Clasa a XI-a

-1
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii

 Definitie vecinatate a unui punct :
- Fixam un punct a ∈R ;
- Se numeste vecinatate a punctului a orice multime V ⊂ R care contine un interval deschis
centrat in a , adica : in acest caz exista r > 0 astfel incat ( a − r , a + r ) ⊂ V .

 Definitie punct de acumulare ( punct limita ) :
- Fie A o submultime nevida din R : A ⊂ R ;
- Un punct a ∈R se numeste punct de acumulare (sau punct limita) pentru multimea A daca

(∀)

V ∈Va

(= multimea vecinatatilor punctului a ) sa rezulte ( V − { a} ) ∩ A ≠ Φ .

- aceasta definitie spune ca un punct a ∈R este punct de acumulare pntru multimea A daca
orice vecinatate V a punctului a mai contine si alte puncte din A , diferite de a , adica exista :

x ∈V ∩ A cu x ≠ a

 Definitie punct izolat :
- Fie A o submultime nevida din R : A ⊂ R ;
- Un punct
V a punctului

x0 ∈ A

se numeste punct izolat al multimii A daca exista cel putin o vecinatate

x0 a s t f ienl c a Vt ∩ A = { x0}

.

 Observatie :

Orice punct al unei multimi A este fie punct de acumulare , fie punct izolat .

Limite de functiii

Clasa a XI-a
-2
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii

Fixam o functie
,

x0 ∈ R

f : D →R

, ( D ⊂ R ) si un punct

x0

punct de acumulare a lui D

.

 Definitie criteriul cu vecinatati :
- Functia f are limita in punctul

x0

, egala cu  si scriem :

f ( x) = 
lim

x

x0

daca pentru orice vecinatate V a lui  exista o vecinatate U a lui
orice :

x0

astfel incat pentru

x ∈ D ∩ U \ { x0} ⇒ f ( x) ∈ V

 Toreme de caracterizare a limitei unei functii intr-un punct :

Criteriul : ε - δ .
- Fie f : D → R , ( D ⊂ R ) , o functie si
- Functia f are limita in punctul

daca
si numai daca

orice

x0

x = x0

punct de acumulare a lui D ,
, egala cu ∈R si scriem :

x0 ∈ R

;

lim f ( x ) = 

x → x0

(∀) ε > 0 exista numarul real δ ( ε ) > 0 , depinzand de ε , astfel incat pentru

x ∈ D \ { x0}

, cu proprietatea

x − x0 < δ

sa rezulte : f ( x ) − <ε .

Criteriul : cu siruri .
- Fie f : D → R , ( D ⊂ R ) , o functie si

x0

punct de acumulare a lui D ,

x0 ∈ R

;

Limite de functiii

Clasa a XI-a
-3
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii

- Functia f are limita in punctul

lim f ( x ) = 

x → x0

daca pentru orice sir

x = x0

, egala cu ∈R , finit sau infinit , si scriem :

( an ) , a ∈ D \ { x } , a → x
n≥ 0 n

0 n 0

avem :

f ( an ) → 

.

 Observatie :

Daca exista , limita unei functii intr-un punct este unica .

 Definitie : Limita la stanga :
- Fie f : D → R , ( D ⊂ R ) ,

x0

punct de acumulare pentru multimea :

'
D = D ∩ ( − ∞ , x0 ) = { x ∈ D x < x0} si s ∈ R

- Functia f are limita la stanga in punctul

V a lui

s

x0

, exista o vecinatate U a lui

x < x0
- Vom folosi notatiile :

l s = f ( x0 − 0 ) = l im f ( x )

x x0
x < x0

,

x0

egala cu

s

daca oricare ar fi vecinatatea

, astfel incat pentru orice :

x ∈ U ∩ D \ { x0} ⇒ f ( x) ∈ V

.

 Definitie : Limita la dreapta :
- Fie f : D → R , ( D ⊂ R ) ,

x0

punct de acumulare pentru multimea :

'
D = D ∩ ( x0 ,+ ∞) = { x ∈ D x > x0} si d ∈ R

Limite de functiii

astfel incat pentru orice : x ∈ U ∩ D \ { x0} ⇒ f ( x) ∈ V .Atunci urmatoarele afirmatii sunt echivalente : 1). . f are limita in punctul x0 .daca domeniul de definitie este restrictiv .Fie f : D → R . Limitele laterale se folosesc in urmatoarele situatii : . 2). f ( x0 − 0 ) = f ( x0 + 0 ) In aceste conditii : f ( x ) = f ( x0 − 0 ) = f ( x0 + 0 ) lim → x x0 . .daca trecand la limita obtinem : a .Clasa a XI-a -4 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii .b in punctul a vorbim de limita laterala la dreapta .Functia f are limita la dreapta in punctul vecinatatea V a lui d x0 egala cu x0 .  TEOREMA : de caracterizare a limitei unei functii intr-un punct cu ajutorul limitelor laterale . 0 . existe limitele laterale in x0 x0 punct de acumulare pentru multimea D astfel incat sa ( deci exista f ( x0 − 0 ) . Daca f : ( a. b ) → R si are limite in punctele a .Vom folosi notatiile : l d = f ( x0 + 0 ) = lim f ( x ) → x x0 x > x0 .Aceasta teorema spune ca o functie are limita intr-un punct daca si numai daca exista limitele laterale cu proprietatea ca sunt si egale .in punctele in care o functie definita pe ramuri isi schimba expresia . ( D ⊂ R ) . 2). iar in punctul b de limita laterala la stanga . de exemplu : f ( x ) = ln(1− x2 ) . f ( x0 + 0 ) ) . exista o vecinatate U a lui x > x0 .  Observatii : 1). d daca oricare ar fi . Limite de functiii .

 ∈ R . f ( x ) = 1 lim → x si x0 g ( x ) = 2 . ( Limita sumei este egala cu suma limitelor ) Caz execeptat : ( ∞ − ∞) daca 2) 1 = ∞ . c ∈ R lim 1 2 x →x atunci functia 0 : 1) (f x0 + g ) are limita in si lim( f + g )( x ) = 1 + 2 = lim f ( x ) + lim g ( x ) x → x0 x → x0 x → x0 . 2 = ∞ x0 ( c ⋅ f ) are limita in si limc( f )( x ) = c ⋅ 1 = c ⋅ lim f ( x ) x → x0 x → x0 . ( Limita produsului este egala cu produsul limitelor ) Caz execeptat : ( 0 ⋅ ∞) daca 4) f  g     are limita in  1 = 0 .Clasa a XI-a -5 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  Fie f . daca 2 ≠ 0 0 x x0 Limite de functiii .. 2 = − ∞ s a u 1 = − ∞ . 2 = ± ∞s a u 1 = ± ∞. g : D →R si  Daca : x0 un punct de acumulare pentru D . 2 = 0 x 0 si f ( x) lim f → x x    ( x ) = 1 = lim x →x  g  2 lim g ( x ) → 0 .  . ( O constanta iasa in afara limitei ) 3) (f x0 ⋅ g ) are limita in si lim( f ⋅ g )( x ) = 1 ⋅ 2 = lim f ( x ) ⋅ lim g ( x ) x → x0 x → x0 x → x0 .

Cazuri exceptate : 6) f ±∞ daca ∞ (1 ∞ 1 = ∞ . x0 un punct de acumulare pentru D si V o vecinatate (∀ ) x∈ V ∩ D . x → x0 x → x0 g ( x) = − ∞ lim → x x0 atunci f ( x) = − ∞ lim → x x0 . ∞0 ) are limita in x0 si f ( x ) = 1 . x ≠ x 0 si daca f si g au limite in punctul x0 ∈ R atunci : Limite de functiii . . x ≠ x0 si daca xlim → x0 f ( x) =  lim → x x0  Consecinte : 1) Daca f ( x ) ≥ g ( x ) si 2) Daca f ( x ) ≤ g ( x ) si lim g ( x ) = + ∞ atunci lim f ( x ) = + ∞ . 2 = ∞ x0 si lim x →x 0 ( f )( x ) = g 2 1    lim g ( x )  →x 0   x     =  lim f ( x ) x →x0  .Fie f . g : D →R doua functii si x0 un punct de acumulare pentru D si V o vecinatate a lui x0 .Clasa a XI-a -6 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii ( Limita catului este egala cu catul limitelor ) Cazuri execeptate : (f ) g 5) are limita in f ( x) > 0 .Fie f .Daca f ( x ) − ≤ g ( x ) .Daca f ( x ) ≤ g ( x ) . . g ( x ) = 0 atunci : . . daca . 00 .  Trecerea la Limita in Inegalitati . ( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D . 2 = − ∞ s a u 1 = − ∞ . g : D →R doua functii si a lui x0 . lim f ( x ) = lim → x →x 0 x x0 ( Limita modulului este egala cu modulul limitei )  Criteriul : MAJORARII .

( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D . g . f are limita in a si V ∈V a .( V a = multimea vecinatatilor punctului a ) . ( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D .( V a = multimea vecinatatilor punctului a ).  Fie trei functii f . a un punct de acumulare pentru D . ( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D . x ≠ a . . α ≤ lim f ( x ) ≤ β x→ a . x ≠ a atunci  Daca α ≤ f ( x ) ≤ β .   TEOREMA : ( criteriu) . . x ≠ a atunci  Daca f ( x ) ≤ 0 .  TEOREMA : CLESTELUI . Aceasta teorema este un alt rezultat important care permite calculul limitei unui produs de functii :  Fie f . . doua functii si a∈V a . h : D →R . 2). g : D →R . x ≠ a atunci x→ a f ( x) ≤ 0 lim x→ a . a∈V a si V o f ( x ) = limh( x ) =  lim x→ a x→ a atunci g are limita in Schematic : a si mai mult : g( x) =  lim x→ a f ( x ) ≤g ( x ) ≤h( x ) ↓  ↓  ↓ . f ( x ) ≤ g ( x ) ≤ h( x ) . lim f ( x ) ≥ 0  Daca f ( x ) ≥ 0 . ( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D .Clasa a XI-a -7 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii lim f ( x ) ≤ lim g ( x ) x → x0 x → x0  Corolar : a∈V a Fie f : D → R . vecinatate a lui a . Limite de functiii .  Daca : 1).

Clasa a XI-a -8 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii a punct de acumulare . 1 Limita : .Pentru ca ele sa devina operabile este nevoie de cunoasterea procedurii de calcul a limitelor principalelor functii. 2). in doua cazuri : 1). Cand 2). V ∈V a f ( x ) ≤M . . Cand  a a este punct de acumulare finit . x→ a  Limita produsului dintre o functie marginita si o functie de limita zero este zero !!! In cele enuntate si discutate anterior acestui capitol . am vazut cateva operatii cu limite de functii . Vom discuta si calcula limita functiei . lim f ( x ) ⋅ g ( x ) = 0 . ( ∀) x ∈V ∩ D . este punct de acumulare infinit ( daca exista ) .cu proprietatile : a ). si 1). M > 0 ( f marginita pe o vecinatate a lui g( x) = 0 lim x→ a  Atunci : . in general . Limite de functiii .

n .Fie functia polinomiala : f : R → R f ( x ) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + . Daca a este un punct de acumulare infinit atunci : f ( x ) = lim a n xn = a n ⋅ ( ±∞) lim x →a x →a Deci limita unei functii polinomiale la ±∞ n este aceeasi cu limita termenului de grad maxim .. + a1 x + a0 unde :  ak ∈ R . 2). ... .Fie f : R → R .Clasa a XI-a -9 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii   . . ( ∀) a ∈R 2 Limita : .+ ak xk + ak −1 xk −1 + .. se obtine inlocuind x cu a . an ≠ 0 . f ( x ) = c .. c ∈ R .Atunci : f ( x) = c lim x→ a   .. k = 0... Limite de functiii . Daca a este un punct de acumulare finit atunci : f ( x) = f ( a) lim x→ a Deci limita unei functii polinomiale intr-un punct de acumulare finit a .Avem cazurile : 1).

...... 3 x 2 lim( 2 x e − x + 5 ) = x→ 3 ........................................... 3 2 lim( x + x + x ) = x→ ∞ .. 3).....Clasa a XI-a .... 2 ( 5x + 7 x ) = lim x→ −2 .................................................................................................................................... 10)............................. 8)........................................................................................... Limite de functiii ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7).......................................................................................................................................... 4 ( x + 6x ) = lim x→ −1 ........................................ 2)......................................... 6). 3 lim( 2 x + 2 x − 7 ) = x→ 7 ........... 3 2 ( 2 x + x + 3x − 8 ) = lim x→ ∞ ........................................ 2 ( x + 2x − 3 ) = lim x→ 1 ............... 5)................ 2 2 ( 3x + 6 x − 3 ) = lim x→ 0 ............ 9)............................................ 2 ( − 2x + 2x − 6 ) = lim x→ −3 ..................10 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 1)............................................................................................................... 6 3 3 ( 5 x + 2 x − 3x ) = lim x→ 0 ............................................................................................................... 4).............................................................................

.... 17)................................... 14)............................................ 18)......................................................................................Clasa a XI-a ....... 3 2 ( x − x + 5x + 7 ) = lim x → −∞ ............................................................ 13)........ 4 lim ( − 3x + 6 x − 1 ) = x→ ∞ ..................................................................................... 3 2 ( − x + 6x + 3 ) = lim x → −∞ ................ 2 ( 7 − 2x − 7x ) = lim x→ ∞ ........... 3 2 ( − x + 3x + 10 x ) = lim x → −∞ ...11 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 11)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15)........................................................................................... 3 ( x + 2005 ) = lim x→ ∞ ..................... Limite de functiii .................... 4 2 ( x + 5x + x ) = lim x → −∞ .................................................. 16)........................................................................................................... 5 2 ( − 3x + 4 x + x + 1 ) = lim x→ ∞ ........................................ 12).............................

k . + b j x j + b j −1 x j −1 + . b j ∈ R .. bl ≠ 0 . + b1 x + b0 unde :  ai ..... O modalitate de a scapa de nedeterminare este ca sa descompunem polinoamele in factori primi si prin reducerea termenilor asemenea sa ajungem la rezultatul final .12 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii   3 Limita : . a k . i = 0. Daca a este un punct de acumulare infinit atunci : Limite de functiii .. .Clasa a XI-a . j = 0. acest subcaz 2 este mai complexa .Distingem cazurile : 1)..... + a1 x + a0 Q( x ) = bl xl + bl −1 xl −1 + . Eliminarea acestiu caz de nedeterminare o vom discuta in capitolele ce vor urma( cazurile de nedeterminare ale limitelor de functii ) .. f : R − { x Q ( x) = 0} → R Q( x ) unde P si Q sunt functii polinomiale : P( x ) = ak xk + a k −1 xk −1 + ... dar aceasta numai in conditiile in care si P( a ) = 0 ...Fie functia rationala : f ( x ) = P( x ) . . + ai xi + ai −1 xi −1 + . l .. 2). Subcazul 1 : Daca a este un punct de acumulare finit cu proprietaea ca Q ( a ) ≠ 0 ( deci a nu este radacina pentru numitor ) atunci : lim f ( x ) =lim x →a x →a P( x ) P( a ) = = f (a ) Q( x ) Q( a ) Subcazul 2 : Daca a este un punct de acumulare finit cu proprietaea ca Q ( a ) = 0 ( deci a este radacina pentru numitor ) atunci : f ( x ) =lim lim x →a x →a P( x ) P(a ) P( a ) = = Q( x ) Q( a ) 0 caz de nedeterminare !!! Discutia pt.

. Limite de functiii ....... x lim x→ −1 x 4)...... 2 x + 2x − 1 = lim 2 x→ − 1 x + 8x + 1 3)......................... .............................................................................................. x +1 = lim 2 x →1 x −1 2)......................................13 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii     ( ) f x = lim  x→ ± ∞     ak k − l ⋅ ( ± ∞ ) .. p e n tk r= ul bl 0 ................................................................. ................................. 2 2x + x + 5 = lim 2 x→ ∞ 3x − 2 x + 1 ........................................................................................................................... p e n tk r< ul ( g r a dn uu lm a rlau t<iog rrua dn uu lm i t io) r u l u x −1 = lim 2 x→1 2x − x − 1 2 1)............................ p e n tk r( gu r a dn uu lm a rlau)t i>o l r( gu r a dn uu lm i t io) r u l u bl ak ........ −1 = −3 ............................................................................. ......................................................................................................... 5)..........Clasa a XI-a .......

....................................................................... (1 − x )( x + 4 ) = 2 11).............................................. 2 x − 2x + 1 = lim x→1 x −1 ................................. lim x→ ∞ 3 3x − 2 .............. 4 36x + 5 x + 7 = lim 2 x → −∞ 3x − x + 1 8)...... x −2 = lim 2 x→ 1 x + x +1 10)....................................... ......................................... .............. 5 4 2x + x = lim 2 x→ ∞ x −8 9)..................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 2x − x − 5 = lim x→ ∞ x −3 7)... 2 x + x −1 = lim 3 x→ − 1 x +1 ............................................................................... 13)...................................................................................Clasa a XI-a ......................................... ................................................................... 12).............................14 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii x +5 = lim 3 2 x → −∞ 4x − x + 1 3 6)...................................................................... Limite de functiii ............................................. .........

................................................................................ ........................................................................ 2 x − 25 = lim 2 x→ 1 x + x − 20 ...................................... Limite de functiii ................................................................................ 2 x +1 = lim 2 x→2 ( 2 − ) x 4 15)......... x→ 1 2 x − 2x + 1 2 = .......................................................................... 21)................. ........... 2 2x − 4x = lim 2 x→ ∞ 5x − 8 ............................................................... 4 x +x = lim 4 x→ 0 x −x 19)............................ 18)................... ( x −1 ) 2 lim 16)............................................................................................................................ ..............................................................................15 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 14).............Clasa a XI-a ............... ............................................................................................................................. 15 4 = lim3 x 3 2 x→ 2 x − − 2 2 2 x +x − 17)........................................... 4 3 x −x = lim 4 x→ 0 x 20)............ 2 x + 2 x − 15 = lim 2 x→ 3 x + 8 x + 15 .................................................................................................

