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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

ROLL NO - 63/20436 AVINASH PHASE

TM II RS No. 1 Q.1 What is a training need and how does it get recognized? Ans: Training is the form of learning that happens in class or on-job, which equips a person with the required knowledge, skill and attitude to perform present or future roles to meet the expectations of the stakeholders. Knowledge refers to awareness about the task and the related aspects, Skill refer to ability to perform the task consistently over a period of time and Attitude is the way they look at their work and their environment. The External Environment in which the business performs is very dynamic and the competition intense hence the organization has to maneuver its strategy accordingly to outperform the competition and gain advantage from the ever changing business scenario. To do so the people how make the organization have to be competent to exploit the present business environment to gain an upper hand over the competition and also speculate the future scenario and plan accordingly. Due to the ever dynamic external environment knowledge, skills and attitude become obsolete and need to be updated and/or upgraded. This gap between the required and present knowledge, skills and aptitude is training need. The various level of training is as follows: 1. Organizational Level 2. Operational / Task Level 3. Individual Level Organizational Level: These are generally the gaps encompassing the whole organization focusing on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. Organizational Development initiatives fall under the Organizational Level Training Needs. Eg. Bringing about cultural changes like Paperless Office, Eco-friendly Operations, Computerization of the business and many more. Each and every employee is a part of these initiatives right from the CXO to the Frontline staff and the shop floor workers. Operational / Task Level: Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Individual Level: Training Need at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: 1. Appraisal and performance review 2. Peer appraisal 3. Competency assessments 4. Subordinate appraisal 5. Client feedback 6. Customer feedback 7. Self-assessment or self-appraisal

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

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Knowledge

Skill

Attitude

Organizational Level

Operational / Task Level

Individual Level We can classify the training needs in above matrix so that we can understand what training and non training interventions are to be taken. The Training need get identified from various sources available within and outside the organization and they are as follows: 1. External and internal environment analysis 2. Job and task analysis 3. Skill matrices 4. Interviewing 5. Survey methods 6. Appraisal 7. Development centers 8. Critical incident technique.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

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Q.2

Discuss the various steps involved in designing the training program.

Ans: The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The basic ingredients of designing a training program are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Training Goal Learning Objectives Learning Methods / Activities Documentation / Evidence of Learning Evaluation

Step One: Determine what training is needed. The first step in designing a training system for a company is to determine what kinds of training is needed. One will need to conduct an organizational analysis, a task analysis, and a person analysis. This three-tiered examination of a companys training needs is required to identify: factors that will inhibit and aid training, to identify tasks that most employees will need to be trained in, and to identify employees that need to be trained. Organizational Analysis An organizational analysis is used to identify company factors that can negatively or positively impact the effectiveness of a training program. These factors include such things as money available for training programs, person power analysis and planning resources, employee relations and attitudes, and company resources available for training purposes. Task Analysis A task analysis is a process of identifying what skills and activities need to be taught. To generate a list of skills that employees need to learn we can conduct a job analysis. A job analysis is basically just an examination of a job and a listing of the "minimum" duties and skills that are required to successfully perform the job. Example: Job Title: Office Assistant Job Skills: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Typing 55-65 w.p.m. Word processing General computer skills Operation of office machines Spread sheet skills Filing

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

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As we can see, this list is very basic, and generalized to the skills required of just about any secretarial position. While the secretary that holds this position may perform many other tasks during the course of a week, these are the minimum skills that are needed to be able to "successfully" function in this position. After identifying what tasks are involved in each job, the next step is to identify what tasks need training. If an employee already has an identified skill it is a waste of money to train them in that skill. If we identify a skill that does require additional training then we will need to formally identify it as a training objective in writing. This objective should identify 1. What the skill is? 2. How the trainee is to learn the skill? 3. How proficient they need to be in the skill after the training process is completed? This documentation is needed to not only to let employees know what is expected of them, but also for personnel to maintain a common standard of training for all employees, and to protect you against lawsuits if you need to discipline or terminate an employee for not meeting the standards set out by the objectives. Person Analysis The final step in determining what training is needed is to conduct a person analysis. A person analysis is the identification of people in company that need training. There are many ways that this identification process can be handled. First an examination of past and current performance appraisals can be made to identify employees that have areas that need improvements. Surveys can also be used to identify skills that the employees themselves think that they should have or that they need to have to perform their jobs more successfully. Interviewing employees can also be used to identify skills that are needed or desired by employees, as can skill and knowledge tests. The final way a person analysis can be conducted is to evaluate and review critical incident reports that have been filed in personnel. These incidents can pinpoint specific skills like customer service, assembly, etc. that specific employees or departments need to improve. Step Two: Determine what training approach to use. After we have identified who needs to be trained in what areas, we will need to determine what training methodology to use. Today there are many options managers and business owners can exercise to train their employees. Seminars are a popular choice for large-scale training issues like professional standards updates and customer service issues. The benefits of this type of training methodology are: that they are usually given by an expert or organization that has extended knowledge of the area, they cover all the issues related to the issue is a short period of time, training materials are provided, and employees enjoy the fact that they get out of work to attend the seminar. In order to overcome pacing issues of training materials, programmed instruction can be used to deliver training materials. Programmed instruction is basically a hard copy format of training that is delivered either through: step-by-step booklets, latent ink booklets, or through computer-assisted instruction or computer-based training. All of these formats allow employees to progress at their own pace, and to go back over material as many times as needed. Examining case studies is another training methodology that can be used. Employee meetings can be held in which critical incidents are reviewed and alternative solutions or actions can be discussed.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

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Simulation is yet another training methodology that can be utilized. Simulation is basically just walking an employee through the motions of a skill in a controlled environment until they master the skill. Role-playing is an inexpensive training methodology that most companies can use. In this case employees act out scenes from their job in which they face challenges and situations that they normally will come across during the average day. For example, a person training to be a personnel assistant may be placed in a role playing training model where they sit at a desk in personnel and take mockphone calls and walk-in inquiries. As they walk through these situations they respond in a way that they think is appropriate following written procedure models. They may answer questions, hand out personnel forms, etc Apprentice training is another category of training methodologies that can be used to train employees. In this type of training programs new employees follow the lead of an experienced employee in order to learn new skills and to learn how to function properly in the job in question. This type of training is most commonly used in trade and craft industries; however, it can be used successfully in office situations as well. A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong. Step Three: Putting together the training program. Once we have identified the skills that need to be focused on, the employees that need training, and the methodologies that will be used, we need to put everything down in writing. The following training materials need to be cemented in writing. 1. Training objectives. Training objectives need to identify 1. The skill 2. How training is to be conducted 3. What proficiency the employee needs to attain by the end of the training process. 2. Training materials. Training materials, depending on the nature of the skill, should be written out in a manner that is easy to understand and easy to follow. Step-by-step instructions should be written out for every job, no matter how insignificant it may seem to the employer. An instruction sheet should include: 1. The skill title 2. When it is to be performed 3. Who is to perform it 4. What supplies are needed and where they can be found 5. Step-by-step instructions 6. What to do with the end product. 3. Evaluation materials. Evaluation materials are as important to a training program as the actual training materials. They will let we know how effective our training materials are and whether we need to adjust any of our methodologies. The evaluation materials that we need are: 1. Evaluation procedures 2. Evaluation form for employees 3. Evaluation form for the employer (or manager) 4. Response (rebuttal) form. 4. Out-of-house materials. If company utilizes outside sources for training we will need the following materials: 1. Purchase order for educational services 2. Expense forms 3. Approval forms 4. Evaluation forms.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 1

