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YEAR 3 SEM 1 JAN ± MAY 2012

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of this report was to analyze steel framing systems to create consciousness of architecture students to the interrelationship between engineering and architecture design. Structural components of advanced and general construction techniques are identified and illustrated. This is backed up by necessary documentations to the standards acceptable to the profession. To organize the research, steel framing systems findings been categorized into its general information such as characteristics and typology and its architecture elements such as foundation systems, wall systems, roof systems, etc. Various case studies are then done to prove steel framing systems effectiveness and design capabilities. In conclusion, steel framing systems prove to not only be design flexible, it is more cost saving, faster, effective, and stronger than other building materials or systems.


INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this report was to analyze steel framing systems and identify its structural components of advanced construction techniques and illustrate the implementation of advance construction techniques which will demonstrate the interrelationship between engineering and architecture design.


Scope While researching, it is important to consider the difference in steel construction. Not all steel construction uses the steel framing system.


Methodology The research group consists of 6 individuals for which are paired into sub-groups to deal with given tasks. Research components and case studies are derived from book/magazine sources and from in the internet from architecture websites and e-books. The task distribution is categorized like so: Tasks 1.0 Introduction Task Distribution and Planning Conclusion Compilation 2.0 Steel Framing Systems General Information Characteristics Cold-Formed Steel Framing Benefits of Steel Framing Systems Prefabrication and IBS Design Process Procedures Plan Check and Building Inspection Differences with other Materials Daniel Saidu Members Daniel Saidu

Consultants and Specialization Fasteners and Tools Training and Licenses Types of Steel Framing Systems Steel Specifications and Standards Steel Suppliers and Ordering Local and International Differences 3.0 Foundation Systems Deep foundation Right Foundation for Steel Frame Structure Pile Foundation Pile Caps Citeria and Requirements Steel Panel Foundations Pole Foundations 4.0 Floor Systems Structural Steel Framing One-Way Beam System Two-Way Beam System Triple Beam System Types of Steel Beams Types of Steel Connections Types of Decking Light-Gauge Steel Light-Gauge Stud Framing 5.0 Wall Systems Exterior Wall Studs Curtain Wall Interior Wall Light-Gauge Metal Framing Types of Furring and Studs Material Specification Staggered Truss Steel Framing System Taraneh Shing Yie Taraneh


Roof Systems Structural Steel Roof Framing Assembly Methods Steel Rigid Frame (Portal Frame) Space Frames Open-web steel Joists Open-Web Steel Joists Framing Metal Roof Decking Light-gauge roof framing

Jonathan Keyman


Moisture and Thermal Protection Sheet Metal Roofing Corrugate Metal Roofing Metal Cladding Joint Sealant Expansion Joists

Jonathan Keyman


Doors and Windows Doors and Doorways Door Operation Window Window Operation Elements

Jonathan Keyman


Complete System Case Study: OS House ± NOLASTER


10.0 Individual Case Study Case Study 1: 11 Boxes ± Keiji Ashizawa Design Case Study 2: Big Dig House - Single Speed Design Jonathan Case Study 3: Keyman Case Study 4: Shing Yie Case Study 5: Saidu Daniel

Taraneh Case Study 6:


Limitations 1.4.1 Case study or research is not in Malaysia. No on-site research is done and research is highly based on information documented by authors or reviewers and publishers. 1.4.2 Most books and online information did not possess full drawings for referencing.


Assumptions 1.5.1 Due to the lack of some illustrations of detailed joinery information of particular case studies, precise assumptions are made based on written text information. 1.5.2 Converting written text information into illustrations are not as detailed because for example; if connections between a joinery is written as µwelded¶ or µbolted¶ then illustrations drawn would be based on general building construction methods. E.g.: Solution for written text µbolted corner joints¶ would be a L-shaped bolt connection (unless specified in detail).



Steel has been used for more than 150 years in shaping the built environment. Although the idea of steel conjures up images of a heavy or cumbersome material, the steel used in residential construction is quite the opposite. Coldformed steel (CFS) is lightweight, easy to handle, cost effective, and a high quality alternative to traditional residential framing materials. CFS offers the builder a strong, dimensionally stable, easy-to-work framing system whose use can be traced back to 1850. In the late 1920s and early 1930s cold-formed steel entered the building construction arena with products manufactured by a handful of fabricators. Although these products were successful in performance, they faced difficulties with acceptance for two reasons: (1) there was no standard design methodology available, and (2) cold-formed steel was not included in the building codes at that time. Many of the CFS applications were unable to be used due to the lack of design methodology and product recognition.

Steel framing is a practical, code approved solution to many of the limitations that builders face today when using traditional building materials.

The strength and ductility of structural cold-formed steel (CFS) framing, along with the holding power of CFS connections, make it the ideal material for construction in high wind speed and seismic zones such as the U. S. eastern seaboard, the Gulf Coast states, California and Hawaii. Characteristics such as non-combustibility, termite resistance, and dimensional stability can lower construction and home ownership costs. CFS can provide the framework for a solid sustainable building program. Each piece of CFS shipped to the jobsite contains a minimum of 25% recycled content and is 100% recyclable at the end of its lifespan. And a recent study, conducted by the NAHB Research Center, showed that the zinc coating on steel framing materials can protect against corrosion for hundreds of years. For these reasons, and many others, the use of steel framing continues to grow every year with more than 40% of commercial structures now using steel framing and with nearly 500,000 homes built with steel framing over the past decade.


Growth in Popularity

Between 1979 and 1992 the number of steel-framed homes saw a substantial increase. Cold-formed steel framing was used in 5% of housing starts in the U.S. in 1993. This percentage increased to 8% in 2000 and had reached 12% in 2005. The emphasis has been on single-family homes in the Sunbelt and on multi-family homes in the north. The popularity of steel framing in the Sunbelt is expected to continue to increase rapidly because of the concern over termites, decay, and high winds. Urban areas and fire hazard districts are also expected to show a growing interest in steel framing. According to the Washington DC-based Steel Framing Alliance there is no national system in place to track the use of steel framing in homes accurately. However, the Alliance estimates that steel was being used in 3 to 6 percent of the housing starts in the S in 1999. In Florida, however, every building built must have an Energy Code Compliance Form prepared and submitted when applying for a permit.

Included in this form is a description of the exterior all configurations including the type of building system. Presented below is a summary of the mix of building systems used in Florida in 2000 and 2001. Based on a random sample of over 1,600 single-family detached homes, less than 1% of the homes built in the Central climatic zone employed steel framing.


Environmentally Friendly

The Steel Framing Alliance claims that cold-formed steel framing is an environmentally friendly building system because: ‡ Steel is recyclable, using old cars, buildings, bridges, steel cans, etc. ‡ Steel is the world¶s most versatile material to recycle. ‡ Yearly, steelmakers recycle about 500 million tons of steel world-wide. ‡ It takes at least 60% less energy to produce steel from scrap than it does from iron ore. ‡ It takes about 6 old cars to produce enough steel to frame a basic residential dwelling.


Easy on Land Fills

In addition to being environmentally friendly, steel framing results in a reduction in construction waste that would normally end up in a land fill: ‡ The average landfill consists of approximately 60% construction debris ± mostly concrete, wood, and plastic. ‡ Every ton of steel recycled conserves 2,500 pounds of iron ore, 1,400 pounds of coal, and 120 pounds of limestone. ‡ Less than 6% of landfill is steel - such as staples, nails in wood and steel rebar inside chunks of concrete. ‡ Debris from a typical wood-framed home accounts for 50 ft3 of landfill waste, compared to only 2 ft3 from a steel-framed house


Advantages of Steel Framing ‡ Consistent Material Quality ‡ Non-Combustible Material ‡ Dimensionally Stable in any Climate ‡ Insect Resistance and steel will not rot ‡ Engineering not required for common home designs


Manufacturing Process Cold-formed steel products begin as a very large coil of steel. These coils may weight up to 13 tons.

After the hot coil has been rolled to the desired thickness and after it has cooled, the ribbon of steel passes through a series of rollers to form the desired products:

However, the basic cold-formed C-shape is by far the most common component.


Steel Studs and Joists

Structural cold-formed steel studs are produced with a 1-5/8´ flange and ½´ return lips using a 33-97 mil thickness steel covered with a G60 galvanized coating. Non-structural cold-formed steel studs are not intended to carry loads. They typically are produced with 1.25´ flanges and ¼´ return lips using steel with a 33 mil thickness-or-less and a G40 galvanized coating. Floor joists are produced the same as the structural studs but their webs range from 6´, 8´, 10´, or 12´.



A universal designator system, similar to a grade stamp used for lumber products, is typically used to identify each steel component produced. The designator for at 5-1/2´, 16-gauge, C-shape stud with 1-5/8´ flanges and 54mil galvanized coating would appear as: 550S162-54. The elements of the designator are described in the diagram below.

The product specification is imprinted on members produced at intervals of 48´ much like the grade stamp applied to lumber products. The label typically includes:

‡ Manufacturer¶s identification or logo ‡ Minimum uncoated steel thickness ‡ Minimum yield strength ‡ Coating designation if other than minimum


Steel and Fire

Steel is non-combustible, will not support flame, and does not generate smoke. However, steel looses strength at high temperatures and should be protected from excessive temperatures in accordance with code requirements (e.g., gypsum wallboard or other approved material).


Price Stability

Price and stability of supply have driven many builders to adopt residential steel framing.While the price of steel has remained relatively stable since the 1980s and continuing through 2003, teel mill product prices jumped about 50% in 2004. In 2005, steel prices declined about 12% and then climbed nearly 30%. (See figure below) Such volatility in pricing makes it very difficult for estimators to predict prices more than a couple weeks ahead, let alone months ahead. As a result, the market penetration of cold-formed steel has slowed significantly. In addition to steel fluctuating, concrete prices have risen 15%; asphalt has increased 14%; and lumber has increased 7% during the same period. (Source: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,

According to the NAHB Research Center¶s Toolbase Services (See:, at current steel prices, the steel framing materials required to frame a typical house (average 2,150 sq. ft.) will be less expensive than the wood framing materials required to frame the same house when the ³Random Lengths Composite Index´ is ~$350 or higher for lumber. However, if the builder, framing contractor or other subcontractor is new to steel, then labor costs could account for a $1.00 ± $2.50 per square foot premium for steel framing. Historically speaking, steel material prices have remained flat, while wood material prices have fluctuated greatly. The steel industry continues to improve the processes by which steel homes are built, bringing hard construction costs down to a minimum, so that builders will be able to enjoy a competitive and stable framing package price.