........................................ 2 2x + x = lim 2 x→ ∞ 3x − x 26)..................................................................................... lim x→ ∞ 29).. ( x + 2)( 2 x + 1) = 2 3x − x .... 2 2x − x = lim x→ ∞ x +1 23)..  4 Limita : ........................................................................ 3 2 2x + x − 5 = lim 3 x → −∞ 15x − 23 24)........16 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 3 4 4x − x = lim 2 x → −∞ x − 7x 22).......................................................... x −1 = lim 2 x → −∞ x +x 27)...... 3 2 x +x = lim 2 x → −∞ x +4 28).........Clasa a XI-a ........................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................... .................................................................................................. .... ........................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................. Limite de functiii . 2 3x − 5 x + 1 = lim α x→ ∞ x +1 25).......

+∞ ) . caz in care nu avem de pus nici o conditie de existenta a radicalului . atunci : 2k 2k lim x = lim − ∞ = nu exista x → −∞ x → −∞ deoarece nu putem calcula radical de ordin par dintr-un numar negativ !!! II. f : [ 0. f : R → R . k ∈ N * cu subcazurile : Subcazul 1 : Daca a ∈[0.Clasa a XI-a .17 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  . atunci : x = lim 2 k a x →a punct de acumulare infinit . f ( x ) = 2 k x . k ∈ N * cu subcazurile : a Subcazul 1 : Daca lim x →a Subcazul 2 : Daca lim x →+∞ Subcazul 3 : Daca lim x →−∞ punct de acumulare finit . atunci : 2k x = lim 2 k + ∞ = +∞ lim x →+∞ x →+∞ a Subcazul 3 : Daca punct de acumulare infinit . a = −∞ . atunci : x = lim 2 k +1 − ∞ = −∞ x →−∞ Limite de functiii . lim x →a a Subcazul 2 : Daca 2k a punct de acumulare finit .Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I. atunci : 2 k +1 x = lim 2 k +1 + ∞ = +∞ x →+∞ a 2 k +1 punct de acumulare infinit . a = + ∞ . Cazul determinantilor de ordin impar ( n = 2k + 1 ) : avem functia radical . f ( x ) = 2 k +1 x . Cazul radicalilor de ordin par ( n = 2k ) : avem functia radical . unde se impune conditia de existenta a radicalului de ordin par . a = −∞ . a = + ∞ . ∞ ) → [ 0. atunci : 2 k +1 x = lim 2 k +1 a x →a a punct de acumulare infinit . ∞ ) .

.................................................................................................................................................. lim . 10)............ 2)......................................... 3 x= lim x→ 2 ..........................................18 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 1)..................... 3 x −x = lim x→ 3 .......................................................... x −4 = 3)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 x= lim x→∞ ................................................................... Limite de functiii .......................................................... 8).. x= lim x→0 .......................................................... ( ) 2 4 x +5 −x = lim x→ 2 .................................................................................................................................... 2 x + x +1 = lim 4 x→ ∞ x +1 .......................................................Clasa a XI-a .................................... 5 x= lim x → − 32 ... 9).................................. 6)................. 2 x − x +1 = lim x→ 2 .................................................................................................... x lim x +4 2 x →−∞ = ....... 5). 7)... − x2 − 1 = lim x → −∞ .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. x→ 2 3 x x>2 2 4)......................... 11)..............................................

....... 3 3 3 lim x − x − x = ....... ( x − 2 ) 3 x5 − 2 x3 = lim x→ 3 16)..... 13)..................................................................................................................... f ( x ) = bx .. f : R → ( 0................................. ∀ n∈ Z lim x x→ + ∞ b functia exponentiala este mai mare decat functia polinomiala !!! Subcazul 3 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit .......... .......................................................... lim x + x + x = ...... b > 0 ............................................................. ...........Clasa a XI-a ....... x→ ∞ 14)................................ Daca b >1 atunci distingem urmatoarele subcazuri : I..Fie functia exponentiala :  ..........................................................  5 Limita : ............................. atunci : x a b =b lim x →a Subcazul 2 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit ............... lim x x →∞ x = x +1 ... x → −∞ 15).......................... Subcazul 1 : Daca a punct de acumulare finit ................. b ≠ 1  ..... atunci : Limite de functiii .........Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : ... atunci : x x +∞ b = lim b = b = +∞ lim x →a x →+∞ Distingem la acest subcaz urmatoarea situatie : n x = 0 ..............................+ ∞) . a = −∞ ................................. a = + ∞ ....19 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii x x + 16 = lim x→ 0 12).......................

...........Clasa a XI-a ... x lim 6 = x →3 .......... a = + ∞ ............. x 2)...................... atunci : x x − ∞ b = lim b = b = +∞ lim x →a x →− ∞ x 1).......................... atunci : x x +∞ b = lim b = b = 0 lim x →a x →+∞ Subcazul 3 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit ................................20 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii x x −∞ b = lim b = b = 0 lim x →a x →−∞ Daca 0 < b < 1 atunci distingem urmatoarele subcazuri : II......... 1   = lim x→ ∞ 5   ................................................................................. 1   = lim x→ 2 2   ................................................................................ atunci : x a b =b lim x →a Subcazul 2 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit . Subcazul 1 : Daca a punct de acumulare finit .......... 3)........................................................................ Limite de functiii . a = −∞ ...............................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ex = lim x →0 6 .................................................................................................................................................................. lim x →∞ ( ) x 10 = .................................... lim e 3 x + x +2 x → −∞ = .................... Limite de functiii ............................................. lim ( 0.............................................. x 7).........................................................04 ) x → −∞ 3 x + x +2 = .............................................................................................................................. 10).....................................Clasa a XI-a .................................................................................................... lim e 2 x + 5 x +1 x→ + ∞ = ......................... x 5)........................... 6)......................................................  1    = lim x→ ∞  3 .................. lim e 2 x + 5 x +1 x → −2 = .. 1− x 13)......21 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 4).............. 8)..... 12)..............................  1 lim   x→ + ∞  3  4 2 x + x +9 x = .............................................. x lim 5 = x →−∞ .... 11)..  5 lim   = x → −∞ 7   ............. 9)................................................................................

.... lim a 15)...........Clasa a XI-a .....  .............. atunci : log b x = −∞ lim f ( x ) = xlim →+∞ x →+∞ II................ f ( x ) = lo gb x .... 4 2 x + 3 x − x +1 x → −∞ = stiinnd ca : 0 < a < 1 ? ......... Daca 0 < b < 1 atunci distingem urmatoarele subcazuri : Subcazul 1 : Daca a = 0 punct de acumulare finit ....... atunci : f ( x ) = lim logb x = −∞ lim x→0 x→0 x> 0 x>0 Limite de functiii ....................... cu b > 0 ....................................................................................... b ≠ 1 conditiile de existenta ale logaritmilor ........................... f : ( 0....... a = + ∞ ....... Daca b >1 atunci distingem urmatoarele subcazuri : Subcazul 1 : Daca a = 0 punct de acumulare finit ....22 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii lim5 10 14)........ x →−∞ −x2 = ................   6 Limita : .....................+∞ ) punct de acumulare finit ...................................+ ∞) → R ................Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I...Fie functia logaritmica : ... atunci : f ( x ) = lim log b x = log b a lim x →a x →a Subcazul 3 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit ...................... x →− 2 x +5 x +1 = 2 ........ atunci : f ( x ) = lim logb x = + ∞ lim x→ 0 x→ 0 x>0 x>0 Subcazul 2 : Daca a ∈( 0.............. lim e 16).

................................... 2).................................... 7)...... x →0 x >0 log 2 x = 5)...................................................................................................................... Limite de functiii ..................................................................................... atunci : lim f ( x ) = lim log b x = +∞ x →+∞ x →+∞ Limita logaritmului este egala cu logaritmul limitei ........ 1)................................... 3)................................ lg x = 4).............................................................. log 1 x = lim x →∞ 2 .... 6)............................ lim x →0 5 x >0 .......... lim1 log 1 x = x→ 4 2 ..................................................................... a = + ∞ .....................................................................+∞ ) punct de acumulare finit .......................................................................................................... lim ................ log 1 x = lim x →3 3 .... atunci : f ( x ) = lim log b x = log b a lim x →a x →a Subcazul 3 : Daca a punct de acumulare infinit ...................................... lim ln 3 x = x→∞ ..................................................................................Clasa a XI-a ...................................................................................23 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Subcazul 2 : Daca a ∈( 0................. lim ln x = x→e2 .

....  ............. Daca a x cu a este un punct de acumulare infinit .......... Daca a este un punct de acumulare finit .... atunci functia sinus nu are limita !!! Limite de functiii ........................ atunci : sinx = sina lim x→ a Deci limita functiei sin intr-un punct de acumulare finit a ∈ R se obtine inlocuind pe II. ........... a = ± ∞ .. a ∈ R ..Fie functia : sin : R → [ − 1..........Clasa a XI-a ........1] ......  7 Limita : • Limita functiei sinus :  ............24 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii log 7 x = 8).............. lim x →0 x >0 ......................Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I...

