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Rafid Haider, Md. Rajin Alam, Khosru M. Salim, Nafisa Binte Yousuf, Fatima Binte Zia
School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Email:
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and construction scheme of an inverter system which converts the DC voltage collected from a photovoltaic (PV) array into AC voltage. The output is a pure sine wave, with the voltage and frequency of the standard grid output. The system consists of a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) and full bridge inverter circuit with a passive filter. The power supply supplies the DC voltage needed to activate the optocouplers, which are connected to the switches of the full bridge circuitry. The optocouplers work as an isolation for the full bridge circuit. High frequency Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) pulses are generated by a microcontroller (PIC18F4431) and provided to the switches of full bridge connection. The full bridge inverter outputs a PWM signal which is later conditioned by an L-C filter. Finally, the output voltage and current is measured and displayed on an LCD (Liquid Crystal Diode) display.

develop a cost-effective inverter system to provide pure sine wave AC voltage at maximum efficiency. 2. METHODOLOGY The system uses SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation) technic to produce sine wave output from DC input. Pulse Width Modulation is the process of varying the width of pulse or pulses to control the output voltage of inverter. In SPWM, the width of each pulse of a pulse train is varied in proportion to the amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the center of the same pulse [2]. The sine wave is considered as reference signal, while a triangular wave is treated as the carrier wave. The frequency of reference signal determines the inverter output frequency, and its peak amplitude controls the modulation index. The idea is to change the output state at the intersecting point of the two waves [3]. Fig. 1 shows SPWM generation in above mentioned method.

1. INTRODUCTION Renewable energy is one of the fastest growing trends in post-industrialized societies as they face growing energy demands and actively seek cost effective solutions. Solar energy is one of the potential sources, which is preferred over others due to availability, simplicity, lower maintenance and reliable operation [1]. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays drastically reduce energy expenses and dependency on non-renewable energy sources. Given a reasonable location and a well-designed application, photovoltaic arrays can provide an excellent, cost saving solution for users requiring large amounts of power. For these reasons, solar powered electricity can be an excellent solution for the power crisis of Bangladesh. A DC/AC power inverter is needed to convert the DC voltage gathered by photovoltaic cells into AC voltage. In Bangladesh, mainly square wave power inverters are used. While the square wave inverters have a simpler circuitry and are cheaper, they lag behind in terms of performance and reliability in comparison with the sine wave inverters. The sine wave inverters give a pure sine wave output. They operate in near perfect efficiency, maximizing the output. Use of inefficient square wave inverters put additional strain on our already crippled power sector. So, while using a renewable energy source, the aim should be to maximize the power consumption. Our main objective is to design and

Figure 1: SPWM Generation

PIC18F4431 has a power PWM module which generates PWM counter. It can be configured to count up and down mode, making it equivalent to an isoscele triangular wave. A sine look up table serves as the virtual sine reference wave. These two are compared and corresponding PWM signals are generated from the microcontroller. For single phase sine wave geneartion, two PWM pulses are needed. The reference sinusoids of these two pulses have a mutual phase shift of 180° and both of them are of same frequency [4]. A DC-DC boost converter works as the Switch Mode Power Supply for the optocouplers, which work as electrical isolation for the full-bridge

2. 3. A3120 optocoupler ICs isolate the IGBTs from the controlling circuit unit. 2. To get pure sine wave. switches A and B are independent. 6 shows the flowchart of the program. Figure 2: Full Birdge Circuit Figure 4: SMPS. . 3. MBH15D-060 IGBTs have a maximum voltage rating of 600V and maximum current rating of 30A. which stores a fixed number of samples of a sinusoid at a predefined frequency (50 Hz in this case). Then. 3.1 Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) The optocoupler isolation drive circuit requires 18V DC to operate. From fig. acting as high frequency switches. An analog port intakes modulation index value and by ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion) retrieves the value. Four optocouplers are connected with the four IGBT switches. HARDWARE DESIGN The hardware for this project can be divided into four main phases. by real time extraction of data from the table using a pointer value. Figure 5: L-C filter Figure 3: System Block Diagram 3. (b) Full bridge circuitry and isolation. then accordingly revises the sine lookup table by multiplying the modulation index with the peak values of sine wave sample. 3. which attenuates the PWM sine and produces pure sine wave. two independent and their two complements. The DC voltage output from solar PV array is supplied across the full bridge circuitry as shown in fig. (a) Switch Mode Power Supply for drive circuit. four PWM outputs are needed. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PIC18F4431 microcontroller has eight power PWM outputs. The voltage and current are shown in a 2x16 LCD display. and updating the duty cycle registers of PIC18F4431 microcontroller. 3. (c) Filter circuit and (d) Monitoring and display circuit.circuit. an L-C filter is attached parallel to the load.2 Full Bridge Circuitry and Isolation The Full Bridge inverter circuit consists of four IGBTs.4 Monitoring and Display Circuit The monitoring circuit uses a voltage sensor and a current sensor to measure output voltage and current of the system. consisting of a ferrite core inductor and a capacitor. Fig. The PWM pulses and their compliments are fed to the switches of the full bridge circuit. SPWM output pulses are created. An SG3525 IC acts as „push-pull‟ converter in the SMPS circuit. isolation and inverter circuit The output of the inverter circuit is a PWM sinusoid. A look up table is created at the beginning of the program. For single phase SPWM generation.3 Filter Circuit The filter used over here is an L-C passive filter. The overall system architecture is shown in fig. The LCD display is operated by a PIC16F877A microcontroller. and switch D is compliment to switch A and switch C is compliment to switch B. a DC-DC converter circuit converts the 12V DC supply generated from a DC source into 18V DC by high frequency switching. 4. To provide this DC voltage.

Fig.(1) Eq.02s= 50 Hz Figure 6: Program Flowchart for PWM generation 6. instead of letting it jump to the full voltage. PTPER = 128 and PTMRPS = 1. Fig. As it takes 400 samples to complete a full cycle of the output sinusoid. This initial current is called the inrush current.2us. Figure 7: Program Flowchart for Soft Start Figure 9: Pure Sine Wave Output . To prevent this inrush current. such as motors.To implement soft start. The clock frequency is 20MHz.2us)= 1/0. T PWM = 51. The frequency of the sinusoid was calculated 50Hz by a stoage oscilloscope. So. 9 shows the sine output across a resistive load. Figure 8: Pulse Width Modulated Sine Wave The PWM sine is then applied across the L-C filter. The filter attenuates the signal and prodeces pure sine wave. which can have hazardous effect on the inverter system and appliances connected to it. FOSC = 20MHz. 7 shows the flowchart of implementing the soft start. Some electronic devices. Fig. 5. The modulation index is used to implement soft start mechanism. TPWM = 2*PTPER*PTMRPS / (FOSC/4)……….1. the frequency will be. 1/ (TPWM*400)= 1/(400*51. which increases the modulation index in several stages. 8 shows the pulse width modulated sine signal produced by the full bridge inverter circuit. from Eq. soft start is needed. a makeshift DC power supply was used as the input to the inverter. SYSTEM RESULTS For testing and verification. This is done by creating a nested loop in the program. which amplified and converted the AC voltage from grid to variable DC inputs with help of a variable and an isolation transformer. consume 600-800% of its full load current to start. 1 [5] shows the time elapsed to process one sample. Here. The time period. The PWM time base period for up-down counter mode is 128. OUTPUT FREQUENCY CALCULATION The number of samples in the sine lookup table is 400. the voltage across the load is notched by gradually increasing the modulation index.

And the data gathered testifies that the system is efficient enough. Anchorage. and the input and output powers were calculated from them.22% Figure 11: Sine Wave Output for Inductive Load For inductive load. 3rd edition.24% 86. Alaska.2 150 172. demonstrating the output voltage and current. While designing the circuit and selecting the components. Prentice Hall.64% 87.65% 92. Microchip Technology Inc.68% 92.4 121.4 484.4 81.775 448.4 529. Vander Metwe et al.27 38.55% 87. M. Rashid. Programmable.68% 90. the average efficiency of the system based on collected data is 95. 11).92% 78.56% 93. 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.4 729. Table 1: Input and Output Data Total Input Power AC (calculating the Output loss in drive Power circuit) (W) (W) 36. “A novel PWM technic for three-phase inverter/converter”.4 784.9995 400 600 800 1000 Input Power (W) Figure 10: Input Power vs.01% 88. Prentice Hall. Vol.2 299. the main objective was to keep the power losses to a minimum.4 625.56 105. 10 shows the input power vs. Ohnishi.2 204.. page 57-62. in its present condition.23% 95.9589x .82% 88. Devices and Applications”. The inverter.7 228 265. 1983.1.4 289. Ropp. An MPPT algorithm can be developed to find the maximum voltage point VMAX.4 256. which means the slope is 0. 2007 [5] PIC 18F2331/2431/4331/4431 Datasheet.4 576. E.J.4 49.H. 1997 [4] M. International Power Electronics Conference.4 64.85 56.54% 94.4 361. fig. H.21% 93.4 225. Figure 12: LCD display 7.95 369 404. does work in the manner it was expected and has met every goal set at the commencement of this venture.89%.75 334.4 400.40% 92.9589x – 11.68% 93.91 124. . output power curve. 1998 [2] T. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE This paper discusses the design and development of an efficient pure sine wave inverter. Simple additions such as circuit protection and a closed loop control system to implement MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) could greatly improve the performance of the system.4 100. pp. 384-395 [3] Hart. 2003 [6] D. Okitsu.4 169. REFERENCES [1] G.11. Therefore. The approximation of the curve has an equation of y = 0.The efficiency of the system was calculated from the input and output power of the inverter for a resistive load. Output Power Curve 0 200 Fig.31% 96.16% 91.699.8 488.6 809.6 DC Input Power (W) 35 48 63 80 99 120 143 168 195 224 255 288 323 360 399 440 483 528 575 624 675 728 783 840 System Efficiency 74. H. Output Power y = 0.4 144. “150W Inverter – an optimal design for use in solar home system”.16 68.64% 92. and by maintaining it maximum power can be harnessed from the system [6].70% 92. D.4 441. The display device also works well.6 680 747.20% 87. Maximum Power Point Tracking Test bed”. 12 shows the LCD display. Hohm. “Power Electronics Circuits.4 676. The input and output voltages and currents of the system were measured.20% 84.4 196. output remains similar.9589.4 27. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics.4 324.699 R² = 0.4 841.175 540 585 639. “Introduction to Power Electronics”. 2000 900 800 Output Power (W) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Input Power vs. The following table (table 1) shows the efficiency of system for different inputs.92% 91. except for a few ripples (fig. “Comparative study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms Using an Experimental. based on table 1.28% 90.6 90.