circuits.E. This new material has given reliable and superior performance over all past powder core materials. Introduction to Iron Powder Cores The development of compressed iron powder cores as a magnetic material for inductance coils. When the power supply is designed correctly.W. All Rights Reserved.S. and 400 mesh for use at high frequencies.
as shown in Figure 220. These iron powder cores were made from 80 Mesh Electrolytic Iron Powder. This gives the engineer a wide range in which to optimize the design. and Iron Powder Cores. as shown in Figure 223. Inc. Sendust Powder Cores. The penalty for using iron powder cores is usually found in the size and efficiency of the magnetic component. for differentialmode. Spang and Company. core materials. such as those used in a telephone system. In Table 28 is a listing of the most popular permeabilities for each of the powder core materials. insulated by oxidizing the surface of the individual particles. *(Kool Mu). but an ac or ripple current does generate core loss. more expensive. *Trademark of Magnetics Division. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. low and high frequency power switching conversion applications. The inherent high saturation flux density of iron. input and output power inductors. This process creates a magnetic structure with a distributed airgap. a very thin and tough insulation of grains of iron was obtained. produces a core material with initial permeability of less than 100. However. All Rights Reserved. Most dcbiased inductors have a relatively small percentage of ripple current and. The powder cores come in a variety of permeabilities. combined with the distributed airgap.magnetic material. a relatively large number of turns are required for the proper inductance. is the Figure number for the BH loop of each of the powder core materials. Iron powder material has higher core loss than some other. Low cost. The powder core properties for the most popular materials are shown in Table 27. Iron powder is not recommended for inductors with discontinuous current or transformers with large ac flux swings. as shown in Figure 222. this did not break down when the cores were compressed. with a family of curves. with a family of curves. then. using highly pure iron powder and a more exotic insulator and binder. High flux (HF) Powder Cores with a family of curves. thus. The dc current does not generate core loss. Today's iron powder cores are manufactured in much the same way. . There are four standard powder materials available for power magnetic devices: Mob/permalloy (MPP) Powder Cores with a family of curves. Also. iron powder cores are typically used in today's. This was how toroidal iron powder cores were manufactured by Western Electric Company until about 1929. In this way. The prepared powder is compressed under extremely high pressures to produce a solidlooking core. which is wellsuited to the construction of cores in small inductance coils and transformers. core loss will sometimes become a limiting factor in applications with a relatively high percentage of ripple current at very high frequency. and with highenergy storage capabilities. The material was annealed. as shown in Figure 221. given in Table 27. Because iron powder cores have such low permeability. thus keeping the ac flux at a minimum. core loss will be minimal. A shellac solution was applied to the insulated powder as a further insulator and binder.
5 6. He Composition Permeability grams/cm Oersteds °C 6 Bs Hi 0.j 10 14 26 35 55 60 75 90 100 125 147 160 173 200 300 550 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X MPP High Flux Sendust (Kool Mu) Iron Powder X X X X X Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 360 High Flux 8 50% Ni 50% Fe 26125 1 740 0. Powder Core Material Properties.09. Standard Powder Core Permeabilities Powder Material Initial Permeability.100 0.0 Iron Powder 3.3 14550 0.1. (219) Table 28.2 100%Fe Material Name Typical BH Loop Figures (216) (217) (218) .160 1.37.Table 27.5. Inc. .4 770 5.5 80% Ni 20% Fe 1 14. Coercive Tesla Temperature Force. Standard Powder Core Permeabilities. u.7 450 MPP 8.0. All Rights Reserved.15 85% Fe Sendust 9% Si (Kool Mu) 6% Al 4. Powder Core Material Properties Density Initial Flux Density Curie dc.
Molypermalloy Powder Core. All Rights Reserved.0 T Molypermalloy MPP 125 Perm 50 100 150 200 250 250 200 150 100 50 Figure 216. High Flux Powder Core.B. Tesla 1. 125 Perm. . 125 Perm. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. High Flux HF 125 Perm 50 100 150 200 250 250 200 150 100 50 Figure 217. Inc.
125 Perm. Inc. Iron Powder (52) Core. 75 Perm. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Tesla Iron Powder52 75 Perm 50 100 150 200 250 i 1 1 250 200 150 100 50 Figure 219.Kool Mu 125 Perm 50 250 200 150 100 100 150 200 250 50 Figure 218. Sendust (Kool MH) Powder Core. .
Permeability Versus dc Bias for High Flux Powder Cores. Inc. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . Permeability Versus dc Bias for Molypermalloy Powder Cores.i i i i i i MPP Powder Cores i i i i i i DC Magnetizing Force (Oersteds) i i I I i i M 100 Figure 220. 1000 100 I I I I I I High Flux Powder Cores DC Magnetizing Force (Oersteds) I I I i i i i i i i i i 1000 Figure 221. All Rights Reserved.
) 80 a 1 60 a & 40 20 I DC Magnetizing Force (Oersteds) I I I I I I l l I I I I I I I 10 1.0 100 1000 Figure 222.0 100 Figure 223.100 i i i i r \ \T i l T l I l l r Sendust Powder Cores (Kool Mp. Permeability Versus dc Bias for Sendust Powder Cores. 100 I I I I ! I I Iron Powder Cores 80 J2 03 01 8 60 OH o B 40 20 J I DC Magnetizing Force (Oersteds) l l l I l l l l l l I I 10 J I 1000 1. Permeability Versus dc Bias for Iron Powder Cores. Inc. All Rights Reserved. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
100 Frequency #1 Frequency #2 Frequency #3 10 Frequency #4 k. and the horizontal scale is flux density.1 0. The vertical scale is core loss. and performance. such as transformer and inductors.01 0.Core Loss The designer of power magnetic components. Thus. The core loss data is plotted at different frequencies. the dc and the ac.0 0. All manufacturers do not use the same units when describing their core loss. magnetic flux density Bac. size. and operating temperature. . The ac core loss is a function of the magnetic material. o U 0> 1. The user should be aware of the different core loss units when comparing different magnetic materials. requires specific knowledge about the electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic materials used in these components.0 Flux Density Figure 224. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. magnetic material thickness. There are two magnetic properties that are of interest. A typical core loss graph is shown in Figure 224. Inc. It is the ac magnetic properties that are of interest to the design engineer. the choice of the magnetic material is based upon achieving the best characteristic using the standard tradeoff such as cost. as shown in Figure 224. frequency f. The dc BH hysteresis loop is a very useful guide for comparing the different types of magnetic materials. One of the most important ac properties is the core loss. Typical Graph for Plotting Core Loss at Different Frequencies.1 1.
. gauss to tesla and. 4.000250 550 0.001780 1. (HF).500 147160173 0. The coefficients for Magnetics Inc.001190 60 1.240 2.005980 1.360 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.000489 200300 1. gauss kilogauss tesla millitesla The data can be plotted or presented in either hertz or kilohertz. using Equation [22] are shown in Table 210. Sendust powder cores. 2. Core Loss Equations Manufacturers are now presenting the core loss in the form of an equation such as: watts / kilogram =kf(m)B(n) [22] Here. Inc. molypermalloy powder cores. again.410 0.320 26 1. watts per pound to watts per kilogram.Vertical Scale Here is a list of core loss units used by manufacturers: 1. Core Loss Coefficients for MPP Powder Cores. 4. The coefficients for Magnetics Inc. High Flux powder cores.001320 1. the units will change from one manufacturer to another. (MPP). The data was modified to put the data in metric units.310 2.250 2.400 1. The coefficients for Magnetics Inc. watts per pound watts per kilogram milliwatts per gram milliwatts per cubic centimeter (cmj) Horizontal Scale Here is a list of flux density units used by manufacturers: 1.590 Material MPP MPP MPP MPP MPP MPP MPP Coefficient (n) 2.270 2. The coefficients for iron alloy materials using Equation [22] are shown in Table 212. (KoolMu). using Equation [22] are shown in Table 29.180 2.000788 125 0.640 0. 2. 3. 3. All Rights Reserved. using Equation [22] are shown in Table 211. In the following tables the manufacturers core loss data has been organized with the same units for all core losses. Core Loss Equation Factors Magnetics MPP Powder Cores Permeability Coefficient Coefficient k (m) V 14 0. Table 29.210 2.410 0.
0386000 Material 50/50 NiFe Supermendur Permalloy 80 Supermalloy Silicon Thickness mil's 1.23 1.500 1. .092 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.25 1.52 3.260 1.990 1.320 1.460 75 0.00 1.0035700 0.41 2. Core Loss Equation Factors Magnetics HF Powder Cores Permeability Coefficient Coefficient k (m) U 14 1.3209(10'7) 7 7 7 1.Table 210.410 1.0236000 400 Hz 0.660 0.540 1.56 2.00 4.0006180 0.0014900 0.00 2.0001790 0. Core Loss Coefficients for Iron Alloy Cores. Core Loss Equation Factors Iron Alloy Frequency Coefficient Range k 0.730 1.0005590 0.26 4.56 2.0028100 0.3209(10" ) 2.380 1.0056400 0.0593000 0.1627(10' ) 2.270 1. Core Loss Coefficients for Sendust Powder Cores.0000936 0.000620 90 0.00 2.000596 Material Sendust Sendust Sendust Sendust Sendust Coefficient (n) 2.000 Coefficient (n) 1.0001650 0.910 2.00 4.740 1.050 1.770 1.00 4.00 2.440 1.000 Table 212.00 4.800 1.993 1.0002410 0.000693 60 0.00 24 M27 nonor Coefficient (m) 1.210 1.710 1.00 1.0002460 0. All Rights Reserved.270 1.00 2.00 1.41 1.680 1.00 4.870 1.000634 1.000614 125 0.0702(10"7) 2.00 12.300 1.0000774 0.59 2. Inc.060 1.860 2. Core Loss Coefficients for High Flux Powder Cores.00 2.350 1.550 1.0005570 5060 H/ 0.8667(1 0"7) 26 60 125 147 160 Material High Flux High Flux High Flux High Flux High Flux High Flux Coefficient (n) 2.410 1.56 Table 211.55 2.0059700 0.360 1.00 14.480 1.0304(1 0' ) 1.32 1. Core Loss Equation Factors Magnetics KoolMii Powder Cores Permeability Coefficient Coefficient k (m) U 26 0.150 2.480 1.
864(106) Material 2605SC 2714A Vitroperm 500 Coefficient (n) 2.32 1. .670 2.85 2.524(10" ) 500kHz < = f < 1. The coefficients for Magnetics ferrite materials.13 1.698(10" ) 5.983(10' ) 1.84 1.39 2.194(10" ) 3.658(10' ) 4.550 0.15 2.147(10'8) 1. The coefficients for watts/kilogram = k 2 Bl [2. using Equation [23] are shown in Table 215.88 1.983(10' ) 4.068(10' ) 7.60 2.678(10" ) 1.316(10" ) 1.091(10"3) 1.0MHz f < 100kHz 100kHz<=f< 500kHz f=> 500kHz f < 100kHz 100kHz<=f< 500kHz f=> 500kHz f =< 10kHz 10kHz<f<100kHz 100kHz<=f< 500kHz f=> 500kHz f=< 20kHz f> 20kHz f=< 20kHz f> 20kHz f=< 20kHz f> 20kHz 8.465(10" ) 5.3720(10" ) 5 4 8 3 8 6 5 5 2 15 5 3 6 5 4 19 Material K K K R R R P P P F F F F J J W Coefficient (n) 3. Core Loss Coefficients for Magnetics Ferrites Materials.0 MHz f=>1.62 2.1(106) 1.26 2.68 2.698(10" ) 4.62 2.06 1. Core Loss Equation Factors Magnetic's Ferrite Core Materials Frequency Coefficient Coefficient k (m) Range 4 f< 500kHz 1.86 2.597(10' ) 4.28 2.66 2. using Equation [22] are shown in Table 213. Micrometals iron powder materials.25 2. Core Loss Coefficients for Amorphous Materials.112 Table 214.85 2.19 4.50 2.47 1.68 2.64 1.80 1. All Rights Reserved.10 2.79(10" ) 0.66 1.98 2.80 1. Core Loss Equation Factors Amorphous Thickness Coefficient Coefficient (m) mils k 6 0.36 1.3] Table 213.63 3.855(10' ) 2.730 8.72 1.834 0.15 w H H Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.The coefficients for amorphous materials.50 2.62 3.638(10" ) 1.230 1.42 1. Inc. using Equation [22] are shown in Table 214.173(10" ) 1.29 2.60 2.43 1.80 10.54 2.724(1 0" ) 5.50 1.
Core Loss Equation Factors Micrometals Iron Powder Cores Permeability Coefficient Coefficient (a) (b) u 0. Core Loss Coefficients for Iron Powder Cores. and were tested in both ungapped (uncut) and gapped (cut) configuiations.25.01235 35 55 75 75 Material Mix08 Coefficient (c) 1.00700 0. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. intended for aerospace and electronics industry power applications. (TR).4694 1.00528 0.86(10'7) Mix. to develop these data from measurements of the dynamic BH loop characteristics of the tape core materials presently available from various industry sources.4858 0.00700 0.4921 3. a commonly used circuit is a driven transistor switch arrangement. JPL. Tl 2. converters. and lightweight devices for this use has been seriously hampered by the lack of engineering data. A program was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.4kHz Squarewave Figure 225.3408 3. which could be dc or ac.18 Mix26 Mix52 0. describing the behavior of both the commonly used and more exotic core materials. This section describes the results of that investigation.7079 0. The design of reliable. toroidal design. and transformerrectifier suppliers operates from a power bus. Typical Driven Power MOSFET Inverter. converters. Typical Operation A transformer used for inverters. Inc.70(1 0"7) 2.71(10"6) 9. supplies.6925 Coefficient (d) 3. In some power applications.4858 Selection of Magnetic Materials Transformers used in static inverters. with higherfrequency square wave excitation.Table 215.8202 0. All Rights Reserved. efficient. Cores were produced in both toroidal and C forms.85(10"7) 4. and transformerrectifier. such as that shown in Figure 2. are usually square loop tape.
A saturated core cannot support the applied voltage. Material Characteristics Many available core materials approximate the ideal square loop characteristic. which causes the core to saturate easily during alternate halfcycles. Many articles have been written about inverter and converter transformer design. dc BH loops for commonly available core materials. results in a highvoltage spike during the switching sequence. Other characteristics are tabulated in Table 216. exact matching of the MOSFETs is a major problem in a practical sense. These data are typical of commercially available core materials that are suitable for the particular application. . illustrated by the BH curve. Also. Representative. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.One important consideration affecting the design of suitable transformers is that care must be taken to ensure that operation involves balance drive to the transformer primary. balanced drive. In the absence balance drive. (tesla) Figure 226. such as those tabulated in Table 216. Usually. authors' recommendations represent a compromise among material characteristics. (tesla) +Saturation H H Saturation B. as shown in Figure 226. in conjunction with the transformer leakage inductance. Ideal Square BH Loop. this is not always sufficiently effective. and displayed in Figure 227. a net dc current will flow in the transformer primary. which could be destructive to the power MOSFET. The resulting high current. limited mainly by its on resistance. it is necessary to exactly match the MOSFETs for RDS(on)To provide But. are shown in Figure 227. B. Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2 Supermendur Sq. This results in the largest transformer. Permalloy Supermalloy 0.B 2. H. . such as frequency and core configuration that must be taken into consideration. ampturn/cm H 0. As can be seen.2 0. Magnetic materials selected for transformers or inductors cannot be chosen by flux alone. Inc.1 0 0.2 0. There are other parameters. The ferrite materml. and tins would influence the choice if size were the most important consideration.3 0. Typical dc BH Loops of Magnetic Materials. the material that provides the highest flux density (supermendur) would result in the smallest component size.4 Figure 227.4 0. All Rights Reserved. (see the ferrite curve in Figure 227). Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. has the lowest flux density.3 0.
02 7.421.2 8.25 4.7515K 0.82 460 0.08 7.58 500 0.59 4% Fe Ferrite MnZn 0.5%B 3K 1.15 Orthonol 50% Ni 50% Fe 2K 1.51.82 460 0.58 205 0.76 17%Fe 5% Mo Amorphous 2605SC 81%Fe 13. All Rights Reserved.24 Sq.040.650. Magnetic Core Material Characteristics.51. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.50. .10.008 8.8 K 1. Permalloy 79% Ni 12K100K 0.5 K 1.150. Magnetic Core Material Characteristics Material Name Initial Composition Permeability Flux Density Tesla Bs Curie Temperature dc.0080.35 8.Table 216.5% Fe Amorphous 2714A 66% Co 15% Si 20K 0.6 Density grams/cm Hi Magnesil °C 750 5 7. Inc.92.0030. Coercive Force.660.030.04 8.3 3% Si 97% Fe 1. He Oersteds 0.32 3.2 940 0.40.8 Supermendur* 49% Co 49% Fe 2%V 0.020.6 370 0.30.73 17%Fe 4% Mo Supermalloy 78% Ni 10K50K 0.5 100300 0.8 * Field Anneal.
All Rights Reserved. . Unfortunately. Defining the BH Loop. B2) and (Hs. Bs) has essentially zero slope and may be written as: [25] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as the frequency is increased.Usually. Thus. most engineers choose size rather than efficiency as the most important criterion. After analysis of a number of designs. the choice of core material will be based upon achieving the best characteristic on the most critical or important design parameter. as shown in Figure 228. The straight line through (H0. Inc. the highest efficiency and adequate performance under the widest range of environmental conditions. the transformer designer must make tradeoffs between allowable transformer size and the minimum efficiency that can be tolerated. inverter transformer design is aimed at the smallest size. Then. the core material that can produce the smallest size has the lowest efficiency. Magnetic Material Saturation Defined To standardize the definition of saturation. several unique points on the BH loop are defined. 0) and (Hs. Consequently. and the highest efficiency materials result in the largest size. and select an intermediate loss factor on core material for their transformers. B :: Bi H 0 1A H n i• Figure 228. and upon acceptable compromises on the other parameters. Bs) may be written as: The line through (0. ferrites have become the most popular material.
this means that: [29] B Magnetizing Current Q y— y Ji * 1 i \ c J By definition. Inc. we obtain: A [2. . Analytically. All Rights Reserved. Defining the Excitation Current. Equation [24] is subtracted from Equation [26]: AH=HsHl = [211] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. saturation occurs when B = 2A Figure 229.10] To obtain the presaturation dc margin (AH).Equations [21] and [22] together define saturation conditions as follows: Solving Equation [23] for Hs yields:  [27] Where by definition: By definition. saturation occurs when the peak exciting current (B) is twice the average exciting current (A) as shown in Figure 229. ^—N Solving Equation [21] for HI.
B. when conduction begins again in the transformer winding after shutdown. It can be noted that the minor loop remains at one extreme position within the BH major loop after reduction of excitation. the flux swing could begin from the extreme ends rather than from the normal zero axis. Combining Equations [27] and [28] gives: . is shown in Figure 230. The unfortunate effect of this random minor loop positioning is that. the vertical scale is 0. [amperes] [213] As mentioned earlier. which illustrates the effect on the BH loop transversed with a dc bias.The actual unbalanced dc current must be limited to: 7. Figure 231 shows typical BH loops of 5050 nickeliron material excited from an ac source. All Rights Reserved. BH Loop with dc Bias. the drive to the switching power MosFet must be symmetrical and the power MosFet on resistance Ros(on) must be matched. in an effort to prevent core saturation. with the production of spikes that can destroy transistors. Inc. N is the number of turns MPL is the mean magnetic path length. using an uncut or ungapped core. with progressively reduced excitation. fc < [amperes] [212] Where. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The effect of core saturation.4 T/cm. The effect of this is to drive the core into saturation. (tesla) H Figure 230. .
~ Horizontal Figure 232. BH Loop with dc Bias. Winding Data were derived from the following: N= V 104) 4. Cores were fabricated from various core materials in the basic core configuration. The materials used were those most likely to be of interest to designers of inverter or converter transformers. manufactured by Magnetics Inc. All Rights Reserved. Test conditions are listed in Table 217. 52029 for toroidal cores. Tl SI Current Probe O Gnd O Vertical . Test Conditions The test fixture. designated No. schematically illustrated in Figure 232. .Figure 231. was built to affect comparison of dynamic BH loop characteristics of various core materials. Inc. Typical Square Loop Material with dc Bias. [turns] [214] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0BafAc' ^ '—.
so there was no dc bias applied to the core and windings. Materials and Test Conditions. with square wave excitation on the primary. . (tesla) Figure 233. Magnesil (K) BH Loop.5 T/cm.236 show the dynamic BH loops obtained for various core materials.4 2.45 0. Cores were fabricated from each of the materials by winding a ribbon of the same thickness on a mandrel of a given diameter.47 520292K Magnesil *Magnetics toroidal cores. switch SI was in the open position. represented in Figure 232. B = 0. Permalloy Supermalloy 48 Alloy Frequency kHz 2. baked. and finished as usual. (tesla) . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The test transformer. B.4 2.4 2. H = 100 ma/cm.47 9.47 9.47 9.6 54 54 54 54 54 9. The cores were vacuum impregnated. Normally. switch SI is open.75 0. consists of 54turn primary and secondary windings.47 9. Figures 233 . With switch SI closed.Saturation H H Saturation B. Test Conditions Turns Bs Trade Name Tesla N Orthonol Sq. In each of these Figures.75 1. All Rights Reserved. Ribbon termination was affected by welding in the conventional manner.15 1. Inc.Table 217.4 2.4 MPL Core Number* 520292A 520292D 520292F 520292H cm 1. the secondary current is rectified by the diode to produce a dc bias in the secondary winding.
H = 20 ma/cm.5 T/cm.B. All Rights Reserved. Square Permalloy (2D) BH Loop.2 T/cm. (tesla) Saturation Saturation B. Orthonol (2A) BH Loop. B = 0. B = 0. (tesla) Figure 235. H = 50 ma/cm. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . B. Inc. (tesla) • Saturation Saturation B. (tesla) Figure 234.
. B = 0. All Rights Reserved. Supermalloy (2F) BH Loop. B. Inc. H = 10 ma/cm. Figures 237 to 240 show the dynamic BH loop patterns obtained for various core materials when the test conditions are included in a sequence. It is apparent from this data that.B. and then. the minor dynamic BH loop can traverse the major BH loop from saturation to saturation. Because of the ac coupling of the integrator to the oscilloscope. H = 200 ma/cm. opened again. (tesla) Saturation Saturation B.2 I/cm. (tesla) Figure 236.3 T/cm. the minor BH loops remained shifted to one side or the other. in condition (C). Note that after the dc bias has been removed. with a small amount of dc bias. then in closed condition (B). Magnesil (2K) BH Loop. in which SI was in open condition (A). B = 0. (tesla) Figure 237. the photographs in these figures do not present a complete picture of what really happens during the flux swing. (tesla) B. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
2 T/cm. Sq. B = 0. B. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1 T/cm. All Rights Reserved. H = 20 ma/cm. H = 100 ma/cm. . Permalloy (2D) BH Loop. (tesla) B. Orthonol (2A) BH Loop. Inc. (tesla) Figure 238. (tesla) Figure 239. (tesla) B c H H H+ I B. B = 0.B.
(The north poles are represented by the darkened ends of the magnetic particles.B. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 242. (tesla) Figure 240. (tesla) B. B = 0. When a magnetic material is in its unmagnetized state. Magnetic Domains. Magnetic Material Saturation Theory The domain theory of the nature of magnetism is based on the assumption that all magnetic materials consist of individual molecular magnets. Supermalloy (2F) BH Loop. Inc.1 T/cm.) When a material is magnetized. where the tiny magnetic particles are arranged in a disorganized manner. An example of this is shown in Figure 241. Domains Toroidal Core Figure 241. the individual magnetic particles are arranged at random. and effectively neutralize each other. Arranged in a Random Manner. the individual particles are aligned or oriented in a definite direction. . All Rights Reserved. These minute magnets are capable of movement within the material. H = 10 ma/cm.
For a particular core size. Direct current excitation follows the same pattern. Air Gap Effect An air gap introduced into the core has a powerful demagnetizing effect. the resulting current. The amount of flux density that remains is called the residual flux. Np. Such a gap is negligible in comparison to the ratio of mean length to permeability. In a typical toroidal core. If suddenly the field were removed at Bm. the core bias is considerably less affected than the magnetization characteristics by the introduction of a small air gap. will be small because of the highly inductive circuit. as shown in Figure 244. Inc. However. without and with a gap. All Rights Reserved. and a considerable decrease in permeability of highpermeability materials. Aligned in a Definite Direction.Toroidal Core Domains Figure 242. the domains would remain lined up. Im. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The external magnetizing force can continue to affect the material up to the point of saturation. . the effective air gap is less than 10~6 cm. Magnetic Domains. resulting in a "shearing over" of the hysteresis loop. of a transformer. the decrease in permeability will be less with a greater magnetic flux path. The degree of magnetization of a material depends on the degree of alignment of the particles. maximum inductance occurs when the air gap is minimum. The gap increases the effective length of the magnetic path. essentially all of the domains would line up in the same direction. the point at which essentially all of the domains are lined up in the same direction. For the same air gap. The magnitude of the air gap effect also depends on the length of the mean magnetic path and on the characteristics of the uncut core. When voltage E is impressed across primary winding. The result of this effect was shown earlier in Figures 237 through 240. and be magnetized along that axis. If the toroid was subjected to a strong magnetic field (enough to saturate). Br. but more pronounced in a highpermeability core with a low coercive force Effect of Gapping Figure 243 shows a comparison of a typical toroidal core BH loop.
is reduced. an unbalanced dc current flows in the secondary. Implementing dc Unbalance.4kHz Squarewave R2 54T 54T CR1 Figure 244. [tesla] [216] If the sum of Bdc and Bac shifts operations above the maximum operating flux density of the core material. This condition lowers the impedance and increases the flow Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (teslas) Figure 243. and the core is subjected to a dc magnetizing force. Inc. resulting in a flux density that may be expressed as: **= MPL . (iac). When SI is closed. this dc flux is augmented by the ac flux swing. (teslas) B. which is: B = KffAcN .B. Tl SI 2. (teslas) Bmax {HHhH (a) Without Gap Bmax B. Ns turns. [tesla] [215] In converter and inverter design. Comparing Magnetic Materials with and Without a Gap. the incremental permeability. All Rights Reserved. .
which show the BH loops of the uncut and cut cores. Toroidal cores are virtually gapless. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Bm and Br. there is a much greater. It will be noted. as shown in Figure 251. A minimum air gap. It is apparent that introducing an air gap reduces Br to a lower level. the cores were physically cut in half. AB. As will be noted from Figures 247 through 250. Br. when excitation voltage is removed at the peak of the excursion of the BH loop. acid etched to remove cut debris. the voltage spikes produced by the leakage inductance. . or markedly reduces. Two types of core configurations were investigated in the ungapped and gapped states. the results obtained indicated that the effect of gapping was the same for both the C cores and the toroidal cores subjected to testing. in Figure 243(b). and Figure 246 shows the type of C core that was cut. In either case. Thus. on the order of less than 25 urn. as shown in Table 218. and that the useful flux swing is designated.of magnetizing current. Gap Placement Figure 245. was established. It will be noted. flux falls to the Br point. in Figure 243(a). Typical cut Toroidal Core. it can be seen that the BH curves depict maximum flux density. and increases the useful flux density. the size of the air gap that can be incorporated has a practical limitation. This data was obtained from Figures 247 through 250. insertion of an air gap in the core eliminates. Since the air gap lowers impedance. which is inductive. and residual flux. that Br approaches Bnl. Inc. when conventionally fabricated. between them. and banded to form the cores. that gapping of the toroidal cores produced a lowered squareness characteristic for the BH loop. however. Figure 245 shows the type of toroidal core that was cut. From Figure 243. Im. but. To increase the gap. However. This stress can be minimized by tight control of lapping and etching of the gap to keep the gap to a minimum. for ungapped and gapped cores. AH values extracted from the same figures. The resultant voltage spikes produced by such currents apply a high stress to the switching transistors and may cause failure. which is the difference between. due to the transformer saturation. it results in increased magnetizing current Im. are tabulated in Table 219. This condition can be remedied by introducing into the core assembly an air gap which causes a decrease in dc magnetization in the core. AB. Bm. and the cut edges were lapped.
H = 100 ma/cm Figure 248. Typical Middle Cut C Core. Uncut and Cut with Minimum Gap. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. B.5 T/cm.5 T/cm. .Gap Placement D Figure 246.5 T/cm. Uncut and Cut with Minimum Gap. Inc. (tesla) H H H B = 0. H = 100 ma/cm B = 0. Magnesil (K) BH Loop. (tesla) B.5 T/cm. H = 500 ma/cm Figure 247. All Rights Reserved. (tesla) B. (tesla) H H B = 0. Orthonal (A) BH Loop. — Uncut \ i B. H = 50 ma/cm B = 0.
(tesla) B.60 54 54 54 54 0. B.2 T/cm.81 0. Table 218. Uncut and Cut with Minimum Gap. H = 10 ma/cm B = 0.2 T/cm.22 520292K Magnesil *Magnetics toroidal cores.75 1.45 0. H = 50 ma/cm Figure 250. H = 20 ma/cm B = 0.2 T/cm.62 0. Square Permalloy (D) BH Loop.2 T/cm. Core Number* 520292A 520292D 520292F Trade Name Orthonol Sq. Inc. ComparingI Br/Bm on Uncut and Cut Cores.86 0. H = 100 ma/cm Figure 249. All Rights Reserved. (tesla) H H B = 0. .93 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Permalloy Superpermalloy Bs Tesla Turns N Uncut Br/Bm Cut Br/Bm 1.96 0.21 0.75 0. Uncut and Cut with Minimum Gap. (tesla) B.B. Supermalloy (F) BH Loop. (tesla) H H B = 0.24 0.
Drive was applied Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. shown in Figure 252. All Rights Reserved.491 7. (teslas) Figure 251.4 kHz. Switch SI was closed again. Bm Tesla Bac Tesla Bdc Tesla 0.58 1. (teslas) B. Defining AHop and AH.310 0.23 0. transistor Ql was turned on and allowed to saturate. dropped to the residual flux density. the flux in transformer.44 0.136 0. Figures 253 and 254 show the inrush current measured at the center tap of T2.895 0. continuously. B. Comparing AH and AHop on Uncut and Cut Cores.005 0. The frequency was 2. Br.025 AHop 0. Inc.983 AH 0. Switch SI was then opened.73 0.54 1.780 A direct comparison of cut and uncut cores was made electrically by means of two different test circuits. (teslas) (a) Without Gap H I 1111 111111 AH.63 1.005 0. across the transformer winding.224 0.B. .0750 AH 0 0. This applied voltage. Then. The first test circuit.146 0. Comparing AH and AHop on Uncut and Cut Cores.6 T. (teslas) Table 219.0175 0.150 1.op B.15 0.58 0. With switch SI closed. T2.0100 0. with the power MOSFETs. and the flux density was 0.178 0.288 AHop Uncut Cut 1. SI controls the supply voltage to Ql and Q2.178 0.0125 0. Permalloy Supermalloy Magnesil *Magnetics Cores. Ampturns/cm Material *Trade Name Orthonol Sq. was a driven inverter operating into a 30W load. This was done several times in succession to catch the flux in an additive direction. operating into and out of saturation. EVDs(on). The magnetic material used in this branch of the test was Orthonol.
T2.Figure 254 shows that saturation did not occur in the case of the cut core. Resulting Inrush Current using a Cut Core. Inc. the high inrush current and transistor stress were virtually eliminated. Figure 253. using a current probe. . The second test circuit arrangement is shown in Figure 255. that the uncut core saturated. I rot Figure 254. respectively. Figures 256 and 257 show inrush current for an uncut and cut core.Tl Rl T2 2. All Rights Reserved. was opened and closed several times to catch the flux in an additive direction. in Figure 253. Thus. Inverter Inrush Current Test Fixture.4kHz Squarewave SOW Current Probe Figure 252. SI. A square wave power oscillator was used to excite transformer. It will be noted. and the inrush current was limited only by circuit resistance and power. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The purpose of this test was to excite a transformer and measure the inrush current. Switch. MOSFETs Ros(on). Typical Inrush Current of a Uncut Core in a Driven Inverter.
2. A small amount of air gap. which eliminates the problem of the core tending to remain saturated. but little effect on the core loss. With the 8A inrush current. The normal running current was 0. During the checkout of a prototype science package. This small air gap decreases the residual magnetism by "shearing over" the hysteresis loop. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. This did not happen. the transformer turned out to be a 5050 nickeliron toroid. on every turnon. Figure 257. but only when the core would "latch up" in the wrong direction for turnon. Upon inspection. The design was changed from a toroidal core to a cut core with a 25 um. less than 25 ^m. I J3 ^ftp^ W Figure 256. Inrush Current of a Transformer using a Cut Core. A typical example of the merits of the cut core occurred in the checkout of a Mariner spacecraft. air gap. fused with a parallelredundant 1/8A fuse.4kHz Squarewave Current Probe Figure 255. Inc. has a powerful effect on the demagnetizing force. All Rights Reserved. a large (8 A. .06 A. 200 s) turnon transient was observed. The new design was completely successful in eliminating the 8A turnon transient. Transformer Rectifier Inrush Current Measurement. as required by the Mariner Mars design philosophy. the 1/8A fuses were easily blown. Inrush Current of a Transformer using a Uncut Core.
2 T/cm. This configuration is a composite of cut and uncut cores assembled together concentrically. B. On the other hand. the cut portion could be low nickel. (tesla) Figure 258. In a sense. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Composite Core Configuration A composite core configuration has been developed for transformers that combine the protective feature of a gapped core with the much lower magnetizing current requirement of an uncut core. Figures 258 and 259 show the magnetization curves for an uncut core and a composite core of the same material at the same flux density. The uncut core has high permeability. All Rights Reserved. under normal operating conditions. the core was made of 66% high nickel. Uncut Core Excited at 0. The uncut core may saturate under the abnormal conditions previously described. Br characteristic of the composite compared to the uncut core is readily apparent. . it acts like a ballast resistor in some circuits to limit current flow to a safe level. The desired features of the composite core can be obtained more economically by using different materials for the cut and uncut portions of the core. The uncut core functions. The much lower. and 33% low nickel. and thus requires a very small magnetizing current. The uncut core is designed to operate at a flux density that is sufficient for normal operation of the converter. It was found that when the design required high nickel (4/79). (50/50). with the uncut core nested within the cut core. The cut core then takes over and supports the applied voltage so that excessive current does not flow. (tesla) H H B. and because low nickel has twice as high a flux density as high nickel. Inc. and the cut core takes over during abnormal conditions to prevent high switching transients aii'd their potentially destructive effect on the transistors. the cut core has a low permeability and thus requires a much higher magnetization current.
B, (tesla)
4
H
++++
H
:/
B, (tesla) Figure 259. Both Cut and Uncut Cores Excited at 0.2 T/cm. Figure 260 shows cut and uncut cores that have been impregnated to bond the ribbon layers together. The uncut core was first trimmed to fit within the inner diameter of the cut core by peeling off a wrap or two of the ribbon steel. The two cores are assembled into a composite core (Figure 261, on the right).
Square Permalloy
Orthonol 50/50 Figure 260. Composite Cores Ready for final Assembly.
Orthonol 50/50 Square Permalloy 80
OD
ID
Figure 261. Composite Cores Assembled in Final Form. To ensure uniform characteristics for gapped cores, a gap dimension of 50 urn is recommended, because variations produced by thermal cycling will not affect this gap greatly. In the composite core, the gap is obtained by inserting a sheet of paper Mylar or Kapton film material between the core ends during banding.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The same protective feature can be accomplished in transformers with laminated cores. When laminations are stacked by interleaving them onebyone, the result will be a minimum air gap, as shown in Figure 262 by the squareness of the BH loop. Shearing over of the BH loop, or decreasing the residual flux, as shown in Figure 263, is accomplished by butt joining half the laminations in the corecross section, which introduces a small, additional air gap. B, (tesla)
H
H
B, (tesla) Figure 262. BH Loop with Laminations Stacked 1x1 Interleaved. B, (tesla)
H
H
B, (tesla) Figure 263. BH Loop with Laminations Stack Half 1x1 and Half Butt Stack. Table 220 is a compiling of composite cores manufactured by Magnetics Inc., alongside their standard dimensional equivalent cores. Also, included in Table 220, is the cores' area product, Ap, and the core geometry Kg, which is discussed in Chapter 7.
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Table 220. Composite Core Listing Along with the Area Product and Core Geometry. Magnetics Inc. Composite Cores A Standard Core P Number (cm4) 52000 0.0728 52002 0.1440 0.2850 52076 52061 0.3890 52106 52094 52318 52029 52188 52181 52032 52026 0.4390 0.6030 0.7790 1.0900 1.1520 1.2200 1.4550 2.1800 2.3370 2.9100 4.6760 5.2550 7.1300
Composite Number 016052D 017542D 017552D 01609D2 017562D 016062D 017612D 017572D 017602D 021532D 017582D 016072D
Kg (cm5) 0.00105 0.00171 0.00661 0.00744
0.00948 0.02210 0.02600 0.02560 0.05120 0.04070 0.04310 0.08740 0.06350 0.14000 0.20600 0.26200 0.41800
019662D 52030 017592D 52038 016082D 52035 016232D 52425 016242D 52169 Ac = 66% Square Permalloy 4 / 79. Ac = 33% Orthonol 50 / 50. lg = 2 mil Kapton.
Summary
Lowloss tapewound toroidal core materials, that have a very square hysteresis characteristic, (BH loop), have been used extensively in the design of spacecraft transformers. Due to the squareness of the BH loops of these materials, transformers designed with them tend to saturate quite easily. As a result, large voltage and current spikes, which cause undue stress on the electronic circuitry, can occur. Saturation occurs when there is any unbalance in the ac drive to the transformer, or when any dc excitation exists. Also, due to the square characteristic, a high residual flux state, (high Br), may remain when excitation is removed. Reapplication of excitation in the same direction may cause deep saturation, and an extremely large current spike, limited only by source impedance and transformer winding resistance, can result. This can produce catastrophic failure. With the introduction of a small, (less than 25 um), air gap into the core, the problems described above can be avoided while retaining the lowloss properties of the materials. The air gap has the effect of "shearing over" the BH loop of the material so that the residual flux state is low and the margin between operating,
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flux density, and saturation, flux density is high. The air gap thus has a powerful demagnetizing effect upon the square loop materials. Properly designed transformers, using cut toroid or C core squareloop materials, will not saturate upon turnon, and can tolerate a certain amount of unbalanced drive or dc excitation.
It must be emphasized, however, that because of the nature of the material and the small size of the gap, extreme care and control must be taken in performing the gapping operation. Otherwise, the desired shearing effect will not be achieved, and the lowloss properties will be lost. The cores must be very carefully cut, lapped, and etched to provide smooth, residuefree surfaces. Reassembly must be performed with equal care.
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Chapter 3
Magnetic Cores
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. 3. 5. Core Type and Shell Type Construction Types of Core Materials Laminations
4. Eddy Currents and Insulation 6. Annealing and StressRelief 7. Stacking Laminations and Polarity 8. Flux Crowding 9. Exciting Current 10. Tape Wound C, EE, and Toroidal Cores 11. Tape Toroidal Cores 12. Toroidal, Powder Core 13. Stacking Factors 14. Design and Dimensional Data for El Laminations 15. Design and Dimensional Data for UI Laminations 16. Design and Dimensional Data for LL Laminations 17. Design and Dimensional Data for DU Laminations 18. Design and Dimensional Data for Three Phase Laminations 19. Design and Dimensional Data for Tape Wound C Cores 20. Dimensional Outline for Tape Wound EE Cores 21. Design and Dimensional Data for Tape Wound Toroidal Cores 22. Design and Dimensional Data for EE and El Ferrite Cores 23. Design and Dimensional Data for EE and El Planar, Ferrite Cores 24. Design and Dimensional Data for EC, Ferrite Cores 25. Design and Dimensional Data for ETD, Ferrite Cores 26. Design and Dimensional Data for ETD/(low profile), Ferrite Cores 27. Design and Dimensional Data for ER, Ferrite Cores 28. Design and Dimensional Data for EFD, Ferrite Cores 29. Design and Dimensional Data for EPC, Ferrite Cores 30. Design and Dimensional Data for PC, Ferrite Cores 31. Design and Dimensional Data for EP, Ferrite Cores 32. Design and Dimensional Data for PQ, Ferrite Cores 33. Design and Dimensional Data for PQ/(low profile), Ferrite Cores 34. Design and Dimensional Data for RM, Ferrite Cores
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35. Design and Dimensional Data for RM/(Iow profile), Ferrite Cores 36. Design and Dimensional Data for DS, Ferrite Cores 37. Design and Dimensional Data for UUR, Ferrite Cores 38. Design and Dimensional Data for UUS, Ferrite Cores 39. Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal, Ferrite Cores 40. Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal, MPP Powder Cores 41. Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal, Iron Powder Cores 42. Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal, Sendust Powder Cores 43. Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal, High Flux Powder Cores 44. Design and Dimensional Data for EE, Iron Powder Cores 45. Design and Dimensional Data for EE, Sendust Powder Cores 46. References
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Introduction
The key ingredient in a magnetic device is the magnetic field (flux) created when current is passed through a coiled wire. The ability to control (channel, predict, conduct), the magnetic field (flux) is critical to controlling the operation of the magnetic device. The ability of a material to conduct magnetic flux is defined as permeability. A vacuum is defined as having a permeability of 1.0 and the permeability of all other materials is measured against this baseline. Most materials such as air, paper, and wood are poor conductors of magnetic flux, in that they have low permeability. If wire is wound on a dowel, it exhibits a magnetic field exactly, as shown in Figure 31. There are a few materials, such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloys that have high permeabilities, sometimes ranging into the hundreds of thousands. These materials and their alloys are used as the base materials for all core materials. Magnetic Flux, O Current, I
Coil
Dowel
Figure 31. Air Core with an Intensified Magnetic Field. The main purpose of the core is to contain the magnetic flux and create a welldefined, predictable path for the flux. This flux path, and the mean distance covered by the flux within the magnetic material, is defined as the Magnetic Path Length (MPL) (see Figure 32). The Magnetic Path Length and permeability are vital keys in predicting the operation characteristic of a magnetic device. Selection of a core material and geometry are usually based on a compromise between conflicting requirements, such as size, weight, temperature rise, flux density, core loss, and operating frequency.
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agnetic Path Length
Flux, <t
Magnetic Core
Figure 32. Magnetic Core Confines the Magnetic Field. Core Type and Shell Type Construction
There are two types of construction for magnetic cores, core type and shell type. The shell type
construction is shown in Figure 33, and the core type construction is shown in Figure 34. In the shell type, shown in Figure 33, the core surrounds the coil. Here the magnetic fields are around the outside of the coil. The advantage of this configuration is that it requires only one coil. In the core type of construction, shown in Figure 34, the coils are outside of the core. A good example of this is a toroid, where the coil is wound on the outside of a core.
\
Flux, EI Core
Coil
Figure 33. Shell Type Construction: the Core Surrounds the Coil.
Flux, <X> Coils
CCore
\
Figure 34. Core Type Construction the Coil Surrounds the Core.
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Types of Core Materials
Magnetic cores are made of three basic materials. The first is bulk metal, the second is powdered materials, and the third is ferrite material. The bulk metals are processed from the furnace into ingots. Then, the material is put into a process of hot and cold rolling. The rolling process produces a sheet of material with a thickness ranging from 0.004 to 0.031 inches that can be punched into laminations. It can be further rolled to thicknesses ranging from 0.002 to 0.000125 inches, then slit and wound into tape cores, such as C cores, E cores and toroids.
The powder cores, such as powder molypermalloy and powdered iron materials, are diepressed into toroids, EE cores and slugs. Powder core processing starts at the ingot, then goes through various steps of grinding until the powder is the right consistency for the required performance. Normally, powder cores are not machined after processing. Ferrites are ceramic materials of iron oxide, alloyed with oxides or carbonate of manganese, zinc, nickel, magnesium, or cobalt. Alloys are selected and mixed, based on the required permeability of the core. Then, these mixtures are molded into the desired shape with pressure of approximately 150200 tons per square inch and fired at temperatures above 2000 degrees F. After the parts are made, they are usually rumbled to remove burrs and sharp edges, which are characteristic of this process. machined to almost any shape to meet the engineer's needs. Ferrites can be
Eddy Currents and Insulation
Transformers, operating at moderate frequency, require the reduction of eddy current losses in the magnetic material. To reduce the eddy current losses to a reasonable value requires electrical steel to have adequate resistivity. Also, it needs to be rolled to a specific thickness, and it needs effective electrical insulation or coating of the magnetic material.
If an alternating voltage is applied to the primary winding, as shown in Figure 35, it will induce an alternating flux in the core. The alternating flux will, in turn, induce a voltage on the secondary winding. This alternating flux also induces a small alternating voltage in the core material. These voltages produce currents called eddy currents, which are proportional to the voltage. The magnitude of these eddy currents is also limited by the resistivity of the material. The alternating flux is proportional to the applied voltage. Doubling the applied voltage will double the eddy currents. This will raise the core loss by a factor of four. Eddy currents not only flow in the lamination itself, but could flow within the core as a unit, if the lamination is not properly stamped, and if the lamination is not adequately insulated, as shown in Figure 36.
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Insulation is Required Between Laminations to Reduce Eddy Currents. and the surface insulation resistance. The magnetic materials used for tape cores and laminations are coated with an insulating material. Manufacturers of these cores normally have their own proprietary. The insulating coating is applied to reduce eddy currents. All Rights Reserved. . and volume resistivity. dependent on lamination width. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. z Figure 36. Insulation. per lamination and resistance of the lamination. therefore. insulating material. (Coating) Eddy Current. ia. It is primarily dependent upon stack width and height. Inc. The intralaminar eddy current. High permeability. Applied Alternating Voltage Induces an Alternating Flux. It is. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has set up insulation standards for transformer steels used in different applications. as shown in Figure 36. There are two eddy currents. is governed by flux. ib. is governed by total flux and resistance of the core stack. The interlaminar eddy current. thickness. nickeliron cores are very strain sensitive. ia and ib. ia Eddy Current.Magnetic Core Applied Voltage Secondary Voltage Figure 35. the number of laminations. per lamination.
EE. and the DU. All Rights Reserved. i A I El. Typical. Laminations DU. Most lamination sizes have been around forever.Laminations Laminations are available in scores of different shapes and sizes. scrapless. FF. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 38. The laminations differ from each other by the location of the cut in the magnetic path length. Laminations UI. The punch press technology for fabricating laminations has been welldeveloped. Scrapless El Lamination. . This cut introduces an air gap. Laminations EE. Laminations LL. Laminations Figure 37. as shown in Figure 37. Lamination Shapes. LL. Commonly Used. is derived from shapes that are punched with minimum waste. The most commonly used laminations are the El. which results in the loss of permeability. UI. To minimize the resulting air gap. There are bobbins and brackets for almost all standard stacking dimensions. Laminations FF. The name. Laminations Laminations Figure 38. Inc. the laminations are generally stacked in such a way the air gaps in each layer are staggered. El. Most of the El lamination is the scrapless. Laminations E.
The quality of the equipment will keep the burr to a minimum. shearing and slitting. The most common technique used in stacking laminations is the alternate method. Another method for stacking Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Some of the important magnetic properties are lost due to stress and strain after stamping. used in stacking. Stacking Laminations and Polarity The edges of the magnetic material that have been stamped. temperature and the ambient atmosphere that will avoid. as shown in Figure 310. These properties that have been lost or seriously reduced can be restored to the magnetic materials by annealing. When a transformer is being stacked. sheared. The alternate method is where one set of laminations. This burr now gives the lamination a polarity. such as the burr ends facing each other. If the laminations are stacked correctly. the stacking factor would be affected. and a lamination is bent (does not return to its original shape). (depending on the material). will have a burr. There are several methods used in stacking transformer laminations. as shown in Figure 39. as an increase in the magnetizing current. . the laminations are reversed. or a loss of inductance. The resulting stress could cause higher magnetizing current. Basically.Annealing and StressRelief One of the most important parameters in transformer steels is permeability. or slit. All Rights Reserved. provides the lowest air gap and the highest permeability. This could lead to premature saturation. such as an E and an I. When the transformer is being assembled (in the stacking process). that lamination has been stressed and should be replaced. then. The end result would be less iron. the lamination build is normally sized by dimensions. all of the burred ends will be aligned. followed by cooling to room temperature. Showing Lamination Burr. stress relief is accomplished by heating (annealing) the magnetic material to prescribed temperature. The annealing must be done under controlled conditions of time. adverse changes in the chemistry of the steel. Then. Any stress or strain of the magnetic materials will have an impact on the permeability. or a lower inductance. Worn Die Lamination Expanded View Bun =t Figure 39. are assembled. The stacking factor has a direct impact on the crosssection of the core. Expanded View. The entire annealing process is a delicate operation. Inc. This technique. If the laminations are stacked randomly. even minute. or it just fills the bobbin.
The adjacent lamination has a minimum air gap. The second method of stacking would be in groups of two or more. also shown in Figure 310. Methods for Stacking Laminations. This flux crowding is caused by the difference in spacing between the E. other than one by one.laminations is to interleave twobytwo. Flux Crowding. which translates into a higher permeability. All Rights Reserved. Inc. . I. Laminations E and I Interleave 1 x 1 Interleave 2 x 2 Figure 310. The loss in performance in stacking. when Laminations are Interleaved. \ . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. : = === Minute Air Gap —^~ —' %!/ izi 1{ ^ jli 53S >  i i 1 ii \i I Flux \ ^ i i i = = = = II \ r L J — " Figure 311. This is done to cut assembly time. Flux Crowding When laminations are stacked. is the increase in magnetizing current and a loss of permeability. Laminations E and I g Flux Crowding \ . as shown in Figure 311. there is flux crowding. and the adjacent lamination.
The BH loop. similar to Figure 312B operating at low flux densities. Comparing the Exciting Currents and Three BH Loops. the flux will migrate back to the lower permeability segment of the lamination from where it left. of a toroidal core. will have almost a square of current. and comparing them with a toroidal core of the same material. The toroidal core. Increasing the excitation will cause premature saturation of the lamination. Im. After that portion of the lamination has saturated. causing flux crowding in that lamination. . is shown in Figure 312A. This effect can be easily viewed by observing the BH loops at low and high flux densities.Exciting Current The flux will skirt the low permeability air gap and migrate into the adjacent lamination. as shown in Figure 312. exciting current. and the excitation current will rise. as seen by the nonlinear. and a magnetizing current. All Rights Reserved. along with the magnetizing current. as shown in Figure 312C B AB H B C Figure 312. this crowding will cause saturation in that portion of the lamination. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. Im. with its inherit minimum air gap. Eventually. Using the same material in lamination form will exhibit a BH loop. with a minimum air gap.
Also. such as an L bracket. The insulation material used to coat the lamination is normally very durable. end bells. lock washer and nut. The transformer assembly bolts. This hardware should include the correct bolt size and length. and the chassis. should be the recommended size for the mounting hole and use all of the required hardware. included in this hardware. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. shorted turn. This partial shorted turn will downgrade the performance of the transformer. shown in Figure 313. Lamination Mounting Hardware. When transformers are being assembled. and correct surface washer. but it can be scratched off and degrade the performance. . The continuity for this partial turn can be created through the bolts and bracket. there is a certain amount of attention that has to be used to get proper performance. or the bolts. as shown in Figure 313.Most finished transformers or inductors will have some sort of bracket. bracket. Inc. If insulating hardware is not used. there is a good chance of a partial. When brackets are used in the transformer assembly. should be fiber shoulder washers and proper sleeving to cover the bolt threads. care must be taken on how the bolts and brackets are put together. a channel bracket or maybe a bolt through the mounting holes to the chassis. Sleeving Laminations Shoulder Washer Bolt Air Gap Material Fringing Flux Mounting Bracket Mounting Bracket Butt Stack Figure 313. All Rights Reserved.
Magnetic Material (Tape) C Core Construction Mandrel Magnetic Material (Tape) Toroidal Core Construction " Mandrel Figure 314. The cut C core can be used in many configurations in the design of a magnetic component. Tape Cores Being Wound on a Mandrel.305 mm). as shown in Figure 314. the method used is normally done with a band and buckle. as shown in Figure 317. the mating surface has to be ground. lapped. as shown in Figure 315. as shown in Figure 318.0127 mm) to 0. Inc. This is done to provide a smooth mating surface with the minimum of air gap and the maximum of permeability. The advantage of this type of construction is that the flux is parallel with the direction of rolling of the magnetic material. All Rights Reserved. and Toroidal Cores Tape wound cores are constructed by winding around a mandrel. The tape thickness varies from 0. a magnetic material in the form of a preslit tape.012 inch (0. prior to being cut. acidetched. The assembled threephase transformer is shown in Figure 319. There are two disadvantages in this type of construction. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and this procedure requires a little skill to provide the right alignment and correct tension.Tape Wound C. EE. and then. Two Halves of a Cut C Core. Cut C Core Mating Surface Figure 315.0005 inch (0. The other disadvantage is when the cores are reassembled. The EE cores are constructed in the same way as C cores. but they have an additional overwind. . The C cores are impregnated for strength. This provides the maximum utilization of flux with the minimum of magnetizing force. This tape material comes in all of the iron alloys. plus the amorphous materials. as shown in Figure 316. When the core is cut in half.
by winding the magnetic material around a mandrel.Banding Material Buckle Cut C Core Figure 316. Tape Toroidal Cores Tape toroidal cores are constructed in the same way as tape C cores. All Rights Reserved. The tape toroid is normally offered in two configurations. Typical.305 mm). Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Single Coil Core Coil Single Core. Banding the Cut C Core. Single Coil core y Coil <ore Coil Coil —'— ji Figure 317. The encapsulated cores are used when not all of the fine magnetic properties are important to the design. cased and encapsulated.000125 inch (0.00318 mm) to 0. The cased toroid offers superior electrical properties and stress protection against winding. Dual Coils c Dual Cores. as shown in Figure 320. Assembled EE Cut Core. J Core —*( ( V ^ ) I J Figure 318. Cut EE Core.012 inch (0. This tape material comes in all of the iron alloys. Inc. The tape thickness varies from 0. Single Core. Overwind 7^ ^ X C Core • ^ V "\ s~ s \ Band Buckle ^/JEV — —\I "\ ( r T 1 Coil Cnil Coil /V / V. Figure 319. in the form of a preslit tape. ThreePhase. such as in power transformers. plus the amorphous materials. Three Different C Core Configurations. .
900 0. The data is presented to the engineer in such a way that it takes the minimum amount of time to have a design that will function. Stacking Factors The standard stacking factors for tape cores. Toroidal.884 0.062 0. .900 0. wound cut cotes and laminations are shown in Table 31.250 0. All Rights Reserved.830 0.500 1.562 0.890 0. OD Figure 321. as shown in Figure 321.000 14.810 0.900 0.250 0.000 6. Powder Core Powder cores. Standard Stacking Factors.950 0.250 0. The cores are manufactured with good engineering aids.000 12.940 0.950 0.850 0. Thickness mils 0.125 0.810 0.950 0. Table 31.000 2. They give the engineer another tool to speed the initial design.000 4. Inc.375 0.950 0.900 0.000 Tape Cores 0.846 (S.141 0.810 0. They come in a variety of materials and are very stable with time and temperature.Enclosure Cased Toroid Caseless Toroid Figure 320. Outline of a Cased and a Caseless Toroidal Core.940 Wound Cut Cores Laminations Butt Stack Interleave 1x1 0.900 0.800 0. Powder cores have a builtin air gap.)2 0. Outline of a Powder Toroidal Core. but also permeability and Millihenrys per 1000 turns.950 0.920 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. listing not only the size.850 0.F. Manufacturers provide catalogs for their cores.902 0.000 25.750 0.000 18.722 0.900 0.500 0. are very unique.900 0.
588 1.9 269.2 94. All Rights Reserved. EM 12 1. Laminations. Laminations. Dimensional Data for El Laminations.418 2.100 D cm 0.239 5.810 4.0 2334.0 25. G i I D Coil E and I.125 EI138 EI150 El. The dimensional outline for El laminations and an assembled transformer is shown in Figure 322.715 6.8 171.927 8.3 1.705 4.3 170.862 8.0 2844.459 1.4 333.794 EI138 2.303 2.905 0.064 Kg cm5 0.064 0. El Lamination Outline.953 1.0 163.448 13.2 120.0 457.789 13.723 3.0 1348.790 6.0 653.887 14.5 18.789 31.905 2.1 22.789 4.0 1343.493 3.715 Part No.668 8. EI375 EI021 EI625 EI750 EI875 El.525 9.763 5.0 3711.124 7.492 37.818 24.1 47.7 AP cm4 1.0 254.2 62.7 0.757 19.0 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.223 2.638 1.577 21.579 81.9 0.810 4.100 El112 El.1 83.0 0. Design Data for 14 mil El Laminations.0 976.794 El.136 278. Dimensional data for El laminations is given in Table 32. Laminations Channel Bracket Assembly Figure 322. (Tempel) 14 mil MPL wa Ac cm Ac cm 7.3 0.270 EI225 14 mil D cm 2.510 4. El.270 1.588 1.540 E cm 0.656 288.857 El.188 0.560 9. i .905 2.588 1.333 1.175 3.148 10.2 0.125 2.0 1078. Table 32.573 Table 33.540 E cm 2.789 7.0 wtfe grams 47.857 3.4 0.770 34.0 7976.754 0.111 3.129 17.381 2. Inc.513 4.493 3.512 1.067 0.270 1.175 3.2 0.789 9.496 6.0 492.746 1.162 24.936 A.3 0.715 F cm 1.5 108.0 212. EI375 EI021 EI625 EI750 EI875 El.150 0.028 Part No.0 296.394 11.0 676.0 14. .0 MLT cm wa cm2 1. design data is given in Table 33.794 0.3 20.445 5.145 760.404 106.075 1. El.2 13.7 8.5 0.953 El.504 72.0 652.384 17.790 26.0 1786.656 47.2 9.0 403.523 9.1 0.Design and Dimensional Data for El Laminations Laminations are still one of the most widelyused cores in power conversion.953 1.857 3.810 1.8 16.006 150.790 3.588 22.905 2.429 1.789 11.5 11.153 2.0 360.384 29.858 G cm 4.223 2.175 3.890 2.920 15. cm 46.6 32.6 63.3 1. (Tempel) Part G F cm cm No.839 6.693 15.789 18.175 EI225 wtcu grams 36.223 2.0 853.445 5.286 4.0 479.
24 18.157 3.29 67.572 6.540 F cm 1.242 43.096 Part No.997 A.996 10.240 H cm 3.905 2.839 11.158 3.414 23.223 1.572 6.903 AP 132 418 434 1016 1967 3413 4884 11487 173 300 585 1384 2725 4702 7491 17692 3. 50UI 60UI 75UI 100UI D cm 1.620 14 mil D cm 3.532 1.270 3. All Rights Reserved.448 6. design data is given in Table 35.614 19.534 118.770 4 KK cm5 0.525 11.Design and Dimensional Data for UI Laminations The dimensional outline for UI laminations and an assembled transformer is shown in Figure 323.740 3279.06 wa Ac Ac cm2 1.096 Table 35.129 9.22 14. Table 34.810 4. Dimensional Data for UI Laminations.28 34. Dimensional data for UI laminations is given in Table 34.810 4. .175 3.270 2.318 313. cm2 110 209 247 439 685 987 1296 2304 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.810 4. Inc.430 11.159 6.939 3.715 240UI 2.72 50.48 38.398 180UI 1.905 5.887 19.258 92.626 289. Laminations Figure 323. UI. H e 1 G 1 Coil#l Coil#2 o ^ o ^ 1 1 H e D e Side View End View UI Transformer Assembled F F F UI.429 5.096 G cm 9.10 45.158 2.905 2.810 4. 50UI 60UI 75U1 100UI 125UI 150UI 180UI 240UI Wtfe grams MLT cm 7.158 3.355 30.614 600.540 E cm 1.592 1. o i 1.810 125UI 150UI 1. Standard Laminations 14 mil Part wtcu grams No.303 wa cm2 4.68 9.175 3. 1.572 6.86 30. Design Data for 14 mil UI Laminations.81 11.632 cm 7.790 19.636 1331.839 4.905 2. Standard Laminations Part H G cm cm No.544 1037.175 3.548 52.430 15.04 26.76 18.709 60.572 6.096 F cm 3. o W.77 MPL cm 15.429 1.577 13.540 E cm 3.29 22.540 7.263 37.10 22.187 3.647 150. UI Lamination Outline. UI.270 1.632 2.429 1.175 3.858 35.270 1.
8 61.839 16. Table 36.588 2.031 1. Inc.9 127.187 11.858 107L 1.810 14 mil D cm 1.488 19.7 4.858 105L 1.258 20.1 115.2 wtft grams 31.334 102L 1.2 224.429 1.340 0.270 1.020 22.8 8.617 23.7 141.5 4.884 1. Design Data for 14 mil LL Laminations.635 1.996 23.588 F cm 1.2 199.532 1.111 1.874 0.737 7.939 6.592 0.588 1.270 1.398 6.577 13.010 4.223 2.105 Part No.839 2.111 3.316 0.635 1.885 19.2 228.3 268.270 1.270 0.350 H cm 1.121 16. cm2 55. o O i i H t ^ Coil#l \ i Coil#2 o * *• ^ * O ^ fc 1 H D E F E LL.9 5.270 1.624 5.532 4.588 Table 37.270 1.462 1.5 132.270 E cm 0.010 2.0 256.111 2. Standard Laminations Part H G Number cm cm 104L 0.785 1.2 2.375 Kg cm5 0.0 1.555 6.270 1. Standard Laminations 14 mil MPL wa wa Ac 2 2 cm Ac cm cm 10.9 7. 141L 108L 250L 101L 7L 4L D cm 0.5 1.536 15.1 302.2 AP 4 cm 1.0 344.532 13.826 5.419 1.3 7.394 5.398 5.2 96.8 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.064 G cm 5.5 284.629 12.173 4.270 F cm 1.390 2.6 418. Dimensional Data for 14 mil LL Laminations.322 7.2 70.3 3.9 185.1 118.532 3.635 2.031 1.429 1.239 106L 1.9 401.474 13.8 9.1 409.193 11.429 1.6 208.473 0.9 180.2 1. 429 1.3 109.946 A.176 1.043 0.532 7. All Rights Reserved.939 8.7 8.8 9. Laminations LL Transformer Assembly Figure 324.414 11.383 3.5 1.263 31.9 5.4 167.925 16.270 1.6 475.031 1. .429 1.913 16.905 1.984 1.5 MLT cm 4.867 1.270 3.569 21. LL Lamination Outline.3 97.2 1.111 1. LL.429 1.588 Part No.7 8.8 235.270 1.874 1.270 3.0 97.810 1.111 5. 141L 108L 250L 101L 7L 4L 104L 105L 102L 106L 107L wtcu grams 63.004 8.3 92.270 1. Dimensional data for LL laminations is given in Table 36.031 1.Design and Dimensional Data for LL Laminations The dimensional outline for LL laminations and an assembled transformer is shown in Figure 324.407 1.159 4.9 173.7 8. LL.943 4.905 E cm 1. design data is given in Table 37.7 2.8 10.201 0.
8302 88.2 9.270 DU1 125 2. cm2 4.256 19. cm 0.862 7.905 2.448 29.3 AP cm4 0. DU63 DU124 DU18 DU26 DU25 DU1 D cm 0.610 Part No.906 0.4 8.3 8.635 0.476 0.270 DU50 0.2 21.0 3906.420 3.0 MLT cm 1.1 57.2992 1.159 0.588 1.064 1.476 0.634 0.5 287.540 3.Design and Dimensional Data for DU Laminations The dimensional outline for DU laminations and an assembled transformer is shown in Figure 325.054 0.953 DU39 0.905 1.9 30.1 1208.318 0.3 3.191 1.953 E cm 0.346 6. .3 238.080 7. Standard Laminations 14 mil MPL wa wa Ac cm Ac cm2 cm2 3.318 0.024 0. Dimensional data for DU laminations is given in Table 38.858 2.0057 0.630 0.270 1.905 DU75 1.422 1.9 44.160 H cm 1.903 34.9 1467.275 KB cm3 0.567 7.771 100.318 0.252 5.383 1.096 0.0 31.532 22.270 DU125 3.905 2.715 5.9 17.421 7.8 23.953 DU37 0. design data is given in Table 39.722 17.350 Table 39.9 5.0 21.9599 A.0180 0.635 0. Dimensional Data for 14 mil DU Laminations.420 0.210 9.270 1.635 E cm 0. Design Data for 14 mil DU Laminations.5 28.0 443.133 0.9 3.383 1.4 4.0 537.175 F cm 0.3 3.4 5.00003 0.953 0.810 Part No.2 3246.540 3.4 3.620 11.5 2.688 0.4 33.635 F cm 0.862 13.757 65.091 506.158 2. Standard Laminations 14 mil D H Part G cm cm No.159 0.905 1.159 0.4 4.476 0.635 0.175 3.3 13.966 13.715 6.577 51.430 10.0 4880.3 186.2 5.709 494.953 0. Inc.858 3.7 14.258 8. DU Lamination Outline.0479 0.0 3966.794 0.8 985.953 1. DU.0009 0.0 wtre grams 0.217 0.2524 9.4 104.215 1. ti H ii o 0 O o H = 2E ^t t G I ^a A \r tk H ^ +* r ' O / :  = E F E •4 «— DU Transformer Assembly Figure 325.4 42.953 1.389 9.905 2.635 1.7136 74.9 4.2 10.3 4.810 5.8 12.9 76.9 11.7 7. All Rights Reserved.5 124.810 5.1416 0.006 0.753 1.463 0. DU.3 55.2 11.2 8.635 0.0 1147.390 2. Laminations Table 38.635 0. DU63 DU124 DU18 DU26 DU25 DU1 DU39 DU37 DU50 DU75 DU1 125 DU125 wtcu grams 1.322 41.6 4.032 51.953 1.383 3.3 60.858 3.080 G cm 2.4 5.635 0.008 8. DU.0 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.3 9.810 5.2 134.318 0.500 0.0260 0.