2    .Distingem urmatoarele cazuri :  I.1] .Fie functia : cos : R → [ − 1. a = ± ∞ . atunci : c o sx = c o sa lim x→ a Deci limita functiei cos intr-un punct de acumulare finit a ∈ R se obtine inlocuind pe II.Fie functia : tg : R − ( 2k + 1)  . Daca a este un punct de acumulare finit .Clasa a XI-a .Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I. a ∈ R . Daca a x cu a este un punct de acumulare infinit .25 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii • Limita functiei cosinus :  . Daca a apartine domeniului de definitie atunci : tgx = tga lim x→ a Se poate lua : sinx sina sinx lim x→ a tgx = lim = = = tga lim x→ a x → a c o sx c o sx c o sa lim x→ a Deci limita functiei tg intr-un punct de acumulare din domeniul de definitie se obtine inlocuind pe x cu a Limite de functiii . atunci functia cosinus nu are limita !! • Limita functiei tangenta : π  k ∈Z → R .  .

Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I.  . atunci : π π l i m t g x • l i m t g x = − ∞ x→ 2 x> 2 Limita functiei cotangenta :  .Fie functia : ctg : R − {kπ k ∈Z } → R .Clasa a XI-a . π 2 . Daca a = 0 . = + ∞ x→ 2 x< 2 Daca a apartine domeniului de definitie atunci : ctgx = ctga lim x→ a Se poate lua : c o sx c o sa c o sx lim x→ a c tgx = lim = = = c tga lim x→ a x → a sinx sinx sina lim x→ a Deci limita functiei ctg intr-un punct de acumulare din domeniul de definitie se obtine inlocuind pe x cu a II. c t g x = + ∞ l i m x→ 0 x> 0 Limite de functiii . π π . atunci : c t g x l i m x→ 0 x< 0 = − ∞ .26 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Daca a = II.

. Limita functiei arcsinus : π π . atunci : Limite de functiii .  2 2    .Fie functia : arccos : [ − 1.1] .  .Clasa a XI-a .Daca a ∈[ −1.1] → −  .1] → [ 0. atunci : arcsinx = arcsina lim x→ a • Limita functiei arccosinus :  .27 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  8 Limita : • .1] .Fie functia : arcsin : [ − 1.Daca a ∈[ −1. π ] .

lima r c c tgx = π x → -∞ Limite de functiii .  . atunci : a r c c tgx = a r c c tga lim x→ a II. Daca a = ± ∞ .Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I.  .Clasa a XI-a .Distingem urmatoarele cazuri : I.  2 2   .Fie functia : arcctg : R → ( 0. lim arctg x = x → +∞ • π . atunci : II.28 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii a rc c oxs = a rc c oas lim x→ a • Limita functiei arctangenta : π π . 2 π 2 Limita functiei arccotangenta :  . a ∈ R . a ∈ R . atunci : lim a r c c tgx = 0 x→ +∞ .∞ Daca a apartine domeniului de definitie . atunci : a rctgx = a rc tga lim x→ a Daca a = ± ∞ .Fie functia : arctg : R →  −  .π ) . lim arctg x = − x →. Daca a apartine domeniului de definitie .

( cu functii trigonometrice ) I. lim x →0 x →a lim x →0 x →a lim x →0 arcsin u ( x ) =1 daca u( x) u( x ) = 0 lim x→ a tg x =1 x Generalizand : lim IV.29 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  9 Limite : . lim x →0 sin x =1 x Generalizand : lim x →a II. sin u ( x ) =1 daca u( x ) tg u ( x ) =1 daca u( x ) u( x) = 0 lim x→ a arctg x =1 x Generalizand : lim x →a arctg u ( x ) =1 daca u( x) u( x) = 0 lim x→ a Limite de functiii . u( x) = 0 lim x→ a arcsin x =1 x Generalizand : lim III.Clasa a XI-a .

.......... 1 : • Calculati limitele urmatoare : 1).............................................. sinx = lim x→ + ∞ ..............................Clasa a XI-a .... sin x = lim x→ 0 .......................................................................................... 6)................................................... 3).................................................................................................... sin x = lim x→ 2 ....... 5).................... 2)........... 2 lim( 3x − 5 x + 1 ) = x→ −3 ......................................................................................................... Limite de functiii ..................................................................................................30 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Exercitiul nr....................................... limπ sin x = x→ 6 ............................... 2 ( 3x − x + 1 ) = lim x → −∞ .. 4)......................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................. 11)................... Limite de functiii ......................................................................................... 16).................................................................................................................................................... cos( x3 + 2 x2 − 3 ) = lim x→ + ∞ ........................................ 12)................................... lim x →0 x <0 .................................................................................. limπ tg x = x→ 3 ........................................................31 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 7)..............Clasa a XI-a ....................................... 17)........................................................... t g lim π x = t g lim 5π x = 3 x→ 2 3 x< 2 π x→ 2 5 x> 2 π ............................................................. limc o sx = x→ − 2 ...................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... 18)............................................................ ctg ( 3 x2 − 2 x ) = 19).......................................................... limπ cosx = x→ 4 ................................... 13)......................... 10).................. limc o sx = x→ − ∞ ...................................... ctg3x = lim x→ 5 ................................ 15)..... c t g l i mπ π x→ 3 x> 3 6x = .... limc o s( x − 3) = x→ − 2 .................................................................................................................................... tg x = lim x→ 0 ...................................................................................................... 14)............................. 9).............................................................................................. limπ ctg 3x = x→ 6 .................................. 8)......................

... lim arcsinx = x→ 2 2 .. 22)............................... Limite de functiii ...................................... lim arcc o xs = x→ 2 2 ................... a rc s inx = lim x→ 1 ...................32 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 20).... 26)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... a rc c oxs= lim x→ 1 ................................................................................. 27).............................................. lim a r c c tgx = x→ 2 2 ................................................................................................................ 25).. arcsin( x2 − 32x ) = lim x→ 0 ...................................... 21)..........Clasa a XI-a ........... a rc c oxs= lim x→ 0 ......................................... lim1 arccosx = x→ 2 ........................................................................... 24)............................. a rc s inx = lim x → -1 ....... ctg ( 5 x2 − 7 x ) = lim x→ −1 ................................... 28)........................................................................................................................................................................... 29)....................................................................... 23)................................

......... 3 lim a r c c tg( 5 x − 2 3) = x→ +∞ ..................... a r c c txg= lim x → −1 .................................................................................................................................. lim a rc tgx = x→ 3 2 ..................... arctg( 3x3 − 2 x ) = lim x→ −∞ ...................................................................................... lima r c tg( x − 2) = x→ 5 ............................................ a r c c tgx = lim x→ 3 ................................ 31)........ a r c c t( gx − 2) = lim x→ −∞ ....................... 34).............................................................................. 33).....................................33 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 30)................Clasa a XI-a ..................................................................................... 38).................. 36)...................................................................................... lima r c t(g3x − 3) = x→ +∞ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Limite de functiii ..................................... 35)......... 37).................................. a r c tgx = lim x→ 1 ......................... 32)..........

. sin 4 x = sin 2 x limπ x→ 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………...Clasa a XI-a . 3). Limite de functiii . ( 1 − sinx ) (1 − sin x ) = 2 6). lim x →0 …………………………………………………………………………………….. lim x →0 sin 5 x = sin 10 x …………………………………………………………………………………….. lim x →0 sin 5 x + sin x = x ……………………………………………………………………………. 5).34 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Exercitiul nr... lim x →0 sin mx = sin nx ……………………………………………………………………………………. sin( 5 x − 5) = 2 − x 1 lim x →1 ………………………………………………………………………………. sin 5 x = sin x 2). 9). 2 : • Calculati limitele urmatoare : sin 5 x = x 1)... lim x →0 ……………………………………………………………………………………. lim x sin x →∞ 1 = x ……………………………………………………………………………………. 8). 4). lim x→ 0 co sx 4 …………………………………………………………………….. 7).

2 2 sin x + sin 2 x = lim 2 x→ 0 x …………………………………………………………………………. sin( x2 + x − 2 ) = lim 2 x → − 2 sin( x + 3x + 2 ) ………………………………………………………………………. 13).Clasa a XI-a . lim x →1 sin πx = sin 4πx ……………………………………………………………………………………. lim x →0 tg 5 x = tg 10 x ……………………………………………………………………………………. lim2 x→ 3 sin ( 3 x − 2 ) = 2 3x + x − 2 ……………………………………………………………………………… 11).. 14).35 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 10). lim ………………………………………………………………………………. sin x3 = lim 2 x → 0 sin x ……………………………………………………………………………………… sin π ( x + 1) = 3 x →−1 x +1 12). Limite de functiii . lim x→ 0 sin( x sin( 2 x sin3x ) ) x 3 = ……………………………………………………………………. 15). 16). 17)...... lim x →0 tg 3 x = x ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18).