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Step Four: Training employees. Now that we have all of our training materials in order we will need to let our employees know about the programs and their processes. They will need to know what our training objectives are, how their progress will be monitored, what training methodologies are available and which ones are required, and what paper work is required. We must make sure that all of our employees understand all of these things and have them sign a statement attesting to this. Step Five: Evaluating our program. After an employee has completed a training program we will want to have them fill out an evaluation form of the program that goes over how well the information was presented, if they found the training helpful, if there are any areas that need improvement, if there are any areas that seemed redundant or unnecessary, and if there are any other skills that they feel that they need to perform their jobs. A manager, will also need to fill out an evaluation form on the employees progress and proficiency in the skill or skills that were focused on during the training program. Proficiency tests can be used to measure the employees abilities, or physical observation of the employees performance can be used. If we notice that there are still areas that need to be trained in, then we should make the changes to the training program as soon as possible so that the next trainee will get all of the training that they need. Also we can use the evaluation forms to identify areas that really dont need to be covered and we can eliminate these things from our training program and save company time and money spent on employee training.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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TM II RS No. 2 Q. 1 Discuss the various types of audio techniques and exercises that can be used for training. Audio techniques used in training are those techniques which use refers to the spoken words by the instructor and or the participants. A lecture is where the instructor stands in front of the audience and deliver the material by talking to them. A lecture is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a trainer, supervisor, university or college trainer. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history, background, theories and equations. Usually the lecturer / trainer will stand at the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture's content. A talk consists of three parts: 1. preparation 2. presentation 3. summary Discussion Techniques Group discussion is a technique in which the participants are divided into groups to discuss certain issues or topics. They share their opinions and experiences while discussing the topic within a given time frame. Some group discussion techniques, such as case study, role-play and the gallery technique, require advance preparation (e.g., printed materials or display board). Discussion methods are very useful: 1. for developing logical reasoning 2. for analyzing problems, finding causes and defining strategies 3. for learning about or better understanding the previous knowledge and experiences of the participants 4. for improving peoples ability to express themselves 5. for learning to respect and tolerate the opinions of others 6. for developing the analytical skills of the participants 7. in areas where group dynamics and the perspectives of the participants are required 8. in areas where the active participation of the trainees is required Strengths 1. Participants can exchange opinions and experiences. 2. Participants can compare their experiences with those of others. 3. Shared experiences make it easier to identify or solve problems. 4. Many new ideas based on those of others can be generated within a short time. 5. Everyone gets a chance to express themselves. 6. Discussion occurs in a systematic manner. 7. A clear picture of the area under discussion emerges through debate. 8. Friendly relationships spread across the group. 9. A team spirit helps participants to increase their self-confidence. 10. Participants become more tolerant of other peoples opinions. 11. Each and every one can take part and contribute. Limitations 1. It may take a long time to reach a consensus. 2. Conflict or clashes may arise. 3. The discussion may shift to irrelevant matters. 4. Extra rooms may be required. 5. If the trainers, facilitator or participants are not prepared, the discussion may turn out to be fruitless. 6. Some participants may find an excuse for not taking part in the discussion. 7. Some members may dominate others or monopolize the discussion.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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There are different kinds of group discussion methods, such as brainstorming, large group discussion, small group discussion, pair discussion, stations, role play, case study, the gallery technique, and question and answer. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a training technique generally used for problem solving or generating a number of possible solutions to a problem. Brainstorming is a process in which the maximum numbers of ideas related to a certain issue are generated in the shortest possible time by means of collective thinking. In this process, participants are encouraged to express their views openly. Initially participants accept all ideas and later on reach a decision after their analysis. This method is employed to generate more ideas in less time. It stresses the use of open-mindedness or free thinking without criticism of any ideas expressed. The goal of brainstorming is to come up with as many ideas as possible without regard to quality, with as many team members as possible contributing their thoughts. Here the quantity of ideas is far more important than their quality. Even the wildest idea is accepted as well as recorded. The specific objectives of this technique are to develop the ability to arrive at a decision quickly and to help consolidate previous learning. Strengths 1. Everyone can participate. 2. It takes little time. 3. More ideas are generated. 4. Everyone becomes interested in the discussion. 5. There is a greater opportunity to exchange views. 6. The session can be kept lively. 7. It motivates participants to think. 8. It gives the facilitator some idea about the experiences of the group. Limitations 1. If there are many ideas, the recorder needs a lot of time to write them down. 2. There is the possibility of inconsistent ideas being generated if the participants dont have any prior exposure to the subject. 3. Some ideas may be vague because of the lack of analysis. 4. At times this method may lead to disorder or chaos. 5. A big chalkboard or a large amount of poster paper is required. 6. The recorder has to write very fast and has no opportunity to express his/her ideas. Station technique This is a technique where the topics of the training session are divided into several parts (or subtopics) for detailed discussion in order to elaborate different views and ideas related to the issues identified. The participants are divided into groups depending upon the number of subtopics to be discussed. If the topic is divided into three parts, then there are three stations. If it is divided into four parts, then there are four stations. Participants are then required to move from one station to another. Each part of a topic should be one that participants can discuss independently from other parts of the topic. Any separate part should not be dependent on the discussion results of other parts. For example, the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) of an issue are good subtopics for independent discussion., However, the objectives, outcomes, and activity plans of a project are not appropriate subtopics for this technique, because activity plans should be discussed in connection with objectives, and outcomes and activity plans need to be matched. Strengths 1. All participants are involved in the discussion of all topics. 2. Participants can concentrate on different aspects of an issue systematically. 3. Participants can exchange opinions and experiences with more people. 4. Participants can confirm the value of their own experiences with a largenumber of people. Limitations 1. It may take a long time to finish the activity. 2. Large rooms are required.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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3. In some cases, three or four resource persons at a time may be required. Role-play Role-play is a structured activity, usually in the form of a dramatic performance, which recreates a situation from real life. The participants in a training programme take part in the role-play and act out a situation for the purpose of further analysis and discussion. Through role-play we can analyze a problem and identify its causes and solutions. Role-play is also useful for making comparisons between ideal and real-life conditions. To reduce preparation time and avoid observer boredom, a role-play exercise should not be too long. The script or scenario should be prepared with a clear focus on the selected topic or theme. Strengths 1. It is an effective method for improving mutual relationships and developing sensitivity. 2. Role-play can increase self-perception and enhance the ability to identify real-life problems. 3. It is easy to organize and cost effective. 4. A successful role-play leaves observers with the feeling of having seen the real thing. 5. Participants may be easily motivated to take part. 6. This method may be employed for participants of all kinds. Limitations 1. Preparation takes considerable time. 2. If the role-play is not executed properly, there is the risk of a negative impact. 3. If the representation is not successful, some may find it ridiculous or childish. 4. Highly sensitive people may find it offensive if the roles are too similar to their actual characters. 5. The impact of the role-play upon the participants depends on the capacity of the performers. Case study A case study is a detailed description of events that either really happened or are products of the imagination. Its purpose is to take the participants closer to the real context of a situation or problem. Through a case study we can analyze a problem to identify its causes and solutions based on the experiences of the participants. Case studies can also draw comparisons between ideal and real-life conditions. Case studies can be used for different purposes: 1. to increase awareness of a problem 2. to exchange experiences 3. to reach decisions by studying a situation or an incident 4. to learn from past successes and failures 5. to clarify perception of the problem and the solution or results Case studies can be descriptions of events that really happened or are imaginary but based on reality. They can be presented orally, in written form or on film. They can depict cases or situations with no identified problems, one or more problems, or a problem with multiple or alternative solutions. Strengths 1. Participants improve in their ability to analyze. 2. The case study is a simple way to get a proper understanding of a situation and find the solutions to its problems. 3. It creates enthusiasm and interest among the participants. 4. It gives them a wider opportunity to share experiences. 5. It brings real life into the classroom.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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Q. What is the significance of the visual and audio-visual techniques in training? Give suitable examples from the range of techniques? Ans: The audio visual aids educational learning resources or instructional or educational Medias. These all the terms meant the same thing. A Dutch Humanist theologist & writer desretrious Erasmus (1466-1536) disclosed memorization as a technique of learning and advocated that the children should learn through the aids of pictures or other visuals. While John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) prepared a book known as Orbis Sensilium Pictus (the word of sense objects) which contained near about 150 pictures on aspects of every day life. This is the is considered as a illustrated book for the children education. The term visual education was use by Nelson Greence in 1926. Aric identified four revolutions in education: 1. Education from home to school. 2. Written word as a tool of education. 3. Invention of printing & use of books 4. Use of electronic media i.e. Radio, T.V, tape reorder & Computer in education. Features of good Teaching Aids: 1. They should meaningful & purposeful. 2. They should be accurate in all respects. 3. They should be simple. 4. They should be cheap. 5. As far as they should be update. 6. They should motivate the learner as well as to the trainer also. Principles of Audio Visual Aids: For effective teaching to take place a good method must be adopted by the trainer. The trainer is always free to choose effective audio visual aids in the class room. Of courses there are also certain principles of Audio Visual Aids in teaching methodology. They are as follows: Principle of Selection: 1. the age level 2. Other personality angles. 3. They should have specific educational values 4. They should help in the realization of learning desired objectives. Principle of Preparation: 1. As far as possible, the local material should be used in the preparation of aids. 2. The trainer also must receive training in the preparation of aids. 3. The trainer him/herself can prepare some aids or can take help of learners also. Principle of Physical Control: This is concerned with the arrangement of keeping aids safely and also to facilitate to their lending to the trainers for se. Principle of Proper Presentation: 1. Trainer should carefully visualize the use of teaching aids before their actual presentation. 2. They should be well acquainted themselves with the use & manipulation of the aids to be shown in the class room. 3. The aids should be displayed properly. So that, all the learners can see it, observe it, and can derive maximum benefits from it. Principle of Response: This is the important principle. This tells the trainer guide the learners to respond actively to the audio visual stimulus so that they derive the maximum benefits in learning.

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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Principle of Evaluation: This Principle stipulates that there should be continuous evaluation of Audio Visual Aids materials & accompanying techniques in the light of desired objectives. Audio Visual aids or Devices or technical devices or technological Medias or learning devices that helps the trainer to clarify, establish, co-relate & co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations, appreciation and enable him to make learning more concentrate, effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful, vivid etc. The Audio Visual Aids always helps in competing the triangular process i.e. Motivation, Clarification, stimulation. The aims of teaching with technological medias is clearing the channel between the learner and the things that worth learner. The trainer must "show" as well as "tell". The Audio Visual Aids provides significant gains in informal learning, retention and recall, rethinking and reasoning, activity, interest, imagination, personal growth & development. Here are the most important values of the proper use of Audio Visual Aids: 1. Best Motivator: They are the best motivator. The learners work with more zeal & interest. 2. Clear Image: Clear image takes place when we, touch, handle, experience it. 3. Variety: "mere Chalk & Talk" do not help. Audio Visual Aids gives variety & provides different tools in ht hand of trainer. 4. Freedom: When Audio Visual Aids are employed, there is a great scope for learner to move about talk, laugh & comment upon and express themselves. Under such atmosphere the learners work because they want to work, & not because the trainer wants them to work. 5. Opportunities to handle: many learners always get a chance to handle the aids. 6. Helpful in Attracting the Attention : Attention is the true factor in any process of learning & teaching Audio Video Aids helps the trainer in providing proper environment for capturing as well as sustaining the attention and interest of the learners in class room. 7. Savings in Energy & Time: Due to effective implementation of "principle of Presentation", a good deal of energy & time of both the trainer & learners can be saved. 8. Realism: The Audio Visual Aids gives the real touch to the learning situation. 9. Encouragement to healthy class room interaction: Audio-visual aids through variety of stimuli, motivational, provisional of active participation of learners, a good experience always encourage healthy class interaction between trainer and the learners. 10. Scope of education as a mass scale: The audio-Visual aids like radio, tape, television etc always plays role in spreading mass education. 11. Positive environment for creative discipline: A balanced, rational, scientific use of Audio Visual Aids develops, motivates, experience, attract the attention of the learners and provides a variety of creative outlets for the utilization of their tremendous energy & keeps them busy in class room work. This overall classroom environment becomes conductive to creative discipline. Grossly, we can say that there are various types of Audio Visual Aids i.e. traditional as well as modern aids of audio-visual aids. But at the same time it is important to take into a/c that the AudioVisual Aids do not play role up to disseminate the information, data, facts, clues but also they influences the mentality, psychology, grasping level of the learners in the class room. On the other hand they greatly motivate, inspire the trainers to adopt the latest, creative, innovative aids. The scope of audio-visual aids is not only up to procured & makes presentation. Of, course it is technically part of teaching. But other side also it conveys us that it is a tool to know through effective communication in triangular process i.e. Motivation, Stimulation and Clarification. Apart from this it is also important that to think about difficulties & problems in the use of aids. There are certain problems like lack of enthusing for the use of teaching aids trainer, non availability of aids in school, lack of facilities for the use of aidselectricity, room, furniture etc, lack of training on the part of trainer in the use of aids, costly nature of aids, lack of storage facility & non Availability of suitable teaching aids in the regional languages. By audio-visual aids, we usually mean the most modern or the most recently used of these methods (films, filmstrips, radio and television). This is a summary identification of very old methods and very modern instruments, and one should react against it. Visual aids are far older. They correspond to a profound tendency among the immense majority of men: to materialize their thoughts in the form of graphic or sonorous images or to give their thoughts a concrete frame of reference. Plato himself took

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PAPER V TM 2 RS 2

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care to set the scenery of his dialogues, and he used concrete words and concrete comparisons (for example, the cave) as foundations for his most abstract ideas. In France, the Trs riches heures du duc de Berry brings out the importance which illustration can take in a work which would have otherwise sunk into oblivion. Xylographic images preceded the printing press by three-quarters of a century and the first illustrated book by nearly a century. The tremendous success of the images of Epinal in books peddled from door to door in France was only a manifestation of popular taste in a society where illiterates continued to be in a majority and where images went with oral literature. Films, radio and television, considered as educational instruments, have merely developed at a rapid rate alongside older means whose importance remains considerable. Their common denominator lies in their function as aids. Examples of audio-video aids/ techniques: 1. Videos 2. flash cards 3. flannel graphs 4. Picture scrolls 5. Electronic white boards, with color markers. 6. Overhead Transparencies 7. Posters 8. 35 Millimeter Slides 9. Audio-Slide Show 10. Interactive multimedia Evaluation plays a recurring theme. You must evaluate the appropriateness of the visual aids. You must evaluate how best to prepare them. You must evaluate their effectiveness in your practice run. Adding the visual dimension to a presentation is key to ensuring the presentation's overall success and evaluation plays an important role in choosing and effectively using visual aids. Training sessions should be designed so that sufficient time is allocated to not only present the information but also to allow for questions and review of materials as needed. The trainer needs to provide an environment in which participants feel sufficiently comfortable in order to ask questions and make comments. Asking questions and discussing aspects of a training program can clarify information and reinforce important learning objectives. The training information presented must be understood by the employee; otherwise the training will not be effective. Therefore, TRAINERS must include training material that is appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational, literacy and language background of employees. This will ensure that all employees, regardless of their cultural or education background will receive adequate training on how to eliminate or minimize their occupational exposure.

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PAPER VI EOT RS 1

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EOT RS No 1 Q.1 Define Evaluation and explain the concept in your own words.