OOOEI 0.493 1.316 35.2 421 8.48 61.858 52.048 3.144 Part No.129 29.810 3. All Rights Reserved.3 28634 34.23 307.600 Part No. design data is given in Table 311.18 1.53 16.898 750.625EI 0.3 154 6. Dimensional Data for 14 mil El Three Phase Laminations.727 1.693 16.826 23. Thomas E F G Part cm cm cm No.936 8.187 2.779 6.858 l.270 1.816 11. Dimensional data for 3Phase El laminations is given in Table 310.91 39.048 3.984 2.600EI wtcu grams 57 134 242 403 600 1255 2594 2178 4266 7326 17230 58144 wtfe At cm 53 102 159 207 275 487 730 725 1132 1630 2899 6522 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.540 2.572 4.213 1.427 1.7 3546 17.187 2.572 6.251 2.250EI 0.500EI 0.620 7. Standard Laminations. 0.68 1. 3Phase.500EI 1. El Three Phase Laminations Outline.316 79.588 1.800EI 5.540 3.427 1..200EI 1.500EI 0.03 24905.800EI 2.620 9.875EI D cm 0. 0.75 15174.600EI 2.54 1.525 11.316 8.175 1. o o Wi o e e e 3Phase Laminations 3Phase Transformer Assembly Figure 326.368 6.588 3.270 3.398 1.270 1.430 15.2 96805 Laminations.383 1.048 3.635 0.200EI 1. Table 310.871 2.240 22.810 4.43 0.334 2.810 1.375EI 0.49 0.9 2751 16. t ET F1 i o o e D Coil #1 e Coil #2 e Coil #3 o G .1 1743 13.61 470.875EI 1 .223 F cm 3.144 9.2 324 8.289 5.339 4.250EI 0.588 5.432 209.953 1.453 1.810 4.810 3.Design and Dimensional Data for Three Phase Laminations The dimensional outline for 3Phase El laminations and an assembled transformer is shown in Figure 326.26 1556.953 1.223 3.588 2.111 & Skinner 14 mil E D cm cm 2. Design Data for 14 mil El Three Phase Laminations.562EI 0.375EI 0. Inc.860 Table 311.625EI 0.03 0.66 1997.144 G cm 7.303 92.0 12017 26.067 1.13 3.29 187.634 1.316 19.400EI 3. 0.03 266. 3Phase.096 6.635 0.8 52.500E1 1 .316 13.8 706 10. Thomas & Skinner 14 mil wa wa Ac AP KR 2AC cm2 cm2 cm4 cm5 3.6 6957 22.862 5.995 1.572 6.98 119.57 24.096 9.955 2.OOOEI 1.809 4. .400EI 2.562EI 0.051 0.88 2.532 12. Standard MLT cm grams 54 4.74 0.90 4919.790 36.096 9.21 2.394 40.
540 3.5 315.635 0.4 530. Inc.5 600.053 40.4 5.905 G cm 3.270 2.041 5.4 11. cm2 21.558 7.8 118.9 3.5408 1 .4 255.016 0.969 3.117 Metals.270 1.0 202.1 112.7 170.236 10.1 137.256 1.874 Table 313.2902 0.630 5.858 ML024 2.303 7.2 7.588 F cm 1.0443 0.815 11.6 3.967 11. Dimensional Data for Tape C Cores.0 244.7 MLT cm 3. 1.2 72.8 3.435 2.969 3.588 1.270 1.854 7.412 1.718 0.270 1.915 22.905 ML016 0.4 11.588 1.588 1.1314 0.6 471.8 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.9 5. Magnetic Metals. Tape C Core Dimensional Outline. Dimensional data for C cores is given in Table 312. ML002 ML004 ML006 ML008 ML010 ML012 ML014 ML016 ML018 ML020 ML022 ML024 wtcu vv wtfe grams 13. ML002 ML004 ML006 ML008 ML010 ML012 D cm 0.4 2. Design Data for Tape C Cores.921 5.635 1. .953 0.256 3.0 19.9 182.270 1.111 1.6 149.271 0. Table 312.4 7.7 160.2 254.6 2.969 4.5 120.5469 4.756 19.874 3.891 15.8 27.0 29.635 1.111 E cm 1.190 cm2 0.5 1.170 K8 cm5 0.8 121.953 ML022 2.0184 0.540 ML020 3.590 AP cm4 0.019 17.4 73.556 11. Magnetic MPL wa cm Ac 6.7 9.9 C Cores.8 37.4 3.635 2.013 2.153 1.269 0.5 176.0 22.9 11.476 0.8 2.513 15.008 1.1 126.7 87.3 1.223 1.635 0.590 3.412 2.953 1.6 3.635 2.341 15.223 2.6 74.933 8.303 6.7 2.347 1.6 5.3109 0.Design and Dimensional Data for Tape Wound C Cores The dimensional outline for C cores is shown in Figure 327. 2 mil Ac wa cm2 1.588 ML014 0.8656 A. 2 mil D F Part G cm cm cm No.5 95.507 1.5056 2.588 1.3 3.969 3.323 3.874 2.1 478.270 E cm 0.0080 0.0 7.626 28.8607 3.808 1.177 21.747 8.1 grams 13.2 58.270 1. D Figure 327.588 1.016 0.5 63.041 6.590 3.953 1.953 1.134 12.0537 0.871 4.270 ML018 0.359 0.6 45.7 7.450 Part No.270 0.635 0.588 1. Part No. design data is given in Table 313. All Rights Reserved. C Cores.
MLT wa wa AC 2AC grams cm cm cm 686 0.8 1.715 1.445 2.158 4.175 3. 2.. Dimensional data for EE cores is given in Table 314.223 2.12 4420 21.2 9.64 553.493 Part No. All Rights Reserved. CTA25 CTA22 CTA17 CTA14 D cm 1.15 489. 3Phase E Cores.540 2. . 1 G 1 Ac D Figure 328.905 1. Dimensional Data for Tape EE Cores. E F G Part D cm cm cm cm No.789 3.905 1.Dimensional Outline for Tape Wound EE Cores The dimensional outline for EE cores is shown in Figure 328.3 0.340 A.686 14. Tape EE Core Dimensional Outline.350 6.080 14 mil E cm 2.175 3.746 1. cm2 261 324 400 468 613 737 993 956 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.705 2899 17.194 15.3 0.13 4597 1.53 95.4 1.43S 86.148 5.310 1422 13.730 34.461 8.347 117.905 6. design data is given in Table 315.34 6.175 F cm 2.350 CTA03 4.448 5.790 16.381 4.810 1. CTA25 CTA22 CTA17 CTA14 CTA12 CTA20 CTA03 CTA15 wtcu grams 326 682 867 916 1391 1834 3717 2266 14 mil AP cm4 28.350 9.540 3. Inc.44 11.860 0.0 16.822 9.56 1 14.1 0.574 19.50 333.540 2.843 7.266 12.620 Table 315.602 20. NationalArnold Magnetics.846 11.540 G cm 6.493 2.239 CTA20 5. NationalArnold Magnetics.585 13.079 150.977 20. 3Phase E Cores.06 208.35 Wtfe Part No.16 64.905 3. Design Data for Tape EE Cores.3 10.98 1073 12.38 6544 22.40 KR cm5 3. Table 314.381 2.203 44.858 CTA12 3.905 5.10 1803 15.763 CTA15 5.429 1.540 3.
03660 2.20 8. Tape Toroidal Core Dimensional Outline.40 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.927 52076 0.50 0.041 0.0000717 0.20 34. Dimensional Data for Tape Toroidal Cores.76 3.727 0. All Rights Reserved.610 52176 2.895 0.20 16.26975 6.60 16.171 7.193 9.70 28.794 ID cm 1.30 62.84 6. Design Data for Tape Toroidal Cores.80 23.40 13.659 0.60 36.0001400 0.30 0.581 1.927 52007 Table 317.614 0.398 3. design data is given in Table 317.134 1.00 23.Design and Dimensional Data for Tape Wound Toroidal Cores The dimensional outline for tape wound Toroidal cores is shown in Figure 329.346 1.0009384 0.40 4.50 0.440 0.927 0.80 8.719 0.30 40.80 3.412 0.927 0.0031203 0.140 0. Mag netics 2 mil Iron Alloy (cased and OD HT HT Part ID Part cm No.610 52000 2.022 0.724 1.99 4.398 12. Part No.30 2.851 0.724 1.10 19.99 7.610 52155 1.499 1.70 61.816 Toroidal ID cm 0. 0. Inc.70 5.134 1.257 1. Magnetics 2 mil Iron Alloy (cased) MLT MPL wa wa AC AP cm grams cm Ac cm2 cm4 cm 0.07320 0.80 15.0003998 0.794 2.48 5.70 0.50 11.171 0.48 4. Table 316.70 3.99 9. cm cm cm No. coated) OD cm 2.01770 2.781 3.884 0.429 2.50 3.977 0. 52402 52107 52153 52056 OD cm 1.851 1. Enclosure Wa OD Cased Toroid Caseless Toroid Figure 329.086 0.24 38.25 0.851 0.35920 6.98 12.041 0.744 0.0060284 0. Dimensional data for cased tape wound Toroidal cores is given in Table 316.175 9.14554 6.610 52004 0.043 0.359 0.0099305 A.0002592 0.05278 2.50 2.041 0. 52402 52107 52153 52056 52057 52000 52155 52176 52061 52004 52076 52007 wtcu grams 2.70 4.49 9.80 2.20 7.286 1. .851 3.00906 18.0006461 0.97 24.01872 4.651 1.610 52057 2.10 6.10 9.20 3.334 HT cm 0.70 20.451 0.49 33.70 2.37187 2.20 18.043 0.0068597 0.000 0.041 Tape Cores.134 1.104 11.0000388 0.762 0.171 0.70184 4.06237 1. cm2 9.70 6.0113585 0.244 0.791 0.70 17.412 0.70 wtfc Kg cm5 0.086 0.60 2.610 52061 0.20 4.664 2.682 0.334 1.927 Part No.16 3.022 0.50 0.50 Toroidal Tape Cores.48 1.043 1.10 3.
264 45.1 179.478 0.300 3.01 6.0028 3. Dimensional data for EE ferrite cores is given in Table 318.2 EE75 111.0 1967 7.392 1.4 81.940 4.448 47. w w Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. .390 2.820 D cm 0.0 9.810 C cm 3. All Rights Reserved.252 1.0 3467 10.620 1.252 1.490 1.567 1. Table 318. Inc.0095 23.75 1.1802 60.94 36.821 1. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) vv W wa Part MLT MPL *AL Ac A.116 0.8 4.875 0.900 Table 319.068 0.880 G cm 2.9 8.250 EE625 4.880 E cm 1.0624 1.799 9.3 0.8 2767 4.103 1.906 2. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) A Part G E cm No.1 EE21 57. Dimensional Data for EE Ferrite Cores.9 0.0 11.305 4.3 6.794 0.653 0.808 2.932 1.8 9.880 2.4700 103.6 6. EE187 EE2425 EE375 A cm 1.478 1.610 1. design data is given in Table 319.454 B cm 1.420 2.080 2.527 C cm 1.930 EE75 B cm 2. If the new permeability is 2500. grams grams Ac cm2 cm2 cm cm5 cm4 14.930 2. Kg tcu tfe a AP 4 mh/lK cm cm No.087 0.930 1.4 500 2. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.108 EE21 0.643 2.567 1. cm cm 4. Design Data for EE Ferrite Cores.506 0.390 1.9 EE2425 13.826 3.4 33.712 5. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.657 0.616 8. Dimension Outline for EE Ferrite Cores.162 3.70 0.0 EE375 1167 1.85 2.720 D cm 1.539 0.5.Design and Dimensional Data for EE Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for EE ferrite cores is shown in Figure 330. EE.90 0.228 0.5 0.1527 118.935 EE.832 3.4 EE187 4.219 0.4 EE625 64. A 1 c i L G \ A ii E B \ \ \r \r >\ \ \ ^ \ Vra c fe •^ D ^ Perspective View EE Ferrite Cores Figure 330.487 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.384 0. Part No. then use 2.515 3.5 767 4.
401 0.188 EI43208 3.400 0.806 0.370 1.00248 11.9 0. Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for EE and El planar ferrite cores is shown in Figure 331.091 0.867 D 1. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.0 8.02126 3438 22.9 This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.490 2.270 1. EE&EI/LP.0715 EE41805 2592 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 3.9 2915 37.4 2.813 0. Dimensional Data for EE.813 0.3084 2.8 6. Dimensional data for EE and El planar ferrite cores is given in Table 320.398 1. Design Data for EE.700 1.305 0.635 G cm 0.8 33.270 1. wtfe MLT MPL wa Ac wa AP KB 4 mh/lK cm No.610 EE44310 4.0 5.144 B cm 2.9 26.7 2.398 1.566 0.58 0.8 6. E cm cm 1.4564 0.5 0.17 0. Dimension Outline for EE.066 Table 321.03 0.032 2.4 4.590 0.032 2.4 3483 75.9 4.790 2.5892 0. design data is given in Table 321.2709 EE42216 7.00124 10.164 0.9 29. El Planar Ferrite Cores.42 0.5 13.1784 59.800 2.440 3. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.04253 EE43208 8.4388 1.796 0. Table 320. grams grams cm Ac cm cm cm cm5 cm2 1737 0.9 17.000 0. El Planar Ferrite Cores.790 E cm 0.24170 EE44310 11.318 0.183 1460 0.533 1.953 1. El Planar Ferrite Cores.2269 0.806 0.06 0. If the new permeability is 2500.01337 20.2035 0.508 Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) G Part A cm No.0 4.610 0.175 0. .3649 EI43208 8.54 0.590 0.610 1.3 70.610 C cm 0.318 Part No.635 0. Matting Set E o r l A c B A * D •« > C EE or El Planar Ferrite Cores Perspective View Figure 331.270 0.7 3.376 EE43208 3.508 1.6167 2.290 0.5 4.7299 0.224 1.1 2.00651 17.490 3.160 B cm 1.7 0.906 D cm 2.289 0.1 4.6 3.800 1.0 6.440 C cm 0.4 58.638 0.8 10.160 2.395 1.336 2083 0. Ferrite Cores (Mag netics) vv Wtcu *AL Part A.370 1.8 4267 65. All Rights Reserved.175 0.21 0.290 0.12085 EI44310 11.15 0. EI41805 EE41805 EI42216 EE42216 A cm 1.1319 EI42216 3.0366 EI41805 1. Inc. then use 2. EE&EI/LP.401 0. cm 0.4169 0.000 0.297 EI44310 4.5.Design and Dimensional Data for EE and El Planar.4 3.
Dimension Outline for EC Ferrite Cores.465 Table 323. Table 322.901 1.156 1.0 MLT cm 6. .5.0 97.950 0.207 4. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. EC.040 14.5 9.697 3.000 4. u— G B A \ \ X vv W EC Ferrite Core D Perspective View Figure 332.59 2.099 4.082 10.5 201.410 3.30 2. Dimensional data for EC ferrite cores is given in Table 322. Dimensional Data for EC Ferrite Cores.927 2.950 4.177 Part No.571 8.110 6.3 7.340 1. All Rights Reserved. EC35 EC41 EC52 EC70 wtcu wtfe grams grams 35.638 1.161 1.287 13.2 67. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) A B C D E cm cm cm cm cm 3.8 111.964 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.76 1.7 *AL rnh/lK 1000 1233 1680 1920 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.267 0.125 0. Design Data for EC Ferrite Cores.270 3.841 1.7 253.115 2.450 2. Inc.213 0.161 5.450 6. cm2 50.050 0. then use 2.900 1.0 55.380 2.220 3.710 1. design data is given in Table 323. If the new permeability is 2500.6 106.060 2. EC35 EC41 EC52 EC70 G cm 2. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) wa MPL wa AC 2 cm Ac cm cm2 7.7 Ap cm 1.638 Part No.460 0.0 256. EC.060 2.1 36.Design and Dimensional Data for EC. Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for EC ferrite cores is shown in Figure 332.0 11.302 4.4 52.705 3.340 7.10 2.941 A.034 4 Kg cm5 0. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.
0 1.120 2.940 5.711 ETD39 69. Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for ETD ferrite cores is shown in Figure 333.70 4.343 2.270 2.0517 42.5917 107.3 11. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) Part grams grams mh/lK cm Ac cm2 cm2 cm4 cm5 cm ETD29 32. wtcu wtfe No.9 1909 ETD54 186. Dimensional data for ETD ferrite cores is given in Table 324. ETD29 ETD34 ETD39 ETD44 A cm 3.7 12.3 60. Design Data for ETD Ferrite Cores.2 124.460 D cm 0. Dimension Outline for ETD Ferrite Cores.165 3.742 1682 10.871 1.87 1.4 1182 7.865 0.9 ETD49 126.609 2.434 7.3 9.3595 87.160 3.110 3.500 B cm 2.90 1.540 4.6129 1.30 1.280 3.980 4.8520 0. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.890 2.4 MPL wa Ac wa AP KR At *AL Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.610 1.974 53.9 1318 ETD44 93.360 ETD54 5.500 4.560 2.9330 0. Dimensional Data for ETD Ferrite Cores. design data is given in Table 325. ETD.4 7. cm cm 0. Table 324.7 260.9 180.040 4.250 C cm 3.410 5.0 1000 7.110 2.520 Part No.627 2.252 2.980 2.450 4.599 2.22 1.0 9. then use 2. MLT cm 6.677 19.40 1.200 D cm E cm G cm 1.890 2.0 0.5 ETD34 43.670 1.9 13.460 3.980 1.220 1.670 1. ETD.20 1.840 ETD59 5.2453 0.110 1.1271 163.0698 2.785 4.0 12. All Rights Reserved.980 3.Design and Dimensional Data for ETD.505 12.0 1.2 94.060 3.419 1.7 2273 11. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.500 Table 325.757 1. .4 40.1 8.0911 1.0 10. Inc.470 1.200 ETD49 4. G \ B A C 4 ETD Ferrite Core D * Perspective View Figure 333.520 C cm 4.1 28.5. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) B A Part G E cm cm No.761 1.520 6.186 3.960 4.2104 ETD59 237.0800 0. If the new permeability is 2500.800 133.1 2727 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.000 4.930 3.1766 69.280 1.6665 0.165 1.
ETD/lp.0 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.920 2.080 1.421 3.609 0.1 20.631 E cm 1.970 Kg cm5 0.250 1.5.762 0.374 2.85 0.762 Table 327.7 46. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.6 32.6 48. ETD34(lp) ETD39(lp) ETD44(lp) ETD49(lp) A cm 3.2 5.730 0.0 24. .631 3.5732 4 grams grams ETD34(lp) ETD39(lp) ETD44(lp) 15.481 1.080 1. Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for ETD/lp low profile ferrite cores is shown in Figure 334.399 4. vv Wtcu W tfc MLT cm 7.330 3.110 0.1353 ETD49(lp) 10.727 0.0461 0.6641 0.010 3.789 1.420 0.0310 A. Dimensional data for ETD/lp low profile ferrite cores is given in Table 326.8047 1.909 4. Inc.082 D cm 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.804 1.701 C cm 1. All Rights Reserved.631 G cm 0.4 4120 58.559 0.1 4. ETD/lp. Ferrite Cores (TSC Ferrite International) Part No.591 2 Ap cm 0.250 1. If the new permeability is 2500. Design Data for ETD/lp Ferrite Cores.481 1.762 0. then use 2. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.2 8.40 0.869 B cm 2. Dimensional Data for ETD/lp Ferrite Cores.1 95. B X c vv • wa ~ D Perspective View ETDlp Ferrite Core Figure 334.5 MPL cm wa Ac Ac cm 2 wa cm 0.Design and Dimensional Data for ETD/(low profile).1 2 *AL mh/lK 2382 2838 3659 1.4 9. cm 33. Dimension Outline for ETD/lp Ferrite Cores.65 5. Table 326.03 5.0914 39.671 0.4 29.762 0. Ferrite Cores (TSC Ferrite International) Part No.3 72.200 1.798 1. design data is given in Table 327.2583 0.
350 B cm 3. ER.2 1.490 4.7 3.Design and Dimensional Data for ER.185 2.200 1. Table 328.350 0.220 Table 329.9 122.800 5.0 11.19037 ER35 56.500 10.130 G cm 0. AP KB cm cm No.00688 0. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) Part No. Inc. ER.47 0.870 2.300 9. ER42 ER48 ER54 A cm 4.5.0 9.750 0.065 C cm 4. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.660 D cm 1.0670 0. Ferrite Cores Surface Mount Device.100 1.000090 ER11 0.790 G cm 3.800 1.400 9.1 2478 96. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.06060 ER54 101. Dimensional Data for ER Ferrite Cores.000054 3.0 ER42 0.052 2.626245 100. ER9.500 Part No.100 9.42 0. Dimension Outline for ER Ferrite Cores.18 0.5250 6.7 3.600 1. If the new permeability is 2500.425 1.5 ER11 ER35 A cm B cm 0.0 2000 1.000 2.08 2.650 0.9 96.9400 7. B c ER Ferrite Core D Perspective View Figure 335.4 1217 7.5 0.700 1.560 2. Dimensional data for ER ferrite cores is given in Table 328.550 1.140 E cm 0.140 D cm 0.100 3.6 0.005 3.890 2.88 72.480 4.1900 2. All Rights Reserved.200 4.950 1.352444 81.00 1.189 1.795 E cm 1.220 3.320 0.512544 2652 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K. grams grams mh/lK Ac cm2 cm2 cm4 cm5 cm 0.7 128.7 46.480 2. SMD The dimensional outline for ER ferrite cores is shown in Figure 335.615 C cm 0.0 609 0.500 0. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) *AL Part wtcu Wtfe MLT MPL wa wa Ac A.190 1.090 2. Design Data for ER Ferrite Cores.940 2. then use 2. .7 1.490 0.2480 4.076 0.400 2.950 0.24867 ER48 120.300 2.00486 ER9.0 1 1 .842 0.120340 62. design data is given in Table 329.800 4.103 0.0 435 2. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0640 0.29120 0.
0 2.267 0. Inc.314 0.5.40 2. design data is given in Table 331.520 0.580 0.100 2.910 2. grams grams cm mh/lK Ac cm cm cm cm cm 254 EFD.3 EFD.0 EFD30 24.04703 0.80 3.860 2. then use 2. If the new permeability is 2500.455 0. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) G E D A B C cm cm cm cm cm cm 0. Part No.70 1. (Economic Flat Design).910 3.01911 21.360 0.00 3.7 2.8 0. All Rights Reserved.093 0. SMD The EFD cores.890 1.150 0.465 1. EFD. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.310 0. Dimensional data for EFD ferrite cores is given in Table 330.80 1.10 0.8 5.9 913 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.874 0. offer a significant advance in power transformer circuit miniaturization.501 0.37 1.500 1.000 1.00013 3.00 4. .00837 0.8 4. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.39376 0.3 565 EFD25 11.6 957 17.460 2.540 1.616 0.5 16.10 EFD.240 Table 331.15 EFD20 EFD25 EFD30 H cm 0.765 0.750 1. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) K *AL Part wtcu wtfe MLT MPL wa wa At Ac AP s 2 2 5 2 4 cm No.8 2. Table 330.500 1.00506 13.000 0.072 0.530 1.90 1.500 1.15 3.15516 0.500 0. EFD.490 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.240 0.140 3.240 0.665 2.60278 0.870 0.000 2.270 1. Design Data for EFD Ferrite Cores. Ferrite Cores Surface Mount Device.00105 7.679 0.000 1.611 0.70 1.Design and Dimensional Data for EFD.03047 28.050 0. Dimension Outline for EFD Ferrite Cores.690 0. Dimensional Data for EFD Ferrite Cores.116 0.040 1.145 0.8 7.5 6. EFD Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 336.3 413 EFD20 6.171 0.540 0. EFD.100 0.00 5. The dimensional outline for EFD ferrite cores is shown in Figure 336.
094 0. Dimensional Data for EPC Ferrite Cores.340 0.800 3.810 0.6 650 EPC25 14.200 1.804 0.014532 20.125 0.210 1.750 0.900 1.002981 12.020 1.610 1.2 479 4.5 3.069 0. EPC.10 EPC.950 0.61 2.1 7.228 0.250 0.17 EPC.430 0. then use 2.500 1.010 G cm 0.150 2.68198 0.300 2.280 0.78 0.5 8.16 1.10 1.02756 0.06 1. EPC Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 337.024036 26.770 1.850 2.9 363 3. .546 1.500 1.1 392 EPC.13 2.735 0.7 4. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.600 1.02 EPC17 1.Design and Dimensional Data for EPC.31 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.464 0.5 3.160 0.600 1. Ferrite Cores (TDK) E D C B cm cm cm cm 0.580 0.800 3.050 0.5 This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK. Dimension Outline for EPC Ferrite Cores.8 13.9 4.837 0. If the new permeability is 2500.00647 0. Dimensional data for EPC ferrite cores is given in Table 332.92 1.560 1.032 0.227 0. All Rights Reserved.460 1. grams grams cm cm cm cm cm" AC EPC.13 EPC.000128 2.910 2.500 1.320 0.0 2.600 H cm 0.0 654 EPC30 21.1 2.529 0.768 0.400 0.9 5.710 3.19 6.760 0. design data is given in Table 333.399 0. SMD The dimensional outline for EPC ferrite cores is shown in Figure 337.9 416 0. Ferrite Cores (TDK) vv Wtcu *AL Part wa wtfe MLT MPL wa A. EPC.450 1.500 Part No. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.833 0.710 0.1 1.800 2.400 0.030145 31. Inc. Design Data for EPC Ferrite Cores.5 EPC.221 0. AC AP Kg 4 cm cm mh/lK No.5. Table 332.000549 5.890 0.0 5.800 2.8 642 EPC27 18.330 0.38837 0.325 1.002428 10.530 0.040 0.510 2.19 EPC25 EPC27 EPC30 A cm 1.3 5.12014 0.0 5. EPC.400 2.0 5.09104 0.9 1.56347 0.118 0.4 4.9 23.190 0.360 0.8 18.760 1.205 0.400 Table 333. Ferrite Cores Surface Mount Device.
157 0.639 0.00652 0.6 6.5 2.631 0.200 2.9 1.3 3.24985 0.560 C cm 1.940 0.7 57.990 3.620 0.266 0. design data is given in Table 335.650 0.498 1.1 1333 PC42213 6.014360 16.526 0.49913 0.759 0. PC.25 0.249 0.400 1.610 1.Design and Dimensional Data for PC.800 2.0 1.7 2.770 G cm 1.240 Part No. MLT MPL wa wa *AL Ac A. Design Data for PC Ferrite Cores.29 0.2 13. .550 1.960 E cm 1.080408 31.8 933 PC41811 3.065 0.790 C cm 0.9 1.550 0.0 6.7 55.748 0.826 4. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) E G Part A cm cm Number cm 0.9 2700 PC43622 26.1 2116 PC43019 16.500 2.7 34.6 3. Dimension Outline for PC Ferrite Cores.4 1633 PC42616 10.576 0.391 0.599 0.920 PC44229 4.560 0.5 7. B Ferrite Pot Core Perspective View Figure 338.001331 6. cm cm grams grams mh/lK AC cm2 cm2 cm cm cm2 1.340 B cm 2. PC40905 PC41408 PC41811 PC42213 A cm 0.914 1.931 0.460 2.76 0.2 2.499 2.300 1.000 0.100 0.0 4.97175 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.8 455 PC41408 1.660 1. AP K 4 *5 No.429 0. All Rights Reserved.3 3.59 0.121 2. then use 2.50 0. PC.880 2.03495 0.85 0.97 0.11413 0. Ferrite Cores The dimensional outline for PC ferrite pot cores is shown in Figure 338.720 PC43622 3.000134 PC40905 0.12 0.160 B cm 0.536 0.4 3.3 4.600289 67.020 1.102 1.85663 0. Dimensional Data for PC Ferrite Cores.040 Table 335. Dimensional data for PC ferrite pot cores is given in Table 334.610 1. If the new permeability is 2500.160 1.1 20. Table 334. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) Part wtcu Wtf.220347 44.0 5.9 104.035114 23.03904 0.0 4000 "This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.007 2.0 7.686 2.388 0.067 1.5 3400 PC44229 8.5.360 0.148 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.612 0.559 PC43019 3.361 PC42616 2. Inc.848 1.350 1.749 1.005287 11.5 5.
02892 23. EP.899 1.637 0. Ferrite Cores The EP ferrite cores are typically used in transformer applications.4 1.38737 0.798 2. The dimensional outline for EP ferrite cores is shown in Figure 339. Dimensional Data for EP Ferrite Cores.160 1.Design and Dimensional Data for EP.635 0.113 0.340 0.920 0.4 27.10915 0.339 0.920 1.5.1 667 EP17 11. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.85 0.680 1. D EP Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 339. Dimensional data for EP ferrite cores is given in Table 336.780 0.103 0.00979 0. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) E C D B cm cm cm cm 0.899 1.00148 7.880 1. EP07 EP10 EP13 EP17 EP20 A cm 0.118 1.150 1. Table 336.98 0.00049 5. AP KB No.7 1033 EP20 7.195 0. EP.720 0.4 2.6 2. If the new permeability is 2500.972 0.610 1.6 11.720 0.250 1.2 3.290 0.397 Table 337.100 0. Design Data for EP Ferrite Cores.740 0.92 1. .495 2.7 400 2. A. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) *AL Part wtcu wtfe MLT MPL wa wa Ac A.207 0.500 0.400 G cm 0.1 1.00510 13.8 2. All Rights Reserved. then use 2.5 413 EP10 1. design data is given in Table 337.452 0.234 0.832 0.322 0.42 1.57 0.0 5.095 0.200 0.760 0. allowing high package densities on the PCB. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.9 2.950 0. grams grams cm cm mh/lK AC cm2 cm2 cm4 cm5 cm2 EP07 1.02339 0.030 0.7 EP13 2.8 1667 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.00022 3.4 1.497 0. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm. The shape of the assembly is almost cubical.922 0.8 1.139 Part No.04558 0.6 4. Dimension Outline for EP Ferrite Cores. Inc.584 1.345 1.6 2.
Design Data for PQ Ferrite Cores.000 G cm 2.200 0.408 0. The dimensional outline for PQ ferrite cores is shown in Figure 340.960 2.8120 113.0 1.929 1.050 2.0 5.880 .474 0.200 3.7 1313 PQ26/20 31. All Rights Reserved.0 31. (Power Quality).700 4.610 Table 339.0 5.6280 77.610 PQ50/50 5. Ferrite Cores (TDK) E G Part A cm cm No.345 1.4510 60.700 0.0613 PQ26/25 17. design data is given in Table 339.9 1617 PQ20/20 10.4 4.200 B cm 1.845 0.400 1. Ap tcu KE 4 No.750 3. Ferrite Cores (TDK) vv W Part MLT MPL wa *AL Wtfe Ac wa A.800 3. Dimensional data for PQ ferrite cores is given in Table 338.880 .200 .54 1.4 3.0 7.435 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.6 4.5.190 0.765 0.5 195.4 2571 0.7 7.6 2187 PQ32/20 18.620 0. PQ.1 1792 PQ50/50 158.260 6.5 8.Design and Dimensional Data for PQ.5 55.0167 16.800 2. PQ.7 5.718 0.30 3.250 2.490 2.050 2.4 PQ20/16 13.9 42.510 1.900 1.0 4.4 10.20 1. Dimension Outline for PQ Ferrite Cores.975 4.475 2.294 0.74 0.79 1.995 D cm 2.0 4.4 15.2326 46. PQ20/16 PQ20/20 PQ26/20 PQ26/25 PQ32/20 A cm 2.55 0.9 2142 PQ35/35 59.035 3. feature round center legs with rather small crosssections.496 2.55 0.0 6. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.020 2.209 1.280 4.46 0.409 0.6 5.650 2.400 1.650 3.200 .610 1.7 2025 PQ40/40 97.200 2.030 PQ32/30 3.180 0.500 2.0227 19.373 0.997 0.200 2. cm 0.150 Part No. Inc.658 0.055 D cm B cm C cm 1. s i ^ \ *ii i L E B A 1r r PQ Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 340.200 E cm 1. then use 2.324 0. grams grams cm cm mh/lK Ac cm cm2 cm2 cm cm5 7.130 2.126 1.3 11.0 8. Ferrite Cores The PQ ferrite cores.150 PQ40/40 4.430 PQ35/35 3. If the new permeability is 2500.600 2.010 3.0 73.950 3.800 1.620 0.0 6.552 0.050 1.900 2.3 3046 PQ32/30 35.475 3.206 4.475 1.620 2.63 0.808 1.1417 36.750 C cm 1. .9 2800 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.321 10.716 1. Dimensional Data for PQ Ferrite Cores.0832 32.015 2.345 .332 14.604 28.400 3.061 0.2 95.508 1.0 36.000 1. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.622 2. Table 338.250 2.
2 3.762 Table 341.784 2. If the new permeability is 2500.400 25.535 PQ3217221p 12.842 1.190 0.010 0.0407 PQ2616191p 0.343 1.799 1. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.0937 32.352 1.315 1.5 3850 48. The PQ/lp cores have a substantially reduced total height.6 6.5 1948 0. \s 1 t *  i I B 1r A D ^ i Perspective View PQ Ferrite Core.9 3893 1. then use 2.4 5. Dimensional data for PQ ferrite cores is given in Table 340.9 63.9 3659 44.3 MPL cm 3. Dimension Outline for PQ/lp Ferrite Cores.960 0.5 39.4 0.199 PQ3217221p 3. Design Data for PQ/lp Ferrite Cores.250 1.400 0.762 0. Table 340.9 4.200 1.700 0.3 5.Design and Dimensional Data for PQ/(low profile).563 0. design data is given in Table 341.1637 0.8 5.692 PQ4018281p 24. low profile Figure 341.0 0.8 0. PQ/lp.601 1.6 7.5.477 0. MLT cm 4. *AL Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. PQ/1 >.302 2.435 pQ4018281p 4.751 1.762 0.349 PQ2014141p 5.148 3.419 2. Dimensional Data for PQ/lp Ferrite Cores. . No.348 PQ3517261p 3.801 1. PQ2014141p 2.0 This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.4 15.884 PQ2616141p 2.1389 40.4 8. Ferrite Cores (TSC Ferrite International) Part wttu grams wtfe 4 grams mh/lK cm2 cm cm2 cm cm5 AC 0.909 0.4 0.738 2. All Rights Reserved.4 0. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.672 PQ3517261p 17.612 3.724 2.8 wa Ac 2 wa AP KS A.762 0.125 1.200 1.4 3170 0. Ferrite Cores The PQ/lp cores are a cut down version of the standard PQ cores.630 1.491 G cm 0.318 0.620 0.217 12.9 28.762 0.900 1. The dimensional outline for PQ ferrite cores is shown in Figure 341.670 2. Ferrite Cores (Ferrite International) E D C B A Part cm cm cm cm cm No.701 1.0123 7.336 1. Inc.
11 1. Design Data for RM Ferrite Cores.47 G cm 1.6 3.1 4.5440 0.4 42.64 cm 0.24 1.5 3.7 489 RM5 2.07 1.963 1.709 0.0044 11.40 0.3 3.55 2.0006 1.2 0.260 0.121 0.0 4.0191 1233 13.490 0. RM. RM Ferrite Core Figure 342. If the new permeability is 2500. Ferrite Cores (TDK) A Part E G Perspective View Part No.925 3.400 1.0 0.71 2.84 cm 0. Table 342.140 0.5.815 1.26 1.695 0.830 1.1 Table 343.42 B cm 2.38 0.165 2. were developed for high Printed Circuit Board. All Rights Reserved.6 2434 RM14 39.9 5.0 2.69 0.2 RM10 23. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.1389 44. Dimensional Data for RM Ferrite Cores. packing densities.9 70. Part wtcu vv wtfe grams RM.640 0.35 2.766 0.182 0.0953 0. Ferrite Cores (TDK) No.86 2.2755 62. Dimension Outline for RM Ferrite Cores.3133 20.82 No.0431 1.48 0.04 1.Design and Dimensional Data for RM. Ferrite Cores The RM cores.768 0.2 MPL cm wa Ac Ac cm wa cm AP cm4 Ks cm5 A.04 1.935 B cm 0.205 1.1 2.27 1.90 0. then use 2.415 2.103 1.5 2.0 6.3 6.3 1130 RM8 13. cm2 5.7790 0.0 7.27 1.2 7.63 0.95 C cm 1.980 0. RM4 RM5 RM6 RM8 A cm 0.0219 0. (Rectangular Modular). Inc.73 C cm 1.88 E cm 1.72 0.0016 869 RM6 2.788 1.8 2869 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability. MLT cm 2.265 1.0 5. .6814 0.86 0.561 2. RM10 RM12 RM14 cm 2.24 0.6 1833 RM12 24. The dimensional outline for RM ferrite cores is shown in Figure 342.44 1.880 1.157 0. design data is given in Table 343. (PCB).0502 29. grams RM4 1.710 0.80 0.366 0. Dimensional data for RM ferrite cores is given in Table 342.04 1.9 7.2 5.65 0.237 0.9 *AL mh/lK Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
980 B cm 1.680 2.780 0.050 E cm 0. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.4 RM10/ILP 5.500 2.30536 0. .640 0.09 0.470 RM14/ILP 3. RM/lp.312 0.680 0.809 0.280 1. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) E G Part A cm cm No.0 7.470 Perspective View Part No.18 0.700 2.00169 1380 RM7/ILP 2.720 B cm 0.7 16.249 0.5 RM14/ILP 19.980 0.426 0.00022 2.360 RM10/ILP 2.9 2.75 0. RM Ferrite Core.250 0.0 3.68625 0.181 0. Inc.450 RM12/ILP 2.12404 3652 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.9 1022 2. Dimensional data for RM/lp ferrite cores is given in Table 344.00984 0.470 0.04212 0.6 2.777 1.500 G cm 0.0 6.095 0.590 0. SMD The RM/lp ferrite cores are a cut down version of the standard RM cores.73 1.1 5.396 0.444 0.9 10.00049 6. Table 344.980 1.900 C cm 1.725 0. RM/lp.0 4.0 609 0.0 3.110 Table 345.5 RM5/ILP 0.135 0. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) vv Wtcu AL Part MLT MPL wa wa A.2 2.020 1.Design and Dimensional Data for RM/(low profile).5 RM6S/LP 1.0 1.3 0.1 2.13810 0.090 1. The dimensional outline for RM/lp ferrite cores is shown in Figure 343.6 0.160 1. cm cm Ac grams grams cm2 cm5 cm2 cm2 cm4 RM4/ILP 5.01736 25. Ferrite Cores Surface Mount Device.490 0. RM4/ILP RM5/ILP RM6S/LP RM7/1LP A cm 0.5.35 RM8/ILP 3.554 0.06979 0.475 C cm 0. If the new permeability is 2500.433 0.2 0.240 1.20 0. Design Data for RM/lp Ferrite Cores.430 RM8/ILP 0. All Rights Reserved.549 0.900 0.00733 1783 6.00306 12.439 1.8 34.230 1.7 1587 6.087 0.87 0. Dimension Outline for RM/lp Ferrite Cores.9 4.1 3087 52.01727 0.470 1.39 RM12/ILP 11.5 9. Ac Wtfe AP KK mh/lK No.670 0.795 1.2 3.5 55.176 0.970 0.05627 37.345 0.390 0.449 0.113 0.300 1.463 1. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.6 4. Dimensional Data for RM/lp Ferrite Cores. low profile Figure 343.900 1.27915 0.525 0. then use 2. cm 1.120 2.770 0.2 1. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.780 0.855 1. design data is given in Table 345.0 2435 17.
829 3.386 1.407 0.7 22.300 1.250 1.780 1.793 1.9 1933 4.717 DS43019 16.550 2. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) Part 4 5 2 mh/lK grams Ac cm cm cm cm2 cm 16.990 DS42616 2.286 1.5 4.3 7.802 1.227 DS42318 9. Dimensional Data for DS Ferrite Cores. These cores have a large opening to bring out many strands of wire.00800 21. G B DS Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 344. *AL Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.68 0.0 0.2 2333 DS43622 26.1 0.000 2.6 5. .1 13.540 0.240 3.610 1.770 G cm 0. All Rights Reserved.28 1.960 2.04380 31. DS. DS42311 2. design data is given in Table 347.985 2.0 3.990 DS42318 2.366 0.709 1.385 1.89 0.855 0.747 0.042 Table 347.960 0.0 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.458 2.62 0.336 DS42616 10. Design Data for DS Ferrite Cores.286 1.99 1.2 0.1 1667 0.540 0.148 DS43019 3.6 37.170 2. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.5 8.002 0.255 0.1 15.0 7.7 1267 0.00368 1487 10. Ferrite Cores The DS ferrite cores are similar to standard Pot Cores.880 1.08404 44.351 DS43622 3.627 0.102 1. then use 2.561 2. No.3 6.5.840 1. DS.800 1.6 MPL cm wa Ac wa AP KB A. Dimensional data for DS ferrite cores is given in Table 346.610 DS44229 4.0 3.770 0.121 1. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) E D B C A Part cm cm cm cm cm No.726 1.01593 23. Table 346.26917 2800 DS44229 56.7 78.108 1.Design and Dimensional Data for DS. If the new permeability is 2500.561 2. Dimension Outline for DS Ferrite Cores.110 DS42311 4.500 1. Inc.028 1.253 67.536 0.378 0.0 2. vv Wtcu grams wtfe MLT cm 4.778 0.709 1.0 5.291 0. The dimensional outline for DS ferrite cores is shown in Figure 344.793 1. which is convenient for high power and multiple outputs.556 0. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.17 1.
If the new permeability is 2500.180 1. design data is given in Table 349.170 1. c r 1 F G X r /\ / / wa j D A 1 1 AC \ J UUR Ferrite Cores i.202 98. grams grams Ac cm cm cm cm cm 0.997 134.211 102.910 4.1 5.988 4.2 54.3 64.120 1. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) A C D F cm cm cm cm 4.910 4.0 0.160 Table 349.386 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K.196 4. pulse and highvoltage transformers. .291 116. UUR.1 13.0 55.3 8. Dimensional data for UUR ferrite cores is given in Table 348. then use 2.180 2.080 1. Table 348.164 12.925 UUR44125 171.3 4. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability.170 1.619 0.9 610 15.3 6.9 710 8.911 5. All Rights Reserved. Dimensional Data for UUR Ferrite Cores.910 4.070 0.5.114 UUR44121 119. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.680 3.215 0.0 UUR44119 146. UUR44121 UUR44119 UUR44125 UUR44130 G cm 2. m Perspective View Figure 345.0 5.850 UUR44130 227.0 0. The dimensional outline for UUR ferrite cores is shown in Figure 345. Ac AP Kg 5 2 4 mh/lK cm cm No. Inc.196 5.663 0.170 1. The round legs allow easy winding with either wire or foil.196 4.0 8. Ferrite Cores The UUR ferrite cores feature round legs with rather small cross sections. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0 75.0 11.0 8. UUR.043 0.5 616 4.170 1.910 Part No. Dimension Outline for UUR Ferrite Cores.0 702 8.988 7.119 4.196 6. Design Data for UUR Ferrite Cores.140 4.946 7.Design and Dimensional Data for UUR.100 1.988 5. U cores are used for power. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) wa *AL Part wtcu Wtfe MLT MPL wa A.
980 2.840 1.370 0.9 86.0 6.5 1. If the new permeability is 2500. Ferrite Cores A C cm cm 1.5.943 1.920 2.600 3.430427 U302516 83.1 1261 0.Design and Dimensional Data for UUS.321661 240.620 Part No.3 4. The dimensional outline for UUS ferrite cores is shown in Figure 346.435 0.880 1.0 *This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of 1 K. 1r UUS Ferrite Core Perspective View Figure 346.750 0.0380 82.290 0.060 3.4 7.130 5.1050 1.610 3.4 47.040 1.8 2.2 35. Inc. design data is given in Table 351.1 1.000510 Ul 00803 3.6 8.4 6.5 1609 11.1 U672714 435.0 0. All Rights Reserved.640 0.386023 605.3 1478 U937616 1875. Ferrite Cores (Ferroxcube) K Wtfe MLT MPL wa Ap *AL Part wa A.5 826 U201607 16.081 0.4 17.480 34.752 155.135669 1.8 0.000 3.0 170.2 1652 15.0352 8.0 12.560 1. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability. UUS.080 3.435 0.9920 51.855 20.5949 29.030661 19.000 1. UUS. Dimension Outline for UUS Ferrite Cores.2 0. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm.280 2.915 U252013 41. grams grams Ac cm5 cm cm cm cm2 mh/lK 1.8 5.1607 U252013 U302516 U672714 U937616 G cm 1.831 2. Dimensional data for UUS ferrite cores is given in Table 350.120 2.660 2. Ac E 2 2 4 cm cm No.400 6.896 0.062 0. U100803 U20.6890 18.730 15. Ferrite Cores The UUS ferrite cores feature square or rectangular legs.270 1.040 9.050 1.300 (Ferroxcube) F D cm cm 0.600 3.8 1. Dimensional Data for UUS Ferrite Cores. pulse and highvoltage transformers.757 4.480 5.2 800. Table 350. . U cores are used for power.0 7.5 3.841 1.600 Table 351. Design Data for UUS Ferrite Cores.200 9. vv W tcu Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1 213 4.540 9. J L 1i F ir (•J A W.640 1. then use 2.430 1.129 5.
4 8.016 1.30 2.2 878 TC43610 63.42 5.68 3.7 1.2 3.729 3.417 0.4 4.724 0.516 1.27 1. design data is given in Table 353.D.4 TC40907 2.97 4.811 1. Dimensional Data for Toroidal Ferrite Cores.5 883 8.002240 12.570 3.334 wtcu Wtfe MLT MPL wa vv Part Wa *AL Ac A.107283 68. TC40907 TC41005 TC41206 TC41306 TC41605 TC42106 OD cm 1.652794 3.0 9. Ks AP cm No.738 TC48613 0.035869 44.389 HT cm 0.358 2.Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal.2 591 3.093505 61. The dimensional outline for toroidal ferrite cores is shown in Figure 347. Ferrite Cores (Magnetics) Part No.192 0.30 6.32 7.4 2.6 1130 1.8 2.8 1. Design Data for Toroidal Ferrite Cores.134 ID cm 1. then use 2.3 657 1.025980 0.7 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.893966 TC43813 47.9 0.2 2. If the new permeability is 2500.295 1.12 2.107 0.190456 4.925 TC43813 0.7 600 5.768 0.691 1. The toroidal structure fully exploits the capabilities of a ferrite material.50 12. Ferrite Cores The toroidal ferrite core has the best possible shape from the magnetic point of view. multiply this AL value by the new permeability in kiloperm. Ferrite Z Coated Cores (Magnetics) OD Part HT ID cm No.843 2.317 0.3 2.7 12.628 2.2 0.3 1665 21.197 1. \ r © Perspective View ir Toroidal Ferrite Core Figure 347.060939 TC41306 3.2 51.258216 TC42106 11.1 1091 This AL value has been normalized for a permeability of IK.^fi.006 0.011221 25.0 2.8 0. Toroidal.990 TC42908 0.6 752 1.8 600 7.286 TC42206 0. A i k I.001638 10.008482 22.135 0.6 630 8.079231 TC41605 4.334 1.809 42.2 0.016 1.243 0.870 22.329283 TC42206 13.922167 TC42908 33.452 3.580357 TC43806 38. grams grams cm Ac mh/lK cm2 cm2 cm4 cm5 cm2 TC41005 0.812 8.221 0.6 2. Dimensional data for toroidal ferrite cores is given in Table 352.118 0.334 1.0 2.691 1.2 2.2 0.D HT.000687 6.250 1. .001443 8.790 5.133 0.518 0.411 3.8 548 5.252394 71.150 2.691 0.7 6.9 0.516 2.334 1.196 0.521 0. Table 352.160 0.925 TC43806 0.840 0.268 0.7 0.07 1.4 2.6 26.496437 348. For a close approximation of AL for other values of permeability. *— .188 1.146 0.065 1.790 2.00 4. The magnetic flux path is completely enclosed within the magnetic structure.691 0.035462 TC41206 3.46 0.5.2 5.2 0.689 TC43610 0.193 Table 353.1 203.856 0.0 TC48613 740.014196 0.000366 5.153 0.4 2.576 0. Toroidal. Dimension Outline for Toroidal Ferrite Cores. cm cm 2.742 0. Wa —*" \O.0 5.422 0.806 0.664 2.529 0.691 0.7 3. Inc.495 2.212 1.386 0.231 1.0 29.
435 1.678 3.110 2.00 3.140 122.838 0.377 1.170 5.40 68.993 2.60 2.000204 0. Design Data for Toroidal MPP Powder Cores.88 3.18 1.63 4.427 0.260268 7.10 5.097 0.60 11.380 3.10 15.034 0.90 1.427 0.470 1.789128 4. Magnetics 60 mu (coated) HT HT Part ID OD Part Part No.143 0.062916 0. 55021 55281 55291 55041 OD cm 0.654 1.331 1.30 46.30 16.40 12.500 0.376 0.70 0. see Chapter 2.460 0.000027 0.35 4.348 13.67 4.12 3.388 1.074166 0.720435 1.000375 0. Inc.795 1.026 8.009757 1.226 1.800 55110 HT cm 1.898 0.553 1.80 58.917 1.106 1.672 2.692 86.551 0.191 4.80 5.130 0.670 4.70 2.30 22.80 8.865 1.30 233. MPP Powder Cores.10 0.20 61.090 3.971244 0.69 2.699 ID cm 0.563 0.740 0.141747 2.075211 6. All Rights Reserved.000492 0.047 0.334 1.10 164.336608 0.50 5.652 44.014998 1. Part No.457 0.930 2.343 No. Dimensional Data for Toroidal MPP Powder Cores.902 0.990 4.15 4.107 0.09 4.460 0.90 9.14 2.790 3.131267 2.11 3.20 5.30 64. t OD Figure 348.611 0.40 11.759 0.18 1.381 0.300 6.645 1.836 14.711 0. 55381 55848 55059 55351 55894 55071 55586 55131 55051 55121 1.000961 0.330 2.760 ID cm 2.024969 0.992423 6.20 17.251 7.90 136.60 31.520 cm 0.Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal.40 8.760 4.00 87.60 2.20 85.806 48.90 22.492709 6.086 32.561153 4.080 4.10 5. Dimension Outline for Toroidal MPP Powder Cores.072 4.40 60.410 1.137877 0.175 0.711 1.346 1.022735 2.723 0.360 2.30 wtfe grams 0.50 8.670 8. 55076 55083 55439 55090 55716 OD cm 3.080 1.340 6.454 3.130 0.018406 0.207 1.563 2.540 164. For more information.150 2.255 0.953 cm 0.517 0.36 0.075 0.95 8.198 170.40 39.40 2.98 5.925420 1.497 1.029 1.444 9.135 1.000301 0.30 4.192 0.576 132.20 133. Table 354.50 2.73 5.770 3.260 cm 0.194 1.356 0.474 1.041279 4. Magnetics 60 mu (coated) MLT MPL wa wa Ac AP 2 cm cm Ac cm4 cm cm 1.250092 3.415897 5.729 0.229 0.70 0.191 8.50 2.340010 6.330 2.029 1. HT.460 cm 1.634 0.095 0.38 1. 55021 55281 55291 55041 55131 55051 55121 55381 55848 55059 55351 55894 55071 55586 55076 55083 55439 55090 55716 55110 wtcu grams 0.80 5.250 0.10 1.181 1.70 9.74 2.584 0. Dimensional data for MPP powder cores is given in Table 354.727 0.091 0.446 0.114179 0.699 0.307 1.965 No.84 3.60 117.30 101.00 14.114 0.100 0.613 1.80 10. design data is given in Table 355.498792 Kg cm5 0. MPP Powder Cores The dimensional outline for MPP powder cores is shown in Figure 348.993 18.430 2.005099 0.263 0.677485 0.60 6.232 0.001610 1.402 9.320 0.012359 1.537 1.50 112.486 Table 355.892 1.003985 0.10 2.111049 A.681 0.70 28.50 6.448857 3.910 1.706 33.500 MPP Powder Cores.008001 0.711 0.373 7.150 0. .70 AL mh/lK 24 25 32 32 26 27 35 43 32 43 51 75 61 38 56 81 135 86 73 75 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. cm 2.362 0.978 5.803 2.60 4.886 6.941 4.90 169.684 0.00 16.
14 1.112 0.86 2.885 0.052120 0.97 5.305 0. Micrometals 75 mu (coated) Part wtcu grams No.086 3.49 8. Inc.087660 2.894 2.235550 0. 0.39 0. .782300 Kg cm5 0.246 1.213 0.8 6.037 0.000520 0.013630 0.94 40.520 0.74 1.90 1.504 4.508 0.110 1.648 0.089 2.384 0.2 2.84 2.953 0.4 21.780 0.18 2. Iron Powder Cores.178 T5026 1.650 Table 357.40 4.10 3.300 3.853 0. All Rights Reserved.373 3.77 1.14 5.0 56.Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal.40 4.720 HT cm 1.973 0.24 105.218620 7.672790 A.80 2.110 1.26 T2626 T3026 0. For more information.483 T6826 1.47 T3726 0.395 0.46 44. design data is given in Table 357.050 1.450 ID cm 1.96 T5026 4.713 1.0 2.187 0.287880 0.635 T14126 0.053 3.456 0.743 4.357 5.099 0.583 1.6 29.698 0.629 5.114 0.5 49 37 33 50 43.521 0.5 4.98 29.148800 2.026770 0.073 0.260 0.2 14.14 9.96 7.179 0.116 0.060 0.24 T2526 0.000130 0.10 T2026 0.408 3.85 6.145990 0.85 47.83 45.590 3. Iron Powder Cores.28 1.5 28.1 4.31 15.006940 0.106800 0.394 4.40 T6026 T6826 5.244 T6026 1.04 wtre grams 0.33 T 13226 39.805 0.78 6.267 0. Table 356. Dimensional data for Iron powder cores is given in Table 356.058 0.334 cm2 0.30 8.70 0.659 0.46 2.05 T13126 32.770 0.70 58.7 66.93 0.674 0. 0.390 1.687 4.155 0.953 T17526 1.290 1.404 T 10626 2.000670 0.538 1. Dimensional Data for Toroidal Iron Powder Cores.608887 3.483 T9026 2.004090 0.89 5.005030 0.30 1.5 46 60 70 93 81 103 116 75 96 105 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.450 75 mu (coated) HT Part cm No.4 38.110 1.071 3.072990 0.40 4.877 5.47 1.445 0.325 T8026 2.93 4.690 1.650 3.039 0.845820 2.31 2.6 71.9 53.673 0.300 3.60 4.573000 0.607740 1.091 4.5 57 33. cm cm 0.644 1.077 2.55 T 17526 128.63 3.000140 0.064 0. cm2 1.23 5. Dimension Outline for Toroidal Iron Powder Cores.50 4.8 12.120 ID cm 0.05 T 13026 48.808 1.933 3.002190 1.50 1.017700 0.15 1.17 2. Design Data for Toroidal Iron Powder Cores.694 1.582 OD cm 3.68 3.000900 0.090 0.147960 0.6 107.871 3.231 0.75 T14126 62.28 7.023 0.571 0.483 T13026 0.487 2.20 2.325 T9426 2.240 2.270 0.887 1.85 T4426 1.72 9.4 29.001300 0.05 MLT cm 0.124150 0.340 AP cm4 0.000010 0.20 wa AC AC wa cm2 0.362 0.2 8.029600 0.940 0. Figure 349.38 11.026320 0.4 AL mh/lK 18.44 T9426 T9026 18.19 3.980 1.420 0.150 2.04 1. T2026 T2526 T2626 T3026 T3726 T3826 T4426 OD cm 0.002700 0.953 1.483 T13126 0.19 0.5 24.630 2.74 4.780 1.13 15.9 51.000038 0.6 3.594 T 13226 0.792 T 15026 0.20 MPL cm 1.266 0. see Chapter 2.224 0.400 0.36 T8026 11.000270 0.840 4.40 3.328 1.37 T 10626 23.135810 0. Micrometals ID HT Part OD cm No.97 T3826 0.003680 0.110 Part No.110 1.66 17.360 2.50 1.70 T 15026 62.50 1.300 3.750 0.020 1.010100 0. Iron Powder Cores The dimensional outline for Iron powder cores is shown in Figure 349.154516 0.
047 0.427 0.800 ID cm 2.917 1.443 60.072 5.255 0.100 0.074166 0.563 2.40 68.544 KR cm5 0.442 0.000301 0.376 0.10 1.30 111.402 9.460 0.130 0.260268 6.137877 0.720435 1.029 1.10 8. Inc.343 0.492709 1.40 7.022735 1.10 164.20 1.30 16.330 2.70 1.062916 0.98 5.444 9.537 1. Sendust Powder Cores The dimensional outline for Sendust powder cores is shown in Figure 350.11 3.634 0.114 0.865 1.003985 0.448 0.759 0.338 61.454 3.678 3.229 0.300 6. see Chapter 2. cm cm cm No.551 0.012359 1.84 3.70 4. Dimensional Data for Toroidal Sendust Powder Cores.30 144. For more information.20 42.10 0.415897 9.654 1.69 2.498792 Part No.20 38.00 14.080 1.40 28.930 1. Dimensional data for Sendust powder cores is given in Table 358.30 29.356 0.30 4.684 0.40 2.520 2.486 Table 359.075 0.111049 A.^^ OD I Figure 350. design data is given in Table 359.052 15.953 OD cm 3.20 133.706 2.902 0.207 0.73 5.500 0.080 4.320 0.941 4.381 0.670 4.60 31.457 0.427 0.727 0.608 136.110 77059 2.50 6.838 77439 77351 2.699 1.90 1.760 5.36 1.80 5.90 22. Magnetics 60 mu (coated) MLT MPL wa wa Ac AP cm cm Ac cm2 cm2 cm4 0.50 4.992423 4.477 233.30 73.740 ID cm 0.460 0.000492 0.091 3.141747 5.150 0.232 0.50 8.90 109.034 0. All Rights Reserved.107 0.00 87.460 0.137 15.898 0.60 2.80 8.251 7.50 112.377 0.000204 0.711 Powder Cores. Dimension Outline for Toroidal Sendust Powder Cores.470 HT cm 1.611 0.001610 1.63 4.446 3.770 1.910 1.014998 1.388 1.839 101. Sendust Powder Cores.35 2.517 0.723 0.990 4.15 1.250 0.681 0.584 0.80 5.334 0.60 0.331 3.925420 4.089 169.70 28.10 5.18 1.723 11.80 10.148 1.978 Part No. Sendust HT cm 0.619 85.097 0.40 39.008001 0.970 17.175 0.191 8.143 77586 3.95 8.38 1.70 2. Magnetics 60 mu (coated) Part HT ID OD Part No. HT.106 11. .000027 0.114179 0.789128 4.60 6.14 2.74 2.60 6.60 4.10 5.40 12.191 4.50 1.346 1. 77021 77281 77291 77041 77131 77051 77121 OD cm 0.041279 2.135 1.150 2.029 1.711 77076 77381 1. Table 358.070 46.666 1.892 1.490 2.20 13. 77021 77281 77291 77041 77131 77051 77121 77381 77848 77059 77351 77894 77071 77586 77076 77083 77439 77090 77716 77110 wtcu wtfe grams grams 0.50 0.711 77083 77848 2.474 1.677485 0.497 1.430 1.226 1.30 22.760 4.672 2.448857 5. 1.90 149.00 16.090 3.348 13.435 1.60 117.181 1.613 1.250092 2.330 2.026 8.192 0.000375 0.005099 0.380 1.260 0.018406 0. Design Data for Toroidal Sendust Powder Cores.30 64.18 1.67 4.70 0.131267 2.790 3.80 58.729 0.70 AL mh/lK 24 25 32 32 26 27 35 43 32 43 51 75 61 38 56 81 135 86 73 75 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.170 5.024969 0.09 4.524 5.10 4.88 3.075211 6.971244 0.965 77090 77716 77894 2.009757 2.194 77110 77071 3.095 0.410 1.561153 6.699 0.263 0. cm2 2.340010 6.803 0.336608 0.340 6.12 2.000961 0.563 0.00 3.90 9.362 0.360 1.130 0.40 8.Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal.
699 0.20 0.00 3.760 4. Part No. Part No.917 1.492709 81.520 2.70 0.36 0.584 0.537 1.598 1.60 0.000961 9.60 0.740 6.30 0.30 0.98 5.366 2. design data is given in Table 361.563 2.50 31. Magnetics 60 mu (coated) wa wa MLT MPL Ac Wtfe AP cm cm grams Ac cm4 cm cm2 1.388 1.681 0.729 0.362 0.14 2. Table 360.141747 7.022735 2.30 46.563 0.207 0.926 4.410 1.111049 164.711 Cores.300 6.759 0.10 0.11 3.106 1.09 4.70 0.260268 125.90 1.222 1.548 4.70 160. Inc.320 0.229 0.131267 2.35 2.20 61.029 1. 58021 58281 58291 58041 58131 58051 58121 58381 58848 58059 58351 58894 58071 58586 58076 58083 58439 58090 58716 58110 wtcu grams 0.80 0.504 1.551 58586 0.30 High Flux Powder Cores.90 22.73 5.130 0.60 2.711 2.966 4.30 101.041279 2.18 1.024969 31.790 3.500 0.80 9.330 2.427 0.00 14.018406 28.330 2.427 0.091 0.803 0.334 0. Dimensional Data for Toroidal High Flux Powder Cores.150 0.672 2.000204 4.20 17.001610 0.613 1.255 0. cm 0.251 7.009757 1.40 0.356 0.348 13.003985 16.095 0.381 0.360 1.100 3.192 0.100 0.611 0.60 2.402 155.88 3.740 ID cm 0.020 6.498792 rr.008001 22.971244 112.10 1.672 3. Magnetics 60 mu HT ID OD cm cm cm 1.026 9.789128 8.191 4.727 0.460 58894 58071 0.435 1.50 0.30 0.40 0.84 3.898 0.029 1.95 8.90 169.10 6.10 5.15 4.692 1.654 1.902 0. Design Data for Toroidal High Flux Powder Cores.10 15. see Chapter 2. KB cm cm 0.953 High Flux Powder Part HT No.69 2.110 1.880 2.18 1. .137877 68.250092 8.620 6.486 Table 361.380 1.263 0.170 5.150 2.075211 115.634 0.38 1.965 2.377 0.90 136. High Flux Powder Cores The dimensional outline for High Flux powder cores is shown in Figure 351.910 1.517 0.670 4.50 1.415897 45.047 0.10 0.20 5.014998 1.990 4. All Rights Reserved.00 0.770 1.143 3.130 0.678 3.40 12.448857 14.50 6.800 ID cm 2.454 3.677485 117.072 4.40 2.892 1.838 2.194 3.978 (coated) Part No.20 85.63 4.30 0.340010 8.107 0.474 1.70 AL mh/lK 24 25 32 32 26 27 35 43 32 43 51 75 61 38 56 81 135 86 73 75 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.226 1.70 A.191 8.457 0.074166 64.711 2.772 4.50 2.10 1.760 5.12 3. 58076 58083 58439 58090 58716 58110 OD cm 3.726 4.340 6.30 233.80 10.992423 1.497 1.097 0.181 1.80 5.250 0.460 58059 0.90 0.430 1.075 0.343 58381 58848 0.—I t OD I Figure 351.336608 87.60 5.000027 2. Dimension Outline for Toroidal High Flux Powder Cores.135 1.460 58351 0.00 0.684 0.034 0.930 1.238 2.723 0.444 9.865 41.114179 58.080 4.470 HT cm 1.60 11.346 1.720435 133.175 0.699 1.74 2. HT.40 8.60 0.561153 17. 58021 58281 58291 58041 58131 58051 58121 OD cm 0.114 0.376 0.000375 5.331 1.310 5.100 7.090 3.000492 6.67 4.016 4.80 0.080 1. Dimensional data for High Flux powder cores is given in Table 360.50 6.012359 1.40 60.446 0. For more information.40 11.260 0.941 30.232 0.70 0.005099 ^ 16.000301 5.062916 39.925420 8.Design and Dimensional Data for Toroidal.
070 4.071 1.5 0.910 0.910 0.640 1.910 1.953 1.01062 6.600 4.160 DIN4220 4.40 1. For more information.2 1.7 7.0 12.4 92.00297 5.270 1. Iron Powder Cores The dimensional outline for EE iron powder cores is shown in Figure 352.40 1.960 DIN5521 5.226 0.270 EI625 4.07624 8. Dimension Outline for EE Iron Powder Cores.2 80.714 0.165 1.830 2.070 3.10 2.790 0. EE.4 8.610 1.554 0.8 5.555 1.5 0. DIN.3 37.810 4.82699 245.480 1.907 1.67054 141.9 110.635 0.890 EI21 Table 363.500 1.725 2.475 0.5 65.784 9.Design and Dimensional Data for EE.462 0.430 1.6 13.918 0.9 10.326 0.2 5.125 0.5 14.2 11.165 EI187 El 2425 EI375 EI21 DIN4215 DIN4220 EI625 DIN5521 EI75 wtcu grams 4.777 0.200 1.610 0.070 2.079 14.540 2.910 1.740 3.3 3.3 84. AC ' G ii \ L t \ > ^ ^ \ 1 E B F A \ \ ' \ F c ^ \V a _^ D ^ Perspective View EE Iron Powder Cores Figure 352.8 63.98 1.610 3.200 1. cm2 11. All Rights Reserved. Iron Powder Cores (Micrometals) 75 mu Mix26 MLT MPL wa wa Wtfe Ac AP Ks 2 cm cm grams AC cm cm2 cm4 cm5 5.462 1.5 46.6 9.570 3.070 4.948 4.1 9.130 2.778 3.080 EI375 4.570 1.403 0.540 1.490 2.586 1.280 3.7 A.3 3.730 1.410 1.870 6.475 1.580 2.3 AL mh/lK 58 64 92 134 210 195 232 265 275 325 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.090 0.2 167.50894 283.684 1.133 3.130 1.1 50. design data is given in Table 363.200 DIN4215 4.9 10.224 0.4 141.5 14. Table 362.220 2.953 0.630 0.8 11. Dimensional data for EE iron powder cores is given in Table 362. Design Data for EE Iron Powder Cores.8 8.42050 149.10 2.540 2.7 11.411 0.270 2.9 82.00243 3. .410 2.5 4.690 3. cm No.27615 E cm 1.7 40.860 5.010 0. Inc.831 0.940 1.9667 1. EE.4 9.000 EI187 EE2425 2.220 1.2 91.870 5.40 1. see Chapter 2. Iron Powder Cores (Micrometals) 75 mu Mix26 D C B A Part E D B A G C Part cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm No.196 0.900 Part No.760 1.810 2. Dimensional Data for EE Iron Powder Cores.890 G cm 3.21852 112.420 3.860 3.3 101.401 0.191 2.40 1.4 23.785 2.180 3.451 0. DIN.635 1.280 3.3 119.810 0.140 EI75 5.1 7.