.36 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 19. lim x →0 arcsin 2 x = x ………………………………………………………………………………….. lim x→ −1 tg ( x + 1) = 2 x −1 …………………………………………………………………………………. 20).. 24). arcsin( x − 3) = lim 2 x→ 3 − x 9 ……………………………………………………………………………. Limite de functiii . arc sin( x2 + 3x − 1 0 ) = lim 2 x→ 2 x −4 …………………………………………………………………… 23)... 27).. 21). lim x →0 tg 3 x = tg 9 x ……………………………………………………………………………………… 28). 26). lim x →0 arctg 3x = arctg 7 x …………………………………………………………………………………. lim x →0 sin 2 x = arcsin x …………………………………………………………………………………. 22). tg x3 = lim 2 x → 0 arcsin x …………………………………………………………………………………. s in( x2 − 1 ) = lim 2 x → − 1 a rc s in (x − x − 2 ) ……………………………………………………………………… 25).).Clasa a XI-a . tg ( x − 1) = lim 2 x →1 − x 1 …………………………………………………………………………………..

34). lim x →0 sin 5 x = 4x ……………………………………………………………………………………. lim x →0 2tg x − sin x = x ……………………………………………………………………………. lim x →0 tg x − cos x + 1 = x …………………………………………………………………………. lim x →0 arcsin ( tgx ) = arctg ( sin x ) ……………………………………………………………………………… Limite de functiii . t g( a r c s (inx 2 − 1 ) ) = lim 2 x → 1 s in( a r c tg ( x − 3x + 2 ) ) ………………………………………………………………... lim π x→ 6 1 − 2 sin x = π − 6x ………………………………………………………………………………… 37). 38).. lim π x→ 4 tg x − 1 = sin x − cos x ……………………………………………………………………………… 35).. lim x →0 sin ( tg 2 x ) tg ( arcsin 3 x ) ………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 36)... 30)...37 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 29).Clasa a XI-a . lim x →0 arcsin 4 x = sin 5 x …………………………………………………………………………………. sin x = lim 2 x →0 tg 2 x 2 33). 32). 31)...

. lim x →0 x − tg 5 x = x + sin 7 x ………………………………………………………………………………… sin 5 x = lim 2 x→ 0 x 2 41).. 43). 2 42). 47). lim x →0 x − sin 2 x = x + sin 3 x ………………………………………………………………………………… 40). lim x →2 …………………………………………………………………………….. Limite de functiii . 44).Clasa a XI-a ... x = lim x→ 0 1 − cos x ………………………………………………………………………………. 45).38 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 39). ……………………………………………………………………………………. limπ x→ 4 sin 2 x − tg x = cos 2 x ……………………………………………………………………………. lim π x→ 3 tg x − 3 = 3ctg x − 1 ………………………………………………………………………………. 48). arctg x − arctg 2 = tg x − tg 2 ………………………………………………………………………. lim x →1 x <1 2 arcsin x − π = sin πx 46).. 1 − cos 3 x = lim x →0 x sin 2 x ………………………………………………………………………………….. limπ x→ 4 tg x − 1 = ctg x − 1 ………………………………………………………………………………….

g( y) =  lim y→ b atunci : .Ne intereseaza in ce conditii functia compusa are limita in punctul punct de acumulare pentru E .  . lim g ( f ( x ) ) = lim g ( y ) x →a y →b Limite de functiii . a . Aceasta problema este rezolvata de urmatoarea Teorema : TEOREMA .Clasa a XI-a . pentru orice 3). Daca : 1).Fie functiile : f : E → F . F ⊂R . f ( x ) ≠ b . E .  .39 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  10 Limita : . x ≠ a .Putem vorbi de compunerea functiei g cu f : h = g  f : E → R . a  . g : F → R . x ∈E . f ( x) = b lim x→ a 2).

...  11 Limita : ............ π  limπ tg  x −  = 4  x→ 4 2)..Presupunem ca f ( x ) > 0 .................................... este definita ..............Clasa a XI-a .. ........................ are sens atunci : functia ( f ( x) ) g( x) are limita in a si mai mult Limite de functiii ............In acest caz puterea :  ........................ ..................................  ...... E ⊂ R ... 2 x →1 ........... Daca : lim f ( x ) = 1 x→ a 2)............................... g ( x ) = 2 lim x→ a 3)...............Fie functiile : f ....................40 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii π  limπ sin  x −  = 2  x→ 2 1).. 1  2 .....................................Are loc urmatoarea Teorema : ( f ( x) ) g( x) a punct de acumulare pentru E ....................... TEOREMA .................... iar  ...  .............. 1 lim e( x −1) = 3)...... g : E →R ....  1)............................. .... x ∈ E ..........

1 0 2).41 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii ( f ( x)) lim x →a g( x) lim g ( x ) = lim f ( x )    x→a  x →a ( Limita se distribuie in baza si in exponent ) Cazuri exceptate : • ( 0 ) . atunci : b lim x→ a g( x) = blim g ( x ) x→ a Limite de functiii . g( x) = c lim ( f ( x ) ) ⇒ x →a exceptand cazul cand : 1 = 0 2). cand :  = 0 . cand :  = 1 . Pentru c = 1 . 0 1). 2 2 1 2 Cazuri particulare : Daca : 1). (1 ) . ( ∞ ) .  = 0 . 1 ∞ 3). n≥2 avem : n f ( x ) = n lim f ( x ) lim x→ a x→ a ( Limita radicalului este egala cu radicalul limitei ) II.Clasa a XI-a . n * n ∈N c c = lim f ( x )    x →a  si c ≤ 0 . cand :  = ± ∞ .  = ± ∞ .  = 0 . Daca f ( x ) = b > 0 . • I.

....................................................... cand exista : r r ln x r ln x x = lim e = elim lim x →a x →a x →a 1)... 3 2x +x 3).................................................... III. 2)......................... atunci : r r ln x x =e si limita ................................................ g ( x ) = r ∈ R ............ 3  2 + 3x    = lim 2 x→ 0  4 −x  ........................... lim 3 x →∞ x −2 2 x −5 = .................. 5 lim x →∞ x −2 = ..........................................................................................................................................................  x +5   lim  x →2  2 x −1  = ................................................................................. 2 x 4)................ Limite de functiii ..42 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Daca f ( x ) = x > 0 ......................Clasa a XI-a .......

.............................................................................................................. 1   lim x→∞ 3   4 x + x −5 3 2 5x +x = .........................  3x2 − 2  lim  2  x →∞  6 x +5  2x +x 3 2 5x +x = ............. 9).......Clasa a XI-a ................................ 6).................................. 2   x   lim 2  x →∞   2 x −3  3x −1 3x = ............................................................................................................. 1 x  4x   = lim  2 x →∞  1 +3 x  2 ........................ 2 5x + 1 = lim 2 x→ ∞ 2x − 1 ........... x +1 x = ..........43 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 3 5).......................... 3 10)....... 11)...................................................... 2 x − 4x + 2 = lim x →0 x−5 ..............  3x  lim  2  x →−∞  3 x −1  2 7)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Limite de functiii .......................................... 8)................................................................................

............... 13)....... 3x e −1 = lim x →0 x ............................. ............. Limite de functiii ............ 1 = lim 1 x→ 0 x> 0 1 + e x 15).................................................... 14)......................................................................... x 2 e (x + x − 6 ) = lim x→ 2 x−2 ...................................  2 x +1  x −2 =   lim x →2 3 x − 5   ...............................................................................44 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 2 x −4 12).......................................................................................Clasa a XI-a .................................................................................................

atunci cand x x→ ∞ ∞ 1 care cu ajutorul rezulta y →0 si avem : 1 y lim (1+ y ) = e y →0  .Mai general avem .Daca punem : y = 1 . folosind si teorema de la limite de functii compuse :  1   lim 1+ x→ a  u( x )  u( x) =e daca : u( x ) = ± ∞ lim x→ a sau Limite de functiii .Trecand la limita in baza si exponent se obtine nedeterminarea : acestei formule poate fi eliminate . .Clasa a XI-a .  .45 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 12 Limite :  A . Limita remarcabila : x  1 1+  = e lim x →∞  x  .

......................................... (1−sin x ) 3 x = lim x →∞ 2 ........................................................  3 x +1    lim x →∞ 3 x +1   = ................................  2  1+  = lim x →∞  5x  ............................. x 2)..........................................Clasa a XI-a .............. 2 3)...  x +1    = lim x →∞  x −1  ……………………………………………………………………………………......46 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii (1+u ( x ) ) lim x →a 1 u( x) =e daca : u( x) = 0 lim x→ a x 1).. x 5)...............................................................................  x    = lim x →∞  x −1  ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 x +1 4)...................... Limite de functiii ............................

