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HISTORY OF INDIAN COSTUMES SATAVAHANA PERIOD (200 B.C-A.

D 250)
BY, SMITHA B.Sc 1st Year

INTRODUCTION
Established in Deccan and endured for 460 years. Based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh to Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra and present Telangana regions They were one of the first Indian state to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. Early people of Deccan were a hybrid race, a mixture of aboriginal Dravidians and Scythians, Parthian, Greeks, Buddhism and Mauryan culture.

POLITICAL CONDITION
The hereditary monarchy based on Military-cum-Feudal Bureaucracy was the political system of Satavahanas.

Other officials were 'Mahamatra' (in charge of religious fares), 'Bhandagarika' (Superintendent of stores), 'Husinik' (Treasurer), 'Mahasenadipate (Commander-in-chief of forces). The king was claiming 1/6th of the produce of tax wage

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
Chaturvarna system- division of people into Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras Varnasankara (marriages outside varna). There were also tribes outside Aryan Varma system and people where known according to their profession Halika (cultivator), Kolika (weaver), Sethi (Merchant)," Gadhika (druggist), etc. Polygamy prevailed in the society, and patriarchal Joint family system was prevalent.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
Society was divided into four classes.
FIRST CLASS
High officials Ex: Maharathas, Mahabhojas Mahasenadipathis

SECOND CLASS
Middle class officials Ex: Mahamatras, Amatyas, Bhandagarikas, Naigamas

THIRD CLASS
Small officials Ex: Lekfiakas, professionals like Suvarnakaras .

FOURTH CLASS
Lohavanijas. Vardhakis, Dassakas, etc.

ROYAL LIFE
They followed 6 emblems of royal patronage Ushniha (turban), pair of flywhisks, umbrella, sword, sandles and the royal standards. Umbrella was white and gold for kings and nobles, carried by Chattradhara (umbrella carrier). Flywhisks were made of yak tails with gold handles, waved by Chauri bareers. Khagavahni- Female attendant carried sword on her shoulder. Thronged sandals were made out of boar skin. CHATTRADHARA ATTENDANTS

COSTUMES OF EARLY SATAVAHANA PERIOD


MENS COSTUME KING AND COURTIERS: wore the indigenous antariya with decorative kayabandh tied in different styles and knots. Ushnisa was always worn and crown was used when necessary. CIVILIANS: Tunics, Kancuka in stripes or behive design were worn, along with thick kayabandh around the waist. Kancuka: Were mid-high length with short sleeves and opening on the left side or in front with V or round shaped neck lines KINGS during hunting also wore tunic which had no discrenibel opening at the neck along with an elaborate turban ushnisa. HUNTERS: In addition to this also wore two-bar type sandals with a strap for buckling

WOMENS COSTUMES
Womens costumes had an influence of foreign invaders. ATTENDANTS- Wore transparent long antariyas with loose kayabandhs tied in a knot at the center along with beautiful ornaments. CIVILIANS-Their changed costumes included short antariyas, large uttariyas with elaborate borders covering their head and back.

HAIRSTYLE AND HEAD GEAR


Jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers. Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya. Court attendants and women of the richer class wore- topknot on the right side with a loop of flower suspended in a plait.

HEADGEAR- MEN
Worn intertwined with lengths of clot to from an ushnisa in a variety of ways. Most common style of top know covered with a cloth of the turban. This knot could be at center front ovet the forehead in a counch-shell shape

JEWELLERY
Indigenous Mens jewellery consisted of lambanam, earrings, and a pair of kangan and baju band , Womens wore large number of bangles made of conch or ivory, disc type earrings, the lambanam, and tikka. Women attendants wore mekhala.

MILITARY COSTUME
Soldiers wore short-sleeved tunics, with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with top knot, chin band and ear flaps, or two top knots with a turban. They were equipped with axes and bows and arrows or carried sickles.
SOLDIER

LATE SATAVAHANA COSTUME (100 B.C-A.D 250)


Antariya, Uttariya and Kayabandh was the three main costumes wore by both men and women. MENS COSTUME
ANTARIYA: Usually transperent
Te nivi bandha knot was used to tie the antrariya at the waist

UTTARIYA: It was usually white made out of cotton or silk. At times it was dyed and embroidered also.
It was worn in different styles- across the back and over both shoulders, thrown over the chest or in kachcha fashion.

KAYABANDH: Tied in bow shaped knot to support anatriya


Vethaka: Simple sash form of Kayabandh.

MENS COSTUME CONTD


Attendents, guard at kings palace wore stitched shirt like foreign garment called KANCHUKA. The YAJNOPAVATI THREAD evolved in this era, which was derived from uttariya which was draped over left shoulder and under right arm in the UPAVITA FASHION. YAJNOPAVITI THREAD- consist of 3 cotton threads each of 9 twisted strands- Brahmins, HempKshatariya, Wool- Vaishya.

