You are on page 1of 12

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

International General Certificate of Secondary Education

MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2011 question paper for the guidance of teachers

0610 BIOLOGY
0610/31 Paper 3 (Extended Theory), maximum raw mark 80

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the examination.

• Cambridge will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2011 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

www.XtremePapers.net

but any following correct answers can gain marks. / . the word / phrase in brackets is not required to gain marks but sets context of response for credit. AVP AW MP © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. (waxy) cuticle.g.XtremePapers.Page 2 General notes Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Paper 31 Symbols used in mark scheme and guidance notes. underlined words – this word only / must be spelled correctly or reverse argument / answer answer makes appropriate reference to additional valid point (e.g. in comments) alternative words of equivalent meaning marking point (number) Small ORA ref. A R I ( ) separates alternatives for a marking point separates points for the award of a mark accept – as a correct response reject – this is marked with a cross and any following correct statements do not gain any marks ignore / irrelevant / inadequate – this response gains no mark.net . Waxy not needed but if it was described as a cellulose cuticle then no mark. e.

net . ignore blood vessel ignore any qualification of epithelium e. either active transport . (helps to) empty lacteal / move blood / move lymph . increase / maintain. 3 and 4 must be linked to the idea of movement 2 3 4 5 (c) idea that exposes villus to more food / changes surface area . A absorption against concentration gradient / uses energy / needs ATP / ref. lacteal / lymph(atic) vessel / lymph(atic) capillary . ‘support’. to protein pumps . ciliated epithelium [3] R lymph unqualified A side to side / up and down / waves about R ‘push the food along’.XtremePapers.Page 3 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance Question 1 (a) Expected answers from the top capillary . to carrier molecules / ref. gradient . used for energy / release of energy . diffusion / concentration. increases / helping / AW. ‘keeps it in place’ A change the shape (b) 1 (contracts to) move villus . MP 2.g. R produce energy [max 2] [max 2] one mark for the process and one mark for the explanation allow idea that the concentrations are the same (initially) so can’t be diffusion / must be active transport absorption must be qualified in some way ignore assimilation © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. absorption . or respiration . epithelium / goblet cell(s) .

(used in) chemical digestion . R ‘no diffusion’ stomach . dehydration / ora .XtremePapers. for breakdown of (large / insoluble) food (molecules) / hydrolysis . Visking tubing no difference in. makes it easier to move food (in alimentary canal) / AW . diarrhoea . [max 3] [1] [1] A alkali / bile (salts) / named enzyme(s) glucose / sugar / amino acids / fatty acids / glycerol / vitamins / minerals / ions A acts as a lubricant [max 3] if none of the expected answers accept 5 any function of water in the body for max 1 e.g. solvent / for dissolving. by osmosis . lower water potential outside bag . out of bag . ions / salts (in solution) . chew / swallow / egest . A named small food molecule(s) could be either soluble components of food or products of digestion softens food . prevents loss of.net . food . osmosis / diffusion of water . loss of.Page 4 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance if bag not identified assume ‘it’ is the small intestine Question (d) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (e) (i) (ii) (iii) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (iv) 1 2 3 4 Expected answers small intestine idea that glucose. A ora water. small intestine / ileum / duodenum . large volume of / lots of water . enzymes / named secretion . makes it easier to. solvent / for dissolving. transport / sweating / excretion / solvent / medium for reactions / reactant [max 2] R ‘turgidity of cells’ / respiration [Total: 17] © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. moves / diffuses. water potential / concentration . no (net). taken up by cells / moved outside bag .

making cytoplasm / (cell) growth . in a phagocyte A protein pumps R antibodies / hormones / collagen / keratin [max 3] ignore repair R produce / make energy R hereditary material / AW A ‘sends messages to the cytoplasm’ / [max 2] ‘tells the cells what to do’ A ref. bacteria / Rhizobium . transport of. respiration / photosynthesis . oxygen / carbon dioxide / gases .net . only for detail of any of the points above R death [2] A ‘nitrify’ / ignore bacteria ignore incorrect name or type of bacteria R if root nodules fix nitrogen ignore nitrate / R if occurs in soil ignore ‘useful’ nitrogen A useable nitrogen ecf provide nitrate to plant if penalised in MP3 R chloroplast do not allow anything for events that [max 4] occur after bacteria or plants die (c) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 proteins in cells enzymes . control / catalyse. A ref. (so) nitrogen made available to.g. to. provide. e. control functions of the cell . e. carrier proteins / description of role allowing movement in and out of cell . fixed nitrogen / ammonia / amino acids. e. to rest of.g. to any specific reaction(s) (part of cell) membranes . amino acids / proteins / DNA / RNA / chlorophyll / AW . AVP .g.Page 5 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance Question 2 (a) (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Expected answers A – excretion / egestion / defaecation . AVP . reactions / AW . haemoglobin . ammonia / ammonium (ions) . AVP . code for proteins . a specific feature of cells / cell division / mitosis / meiosis R digestion unless clearly inside cell. chloroplast / named organelle / providing energy DNA in cells ref. R via soil (fixed nitrogen etc) needed for growth . form. to mRNA © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. (bacteria) fix nitrogen / nitrogen fixation / nitrogen fixing . e.XtremePapers. B – nitrification / oxidation . animals / other organisms . genes / alleles / genetic information / genetic code .g. plant . root nodules contain. used to make.