Cold-formed steel framing

Cold-formed steel framing is sheet steel that is formed into shapes and sizes that are similar to what builders are accustomed to seeing in dimensional lumber (2x4, 2x6, 2x8, 2x10, 2x12, and so forth). Steel framing members are formed in a process called roll forming by passing sheet steel through a series of rollers to form the bends that make the shape, e.g. the web, flanges, and lips of a stud or C-shape. Because this process is done without heat (also called ³cold forming´) the studs and joists are made stronger than the original sheet steel.


Considerations when Building with Cold-formed Steel Framing Steel framing can lower construction costs. ‡ Warranty call-backs are minimized because steel does not shrink, split, or warp. As a result, there are no nail pops or drywall cracks to fix after the structure is completed. ‡ Consistent quality means that scrap is drastically reduced (2% for steel versus 20% for wood). These savings also translate into lower costs for jobsite culling of wood materials and haul off and disposal of discarded material. ‡ Discounts on builders risk insurance for steel framed structures can result in significant cost savings for builders. Steel framing is easier to handle because steel studs weigh 1/3less than wood studs, and can be installed at 24´ on center. Steel framing offers marketing advantages because consumers recognize steel as a superior framing product for its fundamental characteristics:

‡ Long term maintenance costs are reduced because steel is resistant to rot, mold, termite and insect infestation. ‡ Good indoor air quality (IAQ) is promoted because steel does not emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). ‡ Steel is ³Green´ because it contains a minimum of 25% recycled steel and is 100% recyclable. ‡ Steel framing has proven performance in high wind and seismic zones. The non-combustibility of steel allows a significant density increase in commercial and multi-family structures, offering building owners with the potential for higher revenue.


Cold-formed Steel Framing Cost and Type

The method of construction, stick framing or panelization, and type of project will have a direct bearing on the cost of the steel frame system. 2.13.1 Stick Framing ³Stick framing´ is the method most commonly used to build wood framed homes today, and involves assembling the floors and walls using individual studs and joists on the construction site. This method often requires extensive cutting of individual framing members, and requires a fairly high level of skill of framers who must know how to assemble the elements within the house. Framing and trusses represent approximately 20% of the total cost of the house construction. If the conventional ³stick framing´ method of construction is used, steel framing can add 3% to the total cost of a house. When only the framing system is considered, studies have shown that a stick-framed steel system can cost 15% more than wood framing. However there are a number of savings that builders realize when they use steel framing1, including;

‡ Warranty callbacks associated with the seasonal movement of framing members are virtually eliminated ‡ Save on waste haul off ‡ Insurance savings ‡ Site culling of wood framing

2.13.2 Panelization Panelization, or assembling the components of the house (walls, floors, roofs) in a controlled manufacturing environment, is increasingly being used in home building today.

Steel framing is particularly suited for panelization because it is precision manufactured to meet exacting tolerances, and its light weight allows for easier handling of assembled components. Panels are typically shipped unsheathed which, when combined with the light weight of cold-formed steel, allows CFS fabricators to service a large distribution area. The capability of delivering product to a large market allows fabricators to recognize economies of scale that keep CFS panel costs in check. The component (panels) approach will speed construction and reduce the number of skilled framers that are required on site. As a result,

steel framing can cost the same or less than wood framing in many parts of the country.


Benefits of Steel

There are benefits for both the builder and the homeowner associated with steel. From the builder¶s perspective it is important that steel will not rot, twist, warp, swell, or split and it is non-combustible. Steel framing is a proven technology that is considered to be user friendly and offers an easy transition from other materials. Competitive pricing and consistent quality are clearly important benefits to builders. The strength of steel usually translates into fewer members and many of those members are as much as 60% lighter than the corresponding wood members. Nationally, cold-formed steel members have come to be produced in a variety of standard pre-cut shapes and sizes. Standardized patterns for pre-punched holes for running electrical wiring and plumbing lines help to minimize preparation work for tradesmen. This standardization serves to minimize construction waste. The finished steel framing accommodates all types of commonly used finish materials. Homeowners reap many of the same benefits. In addition, homes can be designed to meet the highest seismic and wind load specifications in any part of the country. Because steel framed homes can be so resistant to natural forces, some homeowners save as much as 30% on their homeowner¶s insurance. Steel framing does not need to be treated to resist termites and is free of resin adhesives and other chemicals used to treat wood. Because of its strength, steel can span greater distances offering the homeowner larger open spaces and greater design flexibility. Remodeling is also easily accomplished by removing, altering, and relocating non-load-bearing walls.


Environmentally Sensitive

All steel products are recyclable! The overall recycling rate for steel products in the US is 60%. In steel building products, the minimum recycled content is 25%. This recycling is accomplished with no degradation in product quality or

loss of properties. A contributing factor in the steel industry¶s ability to achieve significant recycling is that magnetic separation is the easiest and most economical method of removing steel from the solid waste stream. The amount of energy needed to produce a ton of steel has been reduced by 34% since 1972.


Steel Framing Components

The steel component known as the structural ³C´ is the predominant shape for framing floors, walls, and roofs. The primary difference from one use to another is the thickness of the steel and the depth of the member.

Floors ± Builders commonly opt for steel floor joists ranging in depth from 6to 12-inches and steel thickness from 0.034- to 0.101-inches. Instead of using overlapped joists at a center support, a single length of steel joist is commonly used to span continuously.

Walls ± There are two basic types of studs: ‡ Structural ³C´ studs for interior and exterior load-bearing walls that range in depth from 2½´ to 8´ to accommodate the necessary insulation thickness and ranging in thickness from 0.034- to 0.071inches depending on the anticipated load. ‡ Drywall studs for non-load-bearing partitions that range in depth from 1 - to 6-inches and metal thickness ranging from 0.01- to 0.034-inches. The thermal efficiency of the steel-framed exterior walls may be increased by installing insulation board on the exterior of the wall.

Roofs ± The broad range of available sizes and thicknesses allow steel framing to be used in virtually any roof system. Steel trusses can be built onsite or off-site in truss fabrication plants.


Framing Methods

There are three basic residential steel framing methods: stick-built, panelized, and pre-engineered. ‡ Stick-built - Replace wood members with steel members (one-for-one replacement). As shown below, the steel-framed non-load-bearing wall appears very similar to that of a comparable wood-framed wall.

‡ Panelized - Factory-assembled panels delivered to site and connected together. The panelized approach represents an efficient approach for repetitive building designs and, as a result, is a popular approach in hotel/motel construction and other multi-unit applications. ‡ Engineered - Location and placement of framing members is engineered to take advantage of steel¶s properties. Spacing of framing members may increase to as much as 8-feet with orizontal stabilizers.


Barriers to Steel Framing

Five key barriers to the expansion of residential steel framing have been identified.

‡ Cost of Construction - To have wide spread markets, the steel industry has to make cold-formed steel framing economically competitive. It is not now competitive because it costs more in labor to frame a house out of steel. All of the workers have tools and accessories that were optimized for wood construction, not steel. The steel industry is committed to taking away this barrier by doing their own product development, causing product development to happen, or funding product development as necessary to bring these things for steel framing at the same price. ‡ Distribution Infrastructure - Buying 800 wooden studs from a lumberyard is routine. Steel framing has achieved that status in most markets. One of the reasons is that the industry did not have the material distribution system in place to provide the necessary supply quantities. ‡ Standardized Product - Another barrier was that there were no standardized products. There were 73 steel manufactures in the nation, and all of them previously made basically identical shapes, called them all different names, published different section properties, and published different load tables. The industry has now standardized these products. ‡ Consumer Preference - The last barrier is consumer preference. What the industry did was turn the standard profiles into standard section properties with standard load tables and then into prescriptive methods. Houses in about 80% of the country are designed by purely prescriptive methods, no engineering is required. The other 20% are a combination of prescriptive and engineering. Steel framed structures originally had to be completely engineered and that costs three to six weeks and $0.70 to $2.00 a square foot. The prescriptive tables have solved the problem and may be found in the International Residential Code (IRC). Even though the steel products were standardized, the whole world doesn¶t know what they are. Nearly everyone knows what a 2x4 is; not everyone knows what a C-section steel stud is designated with the designation: ³550S162-54´. As a result software has been developed and is available for

building designers. If you can do a takeoff with wood, then this software will turn it into a steel takeoff and produce the order sheets and the sheets for the job site. ‡ Thermal Performance - Steel studs are excellent conductors of heat. They conduct heat better than wood. Because of this characteristic, the steel industry has had to take remedial action such as adding foam board on the outside of the exterior wall framing. As long as builders have to take this step, it may solve the thermal problem, but it costs something. It costs $0.65 a square foot or more to make steel houses as energy efficient as wood framed houses. This added insulation is a major cost barrier that will have to be resolved for steel to become a serious competitor for wood. Framer training is a major issue that the steel industry is attacking on two fronts. It is very simple to frame a house out of steel. The problem is you have to use different tools; you have to cut it a little differently; you have to know what you are looking at; and you have to screw it together. Using screws is a giant pain for carpenters compared to nailing it together. All of the differences conspire to cause a framer not to have a big incentive to try steel framing. Even if they like the idea, they don¶t have the time or can¶t afford to take the time. Therefore the steel industry developed a national training curriculum. It¶s a huge impressive document that has been widely acclaimed everywhere that it was introduced. The training arterials are getting into junior colleges and vo-tech schools by the thousands. The goal is to grow a generation of framers that will be ready to use this product as the other elements come together. The industry is working with the NAHB and NAHB Research Center to come up with a way to rain existing framers that makes it worthwhile for them.


The Design Process Work

Comprehensive provisions for steel framing are found in the International Code Council¶s (ICC) International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC), which are recognized as the governing building codes by most building departments in the United States. (See Resources for the ICC website that provides an overview of code adoption across the United States.) The building codes also reference a series of Standards that have been developed by the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI) to provide additional information for the design of steel structures. (See Standards for Cold-Formed Steel Framing table.)


Residential Conventional Construction

Builders can design one- and two-story structures without the support of an engineer by using the American Iron and Steel Institute¶s Prescriptive Method, one of the AISI standards referenced by the building codes. The Prescriptive Method provides load and span tables, fastener requirements, etc. in a ³cookbook´ format similar to what is available for wood framing design. The Prescriptive Method and other design standards can be purchased from the Online Store on the Steel Framing Alliance¶s website (

Should the structure go beyond simple design or the applicability limits of the Prescriptive Method, a qualified engineer will be needed to develop or complete the structural design. This is also true for certain states, like California, as well as other jurisdictions, where prescriptive design is not allowed. Fortunately, the number of professional engineers who have experience with steel framing has grown exponentially over the last decade and the Cold-Formed Steel Engineers Institute (CFSEI) has an on-line member database ( 2.20 Pre-fabricated Systems

Walls, floor panels and roof trusses of CFS that are built in a factory will require engineered drawings and layouts for building code approval, just like any other pre-manufactured structural component. Panel and truss manufacturers are staffed to provide engineered designs, based on the builder¶s architectural drawings, along with the components and jobsite delivery. Some manufacturers can offer a ³turn-key´ solution to builders with the inclusion of product installation by trained crews.

