SWEDISH GRAMMAR

EDW.
J.

VICKNER

A

BRIEF

SWEDISH GRAMMAR
BY

EDW.

J.

VICKNER, M.

A.,

PH. D.

PROFESSOR OP SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES,
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

REVISED EDITION

ROCK ISLAND,
1914

ILL.

AUGUSTAN A BOOK CONCERN

COPYKIGHT, 1912, BY AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

COPYRIGHT, 1914,

BY

AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

ROCK ISLAND,

ILL.

AUOU6TAN4 BOOK CONCERN, PRINTERS AND BINDERS.

PREFACE.
The cause and aim of this book is to present in a clear and concise way the commonplace facts and principles of the Swedish language. It lays no claim to be a compendium of all forms and usages of either the spoken or written language. The introduction of Swedish into numerous high schools and universities in this country has created a demand for

a book which

speaking students

not only assist the exclusively Englishto attain a fair reading and speaking knowledge of modern Swedish but which may also meet the demand of American born students of Swedish descent

may

more complete knowledge of the lanThe consideration that the majority of the students who will use his book are already more or less conversant with Swedish has led the author to make the lessons longer and the exercises rather more advanced than is the case in most beginners' books, to make the vocabularies unusually voluminous, and to devote considerdesire to gain a

who

guage of their fathers.

able attention to idiomatic expressions.

The
this

exercises have

been
to

made continuous wherever
it is to

it

was found practicable

do so; and

be hoped that
less

form

irksome

to the

of exercise will prove student than the

more interesting and form that consists of

de-

tached sentences.

The

fact that each lesson thus contains

words which are associated with one another in common an acquisition of conuse will undoubtedly encourage This form of nected phrases rather than mere words.
exercise, moreover, facilitates

a m-ethod which the author

IV

from

his experience in the class room has found of great value for the attainment of a correct pronunciation and fluency, that of requiring the student to reproduce the The author contents of the exercises in his own words.

lends itself to conversaThe vocabulary has been carefully selected from the language of everyday life and the phrases of the Swedish exercises are of a colloquial and idiomatic charfeels confident that his

grammar

tional practice.

acter.

In the method employed the teacher will naturally be guided by his own judgment and the character of his class; the author would, however, suggest that two hours be
devoted to each lesson.

During the

first

hour the gram-

matical part should be thoroughly discussed, the teacher

supplementing the examples given as illustrations, and the Swedish portion of the exercise thoroughly practiced; the
second hour should be devoted
to

a rapid review, transla-

tion of the English portion, and to conversation. The* conversational exercises are not intended to be exliaustive

but suggestive for further drill. The value of the conversational method cannot be overestimated.

Unusually ample space has been accorded the treatment
of the prepositions, which in all languages and especially in Swedish constitute one of the chief difficulties which confront the learner.

The

author's

especially the musical,

treatment of pronunciation and accent, which is one of the peculiarities of

Swedish,
brevity.

may
The

perliaps evoke criticism by reason of its limitations of space in an elementary book

forbid

The booJc is chiefly entering into minute details. intended for class use and much is therefore left to the instructor to supplement. Moreover, a correct Swedish pronunciation and especially a mastery of the musical

accent, or intonation,

can be acquired only by constant
desires
to

imitation

and

practice.

In conclusion the author

acknowledge his

indebtedness to Professor A. A. Stomberg, University of Minnesota, for much valuable advice and encouragement;

and to Professor Jules Mauritzson, Augustana College, Rock Island, for his extremely valuable services in revising
the manuscript.

E. J. VlCKNER.

CONTENTS.
PART I. ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.
PAGE

The Alphabet
Pronunciation: Quantity; Accentuation
Capitalization

1

The Vowels; The Consonants;
1

12 13

Punctuation
Syllabication

14

PART II. THE PARTS OP SPEECH.
LESSON
I.

Genders

Articles

Verbs

15
20

II.

Definite Articles:

III.

Postpositive, Prepositive... Inflection of Nouns: First and Second Declen-

sion
IV.

25
29

Third Declension

V.

The Verb:

First Conjugation

33 38

VI.
VII.
VIII.

Second Conjugation Inflection of Nouns: Fourth Declension
jectives:

Ad43

Indefinite Declension

Nouns: Fifth Declension Adjectives: Definite Declension Use of Prepositive Definite
Article
49
55 62

IX.

Nouns:

Irregularities in Declension Declension of Proper Names Genitive Case

X.

The

XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV. XV.

Verb: Third Conjugation Pronouns: Personal The Verb: Future and Future Perfect IndicaPronouns: Reflexive.... tive; Imperative The Verb: Fourth Conjugation The Verb: Subjunctive The Verb: .Irregularities; Unreal Conditions Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Position
of

67 73 79 86

Adverbs

.

92

VIII

LESSON XVI. XVII. XVIII.

PAGE
98 The Verb: Passive Voice The Verb: Passive with Auxiliaries: Deponents 105

XIX.

Pronouns: Demonstrative The Verb: Verb Compounds
Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives
tive

Ill

117

XX.
XXI. XXII. XXIII.

Rela-

XXIV.

The The The The

XXV.
XXVI. XXVII.
XXVIII.

Verb: Verb: Verb: Verb: Pronouns: Pronouns: The Verb:
finitive

123 Pronouns and Adjectives 131 Present and Past Participle Impersonal Verbs; Reflexive Verbs 137 144 Modal Auxiliaries Modal Auxiliaries 150
Indefinite

157 163
In-

Indefinite

Tenses of Indicative; Uses of

168

XXIX.

Comparison Adjectives: Comparison
Adjectives:

176

Adverbs:

Compari181

son

XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII. XXXIII.

Numerals:

and Ordinals; Expres186 sions of time, measure, and price Numeral Formations; Expressions of date and
Cardinals

time Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Adverbs: Uses
Prepositions:

193 201 208 214 220 226
233 239

XXXIV.

XXXV.
XXXVI. XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

Conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions: Subordinating
Interjections

XXXIX.

246

Appendix: Use of the Articles Rules of Gender Notes on Inflection of Nouns Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation Irregularities in Conversational Gram-

mar
Strong and Irregular Verbs: Principal Parts

248

253 254 258 280 301 305

Vocabulary

:

Swedish-English English-Swedish
of Subjects

Condensed Index

Swedish National Songs

BRIEF SWEDISH
PART
I.

GRAMMAR

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.
The Alphabet.
1.

The Swedish alphabet
NAMES

is

as follows:

CHARACTERS

CHARACTERS

A
E F

a

ah

B b

Cc D d
e f

H
I

Gg
h
i

J

K
L
1SI

j

k
1

Mm
n
o

2

PRONUNCIATION.

chapter shall be studied in advance. The study of the Gram mar proper should begin as soon as possible, and constant reference, supplemented by such help as may be rendered by the teacher, should be made to the discussion of the sounds given below. 2. It must be borne in mind that the sounds of any two languages hardly ever correspond exactly; hence comparisons between Swedish and English are only approximate.

QUANTITY.

The quantity of Swedish sounds is either long or short. For practical purposes the consonants offer no peculiar difficulties as regards length. The
2.

following rules will serve as a guide in determining the quantity of the vowels:

A vowel is long in an accented syllable when (a) followed by a short consonant sound fara, to travel hdla, cave fel, error grdl, quarrel dra, honor.
:
:

;

;

;

(b)

A vowel is short in an accented syllable when
by a long consonant sound:
andas,
to

followed

breathe; folia, to fall; allt, everything; fall, tanda, to kindle; eld, fire; dygd, virtue.
'

hem;

In unaccented syllables both the vowel sound (c) and the consonant sound are short: si rap, sirup; tall'rik, plate; mor'gon, morning. (d) A final accented vowel is always long. 3. The long and the short vowel sounds are indicated in the same manner in writing. The short consonant sound is generally indicated by a single consonant; the long by two or more consonants,
especially a double consonant.
NOTE. Sometimes the long consonant sound in an accented syllable is indicated by a single consonant, notably in the case of and n: dom, sentence; is not doubled kom, come man, man ; van, friend. With a few exceptions at the end of a word or syllable.

m

;

m

PRONUNCIATION.

3

THE VOWELS.
REMARK. The vowels must receive full and distinct utterance in all positions. No vowel is silent; only in the case of e in unaccented endings such as -en, -el, -er, -et, and -e is there a tendency towards slurring.
4. a.

the sound of a in far

when
NOTE.

long this sound varies between and the sound of o in foreign this o-sound is prolonged fader, father grad,
(1)
: ;

When

grade; tola, to speak.
Avoid a as in
fall.

(2) When short like the first a in aha: ore; salt, salt; tacka, to thank.

malm,

5. e. (1) When long this sound is an approximation to the sound of a in day without the vanish. The exact sound is that of the German long e in mehr: ek, oak; fel, error; leda, to lead; ned, down.

(2)

When

short

it is

(a)

qualitatively the
eld,

same
fire;

as

when

long: hem,

home; vecka, week;
:

den, the, that; mest, most; herr, Mister (avoid e as in her).

(b) like short a (see 11, 2)

long like i in machine (avoid diphthong) mig, me; tid, time; ila, to hurry; fir a, to celebrate; ni, you. (2) When short it is qualitatively the same as
6.
i.

(1)

When

:

when

whisper;
in stir).
7. o.

long: min, mine; ingen, no one; viska, to silver, silver; stirra, to stare; (avoid i as

two sounds: (a) apThe exact sound is formed by the tongue position for the Swedish long
(1)

When

long, o has

proximately
a,

like oo in

moon.

with the lips so constricted ("rounded") as to be nearly closed: olycka, misfortune; sko, shoe; sopa,

4

PRONUNCIATION.

to sweep; ros, rose; (b) like o in hope (avoid diphthong). This sound is identical with the Swedish long a (see 10, 1) hov, court; Robert; kol, coal. (2) When short it has two sounds: (a) like the first o in oho! or like o in oil: om, if; hopp, hope; kropp, body; (b) like oo in moon shortened: ost, cheese blomma, flower moster, aunt.
: ; ;

8. u. (1) The sound of long u is produced by the tongue position for Swedish long e (see 5, 1) with the lips so extremely constricted (rounded) as to be nearly closed: gul, yellow; ut, out; duka, to set the table; mjuk, soft. (2) The sound of short u is more open than that

of long u.

It is

approximately that of u in value
:

(without the introductory consonantal ^/-sound) under, under; guld, gold; kunna, to be able.

9. y. Y is identical in sound with German u and French u in une. Round the lips as if to pronounce u in rude, then pronounce ee in seen. It is either

Ex. (long) long or short. fyra, four; rysa, to shudder; ny, new; yr, dizzy; (short) sylt, jam,
:

:

yttra, to utter; fylla, to

fill.

10.
to

a.

(1)
:

When

diphthong)

ar,

long like o in hope (avoid the year; kal, cabbage; ga, to go; sara,
like

wound.
(2)

When
acorn;

short
fall,

dllon,

hem;

open o (see 7, 2) to hold; atta, eight; holla,
:

short

manga, many.
11. a. (1) When long approximately like a in care (avoid the diphthong) : dra, honor; lasa, to read dta, to eat dven, even, also.
; ;

PRONUNCIATION.
(2)

5

When

men;
12.
eu.

stalla, to

short like e in met: an, than, yet; man, put; angel, angel.

6. d is identical with German 6 and French Round the lips as if to sound o in so; then

pronounce the Swedish long e (see 5, 1). It is long or short. Ex. (long) oga, eye; rok, smoke; over, over; (short) foil, fell; oppen, open; backer, books.
: :

NOTE.
before
r,

This vowel has a tendency to become more open when short and also

especially rr ; sot, sweet, long and close ; in soft (the neuter form of sot) the o is short and slightly open oga, eye, long and close ; hora, to hear,
;

long and quite open

;

dorr, door, still

more open.

13.

The vowels

a, o, u,

a are called hard vowels,

and

e, i,

y, d, 6 are called soft vowels.

Vowel modification, which in English is very often referred to under its German name umlaut, is a process of considerable importance in Swedish
14.
inflection

and a
tional

to d, or o to 6, or

Thus a change from a u to y, occurs in the inflecforms of many words and in derivatives.
and derivation.

Ex.: and, duck, pi. dnder; lang, long, comparative langre; bok, book, pi. backer; ung, young, comp. yngre; lang, long, langd, length; ga, to go, gdngse,
current.

GENERAL OBSERVATION.
A vowel is usually pronounced as it is written. There are a few exceptions in words of foreign origin; thus, ou in a few eu French words sounds like u short, journal' (shurnal') sounds like oi in the word Preussen, Prussia, and its deriva;

tives;
fair.

u like y in a few French words: juste (shyst), just, These exceptions are neither many nor important.

6

PRONUNCIATION.

THE CONSONANTS.
NOTE.
Consonants not discussed here have the same sound as in English.

15.
e, i,

c.

(1) Like English s before the soft vowels
cirkel, cylirider, cigarf'.

and y:

(2) Before the hard vowels a, o, u, and before another c or other consonant like English k: Colum-

bus, accent'.
(3)

Ch has

the sound of sj (26) in a

few words
charmant,

of foreign origin:

choklad,

chocolate;

charming.
16.
NOTE.
syllable

d.

Like English

d,

but

is

silent before /:
t

djup, deep; djur, animal.
Where d according
it is

to the old orthography stands before

in the

same

pronounced like t; according to the new orthography (officially adopted in 1906) it is either eliminated or changed to t : ont (new form), neuter gott (new form), neuter of god, good; godt (old form) of ond, evil ; ondt (old form)
either
silent

or

;

.

17.
to

f.
;

Is identical in
;

sound with English

/: frdga,

ask kraft, power

folia, to

hem

;

fotograf, photog-

rapher.
NOTE.
In accordance with the old orthography / at the end of a syllable or

word (except foreign words) has the sound of v and is silent before t; in the middle of a word except where v begins the succeeding member of a compound. In the new orthography v has supplanted / everywhere in marking the sound of
v: tolv (new), twelve, tolf
(old)
:

silver

(new), silfver (old)

;

lova (new), to

promise, lofva (old).

18.

g.

(1) Like English

g in go before the hard

a, o, u, a, and the consonants; and also before the soft vowels e and i in unaccented endings; and in final positions, except after I and r: gd, to go

vowels

;

gata, street; spegel, mirror; tagit, taken; krig, war.
(2)

Like English y in year

(tongue closer to

the palate) before the soft vowels e, i, y, d, 6 in accented syllables of native words and after I and

PRONUNCIATION.
r:

7

genom, through; giva,
(3)

to give;

gynna, to favor;
s:

korg, basket; svalg, throat.

Like k before

t

and occasionally before

sagt, said; bragt, brought; krigsman, warrior. NOTE 1. G is not silent before n: gnaga, gnaw. 2. G before t, which occurred frequently in the old orthography, has now
generally been replaced by
dress,

k: vikt

(new), weight, vigt

(old)

;

drdkt

(new),

dragt

(old).

(4) Like sj (see below, 26) in a
to inconvenience;

number

of loan

words of French origin: generos', generous; gene'ra,

korrige'ra, to correct; gest,

gesture.
19.
j:
h.

Is

strongly aspirated, but

is silent

before

holla, to hold; hel,

whole; hjul, wheel; hjdrta,
in the

heart.
NOTE. The silent h before v in the old orthography has been dropped new: hvem, who, now vem; hvar, where, now var.

Like g (18, 2) or English consonantal y: jord, earth; jdmn, even; jag, I; jul, Christmas.
20.
j.

NOTE.
jalusi'

(shalusi'),

In a few French loan words like sj: jasmin' window shade.

(shasmin'), jessamine;

21. k. (1) Like English k before consonants and hard vowels, also before e and i in unaccented endings, and before soft vowels in words of foreign origin kalla, to call kula, ball rike, realm rynkig,
:
;

;

;

wrinkled; arkiv', archives. (2) Like English ch before the soft vowels (e, i, y, a, 6) except as stated above: kedja, chain; kil, wedge; kylig, chilly; kar, dear; kott, meat. (3) Double k is written ck, except in och, and. NOTE. K is not silent before n: kniv, knife; knd, knee.
22.

m.

Has the same sound

as in English.

NOTE. In some words of French origin em is sounded like the Swedish ang: cmballe'ra (angballera.), pack, wrap; emblem' (angblame), emblem.

8

PRONUNCIATION.
23.
NOTE
1.

n.
In

Has

the

same sound as
is

in English.
sounded like the Swedish

some words of French origin en

ang, and on like the Swedish ang: entusiasm'

(angtusiasm), enthusiasm; pente

(pangsOi pansy; fond (f&ngd), fund, background. 2. If g and n occurring together belong to the same radical syllable, they are pronounced with an n before, except at the beginning of a word gnista, spark; lugn (lungn), calm; vagn (vangn), carriage. 3. Ng sounds like English ng in singer, not like ng in finger: Idng, long
:

gang, song

;

sjunga, to sing.

24.

r.

Is strongly trilled

with the tip of the

tongue: arm, arm; bdra,
before r
NOTE
2.
1.

to carry; dorr, door.

Observe that the vowels are pronounced distinctly
not blurred as in English.
The uvular r which
is is made with the uvula now regarded as permissible.
rl,

vibrating against the

back of the tongue

R

in the combinations

m,

rs

and especially rd and
: ;

rt

is

not pro-

nounced, the /, n, s, d, and t become supradental, that is, pronounced w-ith the tip of the tongue touching the palate sort, murmur drna, to intend
;

kors, cross

;

bord, table

;

bort,

away.

25.

s.

Is

pronounced

like s in so: sol,

sun; sys-

ter, sister; resa, to travel.

Before a vowel these are all pronounced with a sound that resembles English sh but is somewhat rougher. It must be carefully practiced with the teacher schack, chess sjo, lake sju, seven sjdl, soul skjorta, shirt skjuta, to shoot
26. sch,
sj, skj, ssj, stj.
: ;
;

;

;

;

;

hdssja, hayrack; stjarna, star.
NOTE.
In the endings -sion and -ssion the
*t

and

ssi are

sounded like

sh.

27. sk. (1) Before the soft vowels (e, i, y, d, 6) sk has the same sound as sch, sj, etc., as described in the preceding section (26) skena, to run away; to separate; skyla, to cover; skdl, reason; skilja,
:

skold, shield.
(2) Before the hard vowels (a, o, u, a) sk is pronounced like the English sk: skal, shell; sko, shoe;

skuld, guilt; skal, bowl.

PRONUNCIATION.

9

NOTE 1. Exceptions to this rule are the words marskalk, marshal, and mdnniska, human being, in which sk is pronounced like sj. 2. Before e and i of an ending sk is pronounced like English sk: disken (from disk, counter) flasket (from flask, pork).
;

28.
NOTE

t.
1.

Like English
In the ending -tion
ti

t

in
is

most words.
sj

sounded like

(26)

:

action,

action

:

evolution, evolution.

When
inserted

-tion is preceded

by

a, o,

and

r in dissyllabic words,

a

t

is
;

generally

before

the

*;'-sound

in

pronunciation:

nation'

(natsjoon')

motion'

(motsjoon'); portion' (portsjoon'). 2. Like ts before t'a and ie in foreign words: aktie (aktsie), share; patient' (patsient, also pashent') profeti'a (profetsia), prophecy.
;

29.

tj.

Is

pronounced

like

English ch: tjock,

(chock), thick ;'tjdra (chairah), tar.
30. w. Is always pronounced like English never like English w.
v,

31.
NOTE.

x.

Is

pronounced as in English.
it is
1 pronounced like ksj: reflexion (rayflekshoon).

In words in -xion

32.

z.
.

Always pronounced

like s in so: zebra,

(saybrah)

ACCENTUATION.
33. In Swedish a distinction must be made between the accent-stress and the musical accent.
ACCENT-STRESS.

34. Simple words. The accent-stress falls on the root syllable of all simple native words: le'va, to live; ha'ge, pasture; tan'ke, thought; mo'der,

mother.
35.
origin,

Compounds. Compound words of native whether formed of noun-\-noun, prefix -\-

noun, noun-\-suffix, adjective+adjective, or prefix-}verb, have the main stress, as a rule, on the first r syllable: skol'hus, schoolhouse; av stand, distance;
Swedish Grammar
2

10

PRONUNCIATION.

man'lig, manly; dt'bar, eatable; bla'gul, blue and yellow till'sta, to admit an' fora, to cite har'komst,
; ; ;

descent; prat'sam, talkative.
36. Exceptions, (a) The prefixes be-, e-, ent-, and ge- are always unaccented: beha'ga, to please;
entle'diga, to discharge; gemal', consort; ehu'ru, alSo also the prefix for- is unaccented in though.

most words:

forta'la, to slander; forsta', to underbut fo'r'dom, prejudice (see 211). stand; The following words have the main stress (b) on the penult, or next to the last syllable: egent'lig,

real; offent'lig, public; manat'lig,
lig,

monthly; vasent'-

essential; ordent'lig, orderly; barmhar'tig, char-

itable; fient'lig, hostile.

(c)

All

words ending

in -eri

have the main stress

on the ultima, or
office; fiskeri',
NOTE.

last syllable: tryckeri', printing fishery; slaveri' slavery.
',

Other exceptions will be indicated as they occur.

in addition to the accent a strong secondary accent on the principal last member of the compound: skol'hus', school-

37.

Compound words have

house; trad'gard', garden.
38. Foreign words. Words of foreign origin tend to retain their original accent. Words from the Greek and the Romance languages, especially those ending in -ant, -ent, -al, -i, -ik, -il, -ist, -ur, -ark, are generally accented on the last syllable.
1. Nouns having the endings -tnno, -essa, -aker, -cter, -cum, -ikcl, -ifl, adjectives ending in -abel, -ibcl, -isk, and verbs ending- in -era are accented on the penult.

NOTE

-itel;

2.

stress

Nouns ending in -turn, -to, and -ic have with a few exceptions the main on the antepenult, or third syllable from the end: privilc' gium, privilege;
Foreign words ending in -or shift the accent when suffixes are added
:

nola'rie, notary.
3.

dok'tor, dokto'rer, doktor'ska, profes'sor, professo'rer.

PRONUNCIATION.
MUSICAL ACCENT.

11

sical accent.

from the stress accent is the muThere are two kinds of musical accent in Swedish employed in single words, the acute and the grave, or the monosyllabic and the dissyllabic. The acute, or monosyllabic, accent, which is
39.

Different

approximately identical with the musical accent in English and German, is used in words which were
originally monosyllables.
NOTE.

Many

dissyllabic

and

polysyllabic

words

have

this

accent,

since

they were formerly monosyllabic or have become dissyllabic or polysyllabic by the addition of some ending, especially the definite postpositive article.

40. Foreign loan words often receive the acute accent since this approximately resembles the musical accent employed by the mcfre important of the

European languages.
41. The grave, or dissyllabic, accent belongs in most cases to words which were originally dissyllabic

(and Norwegian), and constitutes the greatest difficulty which confronts the perhaps foreigner wishing to acquire a correct pronunciation. Although no rules can teach it, the following remarks may be useful
:

or polysyllabic. of the Swedish

This accent

is

a peculiar feature

call the highest pitch to which the unaffected pronunciation the high tone, and the lowest to which it falls the low tone. The pitch which is usually employed lies midway between these two and may be designated as the

42.

We may

voice rises in

tone. (Signs: I, low tone; n, normal word with acute accent has the normal tone). tone on the first syllable and the loiv tone on the

normal

A

12

CAPITALIZATION.
n
i

n

following syllable or syllables.
i i

Ex.: get'-ter, get'-

ter-na.

The word
is

intonation
43.

This is originally monosyllabic. practically the same as the English.
accent, if dissyllabic, be-

A

word with grave
little

gins with a tone a may designate as

n,

below the normal, which we the voice then glides down to

the low tone within the same syllable, producing a slightly broken intonation, and rises to the normal
tone on the second syllable.
44.

Ex.

:

-nl n ta-la, to

speak.

A

word

of

more than two

syllables taking

n tone on the first syllable, the grave accent has the the low tone on the second, and the normal tone on
-n
I

n

the third.

Ex.:

ta*la-re, speaker.

In the case of words which do not take the stress accent on the first syllable, regard the stressed syllable as the first in applying these rules. Ex. for:

n ta'la.
-nl

REMABK.

The accent mark used

in this book merely indi-

cates the syllable to be stressed.

Capitalization.

45. Capitals are used less frequently in Swedish than in English. Thus Swedish uses a small initial letter in the following cases contrary to English usage In the names of the days of the week and (a) in the names of months: tisdag, Tuesday; april,
:

April.

(b)

In the

names
:

of certain festivals, holidays,
jul,

and times of the year
advent, Advent.

Christmas pask, Easter
;

;

PUNCTUATION.

13

In adjectives and nouns derived from proper (c) names: svensk, Swedish; engelsk, English; svedenborgiansk, Swedenborgian darvinist, Darwinist;
;

stockholmare, inhabitant of Stockholm.
46.

In

titles of

only the

first

books and headings of chapters word, as a rule, is capitalized.

In compound names like Forenta staterna, 47. United States, and Stilla havet, Pacific Ocean, only
the first
like

word

is

capitalized; so also in expressions

Karl den store, Charles the Great.

48. Personal titles are generally not capitalized except in direct address: herr Svensson; professor Bjorkman; hans majestdt, His Majesty; but, Bdsta Herr Professor! Dear Professor: Ers Majestat!

49. plural) is capitalized; ni (second person singular) and its different cases are often capitalized in letters as a sign of respect.
Punctuation.
50.

Your Majesty (capitalization is The pronoun I (second person

optional).

The

rules

of punctuation are nearly the

and Swedish. But Swedish punctuation is perhaps closer than ours, the comma especially being used more freely. Note examples in

same

in both English

reading.

OBSERVE. The comma is generally used to set off the different clauses of a sentence, whether independent or dependent, provided they contain a subject
ret,

and

,

predicate

:

ringen,

som jag hade pa
I

fing-

har kommit bort, the ring that

had on

my

14

SYLLABICATION.

finger has been lost; sag mig,
tell

vad du har
laser,

gjort,
flic-

me what you
syr, the

have done; gossen

och

kan

boy reads and the
Syllabication.

girl sews.

51. A consonant between two vowels, except x in simple words of native origin, goes with the following vowel a-ra, ce-der, Id-ra-re, re-gel, vax-a.
:

52. When two or more consonants occur between two vowels, the last consonant usually goes with the following vowel: fal-la, hop-pas, fladd-ra, mycket.

But sch and sk when used as signs for the are not separated but added to the following vowel mar-schera, mar-skalk; ng is added to the preceding vowel unless n and g belong to
53.
s.?-sound (sh)
:

different words: hang-a, sjung-a.

54.
their
torn,

Compound words
component parts:
steeple;

are divided according to trdd-gdrd, garden; kyrkhand-skrift, manuscript; bak-om,

behind.

PART

II.

THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

LESSON
Genders.
55.

I.

masculine, feminine,

The Swedish language has four genders: common, and neuter.

56. Masculine are generally names of living beings, especially persons, of the male sex. They require as pronoun of reference han.

Feminine are generally names of living 57. beings, especially persons, of the female sex. They require as pronoun of reference hon.
58. Common gender comprises most names of inanimate objects which are not neuter. The pro-

noun of reference
59.
is

is

den.

object or neuter depends variously on terminafew practical rules for determintion or usage.

Whether the name of an inanimate

common

A

ing neuter nouns will be given in the Appendix but the best plan for the beginner is to associate the indefinite article with every noun he learns.
;

60.

The neuter gender requires det as pronoun

of reference.

Formerly the distinction between the masculine and feminine genders of inanimate objects
61.

16

ARTICLES.
;

strictly observed now it is almost entirely discarded except in some dialects. The distinction is avoided by employing den as pronoun of reference for either. The tendency is to extend the province Thus we find that names of the common gender. of animals, even the higher, when no reference is had to sex, are generally regarded as common and referred to with the pronoun den. On the contrary, nouns ending in -a with plural in -or are often feminine even when they denote inanimate objects or living beings of either sex: Var dr klockan? Where Hon hanger pa vdggen i sangkamis the clock? maren. It hangs on the wall in the bedroom. Vad blev det av den lilla vita duvan? What became of the little white dove? Hon flog sin vag. It flew

was more

away.
NOTE.
nouna.
It

Masculine, feminine, and common nouns will be referred to as gender is not deemed necessary to denote whether a noun is masculine,

feminine, or

commor

make such a

rules given in 56, 57, ; distinction whenever necessary.

and 58 will enable the student to

THE
62.
article;

ARTICLES.
articles:

There

are

three

the

indefinite

the postpositive definite article, which is appended to the noun, and the independent or prepositive definite article, which stands before the noun and is used only when the noun is qualified by an adjective.

THE INDEFINITE

ARTICLE.

63. The indefinite article which is equivalent to the English indefinite article a or an has two forms
:

(1)

En, which

is

used before

all

gender nouns:

VERBS.

1?

en man, a man; en drottning, a queen; en dngare,
a steamer.
(2)

Ett,

ett oga,

which is used before an eye; ett barn, a child.

all

neuter nouns:

RULE OP SYNTAX.
64. The indefinite article corresponds in the main with that of English, with some important deviations. It must be omitted (a) Before a predicate noun denoting profession or occupation when not qualified by an adjective. As: min van dr larare, my friend is a teacher; but min van dr en begavad larare, my friend is a talent:

ed teacher.
lust att Idsa, I
I

Also in a number of phrases; as, jag har have a desire to read; jag fick svar, received an answer.
(b)

65.

The verb

att

hava (short form,

att ha), to

have.

PRESENT INDICATIVE.
PI. vi ha(va), we have Sg. jag har, I have / haven,han, you have du har, thou hast (you ni ha(va), you have have) de ha(va), they have ni har, you have

han
NOTE.

har, he has

The shorter forms of the verb hava have practically supplanted the longer forms, which are limited to the solemn style.

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.
Sg. jag hade,
I

had,

etc. PI. vi

hade,

we

had,

etc.

du hade ni hade han hade

/ haden ni hade

de hade

18
(

VEBBS.

66.

The verb

att vara, to be.

PRESENT INDICATIVE.
Sg. jag dr,
I

am

PL

du

ar,

thou art (you

are) ni dr, you are

vi dro, / dren, ni dro,

we

are

you are you are

de dro, they are

han

dr,

he

is

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.
Sg. jag var, I was, etc.
PI. vi voro,

we

were,

etc.

du var
ni var

I voren ni voro

han var
67.

de voro
VERBS.

REMARKS ON THE

The singular du is used in very familiar (a) address, to relatives, to intimate friends, and to children. The plural 7 is archaic except in elevated
style.

form of address.
note)
(c)
.

used instead of du as the conventional In the plural it has supplanted 1 in familiar and polite address (see 142 and both
(b)
is

Ni

The singular of the verb regularly takes the place of the plural in conversation and has begun to replace the latter in the written language: thus,
vi har, ni har, vi dr, etc., are permissible.
NOTE.
given in the vocabulary

In the beginning only the third person singular of the verbs will be this form can be used in all persons and both numbers. ;

EXERCISE

I.

N. B. The student should be required to reproduce the contents of the exercises, wherever this is practicable, in his own words.

A.
stad.

1.

Karl ar en

liten gosse,

som

(wlio) bor
liirare.

i

en stor
3.

2.

Han

gar

i

skolan och har en snail

TTaii

EXERCISE.
far ofta en lang laxa, som ar och kan sin (his) laxa. 5.

19
svar.
4.

mycket
6.

Karl

iir

flitig

"Kan du

dag?" fragar

1

Karls larare.

din (your) laxa i Karl svarar: "Ja, jag kan

min (my)
a

laxa."

of the verb,

The predicate precedes the subject if the clause is introduced by a modifier which may be either adverb, phrase, clause, or object.

Answer the following questions in Swedish: 1. Vem (who) ar Karl? 2. Var (where) bor han? 3. Vad (what) har han? 4. Ar hans larare snail? 5. Vad ger han Karl ofta? 6. Ar Karls laxa svar? 7. Vad fragar han Karl
B.
ofta
?

8.

Vad

svarar Karl sin larare

?

WRITTEN EXERCISE.
N. B. The teacher should read the English sentences, give the class a few seconds for mental translation, and then put the question to the individual student. The students should not be allowed to read the translation from their papers or to translate from their books.
C.
is
1.

Mary

lives in a large

and beautiful

city.

2.

She

a good girl.

She writes a long (langt)

letter to a friend.

3.

She has a mother, who is very good. 4. Her (hennes) mother asks her (lienne), "What are 1 you writing?" 5.

Mary answers her (sin) mother, "I am writing letter to a friend who lives in Stockholm."
1
1

a long

Swedish

present.
sions.

Use the simple progressive nor emphatic verb-forms. are not translated in interrogative and negative expresUse the simple present or imperfect.
has

no

Do and did

VOCABULARY.
N. B. 1. The indefinite article before nouns shows whether they are gender nouns or neuter nouns. 2. Only the indefinite gender form of the adjective is given in the first few lessons.
bor, lives
ett brev,
t

din, thy,

a letter

en, a, one,
ett, a,

your (gender form)

<lag,

to-day

an (neuter)

20
en
flicka,

DEFINITE ARTICLES.
a girl

flitig,

diligent

frdgar, asks
far, gets, receives

en Idxa, a lesson min, my en moder (mor), a mother
mycket, much, very (much) och, and
ofto, often
sin, his,

ger, gives

en gosse, a boy
gdr, goes

han, he hans, his
har, has
/ion,

her (reflexive) en skola, a school

i skolan, to (at) school skriver, writes

she

henne, her (objective) hennes, her (possessive)
i,

kind som, who, which, that en stad, a city
snail, good,
stor, large, great svarar, answers

in

;o,

yes Jean, can;
Ziifen,

know
small

svdr, hard, difficult

little,

Idng, long

vacker, beautiful en van, a friend

en Idrare, a teacher
IDIOMS:
1.

0d

i

2.

kunna (present kan)

skolan, to attend school. sin Idxa, to

know

one's lesson.

LESSON
The
68.

II.

Definite Articles.
articles,

There are two definite positive and the prepositive.

the post-

THE

POSTPOSITIVE ARTICLE.

69. The postpositive article consists of a letter or syllable suffixed to the noun. This article is always used when the noun is definite in sense.
It
a.

has the following forms For gender nouns:

:

Singular: -en, or -n. Plural: -na (rarely -ne).

DEFINITE ARTICLES.
b.

21

For neuter nouns:
Singular
:

-et,

or

-t.

Plural: -na,
70.

-a,

or -en.
article

The postpositive IN THE SINGULAR.
-en
:

with gender nouns.

1.

is

used

when the noun ends
;

skald-en, the poet the sun.
EXCEPTIONS.
(1)

Ex.

in a consonant. brud-en, the bride sol-en,
;

Gender nouns ending in unaccented

el, -er,

or -or and the words konsul, consul, and purpur, purple, take -n as postpositive article.
Ex.: fdgel-n, the bird; seger-n, the victory; doctor; konsul-n, the consul.
(2)

doktor-n, the

Other words ending in
fjaril-en

-I,

or

-r

take either -en or -n as

postpositive article.

Ex.:

or

fjaril-n,

the

butterfly;

sommar-en

or

sommar-n, the summer.
2.

-n
:

is

used when the noun ends in a vowel.
; ;

Ex. gosse-n, the boy flicka-n, the girl the flower by-n, the village.
;

blomma-n,
-i

EXCEPTIONS.

Gender nouns ending

in accented -e or

take

either -en or -n as postpositive article. Ex.: arme-en orarmen, the army; symmetri-en or symmetri-n,

the symmetry.

N. B. Of gender nouns ending in unaccented -en only the following four take the postpositive article. In so doing they drop the e of the ending: Gotten, bottom, bottn-en, the bottom; socken, parish, sockn-en, the parish; sdgen, legend, sagn-en, the legend; ofcen, desert, okn-en, the desert.

IN THE PLURAL.
-na (rarely -ne) is used as postpositive article with gender nouns in the plural. Ex. skalder-na, the poets brudar-na, the brides
: ;

;

22

DEFINITE ARTICLES.

faglar-na, the birds; flickor-na, the girls; byar-na, the villages oknar-na, the deserts. EXCEPTIONS, mann-en, the men; gass-en, the geese; loss-en,
;

the

lice;

moss-en, the mice.

71.

1.

The postpositive article with neuter nouns. IN THE SINGULAR. -et is used when the noun ends in a consonant
:

or in an accented vowel.

Ex.
2.

namn-et, the
is

name

;

bo-et, the nest

;

parti-et,

the party.
-

used

when

the noun ends in an unaccented

vowel.

Ex.: hjarta-t, the heart; eko-t, the echo. N. B. Neuter nouns ending in unaccented -el, -en, or -er drop the e of the ending on taking the postpositive article. Ex.: segel, sail, segl-et, the sail; vapen, weapon, vapn-et, the
weapon; dunder, thunder, dundr-et, the thunder. EXCEPTIONS: siden-et, the silk; papper-et, the paper.