Ans: Evaluation is systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Evaluation often is used to characterize and apprise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises, including the arts, criminal justice, foundations and non-profit organizations, government, health care, and other human services.
An evaluation is an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of an on-going or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, developmental efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decisionmaking process of both learners and trainers. Evaluation is an integral part of most instructional design models. Evaluation tools and methodologies help determine the effectiveness of instructional interventions. Despite its importance, there is evidence that evaluations of training programs are often inconsistent or missing. Possible explanations for inadequate evaluations include: insufficient budget allocated; insufficient time allocated; lack of expertise; blind trust in training solutions; or lack of methods and tools. Part of the explanation may be that the task of evaluation is complex in itself. Evaluating training interventions with regard to learning, transfer, and organizational impact involves a number of complexity factors. These complexity factors are associated with the dynamic and ongoing interactions of the various dimensions and attributes of organizational and training goals, trainees, training situations, and instructional technologies. Evaluation goals involve multiple purposes at different levels. These purposes include evaluation of student learning, evaluation of instructional materials, transfer of training, return on investment, and so on. Attaining these multiple purposes may require the collaboration of different people in different parts of an organization. Furthermore, not all goals may be well-defined and some may change. Different approaches to evaluation of training indicating how complexity factors associated with evaluation are addressed below. Furthermore, how technology can be used to support this process is suggested. In the following section, different approaches to evaluation and associated models are discussed. Next, recent studies concerning evaluation practice are presented. In the final section, opportunities for automated evaluation systems are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for further research.

The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

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PAPER VI EOT RS 1

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Process of Training Evaluation: Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. After Training: It is the phase when learners skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are: Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents

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PAPER VI EOT RS 1

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Q.3 Ans:

Enumerate the principles of evaluation. The Principles of evaluation can be enumerated in brief as follows:

Independence: With the exception of self-evaluations, members of evaluation teams should be independent from the planning and delivery of the policy, program or activities being evaluated. Impartiality: Evaluators are expected to make balanced judgments, reporting and analyzing both successes and failures. If stakeholders have significantly different views, this should be made clear in the evaluation report. Credibility: The evaluation process should be systematic, transparent and inclusive, with evaluations being undertaken and managed by skilled and experienced evaluators. Evaluations should identify and convey valid and reliable information, and reflect inputs from a variety of stakeholders. Transparency: Evaluations should give affected stakeholders access to evaluation-related information in forms that respect people and honor promises of confidentiality. The Evaluation Unit will publish all its evaluations and encourage the same for self-evaluations. Partnership: Evaluations in partner countries should be conducted in collaboration with partner institutions, and use partner country data and information wherever feasible. Usefulness: Evaluations will be designed and managed to meet the information and decision-making needs of the intended users. This requires ensuring timely and accessible evaluation results. Cost-effectiveness: Evaluations will be planned and managed as effectively as possible to maximize their benefits while minimizing the use of scarce resources and unnecessary time demands on stakeholders. Ethics: Evaluations should be conducted legally, ethically, and with due regard for the welfare of those involved in the evaluation, as well as those affected by its results. IDLO endorses the principle of do no harm. Based on the above we can elaborate the application of these principles for the Evaluator as below: A. Systematic Inquiry: Evaluators conduct systematic, data-based inquiries. 1. To ensure the accuracy and credibility of the evaluative information they produce, evaluators should adhere to the highest technical standards appropriate to the methods they use. 2. Evaluators should explore with the client the shortcomings and strengths both of the various evaluation questions and the various approaches that might be used for answering those questions. 3. Evaluators should communicate their methods and approaches accurately and in sufficient detail to allow others to understand, interpret and critique their work. They should make clear the limitations of an evaluation and its results. Evaluators should discuss in a contextually appropriate way those values, assumptions, theories, methods, results, and analyses significantly affecting the interpretation of the evaluative findings. These statements apply to all aspects of the evaluation, from its initial conceptualization to the eventual use of findings.

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B. Competence: Evaluators provide competent performance to stakeholders. 1. Evaluators should possess (or ensure that the evaluation team possesses) the education, abilities, skills and experience appropriate to undertake the tasks proposed in the evaluation. 2. To ensure recognition, accurate interpretation and respect for diversity, evaluators should ensure that the members of the evaluation team collectively demonstrate cultural competence. Cultural competence would be reflected in evaluators seeking awareness of their own culturally-based assumptions, their understanding of the worldviews of culturally-different participants and stakeholders in the evaluation, and the use of appropriate evaluation strategies and skills in working with culturally different groups. Diversity may be in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, socio-economics, or other factors pertinent to the evaluation context. 3. Evaluators should practice within the limits of their professional training and competence, and should decline to conduct evaluations that fall substantially outside those limits. When declining the commission or request is not feasible or appropriate, evaluators should make clear any significant limitations on the evaluation that might result. Evaluators should make every effort to gain the competence directly or through the assistance of others who possess the required expertise. 4. Evaluators should continually seek to maintain and improve their competencies, in order to provide the highest level of performance in their evaluations. This continuing professional development might include formal coursework and workshops, self-study, evaluations of one's own practice, and working with other evaluators to learn from their skills and expertise. C. Integrity/Honesty: Evaluators display honesty and integrity in their own behavior, and attempt to ensure the honesty and integrity of the entire evaluation process. 1. Evaluators should negotiate honestly with clients and relevant stakeholders concerning the costs, tasks to be undertaken, limitations of methodology, scope of results likely to be obtained, and uses of data resulting from a specific evaluation. It is primarily the evaluator's responsibility to initiate discussion and clarification of these matters, not the client's. 2. Before accepting an evaluation assignment, evaluators should disclose any roles or relationships they have that might pose a conflict of interest (or appearance of a conflict) with their role as an evaluator. If they proceed with the evaluation, the conflict(s) should be clearly articulated in reports of the evaluation results. 3. Evaluators should record all changes made in the originally negotiated project plans, and the reasons why the changes were made. If those changes would significantly affect the scope and likely results of the evaluation, the evaluator should inform the client and other important stakeholders in a timely fashion (barring good reason to the contrary, before proceeding with further work) of the changes and their likely impact. 4. Evaluators should be explicit about their own, their clients', and other stakeholders' interests and values concerning the conduct and outcomes of an evaluation. 5. Evaluators should not misrepresent their procedures, data or findings. Within reasonable limits, they should attempt to prevent or correct misuse of their work by others. 6. If evaluators determine that certain procedures or activities are likely to produce misleading evaluative information or conclusions, they have the responsibility to communicate their concerns and the reasons for them. If discussions with the client do not resolve these concerns, the evaluator should decline to conduct the evaluation. If declining the assignment is unfeasible or inappropriate, the evaluator should consult colleagues or relevant stakeholders about other proper ways to proceed. (Options might include discussions at a higher level, a dissenting cover letter or appendix, or refusal to sign the final document.) 7. Evaluators should disclose all sources of financial support for an evaluation, and the source of the request for the evaluation.

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D. Respect for People: Evaluators respect the security, dignity and self-worth of respondents, program participants, clients, and other evaluation stakeholders. 1. Evaluators should seek a comprehensive understanding of the important contextual elements of the evaluation. Contextual factors that may influence the results of a study include geographic location, timing, political and social climate, economic conditions, and other relevant activities in progress at the same time. 2. Evaluators should abide by current professional ethics, standards, and regulations regarding risks, harms, and burdens that might befall those participating in the evaluation; regarding informed consent for participation in evaluation; and regarding informing participants and clients about the scope and limits of confidentiality. 3. Because justified negative or critical conclusions from an evaluation must be explicitly stated, evaluations sometimes produce results that harm client or stakeholder interests. Under this circumstance, evaluators should seek to maximize the benefits and reduce any unnecessary harms that might occur, provided this will not compromise the integrity of the evaluation findings. Evaluators should carefully judge when the benefits from doing the evaluation or in performing certain evaluation procedures should be foregone because of the risks or harms. To the extent possible, these issues should be anticipated during the negotiation of the evaluation. 4. Knowing that evaluations may negatively affect the interests of some stakeholders, evaluators should conduct the evaluation and communicate its results in a way that clearly respects the stakeholders' dignity and self-worth. 5. Where feasible, evaluators should attempt to foster social equity in evaluation, so that those who give to the evaluation may benefit in return. For example, evaluators should seek to ensure that those who bear the burdens of contributing data and incurring any risks do so willingly, and that they have full knowledge of and opportunity to obtain any benefits of the evaluation. Program participants should be informed that their eligibility to receive services does not hinge on their participation in the evaluation. 6. Evaluators have the responsibility to understand and respect differences among participants, such as differences in their culture, religion, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation and ethnicity, and to account for potential implications of these differences when planning, conducting, analyzing, and reporting evaluations. E. Responsibilities for General and Public Welfare: Evaluators articulate and take into account the diversity of general and public interests and values that may be related to the evaluation. 1. When planning and reporting evaluations, evaluators should include relevant perspectives and interests of the full range of stakeholders. 2. Evaluators should consider not only the immediate operations and outcomes of whatever is being evaluated, but also its broad assumptions, implications and potential side effects. 3. Freedom of information is essential in a democracy. Evaluators should allow all relevant stakeholders access to evaluative information in forms that respect people and honor promises of confidentiality. Evaluators should actively disseminate information to stakeholders as resources allow. Communications that are tailored to a given stakeholder should include all results that may bear on interests of that stakeholder and refer to any other tailored communications to other stakeholders. In all cases, evaluators should strive to present results clearly and simply so that clients and other stakeholders can easily understand the evaluation process and results. 4. Evaluators should maintain a balance between client needs and other needs. Evaluators necessarily have a special relationship with the client who funds or requests the evaluation. By virtue of that relationship, evaluators must strive to meet legitimate client needs whenever it is feasible and appropriate to do so. However, that relationship can also place evaluators in difficult dilemmas when client interests conflict with other interests, or when client interests conflict with the obligation of evaluators for systematic inquiry, competence, integrity, and respect for people.

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In these cases, evaluators should explicitly identify and discuss the conflicts with the client and relevant stakeholders, resolve them when possible, determine whether continued work on the evaluation is advisable if the conflicts cannot be resolved, and make clear any significant limitations on the evaluation that might result if the conflict is not resolved. 5. Evaluators have obligations that encompass the public interest and good. These obligations are especially important when evaluators are supported by publicly-generated funds; but clear threats to the public good should never be ignored in any evaluation. Because the public interest and good are rarely the same as the interests of any particular group (including those of the client or funder), evaluators will usually have to go beyond analysis of particular stakeholder interests and consider the welfare of society as a whole.