Non-residential Construction Commercial designs will require an engineer¶s review and seal regardless of material of construction.


The Plan Check and Building Inspection Process Work

One of the first steps in implementing any project should be a conversation with the local building department. This is the best way to uncover the particulars that relate to your project and building code jurisdiction.

The plan check process is similar to what is encountered for other structural systems: 1. The reviewer will verify that all specifications are accurate and that they match local code requirements. 2. Architectural drawings are checked to ensure that wall types are correctly marked, fire-rated assemblies, if required are shown, details are provided for key connections, and mechanical, electrical and plumbing drawings are coordinated with the structural drawings. 3. Structural drawings will be reviewed for consistency with the architectural drawings, and to ensure that specific system detailing for items like components and trusses, are provided. Progress inspections by the building department are required at the same stages of completion as structures built with any other building materials. The Steel Framing Alliance (SFA) has provided training to thousands of building plan reviewers and inspectors across the United States. Training seminars for state and municipal building departments, builders, and trades persons, as well as, vocational/technical school curriculum development are some of the on-going activities sponsored by the SFA.


Order Steel Framing

The process for ordering steel framing materials will differ greatly according to the type of construction method that will be used. 2.22.1 Conventional Framing Although some large builders order steel directly from the stud manufacturers, cold-formed steel is typically supplied by a regional distributor. Steel distributors include traditional lumber yards and gypsum board supply warehouses. The SFA¶s membership includes some of the major manufacturers of cold-formed steel in North America which can be identified through the Member Directory found on the SFA website ( Many manufacturers will provide

a link to distributors and a technical service contact on their website. Please visit the Steel Stud Manufacturer¶s Association website for further information ( In addition, manufacturers of proprietary products (which often consist of non-generic steel shapes) will work directly with the builder to develop a framing package. Specifying: When ordering steel framing materials, it¶s important to be aware of the variety and applications of the various shapes, encapsulated by the acronym STUFL. These letters stand for Stud, Track, U channel, Furring, and L-header, pictured at the bottom of the page. 1. A stud includes wall studs, joists and rafters because they are all of the same shape. 2. Track is the top and bottom ³plates´ of a steel wall or the rim of floors and rafters. 3. U-channel can be used for bridging, blocking and customized for cabinet backing. 4. Furring channel is used as purlins, bridging, backing, and for subassembly sound separation. 5. L-headers are brake-metal shaped members that can be doubled and used as headers. Cold-formed steel is specified by a universal designator system called out by web dimension, shape, flange dimension and thickness. Web and flange sizes are expressed in 1/100ths of an inch and thickness is expressed in 1/1000ths of an inch, or ³mils´.

2.22.2 Material Cut Lists: Distributors may not be staffed to develop cut lists or provide quantity take offs for steel framed jobs. Details on how to raise material cut lists can be found in the SFA¶s National Training Curriculum and in Steel Framed House Construction, a publication of the Craftsman Book Company. 2.22.3 Pre-fabricated System Suppliers Some builders have found that ordering factory fabricated steel wall panels and trusses is an ideal way to move into steel framing because it minimizes the need for highly skilled framers on site and provides access to experienced design and layout professionals. Typically, the builder simply provides the panel or system manufacturer with architectural drawings and they do the rest. There are numerous CFS panel manufacturers across the country that can be located by using SFA¶s online Member Directory (


Differences in construction details between CFS and wood?

‡ Steel framing is usually spaced at 24´ O.C. and wood framing is typically spaced at 16´ O.C.

‡ C section studs replace wood studs and single tracks replace top and bottom wood plates.

‡ Studs are connected to track flanges with screws, or pins, installed through the face of the track flange into the stud flange. Three threads or 3/8´ of the screw should be visible on the back side of the connection.

‡ Headers are built up from multiple steel members just like with wood, or by using time saving L-headers.

‡ Layouts proceed just as they do with wood frame is construction. Installation

typically handled by building a wall section on the deck and later raising it.

‡ With panelized construction many framing of these steps are the to eliminated, reducing responsibility

positioning and fastening the pre-assembled components.

‡ In most residential applications, plywood or OSB is used for floor, wall and roof sheathing, just as in a wood framed house. Sheathing is attached to steel framing using pins shot from a pneumatic gun at a cost and rate of speed similar to the tools used for wood construction.

‡ Backing the frame for cabinet installation customization requires with some C-shaped

stud, steel strap, track, or there are a handful of proprietary products that can be used.

‡ The only major differences in building with steel framing are in-line framing techniques, the tools, fasteners and accessories used, and the need for foam insulation on the exterior side of the wall studs in some geographic regions. ‡ In addition, MEP trades will see minor differences in how they install wiring and plumbing (see MEP Trades section 8 for more detail).


Affected Trades

Framers Experienced framers will find it relatively easy to transition to steel framing. They understand floor plans and elevations and can covert these to floor and wall layouts. With assistance and training, experienced carpenters adapt to CFS

very quickly. However, there is a learning curve associated with new tools and fasteners. Basic steel framing tools are a screw gun (adjustable torque, 0-2500 rpm), bits and bit holders for structural steel to steel connections, chop saw, pneumatic pin nailer for steel to steel connections and sheathing to steel connections, clamps, aviation snips, swivel head electric shear, and a magnetic level. New, faster and more efficient tools are coming onto the market all the time. Please follow the manufacturer¶s specifications for products and applications. The Steel Framing Alliance website is a good source of contact information for tool and fastener manufacturers.

Mechanical / Electrical / Plumbing MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) trades can be retrained rather quickly for cold-formed steel installations. For the plumber and

electrician, routing wire and pipes through steel walls may prove simpler than what they¶re used to with wood frames, as the studs come pre-punched with holes along the stud and joist length.

Plastic grommets, installed by the trades, snap in place through the punch-out openings. The grommets protect wire and PEX from the sharp steel edges or provide corrosion protection for copper. Duct, pipe, and wire supports will be fastened to the framing with screws and accessories that are widely available. The allowable electrical wiring methods referenced in Table 3701.2of the International Residential Code include non-metallic sheathed cable, also known as ³Romex´, which can be used in steel framing. The code also covers grounding.

Fasteners The key to fastener selection with steel framing is to keep it simple. Basically there are three head and two point styles. Hex, pan and bugle head screws will easily address almost all applications. ‡ Hex heads are used where they won¶t be covered by another material like drywall or sheathing. ‡ Pan heads are typically used in areas where drywall or sheathing will be applied.

‡ Bugle heads are designed to countersink into the material they are driven into, so are ideal for installing drywall.

There are two types of screw points to choose from, self piercing when working with thinner material (like interior drywall studs), and self-drilling when penetrating into the thicker structural steel studs.

Other Types of Fasteners

Other cold-formed steel connection techniques exist and many are code approved. Pneumatically-driven fasteners, powder-actuated fasteners, crimping and riveting have all been developed for steel-to-steel and sheathing-to-steel connections. Review the application with a manufacturer¶s representative and local code officials before implementing usage of alternative fasteners. Sheathing and drywall may be attached to steel frames with pneumaticallydriven nails. These nails are specifically designed with spiral grooves or knurls on the nail shaft to penetrate the steel and, like automatic nail delivery in wood framing, are applied with air guns.


References Books y y y y y y Steel-Frame House Construction - Timothy J. Waite Commercial Metal Stud Framing - Ray Clark Residential Steel Framing Handbook - Robert Scharff Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames - Gou-Qiang Li, Jin-Jin Li Metal Building Systems: Design and Specifications - Alexander Newman Graphic Guide to Frame Construction (For Pros By Pros) - Rob Thallon

Internet y y y y y y y y y y



The first step in the building erection process is constructing a suitable foundation that will bear the weight of metal building. There are a couple of different foundation layouts you can choose from, depending on whether or not you are going to have a complete concrete slab floor in your metal building.

The type of foundation system selected depends on:






structural system


Definition 2.1.1 Deep foundation: Deep foundations are structural assemblies that transfer load down through weak soil strata and into deeper and stronger strata to minimize the settlement of a structure. Caltrans deep foundations consist of a single pile or a group of piles with a pile cap.

These deep foundation piles can be driven, drilled, cast-in-place, or alternatively grouted-in-place.


Pile driving operations in, Florida, US

Deep foundation installation for a bridge in US A deep foundation distinguished from shallow foundations by the depth they are embedded into the ground. The common reasons to choose a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines).

Deep foundations can be made out of timber, steel, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including: y y y y the pile (which is analogous to a pole) the pier (which is analogous to a column drilled shafts caissons


What is the right foundation for steel frame structure?

On clay soil Pile foundation or Pier foundation depending on the SBC (Safe Bearing Capacity) of the clay soil. when the building gets heavy, you start to use steel. For heavy building, you would use piles. And all piles must go all the way to bedrock, no matter what type of soil. .