e. reduces light reaching other plants .g. from lack of light / no resources A decomposers / fungi / microorganisms for bacteria R decrease in oxygen if linked to less photosynthesis R change in pH / toxins as cause of death must be linked to shortage of oxygen (however caused) [max 4] [Total: 15] © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. decompose / feed on. reduces biodiversity / destroys food chains e.g.net . suffocate / die / migrate . A dead animals / ‘eat’ aerobic respiration . growth of algae / algal bloom / weed growth . A aerobic bacteria (bacteria cause) oxygen (concentration in water) to decrease . any further detail or consequence of any of the above marking points. (so) fish / invertebrates / animals.g. die . e.Page 6 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance Question (d) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Expected answers eutrophication . bacteria. AVP . algae / plants.XtremePapers. dead plants .

to any substance R breathing [max 3] progesterone / oestrogen / HCG ignore ‘relaxes’ / ‘opens’ [2] © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. secretes. hormone(s) / named hormone(s) . A ‘the baby’ A ‘shock absorber’ ignore pH. loss of. urea / waste . loss of carbon dioxide (from fetus) . A disease transfer of antibodies (from mother) .XtremePapers. water . allows fetus to move . needed for. A ‘keeps the fetus warm’ A correct / suitable. supply of. helps. lungs / gut.Page 7 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance A holds Question 3 (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (c) Expected answers (amniotic) sac. functions of the placenta – one mark per line ref to barrier between blood systems / prevention of maternal and fetal blood mixing . damage / sudden movements / bumps / AW . A – dilates / widens / expands / stretches . prevents entry of pathogens (from vagina) . growth / development . idea that protection against mother’s immune system .net . supply of oxygen (to fetus) . ignore ‘food’ supply / removes. pathogen(s) / named pathogen(s) . R urine protection against. bone / muscle. provides sterile environment / AW . provides constant temperature / protects against fluctuating temperature . urine / waste / excretion(s) . the amniotic fluid . temperature ignore egest [max 4] award one mark for idea of exchange if no ref. protects / cushions. nutrients / named nutrient(s) . contains / secretes. develop . B – contracts . collects fetal. sac. A ‘disease’ amniotic fluid or amniotic sac supports fetus . against.

it’s free / ‘cheap’ .g. to colostrums / provides passive immunity . diseases that the mother has had / common diseases . painful / sore nipples / mastitis . medications / drugs / alcohol. further detail.XtremePapers. e.g. food . breast cancer / ovarian cancer . viruses / HIV / hepatitis B . temperature . helps the body to return to ‘normal’ . provides protection against. A any suitable comment about nutrients A right composition for humans A temporary immunity / AW A named microorganism(s) R ‘fights’ disease A less likely to get diarrhoea [max 4] [Total: 13] © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. can pass to baby . formula milk / bottled milk . e.Page 8 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance Question (d) Expected answers advantages to max 3 provides. no additives . best / complete / most suitable / AW.net . task cannot be shared with other parent . stressful / may be embarrassing / AW . no preparation / always available . weight loss / restores uterus contraceptive effect . easy to digest . protects against. possible disadvantages to max 3 transfer of. AVP . contains antibodies / ref. bonding with mother . is at. cannot see how much baby has consumed . body / correct. reduce risk of allergies . sterile / no risk of infection from. pathogens / diseases / microorganisms . mother may not be able to produce enough milk .