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Q.1 Briefly enumerate any five methods available to we for measuring the outcome of training. Ans: Evaluation is an integral part of most instructional design (ID) models. Evaluation tools and methodologies help determine the effectiveness of instructional interventions. Despite its importance, there is evidence that evaluations of training programs are often inconsistent or missing. Possible explanations for inadequate evaluations include: insufficient budget allocated; insufficient time allocated; lack of expertise; blind trust in training solutions; or lack of methods and tools. Part of the explanation may be that the task of evaluation is complex in itself. Evaluating training interventions with regard to learning, transfer, and organizational impact involves a number of complexity factors. These complexity factors are associated with the dynamic and ongoing interactions of the various dimensions and attributes of organizational and training goals, trainees, training situations, and instructional technologies. Evaluation goals involve multiple purposes at different levels. These purposes include evaluation of student learning, evaluation of instructional materials, transfer of training, return on investment, and so on. Attaining these multiple purposes may require the collaboration of different people in different parts of an organization. Furthermore, not all goals may be well-defined and some may change. Different approaches to evaluation of training indicating how complexity factors associated with evaluation are addressed below. Furthermore, how technology can be used to support this process is suggested. In the following section, different approaches to evaluation and associated models are discussed. Next, recent studies concerning evaluation practice are presented. In the final section, opportunities for automated evaluation systems are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for further research. Approaches to Evaluation of Training Commonly used approaches to educational evaluation have their roots in systematic approaches to the design of training. Evaluation is traditionally represented as the final stage in a systematic approach with the purpose being to improve interventions (formative evaluation) or make a judgment about worth and effectiveness (summative evaluation). More recent ISD models incorporate evaluation throughout the process. Six general approaches to educational evaluation can be identified as follows: Goal-based evaluation Goal-free evaluation Responsive evaluation Systems evaluation Professional review Quasi-legal Goal-based and systems-based approaches are predominantly used in the evaluation of training. Various frameworks for evaluation of training programs have been proposed under the influence of these two approaches. The most influential framework has come from Kirkpatrick. Kirkpatricks work generated a great deal of subsequent work. Kirkpatricks model (1959) follows the goal-based evaluation approach and is based on four simple questions that translate into four levels of evaluation. These four levels are widely known as reaction, learning, behavior, and results. On the other hand, under the systems approach, the most influential models include: Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) Model (Worthen & Sanders, 1987); Training Validation System (TVS) Approach (Fitz-Enz, 1994); and Input, Process, Output, Outcome (IPO) Model (Bushnell, 1990). Table 1 presents a comparison of several system-based models (CIPP, IPO, & TVS) with a goal-based model (Kirkpatricks). Goal-based models (such as Kirkpatricks four levels) may help practitioners think about the purposes of evaluation ranging from purely technical to covertly political purpose. However, these models do not define the steps necessary to achieve purposes and do not address the ways to utilize results to improve training. The difficulty for practitioners following such models is in selecting and implementing appropriate evaluation methods (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed). Because of their apparent simplicity, trainers jump feet first into using [such] model[s] without taking the time to assess their needs and resources or to determine how theyll apply the model and the results. Naturally, many organizations do not use the entire model, and training ends up being evaluated only at the reaction, or

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at best, at the learning level. As the level of evaluation goes up, the complexities involved increase. This may explain why only levels 1 and 2 are used. Kirkpatrick (1959) CIPP Model (1987) IPO Model (1990) TVS Model (1994) 1. Reaction: to gather 1. Context: obtaining 1. Input: evaluation of 1. Situation: collecting data on participants information about the system performance pre-training data to reactions at the end of a situation to decide on indicators such as trainee ascertain current levels training program educational needs and to qualifications, availability of of performance within establish program materials, appropriateness the organization and objectives of training, etc. defining a desirable level of future performance 2. Learning: to assess 2. Input: identifying 2. Process: embraces 2. Intervention: whether the learning educational strategies planning, design, identifying the reason objectives for the most likely to achieve the development, and delivery for the existence of the program are met desired result of training programs gap between the present and desirable performance to find out if training is the solution to the problem 3. Behavior: to assess 3. Process: assessing the 3. Output: Gathering data 3. Impact: evaluating whether job performance implementation of the resulting from the training the difference between changes as a result of educational program interventions the pre- and posttraining training data 4. Results: to assess 4. Product: gathering 4. Outcomes: longer-term 4. Value: measuring costs vs. benefits of information regarding the results associated with differences in quality, training programs, i.e., results of the educational improvement in the productivity, service, or organizational impact in intervention to interpret its corporations bottom line- sales, all of which can terms of reduced costs, worth and merit its profitability, be expressed in terms improved quality of work, competitiveness, etc. of dollars increased quantity of work, etc. Table 1. Goal-based and systems-based approaches to evaluation On the other hand, systems-based models (e.g., CIPP, IPO, and TVS) seem to be more useful in terms of thinking about the overall context and situation but they may not provide sufficient granularity. Systems-based models may not represent the dynamic interactions between the design and the evaluation of training. Few of these models provide detailed descriptions of the processes involved in each steps. None provide tools for evaluation. Furthermore, these models do not address the collaborative process of evaluation, that is, the different roles and responsibilities that people may play during an evaluation process. Current Practices in Evaluation of Training Evaluation becomes more important when one considers that while American industries, for example, annually spend up to $100 billion on training and development, not more than 10 per cent of these expenditures actually result in transfer to the job . This can be explained by reports that indicate that not all training programs are consistently evaluated. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) found that 45 percent of surveyed organizations only gauged trainees reactions to courses. Overall, 93% of training courses are evaluated at Level One, 52% of the courses are evaluated at Level Two, 31% of the courses are evaluated at Level Three and 28% of the courses are evaluated at Level Four. These data clearly represent a bias in the area of evaluation for simple and superficial analysis.

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This situation does not seem to be very different in Europe, as evident in two European Commission projects that have recently collected data exploring evaluation practices in Europe. The first one is the Promoting Added Value through Evaluation (PAVE) project, which was funded under the European Commissions Leonardo da Vinci program in 1999. The study examined a sample of organizations (small, medium, and large), which had signaled some commitment to training and evaluation by embarking on the UKs Investors in People (IiP) standard. Analysis of the responses to surveys by these organizations suggested that formative and summative evaluations were not widely used. On the other hand, immediate and context (needs analysis) evaluations are more widely used. In the majority of the cases, the responsibility for evaluation was that of managers and the most frequently used methods were informal feedback and questionnaires. The majority of respondents claimed to assess the impact on employee performance (the learning level). Less than one-third of the respondents claimed to assess the impact of training on organization (the results level). Operational reasons for evaluating training were cited more frequently than strategic ones. However, information derived from evaluations was used mostly for feedback to individuals, less to revise the training process, and rarely for return on investment decisions. Also, there were some statistically significant effects of organizational size on evaluation practice. Small firms are constrained in the extent to which they can evaluate their training by the internal resources of the firm. Managers are probably responsible for all aspects of training. The second study was conducted under the Advanced Design Approaches for Personalized TrainingInteractive Tools (ADAPTIT) project. ADAPTIT is a European project within the Information Society Technologies programme that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. In an effort to explore the current approaches to instructional design, a series of surveys conducted in a variety of sectors including transport, education, business, and industry in Europe. The participants were asked about activities that take place including the interim products produced during the evaluation process, such as a list of revisions or an evaluation plan. In general, systematic and planned evaluation was not found in practice nor was the distinction between formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation does not seem to take place explicitly while summative evaluation is not fully carried out. The most common activities of evaluation seem to be the evaluation of student performance (i.e., assessment) and there is not enough evidence that evaluation results of any type are used to revise the training design. It is important to note here that the majority of the participants expressed a need for evaluation software to support their practice. Using Computer to Automate Evaluation Process For evaluations to have a substantive and pervasive impact on the development of training programs, internal resources and personnel such as training designers, trainers, training managers, and chief personnel will need to become increasingly involved as program evaluators. While using external evaluation specialists has validity advantages, time and budget constraints make this option highly impractical in most cases. Thus, the mentality that evaluation is strictly the province of experts often results in there being no evaluation at all. These considerations make a case for the convenience and cost-effectiveness of internal evaluations. However, the obvious concern is whether the internal team possesses the expertise required to conduct the evaluation, and if they do, how the bias of internal evaluators can be minimized. Therefore, just as automated expert systems are being developed to guide the design of instructional programs, so might such systems be created for instructional evaluations. Lack of expertise of training designers in evaluation, pressures for increased productivity, and the need to standardize evaluation process to ensure effectiveness of training products are some of the elements that may provide motivations for supporting organizations evaluation with technology. Such systems might also help minimize the potential bias of internal evaluators. Ross & Morrison (1997) suggest two categories of functions that automated evaluation systems appear likely to incorporate. The first is automation of the planning process via expert guidance; the second is the automation of the data collection process. For automated planning through expert guidance, an operational or procedural model can be used during the planning stages to assist the evaluator in planning an appropriate evaluation. The expert program will solicit key information from the evaluator and offer recommendations regarding possible strategies. Input information categories for the expert system include:

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Purpose of evaluation (formative or summative) Type of evaluation objectives (cognitive, affective, behavioral, impact) Level of evaluation (reaction, learning, behavior, organizational impact) Type of instructional objectives (declarative knowledge, procedural learning, attitudes) Type of instructional delivery (classroom-based, technology-based, mixed) Size and type of participant groups (individual, small group, whole group) Based on this input, an expert system can provide guidance on possible evaluation design orientations, appropriate collection methods, data analysis techniques, reporting formats, and dissemination strategies. Such expert guidance can be in the form of flexible general strategies and guidelines (weak advising approach). Given the complexities associated with the nature of evaluation, a weak advising approach such as this is more appropriate than a strong approach that would replace the human decision maker in the process. Indeed, weak advising systems that supplement rather than replace human expertise have generally been more successful when complex procedures and processes are involved. Such a system may also embed automated data collection functions for increased efficiency. Functionality of automated data collection systems may involve intelligent test scoring of procedural and declarative knowledge, automation of individual profile interpretations, and intelligent advice during the process of learning. These applications can provide increased ability to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the training program in producing the desired outcomes. Especially, for the purposes of formative evaluation this means that the training program can be dynamically and continuously improved as it is being designed. Automated evaluation planning and automated data collection systems embedded in a generic instructional design tool may be an efficient and integrated solution for training organizations. In such a system it will also be possible to provide advice on revising the training materials based on the evaluation feedback. Therefore, evaluation data, individual performance data, and revision items can be tagged to the learning objects in a training program. ADAPTIT instructional design tool is one of the systems that provide such an integrated solution for training organizations. Conclusion Different approaches to evaluation of training discussed herein indicate that the activities involved in evaluation of training are complex and not always well-structured. Since evaluation activities in training situations involve multiple goals associated with multiple levels, evaluation should perhaps be viewed as a collaborative activity between training designers, training managers, trainers, floor managers, and possibly others. There is a need for a unifying model for evaluation theory, research, and practice that will account for the collaborative nature of and complexities involved in the evaluation of training. None of the available models for training evaluation seem to account for these two aspects of evaluation. Existing models fall short in comprehensiveness and they fail to provide tools that guide organizations in their evaluation systems and procedures. Not surprisingly, organizations are experiencing problems with respect to developing consistent evaluation approaches. Only a small percentage of organizations succeed in establishing a sound evaluation process that feeds back into the training design process. Evaluation activities are limited to reaction sheets and student testing without proper revision of training materials based on evaluation results. Perhaps lack of experience in evaluation is one of the reasons for not consistently evaluating. In this case, the organization may consider hiring an external evaluator, but that will be costly and time consuming. Considering the need for the use of internal resources and personnel in organizations, expert system technology can be useful in providing expert support and guidance and increase the power and efficiency of evaluation. Such expert systems can be used by external evaluators as well. Strong, completely automated systems offer apparent advantages, but their development and dissemination lag behind their conceptualization. Future research needs to focus on the barriers to evaluation of training, how training is being evaluated and integrated with the training design, how the collaborative process of evaluation is being managed and how they may be assisted. This will be helpful in guiding the efforts for both the unifying theory of evaluation and in developing automated evaluation systems.

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Q.2

Short notes:

1 Major hurdle in cost benefits analysis: Return on investment tells you the percentage return you have made over a specified period as a result of investing in a training programme. On the assumption that benefits will continue to accrue some time after the training, then the period that you specify is critical to the ROI figure you will obtain. You may like to specify a period that fits in well with your organizations planning cycle perhaps a year or two years. On the other hand, you may wish to calculate the period to correspond to the lifetime of the benefit, in which case you will need to know how long the average student stays in a position in which they can continue to apply the knowledge and skills being taught. ROI from training cannot always be seen in isolation from other sources of ROI. It is often the case that an overall project ROI measurement has to be taken, and the evaluation methodology must allow the customer to identify the interconnected and relative values of the various sources of benefit. For example, in a project to upgrade software, the ROI can come from a combination of factors: The user and their organisation will see increased productivity purely from use of new and enhanced functionality in the hardware and software or better performance of the application or system. This is not enough, however, and must in turn be enhanced by Reducing as much as possible the time taken to achieve these benefits, and achieving further increases in productivity due to training on the use of the new functionality (compared to the productivity the users might experience without the training). And in some cases Avoiding or minimising a negative productivity impact due to the typical decrease in productivity during the early days or weeks of using new software (as people have to learn new and changed facilities in order to regain their previous level of performance) In cases like this, the training not only has its own pure ROI (i.e. the increased productivity of the trained user, compared to the untrained user), but it is also a key component in realising the ROI of the software implementation or upgrade. It is up to you and your client to decide how to separate these factors or whether to roll them all together. As well as demonstrating how training can affect the success of software or hardware implementations, the ROI exercise may also be used to evaluate the different approaches to training. For example, an ROI exercise may show some comparisons of expected costs and benefits from purely classroom training, from purely e-learning, or from a blended approach. All training programs will have some form of effectiveness measurement, even if it is as simple as immediate feedback from the participants on happy sheets which provide an initial reaction to their perception of the training. More in depth analysis of the effectiveness of training in changing positively the participants ability to do their job and increase productivity, or reduce costs, requires more in depth understanding of the real business purposes of the training and the real financial benefits expected by the organisation. ROI as process ROI measurement is the process of collecting and analysing this performance data, and translating this into a measurement of real financial benefit to the organisation. This benefit is then compared to the cost of creating this benefit through training and measurement. In many cases, ROI measurement can be linked to data collected and analysed for the purpose of Training Needs Analysis (TNA). If detailed TNA studies are done prior to the training, the data from these studies can be compared to the feedback and performance data acquired after the training takes place. In addition, the TNA is likely to highlight the expected benefits and results from the training. In this case, the change in performance may be more accurately determined. ROI as Perception So, what actually is ROI on training? It can be considered to be a perception on the part of the client of how valuable the training has been in achieving their perceived goals; and these perceptions will vary depending on whom you talk to. For example: The Board may see a big picture of how the training affects the companys ability to achieve its corporate goals

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The finance department may be looking to see how training stacks up financially against other ways to invest the companys money, and whether the training, as carried out, was financially more effective than alternative forms of development The business unit manager may be solely concerned with the impact on performance and productivity in achieving the goals of their department The training and development manager may be concerned with the impact training programmes are having on the credibility and status as the training function within the company and its ability to secure investment in the future to drive further business performance enhancements With all these potentially different viewpoints, one of the first things you need to consider with your client, is what the client actually considers is a return on investment, and which views of success are critical to the measurement process. Hopefully, there will be a balance of these viewpoints, leading to an overall value judgment based on actual measured results. Benefit and Cost Aspects of ROI It is also important to understand that ROI can be realised in different ways. IBM has published research on ROI, which points out the following factors to take into consideration. ROI can be realised as: Cost avoidance, which reflects the reduction in costs and overheads in various forms, but which does not necessarily improve the value of the individuals efforts to the business (for example, training may reduce the time taken to perform a task, or attending an online class may avoid travel expenses) Business benefits are a reflection of what new and additional value (expressed as business improvements) an individual brings to their work, or the performance of their department or team, by virtue of their learning. (for example, learning may enable people to perform tasks they were unable to perform previously, and provide valuable new services) By combining the 2, you can predict or calculate a total ROI on learning. Why do we want to measure ROI? ROI, and the evaluation of training, is, and always has been, an important topic to the computer industry; and it has always been problematical convincing customers, and your own product sales and marketing departments, that training is vitally important to the customers success with your product. For the IT industry, training on new or updated software and systems is critical to successful implementation. Most people believe this, and intuitively accept it. Training is usually built into plans and proposals alongside software purchases and other services. On the other hand, training is also often regarded as one of the aspects of a project that can be cut back or even removed from a project, without causing the project to fail completely; we are all familiar with the attitude that training is often the last item to be included in the project plan, and the first to be cut back when money is tight. Many corporations, and corporate executives, are now more demanding in wanting to see, before approving expenditure, a financial value justification for what training brings to the business, and also wanting the actual benefit to be measured after implementation. Demonstrating ROI has become a major point of emphasis for corporate HR development executives, who are facing increasing pressure to justify their expenditure on people development, in terms of financial benefit to the business. ROI is a measurement technique common to many projects and investments, and can be applied to training. It is necessary to be able to estimate, before the project starts, the potential and expected ROI (using previous experience wherever possible), as well as be able to measure and report on the actual return after the project has finished. Looked at another way, ROI modelling also helps to support the argument that serious businesses cannot afford NOT to train; the cost of not training (measured in various ways) can be much higher and much more damaging, than the cost of training. For example, various studies in various situations and circumstances have found some interesting statistics: Untrained users take up to six times longer to perform the same tasks. o (From TBA)

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Training enhances employee retention. A Louis Harris and Associate Poll says that among employees who say their company offers poor or no training, 41% plan to leave within a year. Of those that say their company offers excellent training, only 12% say they plan to leave. Studies show that in-house training costs 73% more than outsourced training. o (from TBA) A four-year study by the American Society of Training and Development shows that firms who invest $1500 per employee in training compared to those that spend $125, experience on average: 24% higher gross profit margins and 218% higher income per employee! Just a 2% increase in productivity has been shown to net a 100% return on investment in outsourced, instructor-lead training o (from Training ROI. Avatech Solutions.) These examples are all well and good, but these are generic and non-specific indicators; how well do these apply to any specific customer situation, or to a specific industry? If a customer is going to make a decision to invest in training, they may want more specific supporting evidence than this; hence the need to be able to offer a pre-training ROI analysis to give the customer some comfort that this might in fact work in their situation.

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2. Calculating training costs: Calculating training costs and benefits allows a manager to demonstrate the return on investment for an organization. It establishes what the company earns by developing its employees. While it's easy to measure the costs of designing, developing and delivering training, it's far more difficult to evaluate the effect of training on job performance. Linking training to improved quality, customer satisfaction or cost savings allows an organization to continue to allocate funding for learning and development. To calculate costs and benefits, implement a series of evaluation programs that ensure training initiatives will benefit the whole company. 1. Significance: Calculating the costs involves adding up the fees charged for designing, developing and conducting training sessions run by the company. Typical costs include the labor associated with assessing student needs, writing learning objectives, developing training materials and producing student guides. Other fees might include facilitator expenses, video or audio production, facilities and rental fees, and accounting for employees' time away from their regular tasks. 2. Types of Benefits: Listing the potential savings generated involves identifying improved metrics, such as fewer errors, increased customer satisfaction, decreased safety violations, reduced employee turnover, increased revenue and overall improvement in productivity. Producing standardized training materials also contributes to reducing recruiting and new employee orientation expenses. 3. Benefits of Setting Performance Goals: Setting performance goals for employees who complete company training programs involves identifying the current level of performance -- for example, 100 products that fail inspection per month. Convert that into a financial value -- for example, 100 errors times one hour to fix each problem times Rs. 20 per hour for labor equals Rs.2, 000 per month. Forecast a reduction in that figure, perhaps to 50 failures per month. 4. Calculating Savings: Running training programs for selected individuals and determining a reasonable rate of improved performance allows a manager to calculate savings and identify changes in behavior and attitudes following training. Calculate the savings, for example, if you can cut the errors from 100 to 50 errors per month. If it takes one hour to fix each of those 50 problems, times Rs. 20 per hour for labor, that is equal to Rs. 1,000 per month. That's a savings of Rs. 1,000. Identify when these savings will occur; for example, three months after the target group of employees completes training. Calculate the total anticipated savings by dividing the amount of savings by number of training participants to identify the savings per student. 5. Considerations for Comparing Costs: Comparing the cost of training to the savings generated helps justify the expenses. Typically, the benefits of training more than justify the training expenditure. Usually, the savings cost per participant exceeds the training cost per participant, especially when considered over time. Managers can also use the calculators provided by the Society of Human Resource Management to calculate other training metrics. Managers should calculate metrics that make sense for the business, such as "Organizational and Employee Development" metrics, including the amount spent on training per student per hour of training provided. Generating these metrics helps a manager calculate actual costs and realistic benefits, such as savings. Reasonable goals ensure training expectations communicated to stakeholders and executive leadership are achievable and tied to measurable business results.

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Training Cost Calculation Fixed Capital Costs 1. Building cost and depreciation 2. Building taxes 3. Fuel and water provision 4. Fixtures and fittings depreciation 5. Other fixed services computer links 6. Equipments computers, printers, OHPs, videos, mikes, etc. 7. Provision of a training resource center and/or library 8. Transport Maintenance or Working Capital Costs 1. Consumables e.g. Stationary 2. Routine maintenance and repair contracts 3. Other materials used during the training by trainers and trainees Administrative Costs 1. Cleaning 2. Support service staff accommodation, materials and salaries attributable to training related duties 3. Telephone and utility charges attributable to the training function 4. Computer time charges where appropriate Trainer Costs 1. Cost of employing a training manager or partly attributable costs of appointing senior managers with responsibility for the training function 2. Trainer and/or program designers and writers salaries and expenses 3. Continued training and development of training staff 4. Professional fees for training staff 5. Subscriptions to professional journals and purchase of training resources Direct Training Costs 1. Fees and expenses for guest speakers External Agent Costs 1. Consultant fees and expenses 2. External course fees and expenses 3. Purchase of open learning programs Trainee Costs 1. Apportionment of salary for period of traveling to and from and 2. Attending the training program 3. Cost of pre-program action with line manager(Also apportioned cost of line manager) 4. Travel and accommodation costs 5. Cost of replacement of staff

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PAPER VI RS 2

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4. Measuring training benefits: The impact of training is increased when we hold trainees, their bosses/supervisors, and the organization as a whole accountable for results. We do this by measuring results and identifying those things in the organization that contribute to achieving positive results, as well as those things that get in the way of achieving the results we want. Without accountability, its like playing golf in the dark. Players dont know if they hit the ball towards the pin and they dont know if they got the ball in the hole, and, after awhile, nobody cares. Sometimes we forget that the power of training is not in the elegance of design, nor in the charisma of facilitators, nor the enthusiasm of participants, nor even the self-report of learners. Rather, it is in the difference that training makes in achieving important business results for the organization. The critical question is not, What do participants think of the program? The critical question is, How does training contribute to achieving business goals? The process of holding trainees accountable can add tremendously to their learning. Simply by asking people questions about what they learned and how they are applying this, learners think about their experiences and reflect on what they learned and what theyve done with their new knowledge and skills. This inquiry can renew individual commitment to improving performance that might have waned in the face of work responsibilities and job pressures. We have found that asking managers about the impact of a leadership development program they attended is like a jump-start for action. They frequently remember changes they had intended to make after the program and then they re-commit once again to making those changes. One of the methods used to measure results is the Success Case Method. This method involves creating an impact map that specifies the intended outcomes of the training program, identifying who has and has not been successful in applying learning from that program, and then interviewing a small sample of these two groups. The products of this process are stories that reveal the nature of alignment between what was learned and business results. These stories can also expose the expectations that learners had before, during, and after training and how the alliance between learner and boss/supervisor affected results. Measuring success of training is done for three purposes to prove the event happened, to learn from the event and to improve future events. Measuring can be undertaken in four ways: 1. Measuring the results in terms of some numbers - quantitative 2. Measuring in terms of acceptability - qualitative. 3. Measuring in terms of benefits - qualitative. 4. Measuring in terms of impacts - qualitative. 1. Measuring the results in terms of numbers This quantitative form of evaluation is based on inputs or values spent, either in time, money or other resources spent. Results or numbers include: - Number of participants attending. - Number of absentees. - Number of training courses provided. - Number of training documents issued. - Number of hours spent developing training. - Number of hours in actual training given. - Amount of money invested in the course. The information is collected and analyzed by the givers of the course. The data comes from the management information system of the course organizers. It proves the facts of the course events. Various ratios can be calculated and comparisons made with past or similar training programmes. Alone it does not tell us if the participants valued or benefited from the course. 2. Measuring Acceptability In the qualitative evaluation we are measuring whether participants liked the programme and whether it met their immediate expectations.