2.3 2.3.1

Type of Foundation used for steel frame structure Pile Steel HP Piles

Steel HP sections are usually specified when hard driving is anticipated such as where displacement piles cannot penetrate difficult soil layers containing rock, cobbles, gravel, and dense sand. Steel sections are also preferable for longer piles because they are more easily spliced than precast prestressed options. Steel HP piles may not be feasible where highly corrosive soils and/or waters are encountered or where large lateral load resistance is required. If steel HP piles are allowed as an alternative to a Class pile, the Structure Designer shall provide allowable HP sizes to the

Specification Engineer. The HP 360x132 steel pile is usually specified for 900 kN, HP 250x85 for 625 kN and HP 250x62 for 400 kN. The design engineer should note in the Memo to Specification Engineer when other steel sections are acceptable for substitution, and verify with Estimating that a nonstandard HP section is available. Larger pile sections may be required if increased lateral load resistance is needed or hard driving is anticipated. Refer to BDS for the assumed lateral pile resistance values under Service Loading. Pile anchors must be designed for the pile¶s design load in tension. In the case of compressiononly piles, a nominal anchor is required. Anchor bars should be epoxy-coated. Cast-in-Steel-Shell (CISS) Concrete Piles and Steel Pipe Piles Cast-in-steel-shell concrete piles are driven pipe piles that are filled with cast-in-place reinforced concrete no deeper than the shell tip elevation. CISS piles provide excellent lateral resistance and are a good option under the following conditions: 1) where poor soil conditions exist, such as soft bay mud deposits or loose sands; 2) if liquefaction or scour potential exists that will cause long unsupported pile lengths; or 3) if large lateral soil movements or flows are anticipated from a seismic event. If composite action is required for flexural capacity, the design engineer must assure that a reliable shear transfer mechanism exists. Welded studs or shear rings may be required, especially for large diameter piles. CISS piles and steel pipe piles can be driven open ended or closed ended. Caution should be exercised when requiring closed end pipe piles to penetrate very dense granular soils, very hard cohesive soils or soft rock. Generally, pipe piles up to 400 mm in diameter tend to plug during driving while diameters 600 mm and greater tend not to plug. Once plugged, an open-ended pipe behaves like a displacement

pile and driving becomes more difficult. When faced with excessive blow counts or high driving stresses, DSF may recommend center relief drilling to achieve the specified tip elevation. When appropriate, DSF will perform a driveability analysis and recommend a pile wall thickness suitable for the expected driving stresses. The soil plug is left intact at the tip of open-ended CISS piles so that the pile is not undermined during cleaning out. A plug two diameters in length can usually maintain water control, but a seal course may be required for some combinations of high water level and permeable soils. Micropiles Micropiles, also called mini piles, are often used for underpinning. They are also used to create foundations for a variety of project types, including highway, bridge and transmission tower projects. They are especially useful at sites with difficult or restricted access, or with environmental sensitivity. Micropiles are normally made of steel with diameters of 60 to 200 mm. Installation of micropiles can be achieved using drilling, impact driving, jacking, vibrating or screwing machinery.

Sheet piles

Sheet piling is a form of driven piling using thin interlocking sheets of steel to obtain a continuous barrier in the ground. The main application of sheet piles is in retaining walls and cofferdams erected to enable permanent works to proceed. Normally, vibrating hammer, t-crane and crawle drilling are used to establish sheet piles.

Soldier piles

A soldier pile wall using reclaimed railway sleepers as lagging. Soldier piles, also known as king piles or Berlin walls, are constructed of wide flange steel H sections spaced about 2 to 3 m apart and are driven prior to excavation. As the excavation proceeds, horizontal timber sheeting (lagging) is inserted behind the H pile flanges. The horizontal earth pressures are concentrated on the soldier piles because of their relative rigidity compared to the lagging. Soil movement and subsidence is minimized by maintaining the lagging in firm contact with the soil. Soldier piles are most suitable in conditions where well constructed walls will not result in subsidence such as over-consolidated clays, soils above the water table if they have some cohesion, and free draining soils which can be effectively dewatered, like sands. Unsuitable soils include soft clays and weak running soils that allow large movements such as loose sands. It is also not possible to extend the wall beyond the bottom of the excavation and dewatering is often required. Steel Suction Piles

Suction piles are used underwater to secure floating platforms. Tubular piles are driven into the seabed (or more commonly dropped a few metres into a soft seabed) and then a pump sucks water out at the top of the tubular, pulling the pile further down. The proportions of the pile (diameter to height) are dependent upon the soil type: Sand is difficult to penetrate but provides good holding capacity, so the height may be as short as half the diameter; Clays and muds are easy to penetrate but provide poor holding capacity, so the height may be as much as eight times the diameter. The open nature of gravel means that water would flow through the ground during installation, causing 'piping' flow (where water boils up through weaker paths through the soil). Therefore suction piles cannot be used in gravel seabeds. Caltran Caltrans typically includes a corrosion allowance (sacrificial metal loss) for steel pile foundations. Other corrosion mitigation measures may include coatings and/or cathodic protection. Caltrans currently uses the following corrosion rates for steel piling exposed to corrosive soil and water: Soil Embedded Zone: 0.025 mm per year Immersed Zone (salt water): 0.100 mm per year Scour Zone (salt water): 0.125 mm per year Splash Zone (salt water): 0.150 mm per year For steel piling driven into undisturbed soil, the region of greatest concern for corrosion is the portion of the pile from the bottom of the pile cap or footing down to 1 meter below the water table. This region of the soil typically has a replenishible source of oxygen needed to sustain corrosion.

The corrosion loss should be doubled for steel H-piling since there are two surfaces on either side of the web and flanges that are exposed to the corrosive soil and/or water. For pipe piles, shells, and casings, the corrosion allowance is only needed for the exterior surface of the pile. The interior surface of the pile (soil plug side) will not be exposed to sufficient oxygen to support significant corrosion. Alternative Piles The Alternative Pile option is an attempt to take advantage of new pile types that can be used, where appropriate, as alternatives to a Statedesigned pile. A number of proprietary systems have been approved, including variations on micropiles and grout injection piles. To be approved, each vendor¶s pile system must go through an extensive review process, including both analysis and full-scale load testing to geotechnical failure. The design engineer should consult with DSF when a site appears favorable for an Alternative Pile. Alternative Pile designs have been developed in response to site constraints such as low overhead clearance (2 meters minimum), vibration restrictions, and hard-driving soils containing large cobbles. High-capacity micropiles can be successfully installed through an existing pile cap to seismically retrofit a foundation without increasing its size. When an Alternative Pile is listed in the specifications, the contractor has the option to select an Alternative Pile vendor. The contractor is responsible to prepare pile working drawings and to design the pile to satisfy the demands shown in the Pile Data Table. The pile vendor is required to verify the pile¶s geotechnical design with a performance test prior to production installation. Proof testing of the production piles is also required.

2.3.2 Design of pile cap Pile layout pattern:

Pile under pile cap should be layout symmetrically in both directions. The column or wall on pile cap should be centered at the geometric center of the pile cap in order to transferred load evenly to each pile. Example of pile layout pattern is shown below:

Pile spacing, edge distance, and pile cap thickness:

In general, piles should be spacing at 3 times of pile diameter in order to transfer load effectively to soil. If the spacing is less than 3 times of diameter, pile group settlement and bearing capacity should be checked. Pile diameter Pile spacing 3¶-0´ 3¶-6´ 4¶-0´ 4¶-6´ 5¶-0´ 5¶-6´ 6¶-0´ 12´ 14´ 16´ 18´ 20´ 22´ 24´

Pile cap thickness is normal determined by shear strength. For smaller pile cap, the thickness is normally governed by deep beam shear. For large pile cap, the thickness is governed by direct shear. cap. When necessary, shear reinforcement may be used to reduced thickness pile

The edge distance is normally governed by punching shear capacity of corner piles.

2.3.3 Pile Cap Analysis & Design (TGPiles) Analyzing pile groups is tedious, error prone work, especially for large numbers of piles. Digital Canal¶s Pile Cap Analysis and Design can turn this task into a simple matter of entering the loads and the pile locations and pressing ³Perform Analysis´. However, Digital Canal¶s Pile Cap Analysis & Design can do more than just analyze the pile group²it can design the cap¶s thickness and reinforcement as well! Check out these specs:
y y

Analyze design pile caps for a column with up to 200 piles. The column¶s loads can include axial loads and biaxial bending moments for dead, live and wind loads. The weight of the pile cap is automatically included in the analysis. Pile group analysis is made using a linear strain model. In the case of wind loads, moment directionality (positive or negative sign) is accounted for automatically. The centroid of the pile group is computed and displayed in the report. Design the pile cap for shear, flexure and temperature & shrink using ACI 318-95. Shear design includes one way, two way and deep beam shear. Reinforcement design includes suggested bar size & spacing and material quantities. A minimum thickness is input and incremented to satisfy shear requirements. Output includes a list of minimum and maximum loads on each pile. If the user inputted allowable working load for a pile is exceeded, the user is flagged. The user is warned if the inputted cap does not have sufficient edge distance. The column can be either circular or rectangular. Units include US Customary and metric.

y y

y y





y y


Pier Columns

Pier columns are utilized when the presence of rock precludes the use of conventional drilling equipment. Excavation by hand, blasting, and mechanical/chemical splitting are some methods used in hard rock. Pier column excavation is considerably more expensive than conventional auger drilling and the pay limits must be clearly defined.


The main disadvantage of pile and beam foundations is cost. The technique requires specialist plant and labour; however, the extra expense can be offset against the rising cost of spoil removal and time savings.


Pile cages


Pile cage ready to receive pile cap


Pile Driving Criteria

The specifications required that a Wave Equation Analysis of Piles (WEAP) be used to select the pile driving equipment. The WEAP model estimates hammer performance, driving stresses, and driving resistance for an assumed hammer configuration, pile type, and soil profile. The acceptability of the hammer system was based on the successful demonstration that the pile could be driven to the required capacity or tip elevation without damage to the pile, within a penetration resistance of 3 to 15 blows per 2.5 cm. The pile driving resistance criteria estimated from the WEAP analysis was also used as the initial driving criteria for the installation of the test piles. Additional WEAP analyses were required for changes in the hammer type, pile type or size, or for significant variations in the soil profile. It was also specified that the WEAP analyses be rerun with modifications to the input parameters to match the results obtained from the dynamic or static load test results. Modifications to the driving criteria could be made as appropriate, based on the results of the pile load tests.

Notes: a. Unit costs include the costs of materials and labor for pile driving only. Preaugering is not included unless otherwise noted. See table 14 for preaugering unit costs. Mobilization and/or demobilization costs are not included. b. Unit costs include the costs of preaugering.


Pier Columns drilling equipment. Excavation by hand, blasting, and

Pier columns are utilized when the presence of rock precludes the use of conventional mechanical/chemical splitting are some methods used in hard rock. Pier column excavation is considerably more expensive than conventional auger drilling and the pay limits must be clearly defined.