e. better / more efficient. A ‘passes out of blood’ / ‘passes into blood’ / removed / taken out / diffuses in / diffuses out [max 2] A minerals / any named salt or ion A ‘doesn’t need to go to clinic / hospital’ MP2 is medical issue A any appropriate blood borne disorder MP3 is social issue MP6 R cost unqualified [max 3] A ‘dialysis machine available for others’ R one I for the genotypes. could be increase. water (content) increases / decreases . an example of a disadvantage of dialysis . glucose / sugar . (blood group) O . decreases . IAO gametes must be derived correctly from the parental genotypes written explanation may be written in terms of parents pass on the allele IO ignore gene for allele [max 4] [1] R a ratio e. (allele) O recessive to A and B .g.net . parents must both. IO + IB . 1:3 [Total: 10] I I xI I .Page 9 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance Question 4 (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (c) (i) Expected answers A–B urea (concentration) decreases . O. A . decrease or stays the same advantages of transplants long term solution / person no longer needs (regular) dialysis .25 / ¼ / 1 in 4 . salt (concentration). can have wider diet / ora . (blood group) O . control of composition of blood . to cost or economic benefit – to health service or to individual . (ii) 25% / 0.XtremePapers. IOIO . A O B O OO . IO . A pain / tiring / discomfort / takes a long time / fails eventually increased freedom / better quality of life / ora . IA .g. ref. © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. (allele) IO recessive to IA and IB . O + B . ref to. have IO / O / be heterozygous . accept: AO x BO .

take the first answer. allows / controls rate of. If this is contradicted by the second answer then award 0. transpiration . if formulae of molecules are correct but equation is not correctly balanced = 2 marks with one mark for each side of the [3] equation if more than one function given in a box. stoma(ta) . allow movement of.Page 10 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance correct equation = 3 marks Question 5 (a) Expected answers 6CO2 + 6H2O . buoyancy / floating / diffusion or movement of gas or named gas . if no marks for the balanced equation allow one mark for correct word equation if given (b) features A B functions transparent to allow light to penetrate into the leaf max one open / close. correctly balanced .XtremePapers. enter / leave C D [3] ignore gas exchange R gas(es) in and / or out © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. A controls size of stoma(ta) A for (named) gas to.net . ignore gas exchange / movement of air absorbs light / photosynthesis / starch or sugar production . C6H12O6 + 6O2 . gas(es) / oxygen / carbon dioxide / water vapour .

therefore no growth’ [Total: 14] (ii) 1 2 3 4 magnesium required for making chlorophyll . chlorophyll gives (leaves) green colour / without chlorophyll (leaves) are yellow . less photosynthesis / cannot produce (much).net . stomata in upper. no need to reduce water loss by transpiration . therefore less growth . plants. were yellow / had yellow spots (at lower concentrations) / ora . R ‘stops entry of water’ thin cuticle . to stomata on lower surface and uptake of water [2 max] must be a clear statement that this is about the number of plants.15 or 0. food / glucose / AW. (so) less. Additional Guidance mark first ‘way’ only marking points are in pairs – only one pair is needed to gain the two marks ignore gas exchange in this question A ‘top of the leaf’ / ‘at top’ R transpiration ref. effect of decreasing concentration of magnesium salt fewer plants / smaller number of plants / reduction in number / less (asexual) reproduction . to yellow spots at 0. A alternatives for large for. do not accept numbers alone for this point A ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’ concentrations [max 3] without units A ‘magnesium is needed for chlorophyll’ A (less magnesium) less chlorophyll is made A ‘no photosynthesis’ R chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis [max 3] A ‘no food. food / glucose .10 / nearly all yellow at 0. © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. of gas / gases (from the air) . R ref. to survival data quote number of plants from two stated concentrations with unit . surface / epidermis . leaves float . ignore ref.XtremePapers.Page 11 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Question (c) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (d) (i) Expected answers large air spaces / large spongy mesophyll .05 mg dm–3 . efficient at absorbing light / ‘gets more light’ / AW . A ora diffusion / movement. ref. buoyancy / floating .

survived . to. e.net . insects 1 and 2 have two pairs of wings . (natural) selection . are in the same genus / have the same generic name . did not survive / became extinct / died out . have antennae that are. long(er) / same shape / thick . e. predators / other animals. A ref. ‘fear of’ painful sting / frightened of being stung . predators / other animals) . to selected for / selected against [max 2] (c) R camouflage [max 5] [Total: 11] © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 www. eaten / killed (by. gives stripes .g. any correct reference to size . ‘they have similar size’ AVP . recognise. similar shape of abdomen [max 2] R any feature of 1 and 2 that is said to be ‘similar’ unless qualified A four wings R two wings A ‘feelers’ / bent shape R stripes on thorax [max 2] R similar shape unqualified (ii) (b) predators / other animals. (both have) Vespula . do not eat it / avoid it / do not attack it / do not go near it . pass on the allele(s) for stripes (to next generation) .Page 12 Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version IGCSE – May/June 2011 Syllabus 0610 Mark Paper 31 Additional Guidance ignore any references to the species Question 6 (a) (i) Expected answers either insects 1 and 2. or insect 3 is in a different genus . flavopilosa . have stripes / have a pattern / have similar markings . warning appearance / stripes / AW . (its name is) Callicera .g. (some) stripey insects were not.XtremePapers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 mutation . A gene(s) non-stripey insects. mistake it for. breed / reproduce / mate . Vespula / V. have small(er) eyes .