WOMENS COSTUME
ANTARIYA- Made of almost transparent cloth and worn very tight and clinging to body. UTTRARIYA- Usually white at times with bright colors and embroidered in case of royal costume and worn in Kachcha style. KAYABANDH- Bow shaped to support antariya.
Patika made of lat ribbon-shaped pieces of cloth(silk) Kalabuka- girdle made of many strips plaited together. Mauraja- Had a drum headed knots at the ends.

Attendants in the womens apartments in the palace wore the short kanchuka with an indigenous antariya/ when calf-length it was worn with kayabandh and uttariya

HEADGEAR AND HAIRSTYLE-MEN


USHNISA- was generally wrapped around 3 times covering the top knot of hair which was usually white or dyed with ornamental gold strips. KIRITA- a short cylindrical cap studded with gems and ornamented with designs. MAULIBANDHA- an elaborate turban wound decorated with strings of pearls wreaths. HAIRSTYLE: Tied the hair in large topknot at center front covered with turban jewelled to hold the turban in place. At time the top knot could be Pear-shaped . The hair could also be worn in one or two topknots, one loop and one top knot. Short hair parted in the middle prevailed among civilians

MENS COSTUMES

KING

DWARAPALAKA

KING AS HUNTER

ATTENDENT AT COURT

HEADGEAR-WOMEN
Wore their hair in several ways
Plait, praveni at the back, decorated with jeweled strips and tassels. Coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it. Looped closed to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head down at the nape decorated with small fillet of flowers around it or a short garland of flower dangling from it. KABARIBANDHA- hair worn as a simple not. DHAMMILIA- Elobrate dressing of hair with flowers, pearls and jewels- most admired.

HEADGEAR:
CHUDAMANI-Lotus-shaped jewel with its petals made of pearls and precious stones normally worn in the center of knotted hair. MAKARIKA-Fish-crocodile shaped worn at the parting of hair

JEWELLERY
Strands of pearls were main in all forms of jewellery. Both men and women wore earrings, bracelets, armlets and necklaces. EARRINGS KUNDALA- Coil shaped earring TALAPATRA- small strip of ivory or gold palm leaf shaped rolled and studded with a gem stone. KANAKA-KAMALA- full blown lotus design studded with ruby worn along with a dangler called JIMIKI NECKLACES HARA- Strings of pearls. EKAVALI- Single string of pearls YASHTI- A necklace of gems and gold beads with larger central bead PHALAKA- Slab-like gems PHALAKA HARA- Several strings of pearls held together by phalakas KANTA- Shorter form of necklace NIKSHA- Gold coin strung necklace with silk or plaited gold cord. MANGAMALAI- Mango shaped pieces of gold or gold set with gems strung necklace

JEWELLERY CONTD..
MUKTAYAJNOPAVITA- Yajnopavita made of pearls. BRACELETS
VALAYA- Bracelet made our of solid gold set with precious stones PHALAKAVALAYA- Slab like gems set into bracelets.

ARMLETS- snake, straight edge, angular top edge

MEKHALA-Jewelled girdles of one or many strings.


Types- tinkling Kanci with bells, linked chain with pearls

ANKLETS
MANJIRA- Loose hollow and light coiling along with gems inside the hollow that provided the tinkling sound. NUPURA-Plain with suspended tinkling bells. TULAKOTI- Heavier looking coiling with tow ends enlarged at meeting point

WOMENS COSTUMES

ATTENDANT

VILLAGE WOMEN COURTIER

RELIGIOUS PERSON

BUDDHIST
Rich pieces (same color)of patchwork Symmetrically arranged (checks)

HINDU
VALKALA- Bar striped garment with Deer skin Top knot-heavy bundle JATABHARA Priest wore white cloth with red turban

JAINS
White robes

MILITARY COSTUME
ANDHRA SOLDIERS Wore an short antariya which was tucked in. Cloth sash was either tied around the waist or crossed at the tchest for protection Occasionally wore earrings and simple jewels.

FOREIGN SOLDIERS Wore heavy tunic with ruched sleeves- reached knees along with churidar form of trousers, helmet and earflaps. Wide sash was worn on the waist

Equipment- sword, shield, bow, axe and spear SWORD- Either curved and could have a sharp edge on one or both sides.Handles were of ivory and hilts of precious metal encrusted jewels. SHIELD- Rectangular to protect the body. BOW- Made of wood or horn, bow string- iron, bone, wood and had shafts of feather affixed in poison.

TEXTILES AND DYES


Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were available. A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by weavers and laborers Wool was woven into chaddars

ASSIGNMENT
Make a project on Satavahana period with illustrations displaying the people main area of design and stylization