2-2- Steel Panel Foundations Steel Panel Foundations has introduced a steel panel basement foundation design that enables builders and developers to construct a watertight, finished basement. The galvanized steel foundation materials are made from 18-ga. studs for load-bearing walls. The 16-in. on-center construction is ramset into concrete footing. It is asphalt-coated for moisture resistance and is adaptable to various wall configurations, including daylight walls, frost walls, brick ledge walls, interior walls, and multiple above-ground configurations. The galvanized and painted steel decking features 26-ga. ribbed construction for increased earthbearing load strength. A membrane prevents hydrostatic wicking and forms a complete seal from the bottom sill to the outer surface of the exterior decking, the manufacturer states. A moisture-resistant spray foam adheres to every framing member, and substrate offers a watertight seal.

innovative steel-panel basement foundation technology that enables builders and developers to construct watertight foundations ± which are ready for finishing ± at a competitive price and in less time than conventional cement foundations. The Steel Panel Foundations¶ system is composed of galvanized steel studs and tracks fastened to corrugated steel decking that is galvanized, painted, spray-foam insulated and sealed with a continuous, waterproof membrane. The result is a superior basement for residential and light commercial use, which can be customized for any building site and house plan. After months of research and development, material improvements and laboratory testing, Steel Panel Foundations (SPF) announced today that it will debut a newly enhanced composite panel foundation technology that enables builders and developers to construct watertight foundations that are ready for finishing, at a competitive price and in less time than conventional concrete foundations. This unprecedented system will be on display next week at METALCON, Oct. 3-5, at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas (Booth #360). The only foundation technology of its kind, SPF is a professionally engineered, composite panel foundation system that employs modular construction, allowing builders and developers to construct watertight foundations that don't promote mold growth, can protect occupants from radon exposure and are insulated to keep cold and heat outside the foundation. The system's lightweight construction promotes more economical

transportation costs and enables long wall lengths, thus reducing both seams and on-site labor costs. Further, installing a Steel Panel Foundations system allows builders to begin construction the same day the foundation walls are set. There is no waiting for the material to cure to begin framing, and the below-grade living area is ready for drywall. The SPF system eliminates the scheduling hassles associated with concrete curing times and coordinating concrete and foundation contractors.

"Since our initial debut last year at METALCON, we have further enhanced the technology to give the builder and homeowner even more benefit," said Sal Scuderi, president of Steel Panel Foundations. "The system is more environmentally friendly, requires less time to install and is still a competitively priced alternative to conventional concrete foundations. For the homeowner it creates a safe, warm and dry environment. And for the builder, it's still an easy-to-install system that can be set in one day and eliminates costly callbacks due to wet basements. Since there is no waiting for concrete to cure, framing can begin immediately, and the below-grade living area is ready to finish." Highlights of the new technology include: -- The panels are made of magnesium oxide (MgO) with a foam core, along with an exterior panel of MgO, giving the foundation extra protection when backfilled as well as from insects. -- Panels are now factory-made, thus eliminating the need for assembly at the job site, providing precise control of the assembly process improving product quality and reducing installation time and associated costs. -- Materials are waterproof and resistant to both impact and ultraviolet light. -- While the standard height of the panels is eight, nine or 10 feet, panels can be made to any size. -- Because the SPF materials are considered "green" and contain recycled content, the system is environmentally friendly and can support green building initiatives. -- Unlike concrete foundations that can crack, SPF can flex without cracking, thus keeping out moisture, insects and radon.

The panels are made from 16-gauge, galvanized steel studs for load-bearing walls and meet all foundation-bearing pressures. The 16-inch on-center construction is fastened into the concrete footing. It is easily adaptable to meet various wall configurations, including full load-bearing walls, daylight walls, frost walls, brick-ledge walls, interior walls and multiple above-ground configurations. The composite panel deck is 9/16-Inch MgO for increased diaphragm and transverse load-bearing strength. About Steel Panel Foundations, LLC Steel Panel Foundations, LLC was founded to develop innovative building products and related building material and services that are economical, strong, dependable, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. Utilizing proven technology and a patented design, Steel Panel Foundations' breakthrough foundation system is a complete, end-to-end structural foundation system for superior value, durability and strength.

Sixteen-Gauge Steel Studs and MgO Decking: an Impenetrable Union of Strength and Flexibility: The heart of a SPF composite foundation system is its framework of galvanized-steel studs and tracks. It's the ideal structural support for our innovative magnesium-oxide (MgO) composite wall: two panels fused to each side of an insulating, waterproof extruded-polystyrene core. With a higher compressive strength than concrete, this International Code Council-approved MgO panel is waterproof, nonconductive, and impactresistant and also resists insects and backfill damage. The end result is a dry, living-room-quality area that is suitable for multiple uses-a ready-for-drywall structure that can be customized for any building site and house plan.

2-3- Pole Foundation System Light poles are structures designed to support single or multiple luminaire configurations. First and foremost a light pole is an engineered structure² sufficiently strong to withstand the physical forces of the application, capable of providing a long, relatively maintenance-free service life and pleasing in appearance. Their primary function is to resist the combinations of luminaire weight, ice and wind forces which poles may encounter over their expected life. Along with the foundation system, the primary force a pole must withstand is from wind. The variety of pole shapes, heights, sizes and quantity of luminaires to be supported necessitate the completion of an engineering analysis to ensure suitable strength to safely accommodate various loads. Due to unforeseen loadings and wind events which may occur, it is advisable to select a pole with ample capacity.

Reference: y 59/05159.pdf y y literature/Pole-WhitePaper_Invue.pdf y y


FLOOR SYSTEMS 3.1 Structural Steel Framing

Structural Steel girders, beams, and columns are used to construct a skeleton frame for structures ranging in size from one-story buildings to skyscrapers. Because structural steel is difficult to work on site, it is normally cut, shaped, and drilled in a fabrication shop according to design specifications; this can result in relatively fast, precise construction of a structural frame. Structural steel may be left exposed in unprotected noncombustible construction, but because steel can lose strength rapidly in a fire, fire-rated assemblies or coatings are required to qualify as fire-resistive construction. In exposed conditions, corrosion resistance is also required.

Connections usually use transitional elements, such as steel angles, tees, or plates. The actual connections may be riveted but are more often bolted or welded.

3.1.1 One-Way Beam System Each pair of external columns supports a long-spanning beam or girder. This system is suitable for long, narrow buildings, especially when a column-free space is desired. Lateral-load carrying mechanisms are required in both directions, but lateral forces tend to be more critical in the short direction.

3.1.2 Two-Way Beam System Steel framing should utilize rectangular bay units, with comparatively lightly loaded beams spanning farther than more heavily loaded girders.

3.1.3 Triple Beam System When a large, column free space is required, long spanning plate girders or trusses can be used to carry the primary beam, which in turn support a layer of secondary beams.

3.2 Steel Beams More structurally efficient wide-flange(W) shapes have largely superseded the classic I-beam (S) shapes. Beams may also be in the form of channel © sections, structural tubing, or composite sections. Rules of thumb for estimating depth:

Beams: span/20 Girders: span/15 Width ± 1/3 ± ½ of depth The general objective is to use the lightest steel section that will resist bending and shear forces within allowable limits of stress and without excessive deflection for intended use. In addition to material costs, also consider the labor costs required for erection.

3.2.1 Plate Girders Plate girders are built up from plates or shapes that are welded or riveted together. A web plate forms the web of a plate girder, while flange angles form the top and bottom flanges. Shear plates may be fastened to the web of the girder to increase its resistance to shearing stresses.

3.2.2 Box Girder Box girders are built up from shapes and have a hollow, rectangular cross section.

3.2.3 Castellated Beams It is fabricated by dividing the web of a wide-flange section with a lengthwise zigzag cut, then welding both halves together at the peaks, thus increasing its depth without increasing its weight.

3.3 Steel Beam Connections

There are many ways in which steel connections can be made, using different types of connectors and various combinations of bolts and welds. Refer to the American Institute of Steel Construction¶s (AISC¶s) Manual of Steel Construction for steel section properties and dimensions, allowable load tables for beams and columns, and requirements for bolted and welded connections. In addition to strength and degree of rigidity, connections should be evaluated for economy of fabrication and erection and for visual appearance if the structure is exposed to view. The strength of a connection depends on the sizes of the members and the connecting tees, or plates, as well as the configuration of bolts or welds used. There are defines to three types of steel framing that govern the sizes of members and the methods for their connections: moment resisting connections, shear connections, and semi-rigid connections.

3.3.1 Moment Connections AISC Type 1 ± Rigid Frame- connections are able to hold their original angle under loading by developing a specified resisting moment, usually by means of plates welded or bolted to the beam flanges and the supporting column.

3.3.2 Shear Connections AISC Type 2- Simple Frame- connections are made to resist only shear and are free to rotate under gravity loads. Shear walls or diagonal bracing is required for lateral stability of the structure. A framed connection is a shear-resisting steel connection made by welding or bolting the web of a beam to the supporting column or girder with two angles or a single tab plate. A seated connection is a shear-resisting steel connection made by welding or bolting the flanges of a beam to the supporting column with a seat angle below and a stabilizing angle above. It may be stiffened to resist large beam reactions, usually by means of a vertical plate or pair of angles directly below the horizontal component of the seat angle.

3.3.3 Semi-Rigid Connections AISC Type 3- Semi-Rigid Frame- connections assume beam and girder connections possess a limited but known moment-resisting capacity. All-welded connections are aesthetically pleasing, especially when ground smooth, but they can be very expensive to fabricate.

3.4 Open-Web Steel Joists Open-web joists are lightweight, shop-fabricated steel members having a trussed web. AK series joists has a web consisting of a single bent bar, running in a zigzag pattern between the upper and lower chords. LH and DLH series joists have heavier web and chord members for increased loads and spans.

3.4.1 Span Ranges for Open-web Joists -K series standard joists; 8´to 30´ (205-760) depths
12' 8K1 10K1 12K3 16' 12' 20' 12' 24' 16' 14K4 16K5 28' 16' 32' 20' 18K6 22K9 24K9 36' 24' 42' 24' 48' 28' 28K10 30K12 54' 32' 60' to (5 to 8m) to (5 10m) to (6 11m) to (7 12m) to (7 14m) to (8 16m) to (10 18m) to to to to to to to (4 to 7m) to (4 to 6m) to (4 to 5m)

-LH series longspan joists; 18´ to 48´ (455 -1220) depths
28' 18LH5 24LH7 36' 36' 48' 42' 28LH9 54' 54' 32LH10 60' to (8 11m) to (11to 14m) to (12 16m) to (16 18m) to to to

-DLH series deep longspan joists are available in 52´ to 72´ ( 1320-1830) depths and can span up to 144¶(44m)

3.5 Open-web Joist Framing Open-web steel joists may be supported by a bearing wall of masonry or reinforced concrete, or by steel beams or joist girders, which are heavier versions of open-web joists. Fire-resistance rating depends on the fire rating of the floor and ceiling assemblies.