...................................... Limite de functiii ................... lim (13 −4 x ) 1 x −3 x →3 = ......................................................................................................................... 1− x 1−x  x +4   lim  x →1 3 x + 2   = ..... x 7)....... x 8)... 4  x −1   2  = lim x→ ∞  x  2 ................................................................................................................................. 9)................................................................................................  x +1    = lim x →∞  x+2  .................. limπ ( sin x ) x→  1     2 x −π  = 2 ............................................ x 12)...................................................................................  x +1  lim  2  = x →∞  x +2  ..............Clasa a XI-a ...................... 10).  x +x   lim  2 x → −∞  x − 3 x +1  2 13).............................................................................................................47 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 6)................................................................................................................ −x = ...................................................................  x2 + 2 x + 3   2  = lim x→ ∞  x − 3x +1  ........... x 11)..................................................................................

.............................................. lim x →0 ln (1 + tg 3 x ) = 6x ........................Folosind relatia de mai sus si teorema de la limite functii compuse avem : lim x →a 1)... x ......................................................... 4)....................................................................................48 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  B Limita remarcabila lim x →0  ln (1 + x ) =1 ....................... lim x →0 ln (1 + 10 x ) = x ................................................... lim x →0 ln (1 + arcsin x ) = sin 3 x .........................Clasa a XI-a ................ lim x →0 ln (1 + ex ) = x ............................................ 3).............................................................. 5)................................................................................. x[ ln( x + 2) − ln( x + 1) ] = lim x→ ∞ .................. : ln (1 + u ( x ) ) =1 ............................................................. lim x →0 ln (1 + sin x ) = ln (1 + sin 2 x ) .......................................................................................... u( x ) daca : u( x ) = 0 lim x→ a [ ln( 3x + 1) − ln( x − 5) ] = lim x→ ∞ ..................... 7)...................... 2).............. Limite de functiii ........................................................ 6)....................

............................ lim ....................................................... 15). lim x →0 ln (1 + arctg 2 x ) = ln (1 + tg 4 x ) ....Clasa a XI-a .............................................................. ln [1 + tg ( x + 1) ] = x →−1 ln [1 + arcsin 3( x + 1) ] 16)...................... ( ln x ) lim x →e 1 ( x −e ) ( x −3 e ) = ........49 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 8)....................................... ln( x3 + e2 x ) lim 5 x = x → ∞ ln( x +e) .................................................................................................................................................................... Limite de functiii ................................................................................... lim x→ 0 ln( cos x ) 3x 2 = ............................................................................. lim x →0 ln (1 + sin ( x − 1) ) = ln[1 + arcsin 2( x − 1) ] .............................................................................................................................. 13).................. 10).................................... 9)................................. lim x →0 ln (1 + 2 x ) = ln (1 + 4 x ) ........................................................................................................... 14)................................................................... 11)................................................................ lim x →0 tgx = ln (1 + 2 x ) .................. limπ x→ 2 ln (1 + 2 cos x ) = cos x ....................................................... 12)................................ 17)................................ 2 1 +1 2 x ln = lim x →0 x x +1 ......................................

............................................................................. a > 0 lim x→ 0 x  ..... x →0 2 x = ............. .................... tgx x = .......................Clasa a XI-a .... ( cos x ) x = lim x →0 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... a > 0 u( x ) ................................................. lim x →0 ln (1 + 2 x ) − ln (1 + 3 x ) = ................................................................................................................................. lim x→ 0 x x >0 ................  C Limita remarcabila : x a −1 = ln a ........................ 1 1  cos + sin   = lim x →∞ x x  .... lim [ cos ( x sin x ) ] arcsin 1 24). x 25)... ln (1 + 4 x ) − ln (1 + 5 x ) 1 21)......... 1   1 −   lim x →∞  ln x  = .............................................. 22)..... x = 2 + 3 x ln (1 + x ) 19)................ daca : u( x) = 0 lim x→ a Limite de functiii ..50 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 2 ln x 18)........ lim x →0 x >0 [ln (1+x )] = 23)..................................................................................................... 20)....................Folosind relatia de mai sus si teorema de la limite functii compuse avem : lim x→ a a u( x) −1 = ln a ............................................................................................................................................................................... lim x →0 .............

.................................................................... 3x e −1 = lim 2 x x→ 0 e −1 .......... 5)......Clasa a XI-a ............................. 3)............................................................................................................................................ Limite de functiii .................................................. daca : u( x) = 0 lim x→ a 3x e −1 = lim x →0 6x ......................... 2x e −1 = lim x →0 x .......................... −1 = ln e = 1 u( x ) ..... ........................51 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  ............................................................................................................................... ................Daca a=e avem : x e − 1 = ln e = 1 lim x→ 0 x sau : u( x) lim e x→a 1)........... 3x 4x e −e = lim 2x x x→ 0 e −e .......................... 2 −8 = lim x →3 x − 3 3 4)............... 2).................................................................................

................................................ 10)........................................................................................ 3x 5 e −1 = lim 2 x x→0 e 3 −1 .......................................................................................................................................................................................52 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii −1 = 3x sin 2 x 6)....................... lim e −1 x−2 x →2 = ..................... arctg2 ( x − 2 ) −1 e = lim arctg( x − 2 ) x→ 0 −1 e ......................................................... lim x →0 e .................. Limite de functiii ............................................................................................................. sin 2 x sin x e −e = lim x → 0 sin 2 x − sin x .............................. lim x →1 −1 = 3x − 3 e ................... 12)............................... 13)............................... arcsin 4 ( x − 2 ) 9)...........................................................................................................................Clasa a XI-a ......................... x −x e −e = lim x →0 5x ...................................... 7).................................................. x 11)..................................................................... e 3 −1 = lim x →0 x .............................................. −1 = 2x tg 3 x 14)............................................................................... tg 2 ( x −1 ) 8)............................................ lim e x →0 .......

........................................................ = .........................................53 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 15)..... 17)....................... lim x →0 (1+2 x ) 5 3x −1 ...................................................................................... Limite de functiii ..... 16)...................  D Limita remarcabila lim x→ 0 (1+ x ) x r : −1 = r ....................... arcsin2 x − earcsinx e = lim x → 0 arcsin2 x − arcsin 3x ........................................... a 1)........ lim x →1 e arcsin 3 ( x −1 ) −1 = 2( x − 1) ..................................... tgx tg 2 x e −e = lim x x→ 0 e −1 ....................................................... ∀r∈R x −1 = a ................................................... ∀ a ∈ R* lim x →1 x − 1 ...............Clasa a XI-a .............

........................ 5 ...... I................ 3 x 2 −1 = ................................... II......... (1+ 2 x ) −1 = lim 2 x→ 0 ( + 2 + 1 x x ) −1 3)...  E Alte limite remarcabile : 1 x lim x = lim x x = 1 ................. x →0 x →∞ 0 lim x ln x = x→ 0 x> 0 .... x >0 x e lim n = ∞ x→ ∞ x lim x→ ∞ ............... lim x →∞ ( n ) a1 n n −1 x + a1 x + ............Clasa a XI-a ..................... ) f ( x ) = lim a0 x f ( x ) lim x →∞ x →∞ ............... + f ( x ) = + lim ( x + f ( x ) ) x →∞ n III......... Limite de functiii .............................. n ( a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + ..........................................54 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii (1+x ) 5 lim x →0 2). ln x x n =0 Vom prezenta in cele ce urmeaza cateva tehnici de calcul a limitelor de functii pentru a usura rezolvarea acestora .

tg ⋅ x ⋅ f ( x ) = lim x ⋅ f ( x ) lim x →0 x →0 VII..Clasa a XI-a . arctg ⋅ x ⋅ f ( x ) = lim x ⋅ f ( x ) lim x→0 x→0 IX.. lim sin x ⋅ f ( x ) = lim x ⋅ f ( x ) x →0 x →0 VI. ⋅ f ( x ) = lim ( x ⋅ f ( x ) ) x →∞ IV. x Limite de functiii . ln x ⋅ f ( x ) = 0 lim x→ 0 daca exista o vecinatate U a lui x0 ca functia 1 f ( x ) sa fie marginita pe U ∩ E . ln ( xn + a1 x n −1 + . . unde f : E → R .. lim arcsin x ⋅ f ( x ) = lim x ⋅ f ( x ) x →0 x →0 VIII. x ( a − 1 ) ⋅ f ( x ) = ln a ⋅ lim x ⋅ f ( x ) lim x →0 x →0 XI..... lim ln x ⋅ f ( x ) = lim ( x − 1) ⋅ f ( x ) x →1 x →1 X.55 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii lim x →∞ ( n ) n n −1 x + a1 x + . ( a x − 1 ) ⋅ f ( x ) = a ⋅ lim x ⋅ f ( x) lim x →1 x →1 XII.. ) ⋅ f ( x ) = n lim ln x ⋅ f ( x ) lim x →∞ x →∞ V...

daca exista .56 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Asa cum am vazut in capitolele precedente la calculul limitelor de functii apar si cazuri de nedeterminare care ne obliga sa gasim o alta metoda de rezolvare decat cele clasice pentru aflarea limitei acestor functii . 1 Limite : : 0 0 . Limite de functiii . In continuare vom prezenta cazurile de nedeterminare intalnite precum si tehnica de lucru pentru eliminarea acestor nedeterminari .Clasa a XI-a .

