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Published by: Sanjeeth Reddy on Feb 21, 2012
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- Deepti Sharma


After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Outline the motivation process. 2. Describe Maslow¶s need hierarchy. 3. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. 4. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. 5. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. 6. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance.

O B J E C T I V E S (cont d)

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
7. 8. 9. Explain the job characteristics model. State the impact of underrewarding employees. Clarify key relationships in expectancy theory.


10. Explain how the contemporary theories of motivation complement each other.

Defining Motivation 
The processes that account for an individual s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. It is derived from the word motive which means needs, wants, drives or impulses within the individual Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries

2. Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs theory McGregor¶s Theory X and Theory y Herzberg¶s two factor theory McClelland¶s three needs theory . 3.Early Theories of Motivation 1. 4.

social. and self-actualization needs.Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Abraham Maslow)  Maslow proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally. . esteem. physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally.

These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival. food and sleep. . air. concerned with personal growth. 3. 4.Contd« 1. less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential. Social Needs . 2. such as the need for water.These include needs for safety and security.These include the need for things that reflect on selfesteem. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment. Physiological Needs .This is the highest level of Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs. Safety Needs .These include needs for belonging. health insurance. Esteem Needs . safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment. Self-actualizing people are self-aware. social recognition and accomplishment. 5. personal worth. Self-actualizing Needs . love and affection.

seek responsibility. and exercise selfdirection and self-control when committed to a goal. are capable of making decisions. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work. avoid responsibility. and must be directed and coerced to perform. lack ambition.Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) McGregor proposed two assumptions about human nature : Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work. .

When factors are adequate. . when adequate in a job. Hygiene Factors Factors such as company policy and administration.Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Also called as Motivation-Hygiene theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction. placate workers. supervision. while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. people will not be dissatisfied. and salary that.

Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers .

Contd« Motivation factors increase job satisfaction ‡ Company policy & administration ‡ Supervision ‡ Interpersonal relations ‡ Working conditions ‡ Salary ‡ Status ‡ Security ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction .

Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction .

the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases. Growth: desire for personal development. . Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. and growth. Relatedness: desire for relationships. relatedness.ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence.

Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Need for Achievement The drive to excel.David McClelland¶s Theory of Needs According to this theory there are three acquired needs that are major motivators in work. nPow nAch nAff . Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. to strive to succeed.

or to master complex tasks. ‡ Involves achievable but challenging goals. ‡ Brings public recognition and attention. ‡ Has an impact on people and events. . People high in (nAch) prefer work that: ‡ Involves individual responsibility for results. ‡ Provides feedback on performance.Contd« Need for Achievement (nAch) ‡ Desire to do something better or more efficiently. to solve problems. Need for Power (nPower) People high in (nPower) prefer work that: ‡ Involves control over other persons.

. People high in (nAff) prefer work that: ‡ Involves interpersonal relationships.Contd« Need for Affiliation (nAff) ‡ Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons. ‡ Provides for companionship ‡ Brings social approval.

while good managers emphasize helping others accomplish their goals.Need for Achievement (nAch) People with a high need for achievement  Strive for personal achievement rather than rewards of success.  They have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it¶s been done before  High achievers avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks  A need to achieve doesn¶t necessarily lead to being a good manager because high achievers focus on their own accomplishments. .

Matching High Achievers and Jobs .

Contemporary theories .

Cognitive Evaluation Theory  Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. money) can have different effects on individuals¶ intrinsic motivation i.e. praises) or tangible ( e.  Extrinsic rewards that are verbal (e.g. verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation whereas tangible rewards undermine it .  The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.g.


lead to higher performance. ‡Provide a foundation for behavioral selfmanagement. Properly set and well-managed task goals can be highly motivating. Motivational effects of task goals: ‡Provide direction to people in their work. ‡Clarify performance expectations. . with feedback.Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) The theory states that specific and difficult goals. ‡Establish a frame of reference for feedback.

Contd«  Participation in goal setting ‡ unlocks the motivational potential of goal setting. . ‡ ‡  Factors influencing the goals performance relationship: ‡ Goal commitment. task characteristics. management by objectives (MBO) promotes participation. when participation is not possible. workers will respond positively if supervisory trust and support exist. and national culture. adequate self-efficacy.

while those low in self-efficacy are likely to lessen their effort when given negative feedback  Managers can help their employees to achieve high level of selfefficacy by bringing together goal-setting theory and selfefficacy theory .  The higher the self-efficacy the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task  Individuals high in self-efficacy seem to respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation.Self-Efficacy theory  Also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory  The individual s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.

becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful 4) Arousal ± Arousal leads to an energized state which drives a person to complete the task. .Contd« Albert Bandura argues that there are four ways to increase selfefficacy 1) Enactive mastery ± gaining relevant experience with the task or job 2) Vicarious modeling ± becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task 3) Verbal persuasion .

Contd«  The best way for a manager to use verbal persuasion is through the Pygmalion effect or the Galatea effect  The Pygmalion effect is a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something to be true can make it true  The Galatea effect occurs when high performance expectations are communicated directly to an employee .

Skinner.F.  Consequences that immediately follow a behavior and increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated are called reinforcers.Reinforcement Theory  Reinforcement states that behavior is a function of its consequences. impact of type of consequence on future Operant conditioning: ‡ Developed by B. Law of effect behavior. .  Reinforcement theory focuses on the impact of external environmental consequences on behavior. ‡ Applies law of effect to control behavior by manipulating its consequences.

Negative reinforcement ‡ Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an unpleasant consequence. Punishment ‡ Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of an unpleasant consequence. Extinction ‡ Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an pleasant consequence. .Operant conditioning strategies Positive reinforcement ‡ Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of a pleasant consequence.

Contd«  Successful implementation of positive reinforcement is based on Law of contingent reinforcement ‡ Reward delivered only if desired behavior is exhibited. Law of immediate reinforcement ‡ More immediate the delivery of a reward. the more reinforcement value it has. .

Recognize individual differences when allocating rewards. Administer punishment in private. Inform everyone about what must be done to get rewards. Follow the laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement. Tell the person what is being done right.Contd«  Guidelines for using positive reinforcement: Clearly identify desired work behaviors. Maintain a diverse inventory of rewards.  Guidelines for using punishment: Tell the person what is being done wrong. . Follow laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement. Match the punishment to the behavior.

 Managers should design jobs deliberately and thoughtfully to reflect the demands of the changing environment and employees skills. abilities and preferences in order to motivate employees  There are two ways to design a job 1. Job Enlargement 2.Job Design Theory  Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. Job Enrichment .

Job Design Theory (cont¶d)  Job Characteristics Model .Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes Skill variety Task identity task significance Autonomy Feedback .

The Job Characteristics Model .

Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. .Job Design Theory (cont¶d) Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities.

Job Design Theory (cont¶d) Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. .

Job Design Theory (cont¶d) Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. .

. and productive. satisfied.Computing a Motivating Potential Score People who work on jobs with high core dimensions are generally more motivated. Job dimensions operate through the psychological states in influencing personal and work outcome variables rather than influencing them directly.

Equity Theory ( J. .Stacey Adams) Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.

Equity Theory (cont¶d) Equity theory is focused on : Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. . Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.

.Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.

Expectancy Theory Relationships  Effort±Performance Relationship The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.  Rewards±Personal Goals Relationship The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual. .  Performance±Reward Relationship The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.

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