3.5.1 Floor Deck Floor deck may consist of Metal decking w/concrete fill; precast concrete planks; plywood panel.

3.6 Metal Decking Metal decking is corrugated to increase its stiffness and spanning capability. The floor deck serves as a working platform during construction and as formwork for a sitecast concrete slab. - The decking panels are secured with puddle-welds or shear studs welded through the decking to the supporting stel joists or beams. - The panels are fastened to each other along their sides with screws, welds, or button punching standing seams. - If the deck is to serve as a structural diaphragm and transfer lateral loads to shear walls, its entire perimeter must be welded to steel supports. In addition, more stringent requirements for support and side lap fastening may apply.

There are three major types of metal decking:

3.6.1 Form Decking Form decking serves as permanent formwork for a reinforced concrete slab until the slab can support itself and its live load.

3.6.2 Composite Decking Composite decking serves as tensile reinforcement for the concrete slab to which it is bonded with embossed rib patterns. Composite action between the concrete slab and the floor beams or joists can be achieved by welding shear studs through the decking to the supporting beam below.

3.6.3 Cellular Decking Cellular decking is manufactured by welding a corrugated sheet to a flat steel sheet, forming a series of spaces or raceways for electrical and communications wiring; special cutouts are available for floor outlets. The decking may serve as an acoustic ceiling when the perforated cells are filled with glass fiber.

Rule of thumb for overall depth: span/24 Consult the manufacturer for patterns, widths, lengths, gauges, finishes, and allowable spans.

3.7 Light-Gauge Steel Joists Light-gauge steel joists are manufactured by cold-forming sheet or strip steel. The resulting steel joists are lighter, more dimensionally stable, and can span longer distances than their wood counterparts but conduct more heat and require more energy to process and manufacture. The cold-formed steel joists can be easily cut and assembled with simple tools into a floor structure that is lightweight, noncombustible, and damp proof. As in wood light frame construction, the framing contains cavities for utilities and thermal insulation and accepts a wide range of finishes. 3.7.1 Types of Light-Gauge Steel Joists

3.7.2 Span Ranges for Light-Gauge Steel Joists -6´ (150) joists -8´ (205) joists 10¶ to 14¶ (3050 to 4265) 12¶ to 18¶ (3660 to 5485)

-10´ (255) joists 14¶ to 22¶ (4265 to 6705) -12´ (305) joists 18¶ to 26¶ (5485 to 7925) -Rule of thumb for estimating joist depth : span/20 -Consult manufacturer for exact joist dimensions, framing details, and allowable spans and loads.

3.8 Light-Gauge Joist Framing

Light-gauge steel joists are laid out in and assembled in a manner similar to wood joist framing. Connections are made with self-drilling, self-tapping screws inserted with an electric or pneumatic tool, or with pneumatically driven pins; welded connections are also possible.

3.8.1 Interior and Exterior Bearing Interior Bearing Exterior Bearing

Interior Bearing

Exterior Bearing

Floor Projections and Openings

Exterior Bearing

Exterior wall section of Light-gauge Stud Framing


WALL SYSTEMS 4.1 Steel Wall Structural System

Steel frame usually refers to a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. Structural steel formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties. y I-beams, have high second moments of area, which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area.


Common Structural Shapes

I-beam: I-beam (I-shaped cross-section - in Britain these include Universal Beams (UB) and Universal Columns (UC); in Europe it includes the IPE, HE, HL, HD and other sections; in the US it includes Wide Flange (WF) and H sections). Z-Shape (half a flange in opposite directions) a. HSS-Shape: Hollow structural section also known as SHS (structural hollow section) and including square, rectangular, circular (pipe) and elliptical cross sections) b. Angle : (L-shaped cross-section) c. Channel: ( [-shaped cross-section) d. Tee : (T-shaped cross-section) e. Rail profile : (asymmetrical I-beam) i. Railway rail ii. Vignoles rail iii. Flanged T rail iv. Grooved rail f. Bar: A piece of metal, rectangular cross sectioned (flat) and long, but not so wide so as to be called a sheet. g. Rod: Around or square and long piece of metal or wood. h. Plate: Metal sheets thicker than 6 mm or 1»4 in. i. Open web steel joist While many sections are made by hot or cold rolling, others are made by welding together flat or bent plates (for example, the largest circular hollow sections are made from flat plate bent into a circle and seam-welded).

4.2 Types of wall steel structural system: o Exterior Wall Exterior wall Studs / (Load bearing) Curtain wall / (Non-Load bearing )

o Interior Wall Interior wall / (Non-Load bearing or partitions)


Exterior wall studs / (Load bearing):

Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions. These members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels, serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floors, ceiling and roof. Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. They are supported on a bottom plate or foundation sill and in turn support the top plate. Studs usually consist of 2 × 4 in (51 × 100 mm) or 2 × 6 in (51 × 150 mm) lumber and are commonly spaced at 16 in (410 mm) on centre. This spacing may be changed to 12 in (300 mm) or 24 in (610 mm) on centre depending on the load and the limitations imposed by the type and thickness of the wall covering used. Wider 2 × 6 in (51 × 150 mm) studs may be used to provide space for more insulation. Insulation beyond that which can be accommodated within a 3.5 in (89 mm) stud space can also be provided by other means, such as rigid or semi-rigid insulation or batts between 2 × 2 in (51 × 51 mm) horizontal furring strips, or rigid or semirigid insulation sheathing to the outside of the studs. The studs are attached to horizontal top and bottom wall plates of 2 in (nominal) (38 mm) lumber that are the same width as the studs.

4.2.2 Curtain wall / (Non-Load bearing ) A curtain wall is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather. As the curtain wall is nonstructural lightweight it can be made of a material reducing

construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry any dead load weight from the building other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers horizontal wind loads that are incident upon it to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, and its own dead load weight forces. Curtain walls are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although the first curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminium frame is typically infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as daylighting. However, parameters related to solar gain control such as thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to control when using highly-glazed curtain walls. Other common infills include: stone veneer, metal panels, louvers, and operable windows or vents. Curtain walls differ from store-front systems in that they are designed to span multiple floors, and take into consideration design requirements such as: thermal expansion and contraction; building sway and

movement; water diversion; and thermal efficiency for cost-effective heating, cooling, and lighting in the building.

4.3 Systems and Principles 4.3.1 Stick systems The vast majority of curtain walls are installed long pieces (referred to as sticks) between floors vertically and between vertical members horizontally. Framing members may be fabricated in a shop, but all installation and glazing is typically performed at the jobsite.

4.3.2 Unitized systems Unitized curtain walls entail factory fabrication and assembly of panels and may include factory glazing. These completed units are hung on the building structure to form the building enclosure. Unitized curtain wall has the advantages of: speed; lower field installation costs; and quality control within an interior climate controlled environment. The economic benefits are typically realized on large projects or in areas of high field labor rates.

4.3.3 Rainscreen principle

A common feature in curtain wall technology, the rainscreen principle theorizes that equilibrium of air pressure between the outside and inside of the "rainscreen" prevents water penetration into the building itself. For example the glass is captured between an inner and an outer gasket in a space called the glazing rebate. The glazing rebate is ventilated to the exterior so that the pressure on the inner and outer sides of the exterior gasket is the same. When the pressure is equal across this gasket water cannot be drawn through joints or defects in the gasket.

4.3.4 Interior wall / (Non-Load bearing or partitions) Interior partitions supporting floor, ceiling or roof loads are called loadbearing walls; others are called non-loadbearing or simply partitions. Interior loadbearing walls are framed in the same way as exterior walls. Studs are usually 2 × 4 in (51 × 100 mm) lumber spaced at 16 in (410 mm) on centre. This spacing may be changed to 12 in (300 mm) or 24 in (610 mm) depending on the loads supported and the type and thickness of the wall finish used. Partitions can be built with 2 × 3 in (51 × 76 mm) or 2 × 4 in (51 × 100 mm) studs spaced at 16 or 24 in (400 or 600 mm) on center depending on the type and thickness of the wall finish used. Where a partition does not contain a swinging door, 2 × 4 in (51 × 100 mm) studs at 16 in (410 mm) on centre are sometimes used with the wide face of the stud parallel to the wall. This is usually done only for partitions enclosing clothes closets or cupboards to save space. Since there is no vertical load to be supported by partitions, single studs may be used at door openings. The top of the opening may be bridged with a single piece of 2 in (nominal) (38 mm) lumber the same width as the studs. These members provide a nailing support for wall finish, door frames and trim.


Light Gauge Metal Framing:

Non-load bearing or non-structural metal studs and framing are not designed or intended to carry any axial loads. Axial loads would include such elements as floor joists, ceiling joists, roof rafters, or roof trusses. They are, however, designed to carry the dead load of many typical wall finishes such as gypsum board, plaster work, or similar finishes, and to provide resistance to normal transverse loads. Lateral loads cannot exceed 10 lb/sq. ft on a steel framed wall system as defined by ASTM C645. Light gauge metal framing used for interior wall partitions comes in various shapes, thicknesses, sizes, and finishes. Each of these components has a specific function in the wall assembly. Selecting the correct size and thickness will depend primarily on the spacing of the framing members and the height of the wall. Center to center stud spacing for typical interior applications will either be 12", 16", or 24". Other considerations in the selection process include the makeup of the wall finishes, whether the wall finishes will be applied to one or both sides, and impact resistance requirements, if applicable. As a general rule of thumb, interior walls of a public space may require more resistance to impact than do those of a private office.

Metal studs are typically manufactured in lengths ranging from 8'-0" to 24'-0" and tracks which come in 10'-0" lengths. These are referenced by manufacturers with the acronym S T U F L. In addition to this acronym, other series of numbers are used to identify specific framing members, as shown in the gallery below. The smaller the gauge number the thicker and heavier the metal stud will be. See the Minimum Steel Sheet Thickness chart in the gallery below for a comparison of gauge numbers to actual metal thickness.


Large clear span open areas for ballrooms, or other wide concourse are possible at the first floor level, because columns are located only on the exterior faces of the building. This allows for spaces as much as 60 feet in each direction with columns often only appearing on the perimeter of a structure. This also increases design flexibility especially for atrium placement and open space floor plans. Floor spans may be short bay lengths, while providing two column bay spacing for room arrangements.[1] This results in low floor-to-floor heights. Typically, an 8'-8" floor-to-floor height is achieved.[4] Columns have minimum bending moments due to gravity and wind loads, because of the cantilever action of the double-planar system of framing.[1] Columns are oriented with their strong axis resisting lateral forces in the longitudinal direction of the building.[1] Maximum live load reductions may be realized because tributary areas may be adjusted to suit code requirements.[1] Foundations are on column lines only and may consist of two strip footings.[1] Because the vertical loads are concentrated at a few column points, less foundation formwork is required.[4] Drift is small, because the total frame is acting as a stiff truss with direct axial loads only acting in most structural members. Secondary bending occurs only in the chords of the trusses.[1] High strength steels may be used to advantage, because all truss members and columns are subjected, for all practical purposes, to axial loads only.[1] A lightweight steel structure is achieved by the use of high strength steels and an efficient framing system.[1] Since this reduces the weight of the superstructure, there is a substantial cost savings in foundation work.[4]










Faster to erect than comparable concrete structures. Once two floors are erected, window installation can start and stay right behind the steel and floor erection. No time is lost in waiting for other trades, such as bricklayers, to start work. Except for foundations, topping slab, and grouting, all "wet" trades are eliminated.[4] Fire resistance; steel is localized to the trusses, which only occur at every 58-to70-feet on a floor, so the fireproofing operation can be completed efficiently. Furthermore, the trusses are typically placed within demising walls and it is possible that the necessary fire rating can be entirely by enclosing the trusses with gypsum wallboard. Finally, if spray-on protection is desired, the applied thickness can be kept to a minimum due to the compact nature of the truss elements.[


Reference: y y y y

Books: y y y y 5.0 Building construction illustrated, Francis D.K Ching Construction Technology, Roy Chudley Fundamental of Building Construction Imitechell¶s Structure and Fabric, Jack Stroud Foster ROOF SYSTEMS 5.1 Structural Steel Roof Framing

Where the whole weight of the walls, floors & roof is carried by the steel frame. Structural steel is accurate in size and positioning and can be erected very quickly. Usually use standard hot rolled universal beam & column sections together with a range of tees, channels and angles while keeping the weight to a minimum. UB¶s and UC¶s are produced in a range of standard sizes and weights designated by serial number. A flat roof sturucture may be framed with structural steel members similar to the way steel floors are framed. See the diagram below:

5.1.1 Benefits of Steel Frames y y y y y y y y Value for money Flexibility Speed Safety Quality & Reliability Professional Approach Sustainability Prestige

5.1.2 There are three basic residential steel framing assembly methods: y y y Stick built construction Panelized systems Pre±engineered systems Stick Built Construction Stick built construction is virtually the same in wood and steel. This framing method has actually gone through a transformation incorporating many of the techniques used in panelized construction. The steel materials are delivered to the job site in stock lengths or in some cases cut to length. The layout and assembly of steel framing is the same as for lumber, except components are screwed together rather than nailed. Steel joists can be ordered in long lengths to span the full width of the home. This expedites the framing process and eliminates lap joints. Sheathing and finish materials are fastened with screws or pneumatic pins. Panelized Systems Panelization consists of a system for prefabricating walls, floors and/or roof components into sections. This method of construction is most

efficient where there is a repetition of panel types and dimensions. Panels can be made in the shop or in the field. Steel studs and joists are ordered cut to length for most panel work, placed into a jig and fastened by either screws or welding. The exterior sheathing, or in some cases the complete exterior finish, is applied to the panel prior to erection. Shop panelization can offer several significant advantages to the builder. The panel shop provides a controlled environment where work can proceed regardless of the weather conditions. Application of sheathing and finish systems is easier and faster with the panels in a horizontal position. The panels are then transported from the panel shop to the job site. A major benefit of panelization is the speed of erection. A job can usually be framed in about one quarter of the time required to stick±build. When you consider that the exterior finish system may also be part of the panel, the overall time savings may be even greater. Pre±engineered Systems With steel's high strength and design flexibility, innovative systems are possible which are not possible using other materials. inches on centre, sometimes up to 8 feet. Engineered systems may space the primary load carrying members more the 24 These systems use either secondary horizontal members to distribute wind loads to the columns or lighter weight steel in±fill studs between the columns. Furring channels used to support sheathing materials also provide a break in the heat flow path to the exterior, which increases thermal efficiency. Many of the pre± engineered systems provide framing members which are pre±cut to length with pre±drilled holes for bolts or screws. Most of the fabrication labour is done by the supplier, allowing a home to be framed in as little as one day.


Steel Rigid Frame (Portal Frame)

A continuous frame which has restrained jointed between vertical supporting members and the spanning members Used in Warehouses, factories and Sports Halls Basic Layout ± columns at regular centres along two sides of building with roof structure spanning between Frame then clad in light weight cladding sheets Usually constructed using off shelf pre fab sections Most common uses standard rolled steel sections Also common to use lattice girders Lattice ± open grid of slender members fixed across or between each other usually in rectangular pattern or cross diagonals or as a rec. grid. Joints introduced at base connections, centre or apex of spanning members giving three forms of portal frames. Rigid frames consist of two columns and a beam or girder that are rigidly connected at their joints. Applied loads produce axial, bending, and shear forces in all members of the frame since the rigid joints restrain the ends of the members from rotating freely. In addition, vertical loads cause a rigid frame to develop horizontal thrusts at its base. A rigid frame is statically indeterminate and rigid only in its plane.


Steel frames may be left exposed in unprotected non-combustible construction.


Some building codes reduce the fire-protection requirements for steel roof structure

5.2.1 Benefits of Portal Frame

Can economically enclose a large area, has a small CSA producing a saving in floor space. Floor areas unrestricted by long runs of walls, more flexible in use. Good floor to ceiling heights. Frame quicker to build than walls saving time and money.

5.2.2 Advantages of Steel Portal Frames

Prefab off site, reducing on site times. Factory accurate. No curing time needed, capable of taking loadings immediately once constructed. Capable of being adapted, extended and added to easily. Low maintenance although corrosion can be problem. Steel is versatile, strong and relatively cheap.

5.2.3 Disadvantages: Corrosion. Not fireproof. Purlins & Sheeting Rails. Purlins fixed across rafters. Sheeting rails fixed across columns to provide support and fixing for roof, wall cladding & insulation Spacings & sizes will depend on type and spec of roof and cladding panels being used

5.3 Space Frames A space frame is a long-spanning three-dimensional plate structure based on the rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear elements subject only to axial tension or compression. The simplest spatial unit of a space frame is a tetrahedron having four joints and six structural members


5.3 Open Web Joist Framing Roof systems utilizing open-web steel joists are similar in layout and construction to steel joist floor systems.

5.4 Metal roof decking Metal roof decking is corrugated to increase its stiffness and ability to span across open-web steel joists or more widely spaced steel beams and to serve as a base for thermal insulation and membrane roofing. The decking panels are puddle-welded or mechanically fastened to the supporting steel joists or beam. The panels are fastened to each other along their sides with screws, welds, or button punching standing seams. If the deck is to serve as a structural diaphragm and transfer lateral loads to shear walls, its entire perimeter must be welded to steel supports. In addition, more stringent requirements for support and side lap fastening may apply. Metal roof decking is commonly used without a concrete topping, requiring structural wood or cementations panels or rigid foam insulation panels to bridge the gaps in the corrugation and provide a smooth, firm surface for the thermal insulation and membrane roofing.

Metal decking has low-vapor permeance but because of the many discontinuities between the panels, it¶s not airtight .if an air barrier is required to prevent the migration of moisture vapour into the roofing assembly, a

concrete topping can be used. When a lightweight insulating concrete fill is used, the decking may have perforated vents for the release of latent moisture and vapour pressure.

5.06 Light-gauge roof framing Roofs and ceilings may be constructed with light-gauge steel members in a manner similar to wood light frame construction; the light-gauge steel members may also be screwed or welded together to form roof trusses similar to those described on figure.



A sheet metal roof is characterized by a strong visual pattern of interlocking seams and articulated ridges and roof edge. The metal sheets may be of copper, zinc alloy, galvanized steel, or terne metal. A stainless steel plated with an alloy of tin and lead. To avoid possible galvanic action in the presence of rain water, flashing, fastenings, and metal accessories should be of the same metal as the roofing material. Other factors to consider in the use of metal roofing are the weathering characteristics and coefficient of expansion of the metal.

6.2 Corrugate metal roofing Corrugated or ribbed roofing panels span between roof beams or purlins running across the slope. The roofing panels may be of: y y y y Aluminium with a natural mill or enamelled finish Galvanized steel Fiberglass or reinforced plastic Corrugated structural glass

Many corrugation and ribbed patterns are available. Translucent fiberglass or plastic panels with matching profiles are available for use as skylights.

6.3 Metal cladding Insulated and bonded metal panels are used primarily to clad industrial-type buildings. They may have facings of anodized aluminium or steel with porcelain, vinyl, acrylic, or enmel finishes. The panels are typically3¶(915) wide and span vertically between horizontal steel girts spaced8¶to24¶ apart, depending on the type and profile of panel used. Consult manufacturer for profiles, sizes, allowable spans, thermal and acoustical ratings, and installation details.

6.4 Joint sealant To provide an effective seal against the passage of water and air, a joint sealant must be durable, resilient, and have both cohesive and adhesive strength. Sealants can be classified according to the amount of extension and compression they can withstand before failure. Low Range sealant y y y Movement capability of +/- 5% Oil-based or acrylic compounds Often referred to as caulking and used for small joints where little movement is expected Medium Range sealant y y y Movement capacity of +/- 5% to 10% Butyl rubber, acrylic, or neoprene compounds Used for nonworking, mechanically fastened joints

High Range sealant y y y Movement capacity of +/- 12% to 25% Polymercaptans, polysulfides, polyurethanes, and silicones Used for workingjoints subject to a significant amount of movement, such as those in curtain.

6.5 Expansion Joints All building materials expand and contract in response to normal changes in temperature. Some also swell and shrink with changes in moisture content, while others deflect under loading. Joints must be constructed to allow this movement to occur in order to prevent distortion, cracking or breaks in the building materials. Movement joints should provide a complete separation of materials. Movement joints should provide a complete separation of materials and allow free movement while, at the same time, maintaining the weather tightness of the construction. y Expansion joints are continuous, unobstructed slots constructed between two part of a building. y Control joints are continuous grooves or separations formed in concrete ground slabs and concrete masonry wall.


DOORS AND WINDOWS 7.1 Doors & windows

Doors and doorways provide access form the outside into the interior of a building as well as passage between interior spaces. Doorways should therefore be large enough to move through easily and accommodate the moving of furnishings and equipment. They should be located so that the patterns of movement they create between and within spaces are appropriate to the uses and activities housed by the spaces. Exterior doors should provide weathertight seals when closed and maintain the approximate thermal insulation value of the exterior walls they penetrate. Interior doors should offer the desired degree of visual and acoustical privacy. All doors should be evaluated for their ease of operation, durability under the anticipated frequency of use, security provisions, and the light, ventilation, and view they may offer. Further, there may be building code requirements for fire resistance, emergency egress, and safety glazing must be satisfied. There are many types and sizes of windows, the choice of which affects not only the physical appearance of a building, but also the natural lighting, ventilation, view potential, and spatial quality of the building¶s interior spaces. As with exterior doors, windows should provide a weathertight seal when closed. Window frames should have low thermal conductivity or be constructed to interrupt the flow of heat. Window glazing should retard the transmission of heat and control solar radiation and glare.

Because door and window units are normally factory-built, their manufacturers may have standard sizes and corresponding rough-opening requirements for the various door and window types. The size and location of doors and windows should be carefully planned so that adequate rough openings with properly sized lintels can be built into the wall systems that will receive them. From an exterior point of view, doors and windows are important compositional elements in the design of building facades. The manner in

which they punctuate or divide exterior wall surfaces affects the massing, visual weight, scale, and articulation of the building form.

7.2 Doors and doorways The detailing of a doorframe establishes the appearance of a doorway. Depending on the thickness of the wall construction, a doorframe may be set within the rough opening or overlap its edges.


Door Operation


Window Elements

In selecting a window unit, review the building code requirements for: y y y y Natural light and ventilation of habitable spaces. Thermal insulation value of the window assembly. Structural resistance to wind loads. Clear opening of any operable window that serves as an emergency exit for a residential sleeping space: such windows are typically required to be at least 5.7 sf (0.35 sm) in area and have a minimum clear width of 20´(510), a minimum clear height of 24´(610), and a sill no higher than 44´(1120) above the floor. y Safety glazing for a window that could be mistaken for an open doorway; any window that is more than 9sf (0.84sm) and within 24 of a doorway or less than 60 above the floor be safety glazed with tempered glass, laminated glass, or plastic. y Type and size of glazing allowable in fire-rated walls and corridors.


Window Operation



Architect: Keiji Ashizawa Design Location: Saitama, Japan Project Architect: Keiji Ashizama Structural Engineer: Ejiri Engneer Project Year: 2007

10.1.1 Features The most interesting thing about this particular building is the fact that it is made out of 11 prefabricated steel frame boxes.

Diagram 10.1.1a: Architect¶s conceptual sketches

Due to site constraints and the need to maximize space of the site, this simple construction method was chosen so as not to affect its existing neighboring context (Japanese housing areas are normally tight and compact). External panels are attached to the frames without the need of any additional structure.

Diagram 10.1.1b: An individual prefabricated steel frame box on a truck

However, the size of steel boxes needed to be considered carefully since each had to fit on a truck to be transported to site.

Diagram 10.1.1c: High tensile bolts

It is then joined together with high tension bolts. The steel frame boxes are basically tailored made to be designed as a slot-in and bolted-in (a more realistic version of Lego).

Diagram 10.1.1d: Central stairway

Though the central span holds the main structural strength of the building, the circulation staircase is intentionally positioned there to operate as an earthquake-proof element as well as to rationalize the plan of the house.

10.1.2 Drawings

Diagram 10.1.2a: Plan Drawings of the 11 boxes

In the plans, one can see that the boxes stack on top of each other, which the middle box slightly smaller. Each floor is categorized into specific functions with the bottom floor being the office, and the top floor being its most private area, the bathing and sleeping zones. The roof top acts like a viewing balcony.

Diagram 10.1.2b: Section and Detail of Steel Frame Box System

The section clearly shows how the boxes are cleverly stacked on top of each other. The only formwork on site is the base foundation. The central smaller boxes act as the core stabilizer that holds both sides of the building together. The front façade is generally more opened, if full height windows. Interesting enough, the floors are slotted onto the L-shape steel frame box. The 1st floor, 3rd floor and roof floor uses precast concrete flooring but only the second floor uses timber panels. This is because there exist a large void, double volume in fact, to give a sense or larger space in the zone. L-shaped boxes are bolted together creating a combined Tshape bracket which allows floors to be installed on both side.

10.1.3 Advantages

Diagram 10.1.3a: Skeletal framework of the building and construction

The greatest advantage of the building it¶s the construction speed and accuracy. The prefabricated frames can be transported to site easily, installed via a crane and a few workers, and once the framework is up, it will be easy for the workers to install the walls and floors since those too are prefabricated.

Since everything is made in the factory and sent to site, cost is lower. Normally, construction is expensive due to the on-site welding, time consuming elements to site adjustments and also, inaccuracy might occur.

Diagram 10.1.3b: Building¶s front elevation and façade

This steel frame box system also eliminates the need of installing columns on site. The angles on each box acts like a truss that channels forces safely down the ground. Interesting construction and design, sadly no books or e-books have published anything about this work of wonder.

Diagram 10.4a: Skeletal framework of the building and construction

Diagram 10.4b: Skeletal framework of the building and construction

y y y y Building Construction Illustrated ± Francis D.K. Ching


Big Dig House

Building Name Architects Location Programme Completion year Site Area Constructed Area

: :

Big Dig House Single Speed Design Lexington, MA, USA Private House 2008 1,784 sqm 353 sqm

The Big Dig is the most expensive highway project in the history of the US. The project included rerouting the Central Artery into a tunnel under the heart of Boston, requiring a tremendous engineering work due to underlaying metro lines and pipes and utility lines that would have to be replaced or moved. Tunnel workers encountered barriers, many unexpected from geological debris and to archaeological ranging glacial

foundations of buried houses and a number of sunken ships lying within the reclaimed land.

The Big Dig House by Single Speed Design reutilizes materials from the Big Dig. In that aspect, it´s a remarkable example of recycling in architecture. Project description by the architects after the break.

Salvaged Columns

Salvaged Inversets






demonstrates how infrastructural refuse can be salvaged and reused, the structural system for this 3,400sf house is comprised of steel and concrete discarded from Boston¶s Big Dig utilizing over 600,000 lbs of salvaged materials from elevated portions of the now dismantled I-93 highway. Planning the reassembly of the materials in a similar way one would systematically compose with a pre-fab system, subtle spatial arrangements are created from the large-scale highway components.










10.3 Jonathan¶s House


COX House


Exterior view

Determined to create a new architectural language for the property, the owner hired a progressive architecture firm from Kansas City to design the warehouse. As a response to the budget constraints, the architects immediately suggested to work with a pre-engineered metal building system. After careful research of the system¶s constraints and capabilities, a design direction was proposed to meet the project¶s program, consisting of an 8,500 square foot open floor plate warehouse. The program also required an inventory check-out desk as well as a loading dock for incoming supplies. The project solution, composed of striking, yet elegant structural bays, implements sustainable strategies which aide in holding energy demands to a minimum. A soaring cantilever completely shades the long, south metal wall system from the hot, summer sun. The generous overhang also provides a sheltered loading and unloading area for service vans. A linear clerestory window allows indirect south light to flood the warehouse ± the south shelving aisle does not require electric light during the day. Linear louvered vents along the base of the north and south facades activate a convection cooling system, allowing outside air to enter the warehouse at

floor level, replacing the hot air exiting the building through large roof vents. Fully integrated fluorescent building lighting creates efficient expanses of indirect site illumination, eliminating the need for additional lighting parking lot polelights. though small in area, the new distribution centre for Cox Communications commands a large site presence through elegant proportions, crisp detailing, and smart energy conservation. Image :

Building Specification:

Architects: el dorado inc. Location: Topeka, Kansas, USA Principal in Charge: Josh Shelton Project Architect: Sean Slattery, AIA, LEEP AP Custom Steel Fabrication: Doug Hurt Structural Engineers: Genesis Structures Metal Building Engineering: Steelmaster USA MEP: Lankford and Associates Landscaping: el dorado inc Lighting: el dorado inc General Contractor: Kelley Construction Company Owner: Henderson Development, Inc. Project Area: 9,200 sqf Project Year: 2007 Rendererings: el dorado Photographs: Mike Sinclair

Design concept and solution: The architects designed a distribution center that fit within the parameters of the owner¶s renewed lease terms. An additional constraint was the budget: the architects were given the challenge to work with $80 per square foot. To work within the limited budget, the architects chose a pre-engineered metal building system. Energy efficient design was also important. A soaring cantilever shades the south metal wall system and provides shelter for the loading dock. A clerestory window allows indirect south light into the warehouse. The louvered vents of the north and south facades activate a convection cooling system, allowing outside air to enter the warehouse at floor level.


Foundation System

The monolithic slab foundation was made up of a large block of reinforced concrete, whilst footings were used to hold up the section of the house. The steel frame structure is then secured to the foundation using steel beam to concrete connections.


Structural Framing

prefabricated offsite and was transported to the site as a single frame. The structural frame was constructed using the one-way beam system on all longitudinal sides. The connections between beams used steel angles that were bolted onto each other to create a rigid frame. Due to exposure, fire resistant and corrosion resistant coatings were also added to the frame.


Flooring System

Ground floor is made up of steel floor structure beams which cantilever out along the bottom of the steel frame. SIPS floor panels are then placed along the length of the floor and jointed to the structural beams.


Wall System

The wall system of the house, used SIP panels that were hung along the steel frame, creating a wall. The method of jointing used bolting to create a secure wall system. These panels also include window panels, all with similar dimensions . This enclosure system is designed to allow a range of window or curtain wall systems by various manufacturers thus creating a customizable interior.


Roof Structure/Material

For the roof structure, SIPS roof panels were placed along the entire stretch of the roof on top of roof structure beams that rest upon the steel frame. A waterproof roof membrane which is a one-piece, prefabricated sheet was attached to the roof section to block water leakage due to heavy rain. The roof is also airtight as SIP roof panels meet requirements in the new Building Regulations code.

light diagram

airflow diagram

structure diagram

Conclusion Based on the research and observations, there are disadvantages and advantages of such steel frame construction to be used in small residential projects. Among them include: Advantages of structural steel framing 1) The architect has carefully constructed the interior spaces to allow for this house to be interchangeable and linkable with other prefabricated pieces, which allows for further expansion using the same eco techniques used to build the main structure. 2) The major structural and enclosure elements are all panelized systems, pre-fabricated off-site. This approach minimizes unpredictable site labor costs, speeds construction, and minimizes disturbance to the existing site context. The minimal foundation requirements also speed construction, reduce labour costs and reduce site disturbance. 3) No interior elements are essential to the structural integrity of the building, thus the interior can be constructed by less skilled labourers in a faster time frame. Disadvantages of structural steel framing 1) There is a difficulty in transporting and erecting the steel frame as it is prefabricated to be used as one piece and also weighs a large amount. This may cause delays if construction is to be carried out in rural areas or terrain.


Cantilever House