7 6. Dimensional data for EE Sendust powder cores is given in Table 364.8 4.0 302.3 84. A c G ii i E B \r \ ' i \ A \ •^ D >.133 3.540 1.226 0.140 C B A Part cm cm cm No.960 DIN5521 5.610 EI187 EE2425 2.00297 0.860 3.200 3. For more information.9 9. 1.3 37.82699 A.475 0.410 Table 365.910 3.84 1.810 0.1 50.079 14.714 0.080 1. design data is given in Table 365.907 1.67054 1.610 3.0 4.071 1. All Rights Reserved.1 40.Design and Dimensional Data for EE.3 101.8 82.6 126.200 3.777 8.4 13.130 2. Inc.910 1.540 2.451 0. EE.270 2.635 0.0 163. a ^Perspective View EE Sendust Powder Cores Figure 353.280 3.730 3.010 0.75 1.6 12.870 5.196 9. Dimension Outline for EE Sendust Powder Cores.9 Wtfe grams 6.125 2.070 0.000 1. EE.3 Part No.910 1.5 167.554 5.684 11.270 DIN4220 4. EI187 El 2425 EI375 EI21 DIN4215 DIN4220 DIN5521 wtcu grams 7.4 23.01 0.4 92.9 141.9 9.810 2.635 1.2 91. Design Data for EE Sendust Powder Cores.410 2.220 1. cm 14.07624 0.725 2.84 1.490 2.860 5.918 1.500 1.8 63.191 2.953 1.280 3.586 1.610 1. .555 1. Sendust Powder Cores The dimensional outline for EE Sendust cores is shown in Figure 353.85 2.2 7.21852 0.326 6.403 0. Dimensional Data for EE Sendust Powder Cores. \ \ ^ \r X 1 c te y.5 46. Sendust Powder Cores (Magnetics) 60 mu MLT MPL wa wa Ac AP cm cm Ac cm cm2 cm4 3.270 1.3 AL mh/lK 48 70 102 163 150 194 219 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.475 1.953 0. Sendust Powder Cores (Magnetics) 60 mu D D G E C B A Part G E cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm No.600 4.830 1.070 4.5 14.870 6. see Chapter 2.01062 0.220 2. Table 364.0 KK cm5 0.910 EI375 EI21 4.160 DIN4215 4.430 1.42050 0.070 0.540 2.070 4.94 1. 0.411 8.
0836 VO 'UII Vd 'i ZZtll pUB 30IJJO 3UIOJJ . Inc. *********************************************** *********************************************** **************************** uioo'SnBds.********************************************* ********************************************** *********************************************** UIO 3 ' J 3Ul3mi ' A\ A\ A\. All Rights Reserved. uioo ' pduisi • AVAV A\ 03010^909 II ' 108Z6 VO 66£0e8009 II 'i 66£ X°H 'O'd P3UOIJEUJ3JUI /.(U)soii3iigBra * * * *t* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * '£££096921171 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
.Chapter 4 Window Utilization. and Insulation Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Magnet Wire.
Insulation Factor Summary Circular mil and Square mil 7. Fill Factor S3. Multiple Layer High Frequency Transformer and High Loss 24. MLT (toroid) 33. Wire Table 12. Si. Magnet Wire. The Use of Foils 31. Electrical Insulating Materials 36. Miniature Square Magnet Wire 17. 4. Multistrand Litz Wire 21. Copper Weight 35. Wire Insulation S2. Calculating Skin Effect in Inductors 20.Table of Contents 1. 5. 3. Window Utilization Factor. Effective Window S4. Multistrand Wire and Skin Effect 18. 8. Bondable Magnet Wire 14. Reduce Skin Effect in Transformers 19. Proximity Effect Using Dowell Curves 25. Proximity Effect 22. Bonding Methods 16. Ku for Bobbin Ferrites 9. Triple Insulated Wire 27. Magnet Wire 10. Calculating. 6. Inc. Specialty Wire 26. MLT 32. All Rights Reserved. Ku 2. Base Film Insulation 15. Triple Insulated Litz 28. Copper Resistance 34. Standard Foils 30. Polyfilar Magnetic Wire 29. . References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Solderable Insulation 13. Film Insulation 11. Calculating. Proximity Effect in Transformers 23. Window Utilization Factor.
5. The window utilization factor is influenced by five main factors: 1. Ku. Effective window area (or when using a toroid. Wire lay fill factor. Workmanship. Inc. Wire insulation. as shown in Figure 41. will give a normalized window utilization of Ku = 0. of the available core window is that space occupied by the winding (copper).4. The window utilization factor. layer or random wound.Window Utilization Factor. 3. S i. S3. Window Area Occupied by Copper. 4. Core Window Area Area Taken By: Bobbin Tube Margin Wrapper Insulation Layer Insulation Magnet Wire Insulation Fill Factor Figure 41. (quality). the clearance hole for passage of the shuttle). and S4: Ku=StS2S3S4 [41] Where: 51 = conductor area/wire area 52 = wound area/usable window area 53 = usable window area/window area 54 = usable window area/usable window area + insulation Copper Area Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and is calculated from areas Si. All Rights Reserved. Ku The window utilization factor is the amount of copper that appears in the window area of the transformer or inductor. multiplied together. S4. 2. S2. S2. . or between windings. These factors. S3. Insulation required for multiplayer windings.
In Figure 42. Si. it will have a significant impact on the window utilization factor. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Si is not only dependent upon wire size. heavy. Wound area = number of turns x wire area of one turn. [42] Insulation 0. Comparing Insulation with Different Wire Gauges. by using multistrands of fine wire to reduce the skin effect. When designing lowcurrent transformers. depending on the wire size. Window area = available window area. the thickness of the insulation has been exaggerated to show how the insulation impacts the overall area of the wire. Aw = copper area + insulation area. All Rights Reserved. Usable window area = available window area . Table 41 shows the ratio of bare magnet wire to the magnet wire with insulation for single.673. triple. but it is also dependent upon insulation coating. Ku. and quad insulation. it is advisable to reevaluate Si because of the increased amount of insulating material. Wire area. that results from the particular winding technique used. Inc. Aw(B) = copper area.259 cm AWG #10 Copper Area Figure 42. in Figure 42. . Insulation area = area used for winding insulation.941 to 0. Wire Insulation In the design of highcurrent or lowcurrent transformers. It can be seen. that. the ratio of the conductor area to the total wire area can vary from 0.residual area.00787 cm AWG #40 0.In which: Conductor area.
878 0. for the usable window area.0100 0. The wire lay factor relationship for various wire sizes for layer wound coils is shown in Table 42.939 0.0. The Tables list the outside diameter for heavy film magnetic wire.0267 .88 0.90 0. such as continuous wire diameter and the winding technique depending on the skill of the operator. All Rights Reserved.0025 Heavy film magnet wire.743 0. Fill Factor S2 is the fill factor.0505 0. See Figure 43.2670.812 0.0043 0.474 S2.0294 0.0179 0.0199 0.10510.0096 .00635 Wire Lay Factor 0. the winding length exceeds the calculated value from the wire diameter by 10 to 15%.0.0170 0.867 0.574 0.0320 0.880 0.0.0038 0.0043 . depending on the wire gauge.662 0.01090.544 Ratio Bare/Quad 0.10510.00863 .793 0.01520.0067 0.842 0.0049 0.0276 23 to 39 0.815 0.502 0.0452 .0.0701 0.0. .756 0.01780.0096 0. Insulated Wire OD (cm) 0.910 0.661 0.0109 40 to 44 0. Table 42 Wire Lay Factor For Layer Wound Coils AWG 10 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 35 36 to 38 39 to 40 41 to 44 Heavy film Insulated Wire OD (inch) 0.0.0038 .01050.0116 0.588 0. or the wire lay.698 0.0025 magnetic wire.90 0.0.899 0.0249 .855 0.0. The wire lay is subjected to wire tension.Table 41 Magnetic Wire Data (Nominal) Size AWG 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Bare Area (cm ) 0.930 0.0124 0.86 0.0.665 Ratio Bare/Triple 0.733 0. and for random wound coils in Table 43. Inc.0060 .00635 Wire Lay Factor 0.89 0.0.917 0.0056 0.784 Ratio Bare/Heavy 0.826 0.0031 Ratio Bare/Single 0.85 0. 10 — 44 AWG.2670 . Insulated Wire OD (cm) 0.0623 .1019 0.0034 .0.961 0.0571 0.85 Table 43 Wire Lay Factor For Random Wound Coils Insulated Wire AWG OD (inch) 10 to 22 0. and wire quality. When winding a large number of turns tightly on a smooth surface.87 0.75 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
785 Winding Build Figure 44. All Rights Reserved. With the third and fourth layer. better fill factor can be achieved by using the hexagonal winding in Figure 45. Any layer insulation will reduce the fill factor even further. In the second layer. The square winding is shown in Figure 44 and the hexagonal winding is shown in Figure 45.907. as shown in Figure 45. Wire Area = 0. it becomes randomly wound. compared to the square winding in Figure 44. is just as hard to get. A seemingly. This type of winding performs well with a small number of turns. the wires lie in the grooves of the lower layer. the Square Winding Pattern Fill Factor 0. with a large number of turns. Theoretically. The square winding pattern has a theoretical fill factor of 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The fill factor. Capable Turns per Unit Length. . using the hexagonal technique. would be nearly impossible to achieve by hand winding without some layer insulation.785. The fill factor. will result in the following: The first layer goes down with almost complete order. some disordering has occurred. the individual wires do not lie exactly above each other. Inc. This style of winding produces the tightest possible packing of the wire. The hexagonal style of winding will yield a theoretical fill factor of 0. Instead. In this type of winding.785. using the hexagonal winding pattern of 0. using the square winding pattern of 0. Hand winding.907. There are two ideal winding arrangements shown in Figure 44 and Figure 45. but.Calculated turns Actual turns QQQQQQQQQQQQQOQQ Winding Length Figure 43.785. as in the square winding pattern. disordering really sets in and the winding goes completely awry. turnbyturn and layeruponlayer. as shown in Figure 44. The simplest form of winding is done by a coil being wound.
866(0) Winding Build 9999999 9 9 9 9 9 JUO 9 JJUULXAJOJJQQT Winding Length Figure 45. Inc. both seem to have a fill factor of about 0. But there is always the hundred to one exception. such as. When winding on a round bobbin or tube. the right number of turns. and the right wire size. . See Figure 47. when winding rectangular bobbins or tubes. the actual winding height in the region covered by the core will be greater than the calculated winding height or build due to the bowing of the windings. The ideal winding on a rectangular bobbin is shown in Figure 46. when a design happens to have the right bobbin. or 0. in comparing the square winding pattern used in the layer wound coil with its insulation with the hexagonal winding pattern and its awry winding pattern.0.61. This normally only happens when the design is not critical. The amount of bowing depends on the proportions of the winding and the height of the winding.85x the winding build. All Rights Reserved. Theoretically. The conclusion is. Usually. this bowing effect is negligible. Then. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ideal Winding on a Rectangular Bobbin. Winding Build / ^* * Rectangular Core Figure 46.907. the available winding build should be reduced by 15 to 20%. the Hexagonal Winding Pattern Fill Factor 0.
When transformers are constructed. how the margin reduces the effective window area. This thickness is based on the Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 49. shown in Figure 48. as shown in Table 45. Designing a layer winding that uses a tube will require a margin. defines how much of the available window space may actually be used for the winding. All Rights Reserved. See Table 44. Bowing in Transformer Windings. will provide the most compact design. Winding Build Round Core Figure 48. diameter of the wire. there is an industry standard for layer insulation thickness. A Round Bobbin Insures Minimum Bowing. It can be seen. Effective Window The effective window. Bowing Rectangular Core Figure 47. The other benefit. The winding area available to the designer depends on the bobbin or tube configuration. It can be seen. in using a round bobbin. all 360 degrees around the bobbin.To minimize this bowing effect and to insure a minimum build for either random or layer winding. in Figure 48. that the round bobbin provides a uniform tension. using the layer winding technique. in Figure 49 and Table 44. . 83. The margin dimensions will vary with wire size. is the reduction and minimizing of the leakage inductance caused from the bowing. for both layer and random windings. S3. Inc. the round bobbin.
55 to 0.19 2021 2223 2427 2833 3441 4246 A single bobbin design.00150 0.396 0.00700 0.835 to 0.00381 0. .01270 0. there will be 75% of the window Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. If half of the inside diameter is set aside for the shuttle.00200 0.125 0.093 0. between 0. as shown in Figure 410.00510 0. between 0. and 0.00050 17. Inc.475 1618 1921 0.236 3237 0.187 0.318 2231 0. The toroid is a little different.873 for the tape C cores.75 for ferrites.01000 0. Transformer Windings with Margins.00100 0. Wa. All Rights Reserved. Winding Build OOaOOOOQOOOOQ Winding Length Margin Figure 49.00300 0. offers an effective area.635 1015 0.Tube Layer Insulation Wrapper .00254 0.062 0.01780 0. Table 44 Winding Margins Versus AWG Margin inch cm AWG 0.00127 0.929 for laminations. there has to be room to allow free passage of the shuttle. The term.25 0. S3. as shown in Figure 411.02540 0. defines how much of the available window space can actually be used for the winding. In order to wind the toroidal core.157 38up Table 45 Layer Insulation Thickness Insulation Thickness cm inch AWG 1016 0.00760 0.687 to 0. Wa. offers an effective area.00500 0.156 0. a two bobbin configuration. then.
(Wa). Inc. S3 = 0. Bobbin Channel Bracket Coil Lamination Mounting Foot Figure 410.75)(Tt)(ID)2/4 Figure 412. left for the design which is a good value for the effective window area factor.area.5 ID Clearance For Shuttle Effective Window Area Core Effective Window area Wa(eff) = (0. Effective Winding Area of a Toroidal Core. The toroid would fall into all of the above categories. 0.75. Transformer Construction with Dual Bobbins. Bobbin Coil #1 Coil #2 Tape C Core Mounting Bracket Figure 411. All Rights Reserved. Transformer Construction with Single Bobbin. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . as shown in Figure 412.
was derived and that the magic of 0. The window utilization factor.0. Wrapped Toroid. defines how much of the usable window space is actually being used for insulation. than on the outside. because of the rapid buildup of insulation in the toroid. S4 should be reduced by 5 to 10% for each additional secondary winding.4 is now clear. have been explained. If the transformer has multiple secondaries with significant amounts of insulation. It should be noted that the amount of overlap depends greatly on the size of the toroid and the required tape. The insulation factor. the overlap thickness would be four times the thickness of the tape.5 ID remaining for passage of the shuttle. Ku. there is normally enough room for the wrapper.27 cm (1/2") wide tape was used with an overlap of 0. as shown in Figure 413. . is not taken into account in Figure 412. hopefully eliminating confusion and simplifying the complexity of the subject. 4 Figure 413. Summary The author hopes to have cleared up some of the mystery of how the window utilization factor. In the design of toroidal components. Dacron Wrapper Wound Ht. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. S4. The insulation factor. All the different parts making up window utilization. it can be seen that the insulation buildup is greater on the inside. Ku. S4. in Figure 413. if 1. All Rights Reserved.32 cm (1/8") on the outside diameter. S4. S4. Insulation Factor The insulation factor.84. For example. is highly influenced by insulation factor. and using the 0. is to be 1. In Figure 413. partly because of the added space occupied by insulation and partly because of the poorer space factor.
such as laminations and C cores.61)(0. as shown in Figure 414. know the drawback in the window utilization factor.0) = 0. Ku. The ferrite manufacturers try to keep a tight control on the amount of shrinkage. Ferrite EE Core Before and After Firing. The window utilization factor. Window Utilization Factor.5.75)(1. Once this problem is understood. Inc. = conductor area/wire area = 0.61 53 = usable window area/window area = 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. stamped laminations.As stated at the beginning of this chapter. The main reasons for using ferrites is its high frequency performance and cost. 1 2 3 4 Ku = (0. B \ A c \ B Wa D EE Ferrite Cores Before Firing C D EE Ferrite Cores After Firing Figure 414. for bobbin ferrites is not as high as it is for iron alloy materials.855)(0.75 54 = usable window area/usable window area + insulation = 1 Ku =8. Ku for Bobbin Ferrites In high frequency power electronics. #20 AWG 82 = wound area/usable window area = 0.855. then.4. a good approximation for the window utilization factor is Ku = 0.5. the tolerances on the end product are much larger than the iron alloy. All Rights Reserved.391 * 0. who have been using bobbin ferrite materials. it can be used in most designs. . and the amount varies from one manufacturer's process to another. Ku.4 Being a very conservative number. the problem should go away. Ferrite materials are fired in kilns like ceramic pottery. because these cores must meet a dimensional tolerance after firing.8. The end result is the bobbin has to slip on and meet all of the minimum and maximum dimensional tolerances. The amount of shrinkage could vary as much as 15 to 30%. Design engineers. It is an important factor in all designs of magnetic components. There is a certain amount of shrinkage after firing. 8. Even though the shrinkage is under tight control. the majority of the designs will use some kind of bobbin ferrite.
474 0.This dimensional tolerance has an impact on the winding area of the bobbin.664 0.679 0.61 53 = usable window area/window area = 0. First. There have been some requests to define circular mils and square mils.79.289 [44] Table 46.721 0.116 0. Operating at high frequency will also reduce the power handling capability of the core because of the skin effect.471 0.177 4.757 Circular mil and Square mil There are engineers that use circular mils (CM)/amp or square mils/amp. .001 inch.256 0.662 0.368 1.638 1.774 0. Inc. Effective Window Area.0) = 0.402 1.375 6.6)(1. Figure 415 shows the area of a square mil.187 EI375 EI21 cm cm 0. and using a cut ferrite core.103 0. Also shown is an example of the largest wire size that should be used when operating at 100kHz. Ku. The selection of the correct wire size to minimize the skin effect at given frequency is shown in Equations [45] through [49]. and the area of a circular mil.590 0.170 1. Effective Window Area Window Bobbin Core RM6 RM8 RM12 PQ20/16 PQ26/25 PQ35/35 EFD10 EFD15 EFD25 EC35 EC41 EC70 El. The skin effect requires the use of multistrands of fine wire in place of a large single strand.6 54 = usable window area/usable window area + insulation = 1 i ~ 1 2 3 4 Ku =(0.456 0.082 1.571 0.362 0. using a #26 wire.61)(0.971 2. Reevaluate the.594 0.314 0.502 2. This is the reciprocal current density. The norm is to use amps/cm2. Equation [43] so that it can operate at 100kHz.540 0.529 0. #26 AWG 52 = wound area/usable window area = 0. All Rights Reserved.696 0.618 0. let's define a mil. 51 = conductor area/wire area = 0.79)(0.260 0.512 1. clearly shown in Table 46. This smaller winding area reduces the power handling capability of the core.753 0. which is a true current density.650 Laminations 0.150 0.240 2 2 Ratio B/W 0.303 1. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.206 1.042 0.577 0.148 0.660 0.592 0.845 0.730 0. which is .
multiply by 1. but aluminum and silver are available.83 1. easy to solder to.001 0.45x10"° Note: Designers have for many years used this rule of thumb: 500CM/Amp « 400Amps/cm2 lOOOCM/Amp ~ 200Amps/cm2 Magnet Wire Standard magnet wire is available in three different materials.95 1. To convert Circular mils to Square centimeters . multiply by 0. Comparing CircularMils and SquareMils. Aluminum magnet wire is onethird the weight of copper for the same size conductor and onehalf the weight for the same conductivity. To convert Square mils to Circular mils .7854.3 0. and weighs 20% more than copper.00380 0. Table 47 Magnet Wire Material Properties Density Material Copper Silver Aluminum Symbol Cu Ag Al Resistivity 3 Weight Factor 1 Resistance Factor 1 Temperature Coefficient 0. . but it can be done.703 1. All Rights Reserved.89 10. Inc. shown in Table 47. multiply by 5.00410 grams/cm (j.066x10~6To convert Square mils to Square centimeters .64 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Silver magnet wire has the highest conductivity.59 2.49 2. multiply by 6.001 One Circular mil = Figure 415. Aluminum magnet wire is a little more difficult to terminate. To convert Circular mils to Square mils .2732.00393 0. The most common is copper.Q/cm 8.One Square mil = 0.72 1.18 0.
plus the temperature rise of the magnetic component. Inc. insulated film coating. . Standard magnet wire is rated by temperature. The engineer must be very careful of hot spots so as not to degrade the service life of the magnetic component.90 NEMA Standard MW 1000 MW2C MW15C MW28C MW79C MW77C MW35C MW16C *Solderable insulations. for AWG 10 through 44.Magnet Wire. as shown in Figures 416 and 417. All Rights Reserved. Wire Table Table 49 is the Wire Table for AWG. The equivalent resistance in microohms per centimeter (j. After the maximum temperature has been obtained. The maximum operating temperature is the "Achilles Heel" to the magnet wire. heavy. and quad film insulation. This insulation film is the most vulnerable to thermal overloads. The dimensional data is in centimeters and inches. Columns 5 through 13 relate to heavy.20 3. Table 48 Magnet Wire Insulation Guide Temperature Class 105°C 105°C 130°C 155°C 180°C 200°C 220°C Insulation Type Polyurethane* Formvar Polyurethane Nylon* Polyurethane.20 6. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Standard MW 1000. The magnet wire insulation guide listing in Table 47. per centimeter.1 55 Polyester Solderable* Polyesteramidimide Polyimide (ML) Dielectric Constant 6. The weight of the magnet wire is found in column 13. The range is from 105°C to 220°C. Film Insulation It is the design engineer's responsibility to ensure that the selected magnet wire used in the design is compatible with the environmental and design specification.55 3.20 3. is only a partial list fromNEMA. as shown in Table 48. heavy film wire.71 6. see Table 48 for the Temperature Class. triple.95 4. in grams. 10 to 44. or a high ambient temperature above its rated temperature. When magnet wire is subjected to thermal overloads. The maximum operating temperature of the magnet wire is obtained by summing the maximum ambient temperature. The bare wire areas are given in cm2 in column 2. The environmental specification will set the ambient temperature. so the selection of the insulation film is very critical for long life. Table 410 provides the maximum outside diameter for magnet wire with single. the life of the magnet wire is greatly reduced.Q/cm or 10"6 Q/cm) is given in column 4 for each wire size. The insulation film of the magnet wire is on the surface of the copper wire. and the circular mils are given in column 3 for each wire size.
0 21266.1207 24.0452 0.25 44.01185 0.013 30.3 131.1530 0.0650 1197.00046 0.5596 110.0 842.25 0.23670 0.1350 620.2380 0.003 115.016 24.01498 0.00077 0.8370 954.00020 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 13 0.70 3.18790 0.50 0.8 370 0.30 22 3.0 70308.3260 1857.00 14.4 29 32 0.2268 36.031 12.00 79.00 18 8.1880 1024.00 21 4.00023 0.060 6.00 6.25 0.6800 2323.00 17 10.014 27.00030 0.4 666.1 65.003 131.2554 34 39.0879 0.00 13 26.3 418. Inc.5067 100.04726 0.043 9.00098 0.5 263.003 145.00372 0.00 0.00 28.0020 396.7 294 0.1220 0.2 333 0.0515 207. 1 1 840 0.0 15 0.5 133 0.020 19.20 0.0632 0.039 10.0 5315.9 332.6230 320.9500 4556.6 82.0 8572.00 25 1.6 45 0.1 23 0.0317 4.1 1062.4 400 TurnsPcr Inch2 cm2 11 12 11 69 13 90 17 108 21 136 26 169 211 33 41 263 51 331 64 415 80 515 99 638 124 800 1003 156 1234 191 239 1539 300 1933 374 2414 457 2947 571 3680 702 4527 884 5703 1072 6914 1316 8488 1638 10565 2095 13512 2645 17060 3309 21343 3901 25161 32062 4971 6437 41518 8298 53522 10273 66260 84901 13163 16291 105076 18957 122272 Weight gm/cm 13 0.00472 0.80 1.9 531.00 14 20.006 62.30 0.009 46.0 27775.00 18.0076 0.01884 0.00 7.8 209.1370 0.36 0.1 56 0.8 165.70 30 0.0980 0.0 1687.0241 0.0700 2581.0 1345.0316 6.6 263 0.0170 0.25 0.44 0.4 204 0.00 0.048 8.0584 11.8548 169.0086 0.1266 37 20.028 14.84 0.0409 0.0140 0.00747 0.00 15 16.8 149 0.2863 56.2280 1624.00 2.8 50 0.5140 497.3600 5610.0566 0.0245 44 0.09430 0.5310 1289.2 26 0.80 29 0.003 157.0 6748.5 167 0.0 2664.8570 761.0330 0.0 16801.00945 0.56 0.054 7.0064 0.25 0.0 54429.1710 0.46800 0.0456 9.0505 0.011 37.29 0.2800 252.00 11.0 2142.0811 39 12.0191 0.005 80.00602 0.0470 404.02965 0.105 3.5390 1490.69 0.00 4.89 0.00 9.60 28 0.00 0.5000 8798.61 0.7300 2905. All Rights Reserved.0800 6529.0267 0.00241 0.20 1.25 0.10 23 2.9 10 0.00119 0.3130 259.00038 0.018 22.8 40 0.0210 201.84 43 0.00 12 33.00 44.0 Area ctn (10"3) cirmil 5 6 55.9000 11046.00305 0.6800 8226.4 62 69 0.6100 10384.0294 0.00 0.03757 0.9 0.07474 0.7 41.0069 0.006 71.6 233 0.0 3402.0723 14.00 11 41.00059 0.2011 35 31.9 86 0.0 13608.00 35.2130 0.1813 0.4 52.004 91.0109 0.ifi/cm 20°C 4 32.00 1.0 4294.0 85072.02372 0.3900 2052.8046 158.4 11 12 0.14920 0.6400 7022.1900 0.008 52.00150 0.49 0.0366 0.0096 0.0202 4.41 0.084 4.0216 0.25 2 Heavy Synthetics TurnsPer Diameter cm Inch cm Inch 7 8 9 10 0.00189 0.1538 30.Table 49 Wire Table Bare Area AWG 2 cm (10~3) cirmil I 2 3 10 52.2430 640.80 3.0701 0.007 58.0 35400.3 19 0.6470 127.004 103.4013 32 64.00 20 5.068 6.00 Resistance (.00 0.035 11.4559 90.1589 36 25.0487 41 7.25 0. .0 10849.5 105 0.37500 0.80 24 2.0 43405.0397 42 6.1026 38 16.00 19 6.0368 7.022 17.2670 0.1160 812.30 2.8 17 0.0785 0.5100 3260.0152 0.21 31 0.5880 510.8200 4109.3700 3624.3 36 0.075 5.2 21 0.3662 72.010 41.01 0.2600 5184.0932 18.3 0.29770 0.6 182 0.00 22.012 33.0124 0.025 15.3 77 0.3242 33 50.80 27 1.8 104.00 0.40 26 1.6785 134.0621 40 9.1090 0.6030 316.00 16 13.05940 0.3 118 0.5 95 0.8 0.094 4.
0142 0.0840 0.0120 0.0231 0.0534 0.0147 0.0468 0.0750 0.0292 0.0102 0.0919 0.0237 0.0155 0.0869 0.0102 0. All Rights Reserved.0030 0.6401 0.0218 0.0084 0.0061 Maximum HeavyInsulation Inches Centimeters 0.0470 0.0126 0.0765 0.0715 0.0450 0.0119 0.0185 0.0038 0.1702 0.0165 0.1214 0.0062 0.0274 0.0127 0.1765 0.0353 0.0047 0.0440 0.2753 0.0315 0.0353 0.0228 0. Inc.0395 0.0082 0.Table 410 Dimensional Data for Film Insulated Magnetic Wire Wire Size AWG 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 SingleInsulation Inches Centimeters 0.0098 0.1737 0.0058 0.0382 0.0386 0.0064 0.1417 0.0024 0.0426 0.0112 0.0152 0.1003 0.0544 0.0620 0.0033 0.0084 0.0624 0.0130 0.0074 0.0041 0.0094 0.0036 0.0317 0.0157 0.0109 0.0796 0.0422 0.2461 0.0198 0.0693 0.0033 0.1118 0.0828 0.2431 0.1275 0.0292 0.0776 0.0081 0.0166 0.0320 0.2517 0.0249 0.0175 0.0100 0.1054 0.0132 0.0104 0.1466 0.0137 0.1971 0.0214 0.0284 0.0115 0.1189 0.0326 0.0193 0.0060 0.0579 0.0051 0.1943 0.0056 0.0053 0.2202 0.0192 0.1356 0.0231 0.0255 0.0241 0.0379 0.3901 0.0148 0.0119 0.0419 0.0742 0.0348 0.0114 0.0076 0.0502 0.0040 0.1321 0.0308 0.0206 0.0523 0.0091 0.0067 0.0709 0.0422 0.1585 0.0855 0.1082 0.1521 0.2720 0.0888 0.0032 0.0577 0.0076 0.0523 0.0668 0.0040 0.0050 0.0124 0.0088 0.0213 0.1106 0.0081 0.0244 0.0208 0.0721 0.2677 0.0045 0.0613 0.0991 0.0305 0.0306 0.0105 0.0135 0.0134 0.0069 Diameter TripleInsulation Inches Centimeters 0.0478 0.1071 0.0063 0.0495 0.0644 0.2134 0.0259 0.0172 0.0341 0.0094 0.0174 0.0108 0.0695 0.0076 QuadInsulation Inches Centimeters 0.0492 0.0139 0.0183 0.2022 0.0602 0.0362 0.0069 0.0969 0.0957 0.0782 0.0599 0.0342 0.0170 0.0112 0.0970 0.0358 0.0229 0.0287 0.9410 2.0520 0.0032 0.1250 0.0091 0.0284 0.0279 0.0224 0. .1143 0.0394 0.0163 0.0267 0.0488 0.0097 0.0185 0.0102 0.0263 0.2809 0.0035 0.2256 0.0273 0.0095 0.0396 0.0145 0.0037 0.0670 0.0188 0.1084 0.0030 0.0582 0.1072 0.0323 0.0072 0.0963 0.0026 0.0152 0.0558 0.0340 0.0074 0.0195 0.0141 0.0091 0.2172 0.0047 0.1905 0.0470 0.1392 0.0805 0.0867 0.0684 0.0437 0.0044 0.0089 0.0052 0.0057 0.0127 0.1636 0.0113 0.0081 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0206 0.0442 0.0254 0.0554 0.0160 0.0376 0.0066 0.2520 0.0043 0.0084 0.1557 0.0029 0.0156 0.0078 0.0206 0.0548 0.0648 0.1816 0.0027 0.0777 0.0897 0.0037 0.0070 0.1026 0.0404 0.0178 0.0866 0.
000 100 100 200 300 Film Insulation Temperature.000 10. .000 10. Then the terminal can be dipsoldered at the prescribed temperature without prior stripping. The ambient temperature range for this type of film insulation is 105°C to 180°C. Inc. with this solderable insulation.000 I Bl I " Formvar 105°C Insulation MW15C w 1. for 105°C Formvar Insulation. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. °C Figure 417. Thermal Endurance. The magnet wire.20. as shown in Figure 418. °C Figure 416. 20.000 Polyimide (ML) 220°C Insulation MW16C 100 100 200 300 Film Insulation Temperature. high volume applications.000 o if a 2 1. Thermal Endurance for 220°C Polyimide Insulation (ML). is wrapped around the terminal or pin. All Rights Reserved. Solderable Insulation Solderable insulation is a special film insulation that is used on magnet wire in low cost.
All Rights Reserved. the coil will retain its shape. Prior to using. which are insulated with high temperature films. acetone. Solderable Insulation on a Dip Solder Terminal. which will hold the coil form until it is ovenbaked. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. held in a form. Some solderable film insulation is not recommended where severe overloads may occur. such as a solvent. See Figure 419. Most adhesive coatings can be softened with solvents or heat. as if going from a single to a heavy insulation. Bondable magnet wires have applications such as armatures. They are used in applications where it is desirable to have the bonding agent. and methylethylketone. in Table 411. magnet wires are a filmcoated. and selfsupporting coils. and then raised to the appropriate temperature. If a coil is wound with an irregular shape. . care should be taken in selecting wires. Bondable Magnet Wire Bondable. check your application with the wire manufacturer. since the adhesive coating may not withstand the equally high temperatures. by the same magnitude. However. The temperatures. field coils. Inc. with an additional coating of a thermoplastic adhesive. The addition of the adhesive coating over the film insulation will result in an increase in the finished diameter. due to prolonged exposure to strong solvents. are for reference only. It is wise to always check with the manufacturer for the latest in materials and application notes.There are drawbacks in using some of the solderable insulation magnet wire. Base Film Insulation All conventional film insulations may be adhesivecoated to achieve a bondable wire. Bondable Thermoplastic Adhesive Film Insulation Copper Wire Figure 419. Some solderable film insulations are susceptible to softening. See Table 411. copper or aluminum. Typical CrossSection of a Bondable Magnet Wire. Terminal Dipped Solder Connection Strain Relief Solderable Insulation Figure 418. such as alcohol.
There are many activating solvents that can be used: denatured ethyl alcohol. Just solder the coils in series then adjust the applied voltage until the same current is reached. Small components can use a controlled hot air blower to bond the wires. heat distribution resulting in a good bonding throughout the winding. A crosssection of a number 26. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. will be the same current required when many are connected in series.150°C 180°220°C Solvents Activating Agents Alcohol Methylethylketone Acetone Methylethylketone None Bonding Methods Heat Bonding may be accomplished by the use of a temperaturecontrolled oven. In either case. The solvents should always be checked on with the manufacturer for the latest in materials and application notes. allows the design of compact coils to deliver more power in less space. Resistance Bonding is a method where a current is passed through the winding to achieve the desired bonding temperature. See Table 412. heavy build. . MWS Microsquare film. This method generates a very even. methylethylketone and acetone. Solvent Bonding is a method where the solvent activates the bonding material. Microsquare magnet wire is available in both copper and aluminum. insulated magnet wire. Many coils can be resistancebonded at the same time. isopropyl alcohol. Inc. It is also available in a range of solderable and high temperature film insulation. microsquare magnet wire is shown in Figure 420. by passing the wire through a solventsaturated felt pad or a light spray application. Miniature Square Magnet Wire When product miniaturization calls for more copper in a given area.Table 411 Bondable Overcoats Type Polyvinyl Butryal Epoxy Polyester Nylon Operating Temperature 105°C 130°C 130°C 155°C Heat Activation Temperature 120°140°C 130°150°C 130°. This can be done. The current required for one coil. caution should be used when handling the coil while it is still hot. since deformation can take place.
002038 0.0668 0.0005568 0.1514 0.0126 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0002802 0.019614 3041 0.0361 0.0427 0. CrossSection of a #26.0312 0.0008458 0.0445 cm Figure 420.002412 0.002813 0.1212 0.0142 0.0455 0.0599 0.000460 0. crosssection only.0295 2361 1832 1500 1165 954 742 610 480 374 316 232 197 156 122 0.0001782 0.1080 0.0254 0. The flux generated by the magnet wire is shown in Figure 421.0389 0.001006 0.0320 0.0508 0.0940 0.000787 0.0011521 0. All Rights Reserved.003596 0. which is termed the skin effect.1184 0.003096 0.0409 0.0100 0.0403 0.0445 cm Film Insulation Copper Wire 0. as shown in Figure 422.0724 0.0000879 0.0453 0.015228 0.0004382 0.0226 0.006153 0.1354 0. and at low frequencies.001173 0.0330 0.000239 0. Microsquare Magnet Wire.0001459 0.0003602 0. since the current carried by a conductor is distributed uniformly across the conductor.0749 0.000914 0.0366 0.0253 0. with direct current.1323 0.0287 0.0359 0.007514 0.1054 0. and the predicted efficiency is altered.0571 0.009675 0.001271 0.0348 0.0007147 0.0002294 0.1151 0.1450 0.004786 0.0013568 0. This is the result of magnetic flux lines that generate eddy currents in the magnet wire.0285 0.000719 0.000587 Q/cm 0.002227 0.0404 0.000293 0.0445 0.0620 0.0556 0.0021909 0.1024 0. There is a concentration of current near the wire surface at higher frequencies.0159 0.001496 0. Inc.000591 0.0029372 91 Multistrand Wire and Skin Effect Electronic equipment now operate at higher frequencies.004822 0.0912 0.0320 0.1290 0.0017134 0.0968 0.0511 0. Table 412 MicroSquare Magnetic Wire (Nominal Dimension) Wire Size AWG Bare Width cm Bare Width Inch Wire Area Wire Area Copper Resistance Aluminum Resistance Single Width cm Heavy Width cm 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 sqmils Q/cm cm" 0.0688 0.0643 0.001388 0.000186 0.003935 0.0498 0.0772 0.0536 0.000377 0.0841 0.0.0113 0.0813 0.1483 0.0574 0.000144 0.0480 0.0179 0.011816 0. Heavy. .0001132 0.0277 0.0201 0.0866 0.001891 0.
Inc. where the current density has fallen to l/e or 37 percent of its value at the surface. is equal to 1 for copper When selecting the wire for high frequency. (j) Magnet Wire Current. The magnitude of this effect. Reduce Skin Effect in Transformers Skin effect accounts for the fact that the ratio of effective alternating current resistance to direct current is greater than unity. 6. (>. field. All Rights Reserved. magnetic permeability. Eddy Currents Generated in a Magnet Wire. <j> Internal Flux. The skin depth is defined as the distance below the surface. R R=1T = 1 t46] K dc Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . is the skin depth /. is sufficient to require further evaluation of conductor size. which causes surface crowding of the magnet wire. Figure 422. and inductance. Eddy currents setup by the internal flux.62 [cml [45] e. select a wire where the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1.External Flux. at high frequency on conductivity. Flux Distribution in a Magnet Wire. Magnet wire crosssection Main current direction Note: The main current shown in the center is being cancelled by the eddy currents. isfrequencyin hertz K. I Figure 421. during design. This forces the current to the surface.
00137 is AWG #26 with 0.00128 cm2. (See Table 49). Wire Diameter I(jc Current Density AI Current Density Skin Depth Figure 423. select the largest wire. as shown in Figure 423. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm] = 00418. [cm2] [49] A H{B) = 000137.0209. AI. The skin effect depends on the amount of ac current AI in the inductor.0209). [cm2] The wire size closest to this area of 0. operating at 100 kHz. [cm] [48] 0^=2(0.Using this approach. while using Figure 423 as a reference.14)(0. 6 = /100. •i £'. The dc current travels in the center of the conductor. and the ac travels on the surface of the conductor. The high frequency inductor current has two components: the dc current. AI. [cm] The wire diameter is: DAWG=2(£]. All Rights Reserved. Calculating Skin Effect in Inductors Inductors have skin effect problems just like transformers. DC Inductor High Frequency Current Distribution.000 = 0. The following procedure is used to calculate the high frequency current density. Inc. [cm] The bare wire area AW(B) is: 4B) (3. I<jc and the ac current.0418) . .
All Rights Reserved. Dn=DAWC2s. J should be: A/rms current density < Idc current density Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm2] [414] The ac current. An=*^> [cm2] [413] The high frequency wire area. DAWG. Aw(B) and the new area.per. = rms_ ^ [amps. e from the diameter. An. . An. AW(A1) is the difference between the wire area. V)=4 w ( f l )4. AI^s current density.cm2 ] The delta rms current. AI^.The skin depth equation is: ' [cm] [410] I v/ Calculate the diameter of the copper conductor: . Inc. [amps] [415] »3 Calculate the current density for the delta rms current. The AImls current is: . AI in an inductor is a triangular waveform. [cm] [411] Subtract two times the skin depth. [cm] [412] Calculate the new wire area.
Hz Figure 424.01 0.001 IK 10K 100K IMeg Frequency.A graph of skin depth. The relationship of skin depth to AWG radius is shown in Figure 425. Inc. AWG Versus Frequency at Which Skin Depth Equals the Radius. as a function of frequency. where Rac/Rdc= 1 is plotted on a graph of AWG versus frequency. All Rights Reserved. is shown in Figure 424. a J I 60 30 20 10 Skin depth is less than the wire radius. 1. the largest wire that should be used is a number 26. . Skin Depth Versus Frequency. In Table 413. see Table 413.001. IK 10K 100K Frequency. To illustrate how the AWG ac/dc resistance ratio changes with frequency. it can be seen that when a converter operates at 100 kHz. with an ac/dc resistance ratio of 1. Ffz IMeg Figure 425.1 CJ •s cx 0.0 : 0. 50 40 bJO Skin depth is more than the wire radius. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Magnet wire suppliers will supply larger. . The minimum and maximum number of strand for standard litz wire is shown in Table 414.000 1.0 19.014802 0. Table 414 Standard Litz Wire AWG 30 32 34 36 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Minimum Strands 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Approximate AWG 25 27 29 31 33 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Maximum Strands 20 20 20 60 60 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 Approximate AWG 17.527 1.999 2.014802 0.214 1.0 21.16132 0.006 1.02557 cm 0.029606 0.Table 413 AWG ac/dc Resistance Ratio at Common Converter Frequencies 25kHz D(AWG) 50kHz Rac Rdc 100 kHz Rac Rdc 200kHz Rac Rdc £ £ £ £ Rac Rdc AWG 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 cm 0.06422 0.530 1.029606 0.020934 0.03219 0.699 2.020934 0.077 1.020934 0.000 1.214 1. twisted magnet wire on request.000 1.020934 0.001 1.5 21.001 1. due to the skin effect. Multistrand Litz Wire The term litz wire is extracted from the German word.014802 0.303 1.020934 0.029606 0.5 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 22.029606 0.300 1.12814 0.000 1. skin depth is at 20°C.000 1.829 1.410 1.136 1.000 1.014802 0.033 1.211 1.447 2.041868 0. This multistrand configuration minimizes the power losses. Litz wire is generally defined.668 1.5 25.020934 cm 0.08085 0.0 21. Inc.041868 0.014802 0.000 2. All Rights Reserved.014802 0.10178 0.020934 0.5 20.014802 0.029606 0.078 1.041868 0. film insulated wires.704 2.041868 0.0 18.029606 0. meaning woven wire.014802 0.029606 0.041868 0.029606 cm 0. as a wire constructed of individually.000 1.020934 0.041868 0.007 1.000 1.032 1.05101 0.029606 0.020934 0. otherwise encountered.5 23.006 1.407 1.20309 0.041868 0.011 1.000 3.014802 0.0 18.020934 0.04052 0. in a solid conductor.041868 0.029606 0.0 25.000 2.041868 cm 0.041868 0.137 1.000 AWG Copper.5 18.014802 1. braided together in a uniform pattern of twists and length of lay.672 1.5 19.
(j> Internal Flux. which is beyond the intent of this effort. Flux Distribution in a Magnet Wire. All Rights Reserved. A magnet wire with its distorted current density is shown in Figure 428. on one side and subtracting from the main current on the other. and causes crowding on the other. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. field. Proximity effect is caused by eddy currents induced in a wire due to the alternating magnetic field of other conductors in the vicinity. <> Main Current. to the dc resistance. With it came along some new tasks for the engineer to address skin effect and proximity effect. Figure 427. I. Eddy Currents Generated in a Magnet Wire. I Magnet Wire Figure 426. The eddy currents produced by these effects have the same solution. providing an indepth analysis of the losses due to proximity effect. External Flux. The eddy current enhances on one side.Proximity Effect The operating frequency for power supplies is now in the range of 50 to 500 kHz. The flux generated by the magnet wire is shown in Figure 426. Eddy currents setup by the internal flux. The references are excellent. keeping the ratio of the ac resistance. The eddy currents cause a distortion of the current density. therefore enhancing the main current. . as shown in Figure 427. Magnet wire crosssection Main current direction Note: The main current shown in the center is being distorted by the eddy currents. This distortion is the result of magnetic flux lines that generate eddy currents in the magnet wire. They are quite similar in that they both generate eddy currents in the magnet wire. R<jc down: RR=^R [417] dc The information provided here on proximity effect is taken from the five references provided at the end of this Chapter. Inc. Rac. <j).
All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. is equal to 24. Showing Distorted Surface Crowding. Magnet Wire. AT or magnetomotive force. mmf The Secondary layer 3 Secondary layer 2 Secondary layer 1 Primarylayer 3 Primarylayer 2 Primarylayer 1 Bobbin Center leg Magnet wire Figure 430. mmf. Showing the MagnetoMotive Force. evenly spaced. Proximity Effect in Transformers Proximity effect has a minimum of impact on a transformer with a single layer secondary. mmf Secondarylayer 1 Primarylayer 2 Primarylayer 1 Insulation Core Center leg Figure 429. QQQQ Multiple Layer High Frequency Transformers and High Loss The proximity effect is outlined for a transformer having a secondary with three layers.Surface Crowding Magnet Wire Figure 428. Keeping the proximity effect to a minimum requires the transformer to be designed with a minimum of layers. (mmf) or Fm. Spatial Illustration 0. A schematic diagram version of the transformer is shown in Figure 431. The transformer has a 24 turn primary and a 24 turn secondary at 1 ampere. as shown in Figure 429 along with its low frequency magnetomotive force (mmf) diagram. Simple Transformer Showing mmf. . It is assumed that the high frequency penetration depth is 25%. Insulation Spatial Illustration 0. A Simple Transformer. The selection of a core with a long narrow window will produce a design with a minimum of layers. as shown in Figure 430. in the same way as picking a core for a minimum of leakage inductance. Inc. transformer. showing the different magnetomotive force (mmf = Fm) potentials.
llg in the winding layer. Ic. I0. The magnetomotive force. fa set up by the load current. The current. Fm = 8 AT. Inc. is the counter current induced by the magnetomotive force. each wire uses only 25% of the available area. out. The magnet field. and the secondary will have three identical layers. Transformer Schematic Diagram Showing mmf. mmf. To the right of S3. The winding currents are tabulated in Table 415. <t>2 set up by the load current.8. Core Window o Primary 1st Layer >. to preserve the original load current. [magnetomotive force. If the current in each layer is just the 1 amp. would be 4:1. [magnetomotive force. 24 AT or Ic = 3 amps. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The current. The load current. mmfj [418] The schematic diagram as shown in Figure 431. of 1 amp. will generate 16 AT or Ic = 2 amps to preserve the original load current. This is in the opposite direction to the normal current flow that cancels the load current./V/. mmfj cgs. Due to the skin effect or penetration depth. RR. The summation of the currents is given in Table 415. as discussed above. the ac to dc resistance ratio. SI. I0. 1. the rrnnf is 0. It is in the opposite direction to the normal current flow and cancels the load current. Fm will generate. S2. 2Ig. At the left of S3. o ^ Current. The magnet field.Load Current. equals 1 amp. Therefore. Fm = 0. I0. Fm. 2. The surface currents successive layers become much larger. the current will be crowded into 25% of the available copper wire. is the adjacent winding induced current. in the winding layer. Ic induced by mmf to counter the mmf current induced by the adjacent winding. I0 of 1 amp in layer S3 will generate a current. equals 1 amp. is used as a guide to show how the proximity effect impacts the layer wound transformers. I0. I0. Io = 1 amp 2nd Layer 3rd Layer > Current. with each layer having eight turns. plus the difference between Ic and Ig in S2 will generate. and limited in penetration. I0. The magnetomotive force. .Fm = N I. !„ induced by mmf in the adjacent winding due to the load current. All Rights Reserved. Figure 431. due to skin effect of only 25% of the conductor's thickness. Ig.
The vertical scale is. from the data in Table 415 that transformers with multiple layers operating at high frequency could be a real problem with proximity effect. The equation for K is: K= h = OM6DAWC [419] Where: p 1 1 —. is the ratio of the effective conductor height. The horizontal scale. each separation is a segment. e. Inc. These are segmented layers. Proximity Effect Using Dowell Curves Dowell curves on proximity effect are shown in Figure 433. On the right side of the curve it is labeled Number of Layers. EE Cores. [420] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. K. . RR. the ratio of Rac to RdC. will reduce the number of layers to a minimum. Segmented layers are when the secondary is interleaved with the primary. Comparing the Standard and the Special Long Tongue EE Cores. Standard EE Core Configuration Figure 432.Table 415 Secondary Current Levels Winding Io amps Ic amps 0 1 2 lo + Ic lo + Ic amps amps 2 I* amps 0 1 2 Total Wire Current amps (I0 + I C ) 2 = 1 S3 S2 SI 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 9 (I0 + I c ) 2 +(I g ) 2 =5 (I0 + I c ) 2 +(I g ) 2 =13 It can be seen. The selection of a core with a long winding length to a winding height ratio. Bobbin Secondary ][ ^^^gj^jjjjjj. The eddy current losses caused by the proximity effect go up exponentially as the number of layers. or layer thickness. [j[fv££ffiv<v> •»•»•> In Bobbin EE Cores Primary  Special Long Tongue EE Core. to the penetration depth. as shown in Figure 432. then.
With a skin effect penetration depth of 25%. Inc. A and B. Both transformers. N. Ratio of ac/dc Resistance Due to Proximity Effect. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Equation 421 is simplified to: [421] h = 0. it has only half the low frequency magnetomotive force (mmf). Compare the loss ratio between the transformer in configuration A with two layers and transformer B that has the secondary interleaved with the primary. K. Using the Dowell curves as shown in Figure 433. but since the windings on transformer B are interleaved. 100 10 Figure 433. All Rights Reserved.The variables in Equation 420 are described in Figure 434. it will yield a. factor of 4. lw. as shown in Figure 435.866Z). then. times the wire diameter. It can be seen that if the number of turns. TV = turns/layers Magnet Wire COOOOOOO t Figure 434. DAWG are equal to the winding length. Winding Layer Parameters. have the same AT. .
Inc. UL19503e 5. particularly when windings are multilayered. . conducive to optimal designs for high frequency. then read the vertical column on the left. All Rights Reserved. Now follow the dotted line up to where it intersects 2 layer. mmf A B Figure 435.There is a vertical dotted line shown in Figure 433. Originally these IEC specifications were developed around linear 50 and 60 Hz transformers.25. EN60950 4. the IEC has specifications for office machines. IEC950 3. RR. designed to the IEC/VDE safety specification. CSA 95095 The engineer must be aware that one specification does not encompass all applications. 0. by a factor 3. coupling has the highest priority because of the leakage flux. Triple Insulated Wire Transformers designed to meet the IEC/VDE safety specification requirements for creepage and clearance must adhere to one of the following specifications: 1. electromedical equipment. then read the vertical column on the left. appliances. with its exponentially losses tends to be the dominant conductor loss mechanism in high frequency magnetic components. Specialty Wire There are a lot of new ideas out in the wire industry. dataprocessing equipment. where K = 4. such as switching power transformers. is shown in Figure 436. The complexity of a standard. mmf Core 0. if only the engineer had the time to evaluate these new concepts to build confidence and apply them. switching type transformer. The proximity effect. RR = 13. always. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and were not. mmf 0. Transformers Wound with Different Primary and Secondary Configurations. For example. RR = 4. Transformer B with its interleaved windings has a lower ac to dc resistance ratio. high frequency. Follow the dotted line up to where it intersects 1 layer. VDE0805 2. and others. In any switching transformer.
insulated wire eliminates the need for the creepage margin. insulated wire was developed to meet the above specification and eliminate the need for three layers of insulating tape between primary and secondary. . The triple. This wire can also be used as hookup wire. Triple.002 and 0. the whole bobbin can be used for winding. without the use of sleeving or tubing. Rubadue Wire Company. ^\ Triple Insulated Litz High frequency litz wire. The manufacturer. ^ Copper conductor 1st insulation layer 2nd insulation layer 3rd insulation layer Figure 437.Wrapper Insulation Bobbin Flange Secondary Winding Area Winding Area Primary 3 Layers Insulation Minimum Positive Tape Barrier Figure 436. All Rights Reserved. Insulated Wire Construction. Inc. and now. Bobbin CrossSection Design to Meet IEC/VDE Specifications. insulated wire are shown in Table 416.003 inches. The construction of the triple. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. is also available as a triple insulated wire from manufacturers. to the circuits. Also.002 inch coat per layer. The dimensions for triple. The insulation layers' thickness for litz wire comes in 0. 1st insulation layer 2nd insulation layer 3rd insulation layer Copper conductor Film Insulation Figure 438. from the primary or secondary. The temperature range for this type of wire is from 105°C to 180°C. using a 0. Triple. shown in Figure 438. is listed in the Reference section on page 441. Insulated Litz Wire. Other thicknesses are available. insulated wire is shown in Figure 437. the triple.
0170 0. See Table 48.7595 0.0200 0.0040 0.5105 0.4039 0.3200 0. and it does not have the sharp edge problem that could cut insulation in the way foil does.2800 1. or even a Faraday shield.4547 0.0179 0.0440 0.5951 1. Inc.5310 5.0236 0. Polyfilar magnet wire can be used as a foil type winding.3607 0. such as a low voltage.5740 0.9119 0.0126 0.6470 0. Round polyfilar magnet wire is shown in Figure 439.1270 0.0405 1. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1160 3. It is relatively easy to wind.0262 0. The polyfilar.0479 1.0142 0. and square polyfilar is shown in Figure 440.0285 0.1880 4.4064 Polyfilar Magnetic Wire Poly or multiple strands of magnet wire.0523 1.1176 0.0160 0.2167 0. unless it is just a few turns.4318 0. If the use of polyfilar is necessary. bonded together.0253 0.0159 0.2870 0.0063 0. Both can be used in place of foil in some applications.8788 0. can be used in many high frequency transformer and inductor applications.0320 0.0201 0.0321 0.0233 0.3284 0.2540 0. then use a magnet wire with a film insulation that has a low dielectric constant. magnet wire strip width can be easily increased or decreased by adding or removing wires to provide the proper strip width to fit a bobbin.0050 0.6248 0. All Rights Reserved.1266 0.9474 0.2903 0.0811 Bare Wire Diameter Diameter inch mm 0.6230 1. because of the penalty in capacitance.5080 0.002) Material AWG 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 Area cm2(10"3) 13.0346 0.0287 0.0508 1.0299 0.7087 0.5918 0.Table 416 Triple Insulated Wire (.1600 0.7239 0.0359 0. It is not recommended to wind a transformer with polyfilar magnet wire in order to have an exact center tap.4648 0.1016 Resistance uQ/cm 132 166 264 332 419 531 666 842 1062 1345 1687 2142 2664 3402 5315 8572 13608 21266 With Insulation Diameter Diameter inch mm 0.0100 0.0210 0.5880 2.0628 1.3242 0.0220 0.0373 0.2430 2.2280 6. .0246 0.6426 0.8153 0.0080 0.0279 0.2032 0. high current.5067 0.0700 8.6655 0.5588 0.0113 0.0470 1.0403 1. Polyfilar wire has complete insulation.0226 0.0183 0.8046 0.2011 0.8128 0.
. the gain in the fill factor is the biggest improvement over litz. StripBonded. within limits. When operating transformers at high frequencies. there is a percentage of the winding area which cannot be used for the conductors. Square Magnet Wire. the skin effect becomes more and more dominate. Standard Foils The biggest advantage for using foil over magnet wire is the fill factor. high frequency. In the litz design. and the insulation film on the wire. dc to dc converter is common place. a litz design is shown in Figure 441. The main reason for going to high frequency is the reduction in size. Polyfilar. To make a comparison. and requires the use of smaller wire. This lost area is made up of voids. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Bondable Thermal Adhesive Copper conductor Film Insulation Figure 439. more parallel strands of wire will have to be used (litz wire). The foil wound coil. Each turn of the foil can extend. Inc. then. and a foil design is shown in Figure 442. When using foil. If larger wire is required. as long as the foil has been rolled to remove the sharp burr as shown in Figure 446. edgetoedge of the bobbin or tube. The power transformer is the largest component in the design. Polyfilar. The insulation required between layers is at a minimum. StripBonded. When designing high frequency transformers. The use of small wire has a large effect on the fill factor. because of the required current density. The design of a high current. Bondable Thermal Adhesive Copper conductor Film Insulation Figure 40. shown in Figure 442. the design equations relate to a very small transformer. can be designed to make optimum use of the available winding area. space between the wires. All Rights Reserved. Round Magnet Wire.
25.625. 0. The Use of Foils Designing transformers and inductors.0 mil. 0. The standard foil materials used. as shown in Figures 443. All Rights Reserved. Foil comes in standard widths. A monumental job. 0. 1. with foil. 1. and 10 mil The engineer will find other thicknesses available. Using Foil with Insulation.6. as shown: 0. Using Litz Magnet Wire. 5. 3. in high current. by transformer engineers.375. Ku.00. under the right conditions. and a high density environment. high frequency. 4.50. 2. and 445. Layer Winding.00 (inches) Standard widths are the widths that are most readily available. are copper and aluminum. What you might be using could be from an overrun. The engineer has a good selection of standard thicknesses as shown: 1. especially if the engineer only does it now and then. and could create problems for you. Layer Winding.0 mil. Winding Build I Winding Length Figure 442. but standard thicknesses should be considered first. . 0. The window utilization factor. 1. Foil has its advantages. in itself.Winding Build Winding Length Figure 441. is a very laborious task. 1.75. in inches. can be greater than 0.0 mil. There are also different styles of prefab foils. without a lot of force.4 mil. 444.00.50. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.25. Be careful of using a nonstandard thickness.50. 2. 2. is finding out where to get the materials. mainly. Inc.0.
. there is normally a minimum buy. Backed Multiple Conductor Sandwiched Conductor Figure 444. The cut edge should be rolled after slitting it. Prefab Foils. Although special slitting is done all the time. Foil with Sharp Edge Burrs after Slitting. special care must be attended to. Prefab Foils. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to remove the sharp burrs that could cut through the insulation. with the sharp edges. at least two times. Therefore it is wise not to use insulation between layers of less than 1 mil. Prefab Foils. Jacketed Conductor Jacketed Multiple Conductor Figure 445. Inc. Figure 446.Cuffed Conductor Backed Conductor Figure 443. All Rights Reserved. as shown in Figure 446. When slitting is done. Sharp edge caused by slitting.
The normal insulation used for foil is very thin. The capacitance buildup is expressed: [422] K = Dielectric Constant MLT = Mean Length Turn N = Number of Turns G = Foil Width. Foil used for winding transformers and inductors should be dead soft. as shown in Figure 447. only more so. . cm The dielectric constant K for different materials can be found in Table 417. All Rights Reserved. One of the biggest problems about using foil is solder wicking. as shown in Figure 47. There is another shortcoming about using foil.When winding transformers or inductors with foil. Inc. and that is. resulting in a shorted turn. Wrapper Bobbin C Core rnmnnn Layer Capacitance Figure 447. This wicking will puncture the insulation. special care must be taken with lead finishing. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Winding with foil. cm d = Layer Insulation Thickness. Foil Capacitance Equation. the inherit capacitance buildup. the coil is still subjected to bowing.
If the toroid were designed to be Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.53.Table 417 Dielectric Constants Material Kapton Mylar Kraft Paper Fish Paper Nomex K 3. second winding 4. Relating to the Winding Mean Length Turn. = 2(D + 2F} + 2(E + 2F} + 7iB. Calculating. first winding (MLT).5 1. If the toroid were designed to be wound by machine.53. Dimensions. first winding MLT2 =2(D + 2F) + 2(E + 2F) + n:(2B+C). relating to the Mean Length Turn. MLT The Mean Length Turn. then that would require a special clearance for a wire shuttle. There are just too many ways to wind a toroid. single winding (MLT>2. (MLT) for a tube or bobbin coil.0 1. is required to calculate the winding resistance and weight for any given winding. Inc. are shown in Figure 448. MLT (toroid) It is very difficult to calculate the Mean Length Turn (MLT) for a toroidal core that would satisfy all conditions. single winding MLT. F = Winding tube thickness (MLT)!.9 Calculating. (MLT). .5 33.62. All Rights Reserved. The winding dimensions. second winding [423] Figure 448.23. (MLT).0 1.
insulation will not help you. The value for the resistivity. .. X.handwound. of the conductor.8(<9Z) + 2 ( H t ) ] . Copper Resistance The dc resistance calculation of a winding requires knowing the total length. in grams per cm' for three different conductor materials. 1. (MLT). p. Inc. of the conductor material. Toroidal Mean Length Turn (MLT). the crosssectional area. and the density. If the design or workmanship is not incorporated. Aw. of the conductor. the crosssectional area. 1.. is an Approximation. the wound inside diameter would be different. of the conductor. Mean Length Turn (MLT) Wound Toroid Toroidal Core The fabrication of a toroidal design is weighted heavily on the skill of the winder. [grams] [421] Electrical Insulating Materials The reliability and life span of a magnetic component depends on the stress level put upon the insulating materials. of the conductor material. . of the conductor. A. p. can be found in Table 47. Copper Weight The weight calculation of a winding requires knowing the total length. then. in uQ per cm for three different conductor materials can be found in Table 47. Aw. Mean Length Turn Toroidal Core OD MLT = 0. A good approximation for a toroidal core. and the resistivity. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. The value for the density. approximation [424] Figure 449. is shown in Figure 449.
455 East 9th Street. 2.C. LaPalma Avenue. "Effects of Eddy Currents in Transformer Windings.References 1. Dowell. pp 155176.rubaduewire. CA 92410 Phone: (909)3814734. 9. Pressman. "The Influence of Wire Characteristics on the Winding Factor and Winding Method. (Triple Insulated Wire). 915 Pembroke Street. pp 341348. Snelling. Germany. H. 5. New York 1991. August 1966. George. 11.C. A.. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.. Dixon. Suite 108.com. London. 1969. Inc. (Special Foils). . Email: www.I. Issue 97. 7. 6. 10. W. 113. pp 13871394. CA 91362. 3. (Special Foils). 1969. Switching Power Supply Design. Watertown MA. CT 06608 Phone: (203) 335 6805. CRC Press. AlphaCore Inc.8. MWS Wire Industries.L. All Rights Reserved. 12. Westlake Village. 1988. Inc. E. B. Soft Ferrites. Carsten. Inc. Coburg.. 1992." Proceedings IEE (UK). Iliffe. CA 92807 Phone: (714) 693 5512. Snelling. Bridgeport. October 1968. Anaheim Hills. 8. No. London. 42 Russell Square. Soft Ferrites.A. L. "High Frequency Conductor Losses in Switch Mode Magnetics." Insulation/Circuits. Rubadue Wire Company.. 4. Power Supply Seminar Handbook. pp 298317. Industrial Dielectrics West. Vol. San Bernardino.. McGrawHill. August 1976. Werner Osterland. Unitrode Corp. 1986." High Frequency Power Converter Conference." Revised June.I. "Wire Catalog. Iliffe Books Ltd. 31200 Cedar Valley Drive. Eddy Current Losses in Transformer Windings and Circuit Wiring." WIRE. E. P. Unitrode Corp. "Orthocyclic Winding of Magnet Wire Without Interleaving Materials. 5150 E. Inc.
. All Rights Reserved. Inc.Chapter 5 Transformer Design TradeOffs Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
to Transformer Power Handling Capability 5. and the Area Product. Ap 11. Relationship. Kg. 3. Kg. . Ap 10. Ap 12. All Rights Reserved. Introduction 2. Transformer Surface Area and the Area Product. to Transformer Regulation and Power Handling Capability 6. Transformer Current Density. Relationship. Ap 7. Transformer Area Product. Inc. Transformer Core Geometry. The Design Problem Generally Power Handling Ability 53 53 54 54 55 56 56 59 511 514 517 520 520 4. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ap. J. Transformer Weight and the Area Product. Transformer Volume and the Area Product. and the Area Product. Ap 9. Ap 8.Table of Contents 1. Weight Versus Transformer Regulation 13.
Each one of these materials has its own optimum point in the cost. nickeliron. Thus. reduction in weight and volume may still be possible by selecting a more efficient core material. power conversion efficiency. Magnetic materials used to design low and high frequency transformers are shown in Table 51. particularly in aerospace applications. some of these constraints will dominate. weight minimization is an important goal. the design of such transformers has an important influence on the overall system weight. Parameters affecting others may then be traded off. Accordingly. The Design Problem Generally The designer is faced with a set of constraints that must be observed in the design on any transformer. One of these constraints is the output power. All Rights Reserved. as necessary. It is not possible to optimize all parameters in a single design because of their interaction and interdependence.Introduction The conversion process in power electronics requires the use of transformer components that are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest item in the conversion circuit. Because of the interdependence and interaction of these parameters. frequency and efficiency spectrum. For example. Finally. size. cost effectiveness is always an important consideration. Another constraint relates to minimum efficiency of operation. but with the penalty of increased cost. P0 (operating voltage multiplied by maximum current demand) in that the secondary winding must be capable of delivering to the load within specified regulation limits. Inc. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. . reductions in both can often be affected. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to achieve the most desirable design. Still another constraint defines the maximum permissible temperature rise for the transformer when it is used in a specified temperature environment. amorphous and ferrite materials. The designer should be aware of the cost difference between siliconiron. and cost. Depending upon the application. When. but with the penalty being in efficiency. judicious tradeoffs must be affected to achieve the design goals. Other constraints relate to volume occupied by the transformer and. by operating the transformer at a higher frequency. judicious tradeoffs are necessary to achieve design optimization. the frequency cannot be increased. which is dependent upon the maximum power loss that can be allowed in the transformer. if volume and weight are of great significance. One of the basic steps in transformer design is the selection of proper core material.
and toroidal tape wound cores. Typically.40.030.10.0080.51. Relationship.6 20K 2714A 0. an assumption is made that a good working level is 200 ampspercm (1000 circular milsperampere). the power handling capability of a core is related to its area product. Table 51.650.Transformer designers have used various approaches in arriving at suitable designs. Magnetic Materials and Their Characteristics Magnetic Core Material Characteristics Initial Flux Density Curie Temperature Permeability Tesla °C Bs Hi Iron Alloys 750 1.5 K 940 1.05 0. Ap.040. Material Name dc.Permalloy 12K100K 460 0.58 Orthonol 460 0. Inc. and the core crosssection. For example.35 0. to Transformer Power Handling Capability Transformers According to the newly developed approach.8 Magnesil 1. This method assigns to each core a number called the area product.5 * Field Anneal.50.421.92.01. Ap. fertile cores.5 100300 NiZn 151500 150450 0. They are available for laminations.150. Coercive Force.30.2 Ferrite MnZn 0. He Oersteds 0. but the wire size needed to meet this requirement may produce a heavier and bulkier transformer than desired or required.7515K 0.51. Wa.008 0.08 0. Ac.0030. and to develop a more economical design with great accuracy.6 0. a rule of thumb is used for dealing with current density. .04 0.660. That is the product of the window area.30.2 0. powder cores. manufacturers have assigned numeric codes to their cores to indicate their powerhandling ability.82 10K50K Supermalloy Amorphous 370 3K 2605SC 1. which may be stated as: Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. in many cases. C cores.2 Supermendur* 0. This rule of thumb will work in many instances. The information presented in this Chapter makes it possible to avoid the assumption use of this and other rules of thumb. All Rights Reserved.8 K 500 2K 1. The core suppliers use these numbers to summarize dimensional and electrical properties in their catalogs.82 Sq. Ap.02 <0.020.5 Operating Frequency f <2kHz <lkHz <2kHz < 25kHz < 25kHz < 250kHz < 250kHz < 250kHz <2MHz < 100MHz Power Handling Ability For years.58 >200 >200 30K Vitro perm 500 1.25 0.30. by an equation.
[cm4] [5_l} Where: Kf = waveform coefficient 4. they can also be designed for a given regulation.44 sine wave From the above. Ke. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The regulation and powerhandling ability of a core is related to two constants: «=—^—. Kg. . and window utilization factor Ku. All Rights Reserved. define the maximum space which may be occupied by the copper in the window. have an influence on the transformer size. to Transformer Regulation and Power Handling Capability Although most transformers are designed for a given temperature rise. in a minimum amount of time. Because of their significance. Relationship. frequency of operation. Kg.44 sine wave From the above. the area product. is determined by the magnetic and electric operating conditions. which may be related by the following equation: Where: Kf = waveform coefficient 4.A= ' KfKuBmJf —.0 square wave 4. Ap. which may be related by the following equations: g * MLT t [54] The constant. and waveform coefficient. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. A great deal of other information is also presented for the convenience of the designer. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. frequency of operation.0 square wave 4. Inc. are treated extensively in this handbook. (See Chapter 7) is determined by the core geometry. Much of the information is in tabular form to assist designers in making the tradeoffs best suited for the particular application. and the core geometry. Kg. [%] 2K K s * [52] a = Regulation (%) [53] The constant.