................................................... Limite de functii rationale in puncte finite a : Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza prin simplificarea cu * k ∈N ( x −a ) k ...................................... 4 2 x + 2x − 2 = lim 2 x→1 x − 3x + 2 4)......................................... 3 2 x + 3x − 4 = lim x→1 ( 2 x − 2) 2 5)....Clasa a XI-a ..................................................... 6)............................................ ........... ............................................. .........................................................57 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  a)............................................................................................................................. 2 x −4 = lim 2 x→ − 2 x −x −6 2)........ 3 x − 3x + 2 = lim 4 x→ 1 x − 4x + 3 3).................................... Limite de functiii .................................. ....................................................................................................... lim x →3 1)......................... m x −1 = lim n x →1 x −1 .. ...................................................... x −3 = 2 x − 4 x − 21 ........

....................................................Distingem cazurile : Limite de functiii .. ........................   c)....................................................................Clasa a XI-a ................................................................ 5)................................................................... Limite de functii rationale in compunere cu functia modul : In acest caz se va explicita modulul : 1)...... 2)............ 4)............................. 2 x + −2 x = lim x →0 x .............. lim x→ 0 x = x .................................. lim x→ 2 x −2 2 x −2 = ... Limite de functii definite prin cat de expresii irationale : .................................................................................................... 2 x +x = lim x →0 x 3)............................................................58 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  b).......................... lim x→ 1 x −1 = x −1 ......................................................................................................

.. 4 5)..................................... Se scimba variabila ....... 1)......................................... 2).......... Sub radicali figureaza expresii diferite................................................................. notandu-se radicalul de ordin egal cu cel mai mic multiplu comun al ordinelor radicalilor cu alta variabila ................ Se amplifica numitorul si (sau) numaratoru........ cu expresia conjugata....59 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii I............... 4)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. cand se ajunge la limita unei functii rationale ......... Limite de functiii . x →64 3 ..... lim x →0 x +1 −1 = x +1 −1 ................... lim x→ 1 3 ( x − 1) 2 x − 2 x+1 2 = ................................................................. 1)............. 4 3)........... II.....Clasa a XI-a .................... lim x →0 1+ x − 1− x = x ........ lim x →1 x −1 = x −1 lim x −8 = x −4 .................... lim x →1 x −1 = x −1 ............. Sub radicali de ordine diferite figureaza aceeasi expresie ...............................

............................................. 11).......................................................................... 4).................................................... 2 x + x − x= lim x→ ∞ 5)...................... 2 1+x +x −1 = x lim x →0 ..................... ..................... lim x →0 1 + x −1 = x . x −5 = 2 x −1 − 3 ............................................................. 9)...... x − x2 − 2 x = lim x→ ∞ 7)....................... 2 2 x − 2x + 6 − x + 2x − 6 = lim 2 x→ 3 x − 4x + 3 ............................................60 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii lim x →5 2).......................... 2 7+ x − 4 = lim 2 x3 x − 5x + 6 10)........................................................ ......................................................... 3 x + x + x= lim x → −∞ 6)............................................................................................................ ...................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 x − x − 2x = lim x → −∞ 8).......... ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 3).......................................................................... Limite de functiii ........Clasa a XI-a .............. lim x→7 2− x−3 = 2 x − 49 ................................................

..... x −2 = x +5 −3 lim x →4 ........ x −1 3 2 x − 5 x + 3 − x + 3x − 9 = lim 2 x→ 2 x + x−6 3 21)... ........................................ 1 + x − 1+ x2 = lim x →0 1 + x −1 18).................... 3− x +6 = lim 3 2 x →3 x −1 − 2 14)........... Limite de functiii ............................................... lim ... ....... lim x →4 3 − x +5 = 1− 5 − x .... x + x +6 = x →−2 x + 2−x 17)........................................................................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... lim x →1 2 x − 1 − 3 3x − 2 = ..................... 3 19) lim x →0 3 x +1 −1 = 2 x +1 −1 .....................................................................................................................Clasa a XI-a ............................................................... 15).............................................. 2 x +4 −2= lim 2 x→ 0 x +9 −3 16)................................................................................................................................................... ................................................... 13)..................................................................................................61 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 2 2 x + 2 x + 12 − 3 2 x + x + 6 = lim x→3 x−3 3 12)........ ....... 20).........

............................................................................. β ∈ R..........   d)....... unde : α........................................................................................... lim x →0 ................................................... Limite de functiii .......................... lim x→ 0 1 − cos x x 2 = ............................................................................................................................ lim x →5 2 1+ x − 4 1 − 2 x = lim 2 x→ 0 x+ x 3 23)................................................................................................62 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii x + 4 − 3 x + 22 = ..................Pentru a elimina nedeterminarea se utilizeaza limitele : lim u ( x ) →0 sin u ( x ) tg u ( x ) arcsin u ( x ) arctg u ( x ) = lim = lim = lim =1 u ( x ) →0 u ( x ) →0 u ( x ) →0 u( x ) u( x ) u( x ) u( x ) sin αx = βx 1)... 4 x + 11 − 2 22)................................ limπ x→ 4 tgx −1 = 2 2 − sin x cos x ................................. 3)................................................................ sin 3 x = lim 2 x →0 5x ..... ................................. Limite de functii trigonometrice : .................Clasa a XI-a .. 4).............. β ≠ 0 .......................... 2 2)....

......................................................................... limπ x→ 4 sin x − cos x = cos 2 x .................... 8)........................................... limπ x→ 4 cos x − sin x = 2 cos x − 2 sin 2 x ......................................................... Limite de functiii ................................. lim cos x − 1 2 sin x x→0 = ..............................................Clasa a XI-a ......................................... 10).... lim x →0 x − sin 2 x = x + sin 3 x ....................... lim π x→ 3 ......... 14)............................. sin x = lim x →π 1 + cos x ................................................ 12).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. lim x →0 sin 2 x = x + 1 −1 ................................................................................................... 1 + sin x − cos x = x →0 1 − sin x − cos x 13)...............................................................................................63 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 3tgx − 3 = 3x − π 5).................................................................... lim x →π 1 − cos x 2 x cos x = .................................................................... 6).............................. 2 7)................................. lim x →0 1 − cos x = x 1 + x −1 ( ) .............. 11).................................................................................................. lim ... 9)............................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. Limite de functii trigonometrice :   1 + sin x − 1 − sin x = ..................... lim ( ) u x →0 a u( x) −1 = ln a u( x ) .......................................... ............... ln (1 + 4 x ) = ... x lim x→ 2 ln( 2 x − 3) = 2 − x 4 .............................. 2 ln (1 + u ( x ) ) =1 u( x) .Pentru a elimina nedeterminarea se utilizeaza limitele : lim u ( x ) →0 1)................................................................................................................................................ 17)......................... lim x →0 e)...................................................................................................................................................................................... = ............ 5).........................64 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 2 6 cos x + 7 sin x − 8 = limπ 2 x→ 2 cos x − 5 sin x + 1 6 15)................... Limite de functiii ......... a >0 ...................................... lim x →0 ln (1 + arctgx ) = x ............................ 16)..................................................... lim x→ 0 ln( 1 + 2 x ) 4x x> 0 2)....... 4)................. ln(1 + 3x − x2 ) = lim x→ 0 x ..... lim π x→ 2 1 − sin x = 1 + sin 3 x ..... lim x →0 x >0 3).......... x ..........................................Clasa a XI-a .......................................................................

.................................................................... 1 x 9)............................................... Limite de functii rationale : Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza prin raportul termenilor de grad maxim .................................................................................................................................................................................. a)............................................................................................................................................ 10).... lim x →0 ..... lim e x →0 − esin x = x ..................................................................... arctg (1 + x ) − arctg (1 − x ) 2 Limite :  : ∞ ∞ ..Clasa a XI-a ..................... ( ) ln x + x2 + 1 = .65 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii arctgx = ln (1 + x ) 6)............................. 7)............................................................................ 1)................................................................................. 2)................. 3 2 −5x + 6 x − 3 = lim 2 x→ ∞ 2 x + 3x − 5 ................. Limite de functiii ... lim x→ 0 ( ) ln cos x x> 0 sin 2 x 8).................................................... 1 e − e x +1 = lim x →∞ 1 3x 2 ..... lim x →0 ln (1 + x ) − ln (1 − x ) = ............ 3 4x − 5x = lim x →−∞ − x +1 ..........

............. 1)..Clasa a XI-a ...... 2 x + 3x + 1 = lim x →∞ − 2x + 5 ........... 3 2 5x + 2 x − 3 = lim 5 2 x→ ∞ − 3x + x ................................................... 4)..................  b)....... Limite de functii irationale ....................................... exponentiale ... logaritmice : Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza prin raportul termenilor de grad maxim ...... 4 2 − 2x + 2x − 1 = lim 4 x → −∞ 4 x + 5x − 5 ............................................ 2 6x − 3 = lim 5 x → −∞ 8x + 2 x − 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Limite de functiii ................ 6)..................... 5).........................................................................................................................................................66 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 3)......... lim x →∞ 6 x −1 = 3 2 3x − 6 x ......