IN THE PLURAL.
-na is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Third Declension. Ex.: bryggerier-na, the breweries; kafeer-na, the
1.

cafes.
2. -a is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Fourth Declension. Ex. stdllen-a, the places bon-a, the nests. -en is used as postpositive article in the plural 3. with neuter nouns of the Fifth Declension. Ex. namn-en, the names segl-en, the sails.
:

;

:

;

72.
article.
1.

Certain nouns do not take the postpositive

Abstract nouns ending in -an.

Ex.

:

beund-

ran, admiration.

EXERCISE.
2.

23

in unaccented -en Ex.: froken, miss, young lady; examen, examination. 3. Foreign nouns ending in -um and -us. Ex.: datum, date genus, gender. But those ending in -eum or -ium drop -um and add -et. Ex. museum, museum, muse-et, the museum privilegium, privilege, privilegi-et, the privilege,

Most gender nouns ending

(see 70, N. B.).

;

:

;

73.

THE

PREPOSITIVE ARTICLE.
SINGULAR

PLURAL
Neuter
All Genders

Gender Nouns

de det used together with the postpositive article when the noun is modified by an adjective. Ex. den varma solen, the warm sun. For further disIt is
:

den

cussion see 126.

RULE OF SYNTAX.
74.
ticle in

Contrary to English usage the definite arSwedish is used with generic and abstract

nouns, as, guldet, gold; lyckan, happiness; livet dr kort, men konsten dr Idng, life is short but art is
long.

EXERCISE
A.
1.

II.

Supply the postpositive

Ser ni hus

hor

dam
-i.

,

article in the following: ? 2. Det tilldar pa kulle , ligger som kommer dar. 3. Hon ar mycket rik, sager

som

ar vacker, som ligger bakom hus Tradgard och frukt , som viixer i den (it), ar fiirtrafflig. 5. Hon

man.

,

,

iigcr

bank
gar och
i

ocksa ett stort (neut.) 1ms i stad och har pengar i Hon liar en son, som ar atta ar gammal och (5.
.

skola
8.

.

7.

Hans

larare sager, att gosse

ar snail
beso-

flitig.

Nu

ar han mycket sjuk, och doktor

ker lionom.

24
B.

EXERCISE.

Answer the following questions
2.

in Swedish
3.

:

1.

Vad

ligger pa kullen?
4.
6.

Kan

ni se det?

Vem

tillhbr det?

Ax hon fattig eller rik? Vad vaxer i den? 7. Vad
8.

5. Vad ligger bakom huset? ar er (your) tanke (idea) om

frukten?
9.

Beratta vad ni vet

Ager damen nagot mer (anything else)? om hennes son (Tell what you know

about her son).
C.

Translate

:

1.

Do you know
2.

the

man who owns

the

house on the hill?
but
I

my

No, father knows him.
street.
1

I
3.

do not (det gor jag

icJce),

meet him in the
boy,

4.

He always salutes me when He is a very kind man, and
is

rich, they say
little
6.

(A, 3).

5.

His wife

dead and he has a

school old, (A, 6). he cannot (Jean haji inte) attend (go) for he ig sick and is at home. 7. The doctor visits him every day.
six years

who

attends

Now

*?& gatan.

VOCABULARY.
always ftofcom, behind en tank, bank
alltid,

honom, him
house en hustru, wife
ett hus,

besoker, visits

hdl'sar pd, 1 greets

en dag, day en dam, lady den (pronoun),
det (pronoun) it en doktor, doctor
ddr, there

kommer, comes
en kulle,
it

hill

kdnner, knows
ligger, lies

man

(indef.

pronoun), one,

they, people

dead en fader, father frukt (collective), fruit
do'd,

en man, man moter, meets
ni,

you (formal)

fdrtraff'Ug, excellent

nu,
nar,

gammal, old
en gata, street

now when
upon

ocksa, also
pd, on,

hemma,

at

home

(with the main stress on pa) signifies to pay a visit: ft halsudt pd' hot honom, we called at his home.
*halsar pd'

DECLENSION.
pengar (plur.), money
rik, rich
ser, sees

25

ty (conj.), for

en tradgdrd, garden varje, each, every
vaxer, grows

sager, says
till'hdr (35),

belongs to

tiger,

owns

LESSON

III.

Inflection of Nouns.

75. CASE. Nouns are changed for case only in the genitive, which is formed by adding s to the nominative of the indefinite or the definite form
:

Ex.: En gosses bok, a boy's book; gossens bok dr hdr, the boy's book is here; flickornas blommor dro vackra, the girls' flowers are beautiful.
NOTE.

For exceptions see 130,

a, b, d.

NUMBER. There are five declensions, accordto the manner of forming the nominative plural ing of the indefinite form. These are :
76.

Plural ending -or. Second Declension. Plural ending -ar. Third Declension. Plural ending -er. Fourth Declension. Plural ending -n.
First Declension.

Fifth Declension.

Without plural ending.

In addition there are some irregular nouns which

cannot be

classified.

FIRST DECLENSION.

This declension forms its plural by dropping the ending -a of the nominative singular and adding
77.
-or.

The
-no, in

and

postpositive article the plural.

is

-n in the singular
3

Swedish Grammar

26

DECLENSION.

78. The First Declension comprises all gender nouns ending in -a; also the nouns ros, rose; vdg, wave; toff el, slipper; dder, vein; and a few others.
Exceptions: histo'ria {-er), story; kolle'ga (-er), colleague; lusta (-ar), desire.

79.

Example

of the First Declension: en flicka,

a girl.

INDEFINITE
Sing.
Plur.
flick-or

DEFINITE
Sing.
flicka-n,

Plur.
flick-or-na

Nom. en
Gen. en
tion of
-s

flicka,

REMABK.

flicka-n-s, flick-or-na-s formed regularly by the addi(without the apostrophe), the nominative form only
flicka-s, flick-or-s

As the genitive

is

will be given hereafter.

SECOND DECLENSION.
80.

This declension
-ar.

is

characterized by the plural
is

ending
81.

postpositive definite article or -n in the singular (72) -na in the plural.
,

The

-en

The Second Declension comprises: Most monosyllabic gender nouns ending (a) consonant and some ending in a vowel.
(b) Gender nouns ending in -dom,
-ning, -ung,
NOTE
final

in a

-il,

-ing, -ling,

and unaccented

-e, -el, -en, -er.

1. Unaccented e in the endings -e, -el, -en, -er is dropped when the ending is added. 2. Unaccented a in the ending -ar, and o and u in the words afton, evening djavitl, devil ; morgon, morning, are dropped before the plural ending.
;

82.

Examples of the Second Declension:

en fdgel, a bird; en gosse, a boy; en afton, an
evening.

INDEFINITE
Sg. en fdgel PI. fagl-ar (81,1)

DEFINITE
fdgel-n (73,1) fdgl-ar-na

EXERCISE.

27

Sg. en gosse PI. goss-ar (81,1) Sg. en a/ow PI. aftn-ar (81, b, 2)

gosse-n (72) goss-ar-na(-ne) (73,5) afton-en aftn-ar-na

EXERCISE

III.

4. Supply the postpositive def. article where there is one dash; the proper plural ending and the postpositive article where there are two dashes
:

1.

Herr Brown ar ute och gar 1
skiner och luft
,

.

2.

Vadr
3.

vackert; sol
folk pa gat
4.

ar varm.

mycket Det ar mycket
arbetar
soff
,

ar

ty det ar helgdag, och
2

man

ej.
i

Nar han
5.

blir trott, satter

han

sig

pa en av
6.

parken. dar, och
till

Han

ser

pa goss
,

-

och flick

som

leka

3

hb'r

pa fagl

som sjunga.
,

Sedan gar 2 han

en restaurang, ty han ar hungrig. 7. Han satter sig kallar pa vaktmastar och vid ett bord, ser pa matsedel
bestaller.
8.

Ibland aro bans tvenne dbttrar

med honom.
1,

*Xr ute och gar, is out walking, takes a walk. J See note 3 In conversation the singular is used with a plural subject.

Exercise

I.

A.

B.

Answer
2.

in

Swedish

van?
4.

Ar

herr

Yad gb'r herr Brown ensam

Yad Brown?
:

heter (is the
3.

name of) er Hurudant ar vadret?
5.

(alone) ute?
6.

Varfor (why) ar

det mycket folk ute och gar? 7. Vad gor herr Brown, nar han blir trott?

Varfor arbetar
8.

man

icke?

han pa? 9. Vad hor han pa? 10. Vart gar han, nar han ar hungrig? 11. Vem kallar han pa? ,
ser

Vad

(som heter) Brown. I will take a walk 1 2 with him. 3. When the weather is fine (vackert} I answer yes, for he is a kind and interesting man and his company 4. Sometimes when there is always agreeable (angenamt).
C.
1.

I have a friend
to

whose name
asks

is

2.

He

comes often

me and

me

if

28
arc
3

VOCABULARY.
streets

many people in the down (sdtta oss) on one
his
6.

we go 2

to a park

and

sit

of the seats.

5.

He

often tells of

When we
1

(sina) travels in different (olika) parts of the world. are hungry (kungriga) we eat together in (pa)
2 See note 1, Ex. I, A. 3 There is and there are are gd ut och gd. by det ar, the verb being singular in either case.

a restaurant.
fill trans-

lated

VOCABULARY.
arbetar,

works
(36, a), orders

med, with
(adv.)

(prep.);

along

l)erdt'tar (36, a), tells, relates

bestal'ler

ett bord, table

en del, -ar, part, share en dotter, dottrar, daughter ei, not en flicka, -or, girl
folk
(collective), people
ett folk,

om, about (prep.) if (conj.) en park, park en restaurang' restaurant en resa, -or, journey
;
,

sedan, thereupon (adv.), after
(conj.)
sig (reflexive

pronoun), himself

a people

herself, itself, themselves

en fdgel, fdglar, bird en gosse, -ar, boy en helgdag, -ar, holiday herr, -ar, Mister
hungrig, hungry
ibland' (adv.),

sjunger, sings skiner, shines

en

soffa, -or, sofa, seat,

bench

sdtter, seats, sets
ett sdllskap,

company

sometimes

tillsammans, together
tro'tt,

intressant', interesting

tired

kallar pd, calls
leker, plays
luft, air

tvenne, two

en vakt'mdstare, waiter

varm,
(35, 37), -sedlar,

warm
by
weather
1), -ar,

en matsedel
bill

vid, at,

of fare

(ett) vdder,

en vdrld (mute
IDIOMS:
1.

world

2. 3.

att gd ut och gd, to take a walk. att sdtta sig, to sit down.

Jag

Tieter Karl,

my name

is

Carl.

DECLENSION.

29

LESSON
Inflection of

IV.

Nouns (Continued).

THIRD DECLENSION.

plural.

The nouns of this declension take -er in the The postpositive article is -en or -n for gender nouns and -et or -t for neuter nouns in the
83.
NOTE.

singular; -na for either in the plural.
Some nouns ending
in unaccented
-e,

and a few others, take

-r in

the

plural.

84.

This declension contains:

(a) A large number of monosyllabic gender nouns, especially derivatives ending in -d, -st, -t. (b) Gender nouns of more than one syllable ending in -ad, -else, -het, -nad, -ndr, -skap. (c) Most gender nouns of foreign origin. few neuter monosyllables. (d) (e) Neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in -eri', -e'um, -e, -i, -ium, -on, -um, almost exclusively of foreign origin.

A

85. Examples of gender nouns of the Third Declension: en bild, a picture; en son, a son; en bok, a book; en byggnad, a building; en hdndelse, an event; en neger, a negro; en nota'rie, a notary; en doktor, a doctor en nation, a nation.
;

INDEFINITE
Sg. en bild
PI.

DEFINITE
bild-en bild-er-na

bild-er

Sg. en son PI. son-er
Sg. en bok
PI.

bock-er

son-en son-er-na bok-en bock-er-na

30
Sg. en

DECLENSION.

byggnad

PL byggnad-er
Sg. en kandelse PL hdndelse-r Sg. en neger

byggnad-en byggnad-er-na
hdndelse-n hdndelse-r-na

PL negr-er
PL
Sg. en nota'rie notarie-r

neger-n negr-er-na
notarie-n notarie-r-na

Sg. en doktor PL doktor'-er
Sg. en nation' PL nation-er
NOTE.
to

doktor-n doktor' -er-na
nation-en nation-er-na

1. (a) A few monosyllables change the root vowel (14). In addition those given in the paradigms we may note: and, duck; hand, hand; natt, night ; rand, brim, stripe ; strand, shore ; stdng, pole.

rot, root, there is both a change of root vowel fot, foot (b) In bok, book and a doubling of the final consonant. Give the plural of the words enumerated above (according to 14). (c) In not, nut; get, goat, and a few others the final consonant is doubled.
; ;

2.

Some monosyllables take
Ex. (grave accent)
:

the grave accent in the plural while others take

son, soner; bild, bilder; (acute accent) : strand, stranderj stad, stader. 3. Loan words in -or which in the singular have the accent on the syllable preceding -or shift the accent to the syllable containing -or in the plural: pro-

the acute.

fes'sor, professo'rer.
4.

The

def. art. is -n.
-el

(73, 1).
-er

Gender nouns in unaccented
fable,

and

drop the e of the ending before

the plural ending: fabel,

fabler; fiber, fibre, fibrer. 5. The ending -us in words of Latin origin is dropped before the plural dekan-er. ending: dekanus, dean,

clension:

Examples of neuter nouns of the Third Deett tryckeri', a printing office; ett muse'um, a museum.
86.

INDEFINITE
Sg. ett tryckeri' PL tryckeri-er

DEFINITE
tryckeri-et tryckeri-er-na

muse'um PL muse-er
Sg. ett

muse-et muse-er-na
drp
the ending -urn upon

NOTE. Foreign words ending in -eum and -turn taking the definite article and the plural ending.

EXEECISE.

31

EXERCISE IV.
A.
1.

Decline in the indefinite and definite form, nomi-

native and genitive cases, singular and plural: (like en doktor) en professor, en pastor, a pastor; en rektor, a col2. (Like en stad) en and, a duck; en brand, a firebrand (also conflagration, sing, only) ; en strand, a shore. 3. (Like en hdndelse) en fo'reteelse, a phenomenon;

lege president.

en ok' tie, a share.
6.

5.

(Like

ett

museum]
ett

(Like en neger) en muskel, a muscle. ett semina'rium, a seminary; (like
ett kafe, a cafe.

ett tryckeri)

bryggen, a brewery;
)

B.

Supply (at
article,

positive (at
1.

or

Ar

); also icke detta (this)
se

the missing ending, the definite postending of the plural or both (at...) the indefinite article en, ett: the
. .

.

vackert landskap?

2.

man

mycket pa en gang. vackra ang , tva stad genom
kyrk och dal
.

Man

ser ... flod,

Har kan som flyter

med

3.
.

Omkring Punkt

stad
,

som

gat , park , hus och ligga akr , skog , berg man ser langt borta pa

4. Dessa aro gard , pa vilka bond bo. , arbeta hela (the whole) dag sina (their) fait (these) pa 5. Pa hb'jd och i sina tradgard (genpa flod 6. De aro mycvanstra strand ligga tva ruin itive, def.)

slatt

.

.

ket intressanta.
C.

Answer

in Swedish:

1.

Hurudant (how)

ar land-

skapet? 2. Vad flyter floden igenom (through) ? 3. Huru manga stader kan ni se? 4. Vad ser ni i dessa (these) stader? 5. Vad aro punkterna langt borta? 6. Vad gora

bonderna hela dagen? dens vanstra strand?

7.

Vad
this

ser ni

pa hojderna pa
hill

flo-

D.

Translate:
see a very

1.

From

(denna)

you can (kan

man)

2. On landscape. both sides there (omit) are heights and in the background

beautiful

(vackert)

32

VOCABULARY.

3. Two rivers flow through the vallarge (stora) forests. 4. The city to ley and by these (dessa) rivers lie cities.

the left has two
gallery.
artists.
5. 6.

museums and

I like to see

a famous (beromt) picture paintings of famous (beromda)

If

you wish
?

(vill),
7.

we

shall visit

(besoka vi)

the

museum

to-morrow.

Do you

see the smokestacks on

the left side of the river

8.

They belong

to a large factory

where they (man) manufacture steam engines. 9. These (dessa) steam engines are exported (translate: one exports) to foreign countries.

VOCABULARY.
av, of, by,
ett

from,
-er,

off

en kyrka,

-or,

church

en bakgrund,
bor

background berg, mountain
(pi. bo), lives

ett land, lander, ett landskap,
i

country landscape

borta,

away

en bonde, bonder, peasant, farmer en by, -ar, village en dag, -ar, day en dal, -ar, valley
exporte'rar, exports

morgon, to-morrow en punkt, -er, point, dot en ruin, -er, ruin en skog, -ar, forest en sliitt, -er, plain en skorsten, -ar, chimney, smokestack en strand, strdnder, bank,
riverside

en en

fabriJc', -er,
flod, -er,

factory river

en

tavla, -or, painting, picture

fiyter,

flows

ett tavelgalleri, -er, picture

frdmmande, foreign frdn, from
ett fait, a field

gallery
tillverkar,
tvd,

manufactures

two

genom (igenom) through
en gang, one time, once en gdrd, -ar, yard, farmhouse hdr, here en hojd, -er, height, hill en konstndr, -er, artist
IDIOMS:
1.
2.
3.
4.

tycker om'. likes
vdnster, left
till vdnster, to the left en dker, dkrar, field en dngmaskin, -er, steam engine en dng, -ar, meadow

Jag tycker

om

att Idsa, I like to read.

att se pa, to look at.

pd en gdng, at once.
i

dag,

i

gar,

to-day, yesterday.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

33

LESSON
87.

V.

The Verb.
There are four conjugations
in Swedish.

88. Verbs belonging to the First, Second, and Third Conjugations (also called weak verbs) form their imperfect by adding an ending to the unchanged root. 89.

Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation

(also called

strong verbs) form their imperfect by changing the vowel of the root, without any added ending. REMARK. A certain number of verbs vacillating between
different conjugations are called irregular verbs.

THE
90.

FIRST CONJUGATION.
ha's

This conjugation

the following endings:

-a in the infinitive.

-ar in the singular of the present indicative. -en in the archaic second person plur. pres. ind.
-a elsewhere in the plur. pres. ind. -ade in both numbers of the imperf. ind.

-aden in the archaic second pers. plur. -ande in the pres. participle.
-at in the supine. -ad in the gender
-at in the

form of the past participle. neuter form of the past participle.

The supine has been evolved from form of the past participle and is used together with the auxiliary verb hava to form the compound perfect tenses.
91.

SUPINE.

the neuter

92.
it is

THE PAST PARTICIPLE is a verbal adjective; used as an adjective and also with the auxiliary

34

FIRST CONJUGATION.
to

verbs bliva and varda, to become, pound passive of transitive verbs

form the com-

(see 188).

93. (a) The simple tense in Swedish expresses also the progressive and emphatic forms of English thus, jag kallar=I call, am calling, do call; jag kal;

lade=I

called,

was

calling, did call.

(b) Likewise the interrogative and negative uses of do, do you call ? I do not call, etc., are expressed in the Swedish by the simple form: as, kallar ni? jag kallar inte.
94.
(a)

The verb

att kalla, to call.

PRESENT INDICATIVE

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE
Sg. jag]

Sg. jag]

du

I,

ni

kallar
\

du

I,
\

ni

k aUade

,

han\

hanj

PL

vi kalla I kallen ni kalla de kalla

PL

vi kallade I kalladen

ni kallade de kallade

(b) The perfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the present indicative of hava, to

have.

The pluperfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the imperfect of hava.
Examples
Sg. jag
:

PERFECT INDICATIVE

PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE
jag
dit
ft/(/

du
.-

]
I

]
I

tbb

rhar kallat

\hade kallat

han}

han}

FIRST CONJUGATION.
PI.

35
kallat kallat

vi

ha kallat I han 2 kallat ni ha kallat de ha kallat
1 2

hade haden ni hade de hade
vi

I

kallat
kallat

J

Also hava.

Also haven.
\

95.

To

this conjugation belong:

(a) Almost
in a
a, o, u,

all weak verbs the stem of which ends consonant and contains one of the hard vowels

to scrub

a; as skala, to peel; gnola, to mala, to paint.
;

hum;

skura,

Almost all verbs derived from other words means of a consonantal ending as, svartna (from by svart) to grow black vidga (from vid) to widen gronska (from gron) to grow green.
(b)
;

,

;

,

;

,

(c) All verbs ending in -e'ra; as, rege'ra, to rule korrige'ra, to correct.

;

(d) All verbs having a vowel before the infinitive

ending -a; amuse.

as, skria, to

shout; fria, to woo; roa, to

96. The present perfect and pluperfect of the verbs hava (ha), to have; vara, to be.

PRESENT PERFECT
Sg.

m
PI.

du L
-

mar

,

,.

haft

du I, n ^ mar vant
.,

han]
vi

han}

ha haft han haft ni ha haft de ha haft
I

ha varit han varit ni ha varit
vi
I

de ha

36

EXERCISE.

PLUPERFECT
Sg. jag
1

jag

1

du [, j , .. nj made haft
han}
PI.

du
.

[,

n^

made

,

..

varit

han]
vi hade varit I haden varit ni hade varit de hade varit

vi hade haft I haden haft ni hade haft

de hade haft

EXERCISE V.
A.

Supply the proper endings of the verbs
gar hals
(impf.) jag pa
1

as well as

the postpositive definite article and plural ending.

2.

hos min van Lindgren. knack flera (several) ganger pa dorr Jag (impf.) innan han oppn (impf.) den. 3. Han ursakt (impf.) med att han hade vil och insig (supine) pa soff
1. I
,

somn
(plur.)

(supine). 4. Vi samtal om vara plan (plur.)

(impf.) ett par
for framtid
,

timm
och jag
"Ja,

frag

(impf.),
ett

om han amn
2

foretaga den resa utrikes,

som han

sa lange hade planer

(supine).

5.

om

ar", han, (in} mi, ty en resa utrikes kost amnar du att resa?" frag

svar

"jag spar
(pres.)
2

(pres.)

pengar

jag.

6. "Vart mycket. "Till Frankrike och

b'nsk (supine) dessa (these} land; for att (in order to} studera tyska och franska." 8. Nar jag var hos 2 det att regna, sa att (so that} han maste honom, borja
7.

Tyskland", svar

2

han.

"Jag har lange

att tillbringa ett

par ar

i

(had
1

to} lana
2

mig

ett paraply.

Stress on pa.

Notice the inverted order.

B.

Oppnade han genast? 4. Varfor drojde det sa lange (why did it take sucJi a long time}, innan han oppnade dorren? 5. Vad samtalade ni om? 6. Nar
han
3.

1. Vad hemma?

gjorde (did} ni nyligen (recently}

?

2.

Var

VOCABULARY.

37

amnade ban foretaga sin resa utrikes? 7. Vad gjorde han for att kimna (be able) resa om ett ar? 8. Hur lang tid amnade han tillbringa i Frankrike och Tyskland ? 9. Vad amnade han gora dar?
Yesterday I telephoned to my friend Lindgren and asked him if he intended to stay at home all evening 2. He answered that he had intended to (liela kvdllen}.
C.
1.
1

attend (att gd pa] a concert, but had changed his mind 2 1 "I am not quite well," he answered 1 3. "Why?" I asked
.

.

.

4.

1 Yesterday somebody (ndgon) knocked at the door. 5. I 6. It was my cousin hurried to the door and opened it.

Carl,
for

whom his 3 mother had sent to me with flowers, 7. "It must (matte) be rainit was my birthday.
.

1 "You are wet." 8. "Yes," ing (93, a), Carl," I said 1 he answered , "it began to rain when I was halfway." 9. Carl stayed with (hos) me a couple of hours, and when 1 he went (fjick) home, I lent him my umbrella. 10. Carl is 3 father intends a very good and industrious boy and his

to

send him to
J

Germany

to

(for att)

study

German and
subject of

music.
Invert.

"hade dndrat
is

the clause

3 hans, not sin; sin is used sig. the possessor: han skickade sin son (174).

when the

VOCABULARY.
N. B. Weak verbs are designated by the number of the conjugation to which they belong, the infinitive only of the verb being given.
att (conj.

and sign

of the in-

fo'retaga (sing, foretager), to

finitive), that, to

undertake
en fodelsedag,
-ar,

borja,

I,

to begin

birthday

en dorr, -ar, door en framtid, future
fransk, French f ran ska, French (lartguage)

hem

(adv.),

home
of,

halvvags, halfway hos (prep.), at the house
with, at

38

SECOND CONJUGATION.
skynda,
spara,
I,

knacka, I, to knock en konsert', -er, concert
kosta,
I,

I,

to

hurry

to save
I,

to cost

stude'ra,

en kusin', -er, cousin en kvdll, -ar, evening

telefone'ra,
till'bringa,

to study I, to telephone
I,

(also

irr.,

169), to

Una,

I,

to lend; to

borrow

spend, pass

lange (adv.), long (en) musik', music
ett par,

en timme,
tysk,

-ar,

hour

ett

ett

couple par timmar, a couple of hours paraply', umbrella
-er,
I,

German tyska, German (language)
ut'rikes,

abroad (also used as an indeclinable adjective) vart, whither
Vila,
I,

en plan,
plane'ra,
resa, II

plan

to rest

to plan

vat,

wet
I,
I,

regna (rengna), to rain
(sg.,
I,

timna, reser), to travel andra,

to intend to
to to

sam'fala,
skicTca.
I,

to converse

onska,

I,
I,

change wish
open

to send

oppna,
IDIOMS.

1. 2.

a couple of; ett par timmar, a couple of hours. om ett ar, om en vecka, in a year, in a week; om mdndag, next Monday.
ett par,

3.

att

ma

~bra,

to be well.

LESSON
The Verb

VI.

(Continued).

THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
97.

The verbs belonging
Class

to this conjugation are

of two classes.
98.
7.

To

this conjugation the
-s,
-t,

this class belong all verbs of stem of which ends in -k, -p,

and the verbs begynna, to begin; bryna, to whet; krona, to crown; rona, to experience; synas,
to seem.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
99.

39

These verbs take the following endings:

-a in the infinitive.

-er in the singular of the present indicative.

-a in the plural of the present indicative. -te in the imperfect indicative, both numbers.

-ande in the present participle. -t in the supine. -t in the gender and neuter forms of the past
participle.
NOTE.

The archaic second plural
lists

will hereafter for the sake of convenience

be disregarded in the

of verbal endings.

100. Class II. To this class belong verbs of the Second Conjugation. 101.

all

other

These verbs take

:

-de in the imperfect indicative, both numbers. -d in the gender form of the past participle. The

other endings are identical with those of Class
102.

I.

Examples:
;

att resa, to travel

att bdja, to bend.

PRESENT INDICATIVE
Sg. jag]

du n
PI.

reser

jag] du

n
han\
vi bdja
I

han} vi resa I resen ni resa de resa

bdjen

ni bdja de bdja

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE
Sg. jag'}

du
ni
\

jag] du
reste

(

ni

han}

han

40
PI.

ORDER OF WORDS.
vi reste I resten ni reste de reste
vi bojde I bo j den

ni bojde

de bojde
bojt, etc.

PERFECT INDICATIVE har rest, etc. jag har jag
jag hade rest,

PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE etc. jag hade

bojt, etc.

To the Second Conjugation belong most 103. verbs having a soft vowel (e, i, y, a, 6) in the stem and derived from other words by a change from hard to soft vowel: lysa (from ljus, light),
to light; fylla

(from

full, full), to fill; skylla

skuld, guilt), to accuse; to crown.
NOTE.
1.

(from krona (from krona, crown),
-r

If

the stem of a verb of this class ends in
;

no ending-

is

added in

the present indicative, singular thus, jag hor, I hear, instead of jag horer; jag gor, instead of jag gorer. Similarly three verbs ending in -I take no ending. These are tola, endure mala, to grind gala, to crow.
; ;

the stem of a verb of this conjugation ends in -nd or -t preceded by a 'consonant, the d and the t are dropped before a d and a t of the ending; thus, sanda, to send, has the imperfect sande, not sdndde; the past participle tand,
2.

If

not sandd, and, according to the new orthography, the supine sant, not sdndt. Gifta sig, to get married, has the imperfect ffifte, not giftte; the supine gift, not giftt; and the past participle gift, not giftt.
3.

and

-t,

Verbs in double m or n dron one of these consonants before -de, -d, -le, but retain the short sound of the vowel: begynna, to begin, bcgiinte ;
forget,

glomma, to

gliimde, glijmt.

ORDER OF WORDS. Normal and Inverted. 1. Normal order: First the subject with its modifiers. Second, the verb. Third, the object and
104.

other adjuncts of the verb.

Inverted order: The subject follows the verb. is required: In direct questions: Laste han boken i gar? (a) Did he read the book yesterday?
2.

The inverted order

EXERCISE.

41

(b) When the object or one of the other adjuncts of the verb, adverb, phrase or clause, precedes the verb: i gar Idste han boken, yesterday he read the

book da han kom, talade han he spoke to me.
;

till

mig,

when he came

OBSERVE. Inversion occasioned by preceding modifiers of the verb occurs only in principal clauses and in dependent clauses introduced by att.

Kom
A.

(c) In the imperative, if the pronoun is expressed du hit bara, (you) just come here.

:

EXERCISE VI.
Supply the proper endings of the verbs; the postand the plural endings, or both. till 1. Ar herr Quist hemma i dag? Nej, han bar res stad for att traffa nagra (some) van 2. Sa trakigt
positive definite article
.

(neuter), jag bar sok
traff

honom
3.

tva gang

,

men

bar

ej

honom annu.
for

Ja, jag hb'r

Ar det nagot (anything) viktigt? en vecka sedan (a week ago), att ban
.

tala amn kopa vagn och nagra par hast Jag tank han ej nagra (any), med honom om det. 4. Nu behb'v

han bar ha goss
ty
se

salt (sold) fabrik

,

gatt (gone)

?

De ha

gatt

som han ag till muse
(del

.

5.

Vart

for att
p).),

pa (look at) de nya (plur.) tavl

som
de
ej
i

man beromm sa mycket. 6. Tror 1 (believe) du, att komma hem till middag ? Det 2 tror jag, ty de bruka
forsumma nagot (any) mal.
dag? pa landet.
Nej, vadr
7.

Har

ni varit

i

kyrk

var sa vackert, att jag promener

ut

blomm 8. Jag vandr genom skog , plock 9. Det var och horde pa fagl (def. gen. plur.) sang. 10. Ni borde (ought) ha en harlig predikan, tyck jag. 3 varit i kyrkan i dag, ty pastor Strom holl (preached) en
ypperlig predikan.
'Observe the Swedish
del and inverted order.

way
3

of 'asking- a question Impf. of halla, to hold.

(93,

b).

2

Note position of
4

Swedish Grammar

42
B.
1.

VOCABULARY.

Answer

in

Swedish and supply verbal endings.
i

Vem

har ni besok

dag?

2.

Varfor var han

ej

ni tala med honom om? 4. Nar hemma? 3. Vad 6'nsk amna han kopa hastar och vagnar ? 5. Varfor kb'p han dem ej nu ? 6. Vad har han gjort med fabrikerna, som han a'gde? 7. Aro Karl och Gustav hemma ? 8. Varfor tror ni, 9. Vem predik att de komma hem till middagen?
i

kyrkan
C.

i

dag

?

10.

Var

det mycket folk

i

kyrkan

?

1.

I tried to see

home.
4.

2.

you yesterday, but you were not at In the afternoon I telephoned twice, but no one

3. Where were you the whole day? (ingen) answered. In the forenoon I visited the museum in order (A, 5)

which have been praised 1 so highly. 5. In the afternoon I took a walk (A, 7) into the 6. On the way out I met Mr. Quist. He told country. me that he had sold his (sina) two factories. 7. I thought that he owned only one. 8. You ought to have been (A, 10) in church to-day. Pastor Strom preached (lioll) an exto look at the

new

pictures,

cellent

sermon and the church was crowded. 9. I saw (sag) Mr. Blomberg there, who seldom attends church 2 10. Mrs. Blomberg, on the contrary (ddremot), attends very often.
.

1

Use man with the active.

2

gar

i

kyrkan.

VOCABULARY.
N. B. The two subdivisions of the Second Conjugation will be designated by a and b.
behova, lib, to need beromma, lib, to praise bruJca, I, to use en ef'termiddag, -ar, afternoon pd ef'termiddagen, in the afternoon
full'paclcad,

pa for'middagen, in the forenoon forsumma, I, neglect, miss
forsoka,
I la,

to try

Jidrlig, glorious,

en hast,

crowded
-ar,

magnificent horse hora, lib, to hear
-ar,

en for'middag,

forenoon

ho'ra pd, to listen to

INFLECTION OF NOUNS
buy pa landet, to (into) the country men, but en middag, -ar, noon; dinner pd middagen, at noon mycket, highly ett mdl, meal; goal mota, Ha, meet
kopa, Ha,
(ut)
to

4,>

en sdng, -er, song siillan, seldom
soka, Ha, to seek, look for
trdffa, I, to

meet, see, speak to

trdkig, tedious, sad, unpleasant sd trdkigt, too bad
tror, believes

tvd ganger, twice
tycka, Ha, to think

om'tala,

I, tell,

relate

jag tycker,

it

seems

to

me

plocka,

I,

to pick

tdnka, Ha, to think

predi'ka, I, to preach en predi'kan, sermon promene'ra, I, to take a walk ringa pd' hos, lib, to ring up sedan (adv., prep, and conj.),

vagn, -ar, wagon, carriage vandra, I, to wander, stroll viktig, weighty, important en vdg, -ar, road, way
ypperlig, excellent
tiga,

since
for... sedan, ago

lib, to

own

iinnu, yet

IDIOMS.
1. 2.

3
4.

for tvd ar sedan, two years ago; for Idnge sedan, long ago. Jag ser pd, hor pd, I look at, listen to. att trdffa (rdka) en person, to see (meet) a person. hela dagen, the whole day.

LESSON
Inflection of

VII.

Nouns (Continued).
-n in

105.

FOURTH DECLENSION. The nouns of this declension take
The postpositive

the plural.

106.

definite article is -t or -ei

in the singular, -a in the plural, also -en for neuter

monosyllables. 107. This declension contains:
(a)

A

few neuter monosyllables ending

in

a

vowel.

44

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.

(b) Most neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in an unaccented vowel, generally -e.

108. Examples of nouns belonging to the Fourth Declension
:

ett hjdrta,

a piano

;

ett bi,

a heart; ett rike, a realm; ett piano, a bee.

INDEFINITE
Sg. ett hjarta hjarta-n Sg. ett rike PI. rike-n
PI.

DEFINITE
hjdrta-t hjarta-n-a
rike-t

rike-n-a

Sg. ett piano
PI.

piano-n

piano-t piano-n-a
bi-et fci-wa (also bi-en)

PI.
NOTE.
def.
2.
1.

Sg. ett bi 5i-n
The words

oga, eye, and ora, ear, have the plurals, ogon and 6'ron;

form, ogonen and oronen. Bf, 60, and similar neuter nouns,
bo-t, etc.

may

also

have the

def.

sing,

form

bi-t,

Declension of Adjectives.

The adjectives have an indefinite declension. definite
109.

and

a

THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION.
110.

The
:

Indefinite Declension has the following

endings
-t

in the neuter singular. -a (-e, see 112, 1) in the plural for all genders.

111.
1.

NOTES ON THE SINGULAR.

Adjectives ending in -t preceded by a consonant do not take the ending -t in the neuter; as, salt, salt, neuter, salt; likewise foreign adjectives ending in -t: absolut neuter, neuter, konkret. absolut; TconTcret,

INDEFINITE DECLENSION.

45

2. Adjectives ending in unaccented -en change n to the neuter t; as, trogen, faithful, neuter, troget; funnen, found,

neuter, funnet.
3.
t

Adjectives ending in -d preceded by a vowel change d to

in accented syllables before the neuter t: god, good, neuter, gott; in unaccented syllables d is dropped: Jcallad, called, brett. kaUat; bred, broad,
4.

If

the final d

is

preceded by a consonant

it is

eliminated:

ond, evil, neuter, ont; brand, burned, neuter, brant. If the adjective ends in a double d, one is dropped and the other changed to t : trodd, believed, neuter, trott. 5. Adjectives ending in an accented vowel add -tt: fri, free,

- neuter,
6.

fritt; bid, blue,

neuter, bldtt.

Adjectives ending in a double n drop one n before the neuter t: sann, true, neuter, sant.
1. Adjectives ending in -e (especially present participles) do not change in the neuter: alskande, loving, neuter, Some adjectives are iilskande; ode, desolate, neuter, ode. not used in the indef. form of the neuter; as, lat, lazy;

vanster, left, etc.