Transformer Area Product. as shown in Figures 52 to 54. The relationship is derived according to the following reasoning: Volume varies in accordance with the cube of any linear dimension. Kj and Kp will have a tendency to jump around and not be consistent. Kw. Ks. as shown in Figure 51. treating the volume. Wa=FG. It should be noted. [cm2] [cm ] A W. is a length dimension to the fourth power. whereas area product. [cm2] [56] 4 Ae=DE.25) 7 = 1^1 [510] [511] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. numbers and current density. •*FH E * *• D Figure 51. All Rights Reserved. The constants for tapewound cores. . ( I4 ). such as: KVO. (1). This inconsistency has to do with the core being in a housing. varies as the fourth power: Volume = Kf. without true proportions. The area product. J. [cm3] [57] Ap=K2l\ [cm4] [58] I4=^r [59] \(0.. Ap. Ap of a transformer. Ac. Inc. Transformer Volume and the Area Product. for given regulation and temperature rise. Ap. Ap The author has developed additional relationships between. as a solid quantity without any subtraction for the core window. Ap. Wa and Iron Area. C Core Outline Showing the Window Area. Ap=WaAc. Ap The volume of a transformer can be related to the area product.
Volume = /df K,
K,
.(0.75)
t512]
[513]
The volumearea product, Ap, relationship is therefore: Volume = KvolA(°7i\ [cm3] [514]
in which, Kvol, is a constant related to core configuration whose values are given in Table 52. These values were obtained by averaging the values from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter3. Table 52. VolumeArea Product Relationship. Volume Area Product Relationship Core Type KVoi 14.5 Pot Core 13.1 Powder Core 19.7 Laminations 17.9 CCore 25.6 Singlecoil C Core 25.0 Tapewound Core
Height Volume
Figure 52. Toroidal Transformer Outline, Showing the Volume.
Volume
Figure 53. El Core Transformer Outline, Showing the Volume.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Volume
Figure 54. C Core Transformer Outline, Showing the Volume. The relationship between volume and area product, Ap, for various core types is graphed in Figures 55 through 57. The data for these Figures has been taken from Tables in Chapter 3.
1000
luOQ CJ
of
/
1.0 0. 01
/
/
Laminations
o > 10
^x
x
/
0.1
1.0 10 , Area Product, (Ap, cnv)
100
100(
Figure 55. Volume Versus Area Product, Ap for El Laminations.
1000
luoo o
/
/
:
a
"o > 10
1.0 0. 01
_x
x
X
/
cc Dres
10
„ 100
0.1
Area Product, (A_, cm4)
1.0
100(
Figure 56. Volume Versus Area Product, Ap for C Cores.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1000
100
1 10
Toroidal Cores
1.0 0.01
0.1
1.0 10 Area Product, (Ap, cm4)
100
1000
Figure 57. Volume Versus Area Product, Ap, for Toroidal MPP Cores.
Transformer Weight and the Area Product, Ap
The total weight of a transformer can also be related to the area product, Ap, of a transformer. The relationship is derived according to the following reasoning: weight, W,, varies, in accordance with the cube of any linear dimension 1, whereas area product, Ap, varies, as the fourth power: W,=K,f, Ap=K2l\ [grains] [515] [cm4] [516]
/4=^
[517]
s(0.25)
. I JI I
'=!TH
A,
[518]
075
^ I
[520]
K
(0.75)
[521]
The weightarea product, Ap, relationship is therefore: [522]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
in which, K w , is a constant related to core configuration, whose values are given in Table 53, These values were obtained by averaging the values from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter
3.
Table 53. WeightArea Product Relationship. Weight Area Product Relationship Core Type Pot Core Powder Core Laminations CCore Singlecoil C Core Tape wound Core
Kw 48.0 58.8 68.2 66.6 76.6 82.3
^
The relationship between weight and area product, Ap, for various core types is graphed in Figures 58 through 510. The data for Figures 58 through 510 has been taken from Tables in Chapter 3. 10,000
11000
2 bfl
• ao
100
Laminations
10 0.01
0.1 1.0 10 Area Product, (Ap, cm4) 100
1000
Figure 58. Total Weight Versus Area Product, Ap, for El Laminations. 10,000
5 1000 2
M
x
/•_
100(
' 
100
10 0. 01
0.1
/
//
/
C C cDres 100
1.0 10 , Area Product, (Ap, cm4)
Figure 59. Total Weight Versus Area Product, Ap, for C Cores.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
lOOOF
g 100 2
60 GO
I 10
Toroidal Cores
1.0 0.01
0.1
10 1.0 Area Product, (Ap, cnr)
100
1000
Figure 510. Total Weight Versus Area Product, Ap, for Toroidal MPP Cores.
Transformer Surface Area and the Area Product, Ap
The surface area of a transformer can be related to the area product, Ap, of a transformer, treating the surface area, as shown in Figure 511 through 513. The relationship is derived in accordance with the following reasoning: the surface area varies with the square of any linear dimension ( 1 ) , whereas the area product, Ap, varies as the fourth power. [cm2] [523] [cm4] [524]
A,=KJ\ A =K2l\
A",
(0.25)
/ = M A,
[526]
[527]
,=K<\£\
A2
[528]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The relationship between surface area, A, and area product, Ap can be expressed as: A,=K,A(*S] [530]
in which, Ks, is a constant related to core configuration, whose values are given in Table 54. These values were obtained by averaging the values from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter
3.
Table 54. Surface AreaArea Product Relationship. Surface AreaArea Product Relationship
Ks 33.8 Pot Core 32.5 Powder Core 41.3 Laminations 39.2 CCore 44.5 Singlecoil C Core 50.9 Tapewound Core The surface area for toroidal type transformers is calculated, as shown below.
Core Type
Top and Bottom Surface = 2 — '— , [cm2 ] I 4 J Periphery Surface = (x(OD))(Height), [cm2] A, = —± '— + (x(OD)( Height), [cm2 ]
[531]
Surface Area
Height
Figure 511. Toroidal Transformer Outline Showing the Surface Area. The surface areas for C cores, Laminations and similar configurations are calculated as shown below. There is a small amount of area that is deducted because the sides and the ends are not a complete square. End = (Height) (Length), [cm2] Top= (Length)(Width), [cm2] Side = (Height) (Width), [cm2 ] Surface Area = 2(End)+ 2(Top)+ 2(Side), [cm2] [532]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Height, cm
Length, cm
Width, cm
Figure 512. C Core Transformer Outline, Showing the Surface Area.
Height, cm
Length, cm Width, cm Figure 513. Typical EE or El Transformer Outline, Showing the Surface Area. The relationship between surface area and area product, Ap, for various core types is graphed in Figures 514 through 516. The data for these Figures has been taken from Tables in Chapter 3.
1000
1000
Area Product, (Ap, cnv) Figure 514. Surface Area, A,, Versus Area Product, Ap, for El Laminations.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1000
^s
rvP J,
10
°
^
Jl^
J,^
^
C Cores
100
0)
<g 3
W
o
10
x^
^
^
1.0 10 Area Product, (Ap, cm4)
^^^
:
1.0 0.01
0.1
1000
Figure 515. Surface Area, At, Versus Area Product, Ap, for C Cores.
1000
100
rf
10
&o
Toroidal Cores
1.0 0.001
0.01
1.0 0.1 Area Product, (A_, cm4)
10
100
Figure 516. Surface Area, At, Versus Area Product, Ap, for Toroidal MPP Cores. Transformer Current Density, J, and the Area Product, Ap The current density, J, of a transformer can be related to the area product, Ap, of a transformer for a given temperature rise. The relationship can be derived as follows: A,=K,A(™\ [cm2] [533] [534] [535] [536] And since, [5.37]
Pcu = I2R, [watts] I = AWJ, Therefore, [amps]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
We have: [538]
p
cu = A»j2 (MLT)yVp
[539]
Since MLT has a dimension of length, MLT = K5A(°"} [540] [541] [542]
2 P
[543]
Let:
[544] Then assuming the core loss is the same as the copper loss for optimized transformer operation: (See Chapter 6), Pcu=K7Af75]J2=Pfe P^P^+Pfi A7 = ^8 [545]
[546] [547]
 t548]
To simplify, let:
9 9 =
l
[5.49]
K.
Then, = K9J2A(°25) [550]
Then, letting: [552]
We have: [553]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The relationship between current density, J, and area product, Ap, can, therefore, be expressed as: [554]
The constant, Kj, is related to the core configuration, whose values are given in Table 55. These values have been derived by averaging the values from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter3. Table 55. Constant, Kj, for Temperature Increase of 25°C and 50°C. Temperature Constant, Kj Core Type Pot Core Powder Core Laminations CCore Singlecoil C Core Tapewound Core Kj (A25°) Kj (A50°)
433 403 366 322 395 250
632 590 534 468 569 365
The relationship between current density, J, and area product, Ap, for temperature increases of 25°C and 50°C is graphed in Figures 517 through 519 from data calculated of Tables 31 through 364 in Chapter 3.
1000 800
600
I
400
£> GO a <u 2 200
P0 = Output Power
Pcu,Copper Loss = Pfe, Iron Loss
I u
Laminations
100
0.01
0.1
1.0 10 Area Product, A» (crrr)
100
1000
Figure 517. Current Density, J, Versus Area Product, Ap, for El Laminations.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Kg. Ap The core geometry. The relationship is according to the following: the core geometry.1 1. An (cm') 100 1000 Figure 519. A« (cm*) i.01 0. Iron 100 o.oi o. Versus Area Product. J. Kg. (1). 1000 800 P0 = Output Power Pcu .i Area Product. varies in accordance with the fifth power of any linear dimension. P. . w K = g AKu MLT ^Cm5 5_55j [556] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.o 10 100 1000 Figure 518. Ap.Copper Loss = Pfe. Current Density.u . Ap... Ap> for MPP Cores. Kg. whereas area product.0 10 Area Product. for C Cores. varies as the fourth power. of a transformer can be related to the area product. J. Current Density. Transformer Core Geometry. and the Area Product.Copper Loss » P. Ap. Inc. Versus Area Product. All Rights Reserved. Iron Loss 0..
and Core geometry. from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter 3.0 The relationship between area product. Kp.8) A=K 2 P ~ [560] Let: [561] A Then. These values have been derived by averaging the values from the data taken from Tables 31 through Tables 364 in Chapter3. Constant. Ap. is graphed in Figures 520 through 522. Table 56.9 11.3 12. Kg. .A =K2l4 From Equation 556. for Area Product. whose values are given in Table 56. =l H [559] Substituting Equation 559 into Equation 557. Inc.5 14. Kp Core Type Pot Core Powder Core Laminations CCore Tapewound Core KP 8. Configuration Constant. (0. Kg. Kp. Ap. All Rights Reserved. [562] The constant. and core geometry. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [557] [558] Then. is related to the core configuration.8 8.
(Kg cm3) 100 1000 Figure 520. Area Product. Ap. Area Product. Kg. for El Laminations.001 0. Ap. (K™ air) 10 100 Figure 521. Kg.1 Core Geometry. Versus Core Geometry.1 0.01 0.0 o. 10 g o cu rs o ca < *4 1.0 Core Geometry.i Toroidal Cores o.001 0. Area Product. Versus Core Geometry.1 1. All Rights Reserved.1 10 10 Core Geometry.oi 0. (Kg cnr>) 1. 100 10 ea Produc o C Cores 0.01 0. for MPP Powder Cores.0 10 Figure 522.1000 100 § o 10 o Laminations 1. .0 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ap. Kg.0001 0. for C Cores. Inc. Versus Core Geometry.01 0.
C. a % 10 Figure 523. There are times when the engineer would like to know what the weight impact would be. Contract NAS 32785. Quarterly report No. 10 Graph is normalized at 1 % £ 1. 1. The engineer will raise the operating frequency in order to reduce the size and weight. 1964. Murray. April 20. then the only solution is to change the regulation. R. Klimo.0 top '53 0. 20 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1 1. The regulation of a transformer versus the weight is shown in Figure 523. McLyman. 2. Optimization Study of High Power Static Inverters and Converters. Transformer Design Tradeoffs. . Inc. Weight Versus Regulation. E.Weight Versus Transformer Regulation There are many design tasks where the transformer weight is very important in meeting the design specification. G. W. All Rights Reserved. Pasadena. Muldoon. When the idealized magnetic material has been found and the weight of the transformer is still too high. CA. J. Larson. HAC Trade Study Report 2228/1130. if the regulation were to be increased or decreased. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.0 Regulation. A. B. The magnetic materials will be reviewed for performance at the operating frequency and at minimum and maximum temperatures. 2 NASACR54021. High Frequency Transformer Optimization. References 1. May. and J. Technical Memorandum 33767 Rev.1 0. 1970 3.
Kessler. Whippany. New Jersey IEEE Applied Magnetics Workshop. All Rights Reserved. June 56. .4. Bell Laboratories. F. Design Optimization of Power Transformers. R. F. Judd and D. 1975 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc.
Chapter 6 TransformerInductor Efficiency. Regulation. . Inc. and Temperature Rise Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.
Temperature Rise Versus Surface Area. . At.Table of Contents 1. Required Surface Area. Transformer Efficiency 3. by Radiation and Convection Surface Area. Introduction 2. Dissipation 7. At. 6. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Required for Heat Dissipation 5. Maximum Efficiency 4. Transformer Dissipation. At 8. Regulation as a Function of Efficiency 9. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
All Rights Reserved. The difference between. Maximum efficiency is achieved when the fixed loss is equal to the quadratic loss at rated load. The copper loss increases as the square of the output power. Pfe. P0.u. Inc. is due to losses. The total power loss. and temperature rise are all interrelated. Transformer regulation. K<. Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the output power.Introduction Transformer efficiency. Pfe is the core loss. divided by the output power. Where. and.: Pa. multiplied by a constant. a =^(100). in the transformer is determined by the fixed losses in the core and the quadratic losses in the windings or copper. P0. to the input power. and the copper loss is a variable loss that is related to the current demand of the load. P0. Pcu. and copper loss.n. [%] *0 [61] Transformer Efficiency The efficiency of a transformer is a good way to measure the effectiveness of the design.. The copper loss increases by the square of the current and also is termed a quadratic loss. regulation. P0. The difference between input power and output power is converted into heat. P^. and Pcu is the copper loss.=KcP? Which may be rewritten as: 2 0 [63] [64] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. a. [watts] [62] Maximum Efficiency Maximum efficiency is achieved when the fixed loss is made equal to the quadratic loss. P. . A graph of transformer loss versus output load current is shown in Figure 61. Pz=Pfo+P. as shown by Equation 612. is the copper loss. The core loss is a fixed loss. Thus. This power loss can be broken down into two components: core loss. Pj. Pcu. Not all of the input power to the transformer is delivered to the load.
Pcu = Pfe W 10 PH Copper (l2R) Losses ^.Since: P^Po+Pz [65] The efficiency can be expressed as: ?7= [66] Then. substituting Equation 64 into 66 gives: />„ P0 + Pfe + KP^ Pfe +P0+ KP* [67] And. % 80 100 I 120 Figure 61. Pfo=KP?=Pa. Transformer Losses Versus Output Load Current.. equate Equation 68 to 0. differentiating with respect to P0: dr) dP Pfe+i 'J. All Rights Reserved. Inc.• I 4 Fixed Losses \ 20 40 60 Output Load Current. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.[68] Then. to solve for the maximum. [612] 12 Maximum Efficiency Occurs When. P0 (1 + 2KP0 ) + (Pfe +P0+ KPl ) = 0 [610] P0 2KP* +Pfe +P0 +KP* = 0 [61 1] Therefore. .
In accordance with StefanBoltzmann Law. °C P. Inc. is at a lower temperature. Transfer of heat by thermal radiation occurs when a body is raised to a temperature above its surroundings and emits radiant energy in the form of waves. The layer of air in contact with the hot body that is heated by conduction expands and rises. The transfer of heat by convection is stated mathematically as: Wc=KcF6(n]4P Where: Wc . One reasonable accurate method for open core and winding construction is based upon the assumption that core and winding losses may be lumped together as: And the assumption is made that thermal energy is dissipated uniformly throughout the surface area of the core and winding assembly. is the air friction factor (unity for a vertical surface) 9. is the temperature rise.25. All Rights Reserved. (Ref.Transformer Dissipation. despite the fact that many techniques are described in the literature for its calculation. which ranges from 1. or other medium surrounding the body.0 to 1. by Radiation and Convection Temperature rise in a transformer winding cannot be predicted with complete precision. is the watts loss per square centimeter Kc =2. taking the absorbed heat with it. The next layer. AT (kelvin) Transfer of heat by convection occurs when a body is hotter than the surrounding medium. is the hot body temperature. in turn. . is the ambient or surrounding temperature. is the exponential value. K (kelvin) 7J.17(l<r 4 ) F. replaces the risen layer and. 1) this transfer of heat may be expressed as: Wr=KrE(T}T?} Where: Wr . also rises. This transfer continues as long as the air. which is usually air. on being heated.70(lO~n}w/(cm2/K4) e. being colder. is the relative barometic pressure (unity at sea level) 77. is the emissivity factor T2 . is watts per square centimeter of surface [614] Kr = 5. depending on the shape and position of the surface being cooled The total heat dissipated from a plane vertical surface is expressed by Equations 613 and 615: ) [615] VP [616] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
95.95 45% Convection 55% Radiation 0. Power loss (heat dissipation) is expressed in watts per square centimeter of the total surface area. from the underside of a horizontal flat surface. Inc. is on the order of 1520% more than from vertical surface. Heat dissipation. at sea level. from a surface having an emissivity of 0.) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.01 Emissivity 0.1 a a a Q 0. Degrees °C Figure 62. Temperature Rise Versus Surface Dissipation. New York. . Heat dissipation.001 10°C 100°C AT = Temperature Rise.0 CJ 0. Transformers Engineering. depends upon area and conductivity. All Rights Reserved. 1938. (Adapted from L. by convection from the upper side of a horizontal flat surface. relying on data obtained from Blume (1938) (Ref. Wiley. Dissipation The temperature rise that can be expected for various levels of power loss is shown in the monograph of Figure 62. It is based on Equation 616. Blume. 1) for heat transfer affected by the combination of 55% radiation and 45% convection. 1. F.Temperature Rise Versus Surface Area. At. in an ambient temperature of 25°C. Figure 7.
[wattspercm2 at 25°C] i// = 0. A. Inc.03.0 0. . (expressed as watts dissipated per unit area). A. A. Ap. Tr. of a transformer. 1000 100 of <D 10 00 Laminations 1.1 1. cnv) 100 1000 Figure 63.. All Rights Reserved. At.01 0.0 10 Area Product. of a transformer can be related to the area product. shown in Figure 63. [cm2] [617] In which \y is the power density or the average power dissipated per unit area from the surface of the transformer and. At.. and the area product. is in Chapter 5. The surface area. the following relationship evolves: . Required for Heat Dissipation The effective surface area. PE) is the total power lost or dissipated. Surface Area.Surface Area. From this surface area. [cm2] [618] = And from Figure 63: i// = 0. Ap. At. equation in °C is: [619] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ap. [wattspercm2 at 50°C] The temperature rise. The straightline logarithmic relationship. (Ap.07. is: 4 = — . has been plotted from the data in Chapter 3. Versus Area Product. The derivation for the surface area. required to dissipate heat.
1 10 100 IK 10K Transformer Total Weight .o H "e3 0. . If the transformer is said to be homogeneous. The temperature rise of a typical transformer is shown in Figure 66. Surface Area. At There are two common allowable temperature rises for transformers above the ambient temperature. in cm2. 10 i o ffi I W o i.1 1. A. dissipated..0 10 100 Total Watts Loss. then Figure 65 will give a good approximation for the required time constant for a transformer to reach 63% of the final temperature. Time Required to Reach 63% of Final Temperature. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. required for a 25°C and 50°C rise above the ambient temperature for the total watts. Inc. All Rights Reserved.Grams 100K Figure 65. and the thermal energy is dissipated uniformly throughout the surface area of the core and winding assembly. 1000 25°C Rise 6 u 100 o 1 50°C Rise 10 0.. These temperatures are shown in Figure 64. The surface area. Versus total Watts Loss for Temperature increases of 25°C and 50°C.Required Surface Area. The presented data is used as a basis for determining the needed transformer surface area. A. A. Figure 64.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. assuming that size and weight are to be minimized. or by allowable voltage regulation. Transformer Temperature Rise Time. The assumption is that distributed capacitance in the secondary can be neglected because the frequency and secondary voltage are not excessively high. Transformer Circuit Diagram. All Rights Reserved. Note that a = regulation (%). Regulation as a Function of Efficiency The minimum size of a transformer is usually determined either by a temperature rise limit. Inc. under most operating conditions. Also. to be neglected.Actual Temperature Rise in Transformer Exponential Temperature Rise 9 = Temperature above ambient at any instant t GQ = Initial temperature above ambient 1 2 Time in multiples of thermal time constant. Primary n = NJNL = 1 Secondary Figure 67. low enough. . the winding geometry is designed to limit the leakage inductance to a level. The transformer window allocation is shown in Figure 68. Figure 66. Figure 67 shows a circuit diagram of a transformer with one secondary.
If the transformer has a 1:1 turns ratio. I: a =^*L(100) + ^^(100). is the full load voltage. Then Regulation is: a = ( 1 0 0 )+ (100). assume the transformer. [%] [624] Multiply the equation by currents. VO(F. V0(N.W — = Primary = Secondary [620] Figure 68. V } V. and using the same current density. .R=*V. with a 1:1 turns ratio. Re...). and the core impedance is infinite. [amps] R=RS. Transformer voltage regulation can now be expressed as: .L. is an isolation transformer. A V /' L J [621] in which. All Rights Reserved.„=/„. then: /.. Transformer Window Allocation. and the core impedance.).L.I.=I0R. For the sake of simplicity.. is the no load voltage and. L [%] J V. [ohms] [622] With equal window areas allocated for the primary and secondary windings. J: AV=I. in Figure 65. Inc.I. V ' [625] [volts] [623] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. is infinite.
Radio Engineers Handbook. Pages 2837. F.Primary copper loss is: ^ = A K . [watts] Secondary copper loss is: [6 _ 26] P.. Transformer Engineering. 4 .Y. 2. All Rights Reserved.E. Pages 272 282. [%] ^° [629] References 1.=W.. Blume. Inc. N. New York. the regulation equation can be rewritten to: a = ^(100)... 1943. . Total copper loss is: [watts] [6. 1938. L.Y.27] PCU=PP+PS. [watts] [6 _ 2g] Then. New York. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Terman. John Wiley & Sons Inc.I0. McGrawHill Book Co.F.. Inc. N.
Chapter 7 Power Transformer Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. All Rights Reserved. .
Relationship. All Rights Reserved. 250 Watt Isolation Transformer Design. Using the Core Geometry. Ap. P0. Introduction 2. Relationship. The Design Problem Generally PowerHandling Ability 4. Kg. Output Power. Capability 5. 38 Watt 100kHz Transformer Design. Regulation 7. Kg. to Power Transformer Regulation Capability 8. to Transformer Power Handling Capability 9. Inc. Approach 11. Versus Apparent Power. Approach Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Using the Core Geometry. Pt. Transformers with Multiple Outputs 6. Kg. Different Cores Same Area Product 10. 3. .Table of Contents 1.
since weight minimization is an important goal in today's electronics. power conversion efficiency and cost. a rule of thumb is used for dealing with current density. . Depending upon the application. frequency and efficiency spectrum. One of these constraints is the output power. One of the basic steps in transformer design is the selection of proper core material. Transformer designers have used various approaches in arriving at suitable designs. size. The secondary winding must be capable of delivering to the load within specified regulation limits. Each one of these materials has its own optimum point in the cost. at a penalty in efficiency. but. For example. When the frequency cannot be increased. the design of such transformers has an important influence on the overall system weight. the weight. Another constraint relates to the minimum efficiency of operation. certain ones of these constraints will dominate. judicious tradeoffs are necessary to achieve design optimization. but. Accordingly. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. nickeliron. It is not possible to optimize all parameters in a single design because of their interaction and interdependence. reduction in weight and volume may still be possible by selecting a more efficient core material. by operating the transformer at a higher frequency. cost effectiveness is always an important consideration. amorphous and ferrite materials. This will work in many Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Introduction The conversion process in power electronics requires the use of transformers and components that are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest item in the conversion circuit. judicious tradeoffs must be affected to achieve the design goals. Still another defines the maximum permissible temperature rise for the transformer when it is used in a specified temperature environment. Other constraints relate to the volume occupied by the transformer and. (operating voltage multiplied by maximum current demand). reductions in both can often be affected. Parameters affecting others may then be traded off as necessary to achieve the most desirable design. The Design Problem Generally The designer is faced with a set of constraints that must be observed in the design on any transformer. Typically. For example. in many cases. if volume and weight are of great significance. Magnetic materials used to design low and high frequency transformers are shown in Table 71. P0. Thus. Inc. particularly in aerospace applications. All Rights Reserved. at the penalty of increased cost. The designer should be aware of the cost difference between siliconiron. an assumption is made that a good working level is 200 ampspercm2 (1000 circular milsperampere). Because of the interdependence and interaction of parameters. which is dependent upon the maximum power loss that can be allowed in the transformer. Finally.
PowerHandling Ability For years manufacturers have assigned numeric codes to their cores. Kg.58 0. and to develop a more economical design with great accuracy. Inc. powder cores.5 0.Table 71 Magnetic Materials Magnetic Material Properties Material Name Trade Name Composition Silicon Orthonol Permalloy Amorphous Amorphous Amorphous Ferrite Ferrite 397 SiFe 5050 NiFe 8020 NiFe 2605SC 2714A Nanocrystalline MnZn NiZn Initial Permeability Hi Flux Density Tesla Bs Typical Operating Frequency 502k 502k lk25k 250k 250k 250k 10k2M 0. Ccores. but the wire size needed to meet this requirement may produce a heavier and bulkier transformer than desired or required.201. these codes represent the powerhandling ability.2 0. . Kg. Ap.000 30. ferrite toroids.51.56. and core crosssection area.01. The information presented in this volume makes it possible to avoid the use of this assumption and other rules of thumb.8 1. and is called the area product. and magnetic core manufacturers do not list this coefficient. These numbers are used by core suppliers to summarize dimensional and electrical properties in their catalogs.421.7515k 0.30.51.30. They are available for laminations.4 1500 20. All Rights Reserved. 5k instances.2M100M 1500 2000 25000 1. The regulation and powerhandling ability of a core is related to the core geometry.000 0. Every core has its own inherent.6 0. Ac. and toroidal tapewound cores. The core geometry is relatively new. Wa.5 1.660. This method assigns to each core a number that is the product of its window area. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.82 1. pot cores.
P0. These relationships can now be used as new tools to simplify and standardize the process of transformer design. P0. Capability Output power.n+Po. a primary and a secondary. is divided up in proportion to the powerhandling capability of the windings. Pt. bestsuited for his particular application in a minimum amount of time. to the load. They make it possible to design transformers of lighter weight and smaller volume. P^. Kg. the information has wider utility. Ap. using equal current density.. While developed especially for aerospace applications. and core geometry. P^.Because of their significance. To the transformer designer. the apparent power. Output Power. Wa. Much of the material is in tabular form to assist the designer in making tradeoffs. By definition: Pr=P. for the sake of simplicity. Pt. the area product. and the secondary handles. assume that the window area. then. The primary winding handles. that the core of an isolation transformer has only two windings in the window area. is of the greatest interest to the user. and can be used for the design of nonaerospace. Inc. [watts] P m =~> n [watts] [71] The primary turns can be expressed using Faraday's Law: The winding area of a transformer is fully utilized when: By definition the wire area is: . and. P0. as well. . A great deal of other information is also presented for the convenience of the designer. which is associated with the geometry of the transformer. design procedure. Versus Apparent Power. or to optimize efficiency. without going through a cutandtry. Since the power transformer has to be designed to accommodate the primary. are treated extensively in this book. Assume. is of greater importance. [74] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. / r . P0. All Rights Reserved. Also.
Pj.. P0.. [cm4] [711] [710] [watts] [7. Pt: P(l0 4 ) ^ '—. Then: [cm4] [712] *.g] WaAc = By definition. The input power. m L J [79] Then: ^ = ^ + P o .. Inc. [watts] Substitute in.. is: P./„ > t cm4 ] t7133 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.=V. All Rights Reserved. substitute in Faraday's Equation: " " Rearranging shows: AcBaJK\J . equals: Ar=WaAc. [cm4] acf f *«/•'*/*„ B JK K U [7_ 7 ] The output power.Rearranging the equation shows: [75] Now.f. . is: P"• = Ff / P'.= /'. Ap. [watts] r.
All Rights Reserved. so that Pjn = P0) for the fullwave bridge circuit of Figure 71. for a load of one watt. (neglecting transformer and diode losses. where all the windings have the same number of turns. compare the power handling capabilities required for each winding. ranging from 2 to 2. FullWave Bridge Secondary. depending upon the type of circuit in which the transformer is used.=Pin+Po. CenterTapped Secondary. [watts] [7. centertapped fullwave circuit in Figure 73. (N). and the pushpull. If the current in the rectifier transformer becomes interrupted.828 times the input power. For example. 1 Figure 72. Figure 71. the fullwave centertapped secondary circuit of Figure 72. Pjn. but also. Pt.=2Pin. its effective RMS value changes. due to the current waveform. P. [watts] [715] CR1 n '2 ^ I0 ' CR2 J . Inc. Thus. because of the different copper losses incurred. transformer size is not only determined by the load demand. FullWave. and power handling capability of the transformer core and windings. by application.The designer must be concerned with the apparent power. .14] P. for the circuit shown in Figure 71 is 2 watts. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The total apparent power. This is shown in the following equation: P. Pt. may vary by a factor.
because of the interrupted current flowing in both the primary and secondary windings.828 times. increased 20. PushPull Primary. =Pin(\ +72). for the circuit is shown in Figure 73. for the circuit shown in Figure 72. due to the distorted wave form of the interrupted current flowing in the secondary winding. Pt. Output 5 V @ 10A Circuit centertapped Vj = diode drop = 1 V fullwave bridge V^ = diode drop = 2 V 15 V@ 1A Efficiency = 0.=Pinj2+P042. FullWave.95 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.=2Pinj2. [watts] [718] P.=Pin+P0j2. which is typical of a dc to dc converter. Inc. [watts] [7_ 19] Transformers with Multiple Outputs This example shows how the apparent power. This is shown in the following equation: P. P. Pin. It increases to 2. All Rights Reserved. The total power. changes with a multiple output transformers. Pt. [watts] [717] The total power.7%. Pt.o—* Figure 73. [watts] [?_ 16] P. . CenterTapped Secondary.
U. the transformer outputs will have to be summed to reflect this. Because of the different winding configurations. U. has to be multiplied by the factor.)> [watts] P 0 2 =(15 + 2)(1. All Rights Reserved. [watts] And: Po2=(r02+r<)(la. [watts] [7. U. the factor. then. Inc.Io CR2 y t  V Pi o ^ 1 o $ Rr Figure 74.41.The output power seen by the transformer in Figure 74 is: P 01 =(5 + 1)(10). [watts] P02=17.0). For an example. summing up the output power of a multiple output transformer.21j PI CR1 *. The factor. is equal to 1. When a winding has a centertap and produces a discontinuous current. corrects for the rms current in that winding. then the factor. Multiple Output Converter. If not. Pt. is equal to 1. [watts] P0} = 60. the apparent power. be it primary or secondary. If the winding has a centertap. . would be: [722] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. U. the power in that winding.
[watts] / > = 101. the apparent power. = (60) / (0. equals: P.25] Regulation The minimum size of a transformer is usually determined either by a temperature rise limit. [watts] [?. . All Rights Reserved.8. [watts] /?=(81)(1.41) + (101.95) .Then: P 2 =60(1.=Pin(u) + P. [watts] / > = 215.6. Primary n = NJ1SL = 1 s P Secondary Figure 75.41) + 17(1). assuming that size and weight are to be minimized. or by allowable voltage regulation. [watts] Then. P +P p ^£l P.. L[wattsJ [724] Pm=8l. Inc. then the primary power can be calculated.] After the secondary has been totaled. Figure 75 shows a circuit diagram of a transformer with one secondary. [watts] [12?. Note that a = regulation (%). Transformer Circuit Diagram.6). Pt. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
If the transformer has a 1 : 1 turns ratio. with a 1:1 turns ratio. the winding geometry is designed to limit the leakage inductance to a level. t%] I/ frj T \ V /' V ° (F'L> [726] L J in which.L.). low enough. then: 7 /n=/0> [amps] With equal window areas allocated for the primary and secondary windings.L. assume the transformer in Figure 75. =/„/?„ Regulation is then: [volts] [7 _ 2g] AK \V a=—^(100) + —^(100). a = . [%] s p [729] Multiply the equation by currents. to be neglected under most operating conditions. is an isolation transformer.32] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.).^\V(100). is the full load voltage. Transformer voltage regulation can now be expressed as: V (N.The assumption is that distributed capacitance in the secondary can be neglected because the frequency and secondary voltage are not excessively high. J: = / „ * „ = A F. and the core impedance.'0 [7_30] Secondary copper loss is: ^ = A K s / o . and the core impedance is infinite. Also.). I: 'p'b Primary copper loss is: '.L. and using the same current density. [watts] [7. is infinite. . is the no load voltage and. All Rights Reserved. .L. For the sake of simplicity. V0(F. Re.)K(F. V0(N. Inc.
[watts] c " 100 (100)(2) Pru='^L. the regulation equation can be rewritten to: a =^(100). The regulation and powerhandling ability of a core is related to two constants: a =• P. to Power Transformer Regulation Capability Although most transformers are designed for a given temperature rise. All Rights Reserved. will have a 2 watt loss in the copper: Pcu=^. is determined by the core geometry. A transformer.Total copper loss is: P C U = P P + P S . with an output power of 100 watts and a regulation of 2%. they can also be designed for a given regulation. [watts] 100 p [735] [736] cu =2' twatts] [737] Relationship. * * [738] 2K K a = Regulation (%) [739] The constant. [watts] [?_33] Then. . [cm5] MLT [740] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. which may be related by the following equations: WAlK. Inc. [%] P ° [734] Regulation can be expressed as the power lost in the copper. Kg. Kg. K = " c » .
. frequency of operation. Ap. by an equation which may be stated as: P(l0 4 ) 'l ' . the power handling capability of a core is related to its area product.The constant. [cm4] Where: Kj~ = waveform coefficient 4. Ku. and the window utilization factor. define the maximum space which may be occupied by the copper in the window. Ap. Different Cores Same Area Product The area product. Ke. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. Inc. of the core in square centimeters. Ap. to Transformer Power Handling Capability Transformers According to the newly developed approach.0 square wave 4. crosssectional area.44 sine wave From the above. [cm4] [y _ 43] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. which may be related by the following equation: Where: Kf = waveform coefficient 4. multiplied by the effective. (cm2). (cm2). All Rights Reserved. frequency of operation. of a core is the product of the available window area. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. is determined by the magnetic and electric operating conditions. Relationship. Ac. Wa. in square centimeters.44 sine wave From the above. which may be stated as: Ar=WaAc.0 square wave 4. and the waveform coefficient have an influence on the transformer size.
in outline form. OD Figure 78. Dimensional Outline of a C Core.Figures 76 through Figure 79 show. three transformer core types that are typical of those shown in the catalogs of suppliers. . Dimensional Outline of a Toroidal Core. Inc. Dimensional Outline of a El Lamination. . A c D Figure 76. Wa i i E i . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.«— G D Figure 77.
Kg. 1 Calculate the transformer apparent power. assume with the following specification: 1. P0 5. Kg. V0 3. Dimensional Outline of a PQ Ferrite Core. Window utilization. a 8.=513. [watts] [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. I0 4. Output voltage. Efficiency. Temperature rise goal. Approach The following information is the Design specification for a 250 watt isolation transformer. For a typical design example.6 tesla = Silicon M6X = 0. [watts] P=250\ {0. f 6. Operating flux density. P( — + 1 I. Bac 9. Core Material 10. Output power. Inc. .17 amps = 250 watts = 47Hz = 95% = 5% = 1. Frequency.4 = 30°C Step No. Output current. Using the Core Geometry. 250 Watt Isolation Transformer Design. Vin 2. TI 7. Regulation. operating at 47 Hz. core geometry approach. Ku 11. All Rights Reserved. Tr = 115 volts = 115 volts = 2. using the.A c w a \ \ JL s j L B A ip \ c PQ Ferrite Core Figure 79. Input voltage.95 P.
MPL Core weight. Kg.44)(1. [turns] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.8 cm2 10. Step No.6)2 (lO 4 ) * =1. [turns] Np (4. El150 Thomas and Skinner 22. Kg Surface area.9 cm 2. 4 Select a lamination from Chapter 3. Wtcu Mean length turn. Lamination number Manufacturer Magnetic path length. Ke Kf = 4.6)(47)(13. A.6 cm5 479 cm2 N =—^ ' KfBaJAc —. [sine wave] Ke = 0. . Ap Core geometry. Inc.44)2 (47 )2 (1.8)' Nf = 250. Kg. [cm5] [cm ] Step No. 5 Calculate the number of primary turns. comparable in core geometry.Step No. *••£? ' ^=31. 3 Calculate the core geometry.89 cm2 150 cm4 37.44.7. Wtfe Copper weight. MLT Iron area. Np using Faraday's Law.62 Step No. Wa Area product. All Rights Reserved.145(4. 2 Calculate the electrical conditions. Ac Window area.334 kilograms 853 grams 22 cm 13.
rr^—rr—^ 7. . [amps] V in>l 25 ° ' r i [amps] 4=2. [amps/cm' ] 513(l0 4 ) J = ~.Step No.28. Rp =1. ^ ' Lcm (2. = . 8 Calculate the primary bare wire area.. 10 Calculate the primary resistance. Inc. [ohms] [ohms] cm. Awp(B). . [cm2] Step No. All Rights Reserved. J. [amps] Step No.00822. I.4)(1.15. [cm2] cm = 209..44)(0. 7 . J = KfKuBaJAp ^(io 4 )—. Rp. !„. [cm2] 4^=0. r. in Chapter 4. 6 Calculate the current density. 7 Calculate the input current.6)(47)(150) J = 256. [amps/cm2] Step No. [amps/cm 1 (4.0089. 4^=0. 9 Select the wire from the Wire Table.28) 256 »/>(*) ~ 4^=0.00933. tfp=(22)(250)(209)(lO6). [microohm/cm] Step No. [ohms] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. _4 J = .
Ps.00804. 13 Calculate the secondary bare wire area. . 14 Select the wire from the Wire Table. 12 Calculate the secondary turns. [ohms] Step No. [watts] [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.6 ). 21. vin  ioo ' [turns] (250)(115)( 5 ^ Ns=\ .17) 256 AwsB= 0. Aws(B).00822.=!. ' 1 + .) =5. 16 Calculate the secondary copper loss.5 use 263. [cm2] cm = 209. All Rights Reserved. Pp. [watts] P S =(2. 15 Calculate the secondary winding resistance.. A .98.17) 2 (1. ^ cm J v ' [ohms] /? s =(22)(263)(209)(lO.=llR. [ohms] /?. . [turns] Step No.00933. [watts] Step No. Inc. Rs =MLT(^) — (lO" 6 ).Step No. [turns] (115) t IOOJ Ns = 262. in Chapter 4. P. Rs.21). [cm2] s(B} Step No. A «P(B) = 0. J' .15). Pp =(2. [cm2] 4^=0. Ns. [microohm/cm] Step No.(2. ^=5..28) 2 (1. [watts] P . 1 1 Calculate the primary copper loss.70.
y. Use the equation for this material in Chapter 2.68. [watts/cm2 ] (479) ^ = 0. r (250) a = 4.860 Step No. Pfe = 2.0286. 22 Calculate the watts per unit area. WIK = 0. 21 Calculate the total loss. All Rights Reserved.860)(2. a.00). Inc. [watts/cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] Step No. .68) <*=. Pcu.1. [watts] 1. 19 Calculate the watts per kilogram. p y = —.68. PZ =(11. Pfe=(W/K)(Wtfe)(lO}). [watts] />.33). Pfe. [watts] Pcu=5. W/K. 20 Calculate the core loss.68) + (2.000557 (f) (Bac) 1. [watts/cm2] 4 w = ^ ' / . [watts] Step No.98 + 5. [%] o (11. 18 Calculate the transformer regulation. [watts] Pz= 13.\1 86 [watts] P /e =(0.„=! 1.51 /.86 WIK = 0.Step No.67. Ps. a =^(100). pcu = Pt> + ps.6) = 0. 17 Calculate the total primary and secondary copper loss. . [watts] Step No.000557 (47)' 5 ' (1.00. [%] Step No.
23 Calculate the temperature rise.189) + (0.89) K N = (250)(0.'... 24 Calculate the total window utilization.0286) (0826) . 199 (10.00822) K = ^.9.= 0. =  (263)(0. . All Rights Reserved.Step No.. 7>450(0.89) Ku =(0.388 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Tr. Tr = 23.189 un=~7^x^ "" (10. [°C] Step No. Ku. = 0. K A. Inc.00822) = 0.199) K.
41 Using a single winding. Efficiency.0 volt = 0. Operating flux density. U = 1. Output current #2. Vd 10. All Rights Reserved. V(min) 2. 3. Bac 11. .1(o2) 6. as shown in Figure 74. [cm ] s = 0. E. V(oi. Output voltage #1.0 = 24 volts = 5. Output current #1. Notes: Using a centertapped winding.0 volts = 1. r 8. in centimeters. Using the Core Geometry. f 7. ot 9. centertapped circuit. Core Material 12.05 tesla = ferrite = 0. Kg. fullwave. Frequency. Ku 13. Approach The following information is the design specification for a 38 watt pushpull transformer. ooo =. Regulation. [cm] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Temperature rise goal. assume a pushpull.62 y 100. 0209 . Diode voltage drop.62 TT E= i 6. Tr 14.38 Watt 100kHz Transformer Design. with the following specification: 1.5% = 1. operating at 100kHz. select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1: The skin depth. using the Kg core geometry approach. is: 6. Input voltage.0 amps = 12. V(o2) 5. Inc. Window utilization.0 amps = 100kHz = 98% = 0.4 = 30°C At this point. For a typical design example.1(0) 4.0 volts = 4. Output voltage #2. U = 1.
Inc. = 4(5+1) Pol =24. This will be the minimum wire size used in this design.0209). [cm] DAlva= 0. 1 Calculate the transformer output power. DA\VG> is: 0^=2(0. just in case #26 requires too much rounding off.0418.001021 centimeters.798 0. the wire diameter. P02 = 1(12 + 2) Po2=14. . then the design will use a multifilar of #26.i=I0^oi + Vd} / > „ .0010515 Bare/Ins. [cm2] Aw=±^' 4 =0.001313 0.00137.1416)(0. P P0 = Pol+Po2. [watts ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. number 27 has a bare wire area of 0. is: (3. 0. Listed Below are #27 and #28. the bare wire area. [watts ] [watts] [watts ] P 0 =(24 + 14) P0 =38. All Rights Reserved.765 ufi/cm 1345 1687 2142 Step No. [cm] Then. Aw. [cm2] From the Wire Table 49 in Chapter 4. Wire AWG #26 #27 #28 Bare Area 0.0418)2 . 0. If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification.001603 0.001280 0. [watts] [watts ] [watts ] [watts ] Po2 =I02^o2+Vd}.778 0. [watts ] P.Then.001021 0.0008046 Area Ins.
Pts. 2Kea g [cm 5 ] (102. [watts ] . 2 Calculate the total secondary apparent power. [watts] ^2 =14.Step No. =33. All Rights Reserved. 3 Calculate the total apparent power. [watts] Ptp = PinPa. Pt =102.0177. . 4 Calculate the electrical conditions.8. [watts] ^ 0 2=14(1).8. [watts] ^=(33. [watts] P«o*=P. pa = 47.5. = 4. [watts] ^. [cm 5 ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. K g =——.5' L K =0. Step No. [watts ] Pt =P.*(U). P.P+Pts.8 + 14).=24(1.5) 2(5800)0. [watts] Step No.8. [watts] /L. Kg.05) 2 (lO" 4 ) Ke =5800 Step No.so2. [square wave ] Ke =0. 0.0)? (100000 )?(0. Pt.1 45 (4.41). Inc. Ke [watts ] [watts ] K .s=PKoi+P. 5 Calculate the core geometry.
408 cm4 0. Ku. the engineer has to review the window utilization factor. A Core geometry. the current density. Therefore. 6 Select a PQ core from Chapter 3. 05 )(100000 X°62 )' = 19. comparable in core geometry Kg. AL PQ2020 TDK PC44 4.0 XO. and then.35. W(cu Mean length turn. MPL Window height. [cm5] [cm 5 ] Step No. Core number Manufacturer Magnetic material Magnetic path length . All Rights Reserved. Np. . using Faraday's Law.78. use the ratio of the bobbin winding area to the core window area is only about 0.0177 (1. When using a small bobbin ferrites.6. the core geometry.0239. Kg = 0. Operating at 100kHz and having to use a #26 wire.7 cm2 3020 Step No.43 cm 15 grams 10. Kg. Inc. Wa Area product. in Chapter 4.29.4 cm 0.4 grams 4. [turns ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. K Surface area. is reduced. 7 Calculate the number of primary turns.658cm2 0.When operating at high frequencies.35) K g = 0. the ratio of the bare copper area to the total area is 0.62 cm2 0. the overall window utilization. AC Window area. W(fe Copper weight. MLT Iron area. is to be multiplied by 1. G Core weight. using a window utilization factor of 0.0227 cm5 19. K u . A( Millihenrys per 1000 turns. because of the skin effect. To return the design back to the norm.5 cm 1. is calculated. Kf acJAc ' B fA K B Np = N (4. J.
8 Calculate the current density.61X0. (new)//L2 / cm = //Q/cm (new) wQ / cm = 1345 2 (new)//Q / cm = 673 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm 2 ] Step No.Step No.408)' J =433..00128 p Step No.00263 " ~ 0. [amps / c m 2 ] Step No.61. 11 Calculate the required number of primary strands.707) '. Inc.„ = 1. 05X100000 )(0. Ku = 0. Snp. <« 38 (24X0.5(l0 4 ) (4. 9 Calculate the input current.„. . using a window utilization.29X0. (1. 0X0.29. 12 Calculate the primary new ^0 per centimeter. /I f D\ C _ r V^) np ~ #26 0. J = KfKuBacJ f A p ' if n A [amps / c m ] 102.98)' /. All Rights Reserved. 10 Calculate the primary bare wire area. J. Awp(B). !. [amps ] Step No.
[ohms] [ohms] Step No.Step No. Vs2=12+2. Step No.0563) Pp =0. Vsl=6. • " '. Step No. sl 1 [watts ] v. 14 Calculate the primary copper loss. 100 [turns ] [volts] [volts] [volts] ""»' Nsl =4. V s2 = 14. 16 Calculate the secondary turns.1 use 1 1 .61^(0. Inc. [turns ] N „¥. [turns ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 4X19X673 ^lO'6) Rp= 0. All Rights Reserved. 15 Calculate the secondary turns. Pp =I2pRp. Ns2.5 r Tbo [turns] N J2 =11. [volts] [volts ] 1+ 0.146. Pp. Vsl=5+l. 13 Calculate the primary resistance. (icr6) [ohms] v ' Rp =(4. N sl . Rp. .77 use 5.0563. [watts ] [watts ] Pp =(1.m 'V V s] = V0+ Vd.
A wsl . 6 ).0059...00653 " ~ 0. 0944 . 0)2 (0.00653 . r [cm2 >] 2 (4XQ. 0.uQ / cm = 269 Step No. [ohms] [ohms] Rsl =(4. R s) . Inc.I cm = 1345 (new ). Sns. . 18 Calculate the required number of secondary strands. 707) /) v r a l =0. Psl. S[ new uQ per centimeter. [watts] [watts ] psl = (4. Rs} = 0. 17 Calculate the secondary bare wire area. [cm 2 ] Step No. ns 1 (new )/jQ. = 0.4)(5)(269)(l0^ 6 ).i. 20 Calculate the secondary S] resistance. = 5 . [watts ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.\=ti\R. P. 21 Calculate the secondary copper loss. All Rights Reserved.Step No. 19 Calculate the secondary. A of max . [ohms] Step No.00128 Jl •5.0059) ps . 1 use 5 Step No.
23 Calculate the required number of secondary strands.00128 5M2=1. "s2 #26 0. Ps2. [cm 2 ] Aws2= 0. uQ. Aws2. 25 Calculate the secondary. AWS2=^. S2 copper loss. [cm 2 ] Step No. SnS2. 26 Calculate the secondary. [watts ] [watts] P J2 =(1.0326). I cm = 673 Step No. I cm = — (new )fJ. .2 = 0. . Inc. 22 Calculate the secondary bare wire area. Rs2. 0326 . .Q.00231.0)? (0. [cm 2 ] . 24 Calculate the secondary. Ps2 =0. S2 new ufi per centimeter. RS2 = MLT (N. „ . All Rights Reserved. I cm (new )//Q / cm = —ns 1345 (new )/uQ.4X1 0(673 )(lO6) /?.00231 0. [watts ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0326.Step No. . [ohms ] [ohms ] [ohms] Step No.) (10 6 ) V cm J x ' RS2 = (4.8use 2 Step No. p S2 = fs2^s2. S2 resistance.
3 ) Pfe =0. Ps = Ps] +Ps2. Pcu =Pp+Ps. [wattS ] [watts ] [watts ] [watts ] P£ = (0.273 )+ (0. .127.0944 +0. Pz. 31 Calculate the core loss. 30 Calculate the milliwatts per gram.Step No. Inc. Pfe. Use the equation for this material in Chapter 2.273. Pcu. Ps =0. mW / g = ' mW I g = 0.146 +0.000318 (lOOOOO )'' 51 (0. [watts ] a =£HL(IOO) "o [%] [%] a =0.045.045 ) [watts ] Pz =0. ex.05 f47 mW / g = 3. = PCU + Pfe .01 Step No. Ps. All Rights Reserved. [%] Step No. Step No.0lXl5)(lO. 28 Calculate the total primary and secondary copper loss. Step No. Pcu =0. 27 Calculate the total secondary copper loss. [watts ] [watts ] Step No. 32 Calculate the total loss.718.318. 29 Calculate the transformer regulation. Pje =(mW I g^Wtfe )(l(r3) P / e =(3. Pi.127. [watts ] [watts] Pcu =0.0326. [watts ] Ps =0. mW/g. [watts ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Step No.0973 + 0.00128) = ^ V —v. Inc.016l) ( ° 8 2 6 ) . 33 Calculate the watts per unit area. T (10)(5)(0..658) (11)(2)(0. = 0. 7>450(</) (o .0161.658) A:U =(0. [°C] r r =450(0. Step No.9. .28) (0.288 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.658) _ al * (38X2X000. [watts / c m 2 ] (0. All Rights Reserved.7) n p Y [watts /cm 1 L [watts / c m 2 ] y = 0. 34 Calculate the temperature rise. [°C] Step No. Tr. (19. [°C] TV = 14. .0428) AT.0428 (0.= 0.826) . \\i.0973 "' (0. if/=—— .318 .148) + (0.00128) = v A / vi = 0. Ku. 35 Calculate the total window utilization.
.Chapter 8 DC Inductor Design Using Gapped Cores Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Ap. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability 10. All Rights Reserved. Critical Inductance for Sine Wave Rectification 3. Relationship of. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability 9. Approach 11. Kg. Relationship of. Inc. Gapped Inductor Design Example Using the Area Product. Introduction 2. . Inductors 8.Table of Contents 1. Kg. Ap. Critical Inductance for Buck Type Converters 4. Used in PWM Converters 5. Fringing Flux 7. Approach Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Gapped Inductor Design Example Using the Core Geometry. Core Materials. Fundamental Considerations 6.
Critical Inductance for Sine Wave Rectification The LC filter is the basic method of reducing ripple levels. Inc. a rule of thumb used for dealing with current density is that a good working level is 200 ampspercnr (1000 CirMilsperamp). The information presented herein will make it possible to avoid the use of this and other rules of thumb and to develop an economical and a better design. FullWave Center Tap with an LC filter. This rule is satisfactory in many instances. it is necessary that there be a continuous flow of current through the input inductor. To achieve normal inductor operation. as shown in Figure 82. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. however. LI. the wire size used to meet this requirement may produce a heavier and bulkier inductor than desired or required. The two basic rectifier circuits are the fullwave centertap as shown in Figure 81 and the fullwave bridge. All Rights Reserved. Tl Full Wave Bridge Figure 82. in many cases.Introduction Designers have used various approaches in arriving at suitable inductor designs. For example. FullWave Bridge with an LC filter. Full Wave Center Tap Figure 81.
(i. Therefore. The ripple reduction from a single stage LC filter can be calculated. approaches infinity. the more difficult it is to maintain a continuous flow of current. All Rights Reserved. under an unloaded condition. (no bleeder resistor). The filter inductor operates in the following manner: When R<. Inc. Vr(pk) V r r . the peak voltage.. IQ Figure 83. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.. as shown in Figure 83. the lower the dc load current).. the output voltage will be equal to the peak value of the input voltage. Critical Inductance Point. I0 = 0. L(crt) is: = Where: ' [henrys] co = IK f f = line frequency The higher the load resistance. [voltspeak] [82] CR1 'o ^/Vr(pk) Figure 84. LC Filter Ripple Reduction.The value for minimum inductance called critical inductance. the filter capacitor will charge to Vl pk . > iT L/crt)= Critical Inductance V o I O Load Current.e. R. using Equation 82 and Figure 84. .
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. VI. as shown in Figure 88. Current probe B monitors the commutating current through CR1. The commutating current is the result of Ql being turned off. a slaved output voltage will rise to the value of VI. and the buck type dctodc converter is shown in Figure 8.1 *• ^/ Current Probe B Figure 85. The applied voltage.>\ O . buck output filter. If the current is allowed to go to zero. as shown in Figure 88. Current probe C monitors the current through the output inductor. switching current. Then the output voltage will rise to equal the peak input voltage. is shown in Figure 87A. The commutating current flowing through CR1 is shown in Figure 87C.. The current flowing through LI is the sum of the currents in Figure 87B and 87C. When the current in the output inductor becomes discontinuous. VI • w LI \ i iirrenr Krone i \J T * Ql 111 w f Cl v o 2L CR1 C2 + f 0 in .6. the response time for a step load becomes very poor. If the output load current is allowed to go beyond this point. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The power MOSFET. LI. Ql. Current probe A monitors the power MOSFET. producing the commutating current. as shown in Figure 88. The critical inductance current is when the ratio of the delta current to the output load current is equal to 2 = AI /10. will have ringing at the level of the output voltage. and the field in LI collapsing. 8B and is realized in Equation 83. then. The typical filter waveforms of the buck converter are shown in Figure 87. 8D. The buck regulator filter circuit shown in Figure 85 has three current probes. The critical inductance current is shown in Figure 88. . These current probes monitor the three basic currents in a switch mode. When designing multiple output converters similar to Figure 86. the slaved outputs should never have the current in the inductor go discontinuous or to zero. 8D. Buck Regulator Converter. 8C. The applied voltage.5 duty ratio. The current flowing through LI is shown in Figure 87D. the current will become discontinuous. VI to the filter.Critical Inductance for Buck Type Converters The buck type converter schematic is shown in Figure 85. The waveforms are shown with the converter operating at a 0. Ql. current is shown in Figure 87B. there is no potential difference between the input and output voltage of the filter. If the current goes to zero.
. Inc. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. PushPull Buck Type Converter.VT(\21o(min) . [henrys] [83] V (>> *(> V [84] Figure 86. Typical Buck Converter Waveforms.5 Duty Ratio. 7A Current Probe C Figure 87. All Rights Reserved. Operating at a 0.
o l t Current Probe C Figure 88. as shown in Figure 89. with very rapid falloff at higher flux densities. Bs. because of the availability of manufacturers' literature containing tables. Output Filter Inductor Goes from Critical to Discontinuous Operation. and examples that simplify the design task. All Rights Reserved. then the only material is ferrite. Ferrite materials have a negative temperature coefficient regarding flux density. . When operating above 100kHz. have approximately four times the useful flux density compared to Molypermalloy powder cores. Inc. Used in PWM Converters Designers have routinely tended to specify Molypermalloy powder materials for filter inductors used in highfrequency. Molypermalloy powder cores. graphs. Buck Converter. would be first choice. magnetic materials with high flux saturation.3T. Core Materials.Vj L T V Current Probe C V 1 r 8D r! . The operating temperature and temperature rise should be used to calculate the maximum flux density. such as silicon or some amorphous materials. Iron alloys retain 90% of their original inductance at greater than 1. For example. have only about 80% of the original inductance. Materials. operating with a dc bias of 0. when designed correctly and used in the right application. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. power converters and pulsewidthmodulators (PWM) switched regulators. When size is of greatest concern then. will perform well at frequencies up to 100kHz. 1 :: I ton toff V0 AI t 1 ^ —^«=~" i ^ ^^^^^ . Iron alloys. Use of these cores may result in an inductor design not optimized for size and weight.2T.
There are many factors that impact a design: cost.82 1. Bac. Inc.01. temperature rise and material availability. This loss depends directly on the material. See Table 81. °C 750 500 460 370 250 460 Density grams/cm3 5 Silicon Orthonol Permalloy Amorphous Amorphous Amorphous(u) Ferrite 397 SiFe 5050 NiFe 8020 NiFe 813.57 1. Table 81. dc flux density. 100 £ 80 70 60 0. because the air gap can be adjusted to any desired length. Inductance Versus dc Bias. (copper).24 8. Bs. .001 0.73 7. even at high. and because the relative permeability is high.51.1 Polarized Flux Density.2 0.59 7. mounting brackets. and Bac. the engineer must evaluate the materials for both. The operating dc flux has only to do with I2R losses.5 30000 2500 >230 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.58 0.To get optimum performance.51.32 7. together with size.8 1. banding tools. Magnetic Material Properties Magnetic Material Properties Material Name Composition Initial Permeability l^i Flux Density Tesla Bs Curie Temp.421.01 0. such as the need for banding and gapping materials. despite certain disadvantages. has to do with core loss. and winding mandrels. size. The ac flux.63 8. All Rights Reserved. Iron alloys and ferrites provide greater flexibility in the design of high frequency power inductors.8 1500 800 0. There are significant advantages to be gained by the use of iron alloys and ferrites in the design of power inductors.73 4.660.5 FeSi 664 CoFe 7315FeSi MnZn 1500 2000 25000 1. tesla Figure 89.6 7.
[tesla] [85] [teslal '. 3. Idc Alternating current. The designer must make tradeoffs that will yield the highest inductance for a given volume. in the manner in Figure 810. Bdc. that will not produce magnetic saturation. the designer must determine the maximum values for. . Bac. Desired inductance. depends upon. It should be remembered the peak operating flux. All Rights Reserved.Fundamental Considerations The design of a linear reactor depends upon four related factors: 1. Bdc + Bac. Bpk. Inc. and. AI Power loss and temperature. =Bdc+. 2. Tr With these requirements established. 4. L Direct current.+ Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. which is the sum of the air gap length. which is a function of gap dimension. 10 to 20%. The inductance of an ironcore inductor carrying direct current and having an air gap may be expressed as: MPL [henrys] [89] This equation shows that inductance is dependent on the effective length of the magnetic path. Because of the fringing flux it is wise to lower the initial operating flux density. and the ratio of the core mean length to the material permeability.B (tesla) All H (oersteds) Figure 810. and the shape. Inductor Flux Density Versus 1^ + AI Current. the shape of the pole faces. MPL/um. because of material permeability. . Fringing flux is a larger percentage of the total for the larger gaps. F. to a value greater than that calculated from Equation 810. increases the inductance by a factor. When the core air gap. All Rights Reserved. and location of the winding. Fringing Flux Fringing flux decreases the total reluctance of the magnetic path and therefore. MPL/u m . lg. variations in um do not substantially affect the total effective magnetic path length or the inductance. is large compared to the ratio. um. Its net effect is to shorten the air gap. Then the inductance Equation [89] reduces to: [henrys] [810] Final determination of the air gap size requires consideration of the effect of fringing flux. size. lg. Inc.
the fringing flux will strike the copper winding and produce eddy currents. The value of inductance. L' corrected for fringing flux is: . Increase of Inductance with Fringing Flux at the Gap. generating heat. perpendicular to the strip or tape. does not include the effect of the fringing flux. The fringing flux will jump the gap and produce eddy currents. As the air gap increases.The fringing factor is: 1 V r n 2G [811] J Where G is the winding length. in both the core and winding. .? 2  Figure 811. defined in Chapter 3. which cause additional losses in the core. Equation [811] is plotted in Figure 811. This equation is valid for laminations. Some of the fringing flux strikes the core. L computed in Equation [810]. The inductance. as shown in Figure 812. just like an induction heater. and sets up eddy currents. 3 X ' M . the flux across the gap fringes more and more. All Rights Reserved. Inc. [henrys] [812] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. C cores and cut ferrites. If the gap dimension gets too large.
and space applications. The use of steel banding material. Kg. Ap. without relying on trialanderror and the use of the cumbersome Hanna's curves. Selection of the best magnetic core for an inductor frequently involves a trialanderror type of calculation. Inductors Inductors that carry direct current are used frequently in a wide variety of ground. Two gapped core designs will be compared.Eddy currents Core Winding Fringing Flux Magnetic Path ©©©©© ©0©©© U/2 Figure 812. are banded together with phosphor bronze banding material. um. because the use of steel across the gap is called shorting the gap. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. To compare their merits. All Rights Reserved. The author has developed a simplified method of designing optimum. This method allows the engineer to select the proper core that will provide correct copper loss. Rather than discuss the various methods used by transformer designers. and to work out solutions using the approach based upon newly formulated relationships. Inductors. is the material permeability. When the gap is shorted. the first design example will use the core geometry. air. or brackets that bridge the gap are not recommended. and the second design will use the area product. the author believes it is more useful to consider typical design problems. or held together with aluminum brackets. Fringing Flux Around the Gap of an Inductor. and make allowances for fringing flux. dc carrying inductors with gapped cores. The effect permeability may be calculated from the following equation: [813] Where. designed in this handbook. . the inductance will increase from the calculated value.
is determined by the core geometry: W A1 K K s = " c ". is: [818] Bpt=Btlc+^. Ap. Bm. window utilization factor. The energyhandling capability of a core is derived from: LI2 Energy = . tesla. [wattseconds] [815] Relationship of. Bpj(. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability The energyhandling capability of a core is related to its area product. [%] [816] The constant. by the equation: 2(Energy)(l0 4 ) A =— '. it can be seen that the flux density. Ku is the window utilization factor. is determined by the magnetic and electrical operating conditions: Ke=Q. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. Kg. Kg. like transformers. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. %: ^. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability Inductors. and the current density. is the regulation. Ke. are designed for a given temperature rise. . J. Bpk. is the predominant factor governing size. Ap.Relationship of. all impact the area product. [tesla] [819] From the above. Ap. (See Chapter 4) From the above. All Rights Reserved. Inc. MLT [cm5] [817] The constant. which controls the copper loss. Ku. Bm is the flux density. They can also be designed for a given regulation. (which defines the maximum space that may be used by the copper in the window). J is the current density. The regulation and energy handling ability of a core is related to two constants: a=± Where. ampspercm2.145P0B2pk(lQ4} The peak operating flux density. [cm4] [814] BmJKu Where: Energy is in wattseconds. a.
2 Calculate the peak current. I0 3. [820] ijn I/QJ\ j CR1 y ^ v1 1 1 1 ^^^^ 1(02) ^1 <j < . P0. Operating flux density. .6 > [amps] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. y.2 amps = 100 watts = 1. a 6. Core Material 9. 2 / [amps] > [amPs] M = 1 . Defining the Inductor Output Power. Ku 10. Regulation. Kg. P0 5. CR2 a^ v Vjn i (». Output power. is defined in Figure 813. 1. dc current. Inductance.0025 henrys = 1.4 = 25°C Step No. ac current. Inc. Bm 8. Window utilization.22 tesla = ferrite = 0. 1 Design a linear dc inductor with the following specifications. L 2.The output power.) i Cl / > !> (02) C2 + (^ ^ 0 1^1 i n Figure 813. Temperature rise goal. AI 4. Ripple Frequency 7. Approach Step No. Tr = 0. Gapped Inductor Design Example Using the Core Geometry. Ipk.0 % = 200 kHz = 0.5 amps = 0.
22) 2 (lO~ 4 ) K = 0. Ke. 3 Calculate the energyhandling capability. Magnetic Path Length. A. [wattseconds] (0. K. [cm5] Step No. Area Product. Material. Iron Area.252 cm2 = 2. MLT 5.0000702)(1.0000702 Step No.84 cm Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.177 cm5 = 69. Wtfi 4. Millihenrysperlk.0032)2 s 5 ~(0. Kg. Inc.9 cm2 = 2500^1 = 3295 mh = 2. Ac 6.0)' A T g = 0. Ap 8. Mean Length Turn. Window Area. 6 Select an ETD ferrite core from Chapter 3. AL 12. Ke = 0.93 cm4 = 0. All Rights Reserved.3 cm = 1.0032.145(lOO)(0. [wattseconds] Energy = 0. Kg 9.Step No. . Surface Area.a (0. P 11. 1.22 cm = 60 grams = 8. G = ETD39 = 9. [wattseconds] Step No.0025)(1. Kg. 5 Calculate the core geometry coefficient. Core Weight. Winding Length. MPL 3. Core Number 2. Ll\ Energy = —— . Core Geometry.34 cm" = 2. 4 Calculate the electrical conditions coefficient.146. The data listed is the closest core to the calculated core geometry. 10. Wa 7.6)2 Energy = ——— .
00754. [amps] Step No. J = „ .93)(0. 2 ) 2 . A typical value for. using the area product equation.> [ampspercm ] B mApKu 2(0.75. take the next smallest size. as shown in Chapter 4. [ampspercm2 ] Step No. [microohm/cm] Step No. [cm2 ] Insulated.00609. AW(B) = 0. AWG = #19 Bare. [cm2] —— = 264. Ap. record the microohms per centimeter.00653. If the area is not within 10%.=!.5 ) 2 + ( 0 . 10 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4.51. Aw = 0.4) J = 248. S3. Aw(B). Also. Irms.34 )(°. [cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm2] «W)=( 2 . [cm2] Step No. „.. 11 Calculate the effective window area.TTr. .Step No.W=WaS>.75 )> ^. 8 Calculate the rms current. Wa(eff. W. All Rights Reserved. is 0. Inc. [ampspercm2 ] ^ s = V ( l .=1.76. [amps] /„„. 9 Calculate the required bare wire area. ^ _ 'rim fcni 2 1 J (248) > [cm AW(B} = 0.0032)(l0 4 ) 7 = . J. Using the window area found in Step 6.—r > (0.22)(2. 7 Calculate the current density.