........................ ln (1 + x ) = x →∞ x 4).................. 3 Limite : : ∞ -∞ ....................................................Clasa a XI-a ....... x 2x e +e lim 2 x 3 x = x→ ∞ e +e ....................67 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 2)................................................................................. 3)................................................................................................................... lim ................................................. Limite de functiii .......................................................... 5).............. 6)............................................... ln (1+e3 x ) = lim x →∞ x ..................................................... ln( x3 − 5 x + 3 ) = lim 5 2 x → ∞ ln( x − 6x − 6 ) ..................................................................... lim x →−∞ 2 2x + x = 3x + 1 ..................

.............................68 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  a).................................... Limite de functiii ................................................................... Limite de functii rationale : Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza prin aducerea la acelasi numitor ......... 3   1 −  = lim 3 x →1 1 − x 1− x   ....................... lim  − x →0  x x( x +1)  .................................Clasa a XI-a ........  3x2 ( 2 x − 1 )( 3x2 + x + 2 )  − = lim 2   x→ ∞ 2 x + 1 4x   ................................. 1 1  = 4)........................ 2   1 −  = lim 2 3 x →3 − −  x 9 x 27  ............ 2  1 − 2  lim x→ 2 x−2 x −4  =  ..................... lim x→ 3 x − 3 − x 9   x> 3 6)................................................................................................................................................................................... 5).............................................................. 7).............. 6   1 − 2   = ..................................... 2)..................  x+2  x−4 + lim  2− = 2 x →1 ( ) + − +  x 5 x 4 3 x 3x 2  .................... 3)............................................. 1).....................................................................

...................... ( ) 2 2 x + 2x − x + 4 = lim x→ ∞ ......................... 7)............................... ( ) 2 2 x + x +1 − x +1 = lim x → −∞ .......................................................................................................................................................................... ( ) 2 2x + x + 1 = lim x → −∞ ............................................. 3)............................... 5).... ( ) 2 2 x + 2x − x + 4 = lim x → −∞ ................... Limite de functiii ......................69 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii  b)......... ( ) 2 2 x + x +1 − x +1 = lim x→ ∞ ............................................. 6)........................................... Limite de functii irationale : Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza prin amplificare cu conjugata ................................................... ( ) x x2 + 1 − x = lim x→ ∞ ..................... 1)......................... 4).................................................................Clasa a XI-a ........... ( ) 2 x − x +1 = lim x→ ∞ ................................................................................. 2).......................................

................... x 3x e − 2e = lim 2x 3x x→ ∞ e − 3e ........................................................................................................................................ Limite de functii exponentiale ....................................... 3 2 ( ............................................. ( ) limx x x + 1 + x − 1 − 2 x = x→ − ∞ limx x→ − ∞ 14)............................... 10)...................................................................................................................... x[ ln( x + 1) − ln( x + 2) ] = lim x→ ∞ 3).................................................................... c)................................. ...................................................... ) x+ 1− 2 x− 1+ x+ 3 = ( ) x x+ x + x− x = lim x→ ∞ ................. 13)...................................................................................................................... 9).............. .......................................  1)...70 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 8).............. 11)............................................. logaritmice : [ ln( 2 x + 1) − ln( x + 2) ] = lim x→ ∞ 2)........ Limite de functiii ...................................................................... ...................................... 9 x − x2 − 4 = lim x→ ∞ x .............................................. ( ) 2 lim x 4 x + 7 + 2 x = x → −∞ ........................ lim x + x + x − x = x→ ∞ 12)..............................................................................Clasa a XI-a .... ( ) 3 x + 3 1− x = lim x→∞ . .....

............................................. 6)............................... 5)................................................................ 1 lim 2 ln( cosx ) = x→ 0 x ......................... lim x sin x →∞ π x = ............................ ( 1 x lim x e − e 2 x →∞ 1 x +1 )= ............ 4)........................................................................71 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 4 Limite : 1)......................................................... : ∞ •0 ...Clasa a XI-a ............................................................. Limite de functiii ..................... π  limπ  x − tgx = 2 x→  2 ...................... x c tg x= lim x→ 0 ......................................................................................................................................................... lim x →∞ ( ) 4 3 2 x + x + 1 − x sin 1 = x ................ 3)........................................................ 7)....................... lim (1 − x ) tg x →1 πx 2 = ............................................................................................................................................................. 2).............

...........................................72 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 8).........................................................................................  x    = lim x →∞  x +1  .......................................... Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza utilizand : lim u ( x ) →0 1)..Clasa a XI-a ............................................................................... x+2 x +2 5 Limite : : ∞ 1 ... lim ( e sin a x →1 − esin ax )tg πx 2 = ............ lim x arctg x →∞ x +1 x  − arctg  = ............... Limite de functiii .......................................... x 3).......................................................... lim x x →∞   10).......................................................................  3 1+  = lim x →∞  x .................................................................. x  π − arctg  = ........................................ x +1 4 9)................................ lim ( 6 −x ) 1 x −5 x →5 (1+u ( x ) ) 1 u( x) =e = ...... x 2)........................................................................................................

Clasa a XI-a
- 73
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii

4).

 x −1 

lim 
x →∞
 x +3 

x+2

=

..............................................................................................................................

x

5).

2

 x +1 
 2  =
lim
x→ ∞
 x −2 
2

............................................................................................................................

6).

x

 x + x + x +1 
 3
 =
lim
2
x→∞
 x −5x +3 
3

2

.................................................................................................................

7).

 1 − 1−x
1+
lim 
x →0 
x

2

1
x


 =

.................................................................................................................

8).

1
x

 a +b 
 =
lim 
x →0
 2 
x

x

.............................................................................................................................
unde : a, b > 0

 a +b
lim 
x →e
 a +b
ln x

9).

ln x



1
ln x −1

=

...................................................................................................................
unde : a, b > 0
10).

( ln x )
lim
x →e

1
2

2
x −3 xe + 2 e

=

.......................................................................................................................

Limite de functiii

Clasa a XI-a
- 74
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii

11).

1
x

lim (1+sin x ) =
x →0

.............................................................................................................................
12).

1
x

lim ( cos x ) =
x →0

.................................................................................................................................

13).

 sin x 


lim
x →0
x

sin x
x −sin x

=

.........................................................................................................................
14).

lim ( x )

tg

x →1

πx
2

=

....................................................................................................................................
15).

(

lim
1 +3tg x
x →0
2

)

2

ctg x

=

....................................................................................................................

16).

 π

tg
+
x


lim 
x →0
  4 

1
sin x

=

....................................................................................................................
17).

limπ
x→

(

3tgx

)

tg 3 x

=

6

............................................................................................................................

 x + 2 x +1 
 2

lim
x→ 0
 5x + 8x 
2

18).

3 ctg 6 x

=

...............................................................................................................

6 Limite :

:

0

0

.

Explicitarea nedeterminarii se va realiza utilizand :
Limite de functiii

Clasa a XI-a
- 75
Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii
x l
n
l
i
m
x→
0

x =
0

x>
0

si scrierea

f = e g ln f
g

x
x = ...........................................................................................................................................
1). lim
x →0
x >0

(sin x ) =
2). lim
x →0
x

x >0

..................................................................................................................................
sin x
x = .......................................................................................................................................
3). lim
x →0
x >0

( x −1)
4). lim
x→
1

tg ( x −1 )

=

x >1

.............................................................................................................................

(arcsin
5). lim
x→
0

x)

sin x

=

x >0

.........................................................................................................................

7 Limite :

:

0

.

Limite de functiii

................. 3).......Clasa a XI-a ........................... 2)...................... 1 x ( x +1) = lim x →∞ .............................. Limite de functiii . 4).................................................................. lim x sin 1 x x →∞ = ....................... lim ( x x→ 0 ) 2 tgx = .................................................................................................................... lim x 1 x = x →∞ ...76 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 1).....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.... a............... unde : a... b. Sa se determine 1). discutand dupa valorile parametrilor reali corespunzatori : 1)... unde : m ∈ R ...........Clasa a XI-a ....................................... ( lim( ) astfel incat sa fie indeplinite egalitatile : 2 x + x − ax − b = 0 lim x→ ∞ x→ ∞ lim x→ 0 ) 4 3 2 x + 2 x − ax − bx − c = 0 e − cos x = 3 2 2 x ax 3)....... c ∈R 2 Limite de functiii ........................................ 2)................ 3).... ( ) 2 x − x + 1 + mx = lim x→ ∞ ........................ ( ) 2 x + x + 1 + mx = lim x→ ∞ ............ b.... unde : m ∈ R .......77 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii Sa se calculeze urmatoarele limite ................ 2)... ( ) a x+ 1+ b x+ 2 + c x+ 3 = lim x→ ∞ ……………………………………………………….. c ∈R ..................

Clasa a XI-a . x  x + ax +1   2  =e lim x→ ∞  x + 3x − 2  2 Limite de functiii .78 Elemente de analiza matematica – Limite de functii 4).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful