Human Resource Management

Introduction
Management has been defined as ³the art of getting things done through others". But management is much more than this. It is further defined as´«that field of human behaviour in which managers plan, organise, staff, direct and control human, physical and financial resources in an organised effort, in order to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Thus human resources is a crucial sub-system in the process of management. The term subhuman resources is quite popular in India with the institution of µMinistry of Human Resources Development¶ in the Union Cabinet.

Meaning of Human Resources
According to Leon C.Magginson, the term human resources can be thought of as, ³the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organisation¶s workforce, as well as the value, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved. 1

The development aspect. Human Resources management is the planning.men. old or new. development.the Human Resource occupies a vital position. maintenance and reproduction of human resources to the end that individual. big or small.Human Resource Management All the organizations have three basic resources.material and money. Human Resources management has two aspects. organizing. directing and controlling of the procurement. Definition of HRM For Flippo. Out of these. because it is through the men on the job that the organization is able to utilise the material and machine resources for the maximum benefit of the organization.that is. 2 . Human Resource management is of crucial significance. integration. In every organization. compensation. public or private. The management or administration aspect. organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.

Employee is viewed as a commodity or tool 3.employees and their family members. aptitudes. 3. 5. of people Knowledge. Personnel management is the management people employed. 4. creative abilities etc. Employee in Human Resource management treated as an economic man as his is treated not only as economic man but also services are exchanged for salary/wages. Employees are treated as cost centre and 4. Thus. Personnel means persons employed. Benefit of the organisation. 2. invests capital for human resource labour. Or equipment which can be purchased and used. . Human Resource Management Human Resource management is the management of employees¶ skills. Employee are treated as a resource. Employees are treated as profit centre and therefore management controls the cost of therefore. abilities. talents. Employees are used mostly for organisational 5. Employees are used for the multiple mutual 3 benefit. 1.Employee in personnel management is mostly 2. the complete man is viewed under this approach. development and future utility.Personnel Vs Human Resources Personnel Management 1. as social and psychological man.

Basically the function of HRM may be divided into two categories. Managerial functions and Operating functions Managerial functions Planning Organizing Directing Controlling 4 .Functions of HRM Human Resources management consists of several inter-related functions. These functions are common to all organizations.

Operative Functions The operative functions of Human Resources management can be discussed in the following: 1.Development Function Training Executive Development Performance and Potential Appraisal Career Planning and Development 5 . Procurement Function Job Analysis Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selections Placement Induction or Orientation 2.

Integration Function Collective bargaining Conflict resolution Employee counseling Providing Job satisfaction Worker¶s participation in management Improving quality of work life Developing sound human relations etc. conveyance facilities. educational facilities. pension.3. gratuity. provident fund. 5. Maintenance Function It is mainly concerned with promoting and protecting the physical and mental health of employees such as medical aids. Compensation Function: Job Evaluation Wage and Salary administration Bonus 4. 6 . group insurance etc.

Nature of HRM Pervasive force Action Oriented Individually Oriented People Oriented Future Oriented Development Oriented Integrating Mechanism Comprehensive function Auxiliary service Inter disciplinary function Continuous function 7 .

Objectives of HRM To help the organisation reach its goals To employ the skills and abilities of the workforce efficiently To provide the organisation with well trained and well motivated employees To increase to the fullest the employee¶s job satisfaction and self actualisation To develop and maintain a quality of work life To communicate HR policies to all employees To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society 8 .

Some of the important roles of HR manager in an organisation in addition to the managerial & operative functions are discussed below. Just as finance assesses costs.Role of HR Manager in an Organisation Ideally.  policy initiation Linking pin role Decision making role Leadership role Research role Advisory role Representative role Mediator role Welfare role 9 . personnel is people centred. the HR manager should concentrate on drawing managerial attention to human problems. marketing emphasises customers. Success of a HR manager depends on the degree of contribution to solve management problems in dealing with human resources in the organisation.

transfer. Welfare aspect: It deals with working conditions and amenties such as canteens. medical assistance. rest and lunch rooms. remuneration. collective bargaining. recreation facilities. housing. retrenchment.etc. health and safety. education. promotion. training and development. recruitment. 10   . incentives. selection. creches. unionjoint consultation. grievances and disciplinary procedures. placement. productivity etc. transport. Industrial relation aspect: This covers union-managemnt relations.Scope of HRM The scope of HRM is very wide. settlement of dispute etc. The Indian Institute of Personnel management has specified the scope of HRM thus:  Personnel aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning.

technology made rapid progress. and specialisation increased speed and efficiency but left workers with dull. represents a crystallization of a variety of historical factors.History of HRM The field of HRM as it currently exists. boring and monotonous jobs. Government did very little to protect the interests of workers. 1. 11 . Employers were keen to meet production targets rather than satisfy workers demands. jobs were more fragmented where the worker did only a small portion of the total job. The Industrial revolution: During this period machines were bought in.

people should be trained to perform each job in the best way and management and workers should cooperate so that the job is performed in the desired manner. To boost up productivity. 12 .Taylor is known as the ³Father of Scientific management´ Taylor stressed the importance of employee welfare as well as production efficiency.level. Scientific management emphasizes that managers and industrial engineers should develop the best way to perform each job. The emphasis was on maximum output with minimum effort through elimination of waste and inefficiency at the shop floor. wage incentives based on performance (differential price rate system) were introduced. Frederick W. Scientific management To improve efficiency and speed F W Taylor advocated scientific management.2.

4. unfair labour practices through unions. Trade unionism: Workers joined hands to protect against the exploitative tendencies of employers and the prohibitive. but by certain social 13 and psychological factors as well.3. Unions tried to improve the lot of workers through collective bargaining. disciplinary actions etc. pay and benefits. resolving the grievances of workers relating to working conditions. . Human relations movement: The famous Hawthorne experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and his Harvard colleagues during 1930s and 1940s demonstrated that employee productivity was affected not only by the way the job was designed and the manner in which employees were rewarded economically.

benefits and many other conditions of work. emphasizing support and concern for workers .The human relation movement led to the wide scale implementation of behavioral science techniques in industry for the first time which included supervisory training programmes. wages. The rise of unionism during this period was due to the passage of Wagner act which gave workers the legal right to bargain collectively with employers over matters concerning. The movement was also influenced by the growing strength of unions during late 1930s and 1940s. job security. programmes to strengthen the bonds between labour and management and counseling programmes whereby employees were encouraged to discuss both work and personal problems with trained counsellors. 14 .

Human resource approach However. needs and values. It was recognised that each employee is a unique and highly complex individual with different wants. (advocating that happy workers are productive workers or happy cows give more milk) of human relationists had been largely rejected. Slowly but steadily. What motivates one employee may not motivate another and being happy or feeling good may have little or no impact on the productivity of certain employees. the trend toward treating employees as resource or assets emerged. Recognising the fact that workers are unique in their way . The emphasis in the human resource approach is on individual involvement in the decisions made in the organisation. The Human Resource approach assumes that the job or the task itself is the primary source of satisfaction and motivation to employee. during early 60s the µpet milk theory¶. 15 .5.having individual needs.

. this approach emphasises the following things. Most people can exercise a great deal of more self direction. self control and creativity than are required in their current jobs. Expanding subordinates influence. The manger should create a healthy environment wherein all subordinates can contribute to the best of their capacities. People do not inherently dislike work and if they are helped establish objectives they want to achieve them. Work satisfaction may improve as a µby-product¶ of subordinates 16 making full use of their potential. safe. comfortable and convenient place to work.In addition. The mangers basic job is to use the untapped human potential in the service of the organisation. The environment should provide a healthy. self direction and self control will lead to direct improvements in operating efficiency. The manager should provide for self direction by the subordinates and they must be encouraged to participate fully in all important matters.