112.
1.

NOTES ON THE PLURAL.

plural generally takes the ending -a for all genders, always used when the adjective ends in -ad (past participles of the First Conjugation) and sometimes, especially in solemn style, when the adjective modifies a masculine noun. 2. Adjectives ending in an unaccented -al, -el, -en, -er eliminate the vowel of these endings when the plural ending, -a or -e, is added: gammal, old, ddla; gamla; ddel, noble, mogna. mogen, ripe,

The
is

but

-e

USE OF THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION.

The adjective is declined in the Indefinite Declension when used attributively with a noun in the indefinite sense, and also when it -is used predicatively: ett sndll-t barn ar sin moders frojd, a
113.

good child

is

the joy of

its

mother; barnet ar vac-

46

INDEFINITE DECLENSION

Karl och Robert dro ftiCarl and Robert are industrious boys. tig-a gossar,
ker-t, the child is pretty;

114.
M.
F.

Examples of the
NEUTER

Indefinite Declension:
M.
F.

GENDER FORM

GENDER FORM

NEUTER

Sg. god
PI.

gott

ddel

ddelt

goda

ddla

Sg.
PI.

gammal
gamla
onda

gammalt
ont

trogen troget trogna
dlskad dlskat dlskade

Sg. ond

PL
PI.

Sg. absolut

absolut absoluta

trodd

trott

trodda

115.

PARADIGMS WITH NOUNS.
en god flicka

Sg. en god gosse
PI.

goda gossar

goda

flickor

barn barn goda
ett gott ett ddelt

Sg. en ddel konung en ddel kvinna PI. ddla konungar ddla kvinnor
Sg. en dlskad
PI.

ddla

namn namn

dlskade

man man

en dlskad moder ett dlskat land dlskade modrar dlskade lander

RULES OF SYNTAX.
116.

Adjectives agree with the nouns they qualiin case: ett sndll-t

fy in

number and gender but not

barn, a good child; sndll-a barn, good children; ett sndllt barn-s moder, the mother of a good child; sndll-a barn-s modrar, the mothers of good children.

117.

the indefinite

Most descriptive adjectives can be used in form of the neuter singular as adddelt, nobly; tro-

verbs; thus, ddel, ddelt, noble,
gen, troget, faithful,

troget, faithfully.

EXERCISE.

47

EXERCISE VII.
A.
kail

Supply the proper endings

:

1.

I gar var det

men
,

klar

och vacker
vis

.

2.

En
2

l

haftig

bias

och termometer
.

atskillig

grad

mycket nordan under
(adv.),

fryspunkt

3.

Hela dag
2

arbet

jag trog

men pa
ypperlig

kvallen ak

skoban

jag skridskor. 4*. Det gick (went) is var blank och hard 5. Skrid(adv.), ty var illuminerad, en stor musikkar spel
. .
.

.

och glad (proper form of munter) styck ak fram och tillbaka. 6. Pa hastig (adv.)
,

mannisk
is

traff

2

jag en gammal van, som res (went) till Amerika for tva ar sedan, men nu har kommit (come) tillbaka. 7. Av
alia
.
.

.

(noble)
8.

baste.

Han

mannisk , som jag kann , ar 2 han den hade mycket att saga om forhallande i
honom.
9. I
.

Amerika, som i manga hanseende behag min vans tradgard vaxa 2 god apple

I gar var 2 jag
. . .

dar och plock 10. Apple nagra. (def. pi.) aro och ... (yellow) och mycket ... (sweet). 11. Un(red) der traden (the trees) aro sate och i gren (def. pi.)

bygga fagl
J

(def. pi.) sina bo
test

.

In

order

to

the

student's
2

endings are to be supplied.

knowledge Xote inverted order.

dashes

are

put

even

where no

B.

Answer

in Swedish:
?

1.

Hurudant var vadret

i

gar?

Huru manga (many) grader 2. Var det lugnt (calm) 4. Vad gjorde visade termometern under fryspunkten? 5. Vad gjorde ni (did ... do) ni under (during) dagen?
3.

Beskriv (describe) skridskobanan ? 7. Vem 9. Vad talade traffade ni dar? 8. Var hade han varit? han om? 10. Vem tillhor tradgarden, dar ni var i gar?

pa kvallen?

6.

11.

Var

aro satena?

C. 1.
2. I

The weather

is

believe that the

cold to-day, but cLar and beautiful. thermometer indicates several degrees

48

VOCABULARY
3.

below the freezing point.
'

I

am

tired because I have

worked faithfully
cellent, very

all

day.

4.

If the ice is
5.

good I wish
ice is ex-

(invert) to skate a couple (of) hours.

The

hard and r-mooth, and to-night a big baud

will

2 1 play in the rink. 6. Do you know if the rink is illuminated to-night? Surely (ja visst). 7. It is a great pleasure

8. The band plays merry music and happy people. 10. There pieces. merry I see a couple (of) old friends. I wish to speak to (vid) them. 11. They have been in America and know the con-

to skate rapidly

back and forth.

9. I like

ditions there.
a

Use present tense and invert (104, 2)

;

in,

pa.

2

kno\v, vet.

VOCABULARY.
N. B. Two forms are given and the neuter form; the latter
behaga, I, to please blank, -t, smooth, shiny
bldsa,

of the adjective:
is also

the gender the adverb.

klar,

-t,

clear

Ha,

to

blow

munter, -t, merry en musik'kdr, -er, band

ett 60, -n,

nest

bygga, lib, to build fryspunkt, -er, freezing point
eti

mdnga, many manniska (fern.)

-or,

man,
pleas-

human
ett noje, -n,

being

forhdllande, relation
-t,

-n,

condition,

ure,

amusement, enjoyment
to pick

gammal,

old

plocka,

I,

glad glatt, glad, happy en grad, -er, degree en gren, -ar, branch
gul,
-t,

rod, rott, red

hastig,

-t,

yellow rapid
violent,

en skridsko, 1 -r, skate en skridskobana, -or, skating rink
spela,
I,

to play

(music)

hard, hart, hard
hdftig,
ett
-t,

ett stycke, -n, piece

vehement

ett sate, -n, seat

hdnseende, respect sot, soft, sweet iUumine'rad, -rat, illuminated en termome'ter, mometer en is, -ar, ice
kail,
-t,

-rar.

ther-

cold

trogen, troget, faithful

FIFTH DECLENSION.
weather show, indicate uka, Ha, ride, travel
ett viider,
I,

49

iidel, -t,

noble

visa,

ett apple, -n,

apple

IDIOMS:

1.

2.

aka skridsko, to skate. from och tillbaka, back and

forth.

'Generally pronounced skrisko.

LESSON
Inflection of

VIII.

Nouns (Continued).

FIFTH DECLENSION.
118. The nouns belonging to this declension take no ending in the plural (cf. deer, sheep, swine, in

English).

The postpositive article is -n, or -en for gender nouns and -et for neuter nouns in the singular and -no, (sometimes -ne for masculines in -are) for gender nouns and -en for neuter nouns
119.
in the plural.

120.

The Fifth Declension
Kammare,

includes:
in -ande

(a) All gender
NOTE. or, and
kallr-ar..

nouns ending

and

-are.

ha.mma.re, and kallare have also the plurals kamr-ar, liamr-

(b)

Names
in -er.

of peoples

and nouns of foreign origin

ending

(c) Most neuter nouns ending in a consonant, except those ending in -eum and -ium which belong to the Third Declension.

(d) The nouns fader, father; broder, brother; man, man gas, goose lus, louse mus, mouse, which modify the vowel in the plural; pi. fader, broder,
;
;

;

50

DEFINITE DECLENSION.
of

man, gdss, loss, moss; and a few common words measure as,' fot, foot turn, inch mil, mile.
;

;

;

NOTE.
Klein, gdss,

Fot has the plural fatter only when signifying a part of the body. loss, moss have the definite forms mannen, gdssen, lossen, mossen.

121.

Examples of nouns of the Fifth Declen-

sion: en bagare, a baker; en ordforande, a chair-

man; en
ett

mu'siker, a musician; ett namn, a name; modus, a mode.

INDEFINITE en bagare Sg. PL bagare Sg. en ordforande PL ordforande Sg. en musiker PL musiker
Sg. ett

DEFINITE
bagare-n

bagarna (ne)*
ordforande-n ordforande-na musiker-n musiker-na

namn

namn-et

PL namn Sg. ett modus PL modus
*Observe the elimination of the
re.no,

namn-en modus 2 modus
e

of the ending -are.

Such forms as doma-

or domrarna from domare, judge, to distinguish its plural from the plural domarna of dom, sentence, are growing obsolete. The def. article is generally

-na even for words like bagare, cf. 73, note 5. 2 Words in -us cannot take the postpositive article.
for the def.

The

indef.

form

is

used

(73, note 4, c).

Declension of Adjectives (Continued).

THE DEFINITE DECLENSION.
122. In the Definite Declension the adjective has practically only one ending, -a, which is added
to the original

form (the
-e

gender form)
123.

;

sometimes, however,

indefinite singular of the we find -e.

The ending

takes the place of -a in the

following instances:

DEFINITE DKCLENSIOX.
(a)

51

Often in the singular; occasionally in the the adjective modifies a noun denoting plural a person of the male sex den god-a (also god-e) gossen; den stor-e (never stor-a) Gustav Adolf, the latter expression is emphatic and formal den stor-e mannen means the great man. Stora would here because of its greater commonplaceness convey the

when

:

;

sense of physical largeness.
(b) When the adjective is used as a noun to denote human beings of the male sex; the adjective then has a genitive in -s: den gamle, the old man; but den gamla, the old woman; de rike, the rich; den gamles hus, the house of the old man.
(c) Always when the adjective ends in -ad; den alskade drottningen, the beloved queen.
NOTE.
Adjectives ending in
-a, -e (se),

as,

-om,

-s

(es)

and

-tals are indeclinable.

USE OF DEFINITE DECLENSION.
124. The adjective is declined in the Definite Declension when used: (1) Before a noun with the postpositive article; as, den rike mannen, the rich man; svenska sprdket, the Swedish language (69). After a noun in the genitive; as, min far(2) brors vackra hus, the fine house of my uncle; konungens ddla upptrddande, the noble conduct of the king. (3) After the possessive and demonstrative adjec-

and pronouns as, mina nya handskar, my new gloves; denne trogne tjdnare, this faithful servant. In expressions of address and in apposition (4) Dear with a personal pronoun; as, Kdre van! I unhappy man. friend. Jag olyckliga manniskal
tives
;

52

EXERCISE.

Definite Declension: ddel, noble; trogen, faithful; dlskad, loved.
MASC.
FEM.

125.

Examples of the

NEUTER

Sg. ddl-a(e) PI. ddl-a (e)
PI.

ddl-a ddl-a

ddl-a ddl-a

Sg. trogn-a(e) trogn-a(e)

trogn-a trogn-a
dlskad-e dlskad-e
-al,
-el,

trogn-a trogn-a
dlskad-e dlskad-e
-en,
-er

Sg. dlskad-e PI. dlskad-e
NOTE.

Adjectives ending in unaccented

drop the

vo\\t-l

uf

their last syllable before -a or -e of the def.

form.

THE USE OF THE PREPOSITIVE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 126. The prepositive definite article den, det, de (70) is employed when the noun is qualified pi.
by an adjective or numeral in such a case the post;

positive definite article

must

also be used;

thus,

den vackr-a
barn-et, the
NOTE
1.

flickan, the beautiful girl; det sndll-a

good child; de

tio flitigast-e

gossarna,
is

the ten most industrious boys.
The prepositive
article is generally

employed when the adjective
lilla,

used as a noun; thus, den gamle, the old tkona, the beautiful.
2.

man; den

the little girl; del

It
;

is

omitted in a number of set phrases,
before superlatives and adjectives
self
; ;

names
halv,

often

especially such as serve as of place ; before hel, whole,

half,

sjalv,
first

thus,

svemka

gpr&ket,
left side

the
;

Swedish language

;

forsta

dagen, the

day

vdnstra sidan, the

hela natten, the whole night.

'EXERCISE VIII.
A. Supply the proper form of the Swedish equivalents of the adjectives given within parenthesis in the following den (beautiful) hus; (noble) mannen; min faders de (ripe) applena; de (faithful) lararna; de
:

(small) gossarna; ett det (wet) faltet; det
(little)

(free) land; ett

(wet) fait;
(sweet} barn;

(respected)
ett

namnet; den

flickan; ett

-- (red) hus;

EXERCISE.
(sweet) barn (pi.); ett
(salt)

53

bad; de - - (noble) den (respected) lakare; (old [one], m. and f.) ; de -- (ripe [ones]); ett -- (small) barn; de (new) lararna; den (new one) ; den (free one, m. and f.).

mannen;

-

B.
2.

1.

I

gar vaknade jag

med

en haftig huvudvark.

Jag kladde mig och promenerade i den vackra parken en timme fore frukosten. 3. Da jag kom (came) tillbaka,
voro
4.

min

far och

Jag madde

mor otaliga, ty de hade vantat lange. inte (did not feel) alls bra och kunde (could)
5.

ej

ata nagot av den goda maten.

Jag forsokte
inte.

(att)
6.

dricka en kopp av det starka kaffet,

men kunde

Pa

eftermiddagen gick jag
7.

till

Denne
8.

(he,

lit.,

this

den skicklige lakaren dr Buren. 1 one) ar en gammal van till min

ar i det nya huset pa hornet och Vasagatan. 9. Jag maste (had to) vanKungsgatan ta en hel timma, innan jag traffade honom, ty det var
far.

Hans mottagningsrum

af

manga

patienter fore mig.

10.
11.

"Vad

den gamle vanlige lakaren. haftig hufvudvark", svarade
dalig?"
13.

fattas er?" fragade har ofta en mycket "Jag

jag.

"Pa morgonen
"Daligt."

12. "Ar aptiten god eller 14. ar den mycket dalig."

"Hur

sover ni?"
16.

15.

"Far (may) jag

se

pa

er

tunga?" 17. Dessutom
(126, 2).
i

"Har har

ni ett recept, det ar for aptiten." ordinerade han rorelse i friska luften

Till is

sometimes used to express genitive relation

;

translate of.

C.
i

Answer
?

in

Swedish

:

1. 3.

Var

ni bra, nar ni

vaknade

gar
?

2. 4.

Vad

f attades er ?

Vad
mor

gjorde ni fore frukosotaliga
?

ten

Varfor voro

er far och

5.

Hur

lange

hade ni promenerat? 6. manga koppar kaffe drack (impf.) ni? 7. Kanner er far dr Buren? 8. Var har han
sitt

Hum
Hur

mottagningsrum?

9.

lange och varfor maste ni

54
vanta?
11.
Z>.

VOCABULARY
10.

Vad
1.

Vad fragade den gamle vanlige lakaren er? ordinerade (prescribed) han?
old father

My
2.

woke up to-day with a very
3.

violent

headache.

He came down

for (till) breakfast (def.) but

could not eat anything (ndgot).
his appetite

At

(vid)
to
1

noon

(def.)
2

was very poor and we had

the famous old physician, Dr. Buren. and he are old friends. 5. He came soon in the big red

telephone for 4. Our dear father

6. When automobile, which he bought last year (i fjol). in, he asked (104, 2) my father, "What ails you, old friend?" 7. When he had examined him he wrote

he came

(sJcrev) two prescriptions, one for the violent headache, 8. Besides he the other (andra) for the poor appetite. exercise and fresh air. prescribed
1

Have

to

when

in the present

it denotes compulsion and imperfect.

is

expressed by mdste, which
call,

is

the same

'For with the verbs like ask, send, write,

telephone, is rendered efter.

VOCABULARY.
alls, at all

eft horn,
inte,

corner
before

en aptit (no pi.) appetite en automobil', -er, automobile ett bad, bath
ett barn, child

not
(conj.),

innan

kldda, lib, to dress

en kopp, -ar, cup Kungsgatan, King's street dessutom, besides, in addition liten, -et (def. lilla, pi. smd), dricka (strong verb), to drink little, small
bra, well
ddlig,
-t,

fattas

bad, poor (deponent verb),
to
ail

I,

to

lack;
fri, fritt,

free

frisk,

well, healthy -t, fresh; en frukost (pron. fruckost), -ar, breakfast

(en) luft (no pi.) air en lakare, physician (en) mat (no pi.), food mogen, -et, ripe (18, 1) ett mottagningsrum, reception room, doctor's office
ny, nytt,

new

fore (prep,

and adv.), before en huvudvark (no pi.) headache

ndgot, anything ordine'ra, I, to prescribe
otdlig,
-t,

impatient

IRREGULAR DECLENSION.
en patient',
-er,

55

patient

stark,

-t,

strong

ett recept', prescription

ansedd, ansett, respected en rorelse, -r, movement; exercise
salt, salt

I, to telephone en tunga, -or, tongue vakna, I, to wake up

telefone'ra,

Vasagatan, Vasa street
vdt, vatt,

wet
friendly, kind
to wait

skicklig,

-t,

skillful

vanlig,
vtinta,

-t,

sova (strong verb), to sleep
IDIOMS:
1. 2.

I,

en kopp

kaffe,

a cup of
all.

coffee.

inte alls, not at

LESSON
Inflection of

IX.

127.

Nouns (Continued). IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION.

For the syncopation of the vowel of an un(a) accented ending before the plural ending, see 81, notes 1 and 2 and 85, note 4. (b) For the elimination of the endings -us and -um after e and i before the plural ending, see 86,
;

note.
(c) A few nouns of the Second, Third, and Fifth Declensions modify the root vowel in the plural as,
;

bonde, peasant; broder, brother
fader, father;
;

pi.
;

pi.

bonder broder

dotter, daughter; pi. dottrar
pi.

fader

man, man pi. man moder, mother; pi. modrar
son, son; pi. so'ner (grave accent), others (see 85, notes 1 and 2).

and some

few nouns of the Third Declension double (d) the last consonant. Often there is also a vowel
modification; as,

A

56

THE

CASES.

bok, book; pi. backer
fot, foot; pi. f otter get, goat; pi. getter

not, nut; pi. notter

(e)

So

also,

gas, goose; pi. gdss. Ins, louse; pi. loss,

mus, mouse;
(f)

pi.

moss.

of the Third Declension take only -r in the plural; such are, nouns ending in unaccented -e, a few monosyllabic gender nouns end-

Some nouns

ing in

o, a, o,

fi'ende,
klo,

and some others; as, enemy; pi. fiende-r
claw;
pi. hustri(-r pi. klo-r

hustru, wife;

ko, cow; pi. ko-r sko, shoe; pi. sko-r td, toe; pi. ta-r

(g)

Many

loan words retain their foreign plural
pi.

:

faktum, fact; examina.
128.

fakta; examen, examination;

pi.

DECLENSION OF PROPER NAMES.

Names

of persons, countries, cities, rivers,
;

mountains, and places take an -s in the genitive ex., jag laser Tegners dikter, I am reading the poetry of Tegner; Sveriges floder dro vackra, the rivers of Sweden are beautiful. (Exceptions 130, a.)
NOTE.
If a title precedes the

lish: herr Liners dotter dr hdr,

name, the latter only takes the Mr. LineVs daughter is here.

-*

as in

Eng-

THE
129.

CASES.

The nominative and the genitive are the

only cases that need to be taken into account in the declension of nouns, the objective being identical with the nominative.

THE GENITIVE.

57

130. The genitive is formed, as has been stated before, by the addition of an -s to the nominative, indefinite and definite, singular and plural.

IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS.
Proper nouns ending in an s-sound (s, x, 2) in the nominative have their possessive of the same form, adding only an apostrophe; as, Johannes' evangelium, the Gospel of
(a)
St.

John.
or -xt
in

a common noun ending in an s-sound, the nominative, the genitive relation is generally expressed by the prepositions pd and till (rarely av) thus, taket p& ett hus, the roof of a house; vdggarna till ett hus, the walls of a house; sometimes by putting the noun in the definite form and suffixing an s; as, blixtens
Cb) In the case of
-st,
;

hastighet, the rapidity of a flash of lightning, instead of en
blixts hastighet.
(c) In certain expressions names of localities ending in a vowel use a nominative in apposition where other words would require a genitive; as, Uppsala universitet, the univer-

sity of Upsala. (d)

A

Latin genitive in

-i

Kristi
Jesu.

liv,

the life of Christ.

occurs with nouns in -us; as, Note also the genitive of Jesus,

When several words are used to designate the same (e) person or object, the last word in the group generally takes the -s: Karl den stores rike, the realm of Charles the Great; konungen av Sveriges (also konungens av Sverige) hov, the court of the king of Sweden.

SYNTAX OF THE CASES. 131. The nominative and the objective need no illustration since their functions are the same as
in English.

THE

GENITIVE.

132. In regard to the genitive it is of prime importance to notice that the form in -s is employed much more freely in Swedish than in English. The
Swedish Grammar
5

58

THE GENITIVE.
is

genitive relation

rarely expressed by the prepo-

sition av, of; thus impersonal nouns, which in English invariably would be construed with of to express

the genitive relation, in Swedish take -s; as, bordets ben, the legs of the table; vid mdnadens slut, at
the end of the month.

133. The following uses of the genitive should be noted: The word modified by the genitive is omit(a) ted in expressions like: min klocka dr vackrare an min brors, my watch is prettier than my brother's; detta dr min systers hatt, min mors ligger ddr borta, this is my sister's hat, my mother's lies over there. Somewhat analogous is the use of the geni(b) tive designating the house, family, or business of somebody: jag bor hos Lindholms, I live at Lindholm's; Blombergs dro sjuka, the Blombergs are
sick.

(c)

the prepositions
till

In a few expressions a genitive is used after i and till: gd till sdngs, to go to bed; land till sjoss, by water, to or at sea lands, by
; :

gd Sunday
till

bords, to sit
;

down
;

at table;
i

i

sondags, last

i

hostas, last fall

A
of

temporal expression with
This use of
t

varas, last spring. i governing the geni-

tive denotes a past period.
NOTE.
very

and

till

is

limited to a few phrases, which, however, are

common

occurrence.

134. After quantitative nouns of measure and weight, and nouns of value, the nominative is used en kopp kaffe, a cup of coffee; tio meter tyg, ten meters of cloth; ett kilo smo'r, a kilogram of butter; for tio kronor socker, ten crowns' worth of
:
1

sugar.

EXERCISE.

59
is

135.

The objective genitive

often expressed

by till, sometimes by av; thus, kdrleken till j osier landet, love of country; asynen av land, the sight
of land.

by

till

The possessive genitive is often expressed (or pa) when the possessor is an inanimate
till

object: locket

ladan, the cover of the box; kryc-

kan pa kappen, the crutch of the cane (never hatten till den unge mannen, but den unge mannens hati, the young man's hat).
EXERCISE IX.
A.
1.

Where

Translate the following sentences and expressions. is the leg of the table (in two ways) ? 2. The
is

roof of the house (in two ways)

poor.

3.

The

history of

Mr. Lindgren's daughters. 5. The books 6. The of Strindberg, the author (place author first).
Charles XII.
4.

university of Upsala is very old. 7. He is at sea. 8. Plato 9. I bought the shoes at Lindwas a pupil of Socrates 1 holm's. 10. My house and my father's. 11. The literature
.

of Sweden.
13.

12. The speech of the emperor of Germany. The banks of the Mississippi are beautiful. 14. He came (kom) last Monda}'. 15. A cup of good coffee. 16. The streets of Berlin. 17. The theaters of Paris. 2 18. The city (of) Berlin
.

translate: one of Socrates' pupils.

2

Put Berlin in apposition with
1.

city.

B. Supply endings where indicated: val ? 2. Tyvarr den svensk litteratur
sisk

Kanner

ni

till

icke.

Av

de klaslast

forfatt

(pi.

def. gen.)

arbet

har 1 jag

dikt (pi. Tegners Fritiofs saga och Eunebergs episk forfattare kanner jag indef.), och av Sveriges modern 3. Hur tyck till August Strindberg och Selma Lagerlof. 2 ni om Strindberg, ar han ej mycket pessimistisk ? 4. Jo
,

jag tyck

mycket

battre

om Selma

Lagerlofs

bb'cker.

60
5.

EXERCISE.

Var

ni ej pa teater
att ga, ty jag

amn
snb'a,

spela en'

i gar kvall? 6. Nej, men jag hade hade hb'r att man skulle (would) av Strindbergs dramer, men sa borj det att
,

och

vi

stallning Roll

stann hemma. 7. Det var skada, ty forevar utmarkt; Blombergs och vi voro dar. 8. (pi. def. gen.) utfb'rande var mycket gott (also,
9.

utfb'randet av rollerna).

Herr Palme, som

i

mandags

spelade Adolfs.

Fausts
10.

roll

i

Gb'thes
i

dram, spelade nu Gustav

land tal?

11.

Har ni Kan

last

tidning

ni saga

om kejsarens av Tyskvad Sokrates' berb'md 3 mig

larjunge hette?
*Note the inverted order.
negative.

-Jo

is

*rhe

def.

form of the adjective

used in answering a question containing a is used after a possessive modifier

(124, note 2).

C.

Conversation.
2.

1.

Vilka av de klassiska fb'rfattarna
fb'rfattare

har ni last?
3.

Vilka moderna

Varfor tycker ni battre
4.

om Selma
att
6.

kanner ni till? Lagerlof an om
i

Strindberg?
5.

Hade

ni ej
i

amnat

ga pa teatern

gar?

Vad
D.

spelade
7.

man

gar kvall?
utfb'rde
1

Hurudan

var fore-

stallningen?
1.

Vem
2.

Gustav Adolfs roll?
to-night, Charles?
i

Where

are you going

am
?

going to Sandell's.
I

What do you

wish,

sir

(min her re)
3.

wish to buy the works of Topelius (130, d). green house belong to Mr. Williams' mother?
his brother's, I believe.
4.

Does the
No,
it
is

Where do you pass your win-

Sometimes in Italy and sometimes in one of the 5. I like the towns of southern (def.) Prance (128). climate of Italy better than that of southern France (than
ters?

southern France's). 6. Where is to-day's paper (the day's 2 paper ) ? I wish to read the latest (senaste) speech of the king of England. 7. Are you acquainted with Francis'
(130, a)

parents?
8.

Monday.

Yes, I met them at Blomberg's last Have you read Selma Lagerlof's famous (def.)

VOCABULARY.
book, "Jerusalem"
it
?
1).

61
I

Unfortunately not, but

have heard

contains an excellent portrayal of the peasants of that Sweden. 10. Where have you bought the chickens and the

geese?
11.

I

What

have bought them at Lind's. Aren't they fine? do you wish, sir? I wish a cup of strong coffee,
butter.
I

and (samt 3 ) bread and Yes, sleepy, Mr. Brown.
so late last night.

12.

I

believe
I

am

very tired.

you are went to bed

translate: Where do you intend to go to-night f 2 Also tidningen for i dag. is interchangeable with och to avoid repetition, though rarely used in conversation med, with, could be used here.
3

Samt

;

VOCABULARY.
ett arbete, -n, ett brod,

work

en Idrjunge,
lii-sa,

-ar,

pupil

bread

Ila, to

read

en dikt, -er, poem en dram, -er, ett drama (no
plur.),

modern', -t, modern en mdndag, -ar, Monday
pessimis'tisk,

drama

episk,

-t,

epic

en

roll, -er,
-t,

-t, pessimistic part (acting)

Frankrike (neuter), France

sen,

late

skada, -or, damage Frans, Francis en fo'restdllning, -ar, perform- en skildring, -ar, description, portrayal ance (ett) smor, butter en forfat'tare, author
fo'rdldrar (plural only),
snu'a,
I,

to
I,

snow
to stay, stop

parents gron, -t, green en gas, giiss, goose
heta, Ila, to be called

stanna,

Sverige (neuter), Sweden sitdra (def. only), .southern

in'nehdlla
Ilalien
jo,

(st.

v.,

see Jidlla),

somnig, -t, sleepy en sang, -ar, bed
ett tal, speech;
ett tak, roof

to contain

number

(neuter), Italy yes (used in answer to a

negative question)
klassisk,
ett
-t,

en teater, -rar, tteater en tidning, -ar, newspaper
trott, tired
tyvlirr',

classic

klimaf, climate
till',

unfortunately

kiinna

lib, to
-ar,

know about

ett utforande, -n, execution,

en kyckling,

young chicken

performance

62

THIRD CONJUGATION.
IDIOMS.

1.

att

ga
iir

pa,

teatern,
it is

pd en konsert,
a pity.

to attend the theater, a

concert.
2.

det

skada,

LESSON
The Verb

X.

(Continued).

THIRD CONJUGATION.
the Third Conjugation, which may be considered a slightly modified form of the Second, belong all weak verbs which end in any other vowel

136.

To

than -a in the
137.

infinitive.

This conjugation contains

comparatively few verbs.

The Third Conjugation has the following
:

endings
-r in

stem vowel in the

infinitive

:

e, o, y,

a

not

a.

the singular of the present indicative, stem vowel in the plural of the present indicative. -n in the archaic second plural. -dde in the imperfect indicative, both numbers.

-ende in the present participle (111, note 7). in the supine. -dd in the gender form of the past participle. -tt in the neuter form of the past participle
-tt

(HI,
tion
:

4).

138.

Examples

att tro, to believe

of verbs of the Third Conjugaatt sy, to sew.
;

PRESENT INDICATIVE
Sg. fag]
Sg. jag

m

du

[.
I

>tror

du
ni

1.
\

syr

han]

han]

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
PI.

63

vi

1

ni nro

vi ] ni \sy

de\
I

de\
iron
I

syn

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.
Sg. jag
1

jag j,

}
I

du
ni

ttrodde

{,

du
ni

\sydde

han\
PI.

han\
vi ] ni \sydde

vi ni

]

ttrodde
J

de
/

de

J

trodden

I

sydden

PERFECT INDICATIVE.
/tar trott, etc.
yagr Tiar ST/if, etc.

PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE.
jag hade
trott, etc.

jag hade

sytt, etc.

Personal Pronouns.
139.

DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON Masc. and Fern. Masc. and Fern. Masc. Fern. Neuter

Sg.

Nom. jag
Gen. Obj.

du
(din) dig

han
hans

hon

det

(min)

mig

honom

hennes dess henne det

PI.

64

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
140.

REMARKS ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
;

(a) The personal pronouns with the exception of the third person lack genitive forms these forms are supplied by the possessive adjectives. But a

genitive

titles; as,

form for the second person occurs in a few Ers Majestat, Your Majesty; Ers excellens, Your Excellency. (b) Mig and dig are colloquially pronounced mdj and daj.
(c) In conversational language 'en or 'n is sometimes appended to the verb or to the pronoun subject in a question and used as a sort of enclitic pronoun for honom or den; likewise also 'et or 't for det and 'no, for henne. Ex. Jag sag 'en i gar. I saw him

yesterday.

Pick du't? Did you get

it?

141.
67, a, b.

For the use of du and ni

in address, see

142. It is considered more polite in the singular to use the title of the person with or without herr or fru. The definite form of the title is generally used

except when it occurs together with the used in independent construction.

name

or

is

i kvall? Will you come toBut Kommer doktor Lind i kvall? Are you coming to-night, Doctor Lind ? Ndr flyttar ni ut pa landet, herr doktor? When are you going

Ex.:

Kommer

doktorn

night, Doctor?

to

move out

into the country, Doctor?

Persons whose titles and names are unknown may be addressed with herrn, frun, or fro'ken (also damen, the lady) it is impolite to omit name or title in speaking to persons we know Vill herrn vara sa
;
:

EXERCISE.

G5

god och saga mig, var Kungsgatan ar? Will you kindly tell me, sir, where King's Street is?
NOTE.
is

the pronoun ni with the

To combine convenience with politeness one may judiciously intersperse title. The existing objection to this convenient pronoun

gradually disappearing.

EXERCISE X.
A.

Supply the endings of the verbs and nouns where

indicated.

Var tillbring (impf.) ni era ferier i somras (133, herr doktor? 2. Vi bo c), pa landet som vanligt, vid en harlig liten insjo. 3. Nar sommar komm , forma
1.

jag inte att stanna i staden langre, jag maste fly ut i naturen for att hamta nya kraft (pi.) till mitt arbete.
4.
5.

Ni

flytt

ut ganska sent

i

ar,

Ja, det bero

pa olyckan,
6.

som han

herr doktor, eller hur? min hustru. Har
vi

ni ej hb'r lamna stad
vi kollider

om den?

Strax innan

amna

(att)

i min , voro (93, a) vi ute och kb'r nya bil; med en sparvagn, och min hustru blev (was)

skadad.

7.

Nu ma
i

hon ypperligt, men jag kan
8.

ej

forma

henne

att

aka

automobil mera.

Varfb'r besoker (93, b)

ni oss aldrig, herr professor, medan vi bo pa landet? 9. Vi ha det sa trevligt, var villa ligger vid sjostrand , och fran dess veranda ha vi en harlig utsikt over sjb'n. 10. Vi

ha bade

(both) motorbat och segelbat och naturligtvis om att ro. 11. Vag roddbat, om ni tyck (pi. def.) aro fb'rtrafflig och passande for automobilakning.

B.

Conversation.

1.

Var bodde

ni

i

somras?

2.

Varfor

bor ni pa landet? 3. Flyttade ni ut tidigt i ar? 4. Varfor flyttade ni ut sa sent? 5. 7ad skedde, nar ni voro ute och
akte
?

6.

Vad
aka
i

kolliderade ni

med ?

7.

Varfor

vill

fru Ed-

strom
9.

ej

automobil mera?
11.

8.

Var

ligger er villa?

Hur

har ni det pa landet? 10.

Hum manga slags

(kindi

of) batar har ni?

Vad

passa vagarna for?

66
C.
1.

VOCABULARY
Doctor Edstrom and his family lived at a beau2. Their villa is situated last summer.

tiful little lake

(Hgger) at (vid) the lake shore, and from the porch they have a charming view over the lake and its islands. 3. The
doctor does not feel well if he does not spend his (sina) vacation in (pa) the country, 4. Last summer they moved out later than usual, for an accident had occurred to Mrs.

Edstrom.

5.

They were out riding

in their (sin) large
6.

new

automobile and collided with a street car.

Mrs. Edstrom

was seriously injured, and now the doctor cannot make her 7. Haven't you (Ex. X, A, 7) ride in an automobile. heard of that (ddrom) ? I thought you and the doctor were very good friends. 8. I have visited them several
times at
(i)

their
9.

home
Once

in the country; they have such a
I stayed a

pleasant home.

whole week and was out
ocli

rowing and

fishing (ute och rodde

metade) on the lake

every (varje) day.

VOCABULARY.
aldrig,

never

kollide'ra,

I,

to collide

allvarsam, -t, serious en automobil'dkning, automobile riding
bero', III, to

en kraft,

-er,

strength

kora, lib, to drive Idmna, I, to leave
langre, longer,

depend

any longer

en

bil, -ar,

colloquial abbrev.

medan, while
meta,
I,

for automobile

to fish

ferier (always plur.) vacation en motorMt, -ar, motor boat fly, III, to flee ma, III, to feel (well, ill, etc.) en natur', -er, nature flytta, I, to move

forma', III, to be able; to induce or compel

natur'ligtvis, of course

ganska (adv.), quite
Jiamta,
I,

en o'lycka, -or, accident, misfortune
passande, suitable
ro, III, to

to

fetch

handa, lib, to happen, occur en hustru, -r, wife en insjo, -ar, lake

row
-ar,
-ar,

en roddbdt, en segelbut,

rowboat
sailboat

INDICATIVE.
en sjostrand, shore
sjiJstriinder,

07

lake

som

vanligt, as usual
-or,

skadad, -at, injured i somras, last summer en spdrvagn, -ar, street car strax, soon
trevlig,
-t,

en veranda, en villa, -or,

porch
cottage

villa,

dka, Ha, to ride en o, -ar, island

over (prep, and adv.) over,
past

pleasant, agreeable

IDIOMS.
1.

att

vara ute och kora, gd, rida,

etc.,

to

be out

driving,

2. 3.
4.

walking, riding. att gd ut och gd, to take a walk. att ha det trevligt, to have a pleasant
att

home

or time.

md

bra, ilia, to feel well, bad,

ill.

LESSON
The Verb

XI.

(Continued).

FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE. 143. The future indicative is formed by combining the present of the auxiliary skola, shall, which
is

skall (in conversation ska), with the present infin-

and the future perfect by combining the same auxiliary with the perfect infinitive.
itive;

FUTURE INDICATIVE
Sg. jag]

FUTURE PERF.
jag]
17

INDIC.

du

\

i

7,

ni
PI.

fskall

(ska) kalla

,

7

x

T

du

ni
vi

[skall (ska) h akaUat

han]
vi

han]
1

m
de
1.