26)(14Q)2(1.7) mils = 47. as shown in Chapter 4. Aw. /g L Nn = — . [cm] (1.lf.s. 2 use 50 Step No.00754) TV = 140.25)(1Q8) (9.8 ) [turns] AT. lg. ¥. 120.120 J Step No.0025) {2500 ) / „ = < ) .4^4 F(lO.. is 0. F. (eff} 2 " Aw .76)(0. [cm] (0.7) mils = (0.41 ^ 0.—^(0. [turns] [turns] (1.6. found in Step 10. Inc..4. =116.r^ 2 4(lO. . 0.Step No. mils = cm(393.7—. All Rights Reserved. [cm] Step No. 15 Calculate the fringing flux factor.60) ±. N.= Z  — .120)(393. Nn. N= w. [turns] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 82. 13 Calculate the required gap. 14 Calculate the equivalent gap in mils. 12 Calculate the number turns possible. using the insulated wire area. " ^ 0. by inserting the fringing flux.8 ) /. [turns] Step No. VI . A typical value for.22} I g = .25 F=1. 16 Calculate the new number of turns.
a.254. a = ^(100). 2500 [tesla] Step No. Pcu. Inc. [ohms] Step No. material in Chapter 2.254). [tesla] ' 1. 1 8 Calculate the copper loss.00004855) (200000)° 63) (0. (0.0167. 17 Calculate the winding resistance.579. 20 Calculate the ac flux density.3)(ll6)(264)(l(T 6 ). Bac= 0. Pca = 0. [ohms] RL = 0. 19 Calculate the regulation.0167 ) (262) mW/g = 0. Use the MLT from Step 6 and the microohm per centimeter from Step 10. r (100) a = 0. .579) a=~. [% Step No. [watts] Step No. mW/g = (0.5l) 2 (0.Step No.579.120) v . Watts per kilogram can be written in milliwatts per gram. All Rights Reserved. P f u =(l. P. 21 Calculate the watts per kilogram for ferrite. [%] o [watts] (0. RL. [ohms] RL =(8. ) l ( r 6 . Bac.468 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
[watts] Step No. Bit= 0. Step No.127)+^=v .00868) ( ° 826) . A.00868.^ .Step No. [watts] PL = 0. Pj. 24 Calculate the watt density. 26 Calculate the peak flux density. copper plus iron.252. [watts] /> /e =0. Pfe. Inc. can be found in Step 6. p i// = —. Bpi<. Pfe = (mW/g)(Wtfe )(l<r 3 ). Tr =450(0.9) ^ = 0. [watts/cm2 ] 4 (0.607. [°C] p / q ^. Tr=8. \ ' L j (0. =(0. [watts] P /e =(0. Ps. . [watts/cm2] Step No. 25 Calculate the temperature rise. [watts] Step No.607) y/ = .028l. Tr..92. The surface area. [watts/cm2 ] (69. All Rights Reserved.0281) + (0. vy.579). [tesla] (2500) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.468)(60)(l(r 3 ). 22 Calculate the core loss. 23 Calculate the total loss.
All Rights Reserved. Current Density. the current density is an estimate.4 = 25°C Step No. Ku 10. AI 4. Operating flux density. [amps] Step No. 2 Calculate the peak current. 3 Calculate the energyhandling capability. Energy = 0. [amps] 7^=1. When using the area product design procedure. 1 Design a linear dc inductor with the following specifications: 1. Ripple Frequency 7.0025)(1. Bm 8. at best.5 amps = 0. Gapped Inductor Design Example Using the Area Product. Approach Step No. Tr = 0. I0 3. Ap. Inductance. I Pk= I o+ — . [amPs] 7 M =(1. Window utilization.2 amps = 100 watts = 250 ampspercm2 = 200 kHz = 0. P0 5.6. .0032. LI\ Energy = ——. Ip^. L 2. [wattseconds] [wattseconds] (0.0025 henrys = 1. [wattseconds] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Temperature rise goal. In this next design the same current density will be used as in the core geometry design. ac current.Note: The big advantage in using the core geometry design procedure is that the wire current density is calculated. Output power.6)2 Energy = ———. dc current.22 tesla = ferrite = 0. Core Material 9. Inc. J 6.5) + ^.
P 11. Mean Length Turn. Ap. [cm4] Step No.3 cm = 1. Ac 6.22 cm = 60 grams = 8.252 cm2 = 2.93. Irms. 7 Calculate the required bare wire area.00609. The data listed is the closest core to the calculated area product. 4 Calculate the area product. Wa 7.9 cm2 = 2500^ = 3295 mh = 2. Kg 9. MLT 5. 6 Calculate the rms current. =2. 1. Core Geometry. G .Step No. Surface Area.gy)(loQ 2(0.0032)(l0 4 ) ^ = (0.93 cm4 = 0.22)(248)(0. Area Product. Winding Length.84 cm ^ Step No. ™W(S) = ~j~> . Magnetic Path Length. AL 12. 10. ^2( E ne. [cm2] . Core Weight.5 1 ' [amps] Step No. 5 Select an ETD ferrite core from Chapter 3. Window Area.5 ) 2 + ( ° . Material.2 ) 2 > [amps] / ™ s = 1 . All Rights Reserved. Iron Area. Wtft 4. . Ap 8. (fl) = 0.4)' ^ ] 4. MPL 3. Millihenrysperlk. A. Inc. AW(B).34 cm2 = 2.177 cm5 = 69. / ™ = V O . = ETD39 = 9. [cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Core Number 2. Ap.
2 use 50 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. If the area is not within 10%. All Rights Reserved.6.120)(393. [cm2] WaW=\.7) mils = (0. [cm2] «V/)=( 2 .22 > (0. A typical value for. Aw found in Step 8. 9 Calculate the effective window area. Wa(eff).00754.00754) N = 140..34 )(°75). take the next smallest size. Aw = 0. is 0. using the insulated wire area.7) mils = 47. 10 Calculate the number turns possible. mils = cm(393. as shown in Chapter 4. [cm] Step No. [cm2] Step No. Use the window area found in Step 6. [rums] (1. AWG = #19 Bare. ^ (1. N. record microohms per centimeter. 8 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. Also. [cm2 ] Insulated. 1 1 Calculate the required gap. is 0.60) vV = VZA r> [to115] (0. [microohm/cm] Step No. Aw(tt} = 0.Step No. S3.0025) ' / g =0. . [turns] Step No. [cm] J. as shown in Chapter 4.75. 82. A typical value for.16. 12 Calculate the equivalent gap in mils.76)(0. lg= Z / g  — . lg. Wa(eff)=WaS.120.26)(140)2(L25)(108) / 9. [cm2 ] cm = 264. Inc. N = "(eff} Aw 2 .00653.
All Rights Reserved. Use the MLT. from Step 5. r. [watts] Step No. Pcu. Nn. 13 Calculate the fringing flux factor. . [turns] (0. RL = 0. ). and the microohm per centimeter.84} V ' 11.579. [watts] PC1I =(1.4*4 ^K 8 ) I / L *—. 14 Calculate the new number of turns.Step No.579. 16 Calculate the copper loss. Nn = \ 0.579) a=^ ^ (100) a =0.254. [turns] Step No. Pm = 0.=lL*L. [ohms] [ohms] Pa. [watts] a =^(100).25 ( 0. [%] o (0. 15 Calculate the winding resistance. a. Inc.120 Step No.120)(0. Step No. by inserting the fringing flux.254).3)(ll6)(264)(lO~ 6 ). from Step 10.0025) AT. F.51) 2 (0. =116. RL. 17 Calculate the regulation. (0.120) l (2(2. [ohms] RL = (8. [%] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. F.
[watts] Pz =(0. v/. ) • fteslal (0. [tesla] Step No. l O .0167.. 21 Calculate the total loss copper plus iron. [watts] PE = 0. Pfe.00868. 19 Calculate the watts per kilogram for ferrite.0167 )( mW/g = 0.00004855)(200000)(1 63) (0. The surface area.607) w = —. [watts] Step No.— V ' 1. Watts per kilogram can be written in milliwatts per gram. 22 Calculate the watt density. All Rights Reserved.Step No.9) V/ = 0. mW/g = (0.2500 Bac= 0. material in Chapter 2.468 Step No. [watts] Pfe= 0. P^Pfe+Pcv. p. r.0281. P.468)(60)(lO~ 3 ). [watts/cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] Step No. [watts/cm" ] (69. 18 Calculate the ac flux density.607.0281) + (0. PE. Inc.3 .120)+ .579). 20 Calculate the core loss. . A. p <//=—. [watts] pfe = (0. 4 [watts/cm2] (0. can be found in Step 5. Bac.
Inc.252. Lie.127)+ — V ' (2500) = 0.00868) ( ° 826) . 24 Calculate the peak flux density. = 0. Bpk. [tesla] [tesla] Step No. All Rights Reserved. . 23 Calculate the temperature rise. (2500) 9.. Tr = 8. ' Bpk (0. K = _(116)(0. Tr =450(0. [°C] Step No.5 use 75 Step No.22 jue = 74.Step No. 26 Calculate the window utilization. Tr. the ETD39 ferrite core can be ordered with a built in gap. 25 Calculate the effective permeability. Knowing the effective permeability.324 = Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.92.00653) K " (234) A:. Ku.
. All Rights Reserved.Chapter 9 DC Inductor Design Using Powder Cores Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc.
Toroidal Powder Core Inductor Design. Ap. Sendust Powder Cores (Magnetics Kool MH) 5. Toroidal Powder Core Design Using the Core Geometry. Ap. High Flux Powder Cores (HF) 4.Table of Contents 1. Inductors 7. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability 8. Relationship of. Introduction 2. Approach Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Fundamental Considerations 10. Inc. Iron Powder Cores 6. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability 9. Relationship of. Using the Area Product. Kg. Approach 11. . Kg. Molybdenum Permalloy Powder Cores (MPP) 3.
2. .254 cm) to 5 inches (12. in circuits with large amounts of dc current flowing. Pulse transformers. The design of an inductor also frequently involves consideration of the effect of its magnetic field on devices near where it is placed. 3. Flyback transformers. The magnetic flux in a toroidal powder core can be contained inside the core more readily than in a lamination or C core.62 cm) in the outside diameter. or output inductors. HF cores are available in permeabilities ranging from 14 up to 160. The insulated powder is then compacted into EE and toroidal cores. and nuclear radiation without degradation. Inc. See Table 91. The toroidal cores range in size from 0. All Rights Reserved. Molybdenum Permalloy Powder Cores (MPP) Molybdenum Permalloy Powder Cores (MPP) are manufactured from very fine particles of an 81 % nickel. The toroidal cores range in size from 0. The powder is coated with an inert insulation to minimize eddy current losses and to introduce a distributed air gap into the core structure. Stable. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Other applications for these cores are: 1.7 cm) in the outside diameter. and a 2% molybdenum alloy. The insulated powder is then compacted into EE and toroidal cores. Energy storage.635 cm) to 3 inches (7. 5. and 50% iron. The insulated powder is then compacted into toroidal and EE cores. 6.25 inch (0. 4. highQ filters operating in the frequency range of 1kHz to 1 MHz. as the winding covers the core along the entire magnetic path length. Loading coils used to cancel out the distributed capacitance in telephone cables. vibration. This is especially true in the design of highcurrent inductors for converters and switching regulators used in spacecraft. Differential mode EMI noise filters.1 inch (0. See Table 91 High Flux Powder Cores (HF) High Flux Powder Cores (HF) are manufactured from very fine particles of a 50% nickel. MPP cores are available in permeabilities ranging from 14 up to 550. and their ability to withstand high levels of shock. Toroidal powder cores are widely used in highreliability military and space applications because of their good stability over wide temperature ranges.Introduction Powder cores are manufactured from very fine particles of magnetic materials. 17% iron.
they have become a very popular choice in either EE or toroidal as a core material for highvolume commercial applications. The toroidal cores range in size from 0.5 cm) in the outside diameter. See Table 91 Iron Powder Cores The low cost iron powder cores are typically used in today's low and high frequency power switching conversion applications for differentialmode. makes it very difficult to saturate.5 inches (16.35 cm) to 3 inches (7. power inductors. While iron powder cores may be limited in their use because of low permeability or rather high core loss at high frequency.76 cm) to 6.14 inch (0. All Rights Reserved. See Table 91 Table 91. Standard Powder Core Permeability Standard Powder Core Permeabilities Powder Material Initial Permeability. input and output. Inc.Sendust Powder Cores (Magnetics Kool Sendust powder cores are manufactured from very fine particles of an 85% iron.62 cm) in the outside diameter. This feature. 9% silicon.3 inch (0. The toroidal cores range in size from 0. Uj 10 14 26 35 55 60 75 90 100 125 147 160 173 200 300 550 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X MPP High Flux Sendust (Kool Mu) Iron Powder X X X X X Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . They are popular due to their low cost compared with other core materials. The distributed air gap characteristic of iron powder produces a core with permeability ranging from 10 to 100. The insulated powder is then compacted into EE and toroidal cores. Sendust cores are available in permeabilities ranging from 26 up to 125. in conjunction with the inherent high saturation point of iron. and 6% aluminum.
The design of an inductor also frequently involves consideration of the effect of its magnetic field on other devices in the immediate vicinity. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability The energyhandling capability of a core is related to its area product. [wattseconds] [92] Relationship of. like transformers. Bm is the flux density. Ap. Kg. The magnetic flux in a powder core can be contained inside the core more readily than in a lamination or C core. such as flux density. (which defines the maximum space that may be used by the copper in the window). ampspercm2. L 4J [91] [cm ] L J r vB mJKu Where: Energy is in wattseconds. by the equation: 2(Energy)(l0 4 ) Ap =— n — '. %. Ku. frequently it is imperative that a toroidal core be used. air. The energyhandling capability of a core is derived from: LJ2 Energy = .Inductors Inductors that carry direct current are used frequently in a wide variety of ground. and the current density. Inc. The regulation and energy handling ability of a core is related to two constants: ( nergy) If V L J L J g= K SKe Where a is the regulation. Selection of the best magnetic core for an inductor frequently involves a trialanderror type of calculation. The author has developed a simplified method of designing optimum dc carrying inductors with powder cores. For this type of design problem. window utilization factor. which may also employ sensitive magnetic field detectors. as the winding covers the core along the entire magnetic path length. All Rights Reserved. Relationship of. (See Chapter 4) From the above factors. J is the current density. They can also be designed for a given regulation. Ku is the window utilization factor. J. This is especially true in the design of highcurrent inductors for converters and switching regulators used in spacecraft. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. tesla. Ap. This method allows the correct core permeability to be determined without relying on the trial and error method. to Inductor's EnergyHandling Capability Inductors. . Bm. are designed for a given temperature rise. and space applications. which controls the copper loss can be seen.
Inc. Bm. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. With these requirements established. All Rights Reserved. Defining the Inductor Output Power. . Ke. P ~  Po(L2) ~VI (02)''(02) r LI +O 1 Ql 1 1 1 ""I 2 L2 i V. n 7 CR1 Cl y f^ > CR2 ^ V (02) C2 + f~ Vr \ I 1 \ \ i Figure 91. 4. Bm.The constant. is determined by the core geometry: W A2 K K g = " c " . The core permeability chosen dictates the maximum dc flux density that can be tolerated for a given design. Direct current. Kg. 2. The operating flux density. P0. Bjc. 3. is: . it can be seen that the flux density. Alternating current. is determined by the magnetic and electrical operating conditions: [95] The output power. Fundamental Considerations The design of a linear reactor depends upon four related factors: 1. Idc. that will not produce magnetic saturation and must make tradeoffs that will yield the highest inductance for a given volume. is the predominant factor in governing size. AI. is defined in Figure 91. [cm5] [94] MLT The constant. Power loss and temperature. [tesla] [97] From the above. and Bac. L. the designer must determine the maximum values for. Desired inductance. Tr.
10 100 DC Magnetizing Force.0 1000 Figure 92. in the manner in Figure 93. Typical Permeability Versus dc Bias Curves for Powder Cores.8//(MPL). 100 i i i i i r Powder Cores 80 Low Permeability I 60 cE *2 I 40 High Permeability 20 i i i i i d. . as shown in Figure 92. and magnetizing force. H. [ampturns] [99] Inductance decreases with increasing flux density. All Rights Reserved. Bdc + Bac. B. depends upon. The maximum H (magnetizing force) then is an indication of a core's capability.10]. Bm.If an inductance is to be constant with the increasing direct current. Most manufacturers give the dc magnetizing force. there must be a negligible drop in inductance over the operating current range. . [tesla] [911] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. H in oersteds: OAxNI MPL Some engineers prefer ampturns: = 0. Inc. (oersteds) 1. B (MPL)fl A It should be remembered the maximum flux. for various materials of different values of permeability. The selection of the correct permeability for a given design is made using Equation [9.
0. Inductor Flux Density Versus Idc + AI Current. 1. All Rights Reserved.(lO.r7V/ ffc /. 100 90 5 80 70 60 0.1 Polarized Flux Density..0 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [tesla] [913] ' [tesla] H (oersteds) Figure 93.. .4 ) MPL .3T maximum for. Inductance Versus dc Bias. The flux density for the initial design for Molypermalloy powder cores should be limited to 0. Inc. tesla Figure 94. Bdc + Bac.001 0.4. [tesla] [912] B.= MPL .01 0. as shown in Figure 94.
..........6)2 Energy = ——— ...................................0025)(1................................0001305 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.................................... Approach This design procedure will work with all powder cores.................... Operating flux density............................ [amps] Ipk =1............. Core Material ..................................4 10.................................... = 1............................. a ..........6........................... P0 ..... Ripple Frequency ............0032........................... [wattseconds] Step No...... = 0.............................. [wattseconds] Energy = 0.............................. . L .....................145(lOO)(0............ 3 Calculate the energyhandling capability............. = 20 kHz 7........................ All Rights Reserved.................. = 0.......... = 1.....0025 henrys 2......Toroidal Powder Core Design Using the Core Geometry.. lp^........................................3) 2 (lO" 4 ) K =0.. Kg... LI* Energy = —— . [wattseconds] (0...... Bm ...... [amps] .......... = 0..... . = 0.................... [amps] Step No.. = 100 watts 5................. Inductance................................ Step No.......... ^ e =0....... Window utilization...............5 amps 3.............. AI . Output power.................. Temperature rise goal....... dc current................. = 25°C Step No....... 4 Calculate the electrical conditions coefficient.. Ku .... 1 Design a linear dc inductor with the following specifications.......... Tr .. .....................2 amps 4................................................ 1............................................... ....... IQ....................... = MPP 9..... I0 .. Inc...... 2 Calculate the peak current...................... Regulation...............0 % 6............. ac current....................................................3 tesla 8...
0032)2 • ~(0. [amps] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.40 cm = 0.Step No.3)(1. Iron Area.79)(0.79 cm4 = 0. Ap 8.2) 2 .r.4) J = 298. Area Product. [cm5] ? Step No.0742 cm5 = 64. Surface Area. 10. 8 Calculate the rms current. using the area product Equation..0001305)(1. AL = 55586 = 8. [ampspercm 1 BmApKu 2(0. Wtfe 4.9 grams = 4. Core Weight. .—r> [ampspercm 1 (0.0785. 51.=!.0)' Kg= 0. n 11. 7 Calculate the current density.—r. Core Geometry.4 cm2 = 60 = 38 mh Step No.95 cm = 34. [ampspercm2 ] Step No. J. The data listed is the closest core to the calculated core geometry. Mean Length Turn. J = . [amps] /„„. / M O = > /05) 2 +(0. Core Number 2. Ap. A. Permeability. Kg. Ac 6. 5 Calculate the core geometry coefficient.94 cm = 1. 1. Window Area. \rnK. Wa 7.0032)(l0 4 ) J =. MPL 3. Magnetic Path Length.454 cm2 = 3. All Rights Reserved. Kg 9. Millihenrysperlk. Inc. 6 Select a MPP powder core from Chapter 3. MLT 5. (Energy) g= 5 Kea ' 5 (0. Kg.
take the next smallest size. 13 Calculate the required core permeability. 12 Calculate the number turns possible for.00519. 11 Calculate the effective window area.30)(8. Wa(eff). record microohms per centimeter. A typical value for. N. Aw(B). All Rights Reserved. AW(B} =0. u. [turns] Step No. 83. Aw = 0. = i A 5 m (MPL)(l0 4 ) (0. 10 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. as shown in Chapter 4. cm ) [microohm/cm] Step No. Use the insulated wire area. [turns] (0. j [cm2] [cm2 ] —. . 9 Calculate the required bare wire area.00606) N = 293. . [cm2] Step No.94)(298)(0. [cm2] Step No.6.4) ^=45. Use the window area found in Step 6. W S N = —"<ey) . A — W ( R\ — / rms J rpTYl I Ull . 83. Inc.00606. found in Step 10. Avv. Aw [turns] (2.95)(l04) '" A ~(l.60) N = ^—&—i. If the area is not within 10%.4 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Also. is 0.Step No.= 332.\ I A (L51) ^'(298)' 2 rL C miJ 4^=0.96)(0.00507. Insulated. is 0. AWG = #20 Bare. as shown in Chapter 4.75.26)(3. A typical value for.
4 is close enough to use a 60u core. High Flux. For cores with other than 60u. [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] ^ = C ^ . RL = 0. Inc. RL =(4. [watts] P CU =(1.51) 2 (0. Because of size. See Table 91. RL. Pcu. Step No. [watts] Pcu = 0. All Rights Reserved. [watts] Step No.374.853. NL. Step No. 16 Calculate the copper loss. [%] a = (100) V a =0. Chapter 3 has listed only 60u Tables for MPP. [%] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.4)(256)(332)(lO" 6 ). required. Also note that there are other permeabilities available. RL =(MLT)(7V i )^(lO. 17 Calculate the regulation. . use the manufacturer's catalog. (1000) [turns] f 2 5} AT. 14 Calculate the number of turns. 15 Calculate the winding resistance. Sendust and a 75 i Table for Iron powder. [turns] Step No. a. a =^(100). Use the MLT from Step 6 and the microohm per centimeter from Step 10. [turns] 1 38 VI / NL = 256. = 1 0 0 0 .6 ). — .374).853. ^ =1000 — — .Note: The permeability of 45.
[tesla] Step No. P / e =(mW/ g )(w^)(lO.021 5) <2 ' 2) mW/g = 0.864. 21 Calculate the total loss copper plus iron. [watts] Pfe= 0.853).011. [watts] Step No.0134.9)(lO' 3 ). 22 Calculate the watt density. [watts] Step No. 19 Calculate the watts per kilogram for the appropriate MPP powder core material in Chapter 2.25)(256)f°(60)(lO) *= B flc =0.. Bac. At can be found in Step 6. [watts] /> /c =(0.. Inc. vj/. [watts] PZ = 0. Pfe. [watts/cm2] p Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts/cm2 ] 4 (°864r. [tesla] MPL (l. All Rights Reserved. The surface area..011) + (0. mW/g = kf(m}B?£ mW/g = (0.313)(34. /> =(0.3 ).313 Step No. y/ = —.Step No. w = . 18 Calculate the ac flux density.0215.0055 1) (20000)° U) (0. Bac = .4) i// = 0. ) . . ] (64. Pv. 20 Calculate the core loss. Watts per kilogram can be written in milliwatts per gram. r[watts/cm2.
7.0025 henrys = 1. 1 Design a linear dc inductor with the following specifications. A = „ ((256)(0. r r =12. Current Density.2 amps = 100 watts = 300 ampspercm2 = 20 kHz = 0. J 6.95) H = 57. P0 5. Using the Area Product.. I0 3.337 Note: The big advantage in using the core geometry design procedure is that the current density is calculated. Core Material 9. I k H = L^. 1. Ku. Temperature rise goal.Step No. OAxN. Using the area product design procedure. H. [°C] Step No. Approach Step No. 25 Calculate the window utilization. Output power. L 2. [oersteds] Step No. Window utilization. Inductance. Bm 8.6) H = ^^r^—'. In this next design the same current density will be used as in core geometry. Inc. 24 Calculate the dc magnetizing force. the current density is an estimate at best.94) Ku = 0. [oersteds] (8. Tr. Ku 10. All Rights Reserved.26)(256)(1.8.0134)(°826). Ap. Toroidal Powder Core Inductor Design. Operating flux density.3 tesla = MPP = 0. dc current. 23 Calculate the temperature rise. .4 = 25°C Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. ac current.5 amps = 0. 7>450(0. Ripple Frequency 7.00519)) KU= (3. AI 4.. [oersteds] MPL (1. Tr = 0.
The data listed is the closest core to the calculated core geometry... .3)(300)(0............................ 4 Calculate the area product... 1.78....... A.6............... Surface Area.... Core Number ........................................................................................ 3 Calculate the energyhandling capability....................................................4 cm2 = 60 11..... =1.......... = 34.......... = 64......................... u ........... All Rights Reserved.................... 2(Energy)(lQ 4 ) A = ..................... Core Weight.... = 38 mh Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker................... Energy = —— ........................................................................................................6)2 Energy = ——— ........... Ap .. Kg ............................ W......0032)(104) (0.. = 1.. Ap......... MLT ..........4)' 4 L m J " ° 4.. Core Geometry................. = 0....0032......... Wa ...... [amps] Step No..9 grams 4................ = 3........... [wattseconds] (0...5) + ^..................... Energy = 0............... Magnetic Path Length............. Inc....................................... Millihenrysperlk............ [cm ] Step No................94 cm2 7.......... = 8............................fe ..... [amps] / M =1.......95 cm 3..................... A L ......... [cm] = 2(0..... ........................... = 4................................................... = 55586 2................... Permeability............ I pk= 1 o+ — > [amPs] / p t =(l........ Area Product....... = 0.0742 cm5 9.......................... MPL .............. [wattseconds] [wattseconds] Step No. Ac ........ Window Area.... Kg..................................79 cm4 8................ Iron Area.................................................................................. 5 Select a MPP powder core from Chapter 3......... 10..0025)(1................. lp^........................ Mean Length Turn...... 2 Calculate the peak current...Step No.............................................40 cm 5................454 cm2 6...........
Step No.~=WS.94)(0. [cm2] Insulated. is 0.^S. If the area is not within 10%. take the next smallest size.96)(0. W. Use the insulated wire area. W. [cm2 ] —— = 332. [amps] Step No. 4.. AW(B).75 as shown in Chapter 4. ^=V/o+A/2' [amPS] /. A typical value for. 9 Calculate the effective window area. as shown in Chapter 4. =0. S2.6.51. Aw found in Step 8. [turns] N=±^—+ [turns] . [microohm/cm] Step No.=(3.00519. [cm2] 0^=2. AWG = #20 Bare. Irms. N. \ JJ} a e a J [cm2] »W. [turns] (2. Inc. [cm2] Step No. 7 Calculate the required bare wire area. A typical value for. .60) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 8 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. Aw . AW(B)= 0.00507. <Vo= W(B) ^y [cm2] I J AW(B)= 0. All Rights Reserved. record the microohms per centimeter.75). 83 is 0.ms=1. [cm2] Step No. 10 Calculate the number turns possible. 6 Calculate the rms current.00606) N = 293. (0.00606. Wa(eff). Also.96. Use the window area found in Step 5...
NL. 14 Calculate the copper loss. Because of size. See Table 91. 13 Calculate the winding resistance. For cores with other than 60u. Pc [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Pc^'L^L. u. Also note there are other permeabilities available.94)(298)(0. [turns] Step No. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. — . .853.26)(3.4 is close enough to use a 60u core. table for Iron powder. RL. [turns] NL = 256. Use the MLT from Step 6 and the microohm per centimeter from Step 10. [turns] ^ ^(1000) 1(25} ^=1000.95)(l0 4 ) (1. Step No. 11 Calculate the required core permeability.30)(8. JVL =10001—^. RL =(4.374. use the manufacturer's catalog.4) Note: The permeability of 45. All Rights Reserved. RL =(MLT)(jV t )j^j(lO~ 6 ). High Flux. RL = 0. [watts] Pcu = 0. Inc.51) (0. Step No. 5 m (MPL)(l0 4 ) (0.Step No.4)(256)(332)(lO~ 6 ).374). Chapter 3 has listed only 60^ tables for MPP. 12 Calculate the number of turns. Sendust and 75u. 2 [watts] ^=(1. required.
313 Step No. p y/ = —. Pfe. [watts] Pfe= 0.Step No.011.0134. Watts per kilogram can be written in milliwatts per gram.4) ' ^ = 0. [watts] Pz = 0. Inc. PI.' (8.011) + (0. . 15 Calculate the ac flux density. 18 Calculate the total copper loss plus iron. At can be found in Step 5. Bac= ± MPL . mW/g = (0..95) Bac= 0. 16 Calculate the watts per kilogram for the appropriate MPP powder core material in Chapter 2. Py.853).864. 17 Calculate the core loss.00551)(20000)°23) (0. [watts/cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. v/. [watts] Step No.9)(lO.0215. 19 Calculate the watt density. [watts] /} e =(0. [watts] Step No.0215)(1'2) mW/g = 0. All Rights Reserved. [tesla] (L25)(256)fM](60)(lO) Bac= r^T. The surface area. = Pfe + Pcu > [watts] /> =(0. ^ /e )(lO" 3 ). [tesla] Step No. Bac.313)(34.3 ). [watts/cm2] 4 (0864) ^ (64.
.Step No.95) H = 57. Inc. [°C] Step No. .8. 22 Calculate the window utilization. = 0.00519)) (3.26)(256)(1.6) H = ±^^—'. All Rights Reserved. H.337 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [° ?. 0. 21 Calculate the dc magnetizing force. '^ N 4 J(256)(0. [oersteds] Step No.0134)(°826) . 20 Calculate the temperature rise..= 12.94) K. [oersteds] (8. K u . Tr = 450(0. H = —^ .7.47T NLI. [oersteds] MPL (1. Tr.
Chapter 10 AC Inductor Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . All Rights Reserved. Inc.
AC Inductor Design Example Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Table of Contents 1. Kg. 5. All Rights Reserved. 6. 8. 4. to the Inductor VoltAmp Capability Fundamental Considerations Fringing Flux Reference 7. Ap. to the Inductor VoltAmp Capability Relationship of. Introduction 2. 3. Inc. Requirements Relationship of. .
[cm4] Where: Kf = wave form factor. the product of the excitation voltage and the current through the inductor. Bac. A series. . Bttc = operating flux density. the current is specified. all have an influence on the inductor area product. by the equation that may be stated as follows: . Relationship of. ac inductor. Ku = window utilization factor.=yA. and in others. Hz J = current density. T. LI Cl V i n = 105130V O V0 =120V Figure 101. If there is no dc flux in the core. The apparent power. Ap. the window utilization factor. LI. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. that is. Ku. If the inductance is specified. and the current density. P. If the current is specified. as used in a Ferroresonant Voltage Stabilizer. Inc. [102] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. the design calculations are straightforward. J. the current has to be calculated. of an inductor is the VA of the inductor. Pt. amps/cm2 From the above. Series ac Inductor. (which defines the maximum space occupied by the copper in the window). In some applications the inductance is specified. then. All Rights Reserved. being used in a Ferroresonant Voltage Stabilizer is shown in Figure 101. LI. then the inductance has to be calculated. [watts] [101] Requirements The design of the ac inductor requires the calculation of the voltamp (VA) capability. Ap.Introduction The design of an ac inductor is quite similar to that of a transformer. tesla / = operating frequency. Ap. to the Inductor VoltAmp Capability The voltamp capability of a core is related to its area product.
Ke. (across inductor) Frequency Operating Flux density Temperature Rise Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. which may be related by the following equation: Where: Kf = waveform coefficient 4. [on'] [105] The constant.0 square wave 4. Desired inductance Applied voltage. frequency of operation.Relationship. which may be related by the following equations: = MLT . Kg. 3. 2.44 sine wave From the above. Inc. they can also be designed for a given regulation. is determined by the core geometry. The regulation and voltamp ability of a core is related to two constants: a = VA ^* A ' [103] a = Regulation (%) [104] The constant. to the Inductor VoltAmp Capability Although most inductors are designed for a given temperature rise. 5. is determined by the magnetic and electric operating conditions. . and the waveform coefficient have an influence on the transformer size. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. Kg. 4. Fundamental Considerations The design of a linear ac inductor depends upon five related factors: 1. All Rights Reserved.
must support the applied voltage. Magnetic materials and their operating flux levels are given in Chapter 2. as shown in Figure 102 and Figure 103. [cm] [1010] Fringing Flux Final determination of the air gap requires consideration of the effect of fringing flux. si/e.cfAc The inductance of an ironcore inductor. is larger compared to the ratio. lg. and the shape. do not substantially affect the total effective Magnetic Path Length.. which states: 10 P K B ' . MPL. L= [henrys] [109] Rearranging the equation to solve for the gap: i(io. which is a function of gap dimension. Inc. . um. The number of turns is calculated from Faraday's Law.s MPL ^ .8 ) . the designer must determine the maximum values for. . and make tradeoffs that will yield the highest inductance for a given volume. MPL. and location of the winding. [turns] [107] f . Bac. because of the high material permeability. lg. thenrys] [108] Inductance is seen to be inversely dependent on the effective Magnetic Path Length. which is the sum of the air gap length. Its net effect is to make the effective air gap less than its physical dimension. The inductance equation then reduces to: 0. which will not produce magnetic saturation. the shape of the pole faces. When the core air gap. All Rights Reserved.With these requirements established. The ac inductor like a transformer. MPL. um. tim. L. variations in. MPL/iim. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to material permeability. and the ratio of the Magnetic Path Length. may be expressed as: L= . Vac. or the inductance. with an air gap.4?rN 2 A (lO~ 8 ) . The core material selected determines the maximum flux density that can be tolerated for a given design.
L. defined in Chapter 3. Fringing Flux Location on an EE or Pot Core Configuration. The value of inductance. to a value greater than that calculated from Equation [109]. F. L'. Equation [1011] is valid for cut C cores.El Core Configuration J_ lj^> / s^ T!r>n "/ X Fringing ¥\ux Gap / RHb s/ ^i H X X 3\ 8 X § JK H ^w XB *^ w X w ^s H 3 XK XW BB 3R p i< w X Winding X KX X ^ K M i^/ w 3 Figure 102. The fringing flux factor is: \2G \T. [1011] Where G is a dimension. Fringing flux decreases the total reluctance of the magnetic path. laminations and cut ferrite cores. (winding length). computed in Equation [109] does not include the effect of fringing flux. and therefore increases the inductance by a factor. . Inc. All Rights Reserved. The inductance. EE or Pot Core Configuration Fringing Flux Fringing Flux Winding Gap Bobbin Figure 103. Fringing Flux Location on an El Core Configuration. in Equation [1012] does correct for fringing flux: Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Fringing flux is a larger percentage of the total for larger gaps.
[1013] After the new turns. . Also distribution of the fringing flux is affected by other aspects of the core geometry. As the air gap increases. Inc. then. has been calculated. Copper loss. N(new). E (as defined in Chapter 3) is the strip or tongue width. 3. and reentering the core in a direction of high loss. The gap loss does not occur in the air gap. the flux across the gap fringes more and more. use Equation [1013] with the new turns. Factor F. and solve for Bac. (See Table 101). as in a transformer. Pcu. Pfe. and the iron loss. in cm. This check will provide the operating flux density. and sets up eddy currents which cause additional losses called gap loss. if the skin effect is minimal. fringing around the gap. the proximity of the coils turns to the core. Pfc. itself. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. F. The iron loss. Gap loss. N(new). [watt] [1015] Where. Pfe. but is caused by magnetic flux. [henrys] [1012] Now that the fringing flux. Pcu Iron loss. when the copper loss. and whether there are turns on both legs. are equal. have been calculated. is I2R and is straightforward. *»= ^(io 4 ) I. K N ' . Pg. (See the Reference at the end of this Chapter) Pg=K. in order to calculate the core loss.L' = — c —± '. Maximum efficiency is reached in an inductor. it is necessary to recalculate the number of turns using the fringing flux. and some of the fringing flux strikes the core. Pg. Accurate prediction of the gap loss depends on the amount of fringing flux. [tesla] [1014] f (^)fAc The losses in an ac inductor are made up of three components: 1. 2. is calculated from core manufacturers' data.ElJB2ac. Pf e Gap loss. and will also provide a check on core saturation margin. All Rights Reserved. Pg The copper loss. perpendicular to the laminations. but only when the gap of the core is zero. Pcu. is independent of core material strip thickness and permeability.
Comparing Core Configurations. Therefore the iron area. (A larger core should not be used as the fringing flux would also increase.) If you want to keep the fringing flux to a minimum. Ac. Wa. will remain the same.0388 0. = [smallest ratio] [1016] Comparing two cores with identical area products. for the same design specification. Wa. and the iron crosssection. would have both increased. the engineer will push the flux density as far he can without saturating the core. . than to pick a larger core. Ac. Ap. the gap would also decrease. resulting in less fringing flux. If there is a design change and it requires the use of the next larger core. When designing a transformer.Table 101. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. ratio. This problem becomes acute when designing high frequency ac inductors. Next Larger Core Doubling the Original Core Original Core Figure 104. Gap Loss Coefficient Configuration Twocoil C core Singlecoil C core Lamination Kj 0. then double up on the original core. normally all of the core proportions will increase. Wa. For example. always pick the core with the smallest ratio: W. would double. it would be far more beneficial to double up on the core being used. but the window area. if the next larger core was selected. Inc. as shown in Figure 104. Ac.0775 0. With an increase in iron crosssection. as shown in Equation 1016. The problem in designing high frequency inductors is the required turns to support the applied voltage.1550 When designing inductors where there is a choice of cores. That cannot be done with an ac inductor because you must leave a margin for the fringing flux factor. the core with a minimum of window area will generate a minimum of fringing flux. Wa/Ac. With a decrease in turns. This will reduce the. This means. This problem is minimized when using powder cores if the right permeability can be found. the window. the turns would have to decrease for the same window area. then gapping to provide the proper inductance. One of the biggest problems in designing ac inductors is keeping the gap to a minimum. All Rights Reserved.
13 cm2 = 4. = 300 amp/cm2 = 90% = Silicon = 1500 = 1. Line current. All Rights Reserved. MLT 5. is the El100. J 5. [watts] A= " A p (120)(104) (4. 1. um 8. Area Product.4 tesla = 0. Magnetic material permeability.8 cm = 6. L. Temperature rise goal. Magnetic material 7. Wtfe 4. Step No. Iron Area. Flux density. 3 Calculate the area product. 2 Calculate the apparent power. Ku 10. Ac 6. Tr Step No. .2 cm = 676 grams = 14. Kf 11. VA = V L I L .0 amps = 60 hertz.4)(300)' 4 ^=26.4)(60)(1. Core Number 2. Window utilization. Waveform factor. Ap. Magnetic Path Length. Core Weight. Ap. Ap = EI100 = 15. Line frequency 4.7 cm4 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm4] Step No. Mean Length Turn.4 = 4.0). Efficiency goal. VL 2. MPL 3. Bac 9. IL 3. ^—. Current density. VA=UO. [cm4] KfKJBacJ = 120 volts = 1. r)(100) 6. 1. The closest lamination to the calculated area product. Pt or VA of the inductor.84 cm2 = 29.44 = 50°C [watts] [watts] K/4=(120)(1. Window Area. Wa 7.8.44)(0. 1 Design a linear ac inductor with the following specifications. Inc.AC Inductor Design Example Step No. Applied voltage. 4 Select an El lamination from Chapter 3.
44)(1. Lamination tongue.14)(60) 1 = 0. A.93 cm5 = 213 cm2 = 3. [turns] Step No. (120) [ohms] [ohms] ** (T5)' Step No. XL=. [henrys] 271 f L = ———. [mils]: This would be in 10 mils each leg. 8 Calculate the required gap. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.8. [ohms] X L=—^. .318. Core Geometry. 5 Calculate the number of inductor turns. = 4. L. 7 Calculate the required inductance.54 cm KfBmfAe' [turns] N L Q2Q)(io 4 ) (4. ^=120.4)(60)(6.81 cm = 2.318 I U500J [cm] or / = 22. G 11.13)(10^ n 5 . NL. Inc. [henrys] v (1.13)' NL = 525. Kg 9. E Step No.0568. [henrys] 2(3. 10.26)(525)2(6. 2 ^ ~ \\ > tcm] 0. Surface Area. All Rights Reserved. K L (10 4 ) NL = ^ '—. Winding length. XL. Lg.4. / = 0. Step No. 6 Calculate the inductive reactance.
BK= . 4^=0. 9 Calculate the fringing flux. All Rights Reserved. [microohm/cm] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.13 0. Aw L(B) =~J> _ (1. recalculate the series inductor turns.— . 13 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4.13)(60)' =1.00324. [cm2] Step No. Inc. 1 1 Using the new turns.00333. [tesla] K N f L(^)4f S ~ (12Q)(1Q 4 ) (4. /6. recalculate the flux density. . 10 Using the fringing flux. N L(nevv) #i(«»> =459 > Step No. [tesla] Step No. [cm2] cm ) =531.6.44)(459)(6. F.0568 Step No.Step No. 12 Calculate the inductor bare wire area. Bac.0) ~ 4^=0.
[watts] Pg = 3.43. [watts] [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.878. [watts] Pfe = 0. 17 Calculate the core loss in watts. [watts] Step No.000557/0 68)fis(186). All Rights Reserved. W/K.676). WIK = 1. 18 Calculate the gap loss. [ohms] Step No. ^ = ( O X [watts] PL =(1.8)(459)(53l)(l(T 6 ). Pg.6l) + (0. F s =(3.ElJBl. RL=(MLi:)(Ns)(^](lO'6}.155)(2.30)(0. Pz = 7.0568)(60)(1. [watts] /> /e =(l.0) 2 (3.6)° 86) . 14 Calculate the inductor winding resistance. P fe Pfe=(WIK}Wtfe. [watts] Pg =(0.878) + (3. 16 Calculate the wattsperkilograms.Step No. PL.54)(0. [watts] Step No. WIK = 0.61). 19 Calculate the total inductor losses. \ i^m J * cm J ' [ohms] [ohms] RL =(l4. Use the MLT from the core data found in Step 4 and the microohm per centimeter found in Step 13.61. [watts] Step No. RL=3.000557(60)° 68) [wattsperkilogram] [wattsperkilogram] (l .6)2.92. RL. P2. See Chapter 2. [watts] />=3. Wl K = 0. for the appropriate core material.30. [wattsperkilogram] Step No.6l. Inc. 15 Calculate the inductor winding copper loss. P^K. .43).
[° Tr = 29.0372)(°826) . Gap Loss in CurrentLimiting Transformer. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ku. N. [wattspercm2 ] 4 (7. 2 1 Calculate the temperature rise. Tr. Electromechanical Design. 24126.. and Stephens.307 Reference 1. 20 Calculate the inductor surface area watt density. Inc. \\i. April 1973.. Step No.0372. D. = 0. . = _ ((459)(0.7.00324)) K = " (JM) K. L. p \l/ = —. 22 Calculate the window utilization..Step No. pp. y/ = ^ . [wattspercm ] iff = 0. [wattspercm2 ] Tr = 450(0. [°C] Step No.. A. All Rights Reserved. Ruben.92) .
.Chapter 11 Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Inc.
4. ConstantVoltage Transformer. Inc. Design Equations Series AC Inductor. 6. ConstantVoltage Transformer. Regulating Characteristics ConstantVoltage Transformer.Table of Contents 1. All Rights Reserved. Design Example References 3. Design Example Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 7. Electrical Parameters of a CVT Line Regulator 5. . Introduction 2.
The voltage across capacitor. This limiting action produces a voltage waveform that has a fairly flat top characteristic as shown in Figure 112 on each halfcycle. until a certain level of flux density is reached. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. can be limited to a predetermined amplitude by using a selfsaturating transformer. because of the resonant condition between LI and Cl. also having good circuit characteristics. Vp. The voltage. LI 105. The output of a constantvoltage transformer is essentially a square wave. the transformer saturates and becomes a lowimpedance path. The inductor. At that flux density. Two Component Ferroresonant Voltage Stabilizer. particularly where reliability and inherent regulating ability against line voltage changes are of prime importance. ConstantVoltage Transformer. The main disadvantage to a constantvoltage transformer is efficiency and regulation for frequency and load. Regulating Characteristics The basic twocomponent (CVT) Ferroresonant regulator is shown in Figure 111. The equations presented here for designing a constantvoltage transformers at line frequency have been used at 400 Hz on aircraft. Primary Voltage Waveform of a Constant Voltage Transformer. . LI. which has high impedance. Tl. which prevents further voltage buildup across the capacitor.Introduction The constantvoltage transformer (CVT) has a wide application. All Rights Reserved. would be considerably greater than the line voltage. and as high as 20 kHz.130V O Cl ^ ri t p V0 = 120V Figure 111. which is desirable for rectifier output applications while. is a linear inductor and is in series with Cl across the input line. Figure 112. Cl.
If the output of the line regulator is subjected to a load power factor (lagging) with less than unity. Transformers designed with a square BH loop will result in better line regulation.5 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The regulation characteristics at various lines and loads are shown in Figure 116. Output Voltage Variation.8 0.3 Figure 114. as shown in Figure 114. as a Function of Load Power Factor. .4 Load Power Factor. this dead short would be destructive. as shown in Figure 115.9 0. The magnetic material used to design transformer.0 0. The shortcircuit current is limited and set by the series inductance. It should be noted that a dead short. as shown in Figure 113. has an impact on line regulation. All Rights Reserved. the output will change. (lagging) 0. The regulation of a constantvoltage transformer can be designed to be better than a few percent. Tl. Inc. as a Function of Input Voltage. If the constant voltage transformer is subjected to a line voltage frequency change the output voltage will vary. does not greatly increase the load current.Electrical Parameters of a CVT Line Regulator When the constant voltage transformer is operating as a line regulator. Vjn 95 Figure 113. L. corresponding to zero output voltage. whereas for most transformers. 50% Load 100% Load 1.6 0. 120 ~o > 118 O 117 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 100 105 110 115 120 125 330 Input Voltage.7 0. the output voltage will vary as a function of the input voltage. Capability for handling a short circuit is an inherent feature of a constantvoltage transformer. Output Voltage Variation.
Basic. Hz 66 Figure 115. Load. Output Voltage Variation.0 3 2. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as a Function of Output Voltage vs. Inc. 160 140 u 100 M 80 o > 60 I 40 O 20 i i 95V Input 115V 130V Input i i i i 60 80 100 120 140 % Rated Load 160 180 Figure 116. All Rights Reserved. LC.0 i i i i i i i i i i i i i 56 58 60 62 64 Line Frequency.0 0 4. Output Voltage Variation.. Experience has shown that the.5? 8. Design Equations Proper operation and power capacity of a constantvoltage transformer (CVT) depends on components. Constant Voltage Transformer Circuit.0 5 8.0 If 6. ConstantVoltage Transformer.0 1 0 s 2°  4.5 [111] LI CV1 V Cl m V. relationship is: LCa)2 =1. LI and Cl. . Figure 117.0 & 6. as shown in Figure 117. as a Function of Line Frequency Change.
In order to use smaller capacitor values. This can be seen in Equation 116. CVT. as shown in Figure 118. r is the efficiency. This stepup winding increases the VA or size of the transformer.. Inc. . />„= — . an ideal input inductor. is the output power. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and. P0. V. All Rights Reserved. All voltage and currents are rms values. . LI. The penalty for using a smaller capacitor requires the use of a steojp winding. and a series capacitor. Cl. [watts] [114] [ohms] [115] It is common practice for the output to be isolated from the input and to connect Cl to a stepup winding on the constantvoltage transformer (CVT). is the voltage value just before the circuit starts to regulate at full load.The inductance can be expressed as: n Ico The capacitance can be expressed as: [henrys] [112] S* [farads] [113] Referring to Figure 117. [wattseconds] [116] [farads] Figure 118. is the reflected resistance back to the primary. with a Capacitor Stepup Winding. RO(R). including efficiency. The energy in a capacitor is: Energy = cv2 . a stepup winding must be added. assume there is a sinusoidal input voltage..
is the new voltage across the capacitor.C ^n% '(I2) V2 02) The apparent power. This is due to an increase in odd harmonics.0 to 1. Is. can vary from 1. Kc. [volts] [1112] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. it has been shown that for good performance the primary operating voltage should be: [amps] [119] . Ic=KcVccoC. as is Figure 118. Vn. Cn. Ic. [amps] [118] j The current. Due to the quasivoltage waveform as shown in Figure 1 12. [amps] [117] With the stepup winding. is the sum of each winding. Inc. Empirically. can be expressed as: / . Ip. C V2 .voltage transformer is: AK p =4. through the capacitor. the equivalent ac impedance of the resonant capacitor is reduced to some value lower than its normal sine wave value. both the value of the capacitor and the volume can be reduced.44Afl s 4/W p (l0 4 ). is related to the secondary current by the following Equation [Ref.The secondary current. because of the effective higher frequency. is increased by. VA: The line voltage regulation of a constant. [volts] [1110] When the resonating capacitor is connected across a stepup winding. Kc. .. and. All Rights Reserved. Pt. = .5. 3]: V (l3) c . Where. is the new capacitance value.. the primary current.
....... It seems that each manufacturer has his own annealing process................................... Input voltage .............................................. Vp =(105)(0............ Constant............... 3.. = 120 volts 4................................................................ Efficiency goal................................................... 1 Calculate the primary voltage........................................................... All Rights Reserved............................ Window utilization... BH Loop of a CVT at High and Low Line......... ............................................... Ku .................................... = 1............. = 50°C Step No..... Kc .......... 1........................................... which has an impact on the saturation flux density.......................... as shown in Figure 119....... Bs........... Vs ................. is dependent on the annealing process of the magnetic material....................... High Line B........................................... B................. = 300 amps/cm2 6........... = 0.... t(100) ..................... J .. ........ = 85% 9........ ............... Bs......................Voltage Transformer.. Temperature rise goal..... Design Example Design a constantvoltage line regulator (CVT) with the following specifications.. Bs 11................................. = 105129 volts 2........................ Tr .................................................................4 12...5 8.............. 5................ Vc ................. Magnetic Material ........................................ The saturation flux density..........The output voltage regulation of a constantvoltage transformer.... Vf = 99...... Low Line H IHH Figure 119...................................... is a function of the squareness of the BH loop....... ......... = 60 hertz.......................................... Output VA .. Capacitor voltage......... Line frequency .. [volts] [volts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker........... Capacitor coefficient............95).... Output voltage...75.............. Inc.......... (teslas) Bs.............. Transformer current density.................... for a change in line voltage...... = Silicon = 1.............. Vp...........................95 tesla 10.. Saturating flux density.......... = 440 volts 7......................... = 250 watts........................................
.=%.11.6 ).08.5 (. (238(lO~ 6 ))(99.5(440)(377)(l2. [farads] C = —.if/440v. [amps] Step No. Step No.85) Ro(R) = ^'—^ '.75) 2 °"3) (440)2 C (1 _ 3) =12. !. L J /? o(R) =33. [amps] Ie =1.5(lO. .8) C = 238(lO~ 6 ).33(377)(33. . 6 Calculate the secondary current. [farads] [farads] Step No. including efficiency r. Ic=\. RO(R) back to the primary. 3 Calculate the required capacitance. 2 Calculate the reflected resistance.5VccoC. using the higher voltage. PO (99. Vc.. [amps] r 25° i / s = — . [ohms] . Inc.6 )). All Rights Reserved. r[amps] Is = 2.3(lO. [amps] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Step No. C = . 5 Calculate the capacitor current. [amps] / c =3. Is. 0.. [ohms] \2 . 4 Calculate the new capacitance value. Ic.75) (0.8. Cl. [farads] A standard motor run capacitor is a 12.. Step No.
P. A. MPL 3. [watts] pt =(434) + (l057) + (250).6 cm = 18. Ap 8. All Rights Reserved. 1. Kg 9. 8 Calculate the apparent power Pt.7 cm5 = 652 cm2 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Area Product. Inc.71 kilograms = 25. 9 Calculate the area product. [watts] VA(l_2) = Vf Ip = (99. Magnetic Path Length. Iron Area. Wa 7. Core Number 2.8 cm2 = 278 cm4 = 81. [watts] VA(^i} = V S I S = (120)(2.11) = 1057.95)(300)' Ap=279.'—.Step No. Surface Area. A = .7 cm = 3. [cm4] Step No. Ap. = VA(l_2) + vA{2_3) + yA^5).8 cm2 = 14. = El175 = 26.08) = 250. Wtfe 4. Mean Length Turn. is the El175. Ap. MLT 5. Core Weight. Ac 6. .75)(4.35) = 434. Core Geometry.44)(0. The closest lamination to the calculated area product. [cm4! " KfKJBsJ (1742)(10 4 ) A = " (4. 10 Select an El lamination from Chapter Three.4)(60)(1. [watts] 7^=1741. [watts] VA (^) =(VCVP}IC =(340)(3. Window Area. [watts] Step No.
35) 2 (0.345. P p =(4. [microohm/cm] cm ) Step No.) ^ (10).6 ). [ohms] Rp = 0. 1 1 Calculate the number of primary turns. 13 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. . [turns] Step No.6)(l02)(l32)(lO. 4.. Np. Rp.53.35) A Hp(B) . [watts] Pp = 6. Inc.75)(l0 4 ) (4.44)(1.^=0.=1 + (300) [cm2] Step No. ^ = FflO4) = ' [tums] (99. Awp(B). All Rights Reserved.8)' Np = 102. <„(«)= y> [cm2] (4. Pp. Use the MLT from the core data and the microohm per centimeter found in Step 13. .95)(60)(18.0131.345). [ohms] Step No. 14 Calculate the primary resistance. [cm 2 ] —— =132. [ohms] #p =(25. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.. 15 Calculate the primary copper loss.Step No. 12 Calculate the primary bare wire area.
V c )j£J(lO. Use the MLT from the core data and the microohm per centimeter found in Step 18. . ' V } "'. 17 Calculate the capacitor stepup winding bare wire area. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. RC=IAS. 19 Calculate the capacitor winding resistance.. Rc =(25. [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Step No.75) N=±^'.11) (1. 4=(MLT)(. 18 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. Inc. Pc=(lc}2Rc.6)(348)(l66)(lO~ 6 ).Step No. [microohm/cm] Step No. 20 Calculate the capacitor stepup winding copper loss. 2 [watts] [watts] P C =(3.6 ). Au(B] =0. [cm2] Step No. [turns] 99. [turns] p (!02)(44099. 16 Calculate the required turns for the stepup capacitor winding. Nc.0104. AWC(B).48). J (3. R<.75 Nc = 348.11) Am(B)= 0.3.0104. Pc = 14. \ [cm2] cm =• 166. [turns] Step No. Pc. All Rights Reserved.
00693. 25 Calculate the secondary winding copper loss. [cm 2 ] cm ) =264. P. Use the MLT from the core data and the microohm per centimeter found in Step 23.831.6)(l23)(264)(lO" 6 ). Rs. 7 [ohms] \ cm j v [ohms] «s =(25. [cm2] Step No. 21 Calculate the turns for the secondary. ls — l<r .=^.08) ws(B} ~ (300)' Am(g) = 0. [turns] Step No.831). Ps.00653. [microohm/cm] Step No. 23 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. . [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.59. 22 Calculate the secondary bare wire area. _ (2.Step No. All Rights Reserved. [watts] Ps =3. A JVC = #19 4^=0. [turns] p (102)(120) TV = ^ '+ '. [turns] 99. ^=0. [ohms] Step No.)2R» 2 [watts] Ps =(2. 24 Calculate the secondary winding resistance. NV N.75 Ns = 123. Ns. Inc.08) (0.=(1. Aws(B).
WIK= 0.000557(60)° "8) (l.3).59) + (l4.94.4) + (6. \\i.000557/1 '6s)Bf 86) . Pfe. [wattsperkilogram] W/K =1. All Rights Reserved.34) .87. ¥= t^\ > [wattspercm2] (652) \l/ = 0. W/K.+PO Pcu = 24. 26 Calculate the total copper loss. See Chapter 2. Pfe=(WIK)Wtft.7.95)° 86) . Pcu. Pj> Pz =(24. [wattsperkilogram] WIK = 0. [watts] Step No. [wattsperkilogram] Step No.87)(3. Tr = 36. PCU=PP+P. [watts] Step No. Inc.94). [watts] ^=31. [°C] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . 28 Calculate the core loss in watts.53) + (3. Tr. for the appropriate core material.4.34. Tr =450(0. [wattspercm2 ] Step No. / > /c =(l.7l).0481) ( ° 826> . 3 1 Calculate the temperature rise. [watts] [watts] ^=(6. [watts] [watts] Pfc = 6. [wattspercm2 ] 4 (31.Step No.048 1. 30 Calculate the transformer surface watt density. 29 Calculate the total losses. p i// = —. [watts] Step No. 27 Calculate the wattsperkilogram.
. 33 Calculate the window utilization. Line frequency 3. . [henrys] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Efficiency goal. Waveform factor. Kf 10. 34 Calculate the required series inductance.3)V 77 = 88. Inc. r\. All Rights Reserved. 32 Calculate the transformer efficiency.394 (I£?j Series AC Inductor. LI. [henrys] 2(377) II = 0. Applied voltage 2. unl 7. Ku.44 = 50°C 11 = ^. Window utilization. Current density. Design Example (Also See Chapter 9) Step No. J 4. _^ (250 + 31. Bac 8. Magnetic material permeability. + ((348)(0.00653)) "" K.Step No. = 0.0448. Magnetic material 6. = 129 volts = 60 hertz = 300 amp/cm2 = 85% = Silicon = 1500 = 1. 2co [henrys] LI = \\ . 33 Design a series.9. Ku 9. Flux density.4 = 4.4 tesla = 0. Tr Step No. linear ac inductor with the following specifications: 1. See Figure 118. Temperature rise goal. [%] ' Step No.0104)) + ((123)(0. r](100) 5.
Area Product.49 cm Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1 cm = 11. Ac 6. Wtfe 4. Kg 9. Ap. L (16. Inc. Mean Length Turn. =125. MPL 3. [amps] Step No. Winding length. G 11. of the input series inductor.— IS l/~ /Y . Iron Area. 38 Calculate the area product. 39 Select an El lamination from Chapter Three with the closest calculated area product. XL. LI. [watts] A= " J . A.79 kilograms = 20. 36 Calculate the shortcircuit current. (129) 4 = 7(. ^=16. Window Area.5 cm5 = 403 cm2 = 5. from Step 7.63. Surface Area. Ip.Step No. or VA. Use the high line voltage of 129 volts and the normal running current.44)(0.15 cm" = 106 cm4 = 24. [ohms] Step No.28)(60)(0. XL = 2nfL\. Magnetic Path Length. P. IL. 10. VA = 561. [cm4] Step No. Lamination tongue. E = EI138 = 21 cm = 1.6 cm2 = 9.9.35). [cm4] I J : '_ CHI I (561)(104) " (4. ^f D / D '—. Ap 8. 35 Calculate the inductor reactance. Ap.4)(60)(1. All Rights Reserved. [watts] Step No. A.4)(300)' 4.9) IL = 7. Core Weight. K4=(129)(4. . [ohms] [ohms] XL = (6.0448) . MLT 5. Core Geometry. Wa 7. Core Number 2.24 cm = 3. 1. 37 Calculate the apparent power.
40 Calculate the number of inductor turns. . Lg. .6 F = 1.4)(60)(11. 21 A g I 0.44)(256)(11. N L(new) . Bac. 44 Using the new turns. l s  . [tesla] Soc=1. recalculate the flux density.276.6)' Wj.63. All Rights Reserved. . i rz :?—TT> [tun18] ^ i(1KW) =256. [cm] /s = 0.6)(60) . [turns] Step No. = 298.109. NL.276 Step No. [rums] Step No.0448 I U500.Step No. [tesla] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm] or /g = 0.29 0. 41 Calculate the required gap. F.44)(1. Inc. recalculate the series inductor turns. 42 Calculate the fringing flux. (I29)(l0 4 ) flc c " (4. [mils]: This would be SOmils in each leg. [cm] . 43 Using the fringing flux. v/11. Step No. * KfBaJAc' (I29)(l0 4 ) ^ = (4.
46 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. .34.Step No. 47 Calculate the inductor winding resistance. Inc.679). W/K = 0. [ohms! ^ cm ) RL = (20.679. RL. [wattsperkilogram] WIK = 1.0145. 48 Calculate the inductor winding copper loss. 4^=0. RL = (MLT)(AO —](lO*).l)(256)(l32)(lO6 ). See Chapter 2. [cm2] Step No.35) (0. [microohm/cm] Step No. AwL(B). [wattsperkilogram] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.35) «"W ~ (300) ' AwL(B}= 0. 2 2 [watts] PL =(4. PL = 12.63)°'86).000557/ 168) flf 86) . [wattsperkilogram] WIK = 0. »LW J . for the appropriate core material. [cm2] _ (4. PL PL =(IL} RL. [cm2] \ cm = 132. [watts] [watts] Step No.8. 45 Calculate the inductor bare wire area.000557(60)°68) (l. W/K. RL = 0. All Rights Reserved.01307. Use the MLT from the core data and the microohm per centimeter found in Step 38. 49 Calculate the wattsperkilogram. [ohms] [ohms] Step No.
52 Calculate the total losses.=450(0. ^=(12.0131)) (9. Pfi=2A.0968.49)(0.155)(3. 50 Calculate the core loss in watts. [wattspercm2 J A < (39) :.Step No. Pz = 39. Pfe=(WIK}Wtfe. Ku.4) + (23. 55 Calculate the window utilization.367 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.34)(1. [watts] [watts] [watts] Step No. All Rights Reserved.0968) ( ° 826) .ElJBlc. 8). = 0.8. Pg = 23. P /C =(1. [watts] [watts] Step No. P£. Pfe.15) K.. 5 1 Calculate the gap loss.79). = ((2S6)(0. \\i.. 54 Calculate the temperature rise. 8) + (2.276)(60)(1. Inc.. Step No. A. Tr. .. [wattspercm2] 7. p = — . Pg. 53 Calculate the inductor surface area watt density. Pg=K. [watts] [watts] [watts] Pg =(0. Step No. r r = 65.63)2. [°C] Step No. [wattspercm] \l/ = 0.
24126. pp. vol. L. 2. April 1973. March 1956. pp. pp 205211. 4. B." IRE Trans. Gap Loss in CurrentLimiting Transformer. No. Lendena. H. 154 155. and Stephens. pp. P. Electromechanical Design.References 1.1114. I. J. Inc. "The Analysis and Design of Constant Voltage Regulators. D. All Rights Reserved. Mag7. S. Kakalec. May 1961..l. vol. Component Parts. Ruben. . "The Derivation and Application of Design Equations for Ferroresonant Voltage Regulators and Regulated Rectifiers." IEEE Trans. Magnetics. 3." Electronics Technology. CP3. March 1971. Friedman. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. "Design of a Magnetic Voltage Stabilizer. Hart and R.
All Rights Reserved. Inc. .Chapter 12 ThreePhase Transformer Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Kg. 6. Physical Size Phase Current. Ap. to Transformer Power Handling Capability 12. 9. Relationship. 7. Relationship. 4. Line Voltage. and Current in a Wye System Comparing Multiphase and SinglePhase Power Multiphase Rectifier Circuits Area Product. and Core Geometry. Introduction Primary Circuit Comparing Transformer. 3. Line Current. . 5. Kg. Inc. and Voltage in a Delta System Phase Voltage. 2. 8. ThreePhase Transformer. to Power Transformer Regulation Capability 11.Table of Contents 1. for ThreePhase Transformers Output Power Versus Apparent. All Rights Reserved. Pt. Ap. Capability 10. Design Example Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
. The transformer can be made smaller and lighter for the same power handling capability. Primary Circuit The two most commonly used primary circuits for threephase transformers are the Star. as shown in Figure 122. transmission. and the other being known as the Delta (A) connection. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 3 O Figure 121. ThreePhase Transformer. In circuitry. for conversion from ac to dc. or Y connection. 3 O Figure 122. Connected in Star. which is 3 times and 6 times the line frequency. All Rights Reserved. the output contains a much lower ripple amplitude. 2 O Line. It has many advantages over singlephase power. and which. in turn. and a higher frequency component. as well as for all industrial uses.Introduction Threephase power is used almost exclusively for generation. Inc. because the copper and iron are used more effectively. requires less filtering. It is also used on aircraft. Line. 1 O Line. both commercial and military. ThreePhase Transformer. and distribution. as shown in Figure 121. The design requirement for each particular job dictates which method of connection will be used. Connected in Delta. Line.
3 Wire Delta Input ThreePhase.Comparing Transformer. because it looks like the core surrounds the coil. T4. ThreePhase. shown in Figure 125. Since the windings of the threephase transformer are placed on a common magnetic core. and (b) Operating from a threephase power source connected in a deltadelta configuration. shown in Figure 124. The El lamination. 3 Wire Delta Output ThreePhase. Inc. is shown in Figure 124 and Figure 125. A cutaway view of a singlephase transformer. rather than on three independent cores. The C core. 3 Wire Delta Output (b) Figure 123. is known as a shell type. All Rights Reserved. The single threephase transformer. . Comparing Three SinglePhase Transformers Connected in ThreePhase Delta. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. shows the connection of three singlephase transformers: (a) Operating from a threephase power source and a single threephase transformer. 3 Wire Delta Input ThreePhase. is known as a core type. the consolidation results in an appreciable saving in the copper. because it looks like the coil surrounds the core. and the insulating materials. would be lighter and smaller than a bank of three singlephase transformers of the same total rating. the core. Physical Size The schematic diagram in Figure 123. showing the window area and iron area of two types of core configuration.
Cutaway View of a ThreePhase Transformer. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Illustrating a Shell Type Transformer. Therefore. These crosssectional views show the window and iron areas. with balanced voltages impressed. The threelegged core is designed to take advantage of the fact that. no return leg is needed under normal conditions. . When the transformer is subjected to unbalanced loads. Cutaway views of a threephase transformer are shown in Figure 126. Core Side View Figure 126. All Rights Reserved. it may be best to use three singlephase transformers. adds up to zero. because of the highcirculating currents. Inc. or unbalanced line voltages. the flux in each phase leg.Winding /" Side View Top View \ Core Figure 124. Illustrating a Core Type Transformer. Winding Side View Top View \ Core Figure 125.
the line voltage and line current are commonly called phase voltage and phase current. The line voltage. [volts] [122] E (Line. I(phase). 2) E (Phase) O Figure 128. in a ThreePhase Wye Circuit can be seen in Figure 128. All Rights Reserved. between the neutral. the voltage between any two wires in the line will always be the square root of three times the phase voltage. and Voltage in a Delta System In a ThreePhase Delta Circuit. Inc. . 1) Figure 127. E(PhaS!.Phase Current. is equal to the phase current. 3) • (Line. and the winding. such as the one shown in Figure 127. and Current in a Wye System The relationship between the Line voltage. will be the same as the actual winding voltage of the transformer. and Line current. Line Current. Phase Voltage. the line current. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Line Voltage. E(Line). times the square root of 3. I(Line). 1) (Line) O Neutral E (Line. Voltage and Current Relationship for a ThreePhase Wye Circuit. (Phase) E (Line. and any one of the lines.. However. ""(phiise) .. In a Wye System. Voltage and Current Relationship of a ThreePhase Delta Circuit. or Phase voltage and Phase current.
Only 33% of the total current flows through each rectifier. The ripple voltage frequency is always twice the line frequency. as well as fixed ground installations. if dc is a requirement. Looking at the ripple in Figure 1210. The ripple voltage frequency is always 6 times the line frequency. Inc. The odd shape of a threephase transformer could be troublesome. O Tl V V dc Figure 129. Only 50% of the total current flows through each rectifier. This can be seen in aircraft. "Delta" Full Wave Bridge. ThreePhase. One of the basic reasons for selecting threephase is the transformer size. Another reason is. Most high power equipment and industrial complexes will use threephase power. The threephase. All Rights Reserved. . SinglePhase Full Wave Bridge. Figure 1210. it is obvious the LC components will be smaller. the capacitor and inductor filtering components are both smaller. Delta full wave bridge circuit is shown in Figure 1210. and shipboard equipment. full wave bridge circuit is shown in Figure 129.Comparing Multiphase and SinglePhase Power Threephase power distribution has a significant advantage over the singlephase. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. One of the biggest advantages in using threephase power distribution has to do with smaller magnetic components handling the same power as singlephase. The singlephase. as well as keeping balanced loads to minimize circulating currents.
Table 121. Figure 1211 Factor 1.855 to Neutral X average dc output voltage 0.000 Ripple Voltage % 3f Ripple Frequency Delta. ThreePhase Voltage and Current Ratios for Rectifier Circuits.471 X average dc output current dc watts output 1. Inc.050 X dc watts output Secondary VA 4.050 X 4.810 X dc watts output Secondary VA 4.408 Secondary I/leg 1. Three Phase Rectifier Circuit Data DeltaDelta Full Wave.280 X dc watts output average dc output voltage Secondary Line to Line 1. Figure 1212 Item Factor dc watts output Primary VA 1.740 X average dc output voltage Secondary VI leg 0. These ratios apply for sinusoidal ac input voltages.Multiphase Rectifier Circuits Table 121 lists voltage and current ratios for the circuits.200 Ripple Voltage % 6f Ripple Frequency Delta.577 X average dc output current Secondary I/leg dc watts output Secondary VA 1.200 Ripple Voltage % 6f Ripple Frequency Root mean square values to the average dc.050 X 0. shown in Figures 1211 through Figures 1214 for inductive output filters. Values shown do not take into consideration voltage drops which occur in the power transformer or rectifier diodes.480 X 18.Wye Half Wave.740 X average dc output voltage Secondary Line to Line 0.210 X dc watts output Primary VA Secondary Line to Line 0.Wye Full Wave. Figure 1214 Factor Item Primary VA 1.200 6f Delta.428 to Neutral X average dc output voltage Secondary VI leg average dc output current Secondary I/leg 0.817 X 1.740 to Neutral X average dc output current 0. Item Primary VA Secondary VI leg Secondary I/leg Secondary VA Ripple Voltage % Ripple Frequency Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.050 X dc watts output average dc output voltage 0.740 X 0. no transformer or rectifier losses. Sinewave . Figure 1213 Factor Item 1. . infinite inductance.Wye 6 Phase Half Wave.480 X average dc output voltage Secondary VI leg X 0. All Rights Reserved.
ThreePhase. "DeltaDelta" Full Wave Bridge. ThreePhase. . Tl XL) Figure 1212.s(LL) Figure 1213.p(LL) Figure 1211.o V. All Rights Reserved. "DeltaWye" Six Phase Star. "DeltaWye" Half Wave Bridge. Tl V. ThreePhase. Tl Figure 1214. ThreePhase. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. "DeltaWye" Full Wave Circuit.
Ap. Ac. for a singlephase transformer is: I W A2 K " . in square centimeters (cm2). Kg. MLT [cm5] [126] In the threephase transformer. Ap.5(WaAc). crosssection area. Wa.=1. and the area product. Kg. Inc. and iron area. Kg. the window utilization is different.Area Product. of a core is the product of the available window area. for a threephase transformer is shown in Figure 126. The core geometry. because there are basically two windows area. All Rights Reserved. The area product. for a singlephase transformer is shown in Figure 124 and 125. Ap. and Core Geometry. is: Threephase : ^ = 3 f This reduces to: [cm5] [12. Kg. Wa.S K " c " . and iron area. for a threephase transformer. of a threephase core is defined differently than that for a singlephase core. For threephase transformers. The window area. Ac. of the core in square centimeters (cm2) multiplied by the effective. Wa. for a singlephase transformer and the core geometry.7] *. The window area. [cm4 ] [124] This reduces to: Ap=l. [cm 4 ] [125] It is basically the same thing for the core geometry. which may be stated as: Singlephase: Ap = WaAc. changes to: fW } Threephase: Ap = 3 ^ Ac . Wa. Kg. Ap. and three iron areas Ac. [cm4] [123] This is alright for a singlephase transformer. core geometry. Ac. MLT TL jfT rr< ' * [cm5 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . for ThreePhase Transformers The area product.
Figure 1212. Pt. [watts] P. Transformer size is thus determined. will be done to compare the powerhandling capability required by each threephase rectifier circuit in Table 121 and Figures 121 1 through 1214. Pjn. 1 . of a transformer is the combined power of the primary and secondary windings which handle. respectively. Full Wave. Since the power transformer has to be designed to accommodate the primary.1). . and the secondary.05. Pt.=P0(2. Pjn and P0. If the current in the rectifier is interrupted. DeltaDelta.i). = P0 (T) = 1) for all threephase rectifier circuits. [watts] [1212] The designer must be concerned with the apparent power handling capability. Pt. not only by the load demand. All Rights Reserved. Full Wave.=Pin+P0. Inc.05 / > = / > „ (2. The apparent power. An example of the primary and secondary. [watts] [129] Pin=^. [watts] [1211] P = P . The apparent power. Pt. . [watts] [1214] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. This comparison will negate transformer and diode losses so that P. to the load.=— + P0.Output Power Versus Apparent Power.Wye. is described in detail in Chapter 7.. of the transformer core and winding.+ 1 . P0: P. its effective rms value changes.. Figure 1211. Capability The apparent power. VA. Delta. [watts] [1210] Substituting: P. =p^L +S [watts] [1213] [watts] . [watts] 2. Pt. varies with the type of circuit in which the transformer is used. but also by current wave shape.
Kg. . it can be seen that factors such as flux density. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to Power Transformer Regulation Capability Although most transformers are designed for a given temperature rise. All Rights Reserved.3 . [cm5] MLT J 2Kea [1219] The constant. 4. Inc. [watts] Relationship. is determined by the core geometry. The regulation and powerhandling ability of a core are related to two constants: a=—^—. +S [watts] [1215] Pt=p — + 1.09). is determined by the magnetic and electric operating conditions. DeltaWye. Ke.69). have an influence on the transformer size. Kg.%1\. Figure 1214. [%1 ZA *^' [1217] a = Regulation (%) [1218] The constant. [watts] Delta. which may be related by the following equation: From the above. and waveform coefficient. Figure 1213. which may be related by the following equations: K=l. [watts] Pt=P0(2. they can also be designed for a given regulation. Half Wave. 6 Phase Half Wave.5\1 ""'".! = £.48 .Wye. frequency of operation. = p ^ . [watts] [1216] V 1 ) /?=P 0 (3. = p L +S [watts] P=P\^ + 1.
3 Wire 28 V 10 amps Full Bridge Delta / Delta 60 hertz 95 % 5% 1. define the maximum space. Kg. V0 Output Current. 10. 12. Input voltage.Relationship. frequency of operation. 5. Design Example The following information is the Design specification for a threephase. 2. Ap. I0 Output Circuit Input / Output Frequency. 8. isolation transformer. [cm . 3. Ap. and window utilization factor. Three Phase. ThreePhase Transformer. [cm4] KfKuBmJf ^(1()4) [12_22] Where: Kf = waveform coefficient Kf =4. to Transformer Power Handling Capability According to the newly developed approach. 4.0 square wave Kf = 4. 7. by an equation which may be stated as: Pl04 Ap=  . r(100) Regulation. a Flux Density. using the. [cm ] 4 [\22\\ Ap=l. 11. Vd 208 V. Design specification: 1. f Efficiency. . Bac Magnetic Material Window Utilization Ku = (Kup + Kus) Diode Drop. core geometry approach. Vto Output voltage. it can be seen that factors such as flux density. All Rights Reserved.0 volt Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5(WaAc) = ^ '—.4 1.4 tesla Silicon M6X 0. the power handling capability of a core is related to its area product. which may be occupied by the copper in the window. 6. Ku. Inc. 9.44 sine wave From the above.
02 Step No. 1 Calculate the apparent power. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm5] 2Kea 647 K g = 3 2 .05\. A. Wtfe Mean length turn. 4 Core number Iron weight.4) 2 (lO.129 cm" 29. [warts] [watts] P = 3 0 0  — + 1.86(60) 2 (l. El. Inc.7 cm 6.86/ 2 5 2 (lO~ 4 ) ^ e =2. [cm5] Step No. Ap Core geometry. Ke. Wa Area product. [watts] Step No.4)(6.129)(60)' [turns] / p =910. . ThreePhase Laminations. All Rights Reserved. Pt. 2 Calculate the electrical conditions. Np.0 cm 267cm4 39 cm 730 cm2 208(l0 4 ) f 4. Pt=P0\— + l.051 [watts] U95 ) Pt = 647. 100EI3P 2. MLT Iron area. = L—.4 ) Ke = 2. 3 Calculate the core geometry.44(1.Step No. The section is on. Ke = 2. using Faraday's Law. Ac Window area. This data is taken from Chapter 3. Kg Surface area. Step No.751 kilograms 16. Kg. 5 Calculate the number of primary turns.
[ohms] Rp=\6.Step No.7)(910)(l062)(lO" 6 ). The window area available for the primary is.001623. AWG#25 Aw^= 0. Inc. [ohms] v cm J Rp =(!6. [cm2] ^ = 1062 cm Step No. from Step 4. RP=MLT(NP) ^ (ur6). 9 The selection of the wire would be from the Wire Table in Chapter 4.2. The primary window utilization. Kup = 0. and the microohm. I 4 910 ( ) / = 0. AWp(B). [cm2] A w(ins) = 0. Use the MLT. .00159.506 Step No.„ J . Ip(phase) 0. per centimeter. All Rights Reserved. 6 Calculate the primary line current. 8 Calculate the primary bare wire area.002002. Wa / 4. [ohms] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. I^UM)I p(Lme)» = a p ° 300 . [cm2] Step No. found in Step 9. 10 Calculate the primary winding resistance. 7 [amps] Calculate the primary phase current. [amps] ' L f J >(£«!«)'/ ' Step No.\.
AWS(B).292)2(16.12.(lO~ 6 ). #S=(16. [turns] (208) i.01307.740)(28 + 2) = 22. Step No.' . found in Step 14.2 (910)(22. . Inc. All Rights Reserved. = MLT(A^) —. 12 Calculate the secondary turns.Step No.2X29. 13 [turns] Calculate the secondary bare wire area. s vp i o o . Ns. [turns] Vs = (0. [watts] Step No. p> [watts] Pp =3(0. 15 Calculate the secondary winding resistance. Rs.2)f 5 " Ns = V .740)(F0 + 2Vd } = (0. Use the MLT. Pp. 14 The selection of the wire will be from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. IOOJ Ns=\02. A x ' 1 + — . from Step 4. = 0. 11 Calculate the total primary copper loss. . [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0)) 4»(B)[ 4(102) J' Step No.225. [watts] ^=4. [cm2] ^ = 132 cm Step No. and the micro ohm per centimeter.1). AWG#\6 4.^=0. [cm2] ><»</«) =0.01473. /?.7)(102)(132)(106).((0.
IS(ime). [%] 'o Pcu=Pp+Ps. [watts] a = 3.03. Ps = 4.471 K> /. Inc.e)=2.225).40)° 86) Watts/kilogram = 1 . Is(phase)s(line) > LamPsJ / i p rise / _4. 19 [watts] Calculate the transformer regulation. 17 Calculate the secondary phase current. 18 Calculate the total secondary copper loss.11.751).72) 2 (0.99.^ ' . Watts/kilogram = Kf(m]B%} Watts/kilogram = 0. Wtfe.72.99.(pha.01 Step No. [watts] ^=9.471)(10). All Rights Reserved. [amps] Step No.71 j . [watts] [watts] Ps =3(2.000557(60)° 68) (l. [watts] [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] Pfe= 1. 16 Calculate the secondary line current. J. '.Step No. [%] Step No. =4. a.(««) =(°. 21 Calculate the core loss. is found in Step 4.78.01 (2. 20 Calculate the watts per kilogram.12+4. a =^2. . pfe = Watts/Kilogram ( Wtfe ) .(/»») =(0. Step No. Pfe = 2. Core weight. Step No.(100). Ps. Pfe. [watts] />„.
[°C] Step No. 7. The surface area. P z =11.184) K. Ku. [°C] T. ri = 96.01307) 1 29 29 Ku =(0. is found in Step 4. = 0. I = ? 77F(100)' r L +1< 0 [%] 300.388 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts per cm2 ] Step No. 25 Calculate the temperature rise. Inc.78. i// = ( r^ .89V . =15. P2. [%] Step No. 26 Calculate the total window utilization. [watts per cm2 ] 4 ) 2.99 + 2. — wa 4(910)(0. Step No.12 + 4. 22 Summarize the total transformer losses. At.. Tr.0163)° 826 . \\i.. Pz=Pp+Ps+Pfe. r.0163. .Step No. 23 Calculate the transformer efficiency.2.=450(0. The watts per unit area y is found in Step 24. Q 300 + 11. wtt A". The window area is found in Step 4. 24 Calculate the watts per unit area.. [watts] [watts] [watts] Pz =4. All Rights Reserved. r [watts per cm ^ (730) 1L89 (// = 0. p y/ = — .89.204) + (0.001623) 4(l02)(0.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Inc. for their help with the Flyback design equations. V. Richard Ozenbaugh of Linear Magnetics and Kit Sum.Chapter 13 Flyback Converter. Senior Engineer. Senior Consultant. Power and Sensor Electronics Group. . All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Transformer Design The author would like to thank Dr. Vorperian.
Introduction 2. Energy Transfer 3. BuckBoost Design Equations 17. Continuous Current Buck Converter Design Equations 9. Discontinuous Current Buck Converter Design Equations 8. Discontinuous Current 20. Continuous and Discontinuous Boundary 6. Design Example. Discontinuous Current Boost Converter Design Equations 11. The Isolated BuckBoost Converter 16. Discontinuous Current Mode 4. BuckBoost Isolated Converter Discontinuous Current 19. Continuous Current Mode 5. Continuous Current Boost Converter Design Equations 12. Continuous Current 24. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Continuous Current Inverting. Standard Boost Flyback Converter 22. Discontinuous Current Isolated. (PFC) Boost Converter. Design Example. Boost Converter. Continuous Current Isolated. BuckBoost Design Equations 18.Table of Contents 1. . Discontinuous Current Inverting. Designing Boost Inductors for Power Factor Correction (PFC) 21. All Rights Reserved. Boost PFC Converter 23. The Boost Converter 10. Design Example. BuckBoost Design Equations 15. BuckBoost Design Equations 14. The Inverting BuckBoost Converter 13. Inc. The Buck Converter 7.
3. or boost converter. Comparing Discontinuous and Continuous Current Waveforms." toff. or the "on period. Inverting. Continuous Mode Energy stored in the inductor is not completely transferred to the output capacitor and load circuit before another charging period occurs. Inc. All Rights Reserved. and the discharge of the energy to the load during the "off period. . or buck converter. Step down. Energy Transfer Two distinct modes of operation are possible for the Flyback switching converters. 1.Introduction The principle behind Flyback converters is based on the storage of energy in the inductor during the charging. 2. shown in Figure 131: Discontinuous Mode All energy stored in the inductor is transferred to an output capacitor and load circuit before another charging period occurs. buckboost converter.[131] Discontinuous Current Continuous Current IL \A l rl l on T w 'on T toff Figure 131. 4. The total period is: T = . Isolated. but puts a larger stress on the capacitor and switching device. Step up." ton. There are four basic types that are the most common. buckboost converter. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. This topology results in a smaller inductor size. inductor type converter circuits. energy storage.
Continuous (A) and Discontinuous (B). Continuous Current Mode In the Continuous Mode. the winding losses are increased because of the higher rms values. The Continuous Mode demands a high current flowing through the switch during turnon. the initial current is zero. the control circuit causes the transistor to increase the "on time. Inc. The discontinuous mode converter does not exhibit the right half plane zero. this results in a lower peak current at the end of the cycle than in a discontinuous system of equivalent output power.Discontinuous Current Mode In the Discontinuous Mode. When the load current increases to a critical level. Showing AB and AI. Continuous and Discontinuous Boundary When the load current increases. the loop becomes very difficult to stabilize for a wide range of input voltage. is that when the switching device is turned on. resulting in a steady reduction in the dwell time. B (tesla) All B (tesla) H (oersteds) H (oersteds) Bac = AB/2  A B Figure 132. This also results. As a consequence. Without the right half plane zero. The advantage of this circuit. The continuous mode converter does exhibit the right halfplane zero. All Rights Reserved. This means the output diode has completely recovered. If the Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. BH Loops." ton. tw. and the discontinuous boundary is reached. and the switching device does not momentarily turn on into a short. This diode recovery reduces the EMI radiation. due to the higher peak currents. and gives added stress to the switching transistor. other than having a smaller inductor. and can lead to high switch dissipation. tw becomes zero. but the penalty results in higher peak currents in the switching transistor. a larger inductor is required. a smaller inductance is required. . the loop is easy to stabilize. The relationship between the BH loops for continuous and discontinuous operation is shown in Figure 132. in a higher ripple current and ripple voltage in the input and output capacitor. The peak current in the inductor will increase. With the right halfplane zero.
providing a variablewidth pulse. to a simple averaging. Ql. and the continuous waveforms in Figure 135. In the buck circuit. n . is closed. The transistor. and the current flows through the inductor to the load. Inductance. When the switch is open.__. Inc. the energy. Figure 134. All Rights Reserved. the inductor current will no longer discharge to zero on every cycle. The output voltage of this converter is always less than the input voltage. filter. the dc input voltage is applied across the output filter inductor. interrupts the dc input voltage. stored in the field of the inductor. Discontinuous.Jv. Ql. Schematic of a Buck Switching Converter. n Figure 133. and continuous current operation results. LI. LI. (duty ratio). .load current is further increased. the transistor switch. 1 v Vm QlULL Cl J ^ CR1 >• . The Buck Converter The Buck Converter is shown in Figure 133. LC. is placed in series with the dc input voltage. The discontinuous voltage and current waveforms are shown in Figure 134. Discontinuous Current Buck Converter Design Equations V rR i Discontinuous Current . LI t C2 7" S V o ICK. L: •" o(max) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. When the transistor switch. Current Buck Converter Waveforms. maintains the current through the load. Ql.
All Rights Reserved.Maximum duty ratio: D. . Continuous Current Figure 135. Inc.o(min) Maximum duty ratio: [henrys] [137] V (max) [138] yl in(mm) J Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. L: L=V0T(\Dmm) 21. Continuous Current Buck Converter Waveforms. Inductance.R1 . (max) Y yl in(min) J [B3] Maximum on time: Maximum off time: [135] The inductor peak current. I(pk): [136] Continuous Current Buck Converter Design Equations VC.
When the transistor switch. The boost converter stores energy in the inductor. LI. The output voltage of this converter is always greater than the input voltage. LI. delivering current to the load. w LI n CR1 'i U t Cl t 4 ". current flows through inductor.„ J Ql » ^ C2 PV » n i 1 n Figure 136.Minimum duty ratio: [139] Maximum on time: [1310] Maximum off time: The inductor delta current. then discharges. charging inductor.K''W The inductor peak current. The energy is stored in. is closed. Schematic of a Boost Switching Converter. Ql. and then. . A/ [1W2] 2 The Boost Converter The Boost Converter is shown in Figure 136. The discontinuous voltage and current waveforms are shown in Figure 137. the voltage across the load equals the dc input voltage plus the energy stored in inductor. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. LI. LI. AI: ^"WU. When the switch is open. and the transistor switch. and the continuous waveforms in Figure 138. but does not deliver any current to the load. delivers the stored energy along with the energy from the dc source to the load. LI. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ql.
Inc. [henrys] [1314] Maximum duty ratio: y V +V Minimum duty ratio: v v. All Rights Reserved. . Maximum on time: [1317] Maximum off time: [1318] The inductor peak current. I(pk): IP (max) ° 7 (/>*) ~" [1319] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Discontinuous Current Boost Converter Design Equations v Vm Discontinuous Current t *(Vvm) Ipk l l I0 t w on T Figure 137. Discontinuous. Current Boost Converter Waveforms. L: Anax 21o(max) . Inductance.
Continuous Current Boost Converter Design Equations V Continuous Current (V0vm) Figure 138. AI: [13_25] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. L= ._>=1Maximum on time: [1322] [1323] Maximum off time: [1324] The inductor delta current. Continuous. Current Boost Converter Waveforms. L: . . Inc. Inductance. [henrys] [1320] Maximum duty ratio: A(max) [1321] Minimum duty ratio: A_.
the input voltage. CRl. BuckBoost Converter Waveforms. or less than. Ql. is open.The inductor peak current. Schematic of an Inverting BuckBoost Switching Converter. LI. When the transistor switch. BuckBoost Design Equations V Discontinuous Current Figure 1310. s ^ L C2 1 o+ Figure 139. Current Inverting. All Rights Reserved. J i QiLLL V • Cl 1 1  CRl " O vin \ ?= s H C LI v. Discontinuous. is transferred to the load. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The output voltage of the inverting converter can be greater. The inverting converter delivers only the energy stored by the inductor.max) [1326] The Inverting BuckBoost Converter The inverting buckboost converter is shown in Figure 139. the blocking diode is forwardbiased and the energy stored in inductor. Ql. I(pk): !£>. The discontinuous voltage and current waveforms are shown in Figure 1310 and the continuous waveforms in Figure 1311. is backbiased. but no current is delivered to the load because diode. Inc. to the load. . When the transistor switch. LI. is closed. It is a variation of the boost circuit. the inductor is storing energy. Discontinuous Current Inverting.
a /fl(min) Minimum duty ratio: D .+v. Continuous. Inc. .. I^: \ (max) in (min) '/J Continuous Current Inverting. . BuckBoost Converter Waveforms.zw(max). it Maximum on time: [1330] Maximum off time: [1331] The inductor peak current. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. L: 21o(max) [B27] Maximum duty ratio: ^4 [1328] vo +v. + V. = vo + V. . BuckBoost Design Equations V Continuous Current Figure 1311.Inductance. Current Inverting.
The discontinuous voltage and current waveforms are shown in Figure 1313. v  [1334] Minimum duty ratio: V min / " \ [1335] K. 1^: V) The Isolated BuckBoost Converter The Isolated BuckBoost Converter is shown in Figure 1312..Inductance.. All Rights Reserved. __ V. and the continuous waveforms in Figure 1314. Inc. [1338] L The inductor peak current. and also has the capability of multiple outputs. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker... L: 2^o(mm) Maximum duty ratio: ™x ... AI: 17T. which require only a diode and a capacitor. This converter does not lend itself to the VDE specification because of the required voltage insulation between primary and secondary. Care must be taken because this leakage inductance could generate high voltage spikes on the primary. ._. the filter inductor is builtin.+l^™*)) Maximum on time: C(max) = TDm^ [1336] Maximum off time: The inductor delta current. This converter can provide line isolation. The isolated buckboost converter is quite popular in low power applications because of simplicity and low cost.A.
Vm ! P / vc o+vd 'im^s' ! s(pk) on toff t w Figure 1313. J \ Maximum on time: x) . BuckBoost Switching Converter. BuckBoost Converter Waveforms.\T(D m \ . . Isolated. Inc. 1 i O Figure 1312. Discontinuous Current. Lp(maX): (R m(eqmv. Discontinuous Current Isolated.+ V< v in v . Schematic of an Isolated. Primary inductance.1 1 C n CR1 w t Cl £NS (_j vm C2 + 7= s v. [henrys] [1340] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. BuckBoost Design Equations Discontinuous Current 1 V.). All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.} The primary peak current. BuckBoost Converter Waveforms.. Continuous Current.+ v m V — — V in rrn: s !p(pk) ^~ •off T !s(pk) Figure 1314..... Ip(pk): [1345] /.Maximum off time: [1342] Total output power: P Maximum input power: [1344] Equivalent input resistance: (V. . Inc.= 2P. All Rights Reserved.f T "" ofl(max) /rt(min) [1346] Continuous Current Isolated.iVi(min) V I I R~in(equv. BuckBoost Design Equations Qi Continuous Current v _ V.
Inductance. D. AI: A/ = ^ The inductor peak current. Inc. All Rights Reserved. \^: '"(m'n) ( ' m X > ' LJ [1353] [1354] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . . L: . . } T L=^~—' ' "—. [henrys] m(min) [1347] Minimum duty ratio: in(mdx) Maximum on time: C(max) = ^Amx [1349] Maximum off time: taff(^}=T(\Dmm} Minimum output power: [1350] Minimum input power: P °(mm) The inductor delta current.
......................... = 0.................29.............................. Inc.. the overall window utilization.. but it does not give the proper lay......... V0 ............... = 1................Design Example....... = 2 amps Output voltage........ Vd ......... BuckBoost Isolated Converter Discontinuous Current 1 2..................... = 12 volts Output current.. = 32 volts Output voltage.. 6................................. V^ .........................5 Dwell time duty ratio..... 14........................... The core geometries................. It is easier to wind with bifilar or quadfilar wire.........................................1 Regulation. Therefore......... In the discontinuous.................. the ratio of the bobbin winding area to the core window area is only about 0....................4........ = 0...29 Frequency... 12.... is much lower........... the engineer has to review the window utilization factor....... To return the design back to the norm......... = 5 volts Output current.............. Operating at 100kHz and having to use a #26 wire................. When using a small bobbin ferrite............... the core geometry............ Vin(min) ..................................... = 1... = 100 kHz Converter efficiency..... See Chapter 4. in Chapter 3 have been calculated with a window utilization. = 0... = 24 volts Input voltage maximum................................. r ................. and does not require the use of the same... 5........................ Select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1 : [1355] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker..................... 10....... the skin effect has to be treated just like a high frequency transformer............................ There are times when the larger wire is just too difficult to wind......................... Kg......... 4.............. 7............... maximum wire size.. J.. I01 . =0........... and then.... because of the skin effect................................ D(................................ using a window utilization factor of 0....... 3.... is reduced.................25 tesla Diode voltage..... the ratio of the bare copper area is 0.............. the ac current (ac flux).. All Rights Reserved..........mx) ..35................. Ku................ Ku...... D(w) ........... 11.....78........... ... 9........ flyback converter......... Bm ....................... = 28 volts Input voltage minimum........................ = 90% Maximum duty ratio. flyback design...... of 0..0 volt *When operating at high frequencies......... Vo2 ................. Large wire is not only hard to handle.......... Skin Effect The skin effect on an inductor is the same as a transformer.......... 15....... In the normal dc inductor............. Io2 .. = 0.................... the current density... Ku..................... with the equivalent crosssection..........0% Operating flux density............... a .. Ku ............... current type................ This is not the case in the discontinuous............................. f ........... Input voltage nominal.......... Vjn(max) ..............5 amps *Window utilization........... is calculated................................. where all of the flux is ac and without dc. 13............6....... Kg is to be multiplied by 1...................... 8......
798 0. 2 Calculate the maximum transistor on time.001603 0. then.0010515 Bare/Ins. T.0209.0008046 Area Ins.0 [//sec] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.)(0. If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification. Wire AWG #26 #27 #28 Bare Area 0. This will be the minimum wire size used in this design. Number 26 has a bare wire area of 0.The skin depth in centimeters is: 6.0418.62 V7 . [cm] Wire Diameter = 0. [cm] I00. 0. Then. T =— T = [seconds] 1 [seconds! 100000 T = 10 [//sec] Step No. 1 Calculate the total period.00128 centimeters. [cm] Wire Diameter = 2(0.001313 0.5) [//sec] ton=5.00137. [cm] Aw= 0..000 s = 0. the wire diameter is: Wire Diameter = 2 ( £ ).. ton = 7Dmax 6 [//sec] / On =(l0xl0.765 (iQ/cm 1345 1687 2142 Step No.778 0. just in case #26 requires too much rounding off. 0.001021 0. [cm 2 ] From the Wire Table in Chapter 4. ton. the design will use a multifilar of #26. Inc. Listed Below are #27 and #28.0209). the bare wire area Aw is: [cm] [cm] A.001280 0. Then. . =  .
5)(lOxlO" 6 ) laiok\= . I p(p k). 5 Calculate the total secondary load power. > = 1 8 . 7 Calculate the primary peak current. Ip(pk)_ l^r [amps] [amps] • ^3(10) 1. [amPs PeakJ Ip(pk) = ^ ^ /n(min)'on(max) 2(l8. [watts] [watts] P 02 =(0. Iu. r [amps peak] P(pk} (0. peak] Step No.40 [amps] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 /. P0(maX). Po2. 6 Calculate the maximum input current. P0].Step No.6 ) ..5)(12 + 1) [watts] Po2 = 6. Inc.(max) = 0. 8 Calculate the primary rms current.856 Step No. 5 [watts] Step No.. . o(max) [amps] 18.5 [watts] Step No.(max). P0i=Ioi(roi+Yd) P o l =(2)(5 + l) P0i=l2 [warts] Step No.9)(24)(5xlO. 4 Calculate the secondary load power. ^(max) = P o\ + Po2 [watts] P0( max) =12 + 6. All Rights Reserved.5 [watts] P. 3 Calculate the secondary load power.
145)(l8. . L. 13 Calculate the electrical conditions.43) 2 Energy = Energy = 0. [w.Step No. Ke. [henry] (28)(lOxlO" 6 )(0. ws.5 ^(™x)=^ r [Watfe] ^( m ax)=20. Pjn(max) 18. Rm(equiv) /n(min) j m(max) Step No.5) 2 L = ^ ^2 y L = 35 [uh] [henry] Step No.6 [watts] Step No. 12 Calculate the energyhandling capability in wattseconds.5)(0. All Rights Reserved. 10 Calculate the equivalent input resistance.000206 [ws] Step No.s] (35xl0^ 6 )(3. [ws] Ke =(0. Inc. 9 Calculate the maximum input power.0000168 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 1 1 Calculate the required primary inductance.25) 2 xlO~ K =0.
.......=0..................... All Rights Reserved.... Ke.. See the design specification....................Step No........................................00342.......... Ku = 0...... G ...31 cm3 Window Area.......0 grams Copper weight................... = 2500 Winding Length..................................................... Kg..........00253 (1................................................................... 14 Calculate the core geometry. = 13...... [amps/cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker........ Ac ......... = 7............ = 6.... = 0........54 cm Step No........000206)2 Kg = 0........... Philips Material ......... = 0............................. an EFD core comparable in core geometry................................. Core number ........ Inc. = 3... W tfe ...... Wa..............80 cm Iron area....155)(0.............25)(0..501 cm2 Area Product................................... [cm5] Step No. ^ r^ T .................... MPL ...........................................................29......................... .. MLT ...............................00506 cm5 Surface area.. = 0........................................................................................... Wtcu ........... Ap ........35).........................00253 [cm5] A: g = 0......................................................................8 grams Mean length turn...... [amps/cm2 ] (0........................................... = 4.............. window utilization factor........................... ...... EFD20 Manufacturer ....................... 15 Select... 2 (Energy) (lO 4 ) J=   ' 2(0...... Ku................................ Kg ..................... = 1.................................. J....... 3C85 Magnetic path length.... from Chapter 3........................................... 16 Calculate the current density........ [cm5] Kg = 0............................................. using a window utilization..............29) J = 367....................................... At ...............................000206)(l04) J = ~.................. o (Energy)2 Kea [cm5] (0...............155 cm4 Core geometry...3 cm Core Permeability ..............................................7 cm Core weight...................
Step No. Wap 12. Snp. 3(#26(BareArea)) > [turns] (0.0384. 21 Calculate the equivalent gap in mils.7) mils = (0.00128) Snp = 2. r n Ccm] _ * (0. and the area for #26.25) r Ar ND = v f A ^.00128) Np =18. Using the number of strands.000035) lg = 0. Half of the available window is primary. mils = cm(393. 17 Calculate the primary wire area. Np.0384)(393. All Rights Reserved. 18 Calculate the required number of primary strands.29)(0. Snp. [turns] p 3(0. .7) mils = 15 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. "" s = np #26 (bare area) (0. 20 Calculate the required gap. Apw(B). 19 Calculate the number of primary turns. lg.9 use 19.00381) (0. [cm] Step No. * arms Step No. [turns] Step No.97 use 3 Step No. Inc.
[turns] Step No. N "" / L = *—.0384 J F = 1. [turns] I (0. 25 Calculate the primary. .0384)+ ~^v . ._1 (00384) V(J3T (2(1. 0.Step No. All Rights Reserved. Nnp. Rp=MLT(Nnp)\^]xW6 v \cm ) Rp =(3. 2500 Bpk= 0. [tesla] Step No. /.8)(l6)(448)xlO~ 6 Rp = 0.000035) A' = M^?—^.0272 [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.a] (0.0384)(0.30 Step No. by inserting the fringing flux. F. Rp. 24 Calculate the peak flux density. S np 1345 (new)//Q / cm = = 448 Step No.54)^1 I. the new fo. 23 Calculate the new number of turns. 1. F. Bp^.. 26 Calculate the primary winding resistance.Q/cm.223. [turns] "" 8' Nnp =16. [tes. 22 Calculate the fringing flux factor. Inc.
3 65 ' = 000995 [cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0272) Pp = 0. .5) [turns] <fsi =3. 31 Calculate the secondary wire area.50. All Rights Reserved. Inc.'"' '" " / (24)(0.4) 2 (. Pp=l2pRp [watts] [watts] ^=(1. (10. N sl . 2(2. Is(rmS).1) Step No. 28 Calculate the secondary turns. 29 Calculate the secondary peak current. 27 Calculate the primary copper loss. — 16( V [turns] •5i ' '.0533 [watts] Step No.2 use 3 [turns] Step No. A swl(B) . 30 Calculate the secondary rms current.0) [amps] Step No.Step No. Pp. I s i (p k).
l) . . [ohms] [ohms] ~6 /?sl = 3. 33 Calculate the.0256 [watts] Step No.00995) (0.7 = — d r^ ~ [turns] [turns] 16(l2 + l)(l0. .50.9 use 7 [turns] Step No. 32 Calculate the required number of secondary strands. Si secondary. cm = 8 COT = 168 1345 Step No. All Rights Reserved. R si . .8 use Step No. Ps] = f ^ R s l [watts] [watts] Psl =(3. P s l .=7. IS2(pk) 2L 2(0.00192 [ohms] Step No. Ns2. Ns2 = ——— N. 36 Calculate the secondary turns.5) Ns2 = 6.— (24)(0. 35 Calculate the secondary copper loss. 34 Calculate the winding resistance.5) [amps] (10.1) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.65) 2 (.Step No. S ns i. Inc.50.00192) Psi = 0.8(3)(l68)xlO~ 6 cm Rs] =0. wire ^ (0. 37 Calculate the secondary peak current.00128) S M .
Ps2.8(7)(672)xlO~ 6 [ohms] = ^2Rs2 [watts] Ps2 =(0. 39 Calculate the secondary wire area. S2 secondary. Inc.0149 [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.00249) " "(0.913 2 j fii L J ' 367 ASW2(B)= 0.0179 [ohms] Step No. 38 Calculate the secondary rms current. 42 Calculate the winding resistance. 40 Calculate the required number of secondary strands. 43 Calculate the secondary copper loss.95 use 2 Step No.913 [amps] S Step No.Step No. [amps] / 3 2(™ i ) =0.913) 2 (. p S2 [ohms] Rs2 =3. Is2(rms). uQ/cm. Sns2. Asw2(B).00249 [cm2] 5w2( B) Step No. wireA __ (0. (S2 )//Q / cm = 1345 Step No. All Rights Reserved. 41 Calculate the. Rs2 =MLT(Ns2]\— jxlO' 6 \cm) «J2 = 0. . Rs2.00128) s2 Sns2 = 1.0179) [watts] Ps2 =0. _ *s2(rms) 2 _ 0.
Pcu.1 1 1)(2'62) WK = 21. ff^ = 4. [tesla] Step No. 47 Calculate the ac flux density.0256) + (0.5 )(/) ( '.6 [watts/kilogram] or [milliwatts/gram] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ku. .Step No. WK. (0. PC. Bac=0. a. All Rights Reserved.^ (18.0149) Pcu = 0. 45 Calculate the total copper loss. . 46 Calculate the regulation.5) = [secondary] [secondary] [turns] = (3)(8)=24 [secondary] [turns] =(7)(2)=14 [secondary] (0.501) [watts] Step No.855(lO. Inc.220 Step No..0384)+ v .0938) a=^.0938 [watts] Step No. [turns] = (NpSnp) [primary] [turns] =(16) (3) =48 [primary] [turns] =(N^Snsl) [turns] =(Ns2Sns2) Nt = 86 turns #26 Wa K = 0. Bac.m. 48 Calculate the watts per kilogram.63) (fi flf ) (2 .62) [watts/kilogram] [watts/kilogram] WK = 4.855(lO"5 )(100000)(1 63) (0. a =5^x1 00 [% (0. 44 Calculate the window utilization. = PP + Psi+?s2 [watts] Pcu =(0. for this design.0533) + (0.
49 Calculate the core loss.151 [watts] Step No. 52 Calculate the temperature rise. \l/ = — [watts/cm2 ] 4 0.3 [watts] Pfe= 0. pfe=\ I\milliwatts gram 1 P /e =(21. Tr.01 84 [watts/cm2] Step No.6)(7)xlO. core Pfe and copper Pcu. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pcu [watts] P2 =(0.245 r . .[watts/cm" 13. °C. p Tr= 450(0.245 [watts] Step No.151) + (0.0938) [watts] Ps = 0.3 i// = 0. Pfe. .Step No.n i// = . 50 Calculate the total loss. in.01 84)(a826) Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. in watts. 5 1 Calculate the watt density.
the ratio of the bare copper area is 0. using a window utilization factor of 0. flyback design. is reduced.6. I01 *Window utilization. Ku.0% = 0. is much lower and does not require the use of the same maximum wire size. 5. is calculated. Ku Frequency. Vin(max) Output voltage. 4. 10. . Vju^n) Input voltage maximum.0 volts *When operating at high frequencies.29 = 100 kHz = 92 % = 0. Output current. where all of the flux is ac and without dc. 3. the skin effect has to be treated just like a high frequency transformer. wire with the equivalent crosssection. select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1: Rn. Inc. 8.1 = 1. the engineer has to review the window utilization factor. The core geometries. There are times when the larger wire is just too difficult to wind. D (w) Regulation. Vin Input voltage minimum. Boost Converter.78. and then. Discontinuous Current 1 2. the current density.Design Example. . the ac current. (ac flux). This is not the case in the discontinuous. but it does not give the proper lay. Ku. 12. At this point. See Chapter 4. flyback converter. In the normal dc inductor. KK. 11. the ratio of the bobbin winding area to the core window area is only about 0. the overall window utilization. J.4.29. Bm Diode voltage. in Chapter 3 have been calculated with a window utilization. Vd = 28 volts = 26 volts = 32 volts = 50 volts = 1 amps = 0. a Operating flux density. Therefore. because of the skin effect. 7. Input voltage nominal. Operating at 100kHz and having to use a #26 wire. r Dwell time duty ratio. 9. Ku. 6. current type. Kg is to be multiplied by 1. the core geometry. Skin Effect The skin effect on an inductor is the same as a transformer. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.35. f Converter efficiency. It is easier to wind with bifilar or quadfilar. All Rights Reserved. In the discontinuous. of 0. To return the design back to the norm. When using a small bobbin ferrite. V0.25 tesla = 1. Large wire is not only hard to handle.
T.0418) Aw =0.000 s = 0.1416X0. 1 Calculate the total period. Inc.000 = 10. Wire Diameter = 0. Wire AWG Bare Area 0. [cm] [cm] [cm] Wire Diameter = 2(0. Listed Below are #27 and #28. just in case #26 requires too much rounding off.001313 0. [seconds] 1 T =.0209. 0.001021 0. [cm2] From the Wire Table in Chapter 4.0008046 Area Ins. [seconds] 100. Then. This will be the minimum wire size used in this design.001280 0.778 0.0010515 Bare/Ins.001028 centimeters. the bare wire area Aw is: . the wire diameter is: Wire Diameter = 2(s).798 0. 0. [cm2] (3.00137.765 ufi/cm #26 #27 #28 1345 1687 2142 Step No. [cm] Then.0418. [//sec] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.001603 0. T = —. Number 26 has a bare wire area of 0. then.The skin depth in centimeters is: 6 62 ' . r i [CHI] /100. If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification. the design will use a multifilar of #26. .0209).
0)(lo(l(r 6 )Vo.450.1 3 ' Step No. L. D(mill).0). „ Step No. [watts] P0=5l.45)(l0. ^ D  (\'(50)1} ( £>(mjn) = 0. 3 Calculate the maximum input current.2 use 23. [uh] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Step No. 5 Calculate the minimum duty ratio. : . P 0 =(50 + 1. [henrys] . = 23.V. ( v . [watts] Step No.0)(1.l) 2 —— . All Rights Reserved.342 Step No. P0. Inc. 4 Calculate the maximum duty ratio. Lmax = 1. D(max). . Ijn(max). 2 Calculate the maximum output power. (V V. > + V. 6 Calculate the required inductance. (51) / / n (max)= 2 .
0)' [cm5] ^=0. Inc. 10 Calculate the electrical conditions. All Rights Reserved.0000462 Step No. [amps] Vr6. . = 0. .00682. . .25) 2 (lO~ 4 ) Ka = 0. [cm5] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. T IPo(max) r i * (pk) = ~ — [ a m p s ] 2(51) (0. In a discontinuous current boost the peak current is. Kg =0.145(5l)(0. Ke. 11 Calculate the core geometry.342)) .48.00505(1. LI lk Energy = ——. I(nns). [ws] Step No.000483. I^y = AI.000483)2 s 5 ~ (0. [ws] (23. (0. 9 Calculate the total energyhandling capability in wattseconds.Step No.00505.rlO~ 6 )(6. 8 Calculate the rms current. [ws] Ke = 0.92)((50)(0. Kg. l^.48) 2 Energy = Energy = 0. [amps] Step No. 7 Calculate the peak current. Step No.0000462)(1. [cm5] AT.35). ws.
5 grams = 2.00180) _v / " (0.260 cm2 = 0.86 cm = 5. A W(B) . Kg Surface area.0953 cm4 = 0. Ac Window Area. Inc. ~ [cm'] HW 2.B)= 0. 12 From Chapter 3.51 1398 cm 1 2 4.29. 14 Calculate the wire area. select a core that is comparable in core geometry.1 cm =0. MLT Iron area. Kg.00128) » =1. MPL Core weight. [amps/cm2] Step No. W. 2(Energy)(l04} J = .25)(0.41 use 2 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ap Core geometry. 15 Calculate the required number of strands. J.82 Step No.cu Mean length turn. Ku = 0. Wtfe Copper weight.0953)(0. [amps/cm ] 2(0.3 cm = 2500 = 0.00179 [cm2] Step No. S. At Permeability. am Winding Length. rr TT——?.0044 cm5 = 11.9 grams =3. = #26 (bare area) (0. Sn. using a window utilization.000483)(l0 4 ) J = ~. G RM6 TDK = 2. All Rights Reserved. 13 Calculate the current density. Core number Manufacturer Magnetic path length.366 cm = 0.29) J = 1398. Wa Area Product. [amps/cm ] (0.Step No. .
. f[cm] (0.QQ0023) "" TV ^j(l. and the area for #26. mils = cm(393. Step No.29)(0.—. 19 Calculate the equivalent gap in mils.0.66 0. . [turns] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.366)(10 8 ) M.66)(lO~ 8 ) ' =23. 17 Calculate the required gap. by inserting the fringing flux. 16 Calculate the number of turns. ..179)(393.26)(3Q) 2 (0.4* —i* V (0.179)(O. 2(0.000023) V2500J ^=0.179 Step No.5 use 30. 20 Calculate the fringing flux factor. [turns] 5 n #26 (0. Sn.26)(0.26) N = ^ .00128) yV = 29. Inc. K W N = —**. [cm] Step No. V0. lg. F. N.179. Nn. F. /8 = .7) mils = 70 Step No. All Rights Reserved. [turns] [turns] [cm] (1.Step No. using the number of strands.366 F=1. 21 Calculate the new number of turns.7) mils = (0. AJ. .366)(l.
£l/cm (new)/A2 / cm = (new)//Q / cm = 1345 (new)//Q / cm = 673 Step No. QAxN • [teshl (1.302) a= (50) [%] a = 0. .48)(104) Bnt = 7^.179) V ' ^2500j Bpk=0.302 [watts] Step No. 24 Calculate the primary winding resistance.604. All Rights Reserved. 23 Calculate the new. (0. Inc. 25 Calculate the copper loss.Step No. Pcu =(2. 26 Calculate the regulation.m. uQ/cm. for this design. 22 Calculate the peak flux density.26)(23)(1. [tesla] (0.0480 [ohms] Step No. P cu . R.51) 2 (.l)(23)(673)xlO" 6 [ohms] R = 0.0480) [watts] Pcu = 0. a.66)(6. Bpk. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [tesla] Step No. cm j xlO~ 6 [ohms] # = (3. /.
26)(23)(l. [watts/kilogram] or [milliwatts/gram] Step No.K = 11.39)(5. ( milliwatts  V gram ) _^ [Watts] Pfe =(ll. . Inc.365. r r =450(0. [watts/cm2] . ij/ = —.855(lO~ 5 )(/) (1 .0626) + (0.66)(3. 27 Calculate the ac flux density in tesla.K ^ I O 3 . [watts/kilogram] WK = 4. 30 Calculate the total loss.0323. 31 Calculate the watt density.0626.4 ) 5 = . [watts] P± = 0. WK.302).Step No. Step No. Pfe. 29 Calculate the core loss.855(lO~ 5 )(100000/L63) (0. 2n Step No. Tr = 26. [watts] Pfe = 0.5)xl0^ 3 . Pv. [watts] Step No. [tesla] 8 Am (l. I watts/cm ] r . core. [°C] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.39.' (O.6 ^T^Y.0323) (0 ' 826) . [watts/cm2 ] A t w= 0.4. and copper.0869/2 62) . Tr in.24)(lO. Pz =(0. WK = 4.63) (5 fl( .) (2 . All Rights Reserved. °C. [watts/kilogram] W.365 p 11. 28 Calculate the watts per kilogram. Pfe . Pfe=\ . [watts] Step No.62) . 32 Calculate the temperature rise. Pcu. Bac.0869.3 y/ = 0. \\i.lT^f2^ ) v ' UsooJ [tesla] [tesla] flac = 0.
~> Cl v v o CR4 and CR1 Current \ O Line Current Figure 1315. [henrys] o(min) [1356] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. in CR1 n V I CR2 Rectified Line Voltage CR2 and CR3 Current O rx f^R T > i / CR4 + f. . The power supply can be designed with a power factor approaching unity.50. the power factor is poor (0. have been working to develop a standard for limiting harmonic current. that cause distorting of the line voltage and create large amounts of EMI and noise. LI. Typical. rectifierbridge. The German standardization bodies have established IEC 10002. weight and bulk. The typical. harmonic current content. by the addition of an input inductor.Designing Boost Inductors for Power Factor Correction (PFC) Historically. with a simple filter to draw power from the ac line. Many new electronic products are required to have a near unity power factor and a distortion free. as shown in Figure 1316. current input waveform. The line current is supplied in narrow pulses. Consequently. as shown in Figure 1315.6). All Rights Reserved. input bridge filter and associated waveforms. high. in offline equipment. and it is generally accepted as the standard for limiting harmonic currents in offline equipment. due to a high harmonic distortion of the current waveform. The line current waveform for equipment that utilizes offline rectifier capacitor input filter. Inc. and a correspondingly. the standard power supplies designed for electronic equipment have had a notoriously poor power factor in the area of (0. The reasons why the input inductors are not designed into power supplies is very simple: cost. rectifier capacitor. Ll= . is shown in Figure 1315. The inductance equation for. The regulating bodies. IEC in Europe and IEEE in the United States. are no longer good enough.6). is shown below. The conventional acdc converters usually employ a full wave. Capacitor Input Bridge Rectifier Filter. This design approach utilizes a simple rectifier capacitor input filter that results in large current pulses drawn from the line.5 0.
. LI. Standard Boost Flyback Converter The standard dctodc boost flyback converter is shown in Figure 136. All Rights Reserved. The basic circuit can be operated in either the continuous or discontinuous mode. A Typical.Rectified Line Voltage CR2 and CR3 Current CR4 and CR1 Current Line Current Figure 1316. Boost PFC Converter The boost power factor correction converter is shown in Figure 1317. The current through the inductor. is referenced to ground. The boost converter has become the choice of many engineers as the power stage in the active power factor corrector design. After examining the schematic. The boost converter can operate in two modes. The disadvantage is the high output voltage to the load circuit and current limit cannot be implemented. the advantages and disadvantages of the boost converter can readily be seen. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. shown in Figure 137 and 138. Downstream dc/dc Converter O Figure 1317. along with the voltage and current waveforms. for both continuous and discontinuous operation. continuous and discontinuous. Boost PFC Converter. The boost converter is the most popular of the power factor preregulators. is shown in Figure 1318. Inductor Input Bridge Rectifier Filter. Ql. Inc. The advantage is that the circuit requires a minimum of parts and the gate drive to.
78. of 0. and then. AI Magnetic core Magnetic material Converter efficiency. 9. 4.4. Output power. See Chapter 4.25 tesla 11. Ku. Kg. The core geometries. *When operating at high frequencies.47 . 6. Current Through Inductor LI. Operating at 100kHz and having to use a #26 wire. Therefore. is calculated. . in Chapter 3 have been calculated with a window utilization. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 10. Bm = 250 watts = 90 . Kg. is to be multiplied by 1. the current density. the ratio of the bare copper area is 0. 12. a *Window utilization. the overall window utilization. All Rights Reserved. Ku. Ku. with the following specifications: 1. (PFC) Boost Converter. 3. P0 Input voltage range. r) Inductor regulation. J. the core geometry.65 Hz = 400 volts = 100kHz = 20% of l^ = ETD =R = 95% = 1% = 0.29. Ku Operating Flux. the engineer has to review the window utilization factor. f Inductor ripple current. f ( i ine) Output voIiage v V0 Switching frequency.29 = 0.Ipk t Continuous o Discontinuous Figure 1318. 1. Vin Line frequency. 2. Inc. 8. When using a small bobbin ferrite. is reduced.35. To return the design back to the norm. 5. the ratio of the bobbin winding area to the core window area is only about 0. because of the skin effect. Continuous Current The following pages describe a stepbystep procedure for designing a continuous current boost inductor for a Power Factor Correction (PFC) converter. using a window utilization factor of 0. as shown in Figure 1317. Design Example.270 volts .6.
This is not the case in the discontinuous. the skin effect has to be treated just like a high frequency transformer.798 1345 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm2] 4. [cm2] From the Wire Table in Chapter 4. current type. Large wire is not only hard to handle. =0. Number 26 has a bare wire area of 0. the ac current (ac flux).=4.0209). Then. discontinuous. the bare wire area. where all of the flux is ac and no dc. the wire diameter is: Wire Diameter = 2 (. is: [cm] [cm] (3. In the normal dc inductor. and does not require the use of the same. . If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification.041 8. It is easier to wind with bifilar or quadfilar wire.1416)(0. with the equivalent crosssection. [cm] Wire Diameter = 0. flyback design. [cm] Wire Diameter = 2 (0. Wire AWG #26 Bare Area 0.00128 centimeters.?).0418)2 .. maximum wire size. flyback converter.001280 Area Ins. L 4. Inc. Then. v/ [cmj ioo. 0. All Rights Reserved. the design will use a multifilar of #26. This will be the minimum wire size used in this design. is much lower. but it does not give the proper lay.62 . Select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1 : In the The skin depth in centimeters is: s= 6.00137.001603 Bare/Ins. then. There are times when the larger wire is just too difficult to wind. Aw. 0.Skin Effect The skin effect on an inductor is the same as a transformer.— .ooo £ = 00209.
00891.2(4. Eng. pt 9Q /M=4.12). [watts] Step No. [amps] Step No. 4 Calculate the maximum duty ratio.824. [amps] A/ = 0.683) . [amps] (max) 400 (90V2)) 400 = 0683 Step No.824)(100000) 1 = 0.Step No.95 Pla = 263. L. [amps] A/ = 0. A/ = 0.2/ M .250 L[watts] J '" 0. y[henrys] L J A// (126.9)(0. 2 Calculate the peak input current. [wattseconds] 2 (0.12)2 Eng = 0.41) 1*=..00105. Step No. 6 Calculate the Energy required. 1 Calculate the input power.12. . AI. [watts] i] P = . lp^. . LI [henrys] [henrys] Eng = —— . D (max) . All Rights Reserved. Inc. [wattseconds] [wattseconds] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.00105)(4.> (0. Step No. Pin=^. 3 Calculate the input ripple current. 1 L. P^. 5 Calculate the required boost inductance. ^ = ^ > [amps] in(min) (263)(1.
Kg=OA7. Permeability. G Step No. J.79 cm" = 4.85 cm = 0. um Millihenrys per 1000 turns. 9 From Chapter 3. Core number Manufacturer Magnetic path length. MPL Core weight.9 cm2 = 2000 = 3365 = 3. . . K e =0.3 cm = 93. Ac Window Area.25) 2 (l(r 4 ) K = 0. K B Surface area. 2(Eng)(l0 4 ) .000227)(1)' [cm5] Corrected £ ? =0.0089l)(l0 4 ) J=. comparable in core geometry. Ke. W t f e Copper weight.35. select an ETD ferrite core.74 cm2 =2. Kg.22 J = 2(0..25)(4. [cm5] Step No. Kg.35). Ap Core geometry. [amps/cm2 ] = ETD44 = Ferroxcube = 10. (0. AL Winding Length. 10 Calculate the current density. MLT Iron area. Inc.35(1. All Rights Reserved.000227 Step No. 8 Calculate the core geometry coefficient.145(250)(0.85)(0.2 grams = 94 grams = 9. A. [amps/cm2] (0.360 cm5 = 87. Wa Area Product. 7 Calculate the electrical coefficient. [amps/cm2 ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [cm5] Kg = 0.00891)2 g ~(0. Wtcu Mean length turn.4 cm = 1.29) J = 507. £ '.Step No.
14 Calculate the required number of turns. Step No.7 = 130 mils center or 65 mils per each outer leg. N. All Rights Reserved.. [cm] Change the gap to mils: 0.00105 .. #26 N= (2. 13 Calculate the required number of strands.257)(126)2(1. A . [cm 2 ] Step No.74)(108) V / = 0. .331 x 393. [cm] / =0.} H #26(bare area) r ' Lcm 2 n J (0. and the area for #26. 4 8 u s e 5 .79)(0. [turns] [turns] [cm] '(1. using the number of strands. o \= [cm2] A {B. W K " " ..00128) N = 126.00128) [cm2] S n = 4 .00574) S =± '. Inc.29) N=±—^ 2 5(0.„> 2'91 A »<«) = 507 .9l.„= ^. \. Irms /. Step No.331. [turns] 5. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. lg. Sn. r[cm21 ] /4w(s) = 0. [amps] lrms= ~JT' [amps] [amps] Jrm=2.00574. AW(B). 15 Calculate the required gap. 12 Calculate the required bare wire area. 11 Calculate the rms current. (0. Sn.Step No. Step No.
261. R = 0. 19 Calculate the new. 20 Calculate the winding resistance.32 ) (033l) F = 1. 16 Calculate the fringing flux factor.74 Step No..257)(96)(4. Bpk. . (lO~ 6 ).243. F.331 .00105) N= i^/r .uQ / cm = Step No. ud/cm. =F\ ' f 1 Bpt= 0. R. 0. N= *—. 8 LL [turns] (0. [ohms] mj ' v ^ = (9.331V ( 6. [tesla] [tesla] (new)//i2 / cm = /(Q/cm (new)//fi / cm = —'•— (new).4)(96)(269)(l0^ 6 ). 17 Calculate the new turns using the fringing flux. [tesla] y (1. 18 Calculate the peak flux.257)(l. All Rights Reserved. . ^ [turns] [turns] B. Inc. V(l.74)(l.12)(10 ') 0. [ohms] [ohms] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.331)(0.Step No.44} In 1.74)(lO") N = 96. Step No. Step No.
Step No. 2 1 Calculate the winding copper loss, Pcu.
Pcu=(2.9l)2 (0.243), Pcu = 2.06, [watts] Step No. 22 Calculate the regulation, a.
[watts]
a =^100, [%] (2.06) a=\flOO, (250) a =0.824, [%] Step No. 23 Calculate the ac flux density, Bac. [%]
(I.257)(96)(0.412)(l0 4 ) B =^—^ ^ ', [tesla] 0.331 fi,,r=0.0150, [tesla] Step No. 24 Calculate the watts per kilogram, W/K, using R material in Chapter 2. WIK = 4.316(lO' 5 )(/)' W (Bac)26S, [watts per kilogram]
W / K = 4.316(lO~ 5 )(lOOOOO)' M (0.0150) 268 , [watts per kilogram] WIK = 0.0885, Step No. 25 Calculate the core loss, Pfe. Pfe=Wtfe(\^}(WIK],
3
[watts per kilogram]
[watts]
Pfe =(93.2)(lO~ )(0.0885), [watts] Pfe = 0.0082, [watts]
Step No. 26 Calculate the total loss core loss, Pfe and copper loss, Pcu.
P = Pcu+Pfe,
)
[watts]
/ = (2.03) + (0.0082), P = 2.04, [watts]
[watts]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Step No. 27 Calculate the watt density, vj/.
P \l/ = — , [watts per cm ]
4
2.04 r 2n w =  , [watts per cm I 87.9 if/ = 0.023, [watts per cm2 ]
Step No. 28 Calculate the temperature rise, Tr.
Tr =
Tr= 450(0.023)°
r r = 19.9,
[°C]
Step No. 29 Calculate the window utilization, Ku.
(95)(5)(0.00128)
K
" (2.79) A:,, =0.218
=
References
1. Unitode Application Note U132, Power Factor Correction Using TheUC3852 Controller ontime zero current Switching Technique. 2. Unitode Application Note U134, UC3854 Controlled Power Factor Correction Circuit Design
3. AlliedSignal Application Guide: Power Factor Correction Inductor Design for Switch Mode Power Supplies using Powerlite C Cores. 4. PCIM August 1990, Active Power Factor Correction Using a Flyback Topology, James LoCascio and Mehmet Nalbant/ Micor Linear Corporation. 5. Silicon General Application SG3561A Power Factor Controller.
6. SGS Thomson Application Note AN628/0593 Designing a High Power Factor Preregulator with the L4981 Continuous Current. 7. IEEE, A Comparison Between Hysteretic and Fixed Frequency Boost Converter Used for Power Factor Correction, James J. Spanger Motorola and Anup K. Behera Illinois Institute Technology.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14
Forward Converter, Transformer Design, and Output Inductor Design
The author would like to thank the late Dr. J. K. Watson, Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Florida for his help with the Forward Converter design equations.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Introduction Circuit Operation Comparing the Dynamic BH Loops Forward Converter Waveforms Transformer Design Using the Core Geometry, Kg, Approach Forward Converter Output Inductor Design Output Inductor Design Using the Core Geometry, Kg, Approach
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction
When speaking of a forward converter, the circuit that comes to mind is the singleended, forward converter circuit, as shown in Figure 141. This singleended, forward converter was developed about 1974 and has become one of the most popular and widelyused topology for powers under 200 W. The singleended, forward converter gets its name from a family of converters. A description of a forward converter is that when current is flowing in the primary, there is current flowing in the secondary, and in the load. The pushpull converter, fullbridge converter, and halfbridge converter are all, basically,
forward converters. The voltage stress on the singleforward converter is the same as it is on the pushpull converter, 2Vjn. This circuit's main advantage, that is so appealing to engineers is its simplicity and parts' count.
LI
CRl
j
^
n
r^vv^ — i0 +
2
4
— Is
CR3
•
t
C2
"j
+
V
Cl
V
N2
Id t
c
in 7*
^
JE
"LJ3
1
L_

n
1
o
\
t
Figure 141. Schematic of a SingleEnded Forward Converter.
Circuit Operation
The basic circuit operation of this singleended, forward converter is as follows: When the drive is applied to, Ql, the secondary current, IS; will flow through, CR2, and, LI, and into the load. This process is due to transformer action, (Tl). At the same time, the magnetizing current begins to build up in the transformer primary. When the base drive to, Ql, is removed, then, Ql, turns off the magnetizing current that has built up in the primary. The magnetizing current continues to flow through the demagnetizing winding, Nmag and CRl. The demagnetizing winding, Nmag, has the same number of turns as the primary winding. So, when the magnetizing field collapses, when Ql is turned off, diode CRl is clamped to the same voltage as the applied voltage during the ton time. This means the transistor on time, ton, divided by the total time, T, must not exceed 0.5 or 50%. Otherwise, the forward voltseconds will exceed the reset voltsecond
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
capability and the transformer will saturate. To ensure smooth transfer of the magnetizing current, the primary and demagnetizing winding must be tightly coupled (bifilar). In a pushpull converter, the reset of the core occurs naturally on each alternate half cycle.
Comparing the Dynamic BH Loops
One of the main reasons for engineers to use the singleended, forward converter circuit is the problem they have with the pushpull converter coresaturating. The core saturation can be due to an imbalance of the primary or secondary. The dynamic BH loops for the singleended, forward converter and the pushpull converter are shown in Figure 142.
B
D +Rsat , +B
B
sat
/f
1: If
/f
I
AB
1'
i
t
1
AB
\
TT
1
11
1
\
\
\
TT
" Bac= AB/2
i /
i
Bac= AB/2
/
B,,t _/
/
Bsat _l/_ PushPull Converter
SingleEnded, Forward Converter
Figure 142. The dynamic BH loop comparison.
The average input current for the singleended, forward converter is about the same as the pushpull converter, but the peak current is always greater than twice the average current. Operating the singleended, forward converter at low input voltages, the high peak currents could be a component problem. The input filter and output filter for the singleended, forward converter are always larger than the pushpull converter, because it is operating at the fundamental frequency. The waveforms shown in Figure 143 are typical waveforms of the singleended forward converter. The collector current, Ic, is shown in Figure (143A), and the magnetizing current, Im, is shown in Figure (143B). The inductor, LI, current, IL, made up from the rectifier, CR2, and the commutating rectifier, CR3, are shown in Figure (143C). The collector voltage, Vc, is shown in Figure (143D).
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Forward Converter Waveforms
Im (143B)
0
CR1
(143C)
0
CR3
(143D)
0
2V in
Figure 143. Typical SingleEnded Forward, Converter Waveforms. Another version of the classic, forward converter is the doubleended, forward converter, shown in Figure 144. The doubleended, forward converter Las two transistors rather than one, compared to the singleended, forward converter, shown in Figure 141. The doubleended forward converter is more complicated than the singleended forward converter because one of the transistors is on the high side of the input voltage, but it has some significant advantages. The series switching transistors are subjected to only the input voltage, (Vin), rather than twice the input voltage, (2Vin). It also removes the need for a
demagnetizing winding. The demagnetizing current now flows through the primary, through, CR1, and CR2, and back to the source, as shown in Figure 145. This demagnetizing path also provides a path for the energy stored in the leakage inductance. The resulting spiking voltage, caused from the leakage
inductance, is now clamped to the input voltage, plus the two diode drops (V^ + 2Vd).
LI
CR1
CR3
Fl
N2
L
CR4
C2 +
id t 1
H "^
v Vo
n
J
Figure 144. Schematic of a DoubleEnded Forward Converter.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
!Q1,Q2; j on! (145A)
0
Q1.Q2 off
CR1, CR2
(145B)
0
IL
(145C)
0
CR3
CR4
(145D)
0
V.in
T
Figure 145. Typical DoubleEnded Forward, Converter Waveforms.
Note: The design equations are from communication and work with the late Dr. J. K. Watson, Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Florida.
Electrical coefficient is: =0.145/ 2 A5 2 (l(T 4 ) Core geometry is: [141]
'
Current density is:
[cm5]
Primary current is:
/„ =
vin(mm)\lID(max)
,, [amps]
[144]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Transformer Design Using the Core Geometry, Kg, Approach
The following information is the Design specification for a 30 watts, singleended transformer, operating at 100kHz, using the, Kg, core geometry approach. For a typical design example, assume a singleended converter circuit, as shown in Figure 141, with the following specification: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Input voltage, V(m;n) Input voltage, V(nom) Input voltage, V(max) Output voltage, V0 Output current, I0 Efficiency, r) = 22 volts = 28 volts = 35 volts = 5.0 volts = 5.0 amps = 100kHz = 98% = 0.5% = 1.0 volt = 0.1 tesla = ferrite = 0.3 = 30°C = 0.5 =1 =(0.1)P 0
6. Frequency, f 7.
8. Regulation, a 9. Diode voltage drop, Vd
10. Operating flux density, AB, (Bac = AB/2) 11. Core Material 12. Window utilization, Ku 13. Temperature rise goal, Tr 14. Maximum duty ratio, Dmax 15. Notes: Demag turns ratio, Nmag/Np Demag power, Pmag
Select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1:
/?„
The skin depth in centimeters is:
6.62 =JT> 6.62
£
[cml
=•, [cm J
e= /
VIOO,QOO
£ = 0.0209,
[cm]
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Then, the wire diameter is: Wire Diameter Wire Diameter Wire Diameter Then, the bare wire area, Aw, is: =2(e), [cm] [cm]
=2(0.0209) = 0.0418 ,
[cm ]
Aw =——, [cm 2 ]
(3.1416)(Q.0418) Z , A Av = ^ ~, [cm ] Aw =0.00137, [cm 2 ] From the Wire Table, in Chapter 4, Number 26 has a bare wire area of 0.001280 centimeters. This will be the minimum wire size used in this design. If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification, then, the design will use a multifilar of #26. Listed Below are #27 and #28, just in case #26 requires too much rounding off. Wire AWG #26 #27 #28 Bare Area 0.001280 0.001021 0.0008046 Area Ins. 0.001603 0.001313 0.0010515 Bare/Ins. 0.798 0.778 0.765 uO/cm 1345 1687 2142
Step No. 1 Calculate the transformer output power, P0. P0 = Io(V0+Vd} P0=5(5+l), P0 =30, Step No. 2 Calculate the input power, P;,,. [watts ] [watts]
[watts ]
n
) [watts]
[watts]
/>,.„ =33.67, Step No. 3 Calculate the electrical coefficient, Ke.
[watts ]
Ke =0.145/ 2 AS 2 (lO 4 ) Ke =0.145(100,000 ) 2 (0.l) 2 (lO" 4 )
Kf = 1450
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
5 cm2 1570 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.35) Kg = 0.35. Kg. Kg. and then. is reduced. the core geometry.2 cm 2. using a window utilization factor of 0. the current density.682 cm4 0. . the ratio of the bare copper area to the total area is 0.5 cm 0.5X1450)' [cm 5 ] Kg = 0.0232. Ku. When operating at high frequencies. ocKe *' = [cm 5 ] 5n [Cm ] (33. the overall window utilization.5) (0.0313.67X0. [cm 5 ] Step No. At Millihenrys per 1000 turns. A Core geometry. All Rights Reserved. Therefore. 4 Calculate the core geometry. K = P<" °mm . Wa Area product. W(ft Copper weight. K Surface area. is to be multiplied by 1. G Core weight. AL EPC30 TDK PC44 8. Core number Manufacturer Magnetic material Magnetic path length .6 cm 23 grams 22 grams 5. W(cu Mean length turn. J.118 cm2 0. Operating at 100kHz and having to use a #26 wire.29.Step No. the engineer has to review the window utilization factor. When using small bobbin ferrites. AC Window area.0301 cm5 31. [cm 5 ] Kg = 0. 5 Select a EPC core from Chapter 3. MPL Window height.0232 (1. comparable in core geometry Kg.6.78. Inc. the ratio of the bobbin winding area to the core window area is only about 0. MLT Iron area. Ku. is calculated. To return the design back to the norm. because of the skin effect.61 cm2 1.
1X1. All Rights Reserved. 7 Calculate the current density. J. A wp(B) =^. Awp(B). Ip. [turns I fAcAB (22)(Q.00896. j [cm 2J] _2.16.0. ooo)(o 61X0. 8 Calculate the primary rms current.29. [amps / c m 2 ] Step No. [amps / Cm2 fA<ABWaKtt 2(33. in (min )W (max " (33.1)'' N p =18.000X0. #26 0. [turns ] [tums] Step No.5)(lQ4) (100. 10 Calculate the required number of primary strands. NSP.„.Step No. Ku = 0. H8X0.00896 0. Np.00128 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.29)' =241.67) (22X0.16 2 ~~ 241 ' L°m J = 0. . 61X0. [cm 2 ] Step No. L . 9 Calculate the primary bare wire area.707)' [amps ] / = 2.67XO707)(l0 4 ) (100. Inc. TV = ——^ c. Step No. using a window utilization. 6 Calculate the number of primary turns.
87 use 10. cm (new )//Q / cm = ——p 1345 (new )//Q / cm = —— (new)//Q/cm = 192 Step No.5X18X192^10^) Rp= 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts ] [watts ] Pp =(2. p =!2pRp. 15 Calculate the secondary rms current.5X22)1 100 ' L [tums] J Ns =9. Step No. Inc.0886. RP=MLT:(NP) —](io~ 6 ) [ohms] v v Acmy ' Rp= (5. 13 Calculate the primary copper loss.55. [watts ] ss (0.16) 2 (0.0190. Ns. . 12 Calculate the primary resistance. Is.019) Pp = 0. [ohms] [ohms] Step No. 1 1 Calculate the primary new ufi per centimeter. Rp. All Rights Reserved. Pp.Step No. [turns ] Step No. Is= ~L4~i' [amps] [amps ] / =3. 14 Calculate the secondary turns.
5)(loXl22)(lO~ 6 ) ^. 19 Calculate the secondary winding resistance. 0846 .0846. Ps =/.55 /(0.00128 NSS =11. NS = . Inc. ..00671. [watts ] [watts] [watts ] Pcu =0. Ps. .48 use 11 Step No. 1345 (new )fj£l / cm = 122 Step No. 2 /? s . Pcu =0. 18 Calculate the secondary. Step No. A ™(B) = ~^> tcm2] [cm 2 ] AvS(*) = 0. Aws(B).173. NSS. Rs. All Rights Reserved. 16 Calculate the secondary bare wire area. [watts ] [watts ] Ps = (3. 5 #26 0.6 Vcm/v s ^ = (5.Step No. new ufi per centimeter. Pcu. . 20 Calculate the secondary copper loss.0886 +0. Liiil cm AS. [watts ] Step No. Rs = M L T ( A O l O .0147. 17 Calculate the required number of secondary strands.=0. 00671 ) Ps = 0. . (new)//Q/cm =(new )fjQ I cm = . 2 1 Calculate the total primary and secondary copper loss. PCU =PP+PS. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [ohms] [ohms ] [ohms] Step No.
6 ) [mh] Ldemag =0. Inc. 24 Calculate the time of.Step No. Magnetizing Current Waveform. At. 100. A =71Z) ' (max)' [seconds ] T =—.173" a = 0. [mh] Ldemag =(l570)(l8) ! (lO. T = [seconds ] [seconds ] [seconds ] [seconds] . 22 Calculate the transformer regulation.576. a. All Rights Reserved.6 ) = ^10(lO~ 6 jy0.509. 23 Calculate the demag winding inductance.5) [seconds ] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [mh] Step No. ^(demag) Figure 146. . (100) [%] Step No. See Figure 146.000 lo(lO. a =(100) "o [%] (0.
» #31 use a #26 Step No. [amps] [amps] Step No.. 28 Calculate the window utilization.089. max r n Idemag = A/J .. .! Dv«i/:i N = (NpNSp ) + (NsNSs) N = 254 + (NdemagNSdemag _ (254)(0. A .089 r . A .291 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. winding rms current.H8 K. [cm ] »(*'»«*) 241 Aw(ilemag) = 0.217. AldemagV • A? £*. ' ' **. 25 Calculate the demag. . =0. = .000369. . Inc.408). Ku. i d <= demag .This is the rms equation for a saw tooth current. winding delta current. Idemag.... Idemag =0. [amps ] Idemag =(0.• (509 ag =0. Aw(demag). wire area. demag [amps] . [amps ] Step No. . All Rights Reserved. 27 Calculate the required demag.217X0.00l28) 1. 26 Calculate the demag. . [cm ] r 2n 0.Step No.
33 Calculate the temperature rise.05) 2747 mW/g = 3. [watts ] [watts Pz = (0. 32 Calculate the watts per unit area.01 Step No. Tr.0lX23)(lO.=450(i//) (o . A. Inc. Pfe =(mW I g^Vtfe Y!° 3 ) P /e =(3. 7.000318 (/)'5'(S.0077 )(0'826). Pfe.242.069 ) [watts ] Step No.242) V= \3l 5y (^ = 0. \\s. . PI. mW/g. [watts / c m ' ] [watts / c m 2 ] (0.3 ) Pfe =0. [°C] r r = 450 (0. 30 Calculate the core loss.173 )+ (0.826) . [watts / c m 2 ] . 31 Calculate the total loss. = pcu + P/e. All Rights Reserved. [°C] [°C] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Step No.000318 (1OOOOO) 15 '(0.J2747 mW/g = 0. mW/g = 0.069. 0 8 . 29 Calculate the milliwatts per gram. [watts ] [watts ] [watts] Step No. Pz =0.0077.Step No.. p y/=—. 7 r = 8 .
LI. The singleended. is shown in Figure (149C). The current flowing through LI is shown in Figure (149D). The core loss in the output inductor is caused by the change in current or AI. The waveforms are shown with the converter operating at a 0. the core loss in the output inductor of a switching regulator is much lower compared to the core loss in the main converter transformer. collapsing. CR3. The applied voltage. LI. The commutating current flowing through.Forward Converter Output Inductor Design Part 2 is designing the output inductor. The current flowing through LI is the sum of the currents in Figure (149B) and (149C). Typical output inductor BH Loop. to the filter. (SMPS). The output filter inductor for switchmode power supplies. The losses in the magnetic material will increase significantly when the converter is operating at a higher frequency. producing the commutating current. converter output filter. is shown in Figure (149A). has three current probes. LI. The commutating current is the result of Ql being turned off. as shown in Figure 147. This topology is appealing to engineers for it simplicity and parts' count. V1. The output filter circuit. shown in Figure 148. Current probe C monitors the current through the output inductor. The typical secondary and filter waveforms of the forward converter are shown in Figure 148. probably has been designed more times than any other single component.5 duty ratio. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 147. However. All Rights Reserved. These current probes monitor the three basic currents in a switch mode. Current probe A monitors the transformer's secondary current. and the field in. Inc. forward converter schematic is shown in Figure 148. Current probe B monitors the commutating current through CR3. Presented here is a straightforward approach for selecting the core and the proper wire size to meet the specification. B (tesla) >• AI H (oersteds) Figure 147. which induces a change in flux. . The transformer's secondary current is shown in Figure (149B).
Typical forward converter waveforms. The applied voltage. as shown in Figure (1410C). operating at a 0. If the output load current is allowed to go beyond this point. forward converter. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.5 duty ratio. The critical inductance current is shown in Figure (1410B). the response time for a step load becomes very poor. Typical singleended.Current Probe A CR1 U VI PI LI TT* Current Probe C — \j CR2 CR3 2c C2 N2 + s. will have ringing at the level of the output voltage. the current will become discontinuous. When the current in the output inductor becomes discontinuous. V (149. as shown in Figure (1410D).. V. The critical inductance current is when the ratio of the delta current to the output load current is equal to 2 = AI / I0. as shown in Figure (1410D).A) (149B) (149C) (149D) Current Probe C Figure 149. . Inc.^ v0 1 —c > R Current Probe B Figure 148.
f Output voltage. using the Kg core geometry approach. V1(min) Regulation. 4. a slaved output voltage will rise to the value of V. operating at 100kHz. output filter inductor goes from critical to discontinuous operation. Frequency. Then the output voltage will rise to equal the peak input voltage. assume an output filter circuit. with the following specifications: 1. then. V0 Output current.When designing multiple output converters. If the current is allowed to go to zero. as shown in Figure 141. Forward converter. I0(max) Output current. V 1410A 1410B 1410C 1410D Current Probe C Figure 1410. 8. 2. Kg.0 amps 05 amps = 1. the slaved outputs should never have the current in the inductor go discontinuous or to zero. If the current goes to zero. I0(max) •••• Delta current. 30 watt output filter design. For a typical design example. Output Inductor Design Using the Core Geometry. 7. 3. 6. Approach The following information is the design specification for a forward converter. . 5. ot = 100kHz = 5 volts = = 5. AI Input voltage. Inc. there is not any potential difference between the input and output voltage of the filter.0 amps = 19 volts = 12 volts = 1. All Rights Reserved.0% Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. V l(max) Input voltage.
11. Then. The skin effect on an inductor is the same as a transformer.000 . At this point. is: 6. [cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Vd = 30 watts = 0. P0 Operating flux density. Inc. Then.62 '100.4 = 1. [cm] s = 0. AI. The main difference is that the ac flux is much lower and does not require the use of the same maximum wire size. and is normally only a fraction of the dc flux. z. Output power (V0 + Vd) (I0(max)). All Rights Reserved. Bpk Window utilization. [cm] A. .0209).00137. The ac flux is caused by the delta current. Aw.3 tesla = 0. Dw.9. Care must be taken regarding maximum flux density with different materials and core loss.62 77 £ =' 6. the bare wire area. Ku Diode voltage drop. the wire diameter. In this design the ac current and the dc current will be treated the same. in centimeters. Av=0.0418. 10.0 volt This design procedure will work equally well with all of the various powder cores. select a wire so that the relationship between the ac resistance and the dc resistance is 1: =1 The skin depth. is: Dw=2(s].0209. 12.f =0. is: [cm] [cm] [cm] Dv= 2 (0.
From the Wire Table in Chapter 4. A/ (lOxlO" )(5.001021 centimeters. .. Listed Below are #27 and #28. [//h] Step No.2.778 0.798 0. 4 Calculate the peak current.000 7 = 10. If the design requires more wire area to meet the specification. 1 Calculate the total period. 0. D mi n =— ^ £ mi .. [amps] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. T.0010515 Bare/Ins. in case #26 requires too much rounding off. L.001021 0. 0. 3 Calculate the required inductance. just.263) L= _ .765 ufi/cm 1345 1687 2142 Step No. [seconds] T = . This will be the minimum wire size used in this design. . [amps] Ipk = 5.5.0008046 Area Ins. All Rights Reserved. [usec] Step No. Wire AWG #26 #27 #28 Bare Area 0. Number 27 has a bare wire area of 0. Inc. r = — . lp^.001313 0. [seconds] 100.001603 0. then the design will use a multifilar of #26.263 Step No.. 2 Calculate the minimum duty ratio> Dmin.= 0. [henrys] 6 1=44.0 + 1.001280 0.0)(l0.
a ws L J g ~ ir\ f\r\f\f\ic\^ (. LI* Energy = ——.7 cm = 16.2 cm = 0. Core number Manufacturer Magnetic path length. .VV\JVVO )P (0.3)?xlO~ 4 Ke =0. All Rights Reserved. MPL Core weight. MLT Iron area.0184 cm5 = 28.01138 Step No.) ( 0 [cm 5 ] 5 LCm J Kg =0.2 grams = 3. wattseconds. comparable in core geometry. Wa Area Product.000668.5)2 Energy = .449 cm4 = 0. Inc. [wattseconds] (44.0000392 Step No. Kg. Ac Window Area. Permeability. 6 Calculate the electrical conditions.2x1 (T6)(5.0 grams = 15. from Chapter 4.068 J 0006 \V.356 cm2 = 0. Wtcu Mean length turn. A.6 cm2 = 60 = 43 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 8 Select.0000392 \/l1n\ ) . Ke. Ap Core geometry. p. [wattseconds] Energy = 0. [wattseconds] Step No. Kg Surface area.331 cm2 = 1. a MPP powder core. Millihenrys per 1000 turns. (Energy J = * S K. 5 Calculate the energyhandling capability in. AL MP55059A2 Magnetics = 5. Ke = OA45P0B AT e =(0.Step No.145X30X0. 7 Calculate the core geometry. Kg. Wtfe Copper weight.
. J. ^K) " (MPL) (1. [tesla] .4) J = 300. 9 Calculate the number of turns.1. In 0442 ™ = > / ( 5 .3)(5. \L . use 60 [perm] Step No.4. 12 Calculate the required permeability.5)(6Q)(104) (5. N. All Rights Reserved. [ampspercm ] (1.26)(1. lms. 10 Calculate the rms current. 0 ) 2 + ( l . N = 1000 U^i. Au. Ku = 0. Bp^. 13 Calculate the peak flux density. . [ampspercm2] Step No. J = .7) Bpk= 0. O ) 2 .233. [turns] Step No. Inc. [tesla] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [perm] (0. using a window utilization. [turns] V 43 N = 32.7)(l0 4 ) A (1. 1 1 Calculate the current density.36)(300)(0. A^=^ ^ '.36)(0.. [ ampspercm2 ] .Step No.26)(32)(5.4)' A// = 83. [amps] Step No. [turns] \\ I^(1000) \ N = 1000.
16 Calculate the new. per centimeter.00128 5. [strands] 0.7 H = 38.273.^=0. [watts] Step No.017.1) 2 (0.). Inc.Step No. H = p— .0105. 1 9 Calculate the magnetizing force in oersteds. [watts] Pcu = 0.9. .1 r „ »w 300' L 4.0105). [ohms] v Umj /? = (3. [strands] Step No. R.26)(32)(5. [watts] pcu =(5. =13. 18 Calculate the winding copper loss.2)(32)(l03)(lO' 6 ). A =Z^ J [cm 2] 5. H. Sn. [ohms] [ohms] Step No. 14 Calculate the required bare wire area.5) 1_ [ VA _ A— oersteds] 5. ufi. All Rights Reserved. [oersteds] MPL (1. AW(B). 6 R = (MLT:)N\ — (iO". [oersteds] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [strands] " #26 S = —'• . OAxNI. 5 = ' . ^ = C « . 15 Calculate the required number of strands. Pcu. [cm2] Step No. / x f£l/cm (newj//Q/cm = n I N o / (newJ/^Q/cm = 1345 Step No. fl = 0. 17 Calculate the winding resistance.
203. Pz=Pfe+Pcu> [watts] Pj. [%] Step No.. /. a =^(100).55l(lO~ 2 )/ (l 23)B% I2) . for this design. *o [%] (0. 24 Calculate the total loss..  milliwatts ]„. [tesla] Step No. using MPP 60 perm powder cores coefficients. Bac. Pfe. [wattsperkilogram] WK = 0.0212.26)(32)(0. [wattsperkilogram] WK = 2.55l(lO~ 2 )(lOOOOO) ( ' 23) (0.273) a = 0. shown in Chapter 2. Ps. \ P = v W . core. 2 1 Calculate the regulation. WK = 0. Pfe. Pfe = 0. [watts] Ps = 0.Step No.0352.. WK. [wattsperkilogram] Step No. [watts] ^ gram ) Pfe= (2. Bac = . Inc. . a.5)(60)(10. 20 Calculate the ac flux density in tesla. =(0.0212)(2''2) .0352) + (0. . .308. [tesla] MPL (1.273). All Rights Reserved. 22 Calculate the watts per kilogram.91. and copper. 23 Calculate the core loss. 1 03 . Pcu.4 ) A ' A A ' Bac= 0. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] [watts] Step No.203) (16)(103). in watts.
in °C. [wattspercm 1 (28. 27 Calculate the window utilization.6) iff = 0.7.356) K. 25 Calculate the watt density. 26 Calculate the temperature rise. [wattspercm2 ] 4 (0.393 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.. Inc. [wattspercm2 ] p Tr = 450(0.0108)(°826) . Step No.Step No. Tr = 10.308) 2n ur = —. \y = — . = 0. .00128) (1. v/.. [°C] Step No.r.0108. Ku. All Rights Reserved. J32)(13)(0.
Chapter 15 Input Filter Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. . Inc.
Input Filter Inductor Design Procedure 8. Capacitor Oscillation 3. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Table of Contents 1. Inc. Applying Power 6. Inductor 5. 4. Introduction 2. . All Rights Reserved. Resonant Charge 7. Input Filter Design Specification 9.
Other Users LI [ ^source ^source ~~^ Mn —*" o^o v ln 1 ^~ >. peakpeak ripple current is. induced by the switching regulator. is the sum of two components. For this reason. AVC. AVC. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. LI.Introduction Today. as shown in Figure 151. LC. peakpeak. Cl. developed across the capacitor. Vz. and for the amount of ac ripple current drawn from the source. the equivalent series resistance. This ripple voltage could impede the performance of other equipment connected to the same bus. but also for system stability. The input LC filter has become very critical in its design and must be designed not only for EMI. These current pulses required the use of high quality capacitors with low ESR. In the capacitor. all power conditioning requires some kind of an input filter. All Rights Reserved. . The waveforms. The equivalent circuit for the capacitor is shown in Figure 153. almost all modern equipment uses some sort of power conditioning. and the reactance of the capacitor. induced by the switching regulator. Capacitor Switching regulators have required the engineer to put a significantly more analytical effort into the design of the input filter. Inc. Ic. (ESR). The voltage. there is a specification requirement regarding the amount of ripple current seen at the source. are shown in Figure 152. Ripple currents generated by the user induce a ripple voltage. The input voltage supplied to the equipment is also supplied to other users.In the capacitor. There are a lot of different circuit topologies used. ripple current is. Simple. Cl. peakpeak. When you get to the bottom line. Input Filter. has had the most impact on the input capacitor. Cl Switching Converter Figure 151. IL. across the source impedance. ripple voltage is. In the input inductor. The current pulse.
is: F M = / C ( E S R ) . Inc. Current Waveforms. (ESR). Capacitor. [volts] [153] Ic 0 IL o _J. AVf Input from Inductor L O Input switching converter ESR Cl + AVCR Figure 153. All Rights Reserved. is: A Vc = A VCR + A Vcc. Components. Individual Ripple. Typical Voltage. .The voltage developed across the equivalent series resistance. [volts] The voltage developed across the capacitance is: [151] [152] •A1) ) The sum of the two voltages. AVCR and AV<x.__X^Figure 152. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
and Rj (ESR). The input inductor losses will normally be 80 to 90% copper. All Rights Reserved. Oscillation occurs when the combined positive resistance of the LC filter. Magnetic Material Properties Operating Flux. by increasing the Rj (ESR). Oscillation will not occur when: [154] Where r is the switching converter efficiency. Operating with a high dc flux and a low ac flux. (2) dc current. Most Commonly Used Input Filter Material. with its high flux density of 1. Rs is the source resistance in ohms. See Figure 154. tesla Silicon 1. and power source exceed the negative dynamic resistance of the regulator's dc input. is the filter capacitor in farads. RL is inductor series resistance in ohms. lowers the Q of the filter and kills the potential Oscillation. the capacitor's ESR. The requirement for the input inductor is to provide a low ac ripple current to the source.4 Iron Power 0. silicon. where. B. To prevent oscillation. If additional damping is required. Vjn(max) is the input voltage. Table 151. (3) dc resistance.3 Ferrite Material Permeability "i 1.5K 14550 3590 1K15K Oscillation The input filter can affect the stability of the associated switching converter. The low ac ripple current in the inductor produces an ac flux at a magnitude of about 0. as shown in Table 151. . will produce the smallest size.6 teslas.025 tesla. The series resistance. and/or RL. it can be done. The stability problem results from an interaction between the output impedance of the input filter and the input impedance of the switching converter.3 1. Rj. is the equivalent series resistance in ohms. and (4) temperature rise. A high flux magnetic material is ideally suited in this application. There are four parameters required to achieve a good design: (1) required inductance. This resulting low ac flux will keep the core loss to a minimum.21. P0 is the output power in watts. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. C.8 Permalloy Powder 0.Inductor The input filter inductor is basically a straightforward design. and the inductor's resistance must provide sufficient damping.51. L is the input inductor in henrys. Inc.
and the dc current. AI. Input Filter Inrush Current Measurement. and (3) iron alloy.Applying Power The inrush current has always been a problem with this simple LC input filter. The applied input voltage. source source Figure 155. LI. Tests were performed using three different core materials: (1) powder core. using the test circuit. LI. (ampturns). shown in Figure 155. the full input voltage. while others design using gapped cores. The inductor. There are two types of core configurations commonly used for input inductor design: powder cores and gapped cores. ^source "source Figure 154. because Cl is discharged. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. The threeinductor designs were tested to compare the inrush current under the same conditions. When SI is closed. is normally designed. Some engineers prefer to design around powder cores because they are simple and less hassle. is applied directly across the input inductor. such as a relay or switch SI as shown in Figure 155. to the input inductor. Inc. flowing through it is enough to saturate the core. When a step input is applied. with Additional Damping. there is always a high inrush current. V^. using the upper limits of the flux density for minimum size. It is strictly a game of tradeoffs. The inrush current. for all three materials is shown in Figure 156. . Input Filter. All three materials were designed to have the same inductance and the same dc resistance. (2) ferrite core. (voltseconds). LI. Vin.
Typical. with dc bias. Inc. shown in Figure 156. I Gapped Ferrites and Iron Alloys Exhibit this Sharp Knee. Inrush Current for a Simple Input. The changes in permeability. before the permeability starts to droop. Horizontal 500usec/Div. All Rights Reserved. Permeability Change with DC Bias..As. the inrush current for all three test inductors has about the same general shape and amplitude. for both gapped and powder cores are shown in Figure 157. 10 100 DC Magnetizing Force (Oersteds) 1000 Figure 157. Ferrite & Iron Alloy Powder Core Vertical 2 amps/Div. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Comparing Gapped and Powder Cores. . Figure 156. The advantage in using a gapped core over the powder core is the ability to use the full flux capacity of the core up to the knee. Gapped cores have a definitely sharper knee while the powder cores roll off more gradually.
If the input voltage is applied via a switch or relay to an input filter. The reason for two diodes is the ripple voltage. Cl. medical equipment. CR1 and CR2 will become forwardbiased. computer. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. might be greater than the threshold voltage of the diode. As the voltage across Cl rises above the input voltage. across Capacitor. as shown in Figure 1511. m LI 250 Cl Vin = 28V V. .Resonant Charge Most all types of electronic equipment are energized by either a switch or relay. There are some power sources that require some type of current limiting that does not follow the general rule. aircraft. as shown in Figure 1510. V^. Vc. The oscillating voltage is applied to the switching converter. 60v50v40v 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms Figure 159. Resonating Voltage. The voltage rating of Cl must be high enough to sustain this peak voltage without damage. Input Filter. Inc. A simple way to dampen this oscillation is to place one or two diodes across the input choke. Vin. This type of turnon goes for spacecraft. clamping the voltage across Cl to two diode drops above the input voltage. Simple LC. and automobiles. as shown in Figure 159. Typical. 40 uf 40 ohm 20W O Figure 158. a resonant charge condition will develop with LI and Cl. as shown in Figure 158. The resulting resonant charge with LI and Cl could put a potential on Cl that could be as much as twice the applied input voltage. due to the oscillation diodes. All Rights Reserved.
for this design is shown in Figure 1512. nn source •»' \r. Input Filter Circuit. . Inc. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. ln J^^X. DC Voltage Across Cl. 60v 50v 40v 30v 20vH lOv • 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms Figure 1511. Input Filter Inductor Design Procedure The input filter inductor. LI M i W d CR1 CR2 + J^ Vz Switching rSUCK E ^source ~ /•• > n Regulator 1 1 Figure 1512. Input Inductor with Clamp Diodes. All Rights Reserved. LI. with the Clamp Diodes.LI O 250 uh Cl V in = 28V 40 V vr 40z 20W O Figure 1510.
AILR.CR + 4 Cl AVcc Figure 1514. ESR. The components of the inductor current. Cl. are: AVCR = Peak to Peak component due to capacitor.AV C R »AV C C Figure 1513. The ac voltages and currents impressed on the input capacitor. are shown in Figure 1513. ESR. [amps] [156] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. are defined in Figure 1514. Defining the Input Capacitor Voltage and Current Ripple. [amps] [155] A/.. ! V 0 ! loff ! 1i AI A C = Capacitor Current \r DT D'T AVC = AV C R . Cl. dominates because of the capacitor. AVCR and AVCC.The ac voltages and currents associated with the input capacitor. L1Q O AIC Input to the Buck Converter ESR 1 AV. . A Vcc = Peak to Peak component due to capacitor. Inc. T). AILR = Component of the inductor ripple current developed by &VCR. 2L A4. Input Capacitor Voltage and Current Ripple. due to. [amps] It will be considered that. so: L \(DD'T). = u l f i . All Rights Reserved. AILC = Component of the inductor ripple current developed by A Vcc. Input from Inductor.
PeakPeak ripple voltage. Inc. \V L==^(DD'T). 9. A" e =0. . P0 Maximum current to the load.Input Filter Design Specification 1. 10. [wattsecond] Energy = 0. 1^ = Iav = AIC D The ripple frequency. L(I )2 Energy = ——— .000125. 2 Calculate the energyhandling capability. f The core RM ferrite.010 amps = 10 usec = 0. Ke. D = ton/T *Converter offtime duty cycle. 11. a Output power drawn from the filter network..000250. Bmax = 0. [henrys] Step No. = 0. 4.0) 2 Energy = . 1 Calculate the required inductance.5 = 0. gapped. 8.145(50)(0. 2. 5. 6. AVcr PeakPeak ripple current to the source.25) 2 (lO' 4 ) K.5 Step No. L. D"= t0g/T Regulation. [wattsecond] 125(lO~ 6 )(2.25 tesla * The worse case time domain is where D and D" = 0.5 = 0.5% = 50 watts = 4 amps = 2 amps = 100kHz = 0. 7.5 volts = 0.0000453 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [wattsecond] Step No. T *Converter ontime duty cycle. AIC Average input current. 3. 3 Calculate the electrical coefficient. [henrys] 1 = 0. AIL Period. All Rights Reserved.
............................ 2..................... 2(Energy)(l0 4 ) J = ...................... [cm5] Step No......0000453)(0....Step No.................... = 11... 6.............. using the area product equation.......................... ............3 cm" Winding Length....... MLT .......................................................................... = 0................. = 0.........25)(0........ Ac ...................0953 cm4 Mean length turn........... [ampspercm2 ] Step No...... Kg .......00381.... = 0. Wtfe .....5)' Kg= 0..... Core part number ............... (0........00275................ 10............................ Aw(B)..0044 cm5 Core crosssection........... [cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker..................................... Inc........................260 cm2 Area product.... um ....................... 7 Calculate the required bare wire area...................................................... 11..............................86 cm Core weight.................... 7...........0953)(0. 4 Calculate the core geometry................. 8.......... = RM6 Core geometry...................................... 1..4) J = 525............... 6 Calculate the current density...00025)2 is ________v_ /_ Fern 1 * ~(0.................. = 2............. = 3. MPL ................. = 0.. [ampspercm ] (0................82 cm Permeability.......1 cm Magnetic path length....................................... [ampspercnr 1 BmApKu 2(0..... 9...... Ap ....00025)(l0 4 ) J = ——...........5 grams Surface area........... = 5........ 4..... Wa ... (525)' — = 0................................................... Ap...... J........................ Kg.. .................... 5........................... 5 Select the comparable core geometry from the RM ferrite cores....... G ................................ All Rights Reserved... = 0.......................................... A...........366 cm" Window area....... = 2500 Step No......................................... 3................
N. 8 Select a wire from the Wire Table in Chapter 4. is 0. as shown in Chapter 4. 12 Calculate the equivalent gap in mils. as shown in Chapter 4.Step No. A typical value for.6. Wa(eff). [cm2] Step No.366)(lO~ 8 ) . . . (0. Wa(eff)= 0. If the area is not within 10%. N = ^A .26)(24) 2 (0. *• *~ lg = 0. 1 1 Calculate the required gap.000125) [cm] i A. S2. found in Step 8. All Rights Reserved. lg. . Inc.91 use 8 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.0041 1.75.0197)(393. AW(B) = 0. 10 Calculate the number turns possible. Use the window area found in Step 5.60) . S3 is 0. [rums] Step No. —— =419.7) mils = (0. take the next smallest size. . [cm] Step No. Use the insulated wire area. W ^ N = ^^. Aw.0201. Insulated.195.00484. [turns] (0. AWG = #21 Bare. 9 Calculate the effective window area. [rums] AW (0. Aw = 0. [cm] (l. A typical value for. Also record microohms per centimeter. [cm2] [cm2 ] [microohm/cm] Step No. mils = cm(393.195)(0.7) mils = 7.00484) N = 24.
228. 14 Calculate the new number of turns.0286). [turns] Step No. V0366 F = 1. . [turns] " \ 0. I. from Step 8.8 ) Nn = 22. 13 Calculate the fringing flux factor. RL = 0. 17 Calculate the regulation. [watts] P C1 . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] Step No.0286.Step No. / L N = *—.4* F l O . Inc.146 ^ 0.000125) N = i^j1 —r .0201 J Step No.366)(l. a =^(100).l)(22)(419)(lO" 6 ). RL =(3.0) 2 (0. Nn. F.114) a= (io) [% a = 0. by inserting the fringing flux. Pcu. 16 Calculate the copper loss. a. All Rights Reserved.0201)(0. F. MLT.8 (0.!46)(lO. RL. [turns] " y(l. from Step 5 and the microohm per centimeter. 15 Calculate the winding resistance. [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Step No.=0. pm =(2. [%] 0 (0.114.26)(0. Use the..
= Pfe + Pcu.000758)(286) mW/g = 0.082 (lO" 6 ). A.26)(22)(l.00198)(100000)° 36) (0.5)(lO" 3 ).. material in Chapter 2. " be written in milliwattspergram. [watts/cm2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [tesla] Step No. The surface area.0000149 Step No. Pj> />. 18 Calculate the ac flux density. [watts/cm2 ] 4 (0. ^ iff = —. Pfe.0197)+ ~ V ' {25QOJ Bac = 0.114) w = —. [tesla] (l.y. for ferrite. Bac. /%=(mW/g)(^)(lO. . can be found in Step 5. [watts] 4=0. [watts] Pfe = 0. 21 Calculate the total loss copper plus iron.000758. [watts] Pfe =(0.010. [watts] PL =(0.000) + (0. Watts per kilogram can mW/g = (0.3 ). [tesla] Bac= . [watts] Step No. 20 Calculate the core loss. ^. 19 Calculate the wattsperkilogram. All Rights Reserved.l4)f°fV 10 ) ^4 (0.114. c 1 4T) .0000149)(5. P.114).Step No. [watts] Step No.3) y = 0. Inc. 22 Calculate the watt density. [watts/cm ] (11.
24 Calculate the peak flux density.26)(22)(l. Bpk. Ku.0. [tesla] 2500 Step No. All Rights Reserved. Tr. 23 Calculate the temperature rise. .005)(l0~ 4 ) (0. Tate. "Simplifying the Switching Regulator Input Filter. K= = (0. 1979. 3. ?.00411)(22) (0. T.0197)Bpk = 0. 2.348 References 1." (no source). = 0.260) A:. Dan Sheehan. The modeling results are shown in Figures 159 and 1511. "Designing a Regulator's LC Input Filter: 'Ripple' Method Prevents Oscillation Woes.010) ( ° S26) . on his SPICE program. "Optimizing Passive Input Filter Design. Inc.Step No. for modeling the circuits in Figure 158 and 1510.l4)(2. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [°C] Step No. May/June 1975. Phelps and W. Tr =450(0. S." SolidState Power Conversion. August 2.' Electronic Design 16. 25 Calculate the window utilization. Note: I would like to thank Jerry Fridenberg. (I.. K. David Silber.304.=1 0.
Inc. All Rights Reserved.Chapter 16 Current Transformer Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. .
Inc. Introduction 2. . All Rights Reserved. 6. Current Transformer Design Example Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Unique to a Current Transformer 4. Current Transformer Circuit Applications Design Performance 5.Table of Contents 1. Analysis of the Input Current Component 3.
the core characteristics must be carefully selected because excitation current. such as.e. essentially subtracts from the metered current and effects the true ratio and phase angle of the output current. In current transformer designs. the current in the lead of an ac power circuit. higher than the ratings of socalled selfcontained current meters. and average current. represents the important elements of a current transformer. Ira. Multiturn secondaries then provide a reduced current for detecting overcurrent. The simplified equivalent circuit of a current transformer. where the current is large. All Rights Reserved.Introduction Current transformers are used to measure. peak current. where the ratio of primary to secondary turns is: N «=—K N P [turnsratio] [161] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. i. Other applications relate to overcurrent and undercurrent relaying for power circuit protection. in the power lead of an inverter or converter. Inc. Simple. Secondary AC Current Monitor. as shown in Figure 161. as shown in Figure 162. . or monitor. They are very useful in highpower circuits.. undercurrent. Load Figure 161.
The exciting current.in Figure 162. to the load current. balance the remainder of the primary ampere turns. provides the core loss. lin tolr» to O VNAARS Figure 163. Inc. Equivalent Circuit for a Current Transformer. The exciting current is equal to: QAxN . may be defined as the portion of the primary current that satisfies the hysteresis and eddy current losses of the core. I0. Im. RO. Im. drives the magnetic flux around the core. Input CurrentOutput Current Relationship. determines the maximum accuracy that can be achieved with a current transformer. Only the ampereturn component.Figure 162. Analysis of the Input Current Component A better understanding of the current transformer behavior may be achieved by considering the applied input current to the primary winding. All Rights Reserved. The relationship of the exciting current. . in terms of various components. only a part of the current. linNp. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. will flow in the output load resistor. Im. The secondary ampere turns. [amps] [IM] where H is the magnetizing force and material dependent. Exciting current. ImNp. If the values of Lc and Re. is shown in Figure 1 63 . in Figure 162. ISNP. and MPL is the Magnetic Path Length. are too low because the permeability of the core material is low and the core loss is high. Simplified. The ampere turn. (Ip/n).
the larger the error. as shown in Figure 164. like any other transformer. I0. and the load current.The input current is comprised of two components: exciting current. Ijn. If the load current. [amps] [165] The above equation has shown graphically in Figure 164. Figure 164. A current transformer. The primary current of a current transformer is not dependent of the secondary load current. A very high voltage will appear across the secondary. Input Current I in Phase Relationship Diagram. determines accuracy. Im or core loss. The current is really injected into the primary by an external load current. Unique to a Current Transformer The current transformer function is different than that of a voltage transformer. The magnetizing impedance. away from the primary and thus. on the current transformer is removed from the secondary winding. All Rights Reserved. . must satisfy the ampturn equation: I. Im. because there is not an opposing current in the secondary winding to prevent this. because it shunts part of the input current.„. Then: I2m=lrnI20. Ijn. !. [amps] [164] Im=Iin . is still applied. The current transformer will operate into either a short circuit or a resistive load until the voltage induced is enough to saturate the core or cause voltage breakdown. A current transformer operates with a set primary current and will try to output a constant current to the load. Inc. as a voltage transformer should never operate into a short circuit. the flux in the core will rise to a high level. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. produces an error. that the higher the exciting current. Rg. independent of the load. For this reason a current transformer should never operate into an open circuit. while the external load current. I0. N. Core material with the lowest value of H achieves the highest accuracy.
resistance. VS=I0(RS+R0]. to select the required core crosssection. in phase. It is now up to the engineer to pick a core material that would provide the highest permeability at the operating flux density. . (shunt). 4 I!n(R.'. as shown in Figure 162. RO. Vs=I0(Rs+R0) + Vd. that would result in values of. Vs. [volts] [167] If the secondary is designed for dc. I0. y J L [henrys] L MPL [1611] J is the equivalent core loss. Lc and Re. secondary winding resistance. [ohms] [1612] [1613] n Then: Ip=nls [1615] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Bac. R Where: HfD RS+R0 n And: RS + R0 [1614] e = . The engineer would use Equation 1610. Rs. then the diode drop must be taken into account. RO load will determine the secondary voltage. and secondary load current. The current is. values which would be large enough to reduce the current flowing in these elements to satisfy the ratio and phase requirements. determine the induced voltage of the current transformer. with the voltage. [volts] [169] [168] The current ratio will set the turns ratio.The secondary load. Bac. Ac. The secondary. The inductance is calculated from the equation: L = —. [volts] Simple form: Vs=V0 + V d . R __ + 2 KfBacfNs The design requirements would dictate choosing a core material and operating flux density. All Rights Reserved. Inc.
Drain Current. . O Figure 165.Or: IpNp=IsNs [1616] Except for relatively lowaccuracy industrial types. Tl O I ) v O Figure 166. used to Monitor. which virtually eliminate errors due to leakage inductance. Tl. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. T2. Ql and Q2. Inc. Current Transformer. adjusting the number of secondary turns. current transformers are wound on toroidal cores. used to Monitor Line Current. Current Transformer. Some errors may be compensated for by Current Transformer Circuit Applications Typical current transformer applications are shown in Figures 165 through 168.
is used for regenerative drive. Current Transformer. All Rights Reserved. Tl. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.RIO Current Sense +5VRef Figure 167. . Inc. Current Transformer. is used as a Level Detector. Tl. Figure 168.
Core loss less than 8. All Rights Reserved. Bac 7. Operating flux density. Kf Step 1. Calculate the secondary current. Operating frequency. [turns] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 169. Input current. CR14 Figure 169. Output voltage. Output load resistance. Is. Waveform factor.01) Ns = 500. Magnetic material 10. f (square wave) 6.=—. . [turns] [turns] (0.5 amps 0 . 5. Vd 9. I. [amps] Step 2. 1. R. Primary 2. Current Monitoring Transformer with dc Output. / /v . r[amps] 500 ^=0.2 tesla 3% (error) 1 volt Supermalloy 2 mil 4.n 3.0 /. [amps] 5 T n /s = '° . Ns. Calculate the secondary turns. Inc. Diode drop. V0 4. 1 turn 0 .01.Current Transformer Design Example The following information is the design specification for a current transformer.5 volts 500 ohms 2500 hertz 0.
.............. is 0.. 8................ 2 [cm] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.................. Core geometry.. 2mil Silcon Magnetic path length..................... MPL ........ Calculate the effective window area......................... Inc.............................................. 0. Wa(<ff)=WttS.... 0................................................. AC ........... (Kf}BacfNs A = . 3.......................................................... Ac..... Calculate the secondary voltage.........................0)(l0 4 ) _ ^_ A_ I_ r 2 c (4.....0 + 2(1........................................... Magnetics Magnetic material . A ............................1 grams Mean length turn....070........... 20... Vs = 7......0)............... Select a 2mil tape.......... Core number .......2)(2500)(500)' [cm2] L Ac= 0..........086 cm2 0..................... 52000 Manufacturer ............................... 0............. [volts] [volts] Vs =5......................6 cm2 Step 6................... Calculate the required core iron crosssection...851 cm" Area product.................................... Wtfc ............. MLT . A typical value for. A( .............................................. as shown in Chapter 4............ K .....................0732 cm4 Window area.. Vs=V0+2Vd.............. 4............................ [cm2] Wa(eff]= 0..................................................0)(0...................000938 cm5 Surface area.................. closest to the value calculated.......75.... Step 5.................. Wa ............... using Faraday's Equation...3 grams Copper weight.......................7 cm Iron area.............................. All Rights Reserved.. [cm2] (7. [volts] Step 4...99 cm Core weight.................... . Ac....................... S3............................... Vs...........................0............................................ W a(eff) .. W(cu ........638....................................... 2..Step 3..................... toroidal core from Chapter 3 with an iron crosssection.....
[cm2] Step 10. The rule is that when the calculated wire area does not fall within 10% of those listed. 33 4. with insulation .01)(5. [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] Step 11.. Rs =(2.(V0+2Vd). P0. Aw. Rs using the Wire Table in Chapter 4. [cm2] Step 8. S2 of 0.070. the next smaller size should be selected. A w . [watts] [watts] P 0 =(0. for uQ/cm. Select a wire area. P0=I. Calculate the secondary window area. and Step 5 for the MLT.638 2 [ ^fl(scc) =0. Rs=9. . in Wire Table. with insulation from Wire Table in Chapter 4 for an equivalent AWG wire size.)[ — ](lO~ 6 ).7)(500)(6748)(lO~ 6 ). using a fill factor. (0319X^6) (500) /4W = 0. Calculate the secondary output power. = 0. P0 = 0. then. Wa(Sec).6. AWG No. [cm2] Step 9.000383.0 + 2(1. Rs = MLT(7V. All Rights Reserved.319.0)).ll.0003662. "*•"*•> 2 0. Calculate the wire area. Inc.Step 7. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Calculate the secondary winding resistance.
Ac.162. Calculate the acceptable core loss. Calculate the core loss. /> . in Chapter 2. mW/g.Step 12. in milliwatts per gram.554. [grams] Wtfe(eff)=3. Calculate the effective core weight. Pfe. mW/g = 0.148). »W)= (33)0. [milliwatts per gram] [milliwatts per gram] ^ (103). [milliwatts per gram] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [watts] Step 13. Kw. [milliwatts per gram] mW/g = 0. crosssection. mW/g.19. for Supermalloy. Wtfe(eff).0)(0. [grams] Step 14. [milliwatts per gram] Step 15.0021. . mW/g = ±— mW/g = 0.162)'2 '5) . in milliwatts per gram. [milliwatts per gram] mW/g = 0. Calculate the allowable core loss. (7. Pfe.000179(2500)° 48) (0. Step 16.382.\ mW/g = —^10 J.000179(/)° 48) (Bac )(2 '5) . . Select the core weight correction factor. Pfe. All Rights Reserved.086)(2500)(500)' [tesla] Bac= 0. „ ( core loss ' Pfe= 0.0)(l0 4 ) ac "(4. Inc. Calculate the new flux density using the new core iron.
0 3.008 1. [watts] P/e = 0.181 amps 3.227 0.262 5.312 volts 1.3 ). = — . All Rights Reserved. %. Inc.o I 1.606 ~ 3.79(0. It was plotted in Figure 1610. with an error of 3.722 0.500 5.4 %.0 i.00145. Pfe.929 2.07.0 I 4.831 5.382)(lO. VQ (volts) Figure 1610.480 0.219 amps 1. [%] [%] Design Performance A current transformer was built and the data recorded in Table 161.0 5.310 2.5 ohms.693 3.791 4. [watts] Core loss induced error = ^(100). Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.978 1.746 1. . Calculate the core loss.Step 17.593 3.250 0.0 volts 0.014 5.806 volts 3.625 3. Current Transformer.500 0. Input Current versus Output Voltage.400 2.339 4.488 3. The secondary winding resistance was 6.0 I U 2.0 4.377 1.441 2.010 2. in watts. Table 161 Current Transformer Electrical Data lin amps 0. Core loss induced error = 2.942 4. V 5 J P /e =3. [%] o Core loss induced error = °'00145 (100). Calculate the induced core error in. Step 18.0 2.0 Output Voltage.
Inc. .Chapter 17 Winding Capacitance and Leakage Inductance Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.
Inc. 8. Introduction Parasitic Effects Leakage Flux Minimizing Leakage Inductance Winding Capacitance Winding Capacitance TurntoTurn Winding Capacitance LayertoLayer Capacitance WindingtoWinding Stray Capacitance 10. All Rights Reserved. 6. . 7. 4. 5. 3. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 2. 9.Table of Contents 1.
All Rights Reserved. windingtowinding capacitance. Leakage inductance and capacitance are actually distributed throughout the winding in the transformer.. This is because physical orientation and spacing of the windings determine leakage inductance and winding capacitance. and consequently. R Lr Figure 171. The leakage inductance is represented by. there is less leakage inductance and less capacitance with which to deal. and winding capacitance. High frequency designs require considerably more care in specifying the winding specification. These spikes will always appear on the leading edge of the voltage switching waveform. resistance is. and Rs is for the equivalent resistance for the primary and secondary windings. Equivalent Transformer Circuit. '(Leak Energy =  [wattseconds] [171] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. R. Lp for the primary and. shown in Figure 172.Introduction Operation of transformers at high frequencies presents unique design problems due to the increased importance of core loss. Inc. However. in Figure 171. wideband audio transformers. The voltage spikes. The equivalent lumped The dc winding capacitance is represented by. is the equivalent coreloss shunt resistance. Operating at a single frequency requires fewer turns. they are shown as lumped constants. The design of high frequency power converters is far less stringent than designing high frequency. Parasitic Effects The effects of leakage inductance on switching power supplies' circuits are shown in Figure 172. for simplicity. . Rp. leakage inductance. Cw is the equivalent lumped. The equivalent circuit for a twowinding transformer is shown in Figure 171. L. Ls for the secondary. are caused by the stored energy in the leakage flux and will increase with load. Cp and Cs for the primary and secondary windings.
regardless of the load. . All Rights Reserved. Inc. characterized by fast rise and fall times. leakage inductance can be observed by the leading edge slope of the trapezoidal current waveform. as shown in Figure 172. Transformers designed for power conversion are normally being driven with a square wave. shown in Figure 173. which does not link the secondary.Transformers designed for switching applications are normally designed to have minimum leakage inductance. you will increase the capacitance. thus giving rise to leakage inductance in each winding without contributing to the mutual flux. Leakage Flux Leakage inductance is actually distributed throughout the windings of a transformer because of the flux setup by the primary winding. if you decrease the capacitance. 'on Actual Figure 172. These are tradeoffs that the power conversion engineer must make to design the best transformer for the application. due to the parasitic capacitance in the transformer. These current spikes. as shown in Figure 174. This fast transition will generate high current spikes in the primary winding. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Also. they will always appear on the lead edge of the current waveform and always with the same amplitude. Switching Transistor Voltage and Current Waveforms. This parasitic capacitance will be charged and discharged every half cycle. T P Light Load Current Spike »• Heavy Load ^ 2 ton ^ Ideal 4 »• Actual ton 3 ^ ton 4 ton •4 » Ideal Actual Figure 173. Transformer Capacitance Induced Current spike. are caused by the capacitance in the transformer. in order to minimize the voltage spikes. you increase the leakage inductance. Transformer leakage inductance and capacitance have an inverse relationship: if you decrease the leakage inductance.
along with its leakage inductance. with a single primary and secondary winding. . sidebyside bobbin is shown in Figure 179. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. along with its leakage inductance. as shown in Figure 177. a substantial reduction in leakage inductance. as shown in Figure 176.However. is obtained by interweaving the primary and secondary windings. Taking the same transformer and splitting the secondary on either side of the primary will reduce the leakage inductance. Leakage flux EE Core Winding Area Core Mating Surface— ** \ ^ >* »Mutual Flux Window — —<*. sectionalized bobbin as shown in Figure 178. All Rights Reserved. along with its leakage inductance. ». Lp and Ls.^••••••••J \v 1 I I 1 . The standard transformer. Equation [172]. cm c = Insulation thickness. Inc. along with its leakage inductance Equation [ 176]. cm a b = Winding build. Transformers can also be constructed using the sidebyside. / c=:^^^^^^= Leakage Flux — ^^^^ —*"Ls r^s •^ c ^ E5 ~ — 3 > > •s* i r= Primary ^ c C Secondary ^ EE Core ^ =ii=^^^l Figure 174. by interleaving the primary and secondary. In the layerwound coil. Equation [175]. leakage inductance is shown as a lumped constant in Figure 171. Equation [174]. ££ \ ^ t a = Winding length. Leakage Flux.. cm \ ' H \ Secondary Primary ~~*" J\ Insulation Figure 175. Equation [173]. where the leakage inductance is represented by Lp. along with its leakage inductance. The leakage inductance can be reduced even more. for simplicity... is shown in Figure 175. Conventional Transformer Configuration. The modified three section.
V. Transformer Configuration with Simple Interleave. c b2 •4 c b3 ^ N /2 Secondary each Figure 176. cm \ _ Insulation s b!. [henrys] [175] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. cm b = Winding build. All Rights Reserved. . Sectionalized Transformer Configuration.. cm c = Insulation thickness. 4x(MLT)N2 V ^ " (l(T 9 ).. cm a b = Winding build. Transformer Configuration Primary and Secondary Interleave. cm c = Insulation thickness. Inc. 1 H b f I =*= N a \r ± JTa c a = Winding length. [henrys] [173] EE Core *^ Np/2 Primary each Core Mating Surface —*Mutual Flux »• Window — —n*.. n(MLT\N2 > " Lp= { X . cm c = Insulation thickness.Winding build. cm b . cm Insulation 1 \ \ Ns/2 Secondary each Figure 177. Pot Core. l_^___£ \• V Ib b b b c cc II \ \ \> i f^ a a = Winding length. cm ^— ^ Insulation x Primary Figure 178. s Core Mating Surface —*Mutual Flux *Window — —\ 1EB^^^ ^*V \ 1 1 W////M/A H~ ^"i .EE Core \Vinding Area »•  \ s \ \ s.. Sectionalized. Conventional.Primary a = Winding length. EE Core Bobbin —*• ? \ Winding Area • Core Mating Surface Mutual Flux Window »• y ' i Secondary / **• s < .
Magnetic cores can have identical rating. cm c = Insulation thickness. but one core will provide a lower leakage inductance than the other. All Rights Reserved. If layers must be used. because of the required creepage distance and the minimum insulation requirements between the primary and secondary. Inc.EE Core Bobbin Winding Area Core Mating Surface Mutual Flux Window Secondary 0 a a = Winding length. cm Insulation Np/2 Primary Figure 179. Only half the winding build is shown in Figure 1710. A simple comparison would be two cores with the same window area. with the secondary wound as close as possible. A special consideration is required symmetry in both the leakage inductance and dc resistance. the only way to reduce the leakage inductance is to divide the primary winding into sections. as shown in Figure 177. Minimizing the leakage inductance on a pushpull converter design could be a big problem. This can pose a real problem when designing around the European VDE specification. Bobbin \ / Special Long Tongue EE Core Standard EE Core Configuration Figure 1710. the primary winding should be wound on a long bobbin. . or tube. Transformer Configuration. and then to sandwich the secondary winding between them. cm b = Winding build. using a minimum of insulation. Pot Core Sectionalized. To minimize leakage inductance. Secondary Bobbin EE Cores Primary / EE Cores. Lp= 7r(MLT}Nl( Za\ «A V ' ' Zc + — v(KT 9 ). Comparing a Standard EE Core and a Special Long Tongue Core. [henrys] b I 3 j [176] Minimizing Leakage Inductance Magnetic core geometry has a big influence on leakage inductance. but one core has twice the winding length. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Modified. this is in order to get a balanced winding for the primary switching circuit to function properly.
and (4) stray capacitance. close enough to touch each other). to the secondary. (3) winding capacitance can produce electrostatic coupling to other circuits. It is much easier to measure the primary inductance and the resonant frequency of the transformer or inductor. Bifilar windings will drastically reduce leakage inductance. V2. sweep through the frequency with the power oscillator.The best way to minimize the leakage inductance. Warning: do not use bifilar wire or the capacitance will go out of sight.. (2) winding capacitance can produce large primary current spikes when operating from a square wave source. A bifilar winding is a pair of insulated wires. or. V2. in Figure 1711 functions as follows: The input voltage. rises to a peak. When the voltage. Each wire constitutes a winding. when the secondary is a fullwave. This arrangement can be applied to the primary. there are several factors that have a control over the turns: (1) the operating flux density or core loss. Cp. different voltage gradients arise almost everywhere. This arrangement will provide the minimum leakage inductance. When a transformer is operating. (i. the transformer or inductor is in resonance. This capacitance can be separated into four categories: (1) capacitance between turns. (3) capacitance between windings. These voltage gradients are caused by a large variety of capacitance throughout the transformer. and to have a balanced dc resistance in a pushpull or centertapped winding. and starts to decay at this peak voltage. as shown in Figure 171. The net effect of the capacitance is normally seen by the lumped capacitance. When designing high frequency converters. wound simultaneously and contiguously. their proximity reduces leakage inductance by several orders of magnitude. Inc. it can be applied to the primary and secondary together. . This condition also exists on the secondary. Transformer winding capacitance is detrimental in three ways: (1) winding capacitance can drive the transformer into premature resonance. Keeping turns to a minimum will keep the capacitance to a minimum. as shown in Figure 1711. is to wind bifilar. (2) capacitance between layers. on the primary. [farads] [177] ' Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The lumped capacitance is very difficult to calculate by itself. calculate the capacitance using Equation [177]. All Rights Reserved. (3) the primary inductance. At this point the phase angle is also 0 degrees at resonance when looking at both the curves of VI and V2. (2) the operating voltage levels in the primary and secondary. due to the turns and how they are placed throughout the transformer. centertapped circuit. Then. Winding Capacitance Operating at high frequency presents unique problems in the design of transformers to minimize the effect of winding capacitance. The test circuit. Ca = ' —~ = — — — . VI.e. more than ordinary interleaving. is held constant while monitoring the voltage.
This is because they cause overshoot and oscillate. #2. Cp. All Rights Reserved. Lp. depending on the material and its dielectric constant. For transformers designed to operate with a square wave. as shown in Figure 1712. VI Vert. that is controlled by. as shown Figure 1712B. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. f. V2 Dual Channel Oscilloscope UUT Vert #2 Input Voltage Figure 1711. seen in Figure 1712A. and the lumped capacitance. or ring. Circuit for Measuring either a Transformer or Inductor Self Resonates. This resonant frequency could change and change drastically after potting. such as dctodc converter. Inc. should be kept to a minimum.Power Audio Oscillator Vert. Lp and Cp. (1712A) (1712B) Figure 1712. #1. leakage inductance. Primary Voltage with Leading Edge Ringing. The overshoot oscillation. has a resonant frequency.
C o t s~ ~^ t f^ ~> N p Cp C Primary f s J ^ cs s Secondary s~ > r» . The foldback winding technique will also reduce the voltage gradient between the end of the windings.Winding Capacitance TurntoTurn The turntoturn capacitance. Cp. Inc. then change the magnet wire insulation to one with a lower dielectric constant. (2) The foldback winding technique. should not be a problem if you are operating at high frequency. it will reduce the winding capacitance. (3) Increasing the amount of insulation between windings will decrease the amount of capacitance. Capacitance TurntoTurn. it will increase the windingtowinding capacitance. shown in Figure 1714. even though it takes an extra step before starting the next layer. as shown in Figure 177. . low voltage power converters. lumped capacitance. Cb. Foldback Winding U Type Winding ^ r> Figure 1714. <w> ' If the turntoturn capacitance is important. Winding Capacitance LayertoLayer The capacitance between layers on the primary or secondary is the best contributor to the overall. shown in Figure 1713. See Chapter 4. There is one exception to this rule. All Rights Reserved. then the leakage inductance will go up. There are three ways to minimize the layer capacitance: (1) Divide the primary and secondary windings into sections. and then sandwich the other winding between them. this will increase the leakage inductance. if the windings are sandwiched or interleaved. but. But remember. due to the low number of turns. and that is. If the capacitance is reduced. is preferred to the normal U type winding. Figure 1713. Comparing the Foldback to the U Type Winding. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
but again. The capacitance. It is difficult to control the winding capacitance on a toroidal core because of its odd configuration. shown in Figure 1718. then wind 10 turns forward and keep repeating this procedure until the winding is complete. Capacitance Windingtowinding Balanced windings are very important in keeping down noise and common mode signals that could lead to incircuit noise and instability problems later on. but there are ways to control the windings and capacitance. can be reduced. just as much if care is not taken in the design at the beginning. Inc. Tape Barrier for Winding Toroidal Core. by increasing the amount of insulation between windings. from windingtowinding. Continuous winding Back wind Core Figure 1716. Progress Winding Side View. Another way to help reduce the capacitance effect on toroids is to use the progressive winding technique. . as shown in Figure 1715. offers a good way to control this capacitance. The use of tape barriers to mark a zone for windings. this will increase the leakage inductance.Transformers and inductors wound on toroidal cores can have capacitance problems. The capacitance effect Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The progressive winding technique example is shown in Figure 1716 and 1717: Wind 5 turns forward and wind 4 turns back. Progress Winding Top View.Toroidal Core Figure 1715. All Rights Reserved. This will decrease the amount of capacitance. Tape Barrier Winding area . Expanded View Back Wind Figure 1717.
This can be done. without increasing the leakage inductance noticeably. . can generate asymmetry currents and could lead to high common mode noise. the Faraday Shield can consist of three independent insulated shields or just one. It all depends on the required noise rejection. as shown in Figure 1719. In some designs. The windingtowinding capacitance can be calculated. Transformer with a Primary and Secondary Shield. All Rights Reserved. C = . Cs. and the outer winding next to the surrounding circuitry.between windings can be reduced. Inc. using Equations [178] and [179]. between primary and secondary windings. A Faraday Shield is an electrostatic shield. Cc. Primary Secondary Figure 1718. or using a copper shield over the entire winding. by adding a Faraday Shield or screen. WindingtoWinding. Capacitance. Stray Capacitance Stray capacitance is very important to minimize because it too. A means for measuring leakage current is shown in Figure 1721. The Faraday Shield is normally added along with the insulation between primary and secondary. [farads] [179] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 1720. Primary Secondary Shield #1 Shield #2 Figure 1719. Stray capacitance can be minimized by using a balanced winding. usually made of copper foil. Cw. Stray capacitance is similar to windingtowinding capacitance except that the capacitance is between the winding next to the core.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. Transformer Winding with Stray Capacitance. . Power Audio Oscillator Frequency 1111IIIIIIII11111111 Voltage Digital Voltmeter Figure 1721. Test Circuit for Measuring Primary and Secondary.Core Surrounding Circuitry Electrostatic Figure 1720. ac Leakage Current. All Rights Reserved.
" 2nd ed. Landee. 1958. W. Grossner. The Technique of Transformer Design." McGrawHill. Richardson." McGrawHill. p. 4.... 2. January 1961. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. "Reference Data for Radio Engineers..References 1. New York. Lee." McGrawHill. . New York.. "Transformer for Electronic Circuits. 5867. "Electronic Designer's Handbook.. N. pp.. New York. D.. 1957. I. 3. 1986. A. R. Davis. Flanagan. New York. International Telephone and Telegraph Co. 1712. and Albecht." 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons. All Rights Reserved. New York... "Electronic Transformer and Circuits. ElectroTechnology. R. "Handbook of Transformer Application. Inc. 1967.
Inc. All Rights Reserved. V. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Chapter 18 Quiet Converter Design The author would like to thank Dr. Senior Engineer. for his help with the Quiet Converter design equations. Power and Sensor Electronics Group. . Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Vorperian.
Inc. The Currentfed Converter 5.Table of Contents 1. Regulating and Filtering 4. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Kg. Design Review 15. Transformer Design. Regulating and Filtering 7. Quiet Converter Design Equations 13. 12. Ku 10. Quiet Converter Waveforms Technology on the Move 9. Approach 14. Calculating the Apparent Power. 8. Temperature Stability 11. Introduction 2. Using the Core Geometry. All Rights Reserved. The Quiet Converter 6. The Voltagefed Converter 3. P. . Window Utilization Factor.
even further. the powder source. CCD Camera. The transistor saturation will be ignored. Articulated Fold. Raman. In a voltagefed converter. (12). and has been used as a static inverter. The dc output voltage is obtained after rectification and filtering of the sinusoidal secondary voltage. converter topology. the full source voltage is applied to the other half of the transformer. Mirror Actuators. as shown in Figure 182. MISR (Earth Orbiting System). when Q2 is switched on. to power very sensitive instruments. The Quiet Converter produces a sinusoidal voltage across a parallel resonant tank. came about. primary. Tl. (Hubbell Space Telescope). Programs at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) that have successfully used the low noise environment of the Quiet Converter are. (23). Comparing PWM and Amplitude Control. All Rights Reserved. Vjn is connected directly to the transformer through a transistor. The low noise can easily be reduced. the full source voltage is applied to the transformer. Square wave with PWM control Sine wave with amplitude control Figure 181. Conversely. Tl. Ql. When the transistor. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. WF/PCII. and Mars 05 ONC. The Voltagefed Converter The voltagefed converter circuit is the most widelyused. is shown in Figure 181. by the addition of a Faraday Shield and commonmode inductors. Ql.Introduction A few designers have known about the Resonant Converter described here for many years. The inherent low noise from this converter is how the nickname. Division 38. A comparison of the standard type of PWM control with the Quiet Converter and its amplitude modulation (AM). The Quiet Converter was developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). primary. Inc. is switched on. This type of Resonant Converter has been built mainly in the range of 200 watts to 2 kilowatts. However. Quiet Converter. it has remained relatively obscure in the general literature. The regulation is achieved by controlling the dutycycle of the switching transistors.
Regulating and Filtering The most effective method of regulation for a voltagefed converter is pulse width modulation (PWM). causing an alternating voltage to be generated across the primary winding of transformer. A 0 Low Line Vin B 0 t High Line Figure 183. All Rights Reserved. . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Tl. The primary source voltage. In Figure 182. V0. as shown in Figure 183. the voltage across the transformer. and then delivered to the secondary to be rectified and filtered before going to the load. Tl. averaging circuit to provide the proper output voltage. Ql and Q2. Typical. Tl. Primary Voltage of a PWM Controlled Converter. by reducing the on time. Inc.LI Figure 182. The pulse width voltage is applied to the output filter. L1C2. is always a square wave. the switching drive circuit alternately saturates and cuts off the semiconductors' switches. A constant output voltage can be obtained for a changing input voltage. and therefore. Voltagefed Power Converter. Vin is directly impressed onto the primary of the transformer. Ton of Q1 and Q2.
to MILC83421. LI. The reason for using a powder core is because it has a builtin gap required for the tank circuit and these cores are available with temperature stabilized permeability. CR1 M PI _^ T °~ 4 5 6 \ C2 + ^ S^ v0 n CR2 \ Figure 184. core material has been changed to molypermalloy powder core.The Currentfed Converter The main difference between a voltagefed converter and a currentfed converter is the series inductor. 1. (MPP). and it becomes a whole new converter. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The capacitors that were used in the flight power supplies. A commutating winding has been added to the series inductor. A capacitor. . The Quiet Converter Simple additions to the circuit. is commonly called a feedchoke or series inductor. C3. It has an inductance large enough in value to maintain a continuous current through the circuit under all conditions of line and load. was added for the required parallel tuned tank. Currentfed Parallel Resonant Converter. were plastic film. in Figure 184. 2. The new converter is shown in Figure 185. LI. 3. C3.L1 2 CR2 4 L2 >j + V 5 6 kj PI CR3 C2 S v o 1 n Figure 185. shown in Figure 183. The changes are: 1. Typical Currentfed Power Converter Circuit. should be of high quality with a low ESR and stable. LI. change the performance dramatically. but the design must be stable over temperature. The inductor. The tuning capacitor. type CRH. The transformer. Tl. The use of a gap ferrite would perform just as well. All Rights Reserved. Inc.
requires a minimum of dead time. Tl. LI. through a diode CR1.With properly designed components. LI. there must be a means to commutate the current in the series inductor. is interrupted. All Rights Reserved. 1. Tl. Quiet Converter Waveforms The currentfed. The sine wave is accomplished by using a tuned parallel resonant tank circuit. (dwell).L1 2 O Figure 186. In order to incorporate pulse width modulation (PWM). the output voltage of transformer. Now. In Figure 187 through Figure 1815. sine wave converter waveforms will be referenced from Figure 186. LI. The series inductor. LI. The series inductor. will always be a sine wave. as shown in Figure 184. LI. Quiet Converter Schematic with Reference Points. there would always be continuous current flowing in LI. thus preventing the destruction of the switching transistors Ql and Q2. Adding a winding to the series inductor. (34). or a drive circuit that has inherent dead time that neither transistor is conducting. If there is any disruption of current in the series inductor. This is done when connected with proper phasing. When the current flowing in winding. the added winding of the series inductor. the current will now be commutated to the added winding. (T1C3). along with a small amount of overlap. shown in Figure 185. back to the dc source to complete the path. requires continuous conduction of both Ql and Q2. commutates the current back into the dc source. isolates the input dc source from the sine wave voltage across the primary of the transformer. refer back to (A)(J) points in Figure 186. for the circuit to function properly. Ql or Q2. is a simple way to commutate the current. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to the natural running frequency of the converter. when either transistors. Inc. . it would destroy the switching transistors. no matter how small. Regulating and Filtering The currentfed resonant converter. are interrupted. The waveforms presented here are copies drawn from an actual photo taken with an oscilloscope camera. (12). when connected. LI. In this way. as shown in Figure 185. then. Ql and or Q2.
Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. with minimum dead time.ige Af (n. Waveform is taken between points A and G. The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency.\ Dr ain t 3 Ground Volt. The drain voltage waveform of Ql is shown in Figure 187. Voltage Waveform of Ql and Q2. Drain to Ground. Drain to Ground Voltage Horizontal . All Rights Reserved. Waveform is taken between points A and G. Voltage Waveform of Ql and Q2. The drain voltage waveform of Ql is shown in Figure 188. Waveform is taken between points A and G.5is ec/crn Figure 189. * 1 eadiiig Power Factc A/ / Sfx K Ho rizorital ='. The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency. Inc. The converter is improperly tuned to the natural frequency. Voltage Waveform of Ql and Q2. The resonant tank capacitor is too small in value.5usec/cm Figure 188. . hi \l / NIN N The drain voltage waveform of Ql is shown in Figure 189. Drain to Ground. iX" "*" NN X" "N A/ f Horizontal = 5isec/cm ^ Figure 187. Drain to Ground.
Waveform is taken between points A and G. is shown in Figure 1810. The secondary voltage waveform of transformer. ± Voltage Across Secondary L i yi \f ^^ \ . . Tl. Waveform is taken between points A and B. All Rights Reserved. / ^ A ' "\ v~^ \ \ i /' \ \ V ^ H<>iizo ital ~. Waveform is taken between points D and E. The drain voltage waveform of. is shown in Figure 1812. Tl. J Hr)rizoiital == 5[is ec/cr [ \ Figure 1812.T a gging Power ] 7acto I i <v N \[\ A 'V N A H Drizontal == 5^ sec/c m I \hi Figure 1810. across transformer. Inc. The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The primary voltage waveform is shown in Figure 1811. \ ± / : — Voltaj*e Across Primary or Tank Circuit — ^ / N /. The resonant tank capacitor is too large in value. The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency. / ^ An /'" \ \ \ \ ^. Ql. Voltage Waveform Across Transformer Primary.JSn 56C/C1 M \ \ "^ Figure 1811. Drain to Ground. The converter is improperly tuned to the natural frequency. Voltage Waveform Across Transformer Secondary. Voltage Waveform of Ql and Q2.
Horizontal == 5usec/cm Figure 1814. at the cathodes of. All Rights Reserved. The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency. is shown in Figure 1813.™ ~. . Secondary Current Waveform. \. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. \/ V x*"x . The converter is properly tuned to the natural frequency. The current is through the series inductor LI winding (34). Horizontal = 5usec/cm Vs V Figure 1813. Commutating diode current waveform is shown in Figure 1815. rectified voltage waveform.V 1 / ^ I. The secondary current waveform is shown in Figure 1814. CR2 and CR3. Waveform is taken at point C. Current Through the Commutating Diode. 4 1 Secondary Current ' ~ ™ ' — '. The current waveform is taken at point F.Jt Rec tifie dOu tpuf v^olta ge . The secondary. j 1 i Current Through the Commutating Diode n r n n Horizontal = 5usec/cm Figure 1815. CR1.f . V. Secondary Rectified Voltage Waveform at CR2 and CR3. Waveform is taken at point H. Inc.
These factors multiplied together will give a normalized window utilization factor of Ku = 0. Wire insulation. all with the same core geometry. it will be a little larger core. Transformer size is. Ku. then. There is a practical point where the wire size can no longer be reduced. S4. Reliability is affected when the wire size becomes very small. smaller in size. Effective window area. instruments become more sophisticated. Window Utilization Factor. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. mainly determined by the loads. After the preliminary design. The smallest wire size that seems to be tolerable. 5. Ku. (5 3 )(S 4 ) = 0. the engineer will select the proper core size for the power transformer. The core geometry. All Rights Reserved.Technology on the Move As technology moves ahead. Kg will select the molypermalloy powder core size. do to the added space required by the Faraday Shield. 4. The window utilization factor. After the molypermalloy powder core size has been selected. the engineer will now select a core with a permeability bestsuited for the application. S. . Winding insulation. 3. reduced even further by adding a primary and a secondary Faraday Shield. compared to the simple voltagefed. When the core size is selected for the transformer. the larger wire should be used. See Chapter 4. 2. It becomes a handling and termination problem. Wire lay fill factor.. The sole reason to use the Quiet Converter is because of its inherent low noise. and require less power.4. and it does not impact the size a great deal. even though the current is very small. If a larger wire size can be tolerated. Less power normally relates to lower current. is the amount of copper that appears in the window area. the transformer must be designed to accommodate the shield. The noise of the Quiet Converter can be. Kg. Inc. Workmanship. The molypermalloy powder cores come with a range of permeability from 14 to 550. square wave converter. depending on the application. (EMI). the window utilization factor. Lower current requires smaller wire to carry the current. is influenced by five main factors: 1. When a Faraday Shield is added between the primary and secondary. The window utilization. Ku When designing a transformer or inductor. S2. S3.4 [181] The design of the currentfed sine wave converter is much more detailed and complex. Ku has to be adjusted during the design to accommodate the Faraday Shield. ranges from #35 to #39 AWG and this would be from a specialty house.
Calculating the Apparent Power. [watts] *7 P. the secondaries handle. Molypermalloy powder cores are offered with stabilized permeability. Since the power transformer has to be designed to accommodate the primary power. 1) 00 0. Degrees C 80 100 120 Figure 1816. Typical. The LC tank circuit must be stable and not drift with temperature.=P»+PL> [watts] Pin=. Pj n . W. P0.Temperature Stability For the Quiet Converter to function properly over a wide temperature range.2 •u V/ .828 times the input power. its effective rms value changes.Material Stabilization +/. then by definition. Pin and the secondary. and D from Magnetics. with code letters M.=~ + Pi. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The W material temperature stability is shown in Figure 1816. the components must be stable over that temperature range. 0. [watts] ri 77 = efficiency [182] The designer must be concerned with the apparent powerhandling capability. Inc. The apparent power. Inc. to the load. depending upon the type of circuit in which the transformer is used. P^. P0. Pt The apparent power. Stabilized Molypermalloy Material.0. of the transformer core and winding. . The primary winding handles. may vary by a factor ranging from 2 to 2. Pt is the power associated with the geometry of the transformer. The components that control the oscillator frequency must be stable.2 0. P. The designer must be able to make allowances for the rms power in each winding. P. such as a centertapped secondary or pushpull primary. If the current in the transformer becomes interrupted.25% 04 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 Temperature. Transformer size is thus determined not only by the load demand. because of the different copper losses incurred owing to current waveforms. but also by application. All Rights Reserved. P.
has to be multiplied by the factor. P0t(min> Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker... Psa. then. U = 1. . there is more than one output. PS(min> is: [watts] The secondary apparent power. whether it is primary or secondary... is: V«))> The minimum secondary true power. Summing the output power of a multipleoutput transformer would be: [183] Quiet Converter Design Equations The transformer secondary voltage. Inc. sum the total secondary maximum load power. . is: U = 1 ..41. Pt. then. U.... [watts] [188] If... is: V0 = Output voltage Vd = Diode Drop The maximum secondary true power. Vs. Pot(max)^(max) = ^0. [Wa«s] [189] If. if not.. then the power in that winding. to correct for the rms current in that winding. (m ax) + ^02 (max) + . sum the total secondary minimum load power.. then. When the winding has a center tap and produces a discontinuous current.Because of the different winding configurations. single winding If.. center tapped winding U = 1. All Rights Reserved. sum the total secondary maximum apparent load power. Psal.. then. then. U = 1. of the transformer will have to be summed to reflect these differences.... PS(max). ^1=^01+^02 +.4 1 .0. the apparent power. there is more than one output.. If the winding has a center tap. there is more than one output.
will have a minimum of dead time. The conversion ratio. is: = —. Transistor Drive Waveforms. Dead Time or Dwell Q2 l on Figure 1817. R<max). T. Dead time or dwell is shown in Figure 1817. [seconds] [1813] The maximum transistor on time. is: R<max) = Resistance Value r) = Efficiency R. LI. T Qi •t . Ka. All Rights Reserved. Showing Dead Time or Dwell. is: Transistor drive circuits such as a pulse width modulator (PWM). . Inc. is: = Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [ohms] [1811] > [henrys] The total period. ton(max).(max) The required series inductor inductance. is: f = fundamental frequency .The maximum reflected secondary load resistance.
Vc(pk). Vp(rrns) \ b.The peak voltage. p(rrns) _ ii . single winding. Kb = 1. . « As a general rule: [1820] The resonant capacitance. noir\i RSR= !—!. is: Use a standard capacitor. center tapped winding. = U\ " '" 2 b '. of capacitor. is: Kb = 2. Cx. [ohms] [1819] r l sp Note: The capacitance reactance affects the total percentage of harmonic distortion when: coRSRC = \. is: Kb = 2. « [12%]. Vp(mis). Cx. a>RSRC = 2. Ips. is: Kb = 2. Kb = 1.. is: pon max) The secondary reflected loads to the primary. Inc. on the resonant capacitor. ' [ohms] [18 22] " Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (1 < Qj < 3) [1821] The reactance. Xcx. is: QT. Kb = I. J . as shown in Figure 185. V The primary rms voltage. is a variable that provides the engineer a little latitude with the capacitance value.. center tapped winding. RSR. [volts] [1816] [1817] The primary maximum reflected secondary current. single winding. center tapped winding. All Rights Reserved. C3. single winding.
is: P.™).000029 [1827] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Kg. is: The total transformer apparent power. Pt. .The capacitor rms current. [watts] p. [cm5] 0. Lx. I CX (rms)> is. is: Kf is the waveform factor = 4. 1^. Inc. All Rights Reserved. is: [amps) The primary tank inductance.=\ The core geometry. .44 Bac is the operating flux density and its value is an engineering judgment based on the frequency and core material. . =(Primary VA) + (Secondary VA) + (Capacitor VA). The total primary current.
........ Window utilization.................................... Output current #2........................................... Efficiency..........2) = 1............ Output current #2..... Using the Core Geometry..... = 0...... Vs02 .05 amps 8....................... Calculate the total secondary voltage........ = 1.... with the following specification: 1.......625usec 10..................1 amps 5......0(0....... Vs for each output............ Tr ...........4 16. = 4...................... For a typical design example.. )................................ Inc..... ................................................... U = 1 . = 15°C 17.......... K S 0 2 =(12) + (1.... = 95% 11.... Bac ... Vd ....... f ...............................................................2.................................... td ............ = 5... Notes: Using a center tapped winding..... Step 2.... Regulation............. I s oi(min) ......................................................... Approach The following information is the Design specification for a 2........ All Rights Reserved.. = 0.............. = 0............ Operating flux density....................... Output current #1........... assume a pushpull.............. U = 1..........................= 02 amps 4..............................1 amps 7............. Input voltage..............1) = 1................................ Ku .. core geometry approach..................................... = MPP 15..............................0 % 12......... V(rnin) ...................... full wave bridge circuit.......... a .....0.........0 volts 6......44 18.................................. r) .......Transformer Design..................................................... = 13......................5 volt 13.......... Switching dead time..... Core Material .. = 0....... Output voltage #1...... [watts] [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker..... = 0. Kf ................ ...............05 tesla 14........ Calculate the maximum secondary true power..........................................................0(0....................... VS(M ....... = 32 kHz 9. = 0.0) = 6.....0) = 13.........0 Step 1 .......................0) + (1...................... = 22 volts 2................................. using the Kg..... operating at 32kHz.................................. = 0........................................................................2 watt pushpull transformer................................ Iso2(max) ...............0 volts 3............ Iso2(min) . Waveform coefficient....................41 Using a single winding. = 12...................... Output voltage #2. [volts] [volts] [volts] K J 0 1 =(5............................................................ Output current #1.. Kg...........................................0.................... Diode voltage drop................. I s0 i( m ax) ................... Temperature rise goal....... P S(max) = 6. Frequency.......3..............
3).5.0) = 1. Pot(min) ^(n™)=l25. Calculate the secondary total maximum load power. Step 4.2)(1.1)(1. P s f l 2 =(l. Calculate the minimum secondary true power. [watts] Psa02 = 13. [watts] Step 7.0) = 1.95) 125 ' Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. R(max> = Resistance Value r) = Efficiency of (min) (22) 2 (0.1) = 0. [watts] [watts] ^02( m i n ) = 130(0.6. Calculate the secondary total minimum load power. [watts] Step 5.0(0. [watts] Step 8.3. P M01 =6.2) + (l.2 ) + (l3). Calculate the secondary total maximum apparent load power.05) = 0. [watts] [watts] Step 6. Calculate the secondary apparent power.0(0. All Rights Reserved. Psay. Pot(max)^rf(max) = ^oOl(max) + Po02(mm)' [watts] ^ ( ™ x ) = ( l . [watts] fymax) = 25. Ps(inin).65.n>= 60(0. Psa. P sflS =2. Inc.Step 3. ( m .2. ^o. . R(max). Calculate the secondary maximum reflected load resistance.
Step 10. as shown in Figure 185. T = —.14)(32000)) [henrys] Ll = 0. Calculate the conversion ratio. [seconds] T= .000 T = 31. 5 > [usec] ^ (max) =15. Vc(pk). Kb = 1. Kh\ l °2'" b). Kb = 2.25)) ' v (32.25)54^^ ' v OT Tt 32. K=TSinl K T ) (4(15)~(32. Inc. Calculate the total period.85. Dead time is shown in Figure 1817. [volts] Vc(pk)= = (3. n(K V. Ton(max).Step 9. . [volts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. T. =0. Calculate the maximum transistor on time. [seconds] [microseconds] 32.000610. Step 12. Calculate the inductance of the series inductor. L1= V^ [henrys] 3co Ll = i / w vT > [henrys] 3(2(3.1415)(0. C3. single winding. on the resonant capacitor. All Rights Reserved. Step 11. Calculate the peak voltage. LI.25 AT. center tapped winding. Ka..866)(22)(2) ^)= 59.25.866 Step 13.
Kb = 2. Kb = 2.. [farads] " x ~ (6.85) \ . Kb = 1..124. single winding. [ohms] [ohms] (0.. Inc. 2 C = .866)(21. Calculate the secondary reflected loads to the primary. RSR. center tapped winding. All Rights Reserved. p o/(max) .707(59.2. Ip /„ = „ . ^()=—JT^' tvolts] Vp(rms)= 0. Step 15. coRSRC = 2.28)(32000)(592)' [farads] [microfarads] Cx =1. [amps] r . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. [ohms] Note: The capacitance reactance effects the total percentage of harmonic distortion when: coRSRC = l. 0. . Calculate the primary rms voltage.68(lO' 8 ). [amps] Step 16. Kb = 1.015.Step 14.2)(2) 2 /?„=— ^z. *«= P 7' V sp ' . Vp(mlS). [volts] [volts] yp(rms)=2l.124 ^ = 592.0168 use a 0. ~ [12%]. Cx = 0. single winding. center tapped winding. [farads] ^ . Cx. / „ = 0. « As a general rule: C = Step 17. Calculate the resonant capacitance. Calculate the primary maximum reflected secondary current.
.^ > / cx(rms). Cx. Step 2 1 . Inc. Calculate the capacitor current. [amps] Step 20. Calculate the reactance.015 (lO^=0. of capacitor.00165. [henrys] (6. [ohms] a ~i.015(if. [watts] P. [watts] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Lx.' L F J . Xcx.85) « ( n » ) . .28)(32. Use a standard capacitor. [henrys] ' L = —.28) (32000) (0. Let.S).015(lO6)) Xcx = 332. Itp(m. Calculate the total transformer apparent power.— 2 . [watts] (Pl( . = ^^ + (P^) + KbV Ici . Calculate the total primary current.(U\\ : . Calculate primary tank inductance. Cx.707)(59.r.^ » (6. All Rights Reserved. I CX (nns) _(0. P. equal 0. Pt.000)(0. .6.Step 18. [henrys] Step 22. =0.=ll. Pt = (Primary VA) + (Secondary VA) + (Capacitor VA). [ohms] Step 19.127.
ja Millihenrys per 1000 turns. ICX(rms) Primary Inductance. MPL Core weight. comparable in core geometry. Cx Tank Capacitance Peak Voltage.2 volts 0.124 amps 21. Ap Core geometry. [cm5] [0.000610 henrys 0. Ka Tank Capacitance. . Vp(m)s) Primary Total rms Current. Lx Series Inductor.8 cm = 0.177 amps 2. From Chapter 3.866 0. Ips(mis) Primary rms Voltage. All Rights Reserved.7 cm2 = 60 = 32 0. Inc.Calculate the core geometry. Pt Transformer Core Geometry. Kg.226 cm2 = 1.05) (l)J ^=0.250 cm4 = 0.1 gm = 2.5 watts 11.85 volts 0. select a MPP powder core. Vcx Tank Capacitance rms Current. [cm5] Design Review Conversion factor.0107 cm2 Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. LI Primary Reflected Current.000) (0. Wtfe Copper weight.00165 henrys 0. MLT Iron area. At Permeability. Kg Step 24. Kg.4 gm =11.008 cm5 = 22.000029(4.11 cm2 = 0.6 watts 0. Ac Window area. 0. Bac is the operating flux density and its value is an engineering judgment based on the frequency and core material. Itp(rms) Secondary Total Load Power. Core part number Manufacturer Magnetic path length. Wa Area product.015 uf 59.44) (32. Wtcu Mean length turn.00793.09 cm = 9.000029 (Kf) 2 . AL 55848W4 Magnetics = 5. Kg Surface area. P0t(max) Transformer Total Apparent Power.127 amps 0.Step 23.
Pfe = f milliwatts  TT . All Rights Reserved.4)(lO' 3 ). K.2)' KN/V = 5.44)(1 13)(32000)(0. Bac.fe 10.0587)(224) . „ 1..0290. [watts] ^ grams ) P /e =(3. [turns/volt] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . Pfc. . [watts/kilogram] WK = 0.788(lO"3)(32000)° 41) (0.09. [watts/kilogram] WK = 3. [watts/kilogram] or 3.09.Step 25.33. rounddown [turns] f. /. Inc.788(lO'3 )(/)° 41) (Bac ) (224) . Ntp. Calculate the total number of primary turns. [each side center tap] Step 26. [milliwatts/gram] Step 28. WK = 0. K N/ N/V[watts] N KNIV=—?.0587. Calculate the core loss. \ W.] Np =113. using the MPP 60 perm loss equation in Chapter 2. Step 29. [tesla] ' (21. WK.09)(9. [tesla] Step 27. Calculate the operating flux density.2)(10 4 ) "c " (4. [watts] Pfe = 0. /. [turns/volt] [turns/volt] "" ' (21. 1 [turns] L J ^(1000) V 32 N.NpfAc . B*. Calculate the watts per kilogram. Calculate the volts per turn.226) ' Bac = 0. =1000 \^L IP \\ . = 226.
[cm2] #26.0)(1. [cm2] 139 y .. J = '. = KNIV VM K = (5. using a window utilization.6)10" J = —.27x\Q\ A m. use #26 = 1. use #29 = 0. Calculate the secondary required wire area... ioo .28*1 (T3.01) = 32. [turns] .25)(0. [cm2] #26.33)(6. use #26 = 1. A oi = 01 M = 139 = 1. J. Ku = 0. Awp = 1. in Chapter 4.28*1 0~3.^ = 1345 cm A. A wp. u " [cm2] [cm2] Step 35. [amps per cm2 ] ApBmfKfKu' (11. [cm2] Step 33.=~.4.. Awsm = 1.7 1 9*1 (T3. . a is regulation in percent. Inc. in Chapter 4.o2 = 0. [amps per cm 2 ] Step 32. Calculate the primary required wire area. ———.. [cm 1 .27*1 (T3. Calculate the secondary number of turns Ns.44*103.^ = cm Step 34.Ol) = 70. See Chapter 6.0)(l. Record u. Aws. Aup = —j—.  3 .fi/cm.647*10"3. [turns] Step 31. Calculate the current density.44xlO"3.Step 30.44)(0.0587)(32000)(4. Record uQ/cm.o.177) 139 Awr= \. [cm2] #29. [amps per cm" ] (0. Then select the wire from the Wire Table. Then select the wire from the Wire Table. All Rights Reserved.^ = 1345 cm Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.4) 7 = 139. L J . tp(rms) i (0.
A „ s _ V N 002 . Kup.00128) ^=0. winding resistance. Ku=Kllp+Kuts Ku =0. Kuts. (N0.339 Step 39. Calculate the secondary.80(32)(l345)(lO" 6 ) = 0. Calculate the primary. Rp.11 ( .0777 Step 37.80(113)(1345)(10. (226)(0. Rp = 0. Rs.0369 " Wa 1. [watts] Step 4 1 .261 + 0.0777 K.A0. Ri02 =2.Step 36. All Rights Reserved. Calculate the primary. Calculate the primary window utilization. .00128) A: s01 = v "' "m> = ±—^ 1 = 0. = 0. Pp.177) 2 (0. ^=0.000647) = 0. [ohms] [ohms] cm x Rr =2.121.6 ) = 0.186. copper loss. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Step 40. Inc. Calculate the total window utilization. .426.426).) (32)(0. winding resistance. (lO6). Vcmjv ' [ohms] [ohms] [ohms] RsOI =2.261 Step 38. [ohms] p> [watts] [watts] Pp =(0.11 Klltt=KusOI+Klls02= 0. Ku.O.. lO6. Jo)2 7 _ v(70)(0.0133.80(70)(2664)(lO. Calculate the total secondary window utilization.6 ).0408 A i " wa 1.
Pts. Qt.0067) + (0.2)2 (0.] 4 (0. [watts per cm2 ] Step 46. [°C] Step 47.l) 2 (0.00186.28)(32000)(o. Pz=P. [watts] Psm = (o. \\i.0290). Pz. Tr.~.+Pa+Pfi. Calculate the. Inc. .s=Psm+P^ [watts] Pts =0. [watts] Pa = 0. [watts per cm" ] (22.00484 + 0.7) y = 0. [watts] Step 45.049..6 ))(592) e. [watts] Pz =(0.79 For more information see Equation [1820]. P.049) w = —.= Q. copper loss. Psm = (0. r[watts per cm2.0067.002 1 6. copper loss.=i.0133) + (0. Step 43. of the tank. core and copper. p yr =—=. Calculate the total secondary. All Rights Reserved. Calculate the temperature rise. Calculate the watts per unit area. = (6. Tr =450(0. Tr= 2.00484.121) = 0. Ps.015(lO. [watts] Pz = 0. Calculate the total loss. 83.00186.186) = 0. Calculate the secondary. [watts] [watts] Step 44.Step 42.00216) ( ° 826) .. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Q.
Inc." IEEE transaction. V. "Analysis of a PWMResonant DCtoDC Converter. Lendena. "Single Phase Inverter for a Three Phase Power Generation and Distribution System." 20th Annual Proceedings Power Sources Conference. McLyman. 3." ElectroOpticalSystem. from Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2. January 1976. and C. Vorperian. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Contract #954272. "CurrentFed Inverter.References 1. All Rights Reserved. May 24 1966. S. . S. Lendena.
All Rights Reserved. Inc. .Chapter 19 Rotary Transformer Design Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Square Wave Technology Currentfed Sine Wave Converter Approach 4. Rotary Transformer Design Constraints 7.Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Basic Rotary Transformer 3. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. . Rotary Transformer Leakage Inductance 6. Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5.
. Delivery of signals and power has mainly been done by slip rings. Undue stress is placed on the power electronics and the interface becomes a source of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) that impacts the overall system's operating integrity. such as a spin. noise. Comparing a Slip Ring Assembly and a Rotary Transformer. This conductive path will generate noise and upset the original designed commonmode noise rejection. There are problems in using slip rings for long life and high reliability: contact wear. All Rights Reserved. and contamination. The most common of the rotary transformers are the axial rotary Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Slip Rings Conductive /TVTVTVTA Rings Power Out Rotor Rotary Transformer Power Out Stator Rotor ThroughBore Brushes Power In ThroughBore Power In Figure 191. with respect to each other with negligible changes in the electrical characteristics. Most things that use slip rings or brushes can be replaced with a rotary transformer. The use of a rotary transformer to transfer power on the Galileo (S/C) was contemplated. The rotary transformers on the Galileo (S/C) lasted the life of the spacecraft. Existing approaches to rotary power transfer use square wave converter technology. Contact wear will lead to a conductive path to ground. antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain spacecraft (S/C) configurations. Science instruments. coupled with the fast rate of change in the square wave voltage. A simple slip ring assembly and a rotary transformer are shown in Figure 191. stabilized (S/C). but it was thought the impact on the (S/C) delivery was too great. However.Introduction There are many requirements to transfer signals and power across rotary interfaces. High data rates and poor slip ring life forced the Galileo (S/C) to replace the signal interface with rotary transformers. Basic Rotary Transformer The rotary transformer is essentially the same as a conventional transformer. there are problems caused by the inherent gap in a rotary transformer. from 1989 to 2003 without a glitch. except that the geometry is arranged so that the primary and secondary can be rotated. Inc.
There are no wearing contacts. type Rotary Transformer. Inc. Square Wave Technology The ideal converter transformer would have a typical square BH loop. noise. Pictorial of an Axial. shown in Figure 193. Minimizing the leakage inductance will Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 194. type Rotary Transformer. The voltage spikes that are normally seen on the primary of a square wave converter transformer are caused by the leakage inductance. The power transfer is accomplished. Primary Winding Power In Flux Path Gap Bearing Rotary Platform Stator Power Out Secondary Winding Figure 193. A converter transformer is normally designed to have a minimum of leakage inductance. To design a converter transformer to have a minimum of leakage inductance. rotary transformer. Flux Path Rotary Platform V Figure 192. and the flat plane. or contamination problems due to lubrication or wear debris. (pot core type). All Rights Reserved. Primary Winding Stator Secondary Winding A Power In \ Outer Bearing . the primary and secondary must have a minimum of distance between them.transformer. shown in Figure 192. across an air gap. . Pictorial of a Flat Plane. electromagnetically.
All Rights Reserved. Although there are rotary power transformers designed with the use of square wave converter technology. are what leads to a high loss. Transformer BH Loop. . as shown in Figure 195. without problems. B (tesla) H (oersted) Stored Energy Figure 195. and the inductor stores energy in the gap. These problems. snubber circuit. has a BH loop similar to an inductor. Typical. Basically. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. There are two basic problems not found in the normal transformer: (1) the inherent gap in a rotary transformer is one problem. and beccme a source of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) that impacts the adjoining systems operating integrity. the transformer transforms power. along with a square wave drive. snubber circuits. and (2) the required spacing between primary and secondary that leads to large leakage inductance is the other. more accurately. Inc. The rotary transformer does not have any of the traits of an ideal transformer. Typical. The rotary transformer. because of its inherent gap. a transinductor having a gap and a secondary. B (tesla) H (oersted) Figure 194. It is. spaced away from the primary. Rotary Transformer BH Loop. they are not.reduce the need for powerwasting.
The flat plane rotary transformer winding dimensions are shown in Figure 197. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Axial Rotary Transformer. The axial rotary transformer winding dimensions are shown in Figure 196. cm b = Winding build. Inc. I Thr ou gh B ore b ^ 2 ] _ a = Winding length. cm Figure 196. The gap and spacing in the rotary transformer result in a low primary magnetizing inductance.1 * . Flat Plane Rotary Transformer. Showing Winding Dimensions. The leakage inductance. Primary Secondary ThroughBore a = Winding length. Showing Winding Dimensions. cm Stator Air Gap Figure 197. 47i(MLT)N. Lp. cm c = Space between windings. cm c = Space between windings. can be calculated for both axial and flat plane using Equation 191. . [henrys] [191] „a. This low primary inductance leads to a high magnetizing current.Rotary Transformer Leakage Inductance The rotary transformer has an inherent gap and spacing of the primary and secondary. ^tntnr ^> bl 55^^^^ Ss^^^s^ g^^^^ T? ntnr ^ 1+. cm b = Winding build. c + (l(T 9 ).
is shown in Figure 199. Resonant Converter Circuit. The currentfed sine wave converter requires a resonant. Secondly. LI 2 1 Tuned Tank Circuit ^ L. This provides the capability for direct exchange of power between the tank circuit Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 1910. First. C2 CR4 v CR3 O. Thirdly. and a currentfed. Inc. because of the inherent gap of the rotary transformer. This energy is commutated in the resonant tank circuit. Voltagefed. and usually requires no additional filtering. LI CR1 n 4 C2 _CR3 6 2 k ± •s 1 CR2 _ f\ I Snubber Circuit Figure 198. tuned tank converter requiring a gapped transformer. the output of the inverter is a natural sine wave. is recovered and is used in the tank circuit. tank circuit to operate properly.fed. shown in Figure 198. LC. it minimizes the number of components in the power stage. All Rights Reserved. Typical. Current. There are several advantages to incorporating the resonant tank circuit into the rotary transformer. square wave converter. sine wave converter.Currentfed Sine Wave Converter Approach The currentfed. The design would be a currentfed. pushpull. energy stored in the gap of the transformer is released when either power switch is turned off. A comparison between a standard. Using the rotary transformer in this topology. See Chapter 18. Typical. the energy that is stored in the rotary gap that causes so much trouble in the standard square wave driving a rotary transformer. There would not be any need of powerwasting snubbers using the rotary transformer approach. The primary of the rotary transformer would be the ideal inductor. . sine wave converter topology is a good candidate to power the rotary transformer. Square wave Converter Circuit with Snubbers. Figure 199.
the core has to be more robust than the normal transformer because of the structural requirement. . Secondly. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The tuning or tank capacitor must be of high quality. the large space separating primary and secondary windings results in an unusually high primarytosecondary leakage inductance. Geometries of the Basic Type Rotary Transformers. This gap size depends on the eccentric dimension and the tolerance of the rotating shaft. Currentfed Converter. Voltage Across Secondary Horizontal = 1 0 usec/cm Figure 1910. Secondary Sine Wave Secondary Voltage. Finally. Inc.and the load. The first is the relatively large gap in the magnetic circuit. Thirdly. The gap results in a low primary magnetizing inductance. the large throughbore requirement results in an inefficient utilization of the core material and copper. There is not a noticeable drive torque in a rotary transformer. stable. Rotary Transformer Design Constraints The rotary transformer requirements pose some unusual design constraints compared to the usual transformer design. This large diameter results in requiring more copper area for the same regulation. All Rights Reserved. Winding Separation Stator Primary Secondary Rotor Primary Stator ThroughBore ThroughBore Secondary Rotor Air Gap Air Gap t Axial Flat FacetoFace Figure 1911. See Figure 1911. due to the fixed meanlength turn. and with low ESR.
Open View of an Axial Type Rotary Transformers. . Ac Perspective View Figure 1912. Manufacturers use test data. to present magnetic material characteristics. and manufactured by CMI (Ref 4. shown in Figure 1913 and Figure 1914. Magnetic Path Length A View Stator Rotor A View Primary I I Secondary Perspective View Figure 1913. MPL Iron Area. does not provide constant flux density or an ideal magnetic assembly. Open View of a Flat Plane. All Rights Reserved. throughout the whole Magnetic Path Length. A toroidal core is an ideal magnetic assembly. as shown in Figure 1912. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. Typical Perspective View of a Toroidal Core. The rotary transformers for the Galileo spacecraft were about 10 cm in diameter. taken from toroidal cores. Magnetic Path Length A View —. Ac. in particular the relatively large gap and the large throughbore. and provides ideal magnetic characteristics. Stator A View Primary I Secondary Perspective View Figure 1914.Rotary transformer dimensions are usually governed by the mechanical interface. Type Rotary Transformers. The rotary transformer is not an ideal magnetic assembly. The magnetic flux in a toroidal core travels through a constant core crosssection. It can be seen that the core crosssection throughout the rotary transformers.) Magnetic Path Length. resulting in a long Mean Length Turn (MLT). MPL.
" Massachusetts Institute Technology. S. "Rotary Transformer Utilization in a Spin Stabilized Spacecraft Power System. pp 373376. PCSC70 Record." General Electric. Tel. NJ 07006. Marx. All Rights Reserved. No. Inc. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Vol. 139152 L. "A Kilowatt Rotary Power Transformer. Landsman. pp. AES7.References 1. 3. 4. Inc. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker." PhilcoFord Corp. 6 November 1971. 2.. "Rotary Transformer Design. (973) 2274222. 16 Law Drive Fairfield. E. . Brown. Ceramic Magnetics.
Inc. . All Rights Reserved.Chapter 20 Planar Transformers Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.
Current Density. Planar Transformer and Inductor Design Equations 6. Ku 7. Window Utilization. PC Board Base Materials 15.Table of Contents 1. Winding Termination 14. Planar Integrated PC Board Magnetics 4. Introduction 2. Core Mounting and Assembly 16. MLT 10. Planar Inductor Design 13. Core Geometries 5. J 8. Winding Resistance and Dissipation 11. Inc. Planar Transformer Basic Construction 3. Printed Circuit Windings 9. PC Winding Capacitance 12. All Rights Reserved. References Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Calculating the Mean Length Turn. .
whereas. Planar Magnetics is the new "buzz" word in the field of power magnetics. All Rights Reserved. while at the same time increasing the overall performance. all parasitics will be the same from unit to unit. and the ferrite core. A whole new learning curve can be seen on low profile ferrite cores and printed circuit boards if one is going to do any planar transformer designs. the resonant frequency. making it cost effective. and also. and the commonmode rejection. In the assembled planar transformer. back in 1986. which can be molded and machined into almost any shape. This provides a tight control over the primary to secondary leakage inductance. planar construction method.Introduction The planar transformer. governed by the PC board. The assembled planar transformers have very unique characteristics in their finished construction. A tight control is necessary on all materials used. One of the first papers published on planar magnetics was by Alex Estrov. MOSFETs that increased the switching frequency and enabled the designer to reduce the turns. It took a few engineers with the foresight to come up with a way to increase the power density. Planar Transformer Basic Construction Here. The primary is always the same distance from the secondary. in this way. is a low profile device that covers a large area. shown in Figure 201 through Figure 204 are four views of a typical EE core. Using the same insulating material will always provide the same capacitance between primary and secondary. After reviewing this paper. you really get a feeling of what he accomplished. Side View of a Typical EE Planar Transformer. Alignment Pins or Terminals Double E Ferrite Core ^ Insulation *— PC Boards Secondary Side View Primary Figure 201. the engineer will have a tight control over leakage inductance. The two basic items that made this technology feasible were the power. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. With this type of planar construction. Inc. every primary turn is at a precise location. or inductor. It is an allnew technology for the transformer engineer. the conventional transformer would be more cubical in volume. . After this paper was written the interest in planar magnetics seems to increase each year.
A Perspective View of a Typical EE Planar Transformer. Top View of a Typical EE Planar Transformer. Planar EE Cores Insulation Figure 204. . /' o / 6 Figure 203.Double E Ferrite Core Insulation Alignment Pins or Terminals • PC Boards — Primary Secondary End View Figure 202.PC Boards Primary >~ r Top View Secondary  ^4 k. Double E Ferrite Core ^ Alignment Pins or Terminals Q \ Insulation — >n w y 4— . Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Inc. End View of a Typical EE Planar Transformer.
The final assembly of the same planar transformer is shown in Figure 206. Inc. An exploded view to show the multilayers PC board of a planar transformer that has been integrated into the main PC board is shown in Figure 205. Design engineers are pushing the operating frequency higher and higher to where it is commonplace to operate at frequency range between 250500kHz. All Rights Reserved. . To reduce the size of the power supply even further engineers are going to planar magnetics that are integrated into the main PC board. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 1/2 Planar EE Magnetic Core Multilayer PCB 1/2 Primary Layer 1 1/2 Secondary 1/2 Secondary 1/2 Primary Inerconnection 1/2 Planar EE Magnetic Core Figure 205. PC Board Planar Transformer in Final Assembly. Multilayer PCB Figure 206. A Planar Transformer Integrated into the Main PC Board. As the frequency increases the power supplies are getting smaller and smaller.Planar Integrated PC Board Magnetics Planar transformers and inductors are now being integrated right on the main PC board.
Inc. There are EE and El cores available from Magnetics Inc. Ceramic Magnetics. (5 t 1 I \f E B 1 V Fs C ETDlp Ferrite Core D Perspective View Figure 209. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as shown in Figure 2011. there are PQlp cores available from Ferrite International. EE and El Low Profile Planar Cores. The IEC has a new standard 62313 for planar cores that supercedes standard 61860. Magnetic Inc. Ferrite International ETD Low Profile Planar Cores. there are ETDlp cores available from Ferrite International.Core Geometries The EE and El are not the only planar geometries now available. that can modify any of these cores to your specification or machine a special core for your application. . Ferroxcube ER Low Profile Planar Cores. There is a company. A round center post results in a more efficient use of copper and a more efficient use of board space. RMlp. There are several advantages. as shown in Figure 209. and there are RMlp cores available from Ferroxcube. there are ER cores available from Ferroxcube. Inc. giving the engineer a few more choices in his design. (CMI). with cores with a round center post. Matting Set E or I EE or El Planar Ferrite Cores Perspective View Figure 207. All Rights Reserved. There are a few firms in the ferrite industry that offer low profile versions of their standard cores. as shown in Figure 2010. as shown in Figure 208. as shown in Figure 207. ETDlp and ER. such as PQlp. ER Ferrite Core D Perspective View Figure 208.
BJ Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ap: . [turns] [201] A = The gapped inductor equation. Inc. All Rights Reserved.) The core energy handling equation. . [cm4] [202] L= QAnN2A C . Ferroxcube RM Low Profile Planar Ceres. L: KfKJAcBacJ . Ap: 2(Energy) P K. [henrys] [203] U— \ p.. Faraday's Law is still used to calculate the required turns: N= The core power handling equation.^ B 1r G —i*~ . W i E r k a ^ *. Planar Transformer and Inductor Design Equations The same design equations are used. to design a planar transformer as a conventional transformer. Ferrite International PQ Low Profile Planar Cores. .. as well as the criteria used to select the proper core.B D C PQ Ferrite Core. low profile Perspective View Figure 2010. .— ^~ Perspective View RMlp Ferrite Core Figure 2011.
Window Figure 2013.4 mils (0. This will give a total copper width of 0. The Mylar insulation material is between the PC boards. in Chapter 4. Comparing the Window Utilization of a Standard Transformer and a Planar Transformer. All Rights Reserved. using Figure 2013 as a guide. the other 60% of the area is devoted to the bobbin or tube. Designing a planar transformer and using the PC winding technique.551 cm EI42216. calculation example will be as fellows: The windings will be placed on a doublesided 2oz PC board 10 mils thick.40. Wa = 0.102. Ku The window utilization factor in the conventional transformer is about 0.0493 cm) per layer. The window utilization. The window utilization.0102 cm) to the thickness. There will be a 20 mil space (margin) between the edge of the board and the copper clad. and between the PC boards. will be summed in Table 201. in detail. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.4 mils (0. comparison of the two different winding techniques is shown in Figure 2012. reduces the window utilization factor even further. to the insulation both layer and wire.0391 cm).164cm 2 Core Center Leg Mylar Insulation Sheet = 0. K u .Window Utilization.051 cm Margin Margin 0. and to the winding technique. Ku. This will give 19. This means that 40% of the window is filled with copper. and the core will add another 4 mils (0. . giving a total thickness of 15. The window utilization is explained. Wa . Ku.188 Figure 2012.0391 cm 0. Window Utilization of a Typical El Planar Transformer. Standard Transformer Copper Area Typical Planar Transformer Window Area.0102 cm Double Sided PC Board = 0. A PC board window utilization.551cm minus 2x the margin of 0.051 cm 0. The copper width will be the window width of 0.Ku = 0. Inc.449.
1640 0. Ku 0. All Rights Reserved. J. you use 500 circular mils per amp: 500CM/Amp ~ 400Amps/cm2. So loz of copper clad would be 1 square foot. cm PC Board Thickness with Copper. you use 1000 circular mils per amp. such as loz. Large transformers.0308 0. while 400 Hz are designed with higher current density for the same temperature rise. [60 Hertz] Planar transformer designers handle the current density in a different way.00405 inch. . circuit board designers. 2oz would be 0. J One of the unknown factors in designing planar transformers is the current density. and the surface area goes up by the square law. cm Sheet Insulator. cm Window Area. The design data for 1 oz copper is shown in Table 202. The weight in ounces comes from an area of one square foot of material. designers use the same technology used by the printed. cm Window Utilization. cm Copper Width.1878 Current Density. such as 60 Hz. and that is the current rating for a given voltage drop and temperature rise.0391 0.5510 0. The printed circuit boards are covered with a copper clad. and for a small transformer. The thickness of this copper is called out in ounces.2570 0. cm Copper Thickness 5 Layers. 2 [400 Hertz Aircraft] 1000CM/Amp « 200Amps/cm . Planar transformer engineers are using the industrial guidelines for their selection of copper trace thickness and line width. It is another way of saying the same thing.0027 inch. Tables have been made to show the current capacity for a constant temperature rise with different line width. When designing planar transformer PC windings.0102 0. and 3oz.0612 0.2970 0. There used to be an old rule of thumb. and have a thickness of 0. and 3oz copper is shown in Table 204. The first effort for a planar transformer.00135 inch. The 2oz copper is shown in Table 203. The current density controls the copper loss (regulation) and the inherit temperature rise caused by the copper loss.Table 201 EI422 1 6 Window Utilization Window Height. Inc. based on temperature rise. are designed with a low current density. cm Total Copper Area. The temperature rise is normally controlled by the surface dissipation of the transformer. cm Total Thickness 5 Layers. cm Window Width. 5+1 Layers Thick. PC winding should be around: Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.4494 0.0686 0. and 3oz would be 0. The size of a transformer goes up by the cubic law. for a large transformer. cm Total Insul. 2oz.
00 11. .00 0.00 22 7.1600 61.001045 13.00 0.25 18.52 329.51 0.4 11.000523 30 3.9 0.000697 29 4.25 0.00 0. [500 kHertz Planar Transformers] Table 202.0400 1.001394 10.25 26 5.9 0.0027 Width microohm Width 2 Inches mm permm cm **AWG 40° 20° 5° 6.00 6.00135 Inch Thick Copper Clad.02 494. °C Increase above Amb.00 9.54 99.00 135 Width Width microohm 2 Inches mm permm cm **AWG 40° 5° 20° 0. [500 kHertz Planar Transformers] If the current density is based on Table 201.0200 0.25 27 4. with a line width of 0.9 0.25 20.50 0. Vs.7 35 0.00 0.0 0.0800 247.000871 28 4.00 4.25 7.57 55.001394 26 6.0 0.56 141. Vs. *Printed Circuit Trace Data for loz Copper (Based on 10 Inches Long) Copper Weight loz Line Line Resistance Temp.00 6. **This is a close approximation to an equivalent AWG wire size.50 6.50 11.60 *Data From: Handbook of Electronic Packaging.56 14.0 0. Current in Amperes Thickness 0.4 0.50 8.25 9.002090 0.1800 4.001742 25 7.75 15.25 12.50 8.05 165.002439 23 3.0600 1.1800 4.25 24.25 16.0200 0.00 0.9 9.0027 Inch Thick Copper Clad.03 123.5 3.2000 5. All Rights Reserved.000174 1.25 9.002787 23 4.00 989.06 0.57 110.25 0.00 24 5.00 0. Current in Amperes Thickness 0.00 29 3.000697 0.00 0.54 0.1600 4.001219 26 6. Table 203.0600 165.0800 2.001742 25 5.4 2.000348 32 2.5 *Data From: Handbook of Electronic Packaging.25 0.7 0. Design Data for 0. then use: 35CM/Amp « 5700Amps/cm2.52 0.00 197.0400 1.lOOCM/Amp « 2000Amps/cm2.06 inches.9 0.7 15.003484 22 0.51 494.75 12.1400 70.2000 5.50 16.02 247. **This is a close approximation to an equivalent AWG wire size.50 6.25 12.1200 82.00 14. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.06 15.08 99.25 22.0 0.00 0.1400 3. °C Increase above Amb.00 0.00 4.00 1.00 11.00 3.003135 7.00 0.50 0.1000 2.0 0.001568 25 7.03 0.001045 27 5. Design Data for 0.25 32 2.00 7.00 13. *Printed Circuit Trace Data for 2oz Copper (Based on 10 Inches Long) Copper Weight 2oz Line Line Resistance Temp.000348 0.25 11. Inc.08 49.1000 2.25 0.0 17.25 123.1200 3.25 5.7 0.50 0.05 13.00 10.
All Rights Reserved.75 0.High Current Trace PC Board Low Current Trace Figure 2014.0 0. will be frozen.003135 6.1200 3.00 0. Therefore.0400 1.00 23.08 33. There are two basic core configurations available to the engineer for planar design. Thickness 0.1600 4.50 0.05 0. Once the printed winding board is finished and the layout is fixed.5 2.2 0. including the leakage inductance.00 7.54 0. J ^^^^^"^^^^^^^^^^^~'  — Inner Connecting Eyelets .004181 21 7.56 47.00 0.002090 24 5. °C Increase above Amb.00405 Inch Thick Copper Clad.00 21. **This is a close approximation to an equivalent AWG wire size.0 22 16.75 18. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.002613 23 6.001045 27 4.00 0.00 15.57 36.25 13.25 0. Typical Planar E Core Winding PC Board.06 41.25 25.00 19.50 55. A typical high current and low current winding PC board for E cores is shown in Figure 2014. Design Data for 0.1 0.0600 1.1400 3.75 27. There are several benefits to a printed circuit winding.00 0.1000 66.25 17. it would be much easier to start on a simple design and use magnet wire.0200 0.00 0. Vs.00 4.7 0.50 6.001568 4. using a PC winding board design.50 0.000523 30 2.004703 20 7. Inc.52 25 110.02 0.75 19.00 8.2000 5. .75 165. the winding will not vary and all of the parasitics.00 13.0 0.Table 204. This is not necessarily true in conventional transformers. The first configuration is the EE or El with the rectangular center post.00405 Current in Amperes Width microohm Width 2 permm Inches mm cm **AWG 20° 5° 40° 0. *Printed Circuit Trace Data for 3oz Copper (Based on 10 Inches Long) Copper Weight 3oz Resistance Line Line Temp.00 0.0 22 15. then convert that into a truly all planar approach.0 *Data From: Handbook of Electronic Packaging.75 10. In this way the engineer will slide up the learning curve slowly.50 12.9 11.003658 7. Printed Circuit Windings There will be a few paths of mystery along the way when engineers first get started in the design of a planar transformer.51 329.25 17.1800 0.0800 2.005226 20 8.03 82.
ETDlp and ER cores. Winding PC boards with round center legs are used on PQlp. Inner Connecting Eyelets High Current Trace — Low Current Trace PC Board Figure 2015. relating to the Mean Length Turn (MLT) for a rectangular winding. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Mean Length Turn (MLT). These are four cores with round center legs. OD resulting in a more efficient use of copper. Inc. With the winding resistance known.The second configuration is shown in Figure 2015.•* C . RMlp. is required to calculate the dc winding resistance. along with the MLT equation. Cores with round center leg will produce a round ID. . is shown in Figure 2016. . [mm] [205] Figure 2016. All Rights Reserved. along with the MLT equation. Dimensions. Relating to a Rectangular Winding. MLT The Mean Length Turn (MLT). the winding voltage drop can be calculated at rated load. Calculating the Mean Length Turn. and a circular winding is shown in Figure 2017. The winding dimensions. Typical Circular Winding PC Board for Cores with Round Center Leg. There is an advantage to cores with round center legs.
[mm] [mm] 3. Dimensions. Inc.5 + 14. Mean Length Turn (MLT).5 4.5. Winding Resistance and Dissipation The winding dc resistance and voltage drop will be calculated as follows: Calculate the Mean Length Turn (MLT) using the winding board configuration and Equation in Figure 2017. Calculate the Mean Length Turn. OD Winding Board.65) MLT = i'.MLT = . . Relating to a Circular Winding. K 4 Units 0.7 HQ/mm mm mm amps mm Step 1. PC Board Winding Data PC Winding Data Item PC Board Turns Each Side Winding Trace Thickness Winding Trace Width Trace Resistance Winding Board.0027 inches mm 2. [mm] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.65 3 0. ID Winding Current. I PC Board Thickness PC Board Dielectric Constant. Use the printed winding data in Table 205. MLT = 72.5 14. Table 205.54 99 31. [mm] [206] Figure 2017. MLT: MLT = n(OD . All Rights Reserved.14(31.
Step 2. This capacitance could be to another winding. R: R = MLT(N)\^}(\06}. Calculate the winding dissipation.= 0. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. to the other side of the board as shown in Figure 2018. to either another winding trace or ground plane.057). Upper Trace PC Board Board Capacitance C Board Thickness Under Side Trace Figure 2018.171. Calculate the winding resistance.0)(lO.5)(8)(99. Step 3. [volts] F H . [volts] [ohms] [ohms] /? = (72. PC Board Trace Capacitance.5\3.6 ).057. All Rights Reserved. The formula for calculating the winding trace capacitance.0)(0. 2 [watts] [watts] PR =(3) (0.057). [ohms] F w =(3. Vw: yw=IR. . Inc. [watts] PC Winding Capacitance The PC winding board traces will have capacitance. v ' R = 0. [volts] Step 4. or a Faraday shield to ground. Calculate the winding voltage drop. Pw: Pn=I2R. Pw=0. is given in Equation 207.
[mm2] Step 2. [pf] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.7)(1473) . ' [pf] C =118. Step 1 . Cp. mm)(MLT. will have extremely fast rise and fall times in the order of 0. PC Board Winding Capacitance.5)(8). N ) . [mm] A typical square wave power converter. operating at 250kHz.d = board thickness. Calculate the winding trace area.54)(72. mm) ( MLT. A = ( trace width. This fast excursion will generate a fairly high current pulse depending on the capacitance and source impedance. A.05 microseconds. [pf] K = dielectric constant A = area of the trace. 0. Figure 2019. All Rights Reserved. Inc. [mm2] A = 1473. the outline drawing in Figure 2019. (mm) K = material dielectric constant A = winding trace area = (trace width. mm) ( turns. mm)(N). The calculation of the winding capacitance is as follows: Use the PC board winding data in Table 205. and Equation 207: . . Calculate the winding capacitance.0085(4. [mm2 ] d= thickness of the PC board.C P=[207] Where: Cp = capacitance. [mm2 ] y4=(2.
and because of the high density. Double E Ferrite Core v Fringing Flux PC Boards Insulation Figure 2020. and at the same time making the connection on the other board. because of the printed winding board. Interconnections are usually done. there must be provisions made for those connections. It is recommended to use platedthrough holes and eyelets. When the PC winding boards are stacked. can give the eddy currents an added degree of freedom. as shown in Figure 2021. It has to be remembered that this is a high frequency transformer. where possible. If the solder terminations are to be made on the board. Fringing Flux Cutting Across PC Winding Boards. Planar inductors use the same planar cores and PC winding board techniques as the transformers. which produces hot spots and reduces the overall efficiency. Winding Termination Making connections from a planar transformer to the outside world could be very clumsy. the interconnecting jumpers will also have to be increased. if not enough thought is put in for termination. A poor connection will only get worse. All Rights Reserved.Planar Inductor Design Planar inductors are designed the same way as the conventional inductors. The resulting loss could be a disaster. Inc. as shown in Figure 2020. all connections and interconnections have to be done with extended area pads. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. It is normal to operate planar magnetics at a little higher temperature than conventional designs. on planar construction. then it is important to leave as much room as possible especially if the connection is to be made with copper foil. by passing a bus wire through a hole. Fringing flux can be severe in any gapped ferrite inductor. as shown in Figure 2022. but. The use of a PC winding board. . See Chapter 8. and skin effect. because of the increased current. Terminations are very important for currents of one amp and above. The main difference is the inductor will have a gap to prevent the dc current from prematurely saturating the core. or only a few. When the PC windings have to be paralleled. eddy currents are generated. When the flux intersects the copper winding. The PC winding boards require good artwork registry to make sure the interconnections can be made between boards. (ac resistance). (flat traces). It is important to check the maximum operating flux level at maximum operating temperature. even more so. If the transformer has many interconnections. has to be addressed. Because of the skin effect it is important the external leads of the planar transformer must be keep as short as possible. but cost will control that.
This could give rise to hot spots at winding terminations and cause PC Board discoloration. PC Winding Boards Showing Butterfly Pads. . It is very important to choose the correct PC board material for your application. as defined by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). PC Winding Boards. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. At.PC Winding A PC Winding B Figure 2021. It would be wise to stay away from paper/phenolic materials and materials that absorb moisture. PC Board Base Materials PC Board materials are available in various grades. Planar transformers are normally stressed to the last watt for a given temperature rise. Inc. All Rights Reserved. The important properties for PC Board materials are tabulated in Table 206. Showing Interconnections and Exit Leads. Double E Ferrite Core Bus Wire Interconnects Plated Through Holes PC Boards Insulation Foil Lead Circuitry Solder Pad PC Boards Strain Relief Exit Lead PC Boards Circuitry Solder Pad Figure 2022. Due to their inherit design Planar transformers will have a wide temperature delta.
Epoxy Adhesive for Securing Transformer Assembly. Inc.7 excellent good poor 170 4. When the core halves are properly bonded with epoxy adhesive. After the planar transformer has been assembled. There is one epoxy adhesive that has been around a long time and that's 3M EC2216A/B. Properties of Typical Printer Circuit Board Materials Properties of Typical Printed Circuit Board Materials NEMA Grade Gil G10 FR5 FR4 FR3 FR2 FR1 Glass/Cloth Glass/Cloth Glass/Cloth Glass/Cloth Paper Paper Paper Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Phenolic Phenolic excellent excellent excellent excellent good good good poor excellent excellent excellent excellent good good fair poor good 105 4.Table 206.2 good fair good 105 4. This bonding technique is shown in Figure 2023 and it seems to work quite well. .3 excellent good poor 130 4. Planar cores have a low silhouette with thin sections that cannot absorb as much strain as other geometries. there will be little or no effect on the electrical performance. Care should be taken into account for the coefficients of thermal expansion between the core and mounting surfaces. K good poor good 105 4. This means the epoxy adhesive added little or no gap to the mating surface. Large temperature excursions are normal in planar magnetics. Epoxy Adhesive for Securing Core Halves Planar EE Cores Small Filet Bead for Core Assembly Mounting Figure 2023. It has to be remembered ferrite is a ceramic and is very brittle.5 Core Mounting and Assembly Core assembly and mounting should be strong and stable with temperature. One of the most viable methods for securing core halves together is epoxy adhesive. °C Dielectric Constant.4 excellent good poor 130 4. Cont.6 excellent good poor 170 4. All Rights Reserved. Temp. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.2 Material/Comments Mechanical Strength Moisture Resistant Insulation Arc Resistance Tool Abrasion Max. there should be a small amount of play in the PC winding assembly to guarantee there will be a minimum of stress over temperature.
107111.. Bloom. 2. "Planar Power Magnetics: New Low Profile Approaches for LowCost Magnetics Design. pp. E. Charles A. 7. 3." Magnetic Business & Technology. CA 91311. Boon. Chatsworth.. Fourth Edition. 2. April 1991. 26. Inc. Vol. Casco Circuits. Tel. 4652. 4. . (818) 8820972. All Rights Reserved." PCIM. pp. Van der Linde. pp. "Design of HighFrequency Planar Power Transformer in Multilayer Technology." IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics. "Planar Magnetics Simplifies Switchmode Power Supply Design and Production. Designing with Planar Ferrite Cores. Reference Data for Radio Engineers. June 2002. Handbook of Electronic Packaging. No. International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. 10039 D Canoga Ave. Inc. 151153. 135 141. Harper. PC Boards.. 38.27.. E. Division of Spang and Company 2001. and Klassens. 6. pp. McGrawHill Book Company.References 1. Technical Bulletin FCS8. pp. Brown. June 1992. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 5. Magnetics. March 1957.
Inc. . All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Chapter 21 Derivations for the Design Equations The author would like to thank Richard Ozenbaugh of Linear Magnetics for his help with the derivations.
Inc. Inductor Derivation for the Area Product. Ap Inductor Derivation for the Core Geometry. Ap 6. Kg 5. Transformer Derivation for the Core Geometry. Pt. Kg Transformer Derivation for the Area Product. 3. Output Power. Versus Apparent Power. Capability 2. P0.Table of Contents 1. 4. . Transformer Regulation Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.
and the secondary handles. which is associated with the geometry of the transformer. Capability Introduction Output power. assume that the window area. P0. the apparent power. Since the power transformer has to be designed to accommodate the m =—> [watts] The primary turns can be expressed using Faraday's Law: [tums] [21A2] The winding area of a transformer is fully utilized when: By definition the wire area is: w=—. v ' [21A5] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. that the core of an isolation transformer has only two windings in the window area. a primary and a secondary. Pt. Versus Apparent Power. is of the greatest interest to the user. Also.n+Po. is of greater importance. Inc. P0. to the load. Wa. By definition: Pt=P. Assume. Pj. To the transformer designer. Pt.. P0. . All Rights Reserved. and. is divided up in proportion to the powerhandling capability of the windings. [watts] P The primary winding handles. primary. Pin. " Rearranging the equation shows: J [cm2] [21A4] J/ ' I M J/ . then.. P0. using equal current density. for the sake of simplicity.Output Power.
The input power. P0..I.Now. is: Pin=Vplp.=P>n+Pa. Then: P. Inc. Pin.W = — Rearranging shows: _ The output power. All Rights Reserved.Ag] [21_A9] [21A10] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. substitute in Faraday's Equation: K. . [watts] [watts] [watts] [cn<] [21A7] [21. is: P0=y.
is that R^ is infinity (no core loss). Isolation Transformer. Kg.Transformer Derivation for the Core Geometry. The primary winding has a resistance of. they can also be designed for a given regulation.Bm) [21B3] The derivation of the specific functions for. AF \v —i [21B4] The assumption. [%] The constant.Wa. Rs ohms: Primary n = Ns/Np = 1 Secondary Figure 21Bl. Kg Introduction Although most transformers are designed for a given temperature rise. Kg and Ke. Rp. and the secondary winding has a resistance of. The regulation and powerhandling ability of a core are related to two constants. ohms.=2KgKea. .MLT) [21B2] [watts] [21Bl] The constant. for simplicity. assume there is a twowinding transformer with equal primary and secondary regulation. is as follows: First. is a function of the magnetic and electrical operating conditions: Ke=g(f. Kg and Ke by the equation: P. is a function of the core geometry: Kg=f(Ac. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Where: a = Regulation. Ke. Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. as schematically shown in Figure 21Bl.
Inc. All Rights Reserved. in Equation [21B13]: VA= 2 Ep —a 200 Rp [21B13] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. .44 for a sine wave. Kf = 4.724(10" 6 )ohmcm Kp is the window utilization factor (primary) Ks is the window utilization factor (secondary) Ku 1 Faraday's Law expressed in metric units is: Vp=KffNpAcBm(\V*) Where: Kf = 4.And: /„ =/„ Then: [21B6] [21B5] / R p [21B7] Multiply the numerator and denominator by Vp: a = 2 0 0  [21B8] R VA a = 200^ p From the resistivity formula. it is easily shown that: [21B9] Rp = V (MLT)yvP2 „.0 for a square wave. for Rp and Vp. ' P [21B10] Where: p=1. [21B12] Substituting Equation 21BIO and 21B12.
/ D I 1 U I r^i r> 17T L/lr51/J Let the primary core geometry equal: W Ac2 K K= " ". then: VA = KeKga Where: Ke=0. "/ 'a 2(MLT)/7 [21B15] Inserting 1. Inc. Z y A . . [cm5] [21B18] g MLT The total transformer window utilization factor is: Kp+Ks=Ku KU [21B19] p 2 When this value for Kp is put into Equation [21B16].29K2f2A2B2WaK MLT p (l(T 4 ' a [21B16] Let primary electrical equal: is _ A O O r ^ 2 f2n2(tr\4\ ^e = U .The primary VA is: g Simplify: VA= K]fA2B2WK (l<r 10 ) f c m .l45K2f2B2m(lO4) [21B21] [21B20] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.724(10'6) for p: 0.
= (Primary) KKn + (Secondary) Ke K. includes both the primary and secondary coils. a \ » * \ JJ P=2KKa [21B25] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. K g = " c " . [cm5] [21B22] MLT Regulation of a transformer is related to the copper loss. then is: P. All Rights Reserved. Ku. VA = KeKga plus Secondary. as shown in Equation [21B23]: W A2 K a =^(100). VA = KeKga [21B24] The apparent power.The above VA is the primary power. and the window utilization factor. [%] o [21B23] The total VA of the transformer is primary plus secondary: Primary. Pt. .
Ap can be derived as follows.0 for a square wave. All Rights Reserved. The winding area of a transformer is fully utilized when: By definition the wire area is: Aw=—. Ap Introduction The relationship between the powerhandling capability of a transformer and the area product. [cm2] J Rearranging the equation shows: [21C3] [21C4] Now.44 for a sine wave.Transformer Derivation for the Area Product. Kf = 4. . Faraday's Law expressed in metric units is: Where: Kf = 4. substitute in Faraday's Equation: I KW = — AcBaJKf\J Rearranging shows: [cm<] [21C6] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc.
Inc. The input power. P0. ..The output power. is: P0=V. [cm4] ' BacfJKfKu [21C12] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. [watts] [21C9] Therefore: [watts] [21 _ C8] [watts] [21.=Pin+P0. is: Pm=VpIp.I. P. Then: P. [cm4] [21C10] ' BacfJKfKu By definition: Then: A = — .c?] WaAc = i'— .n.
Kg Introduction Inductors... .o— > Figure 21D1. is as follows: First. [watts] [21D4] a = 1 \ r . is a function of the magnetic and electrical operating conditions: K.Wa. Typical Buck Type Switching Converter. All Rights Reserved. Kg. by the equation: (Energy) 2 = KgKea. Where: a = Regulation. [henrys] L= [21D6] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Kg and Ke.=s(P. are designed for a given temperature rise. The constant.. The regulation and energyhandling ability of a core are related to two constants. Inc.Inductor Derivation for the Core Geometry.4^ N2 Ac (lO" 8 ) ^ '.Bm) [21D3] The derivation of the specific functions for. like transformers. is a function of the core geometry: [%] [21D1] Kx=f(Ac. The inductor resistance is RL % 1 P^O CR1 C1 + V1 pr>o i CR2 2 k 1+• ldc r 1 1 1 C2 + ^ > vn 2^ ^ > V < < . [%] [21D5] The inductance equation is: 0. The output power is: P. K.MLl) [21D2] The constant. K g and Ke. They can also be designed for a given regulation.=I*Vo. assume a dc inductor could be an input or output as schematically shown in Figure 21D1.
. V^r (10'") Combine and simplify: / i i*tr T•^l [21D13] I (10'°) [21D14] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.. All Rights Reserved.The inductor flux density is: QAxNI. .. [turns] [21D9] From the resistivity formula.fc A ) Combine Equations [21D11] and [21D12]: —*M (lO 8 ) [21D12] « = l :/. (l(T 4 ) ^ '. Inc. it is easily shown that: _(MLT)N2p RL = WaKu P .6 )ohmcm Combining Equations [21D5] and [21D10]: K /\ O » Take Equation [21D9] and square it: WK*"} 0 « j f // V ^. [ohms] [21D10] Where: p=1. [tesla] [21D7] Bdc= Combine Equations [21D6] and [21D7]: — = ^ ' [21D8] Solve for N: ..724(10.
[%] [21D24] [21D23] W A2K " c " . .Multiply the equation by Idc / Iac and combine: a= P (lO'°) [21D15] The energy equation is: Energy = ——. [wattsecond] 2Energy = Ll]c Combine and simplify: f(2Energy) 2 Vp(MLT) a = ±. [cm5] [21D21] MLT Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. Inc.t±. lO'° Q^ [21D17] The resistivity is: p = 1.l45P0B2ac a [21D20] The core geometry equals: K= g The electrical conditions: [21D22] The regulation and energyhandling ability is: (Energy)2 = KgKea The copper loss is: a =^(100)..724 (10'6) [ohm cm] [21 D18] Combine the resistivity: Solving for energy: (Energy)2 =0.!.
Inductor Derivation for the Area Product. are mks (meterkilogramsecond) units. Ap. Inc.) dt dt Combine and simplify: dl Flux density is: <t> = BmAc [21E3] [21E4] '. [wattseconds] [21E8] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. relationship is obtained by the following: (Note that symbols marked with a prime (such as H"). The area product. All Rights Reserved. Ap. Ap Introduction The energyhandling capability of an inductor can be determined by the area product. [21E6] 01 The energy equation is: Energy = " ^ ^ [21E7] '>!. .+ — I Am MPU [21E5] df Combine Equations [21E2] and [21E6]: .
[21E15] Solving for I: B N [21.Combine Equations [21E7] and [21E8]: Energy = LI2 'A'I2 [21E9] 2 lf fMPL' If Bm is specified: /= M'fT v V A'm /y [21E10] Combine Equations [21E7] and [21E10]: Energy =  [21E11] Combine and simplify: Energy = The winding area of a inductor is fully utilized when: [21E13] By definition the wire area is: [21E12] J Combining Equations [21 El 3] and [21 El 4]: [21E14] KW=N. . All Rights Reserved.E16] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc.
p^gj^ g \ Mn ) Bm Now. multiply mks units to return cgs.Rearrange Equation [21El6]: If W I .. .E19] m Combine and simplify: Energy = I B"K'W'J' < I [21E20] Now. '— [21El 8] "" r^o ) \  [2i. substitute in Energy Equation [21El 1]: P Energy = Rearrange Equation [21El8]: Energy =  ^ If. All Rights Reserved. [cm 1 BJK Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. J'=j(l04) MPL =MPL(lO" 2 ) We can substitute into the energy equation to obtain: Energy =B'»K"W"JA< (w4} Solve for the area product: [21E21] 2(Energy) [21E22] — . Inc.
Transformer Regulation The minimum size of a transformer is usually determined either by a temperature rise limit. Transformer Window Allocation. V = ^A1—. the winding geometry is designed to limit the leakage inductance to a level low enough to be neglected under most operating conditions. Figure 21F1 shows a circuit diagram of a transformer with one secondary. assuming that size and weight are to be minimized. Secondary Figure 21F2. The transformer window allocation is shown in Figure 21F2.L./Np = 1 » n Secondary Figure 21F1.= Primary = Secondary [21F1] Primary <y. or by allowable voltage regulation.)K(F. W —. / ' L [%] J [21F2] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Note that a = regulation (%). .\(WO]. Primary n = N. Transformer Circuit Diagram.) . Also. The assumption is that distributed capacitance in the secondary can be neglected because the frequency and secondary voltage are not excessively high. . All Rights Reserved.(N. Transformer voltage regulation can now be expressed as: K.L. Inc.
For the sake of simplicity. =/„*. then: ^ . with a 1:1 turns ratio. =/. . and using the same current density.=W. the regulation equation can be rewritten to: [21 _ p9] a = 2 L ( l O O ) . Total copper loss is: [watts] [21_F?] [watt«] [21F8] PCU=PP+PS. assume the transformer in Figure 21F1 is an isolation transformer. [%] [21F10] Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker.L.I.L. Secondary copper loss is: P. is infinite.In which.. = ^ > [°hms] [21F3] With equal window areas allocated for the primary and secondary windings. Inc.= A r. [%] VI / ' L J ' ° [21F6] Primary copper loss is: Pp=Wplm. J: A F. R. VO(N. All Rights Reserved..) is the no load voltage. If the transformer has a 1:1 turns ratio and the core impedance is infinite. and VO(F. and the core impedance. I: a= .) is the full load voltage.( 1 0 0 ) .*. [volts] Regulation is then: AV \V a=—^(100) + —^(100)... [watts] Then. [%] > ^ [21_p4] [21F5] Multiply the equation by currents.
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