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PAPER VI RS 2

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Two issues are involved in any evaluation: - Criteria of measuring the courses or modules, and - How to give the criteria a measure or value. The evaluation criteria would cover the: - Course Programme - Instructor knowledge of the subject - Delivery of the course - Administration of the course. Examples of Acceptability Measurement: Criteria - Course - Usefulness of training sessions - Rank the instructors knowledge - Subject or Topic - Covering a subject - Quality of Accommodation - Usefulness of topic Criteria and Measurement - Successful or Unsuccessful - Agree or disagree - Scale of 1 to 5 - We would like - a lot more, more, less, or a lot less, of a topic - Poor; satisfactory; good: or excellent - Low, Moderate, high, very high - Low, Moderate, high, very high

By adding up the opinions, we get a measure of acceptability. 3. Measuring Benefits Whether a participant benefits from training may take a month or a year to measure. Thus a questionnaire and/or an interview may need to be completed some time after the event. The criteria may be: - Better job performance. - More confidence in undertaking work. - Better evaluation by superiors. - More interest in the work and reform changes (job satisfaction). - Change in work habits. - Becoming more efficient. 4. Measuring Impacts The most difficult to measure is the impact of the course. This may affect not only the participants, but also their organization. Thus impacts measure such wider criteria as: - Nature and skills of present staff. - Better recruitment policies. - New and better ways of working. - Way that CP is seen in the organization. - Wish to attend further training events. Impacts can go beyond the stated objectives of the training courses.

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PAPER VII EETS RS 1

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EETS RS No. 1 Q.1 What is e-learning? E-learning is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information and communications technology in learning. A number of other terms are also used to describe this mode of learning. They include online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, network and web-based learning. Fundamentally, they all refer to educational processes that utilize information and communications technology to mediate asynchronous as well as synchronous learning and training activities. On closer scrutiny, however, it will be clear that these labels refer to slightly different educational processes and as such they cannot be used synonymously with the term e-learning. The term e-learning comprises a lot more than online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, networked or web-based learning. As the letter e in e-learning stands for the word electronic, e-learning would incorporate all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, and synchronously or asynchronously via networked or standalone computers and other electronic devices. These various types or modalities of e-learning activity are represented as follows: E-Learning modalities Individualized self-paced Individualized self-paced e-learning online e-learning offline Group-based e-learning synchronously Group-based e-learning asynchronously

Individualized self-paced e-learning online refers to situations where an individual learner is accessing learning resources such as a database or course content online via an Intranet or the Internet. A typical example of this is a learner studying alone or conducting some research on the Internet or a local network. Individualized self-paced e-learning offline refers to situations where an individual learner is using learning resources such as a database or a computer-assisted learning package offline (i.e., while not connected to an Intranet or the Internet). An example of this is a learner working alone off a hard drive, a CD or DVD. Group-based e-learning synchronously refers to situations where groups of learners are working together in real time via an Intranet or the Internet. It may include text-based conferencing (Chatting, forums etc.), and one or two-way audio and videoconferencing. Examples of this include learners engaged in a real-time chat or an audio-videoconference. Group-based e-learning asynchronously refers to situations where groups of learners are working over an Intranet or the Internet where exchanges among participants occur with a time delay (i.e., not in real time). Typical examples of this kind of activity include on-line discussions via electronic mailing lists and text-based conferencing within learning managements systems. Contemporary trends in e-learning The growing interest in e-learning seems to be coming from several directions. These include organizations that have traditionally offered distance education programs either in a single, dual or mixed mode setting. They see the incorporation of online learning in their repertoire as a logical extension of their distance education activities. The corporate sector, on the other hand, is interested in e-learning as a way of rationalizing the costs of their in-house staff training activities. E-learning is of interest to residential campus-based educational organizations as well. They see e-learning as a way of improving access to their programs and also as a way of tapping into growing niche markets. The growth of e-learning is directly related to the increasing access to information and communications technology, as well its decreasing cost. The capacity of information and communications technology to support multimedia resource-based learning and training is also relevant to the growing interest in elearning. Growing numbers of trainers are increasingly using information and communications technology to support their training. The contemporary learner populations who have grown up using information and communications technology also expect to see it being used in their educational experiences. Educational organizations too see advantages in making their programs accessible via a range of distributed locations, including on-campus, home and other community learning or resource centers.

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PAPER VII EETS RS 1

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E-Learning advantages and disadvantages are important to consider when making instructional and learning decisions. Many organizations and institutions provide different forms of training and instruction to their employees or learners. Typically they provide needed training by sending people to school, holding in-house training classes, or providing manuals and self-study guides. In some situations it is advantageous for them to use e-learning or other forms of e-learning instead of the traditional training. Other times it is disadvantageous. As with anything else, there are benefits and limitations, as well as pros and cons. There are many advantages to online and computer-based learning when compared to traditional face-to-face courses and lectures. There are a few disadvantages as well. Advantages of e-Learning 1. Class work can be scheduled around personal and professional work 2. Reduces travel cost and time to and from school 3. Learners may have the option to select learning materials that meets their level of knowledge and interest 4. Learners can study wherever they have access to a computer and Internet 5. Self-paced learning modules allow learners to work at their own pace 6. Flexibility to join discussions in the bulletin board threaded discussion areas at any hour, or visit with classmates and instructors remotely in chat rooms 7. Different learning styles are addressed and facilitation of learning occurs through varied activities 8. Development of computer and Internet skills that are transferable to other facets of learner's lives 9. Successfully completing online or computer-based courses builds self-knowledge and selfconfidence and encourages Learners to take responsibility for their learning Disadvantages of e-Learning 1. Unmotivated learners or those with poor study habits may fall behind 2. Lack of familiar structure and routine may take getting used to 3. Learners may feel isolated or miss social interaction 4. Instructor may not always be available on demand 5. Slow or unreliable Internet connections can be frustrating 6. Managing learning software can involve a learning curve 7. Some courses such as traditional hands-on courses can be difficult to simulate

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PAPER VII EETS RS 1

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Q. 3

What are the advantages of e-learning?

No matter how qualified and competent your employees are, there will always be a need for training. Efficient, Cost-Effective Training: Whenever a company introduces a new product or service, implements a new business process or software application, modifies its structure or goals, or seeks to make improvements in overall operations - training is critical. The question is which method of training yields the best results. For years, traditional classroom training was the only practical option. But scheduling this type of training has become more and more difficult as the pace of business increases. And, its even more so when an organization has a staff that is geographically dispersed. Done correctly, e-Learning is the perfect complement to a traditional training program. While a company will still have need for personal interaction and mentoring, for most subjects, a large amount of the instruction can be effectively put online. E-Learning is an ideal means to communicate information, simulate processes, and test knowledge. E-learning is beneficial to education, corporations and to all types of learners. It is affordable, saves time, and produces measurable results. E-learning is more cost effective than traditional learning because less time and money is spent traveling. Since e-learning can be done in any geographic location and there are no travel expenses, this type of learning is much less costly than doing learning at a traditional institute. Flexibility is a major benefit of e-learning. E-learning has the advantage of taking class anytime anywhere. Education is available when and where it is needed. E-learning can be done at the office, at home, on the road, 24 hours a day, and seven days a week. . E-learning also has measurable assessments which can be created so the both the instructors and Learners will know what the Learners have learned, when they've completed courses, and how they have performed. Learners like e-learning because it accommodates different types of learning styles. Learners have the advantage of learning at own pace. Learners can also learn through a variety of activities that apply to many different learning styles learners have. Learners can fit e-learning into their busy schedule. If they hold a job, they can still be working with e-learning. If the learner needs to do the learning at night, then this option is available. Learners can sit in their home in their pajamas and do the learning if they desire. E-learning encourages Learners to peruse through information by using hyperlinks and sites on the worldwide Web. Learners are able to find information relevant to their personal situations and interest. E-learning allows Learners to select learning materials that meet their level of knowledge, interest and what they need to know to perform more effectively in an activity. E-learning is more focused on the learner and it is more interesting for the learner because it is information that they want to learn. Elearning is flexible and can be customized to meet the individual needs of the learners. E-learning helps Learners develop knowledge of the Internet. This knowledge will help learners throughout their careers. E-learning encourages Learners to take personal responsibility for their own learning. When learners succeed, it builds self-knowledge and self-confidence in them. Educators and corporations really benefit from e-learning. Learners enjoy having the opportunity to learn at their own pace, on their own time, and have it less costly. Key Advantages of eLearning: 1. Eliminate wasted time and money: With traditional training, the more people being trained and the more geographically dispersed they are, the greater the training costs. Often, the money isnt even spent on the actual training; it goes toward airfare, lodging, meals and refreshments, and conference room rental. With e-Learning, the cost stays the same whether were training 100 people or 1,000 people, and 100% of our training money goes toward training.

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PAPER VII EETS RS 1

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2. Condense training: E-Learning allows participants to focus on the information they really need. A traditional class that lasts 2 days and has an attendance of 12 people per class can be often converted to 6 to 8 hours of e-Learning, saving the company 120 man hours per training session and thousands of dollars a year. 3. Improve productivity: With e-Learning, employees can receive training anytime and anywhere at work, home, or flying cross country. Our sales team can even train during down-time so it doesnt interfere with business. 4. Improve consistency and effectiveness: E-Learning makes sure that all of our trainees are getting consistent instruction that is easy to document. 5. Evaluate learning retention: E-Learning provides built-in measurement of employee knowledge. Both pre and post-assessments can be incorporated into any program. 6. Provide risk-free simulations: E-Learning can simulate real-life situations so we can train our employees how to use complex software or handle touchy situations in a risk-free environment.

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PAPER VII EETS RS 2

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EETS RS No. 2 Q.1 Why is e-learning popular?

Ans. The growing interest in e-learning seems to be coming from several directions. The corporate sector, on the other hand, is interested in e-learning as a way of rationalizing the costs of their in-house staff training activities. The organizations that have traditionally offered distance education programs either in a single, dual or mixed mode setting. They see the incorporation of online learning in their repertoire as a logical extension of their distance education activities. E-learning is of interest to residential campus-based educational organizations as well. They see e-learning as a way of improving access to their programs and also as a way of tapping into growing niche markets. The growth of elearning is directly related to the increasing access to information and communications technology, as well its decreasing cost. The capacity of information and communications technology to support multimedia resource-based learning and training is also relevant to the growing interest in e-learning. Growing numbers of trainers are increasingly using information and communications technology to support their training. The contemporary learner populations who have grown up using information and communications technology also expect to see it being used in their educational experiences. Educational organizations too see advantages in making their programs accessible via a range of distributed locations, including on-campus, home and other community learning or resource centers. A key attribute of information and communications technology is its ability to enable flexible access to information and resources. Flexible access refers to access and use of information and resources at a time, place and pace that is suitable and convenient to individual learners rather than the teacher and/or the educational organization. The concept of distance education was founded on the principles of flexible access. It aimed to allow distance learners, who were generally adult learners in full or parttime employment to be able to study at a time, place, and pace that suited their convenience. The goal of distance education was to free these learners from the constraints of conventional residential educational settings. They would not be required to live or attend lectures in locations away from where they may be living and working. The printed distance study materials, which each distance learner received, would carry the core subject matter content they would need including all their learning activities and assessment tasks. Learners would be required to complete these tasks, submit their assignments and take their examinations within a set time frame. While these printed study materials allowed distance learners a great deal of freedom from time, place and pace of study, it had its limitations. For one thing, non-printed subject matter content and simulations etc. could not be easily represented in print form. Access to information and communications technology changed all that as it offered a range of possibilities for capturing and delivering all types of subject matter content to learners and teachers in distributed educational settings. This meant access to subject matter content and learning resources via networked information and communications technologies across a range of settings such as conventional classrooms, workplaces, homes, and various forms of community centers. Contemporary educational institutions, including conventional distance education providers, often pride themselves in being able to meet the learning needs of their Learners and staff at a time, place and pace that is most convenient to them. They have been able to do this with the help of information and communications technologies which afford learners access to updated information as and when they need them, and also the opportunity to discuss this information with their peers and teachers at their convenience. This is becoming increasingly affordable and palatable with a wide range of software applications and computer conferencing technologies for collaborative inquiry among Learners and asynchronous discussion. These applications enable learners and teachers to engage in synchronous as well as asynchronous interaction across space, time, and pace. Information and communications technology also enables the capture and storage of information of various types including print, audio, and video. Networked information and communications technologies enable access to this content in a manner that is not possible within the spatial and temporal constraints of conventional educational settings such as the classroom or the print mode. In

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PAPER VII EETS RS 2

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the context of this distributed setting, users have access to a wide variety of educational resources in a format that is amenable to individual approaches to learning and accessible at a time, place and pace that is convenient to them. Typically, these educational resources could include hyper-linked material, incorporating text, pictures, graphics, animation, multimedia elements such as videos and simulations and also links to electronic databases, search engines, and online libraries. Following are the advantages due to which e-learning is popular: E-Learning: 1. Accommodate multiple learning styles. Through the use of media, text and even live technology mediated interactions. 2. Offer individualized instruction through assessment and remediation addressing the learners needs. 3. Provide self-paced instruction for learners wanting to move ahead or learners that wanting extra practice. 4. Offer on-demand access to learning when needed. The learner determines when he/she wants to learn. 5. Allow collaborative learning so learners do not feel isolated and maximize learning. 6. Engages users with stimulating content and interactivity that teaches and reinforces. 7. Increase retention by using reinforces more consistently than other approaches. 8. Increase consistency when the learning is captured and delivered by technology. 9. Track learners and provide proof of their work and skill development. CD ROM / DVD 1. Better or faster graphics than on the web. Graphics may be embedded, in larger number, and with larger file formats than on the web. 2. Better audio and video than on the web. Video is more detailed and can be seen in larger windows than web-based video. Video is much faster to access than web-based streaming video or flash movies. 3. Use of executable files (programs) can make a CD Rom have features difficult to accomplish on the web including realistic simulations. 4. Reduced costs as a CD ROM might be used by many learners and the media is cheap to replicate. Web: 1. Accessibility: learners can access the content anywhere there is an Internet connection 2. Human interaction: with chat, desktop conferencing, e-mail, forums and blogs learners can reach high levels of interactivity and even intimacy with others providing a high level and, if handled right, high quality human interaction. 3. Interactivity: Web based learning may provide high level of interactivity and response to the individual learner. 4. Cost effective: Once the learning has been developed it can be reused. How cost effective depends on the nature of the teaching approach (instructor lead, self paced, etc.). 5. Learning style flexible: Web based learning can be designed to serve all learning styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic). 6. Learner tracking: Web based learning systems can easily track student progress. 7. Learning object based: Content can be effectively displayed and effectively reused by employing a learning object based approach highly compatible with web-based instruction. 8. Synchronous or Asynchronous: Enabling the marriage of approaches to meet instructional objectives. 9. Customizable: Web content can be customizable by user selected preferences.

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PAPER VII EETS RS 2

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Q.2

What are some of the pit-falls with e-learning?

Ans. A major disadvantage to e-learning is the self-discipline it requires. While being able to work at your own pace can be an advantage, it can also be a disadvantage. This is especially true for participants who have difficulty with time management and procrastination. These participants tend to be more successful with the structure of traditional learning. One disadvantage of e-learning is that learners need to have access to a computer as well as the Internet. They also need to have computer skills with programs such as word processing, Internet browsers, and e-mail. Without these skills and software it is not possible for the student to succeed in elearning. E-learners need to be very comfortable using a computer. Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials difficult. This may cause the learners to get frustrated and give up. Another disadvantage of e-learning is managing computer files and online learning software. For learners with beginner-level computer skills it can sometimes seem complex to keep their computer files organized. Without good computer organizational skills learners may lose or misplace reports causing them to be late in submitting assignments. Some of the students also may have trouble installing software that is required for the class. E-learning also requires just as much time for attending class and completing assignments as any traditional classroom course. This means that students have to be highly motivated and responsible because all the work they do is on their own. Learners with low motivation or bad study habits may fall behind. Another disadvantage of e-learning is that without the routine structures of a traditional class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and deadlines causing the student to fail or do poorly. Another disadvantage of e-learning is that students may feel isolated from the instructor. Instructions are not always available to help the learner so learners need to have discipline to work independently without the instructor's assistance. E-learners also need to have good writing and communication skills. When instructors and other learners aren't meeting face-to-face it is possible to misinterpret what was meant. E-Learning Disadvantages 1. Investment -- E-learning is a capital intensive endeavor and its costs are often underestimated. 2. Reduced face to face interactions - E-learning can be isolating if care is not taken to balance the learning modalities. While adult learners can often adapt, young or traditional age learners should have a balanced learning approach with enough interaction. 3. Dependency on technology -- Technology can be a blessing or a curse as it requires resourced, certain know-how from the learner, and maintenance. 4. Inappropriate match of technology, content, objectives, and approach -- Appropriate instruction requires a 4 way match between the technology, the nature of the content and how its presented, the objectives that must lend themselves to the e medium, and the approach taken to produce learning. If any of these fails E-Learning is suboptimal or perhaps worse. CD ROM Disadvantages 1. Lack of face to face interaction with instructor and peers 2. Inability to update the content as in web based instruction. If you have highly changing content CD might not be appropriate. 3. More costly distribution than web based learning due to the need to mail the CD. 4. Student management is not available as on the web where the instructor in many systems the instructor can log in and see where each learner has been and how much they have accomplished. This can be resolved but it requires a hybrid approach including the CD ROM and an external database usually accessed over the web. 5. Challenge saving note and bookmarks-- saving user data onto the CD Rom is not possible. This can also be overcome with the use of a hybrid approach. Web Disadvantages 1. Bandwidth: The biggest single problem with the web is the bandwidth available. As technology progresses this will be less of an issues but even today with DSL lines and Cable, the web is slow compared to other media. This seriously limits what is possible on the web

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PAPER VII EETS RS 2

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For Trainers: 1. Need to be up-to-date with someone else's material 2. Creating the course content can be labor intensive 3. Software must be updated on a regular basis For Establishments: 1. Need senior management support to be successful 2. Learners may find excuses that they cannot finish their coursework e.g. internet connection failed 3. Susceptible to cheating For Learners: 1. Learners with low motivation may fall behind 2. May get lost or confused about course activities or deadlines 3. May feel isolated from their teacher or classmates 4. The teacher may not always be available when needed 5. Slow internet connections cause frustration 6. Complex management of computer files and online learning software 7. Hands-on or practical work is impossible

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PAPER VIII EETOA RS 1

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Q.2 Ans:

How has the work place changed in past ten years? There has been a tsunami of change in work place in past ten years.

Earlier org. used hand written communication which was replaces by typewriters and later computers took their place. Carbon paper was used for making copies which has become almost obsolete today by copiers. Copiers are losing to the ability to access any document in a digital format. Postal service was replaced by courier which is losing ground to electronic communication like email fax etc. Telephone were a luxury which has become obsolete and 3g mobile which gives u access to all the means of communication and information at the finger tips is growing fast. Hand outs were with black board and chalks have given way to white board and marker. The white board is facing competition from the interactive boards which are highly versatile and have connectivity to the web. OHP has been replaced by LCD projectors which again are facing competition from interactive boards. Attendance register is the thing of the past with the punch card and the latest biometric systems to monitor employee movements. Today one does not need to go to office to work as they have an option of work from home. Classroom training and OJT are blending with e-learning which was unimaginable till past decade. Today we dont need to got to the class we can attend the trainings from our office through the webinars and video conferencing. Even the mans best friend the paper based books are loosing ground to the soft-copies and pdfs. Today one does not need to go to the market to buy or sell anything. It can be done online from the comfort of ones home/office. All the above facilities are easily available to anyone so the competition has become very intense.

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PAPER VIII EETOA RS 1

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What is the impact of these technologies on the training and development function in an organization? Ans: THE IMPACT OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE T&D ARE SIGNIFICANT AND FROM MANY ANGLES. IT HAS HELPED TO DEVELOPSpecific TRAINING/DEVELOPMENT goals and a vision of learning through technology Ongoing professional development Structural changes in the TRAINING INSTRUCTIONS A robust technical infrastructure and technical support Ongoing evaluation A. TRAINER / FACILITATOR 1. BEHAVIORALHypothesis Testing for optional decision making ; Simulation games for decision making; Evaluation Methods for determining the success rate ; Behavioral Science Research Cognitive Processes; making Adjustment to Environment ; Cognitive Structures Participant Observation; using Peer Groups; using Interviews for all occasions; using Questionnaires for various studies; using Case Studies for developing ; using Functional Behavioral Assessment 2. TRAINING / EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS No Administrative Problems in organizing; flexible implementation Strategies; wide range of training / Educational Programs; easy to create Organizational training Climate; easy / flexible to create Organizational Communication easy to get staff Involvement; easy to develop Cooperative Planning; easy/ flexible to develop all levels of training / Educational Programs; easy to implement Experiential Learning; easy to manage training for Handicapped staff ; easy to introduce Rehabilitation Programs for staff 3. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN wider availability of Multimedia Instruction; wider / cost effective Multimedia Materials; availability of Multisensory Learning; availability of many Learning Modalities; flexible Instructional Design; economic availability of Computer Assisted Instruction; affordable Audiovisual Aids; affordable / available Nonprint Media / Web Sites; easily available training / Educational Resources like ; Educational Trends; Social Influences; Illustrations; Computer System Design; Layout (Publications);

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PAPER VIII EETOA RS 1

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training Outcomes Assessment; evaluation of Program Effectiveness; assessment of Participant Satisfaction; use of Global Approach; Distance Education; Innovation; Online Courses 4. INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENTS Improved use of Active Learning; Improved use of action learning .Physiology; significant Instructional Improvement significant use of Computer Assisted Instruction; 5. TRAINING METHODS use of Interactive Video; use of Management Development tools; Supervisory skills Training using modern techniques; use of Computer Simulation; use of Computer Assisted Instruction; using Case Studies; use of Group Instruction; use of Artificial Intelligence; B. LEARNER 1. TRAINING / EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Internet has improved Reference Services; Internet has increased Library Services; increased use of Computer Mediated Communication; wide use of Internet; wider varieties of Training Methods; wider uses of Computer in TRAINING /Education; WIDER CHOICE OF Course Contents; WIDER AVAILABILITY OF Online Courses; 2. TRAINING regular use of Measurement Techniques; compulsory use of training Evaluation Methods; use of Performance Based Assessment for promotion ; frequent use of Learning Motivation / Motivation Techniques; development / use of training / Educational Indicators and metrics; 3.PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS frequent study of trainee Behavior after training ; frequent use of Benchmarking to study the effectiveness; frequent study of trainers/ trainees attitude to programs. development of programs for Special Needs Students; use of Questionnaires for the study Program Effectiveness; C. ORGANIZATION 1.COST EFFECTIVENESS Able to run classes . able to manage Discipline Problems more effectively; able to achieve knowledge/skill Achievement effectively; able to maintain training Quality within cost; Public Schools; able to apply Measurement Techniques cost effectively; able to adopt a Global Approach cost effectively 2.WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT easy to adopt a Global Approach; easy to develop a Competitive workforce / Creative; easy to introduce Cultural changes / Cultural Awareness;

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PAPER VIII EETOA RS 1

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active part in Human resource Development; improved Intercultural Communication; 3.PROGRAM EVALUATION frequent use evaluation of trainees' Behavior / Program Effectiveness / Benchmarking with outside world/ trainers' evaluation / training courses evaluation/ CHANGE IN TRAINEES' SKILLS/ KNOWLEDGE. CHANGE IN EFFICIENCY CHANGE IN OUTCOMES CHANGE IN LEARNING OUTCOME CHANGE IN PERFORMANCE OUTCOME.

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PAPER VIII EETOA RS 2

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Q.1 What factors do you consider while using technology to manage performance? Ans: There are as many different definitions of EPSS as there are types of tea, but the best is by Barry Raybould, a leader in EPSS: "The electronic infrastructure that captures, stores and distributes individual and corporate knowledge assets throughout an organization, to enable individuals to achieve required levels of performance in the fastest possible time and with a minimum of support from other people." The vital elements of an EPSS structure are: EPSS Element Benefit Capture, store and distribute Networks and software easily accommodate the distribution of these tools and the information captured by them. View corporate knowledge as an asset as well as individual knowledge. With performance support tools, the minimum level of performance can be raised, allowing an overall increase in performance for the organization. Time is also an asset and can be assigned a monetary value.

Individual and corporate knowledge assets Required levels of performance

Fastest possible time Minimum of support from others

This also incorporates the element of time and encourages the learners to be independent. Electronic Performance Support Systems Are Friendly and Easy-To-Use Visual Tools That Make Complicated Tasks Simple Macros, wizards, templates, and other Electronic Performance Support Tools are proven to have an immediate and positive impact on the learner's attitude and performance and... On the bottom line. Not surprisingly, they also provide answers to tough organizational challenges such as: The need for consistency and standardization High turnover in personnel Downsizing of IS personnel Expensive and extensive technology training Issue EPSS Value Need for consistency and standardization Consistency and standardization is embedded within throughout documents the templates - no more standards manual! Paper-based forms Growing body of Corporate Knowledge Document automation using templates and wizards increases performance and productivity. The knowledge needed to perform a complicated task would be imbedded within a tool and easily dispersed to the desktop. and Task completion is streamlined and eliminates the need to learn entire software applications. The knowledge needed to perform a complicated task would be imbedded within the tool and not in an individuals head.

Need for performance

increased

efficiency

High turnover in personnel

Extensive and expensive technology training Training time is reduced since task details can be is needed before employees are productive incorporated into EPSS tools. Down-sizing of IS personnel Minimal support from other people including the Help Desk is required. There are many computerized tools and instructional programs that people claim are performance support systems, but which sometimes are not. What makes a program an electronic performance

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support system (EPSS)? An electronic performance support system is, according to Barry Raybould (1991), "a computer-based system that improves worker productivity by providing on-the-job access to integrated information, advice, and learning experiences." Gloria Gery (1989) defines it as "an integrated electronic environment that is available to and easily accessible by each employee and is structured to provide immediate, individualized on-line access to the full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems to permit job performance with minimal support and intervention by others" (p. 21). EPSSs are generally used to provide support for: performing a task (procedures and processes) finding information in databases presenting information in alternate forms (video, audio, text, image, data) CHARACTERISTICS An electronic performance support system displays some or most of the following characteristics. Computer-based EPSSs are computer-based, which is what the "electronic" in their name indicates. There have been older attempts at performance support systems, such as a series of manuals, job aids, and other paper material. But it wasn't until the advent of powerful multimedia computers that true performance support could be made possible. True support includes quick and easy access to the information needed at the time the task is being performed. This information may be in the form of alphanumeric text, graphics, audio, or video. Provide access to the discrete, specific information and tools needed to perform a task at the time the task is to be performed. This is a two-part characteristic: 1) access to the specific information and tools needed to perform a task, and 2) access to the information and tools at the time the task is to be performed. If one part of this characteristic does not exist, then the characteristic changes and is no longer a performance support characteristic. The discrete, specific information provided may be: Data - The type of data may be textual or numeric (prices, locations, names), visual (photographs, graphics, video), or audio (conversations, speeches, music). Instruction - The instruction may be the text of a list of steps to take, a video showing a procedure, a simulation of a task that allows the user to practice, and so on. Advice - The advice may be an expert system that asks the user questions, then suggests the most appropriate procedure or step to do next. Tools - The tools provided may be a spreadsheet, a database, a statistical analysis package, an online calculator, a program that controls industrial robots, and so on. Used on the job, or in simulations or other practice of the job An EPSS provides information to people on the job, or in simulations or other practice of the job. The information is provided as the worker sees a need for it. This availability of information, instruction, advice and tools makes much prior training unnecessary. The EPSS can be used in simulations or other practice of the job, so that workers learn both the information he or she will probably need when doing the job, and how to use the EPSS itself. Controlled by the worker The worker decides when and what information is needed. There is no need for an instructor because the worker is guided by the needs of the task. The motivation is provided by the worker's desire to accomplish the task. Reduce the need for prior training in order to accomplish the task The easy availability of the information needed to perform a task reduces the need for much prior training. Easily updated The very nature of an EPSS--that it provide the information needed to perform a task--requires that it be easily updated in order to keep the information current. The computerized nature of an EPSS makes updating faster and easier in some ways than in other media (such as print). Fast access to information

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The user must be able to find information quickly when it is needed on the job, otherwise the EPSS is no better than a printed manual, which probably contains the information, but it may be more difficult to find quickly. Irrelevant information excluded The user is able to access only the specific, discrete information needed at that instant, instead of having to wade through loads of irrelevant information to find a few details. This is one of the problems with instruction that is not specific to a task; it forces the user to sift through it looking for the details needed. This sifting not only slows the user down, but can result in confusion. Allow for different levels of knowledge in users In order to speed up information access and understanding, an EPSS can provide minimal information for expert users and more detail for new users. Allow for different learning styles of users Through multimedia, an EPSS can accommodate users with varied learning styles, thus providing more optimal learning. The same information can be presented in visual, textual, and audio formats, with the user selecting the format. Integrate information, advice, and learning experiences An EPSS can integrate information, advice, and learning experiences. For example, a database entry might describe a procedure. Users may not know if the procedure is the proper one to use, so they might turn to the advisor to find out. The advisor would ask some questions about what needs to be accomplished, then would suggest which procedure to use. If necessary, users could then go through a tutorial on using the procedure and practice it in a simulation before actually performing the procedure. According to Clay Carr (1992), artificial intelligence (AI) is an essential characteristic of EPSS, but not according to Gloria Gery. At this early stage of performance support system design and use, AI is not essential, but someday it will be one of EPSS's defining characteristics. An EPSS may not contain all these characteristics; different systems will fall on a continuum of these characteristics (see Range of Classification as EPSS below). An EPSS displaying all these characteristics is an optimal system. Since performance support systems are still young, it is more likely that many will display only the key characteristics. KEY CHARACTERISTICS Of the characteristics described above, the key characteristics of EPSSs which make them different from other computerized instructions or tools are: computer-based provide access to the discrete, specific information and tools needed to perform a task at the time the task is to be performed used on the job, or in simulations or other practice of the job controlled by the user reduce the need for prior training in order to accomplish the task These key characteristics are the minimum a program must have in order to called an EPSS. By definition it must be computerized ("electronic"). It must provide the specific information needed to perform a task, otherwise it would be no different from traditional training, which provides the information needed, but includes irrelevant data. It must provide the specific information when it is needed, otherwise there is no difference between it and traditional training, which provides the information, but not when it is needed. It must allow the learner to decide when information is needed, otherwise it is no different from teacher-controlled traditional training. And finally, the program must reduce the need for prior training in order to accomplish the task

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Q.2

What are some of the examples of web based technologies to manage performance?

Ans: I would like to state here my experience with AKZO NOBEL India Ltd, a mnc from Norway. The are the worlds largest manufacturers of Paints and coatings. The cometetive advantage of Akzo Nobel is that they can paints and coatings with a guarantee of upto 25 yrs and with same shade across the world. The Shipping companies dock their ships at ports of India China to save on the labour of painting the ship. Akzo nobel is contacted to supply the exact shade to the dry-docked ship with a performance guarantee of 25 yrs. Same is true for the wind power companies like Enercon which procures its coats from Akzo nobel. Akzo has several manufacturing location and the nearest factory fulfills the orders with the exact shade and chemistry. This done by the intranet support system which has SOPs for all the processes involved in doing business. The chemistry and the tips and notes are mention on a online platform so that it can be accessed from anywhere from the world and the same color can be manufactured. It sounds ideal, support for most any task you are asked to perform in the workplace precisely when you want it, day or night, right at your desk, and without troubling others. That has been the promise of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) for years. Now we have a cost-effective, openarchitecture, universally accepted and pervasive delivery system called the Web. In simple terms, build your EPSS as one or more Web applications and, voil, you have a Web-based performance support system (WBPSS). Web-based performance support systems may be designed using existing or easily created performance enhancing components. For example, Web-based training would likely be a key component; though designed in smaller, task-specific informational units that could be completed in short order. The WBT might cover the use of various productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets, accounting software, communications or database applications. Task-specific templates and job aids assist users in performing to an organization's "best practices" standards. Wizards and cue cards walk users through an approved procedure. Users learn how to perform the task properly without human guidance; and, in each case, productivity is enhanced. The most valuable resource an organization has is its information assets, the collective knowledge of the employees, the archive of information useful to performing productive tasks. A WBPSS might collect, organize, manage, and retrieve these assets for the immediate benefit of users. Task-related information resources may already exist, perhaps not in an organized form, yet available for incorporation into a unified performance support system. Context-sensitive help and search capabilities assist in connecting the information asset to the task. As in all parts of a well-designed WBPSS, and especially true here, usability engineering is important to enable the user to find and retrieve the right information quickly. Artificial intelligence expert systems house the collective knowledge of an organization for accomplishing tasks. Through rules-based logic and a series of user responses to specific questions, the knowledge of recognized experts in a field can be unleashed. Valid and thus useful expert systems are hard to build, but the payoff would be tremendous if this knowledge could be applied instantly to a variety of tasks. Knowledge assets need to be collected, catalogued, organized, and formatted constantly; otherwise, the information in the system becomes stagnant. A good EPSS/WBPSS should have a knowledge assets management system, an application and database for storing organizational knowledge assets. Agents are hot! Currently you can find and use Web agents to perform tasks for you; for example, monitor news groups for a certain phrase and report to you each time someone uses that phrase.

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Agents are software applications that constantly perform tasks on your behalf behind the scenes. Tell them what you want done and let them run. You go on to other tasks while the agent works for you. Agents, I predict, will become one of the most valuable components of a WBPSS for enhancing human performance. Technically speaking, WBPSSs uses TCP/IP and HTTP protocols to transport information from a central network application server to Web clients and back. The interface for the system could be the familiar unmodified Web browser, a Web browser customized with special features, or a unique Web application. Just as with EPSS, some WBPSSs will be designed so as to appear to be a single, though massive, application. Navigational features, visual design, and information organization will be uniformly applied. In other WBPSSs, the components may be designed independently and only linked by a central menued application. Various other examples of use of web-based technologies are as follows: WEB 2.0: Eg. Sites like Wikipedia are resource to diverse knowledge. It acts as a knowledge platform which is open and free for use. Biometrics: This is the highest level of security that is in use to protect information crucial to business. It is also used in monitoring the activity of the employees. CCTV: Same as Biometrics. Video conferencing: This give the comfort of speaking to a person face to face but without the need to travel. In developed countries it is a common practice to use video conferencing. Various forums and chat sites also supplement the web based performance management system.

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