~\

\skola (ska) kalla
J

ni

I

skola (ska)

de
is

ha
j

kallat

I skolen kalla
NOTE
Pure future

I skolen

ha

kallat

generally expressed either by the present or by the infinitive together with the present of the verb komma, to come (296). 2. The double forms of the English future and future perfect, / shall call,
be calling, and / shall have called, I shall have been calling, are to be rendered by the single forms, jag skall kalla and jag skall ha kallat.
I shall

68

IMPERATIVE.

THE IMPERATIVE.
The imperative is formed by attaching to 144. the stem of the verb the following endings:
SINGULAR
Second Person -a or
NOTE.
gular
;

PLURAL
First Person -om Second Person -en or -n
-a in the second person sin-

all

Only verbs of the First Conjugation take other verbs use the mere stem.

145.

Instead of the form in -om, which

is

exceed-

ingly rare, the imperative of the verb Idta, let, latom, generally shortened to lat, is used with the reflexfirst person plural and This form corresponds exactly to the English imperative with let; thus, Idt(om) oss kalla, let us call.

ive

pronoun

oss, us, of the

the infinitive.

Instead of the second person plural in -en or -n the second person singular, with the pronoun ni understood, is used as an imperative for the second person plural.
146.
NOTE.

The pronouns are generally omitted

in the imperative.

147. The conversational language uses a number of expressions which are more polite than the imperative the most common is vill ni vara sa god, will you be so kind; thus, vill ni vara sa god och komma (will you have the kindness to come), also, var sa god och, etc. or the expression, sa dr ni (du) snail (then you are kind), may be used after the imperative; as, kom, sa dr ni snail (please come), or, kan (can) may be used in a question:
; ;

kan du komma mi?
please.

equivalent

to,

come now,

INFINITIVE.

69

148.
to go.

Examples of the imperative of the verbs
bdja, to bend;
tro,

kalla, to call;

to believe;

ga,

kalla (du, ni), kallom, lat(om) oss kalla, kallen(I) (du, ni), bojom, Idt(om) oss bdja, bbjen(I) bd'j tro (du, ni), lat(om) oss tro, iron (I)

ga
NOTE.

(du, ni),

lat(om) oss ga,

gan
-07*1,

(I)
and

Verbs the stem of which ends in a vowel lack the form in

take -n in the second person plural.

149.
(a)

REMARKS ON THE
The present

INFINITIVE.

-a, but verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the stem of which ends in a vowel take no ending in the infinitive. The sign of the infinitive i? att, to. Ex.: att kalla, att

active infinitive ends in

tro, att ga.

(b)
to

The perfect
ha
;

infinitive is

formed as

in

Engtrott,

lish; thus, att

kallat, to'have called; att

ha

have believed att ha

gdtt, to

have gone.

(c) There is also a future infinitive formed by combining the present infinitive of the auxiliary verb skola, shall, with the infinitive of the verb;
as, att

skola kalla.

This

is

rarely used.

(d) The sign of the infinitive is omitted very much as in English. (Further particulars will be given
later.)

phrase expressing purpose is generally introduced by the preposition for, for; as, jag har rest till Tyskland for att studera tyska dar, I have gone to Germany in order to study Ger(e)

An

infinitive

man

there.

70

EXERCISE.

The
150.

Reflexive Pronoun.

only one distinctively reflexive which is used for all genders and numbers of the third person: himself, herself,
is

There

form, the objective

sig,

itself, themselves; as, han (hon) sdtter sig, seats himself (herself) de sdtta sig, they seat themselves.
;

151.

Elsewhere the objective case of the personal
;

pronouns is used as reflexive; as, jag sdtter mig, I seat myself sdtta oss, we seat ourselves.

m

NOTE

1.

In English the reflexive -self must be distinguished from the em-

This is expressed in Swedish by sjalv; as, jag sjalv, I myself; phatic -self. han har gjort det sjalv, he has done it himself. 2. Sjdlva(e) preceding a noun means even ; as, sjdlva konungen kan inte
.gora det, even the king cannot do
it.

EXERCISE XI.
A.
1.

Om m
mig.

kom med
sag
till
i

2.

onska taga en liten tur pa sjon, barn, sa Ga in till Ostermans pa vagen, Karl, och
lana
. . .

dem,
bat
4.

att jag b'nsk
,

(Iheir) bat.

3.

Hop-

pa nu
.
. .

goss

,

men

forsiktigt, sa att ni ej stjalp

(it).

Vem

skall ro?

Jasa, du Erik, nej, lat Karl

ro, jag tror ej, att det skall bli tungt for

honom, ty sjon Sluta att ro, Karl, och slapp ned ankar 6. Se bara, hur Lat oss nu kasta nt rev fisk det ar har! Karl har redan ett napp pa sin mycket krok. 7. Tycker ni inte, att det ar roligt att meta, nar
ligger

som en
.

spegel.

5.

.

man

far

napp?

8.

Var nu
trad

snail och ro

i

land, sa satta vi

oss under det stor

for att ata var middag.

B. 1. Kara barn, oppna lasebockerna pa sidan tjugu, och lat oss lasa Tegners vackra dikt. 2. Sag mig, Karl, vad den handlar om, ar du snail. 3. Det var alldeles riktigt.
4.

Borja nu och las den hogt och Yar god och ursakta mig, froken

val for oss, Maria.
Forsell, jag

kan

ej

EXERCISE.

?'l

lasa hogt; jag ar forkyld och har ont i halscn. 5. Det var 6. Sna.Ha froken, tillat ilia, da skall lilla Klara lasa den.

mig
7.

att lasa den Det var bra

utantill

;

jag bar lart hela dikten utantill.

gjort, Klara.

Hor nu pa uppmarksamt
8.

allesammans, medan Klara deklamera den for or.
C.
2.

laser.

Sedan

skall jag sjalv

Conversation.

1.

Vad

b'nskar ni
3.

(att)

gora

i

dag?
tungt

Vem

ska vi lana baten av?
4.

Varfor

blir det ej

for Karl att ro?

Vad maste man

gora, innan

man kan

5. Vem av er bar napp borja (att) meta? pa sin krok? 6. Nar ar det roligt att meta? 7. Var skola vi ata var

middag?
Klara
Forsell

8.

Varfor kan Maria
att

ej

lasa hogt?
10.

visat,

hon

ar flitig?

9. Hur har Vad amnar froken

(att)

gora, nar Klara har last dikten?

D. 1. The children wished to go out fishing (ut och meta) yesterday. 2. Since we do not have any boat, we had to (maste vi) borrow one from Osterman's. 3. The
boys
it.

jumped
4.

carefully into the boat in order not to upset
it
5.

1 Carl rowed the whole way , and difficult, for the lake was like a mirror.

was not very

Stop rowing, Carl; and you, Eric, drop the anchor. 6. Let us throw out our lines here, boys, there is (A, 6) plenty of (much) fish
ashore and
breakfast.
children.
sit
8.

here, I think.

you are tired we shall (invert) row 8) under the big tree to eat our Please (B, 2) open the books on page ten,
7.

If

down (A,

9.

Tell me, Carl,
is.

who

beautiful

poem

10.

Quite right,

the author of this (denna) my dear boy. And
for us.
11.

now Clara

will recite the
this, I

poem

When

she has

myself shall declaim it for you. 12. don't you begin, Clara ? Have you not learned it by Why heart? 13. Please excuse me (var god och ursakta mig},

done (gjort)

Miss Forsell.

I tried to learn it

by heart yesterday, but

VOCABULARY.
could (kunde) not. I had such a sore throat (sa out i lial14. Please open (var snail och ...) the window. sen).
Carl, I have a headache (huvudvark, or, out
*Hela vagen:
the prepositive article
is

i

huvudet).

omitted.

VOCABULARY.
alldeles, quite, entirely

allesammans,
ett ankare,

all
,

en lasebok, -bocker, reader en middag, -ar, noon; dinner
ett napp, bite ndgon, nagot, any ond, ont, bad, wicked; sore;

anchor

bara, only
bra, well

(often referring to
to declaim

health)

angry
I,

deklame'ra,

redan, already

erne' dan, because, since

en rev,
riktig,
rolig,

-ar, line
-t,

en

fisk,

-ar,

fish

right, correct

ett fonster,

window

-t,

amusing
lake
to cease

forkyld' -kylt, having caught a cold
forsik'tig,
-t,

en

sjo, -ar,
I,

sluta,

cautious
to treat about

handla om,
hoppa,
hog,
i I,

I,

to

jump
(as
adv.
also

-t,

high

aloud)
gdr, yesterday
ilia (adv.),

pronoun, adv. and who, like, as en spegel, -lar, mirror stjiilpa, Ha, to upset saga, (irr. v.), to say til'lata (st. v.), to permit
(rel.

som

conj.),

jasa', so, is

bad(ly), too bad that so

tio,

ten
-t,

tung,

heavy
trip;

throw en krok, -ar, hook
kasta,
I,

to

en
to teach

tur, -er, turn;
-t,

luck

uppmarksam,
ur'sakta,
utantill,
I,

attentive (-ly)

lara,

lib, to learn;

to

excuse

lasa upp',

Ha,
1.

to recite

by heart

IDIOMS:

2. 3.

Det ar roligt, it is fun. Jag ar forkyld, I have caught a cold. Jag har ont i nalsen, I have a sore throat.

Note that long

m

can be written double only when

it

and principle causes sometimes a dropping of one vppmarksam, becomes vppmarlcsamma in the plural

m

This is intervocalic. sometimes a doubling
:

m

is

here intervocalic;

nummer becomes num-ret

in

the def.

form

m

is

no longer intervocalic.

FOURTH CONJUGATION.

73

LESSON
The Verb

XII.

(Continued).

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION.
152.

This conjugation contains

all

verbs that

form their imperfect by means of a change of the vowel of the root without any added tense sign. There is frequently also a change of vowel in the supine and past participle. These verbs are called
strong verbs.

The verbs belonging to divided into two classes.
153.

this

conjugation

are

The

first class

contains verbs the root of

which undergoes but one vowel change. In these verbs the vowel of the supine and past participle is the same as that of the infinitive and the vowel of the plural of the imperfect the same as that of the
singular.

Examples
INFINITIVE

:

IMPERFECT
SO.

SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE
hallit

PL.

hdlla, to hold

holl

hollo

hallen, -et

gripa, to seize grep

grepo gripit

gripen, -et

154.

The second

class contains verbs the root of

which undergoes two vowel changes. In these the vowel of the supine and the past participle is always different from that of the infinitive the vowel of the plural of the imperfect is in most cases the same as that of the supine, in the case of a few verbs like that of the singular of the imperfect and different from
;

that of the supine.
Swedish Grammar
6

FOURTH CONJUGATION.

Example
INFINITIVE

:

SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE

FOURTH CONJUGATION.
classes of the

75
att gripa, to

Fourth Conjugation:
PRINCIPAL PARTS.

seize; att finna, to find.

INFINITIVE
SG.
I.

IMPERFECT
PL.

SUPINE

PAST PARTICIPLE

gripa
finna

grep

II.

fann

grepo gripit funno funnit

grip en,

-et -et

funnen,

76

EXERCISE.

FUTURE PERFECT.
Sg. jag skall ha gripit, funnit, etc. PI. vi skola ha gripit, funnit, etc.

IMPERATIVE.
Sg. grip (du, ni)
PI.

finn (du, ni)

gripom, lat(om)oss gripa
gripen (I)
INFINITIVES. Present, Perfect, Future,

finnom, lat(om) oss finna finnen (I)

gripa

ha gripit
skola gripa

finna ha funnit skola finna

EXERCISE XII.
A.
1.
till

Change the present

into imperfect in the following:
till

Min

bror skriver ett brev
2.

min

far,

som har

farit

Jag bar brevet pa posten. 3. Han far svar (64, b) pa det. 4. Jag gar till stationen for att mb'ta min bror. 5. Han kommer pa besb'k hos oss. 6. Taget ankommer ej forran klockan sex, det ar forsenat. 7. Nar ban ser mig, stiger ban av taget. 8. Han ger sitt handbagage till en barare 1 och gar med mig. 9. Vi taga en droska och fara
Amerika.
11. Han 10. Den sjuke gossen ligger till sangs. sover ganska gott. 12. Det ger honom krafter. 13. Karl ater for mycket. 14. Han blir sjuk, och vi maste tillkalla lakaren. 15. Vi ata frukten, som vi fa av Karl. 16. En

hem.

haftig storm ntbryter.
18.
J

17.

Vagorna
A

sla

over
a

skeppet.
is

Det sjunker pa oppna
Stockholm
called

sjb'n.
(neuter).

In

stadsbud

porter

in

hotel

called

hotellvaktmastare.

B.

1.

Vi kommo

ej till

den

lilla

kvallen, ty vi

voro forsenade.

2.

Vart tag gick
3.

staden forran sent pa ej fort, och

dessutom stannade det vid

alia stationer.

Som

(as) vi

EXERCISE.
voro trotta, besago vi
hotell,

77

som

ej staden, utan gingo direkt till vart 4. Vi sovo utmarkt hela lag nara stationen.

natten,
re.
5.

va.
7.

men maste stiga upp klockan sex for att fara vidaVi hade bett dem vacka oss i tid, men vaknade sja'l6. Nar vi hade atit frukost, begarde vi var rakning.

Den var ganska resonabel; vi betalade den samt gavo 8. Nar ni besb'ker staden drickspengar. X, bor (ought] ni ga till detta (this) hotell. Jag kan rekommendera det.
C.
2.

Conversation.

1.

Nar komma

vi

till

Stockholm?
Tycker
ni,

Hur manga minuter
4.
?

ar taget forsenat?

3.

att taget gar fort?

vid Alvesta
6.

5.

stannar taget Var ligger hotellet, dar ni brukar taga in?
va'cka oss
8.
i

Hur manga minuter
morgon?
i

Nar

skall

man

7.

Tror

ni, att ni

kan vakna sjalv?
9.

Har
hog?

ni sovit gott

natt, herr Arndt?

Ar rakningen
D.

for

I.I did not come to Vexio before ten o'clock in (pa) the evening. 2. The train which I was on did not run
3. A very fast, and I believe it stopped at all stations. friend of mine (en of mina vanner) had recommended a small hotel which lies near the station. 4. I gave my hand

baggage
I to

to a porter
5.

and asked 1 him

to

show me the way

to

the hotel.

In the dining room of the hotel (gen. def.) had 2 a good supper. 6. An hour later (scnare) I went
bed and slept well until six o'clock in (pa) the morning, 3 called me. 7. I asked for the bill and
it

when they (man)
found

very reasonable.
9.
it to all

8.

At

this hotel one gives (invert)

no

tips.

It is not large but very

shall

recommend

my

(mina) friends

good (bra), and I who go (resa,

fara) to Vexio. 10. Vexio is a pleasant little town. It is situated by (vid) a lake. 11. I did not have time to view the town for I arrived late (sent) and had to leave early in the morning.
*To ask a question
'Use vdcka.
is

fraga, to ask a favor is bedja.

2

Uae

iHo,

and

invert.

78

VOCABULARY.
VOCABULARY.

N. B. Of the strong verbs the following parts are given: the infinitive, the singular and plural of the imperfect, the supine, and the gender and neuter forms of the past participle, when found.

ankomma, ankom, ankommo,
ankommit,
rive
bedja, bad, bddo, bett, bedd, bett, to pray, to ask
-en, -et, to ar-

ett hotell',

,

hotel
legat, to lie, to

ligga,

Mg, logo,

be situated

bega'ra,

lib,

to

demand
pay
besett,

en matsal, -ar, dining room en natt, nutter, night ntira (adv. and prep.), near en post
(in
this

beta'la, I la, to
bestf,

sense

no

besdg,

besdgo,

besedd,

-sett,

to look at,

pi.), mail, post office

view
bliva, blev,
-et,

rekommende'ra,
blevo, blivit, -en,

I,

to

recom-

mend

en

become; to remain resona'bel, -t, reasonable bill broder broder, en rdkning, -ar, (bror), se s &9, Sa 9> sett - dd ~ ett brother
to
< > >

>

bdra,
-et,

bar,

buro,

burit,

-en,

to see
ett skepp,
,

to carry, to bear
,

ship

en bdrare,
direkt',

porter
pi.), tip,

direct (ly)

skriva, skrev, skrevo, skrivit, -en, -et, to write

drickspengar (always
tips

sjunka, sjonk, sjonko, sjunkit, -en, -et, to sink
sld, slog, slogo, slagit, -en, -et,

en droska,

-or,

cab
strike
sld over, to

fara, for, foro, farit, -en, -et, to travel, to drive, to go
fa, ftck, fingo,

fdtt, to get, to

wash over

receive forrdn (adv.), before
forse'nad,
-t,

sova, sov, sovo, sovit, to sleep en station', -er, station
late
stiga, steg, stego, stigit, -et, to step; to rise
-en,

belated,

(train)

giva (also ge), gav, gdvo,
givit (gett), -en,
-et,

stiga upp', to rise, to get

up
-et,

to give

en supe, supeer, supper
taga, tog, togo, tagit, -en,
to

gd, gick, gingo, gdtt, gdngen, -et, to go (run)
ett

take
tiU'kalla,
ett tag,
I,
,

pi.),

handbagage (-gash'; hand baggage

no

to call

(in)

train

SUBJUNCTIVE.
ut'bryta, utbrot, utbroto, utbru-viicka (tr. v.),
tit, -en, -et,

79

Ha,

to

wake

to

break out

Ufa, dt, dto,

iitit,

-en, -et, to eat

vidare, further

IDIOMS:

1. 2.

att bedja
att

om

en

sale,

to

ask for a thing.

Mra

(lagga) pd posten, to mail.
(ir

3.
4.

Har posten Commit? Has the mail come? Vad (ir Jclockan? What time is it? Klockan
sex.
It
is

six o'clock.

5.

att visa vagen, to

show the way.
XIII.

LESSON
REMARK.
Note
the

THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
tendency of forms for the simple subjunctive.
substituting

compound

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE.

The simple present subjunctive of all perexcept the archaic second person plural, is formed by adding -e to the stem. The archaic second person plural ends in -en. Much more common is
158.
sons,

the

compound form with ma.
; ; ;

Verbs the infinitive of which ends in any other vowel than a lack the simple present subjunctive. These include all verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few others as, ga, to go std, to stand le, to smile ; etc.

NOTE.

159. Examples of the present subjunctive: att vara, to be; att alska, to love; att tro, to believe.

SINGULAR.
vare, ^}Imd vara,
.
r

l

?*

matte vara

Han]
vi
1

^ matte alska, han f han]
PLURAL.
vi
] \
}

^

(ma

alska,

tro

ni de

vare, \ma vara,

}

matte vara

ni de

ma alska,
matte alska

dlske,

v
ni

tro
[T0

de

80
f

SUBJUNCTIVE.

1

4

varen, man vara,

f

1

1 [

dlsken, man alska,

f

1

m&n

tro

1

[

mdtten vara

mdtten alska

matten {ro

160.
(1)

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

In verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the simple imperfect subjunctive is formed by changing the ending -o of the plural of the imperfect indicative to -e (the archaic second person plural having the
additional ending -n) The vowel of both numbers of the imperfect subjunctive is thus the same as that of the plural of the imperfect indicative.
.

NOTE. The singular of the imperfect indicative of the Fourth Conjugation often used instead of the impf. subjunctive.

is

(2) In the First, Second, and Third Conjugations the simple imperfect subjunctive is identical with the imperfect indicative.

(3) Compound forms consisting of the imperfect of skall, skulle, are of very common occurrence.

161.

Examples

the verbs binda, to bind
INFINITIVE

of the imperfect subjunctive of vara, to be alska, to love.
; ;

IMPERFECT
SO.

SUPINE

PAST PARTICIPLE

PL.

binda vara
alska

band

bundo

bundit
varit dlskat

bunden,

-et

var voro alskade alskade

dlskad, -at

PI.

Sg. jag bunde, skulle binda, etc. vi bunde, skulle binda, etc.
Sg. jag vore, skulle vara, etc. PI. vi vore, skulle vara, etc. Sg. jag alskade, skulle alska, etc. PI. vi alskade, skulle alska, etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

81

162.

PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

(a) The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present or the imperfect of the auxiliary md with the perfect infinitive.

(b)

The pluperfect subjunctive

is

either identical

with the indicative or formed by combining the imperfect of skall, skulle, with the perfect infinitive.
tives of the verbs skriva

Examples of the perfect and pluperfect subjuncand vara.
PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

Sg. jag

ma ma

or matte ha or matte ha

jag
vi

ma

or matte ha varit, or matte ha varit,

skrivit, etc.

etc.

PL

vi

ma
etc.

skrivit, etc.

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.
Sg. jag hade
skrivit, or

jag skulle ha skrivit
PI.

jag hade varit, or jag skulle ha varit
vi hade varit, or vi skulle ha varit

vi hade skrivit, or vi skulle ha skrivit

USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
163.
Classification of uses.

The subjunctive

which marks in general the absence of direct or
is used regularly in statements positive assertion of doubtful reality; such as wish, request, purpose,

concession, possibility.

SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH. realizable wish is expressed by the simple (a) present subjunctive, or by the compound form with md and matte, md implying greater and matte less
164.

A

confidence in the realization of the wish.

82

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Ex. Give Gud dig hdlsa; also, ma or matte Gud giva dig hdlsa! May God give you health. Matte han vara hdr! Would he were here! Vi matte vdl komma i tid till tdget! I do wish we might come in time for the train.
NOTE. "Varde
Ijus !"

The wish may sometimes have the force God said, "Let there be light."

of a

command

:

Gud

sade :

wish which refers to the present and which at least not immediately realizable is expressed by the simple imperfect subjunctive; a similar wish referring to the past, by the pluperfect
(b)
is

A

not

subjunctive.

Ex.
here
!

Ack,
!

om

young again

0, att

jag vore ung igen! Would I were han vore hdr! Would he were
!

Hade jag blott vingar! If I only had wings Hade jag blott haft en enda van! Had I only had
a single friend!
NOTE 1. The simple imperfect subjunctive may also express a very vivid wish referring to the future: Ack, om del snart vore vdr I O that spring were
here!
2.

Note the use of ack, om...,

o,

aft... with the sense of would (that)

Closely related to the subjunctive of wish are the subjunctives of purpose and concession.

165. SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE. The compound subjunctive with ma and matte

is

used in clauses expressing purpose with the conjunctions att, pa det att, sa att, in order that. After a past tense the subjunctive with skulle may be used.

oss,

Bed till Gud, att han ma (matte) beskydda pray to God that he may protect us; han skyndade sig, sa att han skulle vara fdrdig, he hurried in order that he might be ready.
Ex.

EXERCISE.

83

NOTE 1. The compound subjunctive (sometimes the indicative) of fa, may (permission), and kunna, can (ability, possibilty), are often used in a purpose clause if permission or ability is implied: han bad barnen vara tysta, sa att han skulle fa sova, he asked the children to be quiet in order that he might
han studerade svenska flitigt, sa att han skulle kunna tala del flytande, sleep he studied Swedish diligently in order that he might speak it fluently.
;

If the subject of the purpose clause clause the infinitive with for att (149, e)
2.

ia is

the same as that of the principal used: herr Vallner or ej hemma.
is

han har
at

rest

till

home ; he has gone

Stockholm for att besoka sin sjuka bror, Mr. Vallner to Stockholm to visit his sick brother.

not

166.

SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONCESSION.
expressed by the subjunctive with Ex. Det ma sa vara, that may be fienderna komma, now the enemy may come.
is
.

Concession

ma

(not matte)

:

;

nu ma

NOTE. Note the concessive subjunctive in vare sig du vill eller ej, whether you wish or not vi skola ga, vare sig han kommer eller ej, we shall go whether he comes or not. The expression vare fig (let it be for itself) has practically become a conjunction meaning whether.
;

tive of possibility, indicates

or subjuncthe possibility merely that an action may occur, without any reference to kanhdnda vore det sa gott att borja its probability arbetet med detsamma, perhaps it would be well to

167.

THE POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE,

:

begin the work immediately med din hjalp formadde jag nog go'ra det, with your help, I should be able to do it, no doubt det kunde vara sant, it might be true.
; ;

NOTE. Absolute possibility is denoted by kan (sometimes ma). See Senses Modals (255, b). Ex.: det kan vara sant, it may possibly be true; a very vivid probability is denoted by matte: det matte vara mamma, som kommer ; it must be mother who comes.
of

EXERCISE XIII.
1 Nagon knackar pa db'rren; det matte vara brevbararen, ty han kommer alltid vid derma tid. 2. Jag 6nskar, att det vore han och att han hade med sig en postanvis2 ning hemifran, sa att jag kunde betala min inackordering

A.

1.

84
och

EXERCISE.

min

skolavgift.
4.
5.

3.

Vore 3 man bara

rik och ej en fat-

tig studerande!

telegrambud.
6.

Nej, det ar inte brevbararen, utan ett Matte 4 de ej vara sjuka dar hemma!

ha trott det! Min bror Kobert, som reste Brasilien for att gb'ra 6 sin lycka, bar kommit tillbaka, och nu onska mina foraldrar, att jag matte 4 resa hem pa
till

Vem

skulle 5

ett

7 7. Ack, om jag bara kande nagon, som hundra kroner, sa. att jag kunde 2 resa med mig detsamma. 8. Vore 1 det ej battre, att du sande dem ett

par dagar.
lana

ville

telegram och bade dem- om pengar ? 9. Jag skulle sa garna 10. Har kommer vilja lana dig, nien jag bar tyvarr inga.
brevbararen

med

ett

rekommenderat

brev.
2

innehalla nog pengar, sa att jag skulder och resa hem.
ne?,
note.
!

ma
a.

Matte 4 det bara kunna betala mina
165,
2.
T

165,

1.

r

164,

b,

1.

4

164,

B

167.

164

b,

2.

B.

Conversation.
2.

1.

Vem

tror ni det ar,

som knackar

pa dorren? brevbararen?
along) if ran ?
?

Varfor formodar (suppose) ni, att det ar 3. Vad b'nskar ni, att ban medforde (brought
ville
1

4.
5.

Varfor

ni garna ha en postanvisning

hem-

Vad

ville ni hellre

vara an en

f attig

studerande ?

7. Varfor 6. Vad nyheter (news) innehb'll telegrammet? hade er bror rest till Brasilien ? 8. Vad ville era foraldrar, att ni skulle gora ? 9. Varfor kunde ni icke resa med detsamma? 10. Vad tjanst hade er kamrat gjort er, om ban

hade haft pengar?
1

Impf. subjunctive (like the indicative)

;

vilja giirna, to like.

C.

1.

Somebody must be knocking
2.

at the door.

Would

you go and open?

I wish

it

were (164,

b, 1) the post-

man,
home.

for I expect a
3.

money order

Only a

common

letter!

or a registered letter from I wish that it might

contain 1 money, for I am entirely without (any). 4. If my 2 parents would only send me some money soon so that I

could pay (A, 2)

my

debts.

I

owe both for board and

VOCABULARY.
tuition.

85

5. Who would (skulle) have believed that he would return so soon. 6. Father (min far) writes that brother Robert has returned from Brazil in order to cele-

brate (165, 2) Christmas at home. 7. Mother wishes that I too might come (164, a) home, and they promise that they will send money in a few days (om ndgra dagar).

Let us study diligently so that our teacher may 3 praise (165) us. 2. Let us hope that it may not rain , for we have no umbrellas. 3. The old woman asked me to give D.
1.

her something 4

.

4. I

the good gentleman."

early that they

may
7.

did so and she said, "May God bless 5. The children eat breakfast very be in school on time (i tid). 6. Be

your poor father may sleep (far wish that he might come (164, a) ; sow, 165, 1). but whether (166, note) he comes or not, we shall go.
quiet, children, so that

We

8.

If

we had only not gone out!

But who could

believe

9. Their father required that he would (skutte) come. come 5 home early. But he may (ma, (fordrade) that they kan) say what he will, they do not obey. 10. What he says might (167) be true. Would that what he says were

(164, b, 2) true.
Use the impf. subjunctive of innehalla (164, b, 1). 2 0m minaforaldrar bara *Pres. indie, may be used, translate two ways: literally and "asked 5 After a verb of command Swedish often uses the modal auxiliary that I", etc. skola with the pres. inf. (not to be confused with skoltt in its use as an
1

ville, etc.

auxiliary of the

future).

VOCABULARY.
alldeles, altogether, entirely

en brevbdrare,
pi.)

,

-arna (def.

bara, only
befal'la, lib, to order, to

letter carrier

mand
beromma,
(see
lib,
103,-

praise

com- darhemma, at home fattig, -t, poor impf. beromde fira, I, to celebrate note 3), to Jiemifrdn, from home en herre, -ar, gentleman

86
hoppas,
I,

IRREGULAR VERBS.
(deponent
-ar,
,

v.),

to

rekommende'rad,
tered

-rat,

regis-

hope
en in'ackorde'ring,
, , .
.
'

board
,

and room (or board only)
>

boarder
-L.31T*.

,

en skolavgift, -er, tuition en skuld, -er, debt; guilt
skyldig,
-t,

tn'neMlla,

in debt; guilty

-holl, -hollo, -halht,
,

-en, -et, to

contain

.

vara skyldig, to owe
stackers
(indeclinable), poor (in the sense of pitiable)
,

en

m._t_i Christmas komma, kom, kommo, kom.

,

jul, -ar,

mit, -en,
iova,
I,

-et,

to come.

en studerande.
ett telegram',
ett
,

a student

to

promise

telegram
,

en lycka (no pi.), fortune, happiness lyda, lib, to obey med detsamma, immediately nog, enough; I am sure; cercertainly

telegrambud,

telegraph

messenger
en

^^
,f
,

time

ear i y
quiet, silent
}>

tjug
tyst,

ndgon, some (one), pi. nagra, some, any, a few
ocksd, also

utan (ady prep ^ and CQnj butj without
vanlig,
-t,

en postanvisning, money order

-ar,

postal

common, usual
I,

valsigna,

to bless

IDIOM: Det ar nog han is coming.

som kommer,

it is

very likely he that

LESSON
The Verb

XIV.

(Continued).

IRREGULARITIES OF VERBS.
168. Some verbs of the second class of the Second Conjugation which are derived from other words by means of the suffix -ja drop j in the imperfect,

and past participle in which forms the corresponding hard vowel generally reappears. The most common of these verbs are:
supine,

IRREGULAR VERBS.
INFINITIVE

8?
P.

PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE

PART.
2

gladja, to gladden salja, to sell skilja, to separate smorja, to grease, oil sporja, to ask, learn vdlja, to choose, elect vanja, to accustom
^lur. gladja.
"The neuter
is

gldder
saljer skiljer

:

gladde glatt
salde skilde
salt
skilt

gladd
said skild

smorjer smorde smort smord sporjer sporde sport spord
vdljer

valde

valt

vald

vanjer
glatt,
ST.lt,

vande
skilt,

vant
(Ill, 3).

vand

etc.

169.

Such a change of vowel occurs
very common
verbs
:

also in the

following

INFINITIVE

PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE

P.

PAET.
]

bringa, to bring
gb'ra, to

do

bringar bragte bragt bragt gor gjorde gjort gjord
lagger sdger
sdtter lade
lagt

Idgga, to lay 2 saga, to say sdtta, to set, put
toras, to dare
1

lagd

sade
satte
2

sagt
satt torts

sagd
satt

tor(e)s tordes
(Ill, 3).

The neuter

is

bragt, lagt, satt, etc.,

Commonly pronounced

sdja.

170. There are besides a small number of verbs which are entirely irregular. The most important
of these are:
INFINITIVE
bedja, to ask, pray
do, to die
fd,

PRESENT

IMPERFECT
su.

SUPINE

P.

PART.

bcder, ber bad

dor

dog
fick

to get, receive far

gd, to go

gdr

gick

komma,
le,

to

come

kommer
heter
ler

kom
hette
log

heta, to be called

smile

leva, to live

lever
ligger ser
sldr

levde
Idg

ligga, to lie
se, to
sZ<$,

see

sag
slog

to strike

88
INFINITIVE

UNREAL CONDITIONS.

EXERCISE.

81)

EXERCISE XIV.
Complete the following by adding a clause expresscondition or conclusion. ing 1. Hade jag black och penna, sa ban hade 2.
. . .

A.

Om
.

tid, sa

.

.

.

3.

Om
.

jag inte vore sa trott, sa
.

.

.

4.

Om

Det skulle vara mycket 6. Regnar det i morgon, sa 7. De trevligt, om bade garna gatt med oss, om 8. Jag skulle ha rest till
f orkyld, sa
. .

hon icke vore
.

5.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

till Sverige, om ni hade Det skulle jag visst gora! Om min bror ej hade blivit sjuk sa hastigt, hade jag rest for en manad sedan. 3. Om jag visste, att ban snart skulle bli bra, sa

Stockholm, om B. 1. Skulle ni gora en resa
.

.

.

tillfalle?

2.

skulle jag losa biljett mi. 4. Senare blir det svart att fa 5. Vart liar en, ty batarna aro sa upptagna pa sommaren.

Karl gatt?
gladja dig.
se.
7.

som du bad om.

Han

bar gatt for att kopa morgontidningen, 6. Jag bar en nyhet, som sakert skall Jag sag var gamle van Agrell pa gatan i morhade just anlant med londonangaren och sade,

Han

1 pa hos dig i dag, om ban finge tid. 8. Han talade, som om ban hade gjort goda affarer i England och fortjant mycket pengar. 9. Vet du om herr Anderson bar salt sin lilla villa vid Djursholm ? 10. Ja, han salde den i gar och rick mer, an han hade betalt for den. 11. Om han ej hade salt den, sa skulle jag ha hyrt den 12. Hade Karl onskat det, sa hade man for sommaren. sakert valt honom till ordforande i foreningen. 13. Vein 2 valde man i stallet? Det vet jag ej, men Karl sade, att

att

ban

skulle balsa

han
it

skulle fb'resla herr Lindell.

^H'dlsa

pa with main stress on pa, signifies to pay a visit, with stress on hatsa means to greet. 2 Notice word order, det tror jag ej ; det generally comea
in expressions of this kind.

first

C.
falle?

Conversation.
2.

1.

Vad

skulle ni gora,

om

ni hade
3.

till-

Varfor reste ni

ej for en

manad sedan?

Var7

Swedish Grammar.

90

EXERCISE.
(advantageous)
att losa

for skulle det vara fordelaktigt
biljett

aro batarna mest upptagna? 5. Vad vill du, att Karl skall gora for dig? 6. Var har du lagt tid? 7. Vad har var van Anderson gjort med sin ningen prak-

nu?

4.

Nar

tiga (fine) villa vid

om
ej

Djursholm? 8. Bor ban ej pa landet somrarna langre? 9. Yad skulle du ha gjort, om ban hade salt den? 10. Varfor valde man ej Karl till ordi

forande

klubben?

11.

Hade man

valt

honom,

om ban

hade
D.

b'nskat det?
1.

I should like 1 to take a trip (B, 1) to Sweden next summer. 2. If I had money and time I should cer-

tainly go with you.
if

3.

you could accompany

Would it not me? 4. You

be fine (trevligt),
could not choose a

better (bdttre) occasion.
sell

my

house.

6. 7.

We

and England.

5. I should do it if I could only should also of course visit Germany I think you would enjoy yourself very

much
she
I
is

in Stockholm.

8.

My

afraid of 2 the passage.

wife does not dare to go along ; 9. I never get (bJir) sea-sick;

have grown accustomed 3 to (vid) the sea. 10. Have you heard whether Mr. Anderson will go 4 ? 11. He would have gone a month ago, if he had gotten a ticket. 12. Why did
he not get a ticket? The boats were all full, I think (tror 13. The news, which you brought me about Agrell jag). made me very happy. 14. I thought that he had died long
ago.
15. We used to be very good friends and I was sure (saker pa) that he would have written me, had he been 5 16. He has been in England ever (anda) since he alive
.

left

Stockholm, but now it looks as if he intended to stay in Sweden. 17. I am glad to hear that. I wish he would call so that we might have a chat.
*To be afraid of- att vara radd for. *Skvlle garna or skulle tycka om att. To grow accustomed att vanja sig vid; accustomed to, van vid. 'English go must often be translated by resa, fara, Ska. 5 Use the pluperfect subjunctive of
3

leva.

VOCABULARY.
VOCABULARY.
en
affar, -er,

91

business
-nde,
-nt,

med
-nd,

(prep,

and adv.), with,

arilanda,
-nt, to

lib,

along

arrive
,

ett black,

ink

bruka,

I,

to use,

make use

of

folja, lib, to

follow

folja med', to

accompany
-ar,

en mor'gontid'ning, -ar, a morning paper en mdnad, -er, month en nyhet, -er, news en ord'forande, chairman
,

en fore'ning,
fo'resld,

society
-slagit,

en penna,
rtidd

-or,

pen

-slog,

-slogo,

-en, -et, to

propose
to

(no timid
-t,

neuter), afraid,
sea-sick

fortja'na,

I,

earn,

make

sjosjuk,
i

(money)
en gata,
-or, street

stdllet, in
-t,

the place of

svdr,

difficult

glcidja (168), to gladden,

make

happy
hastig,
-t,

sdker, -t, sure, certain helt sdkert, certainly

hastigt

rapid, quick, sudden ett tillfdlle, -n, chance, opportunity; occasion (adv.), rapidly, sudtrevlig,
-t,

denly
hyra, lib, rent, hire
i

pleasant, fine
-et,

upptagen,

occupied, full

morse, this morning

visst (adv.), surely, certainly

just (adv.), just

an, yet, than

en londondngare, -arna, London steamer
IDIOMS:
1. 2.

en overresa, sage

-or,

voyage, pas-

Han
att

3. 4.

har nyss kommit, he has just come ha mycket roligt, to enjoy oneself very much. Det gldder mig, I am happy (or pleased) Man har valt honom till president, he has been
elected president

5.

Han

ar rddd for spoken, he

is

afraid of ghosts.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

AND PRONOUNS.

LESSON XV.
The
172.
Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns.

The possessive
NEUTER
.

adjectives and pronouns are

:

SINGULAR
MASC. FEM.

PLURAL
ALL GENDERS

ram
din

mitt
ditt

mina,

my

(hans) (hennes)
(dess)

(hans) (hennes)
(dess) vdrt edert (ert) (deras)
sitt

dina, thy, your (hans) , his

(hennes), her
(dess), its (gen. of den, det) vara, our edra (era), your (deras), their sina, his, her, its, their
.

var
eder (er) (deras)
sin

genitive of the corresponding personal used as a possessive in the third person masculine, feminine, and neuter. These forms are invariable. The other possessives are declined according to the Indefinite Declension of adjectives and agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. Ex. ram son, my son mitt barn, my child mina backer, my books; hennes son, her son; hans

173.

The
is

pronoun

:

;

;

backer, his books.

174.

The

reflexive possessive sin is used, for all

numbers and genders of the third person but must be used only when the possessor is the subject of the verb as, Karl tog sin hatt, Carl took his (own) hat; but, Karl tog hans hatt, would mean that he took somebody else's hat. Gossarna visade sina lek;

showed their (own) toys; gossarna visade deras leksaker, the boys showed the toys of some other children.
saker, the boys

POSITIONS OF ADVKKBS.

93

The possessives are used also as pronouns; hdr dr ram bok, din ligger ddr, here is my book, yours lies there; mina ogon tiro bid, era tiro bruna, my eyes are blue, yours are brown.
175.
as,

FURTHER REMARKS ON THE POSSESSIVE.
The possessives are often combined with the adjective egen, eget, pi. egna, own; as, mina
176.

egna ord,

my own

words.

177. They are never preceded by the article except in such expressions as de dina, your family, people; de mina, my family, people; de vdra, our family or our party.
:

THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. often used instead of the possessive adjective, provided there is no ambiguity, particularly when the thing possessed is a part of the body or an article of clothing; as, han har fb'rlorat hatten, he has lost his hat jag har ont i hjar178. SUBSTITUTE FOR
definite

The

form

is

;

tat, 1

have a pain in
:

my

heart.
1

NOTE. The possessor especially in reflexive constructions is often represented by an object pronoun han brot av sig benet, he broke his leg tag av dig han foil och slog sig i huvudet, he fell and struck hatten, take off your hat
;
;

his head.

POSITION OF ADVERBS.
179. The position of the adverb in a sentence depends largely on its relation to the verb and also on emphasis. Only a few special rules need be
given.

(a) There are in Swedish a number of adverbs which are called movable adverbs. In an independent clause these follow the simple verb and stand between the auxiliary and infinitive or participle

94

EXERCISI:.

In a dependent clause these in compound tenses. adverbs precede the simple verb and the auxiliary of a compound verb. Such movable adverbs are especially the adverbs of negation: ej, Icke, inte,
not; aldrig, never; certain indefinite temporal adverbs, as, alltid, always; jdmt, continually; snart, soon; ndgonsin, ever; a number of other nondescriptive adverbs like vdl, I suppose; nog, possi-

Ex. han dr tyvtirr, unfortunately. not sick han sager, att han icke dr sjuk, he says he is not sick hans bror reste snart till Amerika, his brother soon went to America; hans bror, som snart reste till Amerika, his brother, who soon went to America han kan nog ha rdtt, he may possibly be right; jag medger, att han nog kan ha rdtt, I admit, that he may possibly be right.
bly, to

be sure

;

:

icke sjuk, he

is

;

;

;

finitive or the participle

(b) Descriptive adverbs as a rule follow the inwhen the verb is a com-

pound. No adverbs except those mentioned above can stand between the verb and the subject: he often used to come is in Swedish, han brukade ofta

komma.
EXERCISE XV.
A. Turn ihe following sentences into dependent clauses by prefixing the parenthesized words, noting the change of
position of the adverbs.
1.

(Han
2.

sager, att

.

.

.)
. .

Han
.

har aldrig satt vete pa sin
inte
. . .

aker.

(Jag
3.

tror, att

)

De amna

annu plantera
)

sin potatis.

(Lantbrukaren

sade, att

forst uppluckra jorden
4.

med
. . .

en harv. innan

Man maste man kan sa.
skola sakert

) (Jag ar saker pa att regn och solsken. 5. (Sager

Vetet kan aldrig vaxa utan
ni, att
.

.

.

?)

Ni

EXERCISE,

95

6. (Vet ni plantera er potatis och er majs nasta vecka. om 7. (Jag fruktar, ?) De skola snart sa sin havre. Det daliga vadret kommer mojligen att forhindra att )
.
. . .

.

.

arbetet pa falten.

B. Supply the possessive adjectives and pronouns indicated in the following. 1. Har ar (our) hus, dar ar ... (his). 2. Herr Wallin ar en av ... (my) vanner.
.

.

.

3.

Fonstren
har
.
. .

till

.

.

.

(her)

rum
.
.

aro stora.

4.

Huru manga
1
. .

rum
sa
9.
.

pengar.
.

6.

(your) hus? 5. Karl har givit mig 1 Ha barnen fatt (their) laxor an?
.

.

(his)
7.

Pas-

(your) skor? Jag har funnit
. .

8.
.

...

(his)

rock
10.

passar

honom.
.
. .

.

(my)

bocker.

Var aro

(yours, polite).

11.

...

(their)

faders tradgard ar stor,
12.

men
.
. .

.

.

.

(his)

hus ar mycket
.

litet.
. .

Han
1
.

tycker

13. (our) matsal, men ej om (his own) 2 1 lagt (my) bocker pa ... (their) bord (sing).
.

om De ha

.

.

1

174.

2

Supine of lagga, to lay (169).

C. 1. I morgon om vadret ar vackert, skola vi foretaga var utflykt. 2. Mamma skall packa vara korgar i kvall, pa det att (3d att and subj. or indie.) de ma vara fardiga 1 tidigt i morgon. 3. Hennes syster, som ar pa besb'k i vart
dotter, skall folja med oss. 4. Vi tycka deras sallskap och onska, att de matte stanna lange hos oss. 5. Vi skola stiga upp mycket tidigt och fara med den elektriska sparvagnen till jarnvagsstationen.

hem med

sin lilla

2

mycket

om

komma dit, gar en av oss till biljettkontoret och vara jarnvagsbiljetter, och sedan stiga vi pa taget. koper 7. Efter en halv timmes resa stiga vi av och ga till en
6.

Na'r vi

vacker plats
korg.
8.

medan

sitt paket eller sin vara korgar och duka pa graset, upp en av edra systrar kokar kaffet. 9. Nar vi atit och
i

skogen.

Var och en bar

Dar packa

vi

druckit, springa vi

omkring och

leka.

10.

Flickorna ploc-

96
ka blommor och pry da

EXERCISE.

med dem
till

sina3 hattar.
12.

11.

Pa

kval-

len taga vi taget tillbaka
ej

staden.

Matte det bara

regna

i

morgon!

13.

Min

14.

Han

tvattar sig

tanderna

om handerna 4 samt kammar haret. 15.
2

bror Erik klader (klar) sig. och i ansiktet, borstar

Sedan tar ban pa

sig

rocken, satter pa sig batten och ar fardig att ga ut.
*Is visiting.

Plural and definite form of liten.

'Express the possessive idea

in a different

way

(178).

4

Also,

tvattar handerna och ansiktet.

D. Conversation. 1. Nar gora ni er utflykt ? 2. Varfor packade er mor edra korgar pa kvallen? 3. Vem var pa 4. Behagar deras sallskap er? besb'k hos er? 5. Hur komma ni till stationen? 6. Ar det en hastsparvagn eller
en elektrisk sparvagn? 7. Varfor gar ni till biljettkonto8. Hur lange racker resan? 9. Tad gora ni med ret?
10. Vad gora ni efter maten? korgarna? pryda flickorna sina hattar? 11.

Varmed

all our picnics might be as (sd) agreewas yesterday. 2. The weather was not 1 very pleasant when we woke up, but the sun soon began to shine. 3. Mother had packed our baskets 'in (pa) the

E.

I.I wish that

able as (som) ours

evening in order that they might be ready early in the 2 4. Her sister who is on a visit with (hos) us morning
.

likes to

go on (med pa) excursions.

5.

We

took the street

we had much to carry. 6. When we had bought our tickets we boarded (invert) the train and
car to the station since
7. We unrode (for) half an hour (en lialv timma). baskets in the woods and set the table in the packed our

grass.

8. Who made the coffee? My sister Mary. She makes (kokar) very good coffee. 9. When we had eaten we had a great deal of fun (mycket roligt), we played games and sang. 10. In the evening we returned to the city by 11. I wish that you had been with us. train.

VOCABULARY.
F.
2.
1.

Wash 3 your hands and brush your

teeth,

Eric.

Put on your coat and ^at. Carl, and let us go out. 3. Where do you have your hat? 4. Does he have his own (176) hat or mine? 5. Take off your (178, note) hat when you come into the room. 6. Eric struck Carl in the
7.

head.
skating.

Carl struck his head while

(

medan) he was

J In English adverbs may often precede the simple form of a verb, in Swedish z never, except as stated in 179, a. lidigt pa morgonen; sent pa kvdllen, late 3 in the evening. Tviitta dig om handerna (B, 14).

VOCABULARY.
ett ansikte, -n, face
ett besok,
,

en

mamma,

-or,

mother

visit

mamma
,

(in

address),

mama

en
ett

biljett', -er,

ticket
ticket

biljett'kontor',
office

borsta,
driclca,

I,

to

brush
drucJco,

omkring (adv. and prep.) about, around packa, I, to pack packa upp', to unpack
en plats,
passa,
I,

dracJc,

druc-

-er,

place
to suit

kit, -en, -et, to

drink

to

fit,

dnka,

I,

to set the table
-t,

elektrisk,

electric

pryda, lib, to adorn en rock, -ar, coat
ett

fara tillbaka, to return finna, fann, funno, funnit, -en,
-et,

rum,

,

room

sedan, thereupon, then

to find
-t,

sjunga, sjo'ng, sjo'ngo, sjungit,
-en, -et, to

fardig,

ready
follow

sing

folja, lib, to

sld, slog, slogo, slagit, -en, -et,

folia med', to
(ett) gras,
,

accompany

to strike

grass en hand, hander, hand en hatt, -ar, hat
ett hdr,
,

snart, soon

en skog,
springa,
pi.)

-ar, forest,

woods
sprungo,
to

sprang,

hair
(generally no
to

sprungit, -en,
ett sallskap,
,

-et,

run

(ett) kaffe

company

coffee

satta, satte, satte, satt, satt, to

kamma,
koka,
I,

I,

comb
(to

to cook

make),

put en tand, tander, tooth
tidig,
-t,

to boil

early
to

en korg,
leka,
I

-ar,

basket
play

tvatta,

I,

wash
excursion

la, to

en utflykt,

-er,

98
IDIOMS:
1.

PASSIVE. Vi hade mycket much.
att tvatta sig
roligt,

we enjoyed
i

ourselves very

2.

om
face.

hdnderna,
tdget, to get

ansiktet to

wash

one's hands,
3.

att stiga att

pa (av)
kaffe, to

on

(off)

the train.

5.

koka

mafce coffee.

LESSON
The Verb

XVI.

(Continued).

THE
180.
either

PASSIVE.

The passive is formed from the active by adding s to the corresponding form of the active, or by combining the corresponding tense of the auxiliary bliva (sometimes vara and varda)
with the perfect participle of the verb.
THE PASSIVE IN
-S.

in conversation is less than that formed by means of the auxiliary verb This -s is a remnant of bliva, for which see 188. the reflexive pronoun sig (old form sik) extended by analogy to the first and second persons.

181.

This passive

common

NOTE

1.

The

r in the present indicative singular endings -or, -er,
1

-r

is al-

ways eliminated and quite often the

e in the ending -er ; as, active jag kailar,

passive jag kallas, I am called ; active jag griper, passive jag seized ; del finnes or del finns, there is found or there is.
2.

gripes,

I

am

The

pres.

ind.

pi.

(with the exception of the arnhaic second person in
-as
(.s

and Fourth Conjugations ends in corresponding active form) and not in -es, an error liable: mdnniskor finnas, there are. (are found) men.
-en*)

of the Second

is

added" to the

to

which beginners are

In the compound forms s is added to the supine or infinitive: han har rdgen skall sas (from *d) t morgon, the rye will be sown to-morrow.
3.

dodats, he has been killed

;

182.

Examples of the passive of the verbs
;

att

kalla, to call

att gripa, to seize

;

att binda, to bind.

PASSIVE.

99

(I) kallas, to be called.

INDICATIVE
PRESENT

SUBJUNCTIVE
jag kalles or ma kallas, etc. vi kalles or ma kallas, etc.
IMPERFECT

Sg. jag kallas, etc. PL vi kallas, etc.

Sg. jag kallades, etc.
PI.

jag kallades or matte,
skulle kallas, etc. vi kallades or matte, skulle
kallas, etc.

vi kallades, etc.

FUTURE

Sg. jag skall kallas PL vi skola kallas

Sg. jag har kallats, etc.
PI.

jag
vi

vi

ha

kallats, etc.

ma ha kallats, etc. ma ha kallats, etc.

PLUPERFECT

Sg. jag hade
PI.

kallats, etc.

jag hade kallats or matte

ha
vi hade kallats, etc.
vi

kallats, etc.

hade kallats, or matte ha kallats, etc.

FUTURE PERFECT
PI.

Sg. jag skall ha kallats, etc. vi skola ha kallats, etc.
INFINITIVES

Present, Perfect,

Future,
(2) gripas, to be seized

att kallas att ha kallats att skola kallas

bindas, to be bound

PRINCIPAL PARTS
g*-ipa,

grep, grepo, gripit,

binda, band, bundo,
bun-dit,

gripen

bunden

100

PASSIVE.

INDICATIVE
PRESENT

SUBJUNCTIVE
jag gripes, bindes vi gripes, bindes
IMPERFECT

Sg. jag gripes, bindes PI. vi gripas, bindas

Sg. jag greps, bands PI. vi grepos, bundos

jag grepes, bundes
vi grepes,

bundes
like kalla;

The compound forms are conjugated

thus, jag ma bindas, matte bindas; vi matte bundits; vi skola bindas; de ha gripits, etc.
NOTE.
tion
;

ha

In verbs with present in -er e
I

is

very often eliminated in conversaI

thus jag grips,

am

seized

;

jag

hijrs,

am

heard.

REMARKS ON THE
183.

PASSIVE.

The agent of a passive action is expressed the preposition av. The agent may be either by or impersonal. Instrument is usually personal
expressed by
fiende

med

(medelst)

med

ett svdrd,

: han dodades av sin he was killed by his enemy

with a sword.
184. SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PASSIVE. When some personal agent is implied but not expressed, Swedish prefers the indefinite pronoun man, one, they, with the active voice; as, man kallar mig, instead of jag kallas, I am being called; man sager or det
sages,
NOTE.
Idtt

it is said.
Sometimes a reflexive construction
is

employed

;

thus,

(blyet bojes latt), lead is easily bent (can easily struction generally conveys an idea of possibility.

be bent).

blyet bojer sig This con-

185.

THE APPARENT

OR FALSE PASSIVE.

Since English uses the verb to be and the past participle to represent the subject both as undergoing the action of the verb, as in the door is shut

PASSIVE.

101

(is being shut), which is a real passive, and also as being in the state or condition resulting from the action, as in the door is shut (has been shut before), which may be called a false passive, great care must be taken to distinguish between the true passive and

the apparent or false passive.
in

The

latter is expressed

Swedish by vara, to be, and the past participle of the verb, which as any other adjective agrees with the subject in number and gender; as, dorr en
ar stdngd, the door
do'rren stdnges, or is being closed.
is

(in the state of being) shut;

man

stdnger do'rren, the door

186.
(a)

IDIOMATIC MEANINGS OF THE PASSIVE.

in -s has very often a reciprocal de motas ofta, they meet one another often (literally, they are met often) barnen klapoch kyssas, the children caress and kiss one pas another (literally, are caressed, etc.).

The passive
:

meaning. Ex.

;

used absolutely, denoting Ex.: Hasten bits (pronounced with short i) the horse bites (has the habit of biting) pappa, Karl knuffas, papa, Carl is pushing me.
(b)
it

Sometimes

is

habit, characteristics, etc.
,

;

XOTE
in

1.

It is best to

avoid using the

-s

form of a verb which

is

often used

reciprocal or even absolute sense when it is not accompanied by an de knvffades can hardly agent or other modifier which obviates the ambiguity

the

;

mean anything

than they pushed one another, (reciprocal) or, they pushed (absolute); on the contrary, de knuffades. .av honom, or, ...at sidan, they were pushed... by him, or... to the side, have passive force. In the first case \ve would invariably say, de blevo knuffade. (The teacher should give other
else
.

examples.)
2.

When

tions take
rivs
torn.

-s,

used in the absolute sense verbs of the Second and Fourth Conjugathere is also a shortening of the vowel: katten not -es (181, 1)
;

(pronounced with short

t),

the cat scratches

;

rives

would mean

t*

being
-es

The passive
is

nd there

in its true as well as its reciprocal use generally takes no shortening of the vowel.

]

02

EXERCISE.

187. IMPERSONAL PASSIVE. The passive voice, especially the form in -s, is often used impersonally. Even intransitive verbs

that lack personal passive forms may thus be used: det tolas for mycket har, there is too much talking here; det har inte spelats i dag, there has been no playing to-day; har dies och soves jamt, here they eat and sleep all the time.
NOTE
2.
1. Man with the active would be less Note such impersonal passive expressions stiff

in such cases.

as, det

har berdttats mig,

I

have

been told.

EXERCISE XVI.
A.
plural.
I.

Continue through

all

persons of the singular and
(I am being kallar mig,
pluperf.).

Man
(I

tackar mig,

man

tackar dig,
perf.)
2.

etc.

ihanked,
etc.

etc., pres.,

impf., and

Man

am

being called,

etc., pres.,

future,

and

Turn
3.

the following sentences into the passive form.
salt huset ?
1

Har ban
6.

4.

Den

store forfattaren von

Heidenstam
rakningen.
7.

boll ett tal

den forsta maj.
benet.
8.

Yem
mig

skall
i

5. Jag har betalt mota honom vid stationen?

En hund

bet

En

hunden med en revolver. 9. Man hunden (also hundens agare). 10. Ratten (the court] botfallde (fined) honom.

poliskonstapel skot arresterade agaren till

Turn
rande?
lP

into the active with
2

man
12.
i

as subject

:

II. Skall huset
13.

saljas?

Har ban
gar?

valts

till

ordfo*The

Dansades det bar
;

The subject in the active becomes the agent in the passive (183). for construction with man, see 184. subject becomes object

B.

1.

Detta ar ett vetebrods historia.

2.

Pa

bosten

plojer bonden en del av sin aker och sar vetet ; detta kallas

EXERCISE.
vintervete.
4.

103

Da

vintern

vaxa.
skulle
6.

Medan vadret annu ar varmt, gror vetet. kommer med kold och sno, slutar vetet att 5. Om den unga brodden ej tacktes med sno, sa den frysa bort, men snb'n skyddar den mot kolden.
3.

Pa

varen, nar snon har smalts av solstralarna, borjar

vetet att vaxa, och

pa sommaren mognar
till

det.

7.

Da

av-

meja bb'nderna det och kora det
8.

Nar

vetet har trb'skats, kb'res
till mjb'l,

logen, dar det troskas. det till kvarnen, och dar
till

males det
brod.
C.
kaffe,
1.

som sedan av bagaren forvandlas
till

Vill

du ha en skiva av detta vetebrbd
2.

ditt

Erik?

sa ar

pappa

snail.
4.

och ar torrt.

Nej, giv mig 3. Det har legat pa bordet sedan i gar Brodet ar ej sa gott, som det brukar vara,
ej

hellre en skiva av ragbrb'det,

denna gang har

Anna
1.

lyckats riktigt.

D. Conversation.
jer
4.

Vad
3.
5.

gor bonden pa hb'sten?

2.

Plo-

han hela

sin aker?

Vid vilken arstid borjar brodden ater 8. Vart forslar 7. Av vem har vetet avmejats ? att vaxa ? man vetet? 9. Yad gor man med det dar? 10. Till vem 12. Av skall vetet saljas? 11. Ar ad gor han med det?
det
6.

Nar mognar unga vetet?

vetet?

Varfor gror vetet pa hosten? Vad tjanst (service) gor snon

vilket

brod
1.

vill

ni

ha en skiva

?

has been plowed by the farmer. not believe that the wheat has been sowed yet. 3.

E.

The

field

2. I

do
is

What

the wheat called that

is

sowed in the

fall?

4. It is called

winter wheat and

regarded as (som) the best (Msta). 5. This wheat sprouts in the fall before (innan) the winter 6. It is protected by the snow, which covers it; comes. 1 otherwise it would be damaged by the frost. 7. It begins
it is

to
8.

grow again

2

The farmer

in the spring and ripens in the summer. savs that the wheat will be cut to-morrow

104

VOCABULARY.

and he hopes that the weather will be (use pres.) fine. 9. The wheat which was threshed yesterday has been hauled to the flour mill to-day. 10. It has been bought by the miller, who will grind it to flour, which he will sell to the
baker.

F.

1.

Is there
2.

any (nagot) bread in the house?
is

I

am

so hungry.

Yes, there

here, but it is dry.

(har ar) a loaf of white bread 3. This (delta) bread is excellent.
luck with
(lyckats

Sister

Anne has had good

med) her

bread this (dennd) time.
'Use skullc and invert.
"Ater directly after

main

verb.

NOTE. When the next lesson has been mastered, go back and substitute the passive with bliva wherever it is possible.

VOCABULARY.
anse, ansdg, -sago -it, to regard
-sett, -sedd,

annars, otherwise arreste'ra. I, to arrest
av'meja, I, to cut baka, I, to bake
ett ben,
bita,
,

en loge -ar, threshing floor, granary mala, lib, to grind (ett) mjol (no pi.), flour miller en mjolnare,
1 ,
,

mogna,
plo'ja,

I,

to ripen

bone, leg

mot, against
lib, to plow en polis'konstapel, -lar, police-

bet, beto, bitit, -en, -et,

to bite

en brodd, sprout
frysa bort', fros bort, froso
frusit bortfrusen, to be killed by frost
, ,

man
-et,

en revolver, -rar, revolver en skiva, -or, slice
skjuta,
skot,

forste, -a, first

skjuten,

-et,

skoto, skjutit, to shoot
close

forvandla,
hellre,

I,

to transform

skydda,
sluta,
I,

I,

to protect to stop,

gro, III, to sprout

(also

rather

slot, sloto, slutit)

en hund, -ar, dog en host, -ar, fall en kvarn, -ar, flour mill (en) kold (no pi.) cold, frost ko'ra, lib, to drive, to haul

(en) sno, snow smalta. Ha, or IV, to melt

en solstrdle,
sa, III, to

-ar,

sunbeam

sow, to plant

torr,

-t,

dry

PASSIVE.
troska,
I,

105

to

thresh

(ett) vete,

wheat
-rar,

en vinter,
1

winter

en vAr, -ar, spring again en agare, owner
dter,
,

g

is

hard in loge (g, k and sk are always hard before a soft vowel in an
1

unaccented ending .)

LESSON
The Verb
PASSIVE
188.

XVII.

(Continued)

WITH

AUXILIARIES.

also be formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary combining

The passive voice can
(bli), to

verb bliva

become

(also, lo

remain), with

the past participle (not the supine) of the verb, which agrees in number and gender with the subject. Occasionally the verbs varda, to become, and vara, to be, are used as auxiliaries.

189.
to bind
:

Passive of the verbs

tro, to believe; binda,

INDICATIVE
PRESENT

SUBJUNCTIVE
jag blive trodd, vi blive trodda,

Sg. jag blir trodd, bunden vi bli(va) trodda,

bunden bundna

bundna
IMPERFECT

Sg. jag blev trodd, bun-

jag bleve trodd, bunden
vi bleve trodda,

den
PI.

vi blevo trodda,

bundna

bundna
Sg. jag skall bli(va) trodd, bunden PI. vi skola bli(va) trodda, bundna
Sicedish

Grammar

106

PASSIVE.
PERFECT

Sg. jag har
PI.

blivit trodd,

jag

vi

bunden ha blivit trodda, bundna

ma ha blivit trodd, bunden vi ma ha blivit trodda, bundna
blivit

PLUPERFECT

Sg. jag hade blivit trodd, bunden PI. vi hade blivit trodda,

jag hade

trodd,

bundna

bunden vi hade blivit trodda, bundna
bunden bundna

FUTURE PERFECT

Sg. jag skall ha blivit trodd, PI. vi skola ha blivit trodda,
PRESENT INFINITIVE
att

bli(va)

trodd,

bunden

PERFECT INFINITIVE

att
_NOTE.

ha

blivit trodd,

bunden
;

The other subjunctives are formed as shown above bli(va) trodd, vi skulle ha blivit bundna, etc.

thus,

jag

ma

190.
(1)

OTHER AUXILIARIES OF THE
Varda

PASSIVE.

(vart, vordo, vorden),

which

is

con-

jugated with the verb vara instead of hava in the perfect tenses. Ex. Jag varder kallad, I am called han vart kallad, he was called vi tiro vordna kallade, we have been called; du skall varda kallad, thou wilt be called. The beginner may disregard this formation of the passive entirely since it is obsolete;
: ; ;

the imperfect tense, however, frequent occurrence.

is

of comparatively

(2) Vara is generally used only in the apparent or false passive (185), that is, to express a condition or state; as, huset ar brunnet, the house is burnt.

PASSIVE.

107

Sometimes, however, it comes very near expressing a true passive: han dr omtyckt av alia, he is liked by all jag dr plagad av mygg, I am troubled by mos;

quitoes.

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the overwhelming majority of cases passive action is not expressed in Swedish by vara, to be, and the past participle as in English, but by bliva and the past participle, or by the passive in -s thus, the (note also construction with man, 184) house was built in a month, is not huset var byggt pa en mdnad, but huset byggdes, or huset blev byggt (also, man byggde huset).
191.
fact that in the
;

NOTE. But since vara plus the past participle indicates a state or condition regarded as complete and permanent, and as resulting from the action of the verb (185) its present plus the past participle is often used as an equivalent for the English perfect passive and its imperfect plus the past participle as an
As: brevet dr skrivet, the letter equivalent for the English pluperfect passive. has been written ; poslen var redan utburen, the mail had already been distributed.

FURTHER REMARKS ON THE PASSIVE.
192. The passive in -s is preferred to the passive with bliva in expressions denoting a common rule, a general fact, an injunction or direction; as, sadana brott straffas med fdngelse, such crimes are punished with imprisonment flaskan forvaras pa is, the bottle should be kept on ice; de hdr skorna skola lagas, these shoes. are to be repaired; jag kallas Johan, I am called John but jag blir kallad feg, om jag ej gor det, I shall be called a coward if I do not do this on the contrary, han kallas feg av var man, he is called a coward by everybody.
; ;

;

NOTE.
-*

form.

The passive with bliva is more common in conversation than the These two passives are often interchangeable sometimes, however,
;

108

EXERCISE.
For instance, when no agent
:

they express different shades of meaning.

is

men-

tioned, the passive with bliva seems to imply a definite agent, ,while the -s form very often imparts a sense of indefiniteness floden fylldes seems to point to a

slow natural process, whereas floden blev fylld would imply action on the part If the agent is expressed, both forms may be used of some definite agent. without any difference in meaning.

of bliva has generally a future sense; this is also the case in the passive: frukten blir skadad av frosten, the fruit will be damaged

193.

The present

frost. To express the present, use either the present of the passive in -s, or man with the active, or make the agent the subject.

by the

Deponent Verbs.
194. Many verbs have only the passive -s form. These deponent verbs are active in meaning; many are even transitive. They are conjugated like the passive of other verbs except that some have imperative forms, which are wanting in the passive. Some have a present participle in -s, others one without. Most deponent verbs lack this form.

Ex.: latas (from lat, lazy), to be lazy; vredgas (from vred, angry), to be (grow) angry; vdras (from var, spring) to turn spring brottas, to wrestle; andas, to breathe; lyckas, to succeed; minnas, to remember.
, ;

EXERCISE XVIJ.
A.
the
-s

Conjugate the following both as indicated and with

form of the

passive.

Jag har blivit beromd av min larare; du har blivit beromd av din larare, etc. 2. Jag skall icke bli klandrad av min fader, etc. 3. Jag kom ej ; ty jag hade ej blivit
1.

EXERCISE.
kallad;

10H
4.

du kom

ej, ej

ty du, etc.

klandrad, klandrad,

om jag om du

hade

hjiilpt

Jag skulle ha honom; du skulle ha
etc.
5.

blivit

blivit

ej

hade hjalpt honom,

Om

jag

hade

agad mera, nar jag var liten, sa hade jag blivit en battre manniska; om du, etc. Use also the active with man, leaving out "av min Idrare" and "av min fader."
blivit

B.

1.

Ar 1

hela huset forstb'rt?

1 Ja, allt ar uppbrant.

Utom nagra gamla mobler man hur elden uppstod?
den har
ar
1

liar intet blivit

2

ra'ddat.

2.

Vet

Icke sakert,

anlagd. 3. Kan herrn stangt hela sondagen? Nej, det 3 cippnas ej forran pa eftermiddagen.
blivit
till

2

men man tror, att saga mig, om museet ar det inte, men det
4.

Vill

du taga de

har 4 skorna

skomakaren, Karl, det har paret skall halv5. Du ser sa sulas 3 , och pa det har skola klackarna lagas 3 Har du ej sovit gott? Nej, jag har plagats av trott ut.
.

en sa svar tandvark hela natten.
plagas av tandvark,
blifvit

6.

men nu ha
7.
i

alia

Jag brukade ocksa mina ihaliga tander

plomberade olyckan, som skedde
.

5

Herr Lind dodades vid jarnvags8. Jag skulle ha tagit samina gar.
ej resa.
9.

tag,

men man

radde mig att
blivit

Har

aro vi hos ur-

makaren, han har

Vad

van, och jag hoppas, att ar fatt med den?

rekommenderad 2 till mig av en han lyckas laga min klocka. 10.

Jag tror att nog att ren11. Nu har den blivit rengjord, uppdragen och goras. 6 justerad; den saktar sig ej mer. 12. I dag blev jag vackt av min van Berggren, innan det dagades. 13. Vi rodde ut pa sjon, fiskarna nappade bra, och innan klockan sju voro 1 tjugu stora abborrar upptagna
1 fjadern ar avbruten, dessutom behover verket
.

Den har

stannat.

*See 190, 2, and 185.
those.
5

2

-s

form can be used.

192.

4

De

hiir,

these; de dar,

192, note.

'En klocka fortar

sig or saktar sig, gains or loses time.

have heard that Mr. Anderson's house has been destroyed by fire. Has nothing been saved ? 2. I do not
C.
I

110

VOCABULARY.

believe that they succeeded in saving anything except

some

old pieces of furniture.

3. I

Mr. Lind was

killed

in
4. I

have seen in the paper that the railroad accident which
well,

happened yesterday.
introduced to him.

knew him

but I was never

Just think (tank bara), I should have taken the same train if I had not been advised
5.

by a friend not to go.

6.

toothache any longer, for 7. Where does the shoemaker live?
that need to be repaired 2 soled 9. watch, which
. .

Now I shall not be troubled by my hollow tooth has been filled
2 3

.

I

have a pair of shoes

8. These shoes are to be halfhad stopped, has been repaired 3 3 by the watchmaker. 10. It has been cleaned and regulated 4 and I hope that it will keep good time now. Mr. Hall din 3 is an excellent watchmaker; he was recommended to me

2

My

by a friend.

He
2

is

a
in

man who
-.

deserves to be
with
4

recom-

mended 2
gu raft.

.

ipresenterad

for.

Passive

'Passive

bliva.

Keep good time,

VOCABULARY.
en ab'borre,
-ar,

perch
-t,

fortjd'na, I

(sometimes Ha),

arilagga, -lade, -lagt, -lagd,
to establish;

to deserve, earn

haWsula, I, to half-sole hoppas (dep. v.), I, impf. hopav'bruten (p. part, of av'bryta pades, to hope and bryta av', to break i'Jidlig, -t, hollow intet, nothing off), broken juste'ra (j=sh), I, to adjust, doda, I, to kill en eld, -ar, fire, conflagration regulate en jdrn'vdgsolycka, -or, railfatt, in expressions like taga
anldgga
eld,

to cause arson

fatt p&,

to lay hold of; fatt?

way

accident

vad ar det

What

is

the matter? en fjdder, -drar, feather, main-

en Jclack, -ar, heel en klocka, -or, clock, watch;
bell

.

spring
fo'rrdn (adv.), before forsto'ra, lib, to destroy

laga,

I,

to

mend
-ler,

en mobel,
niture

piece of fur-

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
nappa, I, to bite (of fish) plombe'ra, I, to fill (teeth) pldga, I, to pain, torment,
trouble
presente'ra,
I,

Ill

en land, tunder, tooth (en) tandvdrk, toothache upp'brant (p. part, of upp'brdn-

to introduce
etc.,

na and branna up), burnt up
to

upp', to

burn

ren'gora, rengjorde, clean

upp'dragen
go,

(p. part, of upp'dra-

rdda, lib, to advise radda, I, to save
sakta,
I,

and draga upp', to up, wind up), wound pulled up

pull

up,

to reduce speed, slow

up
en sko'makare,
,

upp'std, -stod, -stodo, -stdtt, to originate; arise
,

shoemaker en ur'makare,
,

watchmaker

stanga, lib, to close, shut utom, beside stiker, -t, sure(ly), certain (ly) ett verk, work;

movement

en sondag,

-ar,

Sunday

vid, in

LESSON

XVIII.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

The demonstrative pronouns are: den, det, this, that; denne(a), detta, this; densamme(a), detsamma, the same. They are declined as follows
195.
:

SINGULAR
MASC. & FEM.

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

GENDER FORM

Nom. den
Gen. Obj.
MASC.

den
dess

dens

den

den

det dess det

de deras

dem
PLURAL
ALL GENDERS

SINGULAR
FEM. & GENDER
F.

NEUTER

denna N. denne(a) dennas G. dennes N. densamme(a) densamma
G.

detta deltas

dessa dessas

densammes

detsamma desamma densammas detsammas desammas
in

NOTE.
poetry.

Dens refers only to persons, dess only to things, except occasionally Det is pronounced da or de in conversation.

112

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

196. These are used also as adjectives, but have then no genitive. There is besides a demonstrative adjective samme, same, which is used more frequently than densamme and inflects as follows
:

SINGULAR
MASC.
FEM. & GEND.
F.

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

samme (a)

samma

samma

samma

197. The following adjectives partake of the nature of demonstratives and may also be used as pronouns in the plural and in' the neuter singular sddan, sddant, sadana, such; likadan, -t, -a,, like, Ex.: en sadan alike; dylik, -t, -a, such, similar. gosse, such a boy; dylikt har jag aldrig sett forr, I have never seen such a thing (or things) before.
:

198. Den har, this, and den ddr, that, used originally only in conversation, are rapidly finding their way into the written language. They are declined
as follows:

SINGULAR
MASC. FEM. GENDER FORM

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

Nom. and

Obj.:

den har, ddr
Ex.

det har, ddr

de har, ddr

(Genitive lacking.)

Den har hasten

dr vacker, den

vill

jag ko'pa,

this horse is fine, I wish to buy it; det ddr huset tillhor visst herr Carlen, I think that house belongs

Mr. Carlen; de ddr rosorna tiro hdrliga, those (After den har and den ddr, the noun takes the definite form.)
to

roses are beautiful.

199. The former and the latter are expressed by den forre(a) (neut. det forr a, pi. de forr a) and den

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
senare (neut. det senare,
:

113

Emma

Anna och pi. de senare) systrar; den forra ar ljus, den senare are sisters; the former is a mork, Anna and blonde, the latter a brunette.
tiro

Emma

NOTE. When used substantively, these expressions take an -s in the genitive: den forras (Annas) lynne ar glattigare an den senares, the disposition of the former is merrier than that of the latter.

200.

REMARKS ON THE DEMONSTRATIVES.

(a) The forms in -e must be used when the demonstrative is used as a pronoun and refers to persons of masculine gender; they are generally preferred,
at least in the written language, when the demonstrative is used adjectively before a noun denoting

a person of masculine gender: denne ar min bror, this one is my brother; det ar samme man jag sag i gar, it is the same man I saw yesterday.
(b) After samme a following adjective has always the definite form but a following noun generally the indefinite; after denne the adjective is always definite

indefinite in the written but very often definite in the spoken jag language har sett samme (a) lille(a) gosse forr, I have seen the same little boy before; denna stdtliga kyrka ar den nya Vasakyrkan, this stately church is the new
:

and the noun generally

Vasa church.
(c) Sadan is regularly preceded article: en sddan man.

by the

indefinite

NOTE. In exclamations, however, the order may be reversed in case of sddan and its equivalents sicken, slik, and tocken; thus, sddant ett elande ! Sicken en stackare ! Such a miserable creature (Never oh, such misery
! !

en sicken stackare

/)

114

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

(d) The demonstrative pronouns den, det, and denna, delta, referring to things in a general way, and depending upon a preposition, are sometimes translated by dar (sometimes hdr) with the preposition added: ddrmed, with that, or those; harmed, with this, or these jag har talat med honom ddrom, I have talked with him about that thing, or those things jag litar ddrpd, I rely on that.
, ;
;

201.

SOME USES OF THE DEMONSTRATIVES.
they, this, that, these, those,

For

when used

as

subjects and referring to a predicate noun, Swedish uses the neuter singular det, detta, det hdr, det dar, irrespective of the gender and number of the follow-

ing noun, if the demonstrative idea is not very emphatic or if one person or thing is not contrasted with another; as, detta dr min bror, this is my brother; detta dr vackra blommor, these are beautiful flowers but denne dr min bror, this one is my brother; de hdr dro -vackra blommor, de dar fula, these are beautiful flowers, those are homely ones.
;

202.

Den

is

often used as antecedent to a restric-

tive relative (he

who)

;

icke sanning, he truth (222, d).
NOTE.

who

sagt detta, talar said this does not speak the
as, den,
de darhemma. the people at home.

som

De

is

often used indefinitely

;

203.

Idiomatic expressions with demonstratives

:

En
it

etc.)

sadan dumbom han dr! (or, sddan en dumbom, Whafca stupid fellow he is Det gor detsamma, does not matter med detsamma, immediately.
!

;

EXERCISE.

115

EXERCISE XVIII.
A.
1.

Fill out the blanks as suggested.

Smek

ej 2.

... ...
i

(186, b). rev ... (me)

katten, Anna, ... (it) rivs (that) 2 (it) ar visst (the same) katt , som 3. Ar ... (this)* ... gar. (your) gosse,
. .
.

1

fru Anderson?
flicker.
5.
. .

Ja, och
.
.

.

.

.

3 (detta or dessa) ar
1

.

.

.

(my)

4.
ej

Aro
.

(yours) ? ... (those) i parken. Maria och Elisabet ganska lika? Nej, det ar
.

Vilka aro

(such, 200, c) skillnad pa dem, att man ej kan se, att de aro systrar. ... 6. (the former) ar ljus, ... (the
latter)

mork.
Ja,
.
.
.

7.

Ar

...
. . .

3

(this)

...
8.

(your,

familiar)
fatt

ring?
. .
.

(it) ar

(mine).
9.

Av vem bar du
Jag bar
(it)

(this) vackra ring
till

2

(def. or indef. ?) ?

fatt

den av min far
jag tror
ej,

ar sa ovanlig; 10. Jag att jag nagonsin sett en precis likadan.
julklapp.
...
. . .

blev sa glad, nar jag fick (it), jag hade lange b'nskat mig ... (a similar one, 197). 11. Ar (this, 200, a) 2 Smith, som du talar om, (the same) person , som vi
. . . . . .

kanna pa ... (that) 1 resa (def. or indef.?) till Stockholm for ett par ar sedan? Ja, han ar ... (the same one, 200, a). 12. ... (He who, 202) talade var
larde
. .

i

(the same) gamle herre (use man), som vi traffade gar kvall pa bjudningen hos Linds. 13. Vad sade han
. .

2

.

.

(about that, 200, d)
(because of
2

?

Han

sade, att

han var glad

.

.

.

it,

translate, over it).

'198.

200,

b.

3 201.

B.
it?
I
3
.

1.

This 1
it

found

a beautiful flower; where did you find 2 in that little flower bed. 2. Please take a
is
is

seat
3.

2 comfortable; take this one 2 I believe I shall take that one by (vid) the window,

That chair 2

not

.

thank you (tack sa mycket, girl take after her mother?

first).

4.

Doesn't that 2

little
,

4 Yes, she has the same eyes

116
the
,

VOCABULARY.

same mouth 4 and the same

voice

4
.

5.

Have you

ever

6. He is almost seen such a (200, c) sturdy old man? old, but it does not matter (203) ; he does the eighty years

same heavy work
work
9.
till

as he used to do.

7.

Let us take a walk
is rare.

;

such a fine autumn day as (som) this

8. I

must

six o'clock; after that (sedan) I

can take a walk.

Which (vilJcen) Mr. Smith do you mean? The one who (202) lives on King's Street. 10. That is the same
Mr. Smith whom I used to know. He was such a good man. 11. Are these 1 your sisters? Yes, and those are my brothers. 12. You have such a beautiful ring, Anna;
where (var.
.

.ifrdn?) did you get it?

13. Yes, it is very

Christmas present from my brother. pretty. 15. In that (200, d) 14. I wish I had one like it (197).
I got it as a

you are right, Carl, but please do not talk any more about it. 16. Our teacher was angry with (ond pa) us yesterday. 17. He told us that he had never seen such compositions
before.
18.

Those who (202) had more than ten errors
theirs.
god och
titt

had to rewrite
MJOl.
(also

*198.

*Either var sd
200, b.

ner,

or var sa god och salt er

tag plats).

VOCABULARY.
bekvam, en bjudning,
-t,

comfortable
-ar,

reception,

party en Wom'sterrabatt', bed
brds pd

ganska, quite, .fairly en hostdag, -ar, autumn day en julklapp, -ar, Christmas
present en katt, -er, cat
lik, -t, like,

-er,

flower

(dep

v.)

(

III,

impf.

alike

brdddes, supine to take after
duktig,
ett fel,
fd, fick,
-t,
,

brdtts),

ljus,

-t,

light,
I

blonde
I

mena,
en

(sometimes

la), to

capable, sturdy error
(170), to

mean
mun, munnar, mouth
mork,
-t, dark, brunette ndgonsin. ever

fingo, fdtt

get; be allowed

COMPOUND
niistan,

VERBS.
-er,

117
difference

o'vanlig,

almost -t, unusual
-er,

en skillnad,

skriva om', to rewrite

en person', en ring,
-ar,

person

smeka, Ha, caress
en
-et,

precis', exactly

stol, -ar,
,

chair
rar,

ring

sdllsynt,
tio,

riva, rev, revo, rivit, -en, to scratch, tear

ten

right en rost, -er, voice
ratt,
,

en tunga, -or, tongue en upp'sats, -er, composition
dttio,

eighty

IDIOMS:

1.

2.
3.

be right. att bras pa ndgon, to take after somebody. det iir visst, I think it is.
att
ratt, to

ha

LESSON XIX.
The Verb (Continued)

COMPOUND

VERBS.
in

204. There are two kinds of verb compounds Swedish: inseparable and separable.

INSEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS.

The following prefixes always form insepacompounds that is, compounds of which the component parts are never separated: be-, bi-,
205.
rable verb
;

ent-,

er-,

for-, gen-,
a-.

har-, miss-, sam-, um-, mid-,

van-, veder-,

206.
the first

Noun Prefixes. Verb compounds of which member is a noun are generally inseparable
impf. korsfaste; supine,

;

as, kors'fasta, to crucify;

korsfast; past part., korsfast; land'satta, to put ashore; landsatte, landsatt, landsatt; hals'hugga, to behead; halshogg, halshuggit, halshuggen.
NOTK.
If

the noun

is

compounded with a

proposition, this

compound
f

prefix

may be

separated from the verb.

Thus: landsatta,

to put ashore, satte

land.

118
etc.
;

COMPOUND
adagaldgga, to manifest, lade

VERBS.

ddaga; lagt adaga; ddagalagd; the present and past participles of such verb compounds are always inseparable when used as attributive adjectives: den landsatte passageraren, the landed passenger; when
equivalent to a clause or when used in the predicate, they are sometimes separable: satta i land vid kajen, skyndade till tullhuset, landed at the pier, we hurried to the custom-house; vi ha bh'vit satta i land, we have been landed.

m

SEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS.
Adjective Prefixes. Adjectives used as pregenerally form separable verb compounds: fri'kopa or ko'pa fri', to ransom; frikopte or kopte fri, frikopt or kopt fri; but frikalla, to acquit, not kalla fri; frikallad, frikallat. For the present and see 206, note. past participle
fixes
NOTE.
If the adjective
as,

207.

number;
huset
separable.

is separated it agrees with the object in gender and han vitmalade huset, he painted the house white; but han mdlade

vitt.

It

is

best for

beginners to

regard the

adjective prefixes

as

in-

208. Adverb and preposition prefixes. Adverbs and prepositions used as prefixes form both separable and inseparable verb compounds. Separable verb compounds of this class often change their meaning when the adverb or preposition follows the
verb.
(1) Separable, with no difference of meaning: u'teldsa or Idsa u'te, to lock out; fo'rega or ga fo're to precede; ge'nomldsa or Idsa ge'nom, to read

through; fran'taga or taga fran', to take from or deprive of; av'hugga or hugga av', to cut off, etc.
(2)
al

With

difference of

meaning: the sense

is liter-

the parts of the verb compound are separated; figurative when not separated: av'ga, to resign graduate ga av', to break an'lagga, to estab;

when

;

;

lish,

organize lagga an', to aim fram'hdlla, to point out; holla fram', to stretch forth; un'derhalla, to
; ;

COMPOUND

VERBS.

119

entertain; hallo, un'der, to hold beneath; fram'gd, to appear, become evident; ga fram', to go forth.

Compound verbs are conjugated exactly corresponding simple verbs.

209.

like

If the separable affix is an adjective or 210. phrase (206, 207) the object is placed between the verb and the affix; if an adverb or a preposition, often after as, man satte honom i land, they landed him but han hogg av handen, he cut off his hand.
;

;

211. The stress accent falls always on the prefix, a phrase, on the noun, except in the case of be-, ent-, for- [see 36 (a)], which never take the accent. The musical accent is grave.
if
Care should be taken not to confuse for-, the inseparable prefix, and the separable prefix. The latter takes the accent and imparts an entirely different meaning to the verb. Thus: fordra' ga, to endure; fo'redraga, to

NOTE.

fore-,

prefer, present;

forsta', to understand; fo'restd, to

manage;

to impend.

212. When the affix is separated and happens stand before a noun, care must be taken not to confuse it with a preposition introducing a phrase; the affix is always accented, the preposition rarely. Ex. han brot' av brodet och at, he broke a piece off the bread and ate, but han brot av' brodet, he broke
to
:

the bread in two.

213.

and stdnga

Synopsis of the verbs av'bryta, to interrupt, in'ne, to shut in.

ACTIVE
Pres.

Impf.

jag av'bryter jag avbrbt Future jag skall avbryta

jag stdnger in'ne jag stdngde inne jag skall stdnga inne

120

EXERCISE.

Perf. jag har avbrutit Plupf. jag hade avbrutit Fut. P. jag skall ha avbrutit

jag har stdngt inne jag hade stdngt inne jag skall ha stdngt inne

PASSIVE
Pres.

jag avbrytes, or
blir

avbruten

Impf.

jag avbrots, or blev avbruten
tas,

Future jag skall avbryor
skall bli(va) av-

jag stdnges inne, or blir innestdngd jag stdngdes inne, or blev innestdngd jag skall stdngas inne, or skall bli innestdngd
jag har stdngts inne, or har blivit innestdngd

Perf.

Plupf.

bruten jag har avbrutits, or harblivit avbruten jag hade avbrutits,

or
blivit

hade

av-

jag hade innestdngts. or hade blivit innestdngd jag
skall ha stdngts, or

bruten Fut. P. jag skall ha avbrutits, or skall ha blivit

inne-

skall

ha

blivit inne-

avbruten

stdngd
EXERCISE XIX.

A.

Translate.
off

broken
4.

You

2. I had 1. He has interrupted me. a piece. 3. Hold the glass beneath the water. must entertain your friends. 5. Which do you pre-

6. He will comply with come after. 8. They (man} have my request. landed the passengers. 9. The landed passengers wished to view the city. 10. I can't endure that man. 11. Had you 12. He was (blev) recogrecognized (two ways) him? 14. The ransomed one nized. 13. They ransomed him. thanked his friends. Put the verbs in different tenses.

fer, to stay

here or to go with us ?
7.

He

will

EXERCISE.
B.

121

Nikolaus den forste av Eyssland onskade att iakttaga

sitt folks liv.

For att kunna (165, 2) gb'ra detta bmkade ban foretaga langa spatserturer forkladd i en vanlig officerskappa, sa att man ej skulle (165) igenkanna honom. En gang hade han gatt ut till en liten forstad. Nar han skulle atervanda, varseblev han (blev han varse), att han
ej hittade.

Nu

aterstod for

honom

endast att anfb'rtro sig

at en droska.

ropade pa en, steg in och befallde kusken att kora honom till slottet. Da de hade anlant dit,
steg tsaren ut.

Han

Da han

skulle betala, blev

han han

givit ut alia sina pengar.

han varse, att "Var god och vanta", sade

till kusken och amnade ga in, "jag skall skicka ut pengarna genast." "Nej, lille far", avbro't kusken honom, "sa ha officererna redan ett par ganger bedragit mig, de ha

underlatit att skicka ut pengarna. Kvarlamna din kappa som (as} pant; om du skickar ut pengarna, sa skickar jag
in den."

nom
C.

sin

Kejsaren efterkom kuskens begaran och gav hokappa som pant.
1.

Conversation.

Varfor
2.

fb'retog kejsaren av Eyss-

land langa spatserturer?

Varfor kande

man

ej

igen

honom?

Vart begav han sig en gang? 4. Vad varseblev han, nar han skulle atervanda? 5. Vad gjorde han? 6. Vad befallde han kusken? 7. Varfor kunde han ej 8. Hur ville han uppgora saken betala kusken genast? 9. Av vilka (whom) hade kusken (settle the matter) ? forut blivit bedragen? 10. Varfor ville han, att kejsaren 11. Efterkom kejsaren bans skulle kvarlamna kappan?
3.

begaran ?

D.

1.

We

must
2
.

disguise ourselves

1

if

we do not wish

to

be recognized

2.

Have you observed

the conduct of this

man? 3. Yes, I have, and I do not understand how people 4 can entrust money to 3 him; he spends too much for amuseSu-edish

Grammar

9

122
ments.
4.

VOCABULARY.

Now we

have arrived at

(till)

the palace.

Please 5 step out of the carriage. 5. Get into the carriage. I shall order the cabman to drive to the theater. 6. I did

not
it

know that I had when I was going

lost

my money;

(skulle) to

I became aware (of) for the ride (dJctur). pay

7.

How

this

did you settle the matter (C, 8) ? I settled it in way, that I asked the cabman to wait and said that I

8. Did he comply with your In a way (pa satt och vis), but he asked for request? (bad om) my watch as security and said he would return 9. The man had a good reason it when he got the money. for this request, he had been cheated so often in the same

should send out the money.

way (pa samma satt). 10. He interrupted me while I was speaking and asked for the money which he had entrusted to me.
2 Use passive with bliva, also construction with oss, reflex, verb. *An indirect passive with -* would hardly ever be used in such a case. object is often preceded by at or till, which are not always interchangeable: 4 The separable forms are, as a rule, used more tSga at or till, but skriva till. than the inseparable, at least in the simple tenses: han ger (giver) ut. f Var
1

FSrkldda

man;

sa god och stig vr, or, stig

w,

car

ni matt.

VOCABULARY. The past participle is practically always inseparable, even when the verb is separable. The supine of a separable verb is separable. The teacher should point out the difference in meaning of the two kinds of verbs, if any.
N. B.
an'fortro (insep.), Ill, to entrust

bedra'ga (insep.), -drog, -drogo, -dragit, -dragen, -et, to

an'ldnda (insep.),

lib,

impf.

cheat

-

deceive

anliinde, to arrive

Defal'la (insep.), lib, to

com-

mand
av'bryta
to,

(infep.), -brot, bro-brulit,

efterkomma>

-bruten,

-et,

to interrupt

bryta

av',

to break

off

en bega'ran (no.

pi.), request,

demand

comply with icomma efter, to come after to fri'Jcppa, kopa fri', Ha, ransom
to

^ ^

ef terTcom, -Jcom-

-kommit,

kommen,
'

INTEHROGATIVES.
fordra'ga (insep., see bedraga), to endure, tolerate. fo'redraga (insep.), to prefer
forkld'da (insep.), lib, to dis-

123

en

officers' kappa, -or, officer's

guise

en for'stad, -stdder, suburb
forstd' (insep., see std), to un-

cloak en orsak, -er, reason, cause en pant, -er, security ropa, I, to shout Ryssland (neuter), Russia
,

ett slott, castle, palace skicka in', ut', I, to send out ut'giva, giva ut', utgav, -gdvo, -givit, -given, -et, to spend; en spatsertur, -er, walk

derstand

in,

publish, edit
hitta,
I,

ett stycke, -n, piece

to find, find one's

way
ob-

un'derhdlla
entertain

(see

hdlla),

to

i'akttaga
tagit,

(sep.),

-tog,
-et,

-togo,
to

-tagen,

serve

hdlla un'der, to hold beneath un'derldta (insep.), -Idt, -Idto,
-Idtit, -en, -et, to

igen'kdnna, kdnna igen', lib, to recognize

neglect

kvar'lamna, lamna kvar', I, to leave behind en klocka, -or, clock, watch
land'sdtta, -satte, -satt, -satt,
to land
ett Hi,
,

var'sebliva, bliva var'se, to become aware of

d'terldmna, lib, to return lamna dter (unusual)
a'terstd (sep., see std), to re-

main
d'tervdnda(sep.) , lib, to return vdnda dter (unusual)

life

en

officer', -er, officer

IDIOM: att varsebliva en sak, to become aware of a thing.

LESSON XX.
The
214.
Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives.

The interrogative pronouns are: vem, who; vad, what; vilken, which, who; vilkendera, which one vad for en, what kind of, what.
;

DECLENSION.
SINGULAR

r.-rit?:
vem
vems
vad
vilken vilkens

?t

=

vilket vilkendera vilketdera vilkets vilkenderas vilketderas

124

INTERROGATIVES.
PLURAL

Nom.
Gen.

vilka vilkas
ett

Vad for en has a neuter vad for vad for ena, but no genitive.

and a plural

215. The interrogative adjectives are: vad, vilken, vilkendera, vad for en, and hurudan, of what Their declension is identical with nature, how.
that of the interrogative pronouns but they lack the genitive case: hurudan has the neuter form hurudant and the plural hurudana.

216.

REMARKS ON THE

INTERROGATIVES.

(a) Vem refers only to persons and is never used as an adjective. Ex.: Med vem talade du? (or vem talade du med?) With whom did you speak? Vems

bok ar detta? Whose book
NOTE.
vet

is

this?
it is

When vem

is

subject in an indirect question

followed by som

:

du vem som var hart do you know who was here?

Vad is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective when used pronominally it is always neu(b)
;

ter; adjectively

it

may

be used for

all

genders

like

the English what. This use being rather restricted, the student should use vilken and vad for en:

Vad

talar

rdtt har

han om? What is he talking about? Vad du att gora detta? What right have you

to do this?
NOTE. When ichat is subject in an indirect question it is often represented by vad som in Swedish: jag vet ej vad som ar bast, I do not know what is best but jag vet ej, vad (object) han har sagt.
;

(c) Vad for en is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective, the latter use prevailing. As an ena in the plural. Ex.: Vad for adjective it drops

RELATIVES..

125

blommor har du ddr? What kind of flowers have you there ? Sometimes it has the meaning of vilken vad for en konung hade Sverige da? What king did Sweden have then?
:

NOTE.

For may be separated from vad: vad ar
is

del for en

blommaf

What

kind of (a) flower

that?

(d) Vilken and vilkendera are used both as adjecand as pronouns; hurudan (hurdan) only as an adjective. Ex.: Vilken har varit hdr? Who has been here? Vilket hus har du hyrt? Which house
tives

have you rented? Vilkendera o'nskar du? Which one (of several objects) do you wish? Vilketdera huset ar hans? Which house (of these houses) is How is the weather his? Hurudant ar vddret?
(of

what nature)

?

If the interrogative pronoun is governed a preposition this may as in English either preby cede or stand at the end of the clause: med vem talade du? or vem talade du med? with whom did

217.

you speak?
218. With prepositions, vad may in certain cases be replaced by prepositional compounds with var, where: varav, varmed, vartill, etc.: varmed har man belonat honom? With what have they rewarded him? Varav lever han? What does he live on?
Relative Pronouns and Adjectives.

219.
den,

The relative pronouns are som, and the genitive form vars.

vilken, vad,

220. For inflection of vilken and vad see 214, and for inflection of den see 195. 221.

The

relative adjective is vilken.

126

RELATIVES.

222.
(a)

REMARKS ON THE

RELATIVES.

by far the most common of the relapronouns; it is indeclinable and is used for all genders and all cases with the exception of the genitive, which is supplied by vars and vilkens (vilEx.: min van, som dr hdr pa besok, kets, vilkas). skall resa i morgon, my friend who is here on a visit will leave to-morrow; mannen, vars barn dro sjuka, dr mycket fattig, the man whose children are sick is very poor.
is

Som

tive

when used as a pronoun often employs form vars instead of vilkens. It is not used very often in conversation except when the antecedent is a clause (when it is indispensable) or when a preposition must stand before the relative. Ex. han har blivit void, vilket forvanar mig, he has been elected, which fact surprises me (here som would be incorrect) fyra gossar, av vilka en var min kusin, drunknade i gar, four boys of whom one was my cousin were drowned yesterday.
(b) Vilken the genitive
: ;

(c)

Vad

is

used as a compound neuter relative

including

its

antecedent, also after the indefinite pro-

noun

allt. It has no plural. Ex.: vad han sdger, dr sant, what he says is true; det dr allt, vad jag har sett, that is all I have seen (som may be used)
.

NOTE. When vad is the subject of the sentence or clause it is generally combined with som; thus, ft skolu saga vad som iir rdtt, we ought to say what
is

right.

(d) Den is used as a definite relative only in the objective case; as* such it is of comparatively rare occurrence. In the nominative together with som
it

corresponds to he who, the one

who (which), who-

EXERCISE.

127

ever. In solemn style it is sometimes combined with ddr, den ddr, he who, whoever. Ex. dessa dro de regler, dem (more common som) ni maste folja,
:

these are the rules which you must follow; den som sdger detta, dr dum, whoever says this is stupid den ddr vet det rtitta, han gore det rdtt dr, he that knows the right, let him do right.
;

223.

The prepositions which govern the

rela-

end of the clause; when used with som, always. Ex.: damerna, som du talar om, kdnner jag, I know the ladies that you speak about; huset, vilket (i vilket) han bor i, dr gammalt, the house in which he lives is old.
tives are generally placed at the

224.

often omitted

In Swedish as in English the relative is when objective. Ex.: Vem var det,
i

du

mo'tte

gar?

Who was

it

you met yesterday?
governed by a prepo-

225.
sition
tive

When

the relative

is

and refers

to things, a

compound

of the rela-

adverb var, where, and the preposition may be used; as, bordet, varpa boken ligger, or bordet, som boken ligger pa, dr mitt, the table which the book lies on is mine; huset, som han bor i, or vari han bor, dr hans fars, the house which he lives in
is

his father's.

EXERCISE XX.
A.
3.

Translate orally.

What do you have

are

you speaking? book do you mean?

2. Who is he? 1. Who goes there? 1 in your (178) hand? 4. Of whom 6. What 5. Of what are you speaking?
7.

What 2 new

house

is

that?

8.

Do

you know at (vid) what time the train leaves (gar) ? 9. What sort of a man is he? 10. Do you understand what 12. he says? 11. I do not know what is best (bast).

128

EXERCISE.
of Strindberg do you like best 3 ? 13. In (218) does the difference consist? 14. Do you know kind of teacher he is? 15. How is the weather?
:

Which drama
what what
=

translate in two ways: preposition before and at the end of the clause. what kind of a new house is that? or which is that new house? *To like best, tycka bast om.
Transl.

B.

thing.
3.

Translate orally. 1. He is a man who knows every2. That is the lady who has the pretty daughters. That is not the man I mean. 4. He who (222, d) is
is

rich

not always happy.
6.

5.

That

is all

1

I

know about

the

Whoever (222, d) does such a thing (nagot is not a good man. 7. The man whom (224) I sadant) about is a professor at (vid) the University of Upspoke 2 sala 8. The house in which (225) he lives is his father's. 3 9. There is no poet whose life is so interesting.
matter.
.

1

Relative

may be

omitted

;

see

222,

c.

-Uppsala

universitet.

*There

is,

there are, in a general sense sense by det ar.

must be rendered by det

finnes (/inns), in a limited

C.
blev

voro

som 1 hade rakat i tvist med en officer, av denne utmanad till duell. Den sak, om vilken de oense, var en obetydlighet, och apotekaren, som var en
apotekare,

En

forstandig man, onskade att forhindra duellen. Tidigt pa morgonen av den dag, pa vilken duellen skulle utkampas,

gjorde apotekaren ett besok
helt lugnt
till

i

officerens

bostad

och

sade

denne

:

"Emedan

jag ar den,

som

liar blivit

2 utmanad, sa tillkommer det mig

att valja vapnen.

Har
;

aro tva piller, av vilka det ena 3 ar forgiftat, det andra daremot oskadligt. Var sa god och valj det ena och svalj det

jag svaljer det,
Officeren,
slag, vars

som

aterstar, och en

av oss maste do."

som blev mycket overraskad av apotekarens forandamal naturligtvis var att forhindra duellen,

kastade ut pillerna

genom

fonstret och forsonade sig

med

honom.
J

Note the frequent use of som.

principal clause the other.

when

it

2 Note the frequent use of sa to introduce the follows the dependent. *det ena. . . det andra, one.
.
.

.

EXERCISE.
C.
i

129
apotekaren rakat
officeren?
3.

Conversation.
2.

1.

Med vem hade
4. Varfb'r
5.

tvist?

Vartill blev
till

han ntmanad av

Niir

gick apotekaren beslutat forhindra duellen?
varfor?.
7. 6.

officeren?

hade apotekaren

Vad

tillkom

honom och

for vapen foreslog (proposed) apotekaren? Visste apotekaren, vilketdera pillret var forgiftat? 8. skulle hans motstandare

Vad

Vad
slag?

(opponent) gora

med
11.

det

piller,

han valde?
10.

9.

Vad

var andamalet

med

detta for-

Vad

gjorde officeren
sitt

med

pillerna?

Upp-

nadde (attained) apotekaren
D.
1.

andamal?

of a man the druggist is the officer got into a quarrel? 2. Yes, I know him well (ml). He is a man whose friendship I esteem 1 very highly. 3. I do not know what the quarrel consisted

Do you know what kind

with

whom

in 1 , but according to
trifling matter.
4.

what

I

have heard

it

was about

a

The

druggist,

who was

a very sensible

man, wished
:

5. prevent the duel. By what means did he succeed in preventing it? (transl. through what) 6. He went to the house of the man who had challenged

to

him and had

a talk with him.

7. it is

He reminded him

of an

old custom according to which

the right of him (C, 5) who has been challenged to choose the weapons. 8. When the officer asked him what kind of weapons he would choose

he held out a couple of

pills.

9.

which was poisoned

2
;

the other was harmless.

Of these there was one 10. The

druggist asked the officer which one of the two he would 11. He himself would (skulle) (ville) take and swallow.

swallow the one that (222, d) remained.
sition

12.

The propo-

which the
pills

druggist made
it

surprised the officer and he
13.

threw the

out through the window.

whose (222, a) purpose ceeded in this (200, d).
translate in two ways (218).

The druggist, the duel, sucwas to prevent

2

True or apparent passive?

130

VOCABULARY. VOCABULARY.

en apotekare,
sist;

,

druggist

lycklig,

-t,

happy

bestd' (insep., see std), to con-

mena,

I,

to

mean
-er, insignifi-

endure; treat

en o'betydlighet,

en bostad, bostdder, dwelling,

home
en
duell', -er,

cance, trifle o'ense (indecl.), at variance
o'skadlig,
ett piller,
-t,
,

duel

harmless
pill

ddr'emot, on the contrary to die do, dog, dogo, dott,
,

rdka,
to

I,

emedan, because
enligt, according to

come or get (into), meet (with), to meet
to
,

ett samtal,

conversation

remind fram'rdcka, rdckd frarn', Ha,
er'inra (insep.),
I,

to

en sed,

-er,

custom, usage

svdlja, lib, to

swallow

to reach or hold out

till'komma

forgif'ta (insep.),

I,

to poison
I,

forhind'ra (insep.), vent
ett

to pre-

see komma), to befit, be the right of somebody
(insep.,

en tvist, -er, quarrel upp'skatta (insep.), I, to esteem

forslag',

,

proposition,
.

ut'mana
lenge

(insep.),

I,

to. chal-

proposal
forso'na,
I,

to reconcile
-t,

ut'kdmpa,

I,

to fight out
to

forstdn'dig,

sensible, intel-

kdmpa
(i.

ut',
e.

cease fighting

ligent

die)
,

hog,

-t,

high
ut'

ett

vapen,

weapon
I,

kasta
lugn,

(rarely
I,

(sep.),
-t,

utkasta), to throw out

en vdnskap, friendship
o'verras'ka (insep.),
prise
to sur-

calm(ly)
1.

IDIOMS:

att

rdka

i

grill,

svdrigneter, to get into a quarrel,

difficulties.
2.

att bliva overrasTcad

av nagot,
I

to

become astonished
to
it,

at something.
3.

Det tillkommer mig,

havr a right

or

it

is

my

privilege.

LESSON XXL
The Verb
(Continued).

PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
226. The present participle is formed by adding -ande to the stem of the verb if the infinitive ends in -a, otherwise -ende. Ex.: kallande, from kalla,
to call; leende, to sew.
NOTK
takes
2. -s

from

le,

to smile; syende,

from

sy,

1. The present participle is indeclinable, but if used as a noun, it in the genitive: en doendes anger, the repentance of a dying person.

-3j

as,

Deponent verbs form their present participle either with or without the minnandes, remembering; aldrande, aging, from minnas and aldras,
lack a present participle.

many

227.

The present

participle is used:
ett

(1) as

an adjective:

sovande barn, a sleeping
he spoke
flu-

child;
(2) as

an adverb: han

talte flytande,

ently

;

(3) as

de fran hus to house.
NOTE.

an adverbial predicative: hon gick tiggantill hus, she went begging from house
prefers a finite verb to the present

The conversational language often

participle used as an adverbial predicative.

Ex.

:

hon yick frdn hus

till

hus

och tiggde, instead of hon gick tiggande, etc.

228.
dish to
it is

The present participle is not used in Sweform a progressive tense as in English. When
is

the idea of continued action

especially prominent, expressed by means of the verb hdlla pa', to keep on, continue, and the infinitive preceded by att han hbll pa att skriva, da jag kom in, he was writ:

ing

when

I entered.

Sometimes the preposition mea,

132

PARTICIPLES.
is

with,

inserted before the infinitive: han holl pa
to sit
ligga, lie, and similar verbs are ga, go ; sla, stand form of some other verb to express progression: jag sitter
; ;
1

med

att lasa.
Sitta,
finite
I

NOTE.

aid writing ligga och lata sig, lounging about, idling och hanga, hanging around (idly). Note the following use of halla pa: jag holl pa att falla, I came near falling.
;
;

used with a och skrifver,

am

229. The English present participle very often must be rendered by a subordinate clause either
temporal, causal, or relative, according to the sense the boy, hearing us come, ran away, gossen sprang sin vag, ndr han horde oss komma; being sick he
:

had to go home, emedan han var sjuk, mdste han ga hem.
230.
cise, att

The English verbal
infinitive:

in -ing is often equiva-

running is a useful exerar en nyttig o'vning; he went away springa without seeing me, han gick bort utan att se mig.
lent to the
NOTE. When the verbal is modified by a possessive adjective, Swedish uses a noun clause with att instead of att with the infinitive: He came without my seeing him, han kom utan att jag sag honom; their having come home was a surprise, att de hade kommit hem var en ofverraskning.

231. Nouns in -ning and -ande (added to the verbal stem) correspond to the English verbals and abstract nouns an -ing. Ex.: allt detta talande ar
onodigt,
all

this

talking

is

unnecessary; mycken
is

skrivning ar trottande,

much writing

tiresome.

232. After the verbs hora and se Swedish uses the infinitive, never the present participle, as in

English: jag sag

honom komma,

I

saw him coming.

PAST PARTICIPLE.
233. The past participle is formed in five different ways according to the class or conjugation to which the verb belongs.

PARTICIPLES.

133

234. In the First Conjugation the ending is -ad. In the Second Conjugation, Class I, the ending
is -t.

In the Second Conjugation, Class
is -d.

II,

the ending

In the Third Conjugation the ending is -dd. In the Fourth Conjugation the ending is
(-n, -et).

-en

235.
or

the verb.

may
1.

These endings are added to the stem of In the Fourth Conjugation there may not be a change of vowel thus, kallad, bojd,
;

kopt, sydd, shriven, funnen.
NOTE
2.

Deponent verbs as a rule lack the past

participle, so do

many

in-

transitive verbs.
It

may

be of assistance for the beginner to notice that the past participle
e of the imperfect.

of

weak verbs may be found by dropping the

236. The past participle is used as an adjective and agrees in number and gender with the noun or pronoun which it modifies or of which it is a complement. It is declined in accordance with the rules

governing the declension of adjectives.
237.

STRONG DECLENSION.
SINGULAR NEUTER GENDER FORM

PLURAL
ALL GENDERS

I.

II.

II.

Class Class

i.

ii.

dlskad kopt bojd

dlskat

kopt
bo'jt

dlskade l kopta(e ) bojda(e)

III.

sydd
skriven

sytt
'skrivet

IV.

sydda(e) skrivna(e)
dlskade

238.

WEAK

DECLENSION.
dlskade

kopta bojda sydda(e) sydda skrivna(e) skrivna
'Masculine nouns denoting persons often take the
-e

dlskade kopta(e^) bojda(e)

kopta (e ) bojda(e) sydda(e) skrivna(e)
form of the adjective.

1

134

EXERCISE.

239. The past participle is used only adjectively as an attributive, an appositive, or a predicate modifier. In the last function it is used with bliva (varda)
in the de slagna ryssarna flydde, apparent passive (185) the defeated Russians fled hdren, besegrad och uppriven, drog sig tillbaka, the army, defeated and shattered, withdrew; huset har blivit mdlat, the house has been painted; brevet dr skrivet, the letter is written; rocken dr lagad, the coat is mended. to
:
;

form the compound passive and with vara

240. The past participle should not be confused with the supine, which is. used only with the auxiliary verb hava to form the perfect tenses and is
indeclinable.
to
hi?

NOTE. With some verbs of motion vara may be used with the past participle form the perfect tenses as, han dr bortrest, he has left ; han dr anldnd,
;

has arrived.

EXERCISE XXI.
A. Supply the present participle, the past participle, or the supine of the verbs indicated, according to the context ; 1. Den also the definite and plural endings. (forlora) 1 har blifvit stod (finna) 2. Barn ring (grata)
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

framfor den
1

.

.

.

(stanga) dorr
4.

.

3.
1

Ester ar en ...

(fb'r-

tjusa)
5.

liten flicka.
.
.

...
2

Ert

.

(vanta lange)
till

(sova) brev har

hund
. . .

(pi.) bitas ej.
6.

(komma).

...

(vanda)

.

om en slant. 7. Jag har mig, bad tiggar ... (hitta) alia de (forlora) brev (def. pi.), edert 2 Express in more idiomatic Swedish by (inbegripa)
1

sig

.

.

.

.

.

.

expanding the participles into clauses. 8. erfarenhet nog, vet jag ej vad jag bor gora.

I eke
9.

havande

Nyheterna

mottagna

i

brevet, kastade jag bort det.

gar ha gjort oss alia glada. 10. Havande last Translate: 11. I heard him

EXERCISE.
3

135
13.

singing
1

.

12.

He came

driving.

Reading and writing

are taught at school.
infinitive

Past part. 'After verbs like se, hora, kanna, Swedish uses the dependent verb, not the pres. part. Note the inverted order in an independent clause following a dependent.
Pres. part.

2

of

the

B. 1. Nar jag gick hem fran kyrkan i gar, traffade jag froken Lind, dotter till en gammal skolkamrat. 2. Ernedan det ar lange sedan jag sag henne, kande jag knappast igen henne. 3. Hon var fb'rtjusande vacker i sin nya vinterhatt, vilken
4.

hon sade var en julklapp fran hennes

far.

omtalade for mig, att hennes far ofta hade uten b'nskan att fa traffa mig. 5. Jag svarade, att jag tryckt 6. Det ej skulle lamna staden utan att ha besokt dem.
gladde mig, att han mindes mig.
tressant
7.

Hon

Han

ar en mycket inflytande

man, som

talar
8.

manga frammande sprak
vi hollo

och

.ar val belast.

Da

pa

att samtala,

kommo

hennes vanner ut ur kyrkan. 9. Nar jag sag sade jag adjo och lamnade henne.
C.
1.

dem komma,

Emedan
2.

jag

ville

kupen.

Mannen, som

rbka en cigarr, gick jag in i rokstar dar borta, ar konduktb'rn,

fraga honom, nar taget gar. 3. Han kom springande, nar han sag mig, stannade han och halsade.
Z>. 1.
1

men

Going home from church last Sunday, I met Miss Wallner. 2. Stopping 2 she wished me a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. 3. She looked 3 charming in her

new winter
it

hat.

4.

Seeing

1

me

look at

it,

she told

me

that

was a Christmas gift from her father. 5. Her father is a very learned and cultured man and a celebrated author. 6. He speaks fluently six foreign languages and is very
7.

well-read.

Not having 4

seen

him

for

many

years, I ex8.
2

Smiling kindly she said that her father would like to see me, havpressed

my

desire of calling (inf.)

on him.

136
5

VOCABULARY.
often talked about
2

ing
9.

me and wondered where

I was.

Thanking
E.
1.

her

I asked her to greet her parents

from

me.

compartment for smokers? No, smoking 2. How much did you have to (maste for overweight? Nothing; they checked my bagni) pay 1 gage without weighing (230) it. 3. Having asked the conductor if it was the express train for (till) Stockholm, we boarded the train. 4. My stopping and talking (230, note) caused me to (gjorde att jag) come too late to the 1 train. 5. Having bought a time-table, I went into the
Is this a
is

prohibited here.

waiting room.
se ut. (appearance) 'Clause introduced by ty.

translate by a temporal clause. ! Expand into a coordinate clause. *To look 4 Causal clause introduced by en'dr, emedan, or do.

VOCABULARY.
adjo', good-bye
belast',
-t,

en kupe,
le,

-er,

compartment
smile

well-read

(railroad)
log, logo, lett, to

oildad, -at, p. p. (bilda), cul-

lange vantad, -at, p. p. (viinta en er'farenhet, -er, experience lange), long expected flytande, pres. p. (flyta), fluent lard, lart, p. p. (Idra), learned frammande, .foreign, strange (e)mot'taga, taga emot' (sep.,
forbjuden, p. p. (forbjuda), prohibited
fortju'sande, pres. p. (fortjusa),
foriil'drar,

tured

see taga), to receive om'tala, tola om' (sep.), to
polette'ra,
I,

tell

to
,

check (baggage)

charming
parents

for sent', too late grata, grdt, grdto, grdtit, to

smoker compartment for smokers rokning, smoking
en
ro'kare,

en rokkupe,

-er,

weep
hitta,
I,

sju,

seven
express train

to find

en

slant, -ar, coin
,

hdlsa pa', to call on
in'begripa, -grep, -grepo, -gripit,

ett snalltdg,
ett sprdk,
,

language

-en,

-et,

to

include

en konduktor',

-er,

conductor

I, to stay, stop stiga pa', to board, enter

stanna,

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
i

137
-ar,

sondags, last Sunday
tid'tabell', -er,
,

en vinterhatt,

winter hat

en

time table

en tiggare,
tit'ta pA,
I,

beggar

vaga, lib, to weigh vanda, lib (vande, vant), to

to look at

undra, I, to wonder ut'trycka (insep.), Ha, to express
IDIOMS:
1.

turn en vantsal, -ar, waiting room en overvikt, overweight en onskan (no pi.), wish
jul,

att onska ndgon en glad a merry Christmas.

to

wish somebody

2.

3.

4. 5.

att onska ndgon ett gott nytt dr, to wish somebody a happy New Year. att om'tala, or tala om' ndgot for ndgon, to tell somebody something. Jag sade adjo till honom, I said good-bye to him. att ha frammande, to have company.

LESSON
The Verb

XXII.

(Continued).

IMPERSONAL VERBS.

The impersonal verb form, like the reflexused more extensively in Swedish than in ive, English. The impersonal subject is det, which is never omitted except in a few archaic expressions.
241.
is

242.
(1)

Important impersonals are: Those referring to processes of nature:
det fryser, it freezes det toar, it thaws det dagas, it dawns

det regnar, it rains det snoar, it snows det blixtrar, it lightens

(2) Those expressing merely abstract action; as, det knackar pa dorr en, there is a knock on the door det ror sig i skogen, something moves in the forest
; ;

det gar
hall.
Swedish

i

korridoren, somebody

is

walking in the
10

Grammar

138

IMPERSONAL VERBS.

(3) Verbs in many idiomatic phrases, the person or thing referred to often appearing as object:

lonar modan, it is worth the while gar mig vdl, I am doing well gor mig ont om dig, I feel sorry for you hur star det till med dig? How are you?

det det det det det

gdller mitt llv, my life is at stake gdller honom, it concerns him

243.

THE IMPERSONAL

PASSIVE.

Many

verbs,

even intransitives, may form an impersonal passive either with det as the subject or with the subject omitted; as, det skrattades och s Jongs, there was laughing and singing; hdr dies, ser jag, you are det frdgas ofta, the queseating, it seems (I see)
;

tion

is

often asked.

244.

Other uses of det:

Det corresponds in general to the English it, but has some idiomatic uses, as already shown in part.
(a) Det stands for the introductory there and serves to bring the verb before the logical subject;
as, det,levde en gang en konung, once there lived a king; det sprang ett par gossar over fdltet, literally, there ran a couple of boys across the field.
NOTE. The verb does not as in English agree with the logical subject but always in the singular. This form is often resorted to for emphasis.
is

(b)
1.

ence,
dr.

Det finns, det gives, and det dr: There is, and there are, expressing mere existare rendered by det finns, det gives, and det

2. Det finns, more seldom det gives, expresses existence within a space of extended or indefinite limits, whereas det dr expresses existence within

REFLEXIVE VERBb.
:

139

a definite space of relatively small extent det fanns dnnu drliga man, there were still honest men; det gives intet val, there is no choice det finns, or gives en Gud, there is a God; det dr ett par herrar vid dorren, there are a couple of gentlemen at the door.
;

Note the singular of the verb, irrespective of the
to represent another word, phrase, or clause already used, and of which the repetition is avoided (it is then rendered by so or not translated) Ex. han var rik, nu dr han det ej Idngre, he was rich, now he is so no longer; vet du vad han sade? Ja, det gor jag; do you know what he said? Yes, I do; dr han hdr? Ja, det tror fag; is he here? Yes, I think so.
.

number of the following noun. (c) Det is used expletively

:

REFLEXIVE VERBS.
245.
the subject.

Reflexive verbs "reflect" the action upon Hence the object is always the proto the subject.

noun corresponding
246.

A

reflexive verb has

The pronoun object jugation. ately after the verb.
247.
ly in

no peculiarity of conis placed immedi-

The reflexive form is used much more wideSwedish than in English, often giving rise to secondary significations which require their own peculiar translations. Examples erinra sig, to remember erinra, to remind inbilla sig, to imagine inbilla, to make believe uppfora, to perform, erect uppfora sig, to behave tro sig, to presume, dare tro, to believe fatta, to seize fat ta sig, to compose one:

self

140

REFLEXIVE VERBS.

Some verbs

are used only reflexively

;

as,

befinna sig, to be (as to health, condition) beflita sig, to apply oneself

tilldraga sig, to take place

begiva
the

sig, to

betake oneverb:
att

self

248.

Conjugation

of

reflexive

inbilla sig, to imagine.

PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE
Sg. jag inbillar

mig du inbillar dig han inbillar sig

jag inbillade mig,

etc.

ni inbillar er (eder)
PI.

vi inbilla oss I inbillen er (eder) ni inbilla er (eder) de inbilla sig

vi inbillade oss, etc.
'

PERFECT
jag har
inbillat mig, etc. jag

PLUPERFECT
hade
inbillat mig, etc.

FUTURE

jag skall inbilla mig, etc. jag skall
etc.

FUTURE PERFECT ha inbillat mig,

IMPERATIVE 2nd Sg.
inbilla dig (familiar) 2nd PI. inbillen er (archaic)

INFINITIVES Present
:

att inbilla sig

Perfect
att

:

2nd Sg. and
inbilla er 1st PI.

PI.

ha(va) inbillat sig Future Perfect:
att skola

ha

inbillat sig

Idt(om) oss inbilla
NOTE.
icke

oss, etc.
sig sjdlv

The reflexives may be intensified by sjiilv: han alskade sina medmanniskor : he loved himself and not his fellow men.
of
sjalv

och

The student
construction

should, however, avoid the use being very limited.

with the

reflexives,

this

EXERCISE.

141

249.

Note such idiomatic reflexive constructions

as: jag skar mig i fingret, I cut my finger; Karl har brutit av sig benet, Carl has broken his leg; satt pa dig hatten, put on your hat. The postpositive definite article is often used instead of the possessive with nouns which denote parts of the body

and

articles

of clothing.

The possessor may be

represented by an object pronoun.
250.

THE RECIPROCAL PRONOUN
which
is

is

varandra, each
:

other, one another,

indeclinable

vi trdffade

varandra, we met each other; vi dlskade varandra, we loved one another.
NOTE. The reciprocal idea may, as has been stated before, often be expressed by the -s form of the verb vi traffas, we meet one another hdstarna bitas, the horses bite one another sang och gladje foljas at, song and joy accompany one another. When no agent is mentioned the -s form of the passive must often be avoided since it may give a reciprocal meaning to the verb
:

;

;

(186).

EXERCISE XXII.
A.

Continue the following:
2.

1.

varmt, sa att jag ej f orkyler mig,
etc.

Jag du
.

skall
.

klada
. . .

mig

.

dig
3.

,

sa att,

Innan jag mottog frammande, maste jag klada om
.
.

mig, innan du

.,

maste du.

.

.

dig, etc.

Om

jag inte

uppfor mig battre, 4. Jag hade befunnit mig battre,

sa maste jag

skammas, om du, etc. pm jag hade skyddat mig
andrar mig, och det
ej

mot kolden,
regnar, sa

du, etc.

5.

Om
om
so.

jag

ej

kommer
1.

jag,

du,

etc.

Translate:
soon.
3.

I

think

2.

We

shall see

one another
4.

Hurry, Carl, There are two industrious boys in this room.
tell if

we are waiting for (pa) you.
5.

Can you
6.

there

is

a postoffice in (vid or pa) this street?
it is

Stay at home, boys,

freezing

and snowing.

142
B.
1.

EXERCISE.

Det gar pa verandan, nu knackar det pa dorren; skynda dig, Anna, att oppna. 2. Jag inaste ga och klada om mig; det passar ej att taga emot frarnmande, kladd

som jag

ar.

3.
i

Jag

tror, att det ar

herr Edgren, bed ho-

fb'rmaket och satta sig, det drojer endast ett par minuter, tills jag ar far dig. 4. Jag hoppas ni ursaktar, att jag bar latit er vanta, herr Edgren. 5. Hur star det
stiga in
till?
S'a
1

nom

trakigt

,

att

min man

icke ar
6.

ha glatt honom
fru Sterner.

att fa traffa er.

hemma, det skulle Jag mar fortraffligt,

Men hur

befinna ni er

nu

for tiden (nowa-

Jag horde for nagon tid sedan, att Karl hade fb'rkylt sig mycket svart. 8. Vi ma alia bra nu, men vadret iindrar sig sa hastigt nu for tiden, att det ar omb'jligt att skydda sig mot forkylning. 9. I gar snoade det, i dag regnar det, nu blixtrade det till och med, tror jag. 10. Sag
days)
?
7.
till

(at)

Erik skriker
val
2

gossarna, att de uppfora sig litet battre, Anna, 11. De kunna ju, som om det gallde livet.

roa sig utan att vasnas sa; herr Edgren och jag kunna knappast hora varandra. 12. Ad jo, fru Sterner; det var trakigt, att Karl ej var hemma, men vi traffas val
senare.
J

It

is

suppose,

too bad that, etc. ; boken ar trakig, the book bores me. I should think, very likely, etc.

3 Val

I

C.

1. I
it

1 think the weather has changed ;

it is

becoming
2. It is

cloudy,

looks as if

it

if we inquite (ganska) chilly tend to go out, otherwise (annars) we shall catch cold. 2 3. Somebody is walking on the porch; now there is a

would (skulle) rain soon. and we must dress warmly

knock 2
4.

.

Father,
3

Please look and see (se efter) who it is, Anna. How are you, Mr. Lind ? I am it is Mr. Lind.
to see you.
5.

very glad
nart,
it is

The pleasure
6.

long since we met.

such a noise (B, 11),

Anna?

mutual, Mr. Lendo the boys make Tell (B, 10) them to behave
is

Why

VOCABULARY.
better
it is

143
,

when
8.

there
is

Carl that

1 company. 7. If I am not mistaken 1 yelling ; he ought to be ashamed to behave

is

so badly.

Who
9.

is

that lady you greeted

?

It is the wife
well, but

of

Mr. Brown.

We

do not know one another

we always greet one another when we meet (250). 10. Who is Mr. Brown ? He is a man who always lacks 3 money and who wants to borrow from everybody. 11. He used to be

much

respected, but he is no longer so (244, c.). 12. There are not many (manga) in this town who would lend him
4 money. 13. Has he presumed to ask you to lend him? 3 14. No, he knows that it is not worth while 15. Good-bye, I must hurry; there is much work for me at home.
.

1

Use

reflex,

verb,

2

242,

2.

3

Use an impersonal construction, 242,

3.

4

Pre-

siime

tro sig.

VOCABULARY.
befin'na
sig,

to

feel,

to

be

(health)

knappast, hardly en kold, cold
kylig,
-t,

droja (intr.), lib, to take time

delay,

cool
,

ett liv,
Idta,
Idt,

life
Idtit,

fattas (dep. v., often impers.) I, to lack
frysa, fros, froso, frusit, -en, et, to freeze
ftirdig,
-t,

Idto,

to

let,

allow
miss'taga
to
(insep., see

taga),

mistake
sig, to

ready
lib, to catch cold

misstaga

be mistaken
impers.),
I,

forky'la

siff,

mulna (generally

en forkyl'ning, -ar, cold (health) to become cloudy ett for'mak, parlor motas (used reciprocally), to en glddje, joy meet one another giilla, lib, to have a value; passa, I, to fit; be proper concern roa sig, I, to amuse oneself to hdl'sa
pa,
I,

kldda,

lib,

to

greet dress (some-

senare, later skrika,

body)
Jcltida sia, to

skrek,

skreko,

skri-

dress (oneself)
(sig),

kit, to yell,

cry

kldda om'
dress

to

change

skydda,

I,

to protect
I,

skynda

sig,

to

hurry

144
sfcummas (dep.),

MODAL AUXILIARIES.
lib,

to

be

ashamed
snoa (impers.),
std
till',
I,

trdkig, -t, boring, sad, bad uppfo'ra, lib, to erect; to per-

to

snow

form
uppfora
sig, to
1
,

to be (health)

conduct oneself

svdr, -t, difficult, serious sd att (conj.), so that
till

to bring up ur'sakta, I, to excuse

fora upp

vasnas (dep.), I, to make noise I, to change (something) traffas (used reciprocally), to iindra sig, to change one's mind meet or see one another omsesidig, -t, mutual och med, even
(conj.), until
tills

dndra,

IDIOMS.
1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

Why does he stay so long? Myntet galler icke Idngre, the coin is no longer current; han galler icke mycket har, he is of small account here. att skdmmas for ndgot, to be ashamed of something. att ta emot' frdmmande, to receive company. Hur star det till med er Itrorf How is your brother?
Varfor drojer han sd lunge?

LESSON

XXIII.

Verbal Auxiliaries.

MODAL AUXILIARIES.
251.

The modal

INFINITIVE

auxiliaries are: PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE
PLUR.
SG.

SING.

AND PL.

kan kunna, can ma ma, may bora, ought to bor
skola, shall vilja, will

kunna

ma
bora

kunde kunnat matte
borde
bort
stcolat

skall (ska) skola(ska) skulle vill mile vilja

velat

maste, must
tor, is likely

maste

maste

maste mast

torde tor tora The modals are conjugated regularly; some of them, howThe following remarks will suffice: ever, are defective. (a) The archaic second person has the ending -en: I skolen (md takes only -n in 2nd pers. pi.: I man). (~b) The singular form is practically the only one used in
conversation.

MODAL AUXILIARIES.
(c)

145

skolat,

The compound tenses 'are formed regularly: jag har han hade kunnat. Skola, md, tor, mdste, and bora

lack future and future perfect;
pluperfect.
fd)

md and

tor lack perfect

and

The subjunctives of the modals except of kunna and are not formed with md, matte, and skulle. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives only are in use (except in the case of vilja and kunna) and they are like the indicavilja

kunna and vilja may form a present subjunctive with or matte and the present infinitive; an imperfect subjunctive with skulle and the present infinitive; a perfect subtive:

md

junctive with
perfect
identical

md

or matte

subjunctive

with

skulle

and the perfect infinitive; a pluand the perfect infinitive.

The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives generally used are
with the imperfect and pluperfect indicative: imjag skulle kunna, vilja, or jag kunde, ville; perfect subjunctive, jag md, mdtte ha kunnat, velat; pluperfect subjunctive, jag skulle ha kunnat, velat or jag hade
perfect subjunctive,

kunnat, velat.

SOME USES OF THE MODAL AUXILIARIES. The modal auxiliaries have more complete forms in Swedish than in English. The Swedish modal must for that reason sometimes be translated
252.

by a paraphrase;
to

as,

jag mdste arbeta

i

gar,
det, I

I

work yesterday; jag har kunnat gora
it.

had have

been able to do

253. The modal auxiliaries govern, as in English, the simple infinitive: han sdger, att han ej kan komma, he says that he cannot come; jag maste

ga nu,
NOTE.

I

must go now.
;

They are generally accompanied by an infinitive, but sometimes a when an adverb of direction is used a complementary verb may be implied
verb of motion
I

may be
;

omitted after skola,
I

vilja,
in.

and mdste: jag maste hem,

must go home

jag vill in,

want to come

254.

In the pluperfect subjunctive of skola and

bora, Swedish prefers a construction

made up

of

146

SENSES OF MODALS.

the imperfect subjunctive of the modal and the perfect infinitive of the verb to one consisting of the pluperfect subjunctive of the modal and the present infinitive, conforming thus with the English usage.

The treatment

of

kunna

is

identical,

except that when we wish especially to emphasize the pluperfect time of the ability or possibility we use the pluperfect subjunctive of kunna. Ex. han skulle ha gjort det, he should have done it ni borde ha kommit, you ought to have come; jag kunde ha skrivit, I could have written; but
:
;

jag hade kunnat skriva,
to write.

I

might have been able

NOTE. Vilja, on the other hand, would in a similar case always be put in the pluperf. and the depending verb in the present infinitive: jag hade velat skriva brevet, and not jag wile ha skrivit; han hade velat ga, om hans mor ej
hade varit sjuk, he would have wished to go,
if

his

mother had not been

sick.

SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES.
255. Kunna. Originally it meant to know how, to be skilled in. This use is still retained in the verb when used independently han kan svenska, sin liixa; he knows Swedish, his lesson.
:

(a) Ability :

han kan

Idsa,

men han

vill ej,

he can

read but he does not want

to.

(b) Possibility: det kan nog hdnda, that may happen; jag kunde nog gora det, I could perhaps do it.
(c) Permission:

In this sense

it is

ni ga, now you may go. often used as a mild command.

nu kan

I

(d) Willingness det kan jag giva (ge) er genast, can give you that at once. (e) Habit, custom hon kunde grata i timtal, nar
:
:

EXERCISE.

147

sitt doda barn, she would cry for hours when she thought of her dead child.

hon tdnkte pa

pliiga

NOTE. Habit and custom are more often expressed by the verbs bruka, and and the infinitive, or by the present or imperfect of the verb: ndr han sag mig, brukade lian jraga, or, frdgade han, whenever he saw me he would ask.

256.
(a)

Ma.

Auxiliary: the present and imperfect are used as auxiliaries to form the present subjunctive. (b) Desire: ma Gud valsigna vart arbete, may God bless our work; vi matte vdl komma i tid till taget, may we only come in time to the train (would that we might etc.).
NOTE 1. Matte expresses a more vivid wish than ma. Z. From this sense of ma springs its use in purpose clauses and some other clauses introduced by att: han badj att jag matte stanna (also, bad mig att
stanna) he asked

me

to

remain.

(c) Permission, possibility: ma (not matte) may be used with the sense of kan: det ma sd vara, that may be so occasionally in the sense of fa (263, a) det ma du ej gora, you may not do that.
;

:

NOTE.

Here belongs the expression mahdnda, perhaps.

(d) Supposition, expressed by the imperfect of the modal matte (not ma) det matte ha varit
:

hemskt,

it

must have been uncanny; du matte vara
dare say, you are very tired.

mycket

trott, I

EXERCISE XXIII.
A.
icke,

Continue:

1.

Jag

visste icke,
2.

vad jag

ville,

du

visste

vad du

ville, etc.

om

men

jag hade velat, jag maste stanna

Jag hade kunnat gora en resa, du hade, etc. 3. Jag skulle vilja ga ut,

hemma, du

skulle, etc.

4.

Jag
5.

skulle

ha spelat tennis,

om

jag hade kunnat, du,

etc.

Om

jag

148

EXERCISE.

hade velat fara

med

tiotaget, sa

hade jag mast skynda

mig;,

om

Jag horde ha fragat min far forst, om han ville lata mig ga med, du horde, etc. 7. Jag ville giirna 8. Matte jag veta, om jag skulle kunna gora det, du, etc. ej ha kommit for sent matte du, etc.
du,
etc.
6.
!

B.

ville fara

att

jag

Min van Karl fragade mig i gar morse, om jag med honom till staden. 2. Jag sade at honom, jag hade mycket arbete, som jag horde gora, men att onskade, att han matte fraga min far, om jag kunde
1.

fara med.

3.

Matte pappa bara

tillata det!

tankte jag,

nar Karl avlagsnade sig foi att bedja honom om lov. 4. Vi skulle kunna ha sa roligt tillsammans. 5. Naturligtvis
skulle vi bevista det stora fotbollspelet, som skulle pas mellan tva av de basta fotbollagen i staden. 6.

utkamJag bar

ofta bett pappa, att

jag bar

han matte lata mig spela fotboll, men kunnat overtyga honom om att det ar en nyttig 7. Jag brukar ofta saga, att om han blott forstodo idrott. 8. "Det ma sa spelet, sa maste han finna det intressant. vara", sade han en gang, "jag bar blott sett ett enda spel och kunde alls inte bli pa det klara darmed. 9. Det syntes
ej

mig vara

litet for

ett slagsmal."

10.

mycket for ett spel och litet for Karl kom tillbaka och sade,

litet for

att

han

hade mast lova, att

vi skulle vara tillbaka sa tidigt, att jag

kunde vattna blomsterrabatterna och kiippa grasmattan. 11. Det matte ha varit svart for Karl att fa pappas tillatelse.

C.
2.

Conversation.

1.

Vad

fragade Karl er
4.

i

gar morse?
3.

Varfor trodde ni
ni,

ej,

att ni skulle fa folja

med?

Vad

onskade

att

Karl skulle gora?

Varfor avlagsnade

Karl
den
?

sig.
6.

ni ej

5. Vad skulle ni ga till, om ni finge resa till staMellan vilka skulle spelet utkampas ? 7. Vad bar lyckats overtyga er far om ? 8. Varfor tror ni ej, att

VOCABULARY.
er far finner spelet intressant?

149

har er far bevistat?
tillatelse till

10.
11.

resan?

9. Hur manga fotbollspel Har Karl lyckats att fa er fars Vad maste ni gora, nar ni kom-

mer hem?
D.
2. 1.

A

football

I should like to go to town with my friend Carl. game will be played between the two best
like very

teams in town and I should
3.

much 1

to attend
2

it.

do not know whether (om) I father has given me much work to do

But

I

may go, for my before evening.

4.

But

it

seems to
5.

me

time (gang).

I have

home

all

summer 3

that he ought to allow me to go this had (perf. of maste) to stay at in order to take care of the garden,
6.

water the flower beds and cut the lawn.

I

have always

wished to play football, but
it is

my

father does not think that

a useful sport. 7. If Carl were only here, he would 8. I am so glad be able to get my father's permission. that you came, Carl. Would you go and ask father (pappa)

whether I
to

may go?
What

2

work

to-day.
10.

I should

terday.

see, I ought (horde] really have done (254) this work yesDid he give his perdid papa say?
9.
2

You

you may go with me; but you will have 12. He must be very of maste} to be back early. (pres. for he spends much money. 13. I wish he would come rich, soon so that we could 4 begin to eat. 14. Now I must say
mission?
11. Yes,
5 good-bye to you, but we might meet again to-morrow.
2 l Fdr (263). 'After hela, which is not Skulle mycket garna vilja... preceded by the prepositive article, the noun takes the definite form. 'Imper5 fect subjunctive of kunna. s-form, 186a.

VOCABULARY.
atttid,

always
I,

av'ldgsna,

to rerriove

en Worn''sterrabatt' bed
blott,

',

-er,

flower

avlagsna sig, to go away bara, only
bevista,
I,

only

to attend

fara, to travel, go fara med, to accompany

150
ett fotbollspel,
,

SENSES OF MODALS.
football
,

game
foot-

naturligtvis, of course
nyttig,
-t,

ett

fotbollag
ball

(lag),

useful
,

team

ett slagsmdl,

fight

forst, first

skota, Ha, take care of

for mycket, too

much

ett spel,

en grasmatta, -or, lawn en gang, once en i'drott, -er, sport igen, again
Tclippa,

spela,

Ha,
,

to cut,

mow

game, play play tennis, tennis tidigt, early tillsammans, together en tilldtelse, permission
,

I,

ett

lov,
I,

lova,

permission to promise

tillata

(insep.), to permit
to

ett tiotdg, ten o'clock train

mellan, between
i

vattna,

I,

water
I,

gar morse, yesterday morning
1.

verkligen, really

o'vertyga ( insep. )

,

to convince

IDIOMS:

att fara

till

staden, to go to town.

2. 3.
4.
<

Jag vill gdrna fara med, I should like to accompany. Det synes mig, or jag tyclcer, it seems to me. bli pd det Jclara, understand.

%

LESSON XXIV.
Verbal Auxiliaries (Continued). SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES (Continued).

257.
to

Bora.

(a) Duty: jag bb'r gb'ra

vad som ar

rtitt, I

ought

do what
1.

is

right.
:

The imperfect borde is generally used with present meaning and hag the same signification as bar (ought) if unaccented du borde skammas. you ought to be ashamed of yourself. If accented it implies that one does not do what one ought to, for instance: jag borde ga hem och arbeta, I ought (that is, if I were to do my duty) to go home and work. 2. In the sense of duty bora is weaker than skola.

NOTE

(b) Calculation taget bor vara har om tio minuter, the train ought to be here in ten minutes.
:

(c) Fitness

:

sa bor det vara, thus
Originally
it

it

ought to

be.

258.
gation.

Skola.

signified duty or obli-

SENSES OF MODALS.
(a) Auxiliary:

151

1. The present (skall) is used as an auxiliary with the infinitive to form the future tense jag skall ga, I shall go jag skall hava gatt, I shall have gone.
:

;

2.

The imperfect

finitive as

(skulle) is used with the inone mode of forming the imperfect and

pluperfect subjunctive. (b) Condition or contingency:

om

ni skulle se

honom, sa hdlsa honom frdn mig, give him my greetings, if you should see him han sade, att han skulle komma, he said that he would come.
;

(c)

the speaker

Duty or du
:

necessity, when proceeding from skulle ha gatt, ndr han bad dig, you

should have gone when he asked you; du skall icke stjala, thou shalt not steal; om vi ska gora det, sa lat oss gora det snart, if we are to do it, then let us do it soon.
(d) Threat or promise: det ska du inte ha gjort for inte, I will remember you for this (i. e. repay you in kind).
(e) Intention: han skulle ha kommit intended to come yesterday.
(f)
i

gar, he

Report: han skall vara kolossalt

rik,

he

is

said to be enormously rich.

(g)

alia slags

den in
259.

Wish: vi skulle allt ha en trddgard, i vilken blommor skulle vdxa, I wish we had a garwhich all kinds of flowers might grow.
Vilja.

(a) Will, intention, purpose: han ville visst icke gora dig ond, he did not at a!l intend to make you

152

SENSES OF MODALS.

angry; han vill hem, jag kan ej kvarhdlla honom, he is determined to go home, I cannot keep him.
(b) Wish, entreaty or request: han ville garna hjalpa, he was anxious to help v ill ni komma ndrmare or vill ni vara sd god och komma ndrmare,
;

please come a little closer (vill is very often used thus to express a mild command) ; jag ville garna

ha en kopp
NOTE
1. is

till,

I

should like another cup.

of vilja with the adverb garna, willingly, generally used to express a request politely as above, sometimes with vdl and a negative: ni ville vdl inte gora del for migf Would you do that for me' 2. Vilja is often used with an object, especially a pronoun: Vad vill han

The imperfect subjunctive

he

does he have to say to you ? han vill mig vdl, he wishes me well, Its signification seems to forbid its use with well disposed toward me. any other than animate subjects, but it is often used figuratively with inanimate: min klocka vill ej ga, my watch does not run (won't run) ; blommor

dig t

What

is

'vilja ej

vaxa

i

sadan jord, flowers do not grow in such

soil.

Do not translate will and would by vill, ville, they are only a sign of the future or the subjunctive. Will and would denoting habitual action are generally expressed by the simple tenses, present and past, or by the verbs bruka and plaga (255, e).
REMARK.
if

260.

Mdste.

(a) Physical necessity: jag

mdste ha mat, annars
food, or else I shall

svdlterjag

ihjal, I

must have

starve to death.
(b) Logical necessity: det mdste vara sant, that

must be true. (c) Moral necessity: barn mdste lyda sina dldrar, children must obey their parents.
261.

for-

Tor.

Probability, supposition: the imperfect torde is used with present sense and is of much more frequent occurrence than the present tor: det torde

VERBAL AUXILIARIES.

153

vara ganska svdrt, very likely it is quite difficult; han torde vara sjuk, ty han lovade sdkert att komma, I suppose that he is sick, for he promised surely to
come.

OTHER VERBAL AUXILIARIES.
262. The causative auxiliary lata, to let, make, or cause (to do or to be done). It has three main
significations
:

leka,

(a) to allow, to give permission he allowed the boys to play.

:

han

lat

pojkarna

somebody do a thing: jag har latit Karl hdmta bro'det, I have had Carl fetch the bread.

(b) to have

When
rock, I
XOTE.

the infinitive

the verb has this signification the subject of is often omitted: jag har Idtit gora en

have had a coat made.
In the latter case
it is

best to render

lata,

by have and the

infinitive

by the passive participle.

(c)

Lata

is

used to paraphrase the
:

first

person

plural of the imperative lat oss ga; also occasionally as a substitute for the passive as, det later sig gora,
;

that can be done;

han har

latit

overtala sig, he has

been persuaded.
NOTE. In this reflexive construction the passive infinitive is also permitted : the reflexive always precedes the infinitive: han har latit sig ofvertalas, he has
been persuaded.

Fa, to get, to receive, is also used as an auxiliary in a variety of meanings.
263.
(a) Permission Tn this sense it is
255, c) or
:

nu far du ga, now you may go. more common than either kunna
fick

ma

(256, c).

(b) Necessity:
Swedish Grammar

som gosse

han ofta gora en
11

154

EXERCISE.

mans
work.
fa

arbete, as a boy he often
1.

had

to do a

man's

NOTE when
2.

Very often the word lov, permission, is used euphemistically with denotes necessity: du far lov alt studera nu, you must study now. Mdstc has a more general and absolute meaning than fa; thus, we must
it

all

die,

must be rendered by,

vi

mdste alia do.

(c) With the verbs veta, hora, and se, fa is used in an inchoative sense resembling the English get; as, hon fick veta det i gar, she received news of it yesterday (learned to know) kommer han? du far se, you will see (learn).
;

NOTE.
gel.

When

Fa

tag pa, to get hold of

used independently fa presents fa igenom en
;

many
sale,

striking analogies with get a thing through, etc.

used only in the present indicative based on report. In this han sense it is more common than skola (258, f ) lar vara sjuk, they say he is sick.
264.
is

Lar

to denote a supposition

:

NOTE.
visst,

The same idea
;

is

certainly, surely

han ar

more commonly expressed by the use of the adverb visst sjuk. The adverbs allt, nog and vdl ex-

press the idea conveyed

by torde (261).

EXERCISE XXIV.
A.
ty

Continue:

1.

min

far har sagt, att jag maste hjalpa
2.

Jag bor vara hemma om en timma, honom, du bor
skall gora det, sa borcle jag

vara, etc.

Om jag
3.

anda

gora

det strax, etc.

Jag

blott finge lov af
etc. 4.

min

skulle garna vilja ha kaffe, om jag lakare att dricka det, du skulle garna,

gosse hade jag nog fatt arbeta tungt, om jag hade kunnat, men jag var sa klen, som gosse hade du, etc. 5. Jag skulle ha latit gora mig en kostym, om min far hade

Som

den med, etc. 6. Om han kunde jag ha gatt till sangs 7. Jag lat honom vanta pa svar, ty jag var ej tidigt, etc. det klara med hvad han ville, du lat honom, etc. pa
velat ge mig pengar hade velat avlagsna
att betala
sig, sa

EXERCISE.
B.

155

En

bonde hade kommit

till

en marknad och

ville

kopa nagot. Han stod vid ett av marknadsstanden och Handlanden gav dem en sag, hur folk kopte glasbgon. bok med fin stil i, sedan satte de pa ett par glasogon och
sago uppmarksamt i boken. "Kan ni lasa den liar sfilen bra?" fragade handlanden, och nar den andre svarade ja,

Bonden ville ocksa kopa sig ett fram till disken, satte pa sig det steg par glasogon. ena paret efter det andra och sag i boken, man lade ater bort dem. Handlanden ville hjalpa honom och erbjb'd honom olika glasogon, men bonden sade gang efter aiman: "Jag kan inte lasa med dem." Till sist fragade honom en annan bonde, som under tiden hade kommit dit: "Men sag mig, kan du verkligen lasa?" "En sadan dumbom du ar", svarade den forsta bonden, "skulle jag. val kopa mig glasogon, om jag kunde lasa?"
sa kopte

han

glasb'gonen.

Han

1. Vem hade kommit till marknahan garna gora? 3. Vad gjorde man vid ett av standen? 4. Vad gjorde handelsmannen for att kunna se, vad for glasogon han maste ge dem? 5. Av vem
(7.

Conversation:
2.

den?

Vad

ville

bor

man

lata

undersoka sina ogon, innan
6.

man

koper glas-

Yad for stil de, som ha att han ocksa svaga ogon, bast lasa? 7. Vad tyckte bonden, 9. Vad fick han8. Vad gjorde han alltsa? skulle ha? delsmannen lov att ge honom? (one pair after another). 10. Hade bonden velat kopa glasogon, om han hade kunnat lasa? 11. Vad trodde han, att glasb'gonen skulle satta honom i stand 1 att gbra.
ogon? (ogonlakaren).

kunna

*Satta i stand, to enable; roro i stand, to be able.

D.
a pair

1.

A

peasant

who was unable 1
2.

to read

wished to buy

(of)

spectacles.

He

he had to have

in order to be able (165, 2)

thought (trodde) that all to read was a

156
pair (of) spectacles.

VOCABULARY.

have spectacles, and
be able to read."
(254, note) to

if I

4.

He said to himself: "I ought to can get a pair that fits me I shall The peasant would not have wished
3.

buy

glasses,

had he been able

to read.

5.

A

wise

man would

(258, b) have had (262, b) his eyes ex-

2 oculist before buying glasses. 6. The dealer one pair after another, thinking 3 that he would try find a pair which would fit him. 7. The young man is not

amined by an
let

him

permitted
8.

The

(263, a) to read because his eyes are weak. doctor says that he may read a short while to-mor-

row.

9.

What do

the children wish (to have) for Christ-

mas ? They want many things, but we can't afford to give them much. 10. Then they will have (use pres. of modal)
to

be satisfied with

little.

11. Carl asked

my father, "May

we go to town?" and my father answered, "You may go, but you must be back before six o'clock." 12. Your father must have a great deal to do now. Several times I have
wished to see him, but I have not been able 1 to. 13. Yes, he is having (262, b) a house built in the country, and must superintend the work. 14. Where have you had your suit made? I should like (259, b) to have the address of

your

tailor.

15.

He

can make clothes that

fit;

he

is

said

(258, g) to have studied his art in London.
3
1 Icke kunna in proper tense. : Expand into a temporal clause with innan. Causal clause with emedan, endr or do.

VOCABULARY.
en adress', -er, address flere(a) more, several en bonde, bonder, peasant forstdn'dig, -t, wise, sensible bort'laggd (sep.), to put away genom, through
1

bygga, lib, to build en disk, -ar, counter

glasogon, spectacles

gdng
-bju-

en dumbom*, -mar, fool
er'bjuda,
dit,
-bjo'd,

-bjodo,
to offer

-en,

~et,

efter annan, time and again en handlande, merchant en Jiandelsman, -man, dealer
,

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
kliider, clothes

157
,

en skriiddare,
stil

tailor

en konst,
kort,
liten,
,

-er,

art

atiga fram', to step forth
t

short
def.
little
-er, fair

-ar, style;
-er,

print

-et,

lilla(e),

pi.

en stund,

while

smd,
ett

en marknad,

marknadsstund, mycket, much

booth

wag, -t, weak under tiden, in the meantime un'dersoka tinsep.), to examine upp'marksam, -t, attentive
vilja ha', to

nu,

now
nojt, satisfied
-t,

want
,

nijjd,

olik,

unlike, different
,

en ogonldkare, oculist overvaka (insep.), I, to superintend

ett rdd,

advice;

means
ej rdd,
I

sex, six

IDIOMS:

1. 2.

Jag har

cannot afford.

Vad
for
att

3.
J

julklappf What do you wish Christmas (.present)? luta sy en rock, to have a coat made.
vill

du ha

till

More commonly used separably. 2 Note how final m of a word when the preceding vowel is short its becoming intervocalic by the addition of an ending (3).

is

doubled on

LESSON XXV.
Indefinite Pronouns.
I.

USED AS PRONOUNS ONLY.

265. Man (indeclinable) is used only in the nominative as an indefinite personal subject and,
lacking an exact equivalent, is variously translated one, they, you, we, people (cf. German man, French Ex. man sager, att han har skrivit en ny bok, on} they say that he has written a new book; man fb'r. :

talar mig, people slander me.

(a) In the oblique cases the corresponding forms of en are used, ens for the genitive, en for the objective the reflexive is sig. Thus vad man ger,
;
:

bringar en lycka, what one gives brings one luck;

158

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
skulle icke

man

praise oneself.

beromma sig sjdlv, one should not The reflexive possessive is sin, sitt,

otherwise ens

an ens

usedr ens vdnner dro ofta vdrre one's friends are often worse than fiender,
is

one's enemies; man bar vorda sina fordldrar, one ought to honor one's parents.

(b)
it is

When man is the subject of a transitive verb usually best to render the sentence by a passive
:

man

har behandlat honom

ilia,

he has been badly

treated.

266. 267.

Allting

(gen. -s; no plur.), everything.
-s;

Ndgonting (gen.

no plur.), something,

anything.

Ingenting (gen. -s; no plur.), nothing, Ingenting as well as ndgonting in a negative sentence are often intensified by a following (sometimes
268.
alls; as, har du sett nagonting? Ingenhave you seen anything? Nothing at all; ting alls, jag sag alls ingenting, I saw nothing whatever.

preceding)

1. Ingenting and ndgonting are followed by an adjective in the indefform of the neuter: har ni nagonting gott alt ataf do you have anything good to eat? Likewise nagot and intet.

NOTE

inite

is usually placed before the supine of a compound tense, ndgonlikewise intet is placed before and nagot after; Jag har ingenting (intet) sett, jag har sett ndgonting (nagot). In a dependent clause ingenting and intet come immediately after the subject: han sager, att han ingenting har sett.

2.

Ingenting

ting, after;

269. Envar (gen. envars; no plur.) ; var och en (neut. vart och ett, gen. vars och ens; no plur.),

sometimes en och var, everybody, every one var och en (envar) har sina fel, everybody has his faults;
:

envars (vars och ens) rykte bor respekteras, everybody's reputation should be respected.
NOTE.

Var och en

is

sometimes used adjectively.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
II.

151)

USED AS BOTH PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

270.
ena, def.

En

form

(neut. ett, only as adj., gen. ens, plur. ene, ena), one, a, an: man tror ens
bast,

egna vdnner

one has most confidence in one's

friends; han dr en av mina bdsta vdnner, he is one of my best friends. In less elegant conversation en is used in the nominative with the same sense as man; in the oblique cases it always takes
the place of man. It is not used after adjectives like the English one: the red apple and the green
one, det roda applet och det grb'na.

own

ene (-a) (fern, den ena, neut. det ena) often used in correlation with den andre (-a), etc., the other: den ene kommer, den andre gar, one comes, the other goes.

271.

Den
is

,

the one,

272. En och en och annans; here and there: and then says so

annan

(neut. ett och annat, gen.

no plur.), one now and then, one en och annan sdger sd, one now (some say so).

273. Ende (-a) (plur. and def. enda), only, is used as an adjective: han var enda sonen, he was the only son. When used as a pronoun it is always

preceded by the definite or indefinite article and takes an -s in the genitive dessa voro de enda, som voro ddr, these were the only ones who were there; jag har ej sett en enda av dem, I have not seen a single one of them.
:

274.

Nagon

(neut. nagot, gen. ndgons, nagots;

plur. nagra; gen. ndgras), some,

some one, any, anyone, a few, something, anything: har du nagra

1

GO

EXERCISE.

pengar? have you any money? nagon har frag at efter dig, some one (has) asked for you; jag har ho'rt ndgot vackert om dig, I have heard something nice about you; nagons hatt ligger har, somebody's
hat
lies here.
1.

NOTE
2.

The words
it

often omitted:

for any and some when used in a partitive sense are har ni tdndstickort do you have any matches?

Some when

means a

little

is

translated

by

litet

(lite).

275.

Ingen

(neut.

intet,

inget,

gen.

ingens,

no one, none, nobody, as adjective, no: jag har inga pengar (also nothing; jag har icke nagra pengar), I have no money; ingens karaktdr kan vara renare an hans, nobody's character can be purer than his.
intets; plur. inga, gen. ingas),
NOTE.

The paraphrase icke nagon, nagra

is

at the beginning of a statement ingen is preferred. and more common for intet.

more common than ingen, inga; Inget is becoming more

276.

All (neut.

allt,

gen. alias, allts; plur. alia,

gen. alias), all, everything: Gud har skapat allt, God has created everything; alia hans dottrar voro

vackra, all his daughters were pretty; all j or den dr Guds verk, all the earth is the work of God.
NOTE 1. When all in English means whole it must be rendered by hela without the prepositive article jag har arbetat hela doyen, I have worked
:

all

hela Paris, day 2. For the use of
;

all
alls

Paris.
see 268, for the use

of allra see 316.

Observe the following idiomatic uses of hel: som ett hell, as a whole; helt och hallet, wholly, completely pd del hela taget, taken as a whole, on the whole.
3.
;

EXERCISE
A.

XXV.
1.

Supply the missing indefinites:

Ar

.

.

.

(anybody}

dar?
vitt
1

Jag
jag

ser ...

(nobody}.
.

2.
.

body's)

hatt hanga dar.
vet.
3.

.

jag ser ... (some(nobody) har kommit, sa

Men

ju

vem som

(one) horde lasa dorren, annars kan heist komma in, och (one) hb'r det icke.
...
. . .

EXERCISE.
4.

161

(somebody) kunde till och med komma ocli stjala 2 5. Brev(one's) saker, utan att man visste det. bararen liar varit bar med ... (a few) brev for dig. 6. ...
...
.

bort

.

.

(one) var ofrankerat, och jag maste betala fyrtio ore, (the other) var rekommenderat. 7. Har du (any) frimarken att lana mig? Jag bar skrivit brev (all) da.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

gen

(every one) (a single) frimarke kvar. 8. Hur skall (one) fa ... 2 nar ... (one) ar ute och reser? 9. Lat (one's) post,
.
.

till

.

i

familjen, och jag bar inte
.

.

.

.

.

.

adressera dina brev poste restante till (some) av de stadu amnar besoka. 10. ... (everybody), som ar ute der,
. .

.

och reser,
vara
12.

svarighet med posten. 11. Middagen maste nu. Var god och tag plats bredvid mig. fardig ... (no) ceremonier, som ni ser; vi aro blott ...
liar

(some) vanner. 13. Behagar ni ... (some) soppa? Soppan iir utmarkt. Skulle ni vilja ge mig ... (a little more),
li.
l

Behagar ni en kopp kaffe
vitt
(vitt,

till?
*Sin

Sd

neuter of vid), as far as; note omission of som (as).

or ens (265, a).

B.
2.

I

am

at

home

to

no one 1

;

I

wish to rest a

little.

If anyone asks for me, say that I shall be 2 at home again at seven o'clock (klockan sju). 3. One (271) of those two Americans asked for (efter) you; he left no card, and I

cannot recall his name.
so

annoying? and now when
5.

Here

I

I am Do you have anything good
6.

4. Have you ever seen anything have waited for (pa) him all week, out (for) a few minutes he comes.

to eat?

Yes, this chicken

Should you like a wing or a leg? 7. If 2 will allow me, I shall take a little of this fruit. 8. Take you what you want without ceremony; here one helps oneself (248, note). 9. Try this wine; it is ten years old and of
is excellent.

with

(till)

the fruit.

10.

Thank
3

you, not

now;

I shall

the best quality.

One

generally

takes a glass (of) wine

162
taste

VOCABULARY.

your wine another time; but I shall take another 4 11. One single apple like this is worth more to me apple. than all (the) wine in the world. 12. Now, when we have
eaten,

we

shall see the sights of (bese) the city.
13.

I haven't

seen anything of Stockholm yet.

Where shall we go? who visits Stockholm must of course visit the Everybody famous Skansen and the Northern Museum. 14. Let us all go there. What do you prefer, car, cab, or automobile?
translated: not... for anybody. 2 Use the present tense. 'Adverbs cannot stand between subject and verb except adverbs of negation and a few others in a dependent clause (179, a). *Translate: one such apple as (som) this.

VOCABULARY.
adresse'ra,
I,

to address
-er,

lasa, I la, to lock

en amerikan',
behaga,

American

mer, more

I (often impers.), to please; to desire bredvid, beside
,

minnas

(dep.), lib, to

remember

ofrankerad, -at, without stamp poste restante, general delivery

en brevbarare,
rier
bast, best

letter car-

rekommende'rad,
tered
sju,

-at,

regis-

seven
I,

en ceremoni', -er, ceremony en familj', -er, family
ett

smaka,

to taste

stjiila bort',

bortstjula (sep.),
-stulit,

frimarke,
-t,

-n,

postage stamp

-stal,
-et,

-stulo,

-en,

fyrtio, forty

to steal

furarglig,

annoying

forsoka, Ila, to try
Jiiinga, lib, to hang ett kort (visit'kort) ,

en svdrignet, -er, difficulty en soppa, -or, soup
ito.-teo
,

card

Vila sig (refl.),
ett vin, -er,

I,

to rest

(visiting card)

en

kvalitet', -er, quality kvar, over, left lamna, I, to leave

wine en vinge, -ar, wing
ett ore,
-n,

ore (coin worth

14 cent).

IDIOMS:

1.
2.
3.

Vad behagar nif What would you like? Var god och tag plats, please sit down. Skulle ni vilja ha en kopp kaffe tillf Would you
like another cup of coffee?

LESSON XXVI.
Indefinite

Pronouns (Continued).

277. Mdngen (neut. mdnget, gen. mangens; pi. and def manga, gen. mangas) many a in the singular and many in the plural. Ex.: manga vackra blommor vdxa i trddgarden, many beautiful flowers grow in the garden; mdngen rik dr olycklig, many a rich person is unhappy.
.

,

Mycket (indeclinable), much: hur mycket pengar har du pa dig ? how much money do you have about you? icke alls mycket, not very much.
278. 279.
other
it

Annan
is

(neut. annat, gen. annans; pi.

and

def. andra, gen. andras), other.

Like the English

definite article in the singular:

bok?

preceded either by the definite or inhar ni en annan Have you another book? Vad go'ra de andra?
ffagon annan, ndgot annat means somebody else, something else. another, a different one; en till means one more: var
;

What
NOTE
2.

are the others doing?
1.

En annan means

god och giv mig en annan bok, please give me another book jag ville garna ha en kopp till, I should like another cup. 3. Varannan signifies every other varannan dag, every other day.
:

Somlig (neut. somligt; pi. somliga, gen. is used as a pronoun or an adjective generally only in the neut. sing, and plur. of all genders: somliga mdnniskor, some people; somliga o'nska det har, andra det ddr, some want this and some that.
somligas), some,
others. 1. Note the correlatives somliga. andra, some. The English some is generally to be rendered by ndgon, nagra, in speaking of individuals or individual things; by litet (lite), in speaking of quantity.
.
. . .

280.

NOTE
2.

.

.

281.

Flera(e) (gen. fleras), more, several.

164

INDEFINITES.

282.

Flesta(e) (gen. flestas)
fiesta are

,

most, the majority.

used as comparative and superlative of manga. When flera does not express comparison it signifies several, quite a few; fiesta is always preceded by the article, but the noun it modifies does not take the postpositive article: flera voro hiir i dag an i gar, more were here to-day than yesterday; pd fieras begaran sjong han sdngen, at the
request of several he sang the song; de fiesta rosta nog honom, the majority will doubtless vote for him.
fur

Flera and

283. Fa (gen. fas), few. It is very often preceded by nagra: ndgra fa voro hdr, a few were here. 284. Varannan (neut. vartannat; no plur.), every other: varannan dag ha vi tyska, we have German every other day. NOTE. Om vartannat, topsy-turvy; var (vart) tredje, var (vart) fjdrde;
every third
;

every fourth.

285.

Endera

(neut. ettdera)

,

one of two, either;

ndgondera (neut. nagotdera), either;
ingendera (intetdera), neither; vardera (vartdera), each.

nominally.-

when used proadjectives. Ex. ingendera av oss fick ndgot, neither of us got anyThese take an
s in the genitive

They are rarely used as

:

thing; han kan komma endera dagen, he may come one of these days ; hdr ha ni ett apple vardera, here

you have an apple each.
286.
1 Var (neuter vart; no plur.) Veach, every varje (indeclinable) varenda (neut. vartenda, no pl.)J

a pronoun

only used adjectively. Varenda used as followed by en, ett. Ex. varje larjunge mdste go'ra sin plikt. every pupil must do his duty;

Varje

is

is

:

INDEFINITES.

165

jag har givit bort vartenda every one.

ett, I

have given away

NOTE. Varje may sometimes be used with the sense of any: varje penna dr god nog, any pen will do.

287.

Vilken (neut. vilket, plur. vilka)

som

heist

and vad som heist (neuter) are used pronominally and adjectively with the sense of whosoever, whatsoever, whichsoever, anyone at all, anything at all, any at all; vem som heist, whosoever, anyone (at
all), is

used only pronominally. When these words are used as adjectives, som heist generally follows the noun when used as pronouns, som may be dropped before a relative clause. Ex. vilken penna som heist dr god nog, any pen is
;

:

good enough; vem som heist kan komma, anyone at all may come; Ids vad bok som heist, read any book you please; vid vilken tid som heist, at any time; vdlj hvad heist, som passar, chose anything
that suits you.
adverbs hurudan, and conjunctive ingen, hur, sd, likewise form compounds with som heist to become especially indefinite; as, dr det ndgon som heist
1.

Ndgon,

like nar,

or sale, varfor du icke kan din Idxa? is there any reason whatsoever why

Nej, ingen

som

heist,

you do not know your lesson? No, no reason whatever; kom nar som heist, come at any time; kor sd fort som heist, drive as fast as you
please.
2. The particle an is also used with the relatives and certain conjunctive adverbs to impart an indefinite force: vem det an dr, whoever it may be; vad du an gor, gor det veil,

whatever you do, do it well; vad svar han an gav, whatever answer he gave; hur fort det an gar, sd, hinna vi ej from i tid, no matter how fast we go, we won't be there in time. 3. Note the difference in meaning between han gjorde vad som heist, and vad han an gjorde.

166

EXERCISE.

288. Bdda, bdgge (gen. bddas, bdgges), both, are plural forms. When bada is preceded by the prepositive article it means two; as, de bdda flickorna tiro systrar, the two girls are sisters; but bada systrarna kommo, both sisters came.
OBSERVE.
Vi bdda, ni bada, de bdda, both of
us,

both of you, both of them.

EXERCISE XXVI.
A.

En

pa

sitt

grosshandlare behovde en gang en springpojke kontor och satte fordenskull en annons i tidningen.

gossar infunno sig pa kontoret nasta dag. Somliga av dessa hade medfort goda rekommendationsbrev, men

Manga

grosshandlaren skickade bort dem alia utan att se pa deras rekommendationer och beholl en enda liten gosse, som icke hade nagot som heist skriftligt intyg. En av hans vanner,

som var narvarande, fragade varfor han ej hade nagon rekommendation, da de
medfort sadana.
ej

just valde en,
fiesta

som

andra hade

"Jo", svarade grosshandlaren, "han hade sa fa rekommendationer, ehuru de ej voro skriftliga.

Han

torkade av fotterna vid db'rren och tog upp en knappnal fran golvet, foljaktligen maste han vara bade renlig

och noggrann. Dessutom tog han av sig niossan och svarade raskt och riktigt, darfor maste han vara bade forstanHan vantade stilla och tyst, medan flig och uppmarksam.
var och en av de andra trangde sig fram, och ar foljaktEn manniskas uppforande betyder ligen ocksa bl}'gsam. mycket mer an vilken rekommendation som heist."

B.

Conversation.

1.

Vad behovde

grosshandlaren?

2.

Vad

gjorde han for att fa en springpojke? 3. Medforde hans annons nagot resultat? 4. Vad hade de fiesta medfort? 5. Brydde sig grosshandlaren om deras rekommendationsbrev? (bry sig

oni=o
Vad

core for).
det.

6.

Vem

valde

han for platsen?

7.

var

som forvanade en

VOCABULARY.
av bans vanner, vilken var narvarande?
8.

167

Vilka fern

goda egenskaper (qualities) agde gossen? 9. Varigenom (through what) visade gossen, att han var renlig? Artig? Forstandig och uppmarksam? 10. Vad brydde sig grosshandlaren mer
C.
1.

om an
1

(than)

om

rekommendationsbrev ?

day?
if

Are tbere many advertisements in the paper toNo, only a few (283). 2. I should like to know there is anyone who wants an errand boy. 3. It seems
4.

as if every other

boys.

The next morning
;

(279, 3) advertisement is about errand there were many boys in (pa)

the

letters of

it was full of boys who wanted the place. 5. The recommendation of most were very good. 6. Some 7. But the of the boys had many recommendations each. merchant dismissed every one of them and kept a small 2 boy who did not have any recommendation whatsoever.

office

Which one of you got the place? Neither. 9. Every boy who did not have any letter of recommendation was dis10. I believe that he missed, and neither of us had any.
8.

will

that (den som) he has
little

soon need another (279, 2) boy in his office; the one 4 4 11. The is neither polite nor tidy. conduct of both boys was good, but it seemed as if the
12. Do you have any reason boy behaved better. whatsoever 2 for not having 5 done this yet? 13. I did not

3

that it should be ready so soon; when I asked you, said that I could do it at any time. 14. How fast shall you 2 I drive ? You may drive as fast as you please 2 3 1. Use present or kommer att and ijfr del or finns det (244, b). 287,

know

.

infinitive.

4

VarTcen.

.

.

.eller.

translate varfor du icke har,

etc.

VOCABULARY.
en annons'

(pronounced an- behdl'la (insep., see hdlla), to retain nongs') -er, advertisement lieho'va (insep.), lib, to need artig, -t, polite
av'torka (sep., torka av'), to
bety'da( insep.), lib, to signify

wipe

llygsam,

-t,

modest

168

USE OF TENSES.
narvarande, next
,
,

bort'skicka, skicka bor'(sep.) to dismiss

present

nnsta,

bdde. och (conj.), both. ehu'ru (conj.), although
.

.

and ocksd, also
en plats,
rask,
-t,

-er, place,

position

fort, fast

quick
cleanly
-er,

foljaktligen,
ett golv,

consequently
floor
,

renlig,

-t,

forderi'skull, on that account
,

en rekommendation',

re-

commendation
wholeett

en grosshandlare,
sale

rekommendations'brev,
-t,

,

merchant

a letter of recommendation
skriftlig,

in'finna sig, to appear, to pre-

written

sent oneself
ett intyg,
just, just
,

testimonial

en knappndl,
ett kontor,

-ar,
,

pin

office

en springpojke. -ar, errand boy synas (dep.), Ha, to seem torka av', I, wipe off trdnga sig from', lib, to crowd to the front, to press forward
tyst,
,

medan, while
med'fora (sep.), to bring along noggrann, -grant, careful

quiet,

silent

upp'taga, taga upp', to take up
ett

uppforande (no

pi.),

conduct

LESSON XXVII.
Use of the Tenses.
289. In general the tenses are used as in Engbut the following points should be noticed.

lish,

PRESENT.
290. The Present for the Future. In both languages the present is used with the meaning of the future but this use is much more extensive in Swedish, and a Swedish present must often be rendered by the future. In fact Swedish employs the present instead of the future almost always when some adverbial expression of time accompanies the verb and prevents a misunderstanding jag gar till posten och ar tillbaka om tio minuter, I am going to the post office and shall be back in ten minutes.
:

NOTE.

For the progressive present see 228 and note.

USE OF TENSES.

169

IMPERFECT.

The imused in a present sense, especially in exclamatory expressions, to denote intensity of feeling, such as pleasure, enthusiasm, disgust, etc. It is usually combined with the impersonal det. Ex.: Det var fortjusande vackert! How Det var forfdrligt, hvad det charmingly beautiful bldser! How fearfully it storms! Det var roligt, att du kommer, I am glad that you are coming. Det var da lojligt! Isn't that ludicrous?
291.
perfect of the verb v ara
is
!

The Imperfect for the Present.

NOTE.

For the progressive imperfect see 228 and note.

292. The imperfect is used in certain expressions with a present or imperative meaning to give a tinge of modesty or politeness: herrarna behagade komma in, please come in, gentlemen; jag on-

skade veta om herr dr tillbaka, I should like to know if Mr. X. is back. This might perhaps be

X

regarded as a subjunctive (167).
PERFECT.
293. The Perfect for the Future Perfect. As in English the perfect is often employed with the meaning of the future perfect when no misunderstanding can arise: ndr han har varit i Sverige ett dr, sd talar han svenska flytande, when he has been in Sweden a year, he will speak Swedish fluently.

FUTURE.
294. For the present taking the place of the future see 290.
.295.

The future expressed by the auxiliary skola
infinitive often

and the

conveys the idea of a reso12

Swedish Grammar

170

USE OF TENSES.

lution, decision, or even command: jag skall betala, I will pay, is equivalent to a promise ; du skall betala
is

equivalent to an exhortation or

command.

Pure futurity is often expressed by the of the verb fcowwa-f-the infinitive of the verb present
296.

preceded by att: jag kommer att betala, I am going to pay. In this case the present could not be used since there is no adverbial expression of time to
obviate the misunderstanding. We may say, jag betalar i morgon. If we wish to translate, for instance, you will laugh when you read the book,

we must say

ni kommer att skratta, nar ni laser boken and not ni skall skratta, nar ni laser boken, since the latter has almost the force of a command. The present of skratta may also be used but is not quite as good in this case as kommer, etc.

297.

Sta

i

begrepp

is

occasionally used with the

infinitive to express immediate futurity; it is equivalent to the English to be about to, or on the point
of,

but

is

used

much
till

less extensively:
I

begrepp

att resa

Europa,

am

jag star i on the point of

leaving for Europe.

FUTURE PERFECT.
298.

The future perfect
its

Swedish,

is used very little in taken by the perfect (293). place being

299. Omission of the Auxiliary in the Perfect and Pluperfect. In a dependent clause the auxiliary hava is frequently omitted: nar du gdtt (har gatt), skall jag borja att arbeta, when you have gone, I
shall begin to

work.

USE OF TENSES.

171

THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE. 300. The simple infinitive (without att) is used much more frequently in Swedish than in English.
Thus, att
(a)
is

omitted

:

With the future auxiliary

skall,

the modals,

and

lata, fa, Idr.

(b)

When

the infinitive has a subject in the ob-

very common in Swedish; as, jag bad honom komma, I asked him to come; jag horde honom sjunga, I heard him sing; jag sag hojective, a construction

nom komma,

I

saw him coming.

(c) Very often when the infinitive is used predicatively after a verb in the passive: han hordes

saga, he was heard to say; han sages ha dott, he is said to have died de syna-s trivas, they seem to get
;

along well. (d) After many verbs which in English require to before the infinitive which they govern, like, dmna, to intend; hoppas, to hope; bruka, to use;
plaga, to use,
etc.,

especially

when euphony demands.
is

301
(a)

.

The

infinitive

with att

used

:

As

dr mdnskligt, to err

subject or object of a sentence: att fela In this case the is human.

infinitive is often translated

by a verbal noun or a
:

gerund
(b) ten att

in English.

modifier of nouns and adjectives konsthe art of growing rich detta dr latt att forstd, this is easy to understand.
bli rik,
;

As a

Note expressions like

:

rum

att hyra,

rooms

for rent

;

ved att saga, wood to

be sawed, where the noun

is really

the object.

(c)
etc.

As

predicate after vara, bliva, finnas, std,
infinitive

Swedish uses here the active

where

172

EXERCISE.

either the active or the passive is used in English: Vad dr hdr'att gora? What is here to be done?

Han

star ej att overtala, he

is

not to be persuaded.
Infinitive.

302.

Prepositions with

att

When

it

refers to the subject of the leading verb the att

may be preceded by almost any prepowhich case the English generally requires a verbal noun; as, han lekte i stdllet for att gora sitt arbete, he played instead of doing his work; genom att hjalpa andra hjdlper man ofta sig sjalv, by helping others, we often help ourselves; jag dr glad over att kunna hjdlpa dig, I am glad that I
infinitive
sition, in

can help you.
NOTE. When the subject of the infinitive is not the same as that of the leading verb, Swedish uses an att clause preceded by the preposition: genom att han Idnade mig pengar, kunde jag kopa huset, by his lending me money, I was able to buy the house ; han gick, utan att jag fick tala med honom, he went
without

my

getting a chance to speak to him.

EXERCISE XXVII.
A.

med dyrbar
forlorat.

Ett skepp, som seglade fran Smyrna till Marseille last, forfoljdes av sjb'rovare och ansags vara

Kaptenen kom da pa den tanken att lata besattningen ga ned under dack. Pa dacket lamnade han blott en enda matros, som han noga foreskrev, vad han skulle gora.

Nar

sjorovarnas skepp narmade sig och dess kapten be-

fallde, att

man

skulle stryka flagg, ropade matrosen

med

jamrande rb'st: "Jag bar ej sa mycket styrka kvar; ni fa bemaktiga er skeppet; vi komma fran Smyrna, och kaptenen samt halften av besattningen ha dott i pesten pa b'verresan. Sex man aro annu kvar, men komma sakert
att do,

om

ni ej hjalper oss.

1 ty ni allena

kan radda

oss."
till

bom

!''

ropade sjorovaren

Skynda er att stiga ombord. "Far din vag, din 2 dumsvar, "tror du verkligen, att

EXERCISE.
jag skulle vilja narma

173

nade ban
J

3 sig sa fort

mig ditt fartyg!" ban kunde.

Darpa

avliigs-

Note the weak form of the adjective after a personal pronoun. 2 Note the use of the personal pronoun of the second person in expressions denoting contempt ; transl. you big fool. Other expressions of the same kind din skurk,
1

:

din asna, etc.

3
,

Note omission of som,
1.

as.

B.

Conversation.
3.

Varifran

kom

skeppet?
4.
5.
?

2.

Vart
det

seglade det?

Vad
6.

for slags last hade det?

Var

ett segelfartyg eller ett

angfartyg (steamer)
det

Av vem
sjo-

forfoljdes det?

Kunde

undkomma

(escape)

Vart skickade kaptenen hela besattmed undantag av 1 en enda matros ? 8. Vad befallningen de kaptenen pa det andra fartyget honom 'att gora? 9. Vad hade blivit av kaptenen? 10. Hur manga av besattrovaref artyget ?
7.

niiigen voro kvar?

11.

Vad

gjorde sjorovarna,

niir

de horde

detta
1

?
of.

With the exception

0.

lish future,

Supply the proper Swedish equivalent for the Engnamely, the present, future with sTcall, or hamthe
first six sentences.
.

mer

att, in

1. I

morgon
. . .

.

.

(resa, 1st plur.) till

Stockholm.

2.

Om

en vecka

(vara, 1st plur.) tillbaka,
3.

och da ... (besb'ka,
. .

1st plur.) dig.

Det dar gamla fartyget
.

.

sakert for-

olyckas.

4. I

morgon

.

.

(fara)

till

Chicago, och da ...
.
.

6. Nar 2nd sing., min daliga svenska, sa (skratta, 7. Hela besattningen ... (do, polite) at mina manga fel. 8. I gar nar min kusin kom for att progressive present).

en ring at dig. 5. Du ditt arbete, Erik, innan du far ga ut och spela
(kb'pa, 1st sing.)
. .
.

.

(gora) allt
boll.

ni laser

besoka mig,

.

.

.

(packa, progressive imperfect,

first

person)

min
9.

koffert.

Change the following three sentences according to 299. Om jag hade vetat, att ban var sjuk, sa hade jag besokt

174

VOCABULARY.
10.

honom.
ar
till

Den gamle
11.

min

larare.

herrn, som nyss bar stigit i vagnen, Vi sakna vara vanner, som nyss ha rest
infinitive, the att

New

York.
12.

In the following supply the proper
. .

infinitive or the simple, of the verbs indicated.
.

Genom
13.

(narra) sjorovarna raddade kaptenen sitt fartyg. Han bad matroserna ... (ga) ned under dack. 14.

Han

ansags
till

.

.

.

(vara) rik.

15.

Sjorovaren hordes

.

.

.

(ropa)

matrosen pa dacket.
1.

D.

But
I

say, this is (291) a beautiful ship!
it is
1

Do you

know
him,

to

what port

board?
if

know

going to sail ? 2. Shall we go on the captain, and shall 1 introduce you to

you wish. 3. He is a fine man and I am sure (saker 2 that you will like him. 4. He has just returned from pa) America and the passage was very difficult. 5. It was only
3 by maneuvering the ship skillfully that (som) he saved it. 2 6. He does not believe that his trip will be stormy. 7. He

asked us to come on board, for (ty) he did not wish to 3 8. When the leave the city without having spoken to us.

had (299) told the pirate that half of the crew had died of the plague, the pirate sailed away without taking 3 9. He was on the point (297) of possession of the ship. going out when I entered. 10. Did he do all this work?
sailor

Well, I call that working (301, a).
fast in order to get

11.

We

must walk

form).
13.

(Tcomma) home before night (def. 12. Mr. Lind was kind enough to lend me a book.
very

interested in playing3 tennis. 14. The water is warm enough for bathing 3 (till att bada i). *Here the future implies a decision: skola or komma attf 2 Here pure futuriis

He

much

ty.

VOCABULARY.
alle'na

(only predicative, no neut.), alone
befal'la,

bemak'tiga

sig,

to

take pos-

session of

lib,

to

command

en besatt'ning,

-ar,

crew

VOCABULARY.
dyrbar,
dilrpd,
-t,

175
-er,
I,

precious, costly
,

ett ddck,

deck
vessel

en matros', maniivre'ra,
ned,

sailor to

maneuver

thereupon
,

down

ett far'tyg,

en

flag g a (flagg), -or, flag

nog, enough; certainly, to be sure

fort, quickly, rapidly fo'reskriva (insep. v.), to prescribe

noga

(adj.
sig,

ndrma

and adv.), exact I, to approach

fvrfol'ja (insep.), lib, to pur-

omoord, on board en pest, -er, pest, plague
presente'ra,
I,

sue en hamn, -ar, port, harbor en hedersman, -man, man of

to introduce

ropa,

I,

to cry, call

honor
en
hiilft,

en rost, -er, voice en sjorovare, pirate
,

-er,

half

skicklig,

-t,

skillful

intresse'rad, -at, interested

stryka,
kit,

strok,
-en,
-et,

jiimrande,

,

plaintive

stroko, struto lower

en kapten',

-er,

captain

komma
en
IDIOMS:

in',

to enter

en styrka, strength, power en tanke, -ar, thought
iinnu, yet

last, -er,

cargo; burden

1.

2. 3.

Var sd god och Idna mig, be so kind as to (please) lend me; han var sd god och kom, he was kind enough to come. att do i en sjukdom, to die of a disease. att komma pd en ide, en tanke, to hit upon an idea,
a thought.

4.

5.

en person for ndgon, to introduce a person to somebody. att omtala ndgot for ndgon, to tell somebody someatt presentera

thing.

LESSON XXVIII.
Comparison of Adjectives
303. Most adjectives form their comparative by adding -are to the stem of the positive, and the superlative by the addition of -ast. 304.
rik ddel

Examples

:

trogen vacker ringa
NOTE.
in the comparative

rikare ddlare trognare

rikast ddlast

rich

noble
faithful beautiful

vackrare ringare
Positive stems in unaccented

trognast vackrast ringast
-el, -en, -er,

humble, small

and superlative.

drop the e of these syllables Positive stems in -a drop the a.

305. The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative by the addition of -re and -st and modify the stem vowel if it is strong:

grov hog
lag

grovre hogre
lagre Idngre storre

Idng
stor

trang tung

trdngre tyngre

ung

yngre
;

NOTE. Grov, trdng and lag are also compared regularly moral signification.

lag then has a

306.

The following are compared

irregularly:

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
307.

177

adjectives derived from adverbs, such as designate place, have no posiespecially tive. These have a comparative in -re, generally

Some

inverted in the superlative -erst.

bakre
bortre

bakerst
bofrterst

frdmre
ftfrre(a)

frdmst
forst innerst

farther back, rear farther farther in front

former
inner
nether, lower

inre

nedre undre
yttre
o'vre

nederst

under st
ytterst

under
outer

overst

upper

308. Adjectives which do not easily take the endings of comparison may be compared by using mera and mest together with the positive (such are adjectives in -e, -ad, -s, isk and all participles) Ex. ode, desolate, mera ode, mest ode; dlskad, mera
. :

dlskad,

mest dlskad.

NOTE. This is also the case when two qualities of the same object are compared with one another: han or mera trott an somnig, he is more tired than
sleep}'.

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
309. The comparative is invariable except that takes an -s in the genitive when used as a noun den dldre brodern, the older brother; det dldre barnet, the older child; den dldres rdttigheter, the rights of the older.
it
:

The superlative is not declined in the predicate when not preceded by the definite prepositive article; when preceded by this article it is declined Ex. han like an adjective in the weak declension.
310.
:

178

EXERCISE.

var den flitigaste i klassen, he was the most diligent one in the class han var didst, he was the oldest.
;

Superlatives in -ast take only the ending -e: del vackraste barnet, but det yngsta barnet, den yngste gossen.

NOTE.

311. jag, he

Than
is

is

rendered by an: han ar aldre an
I.

older than

EXERCISE XXVIII.
A.
Insert comparative and superlative forms respective-

ly in the blanks.
1.

Jag ar trogen, du ar
.
.

.

.

.

,

han ar

.

.

.

2.

Vi aro

adla,

ni aro

.,

de aro ...

3.

Detta huset ar
. .

stort, det

dar

och det grona dar borta ar 4. Detta ar en fortjusande utsikt, men utsikten fran berget pa andra sidan floden ar och utsikten fran den hoga bergstoppen .,
ar
. .
.

,

.

.

.

5. Karl ar liten, Erik ar (peak) dar borta ar ., 6. I dag ar det manga i kyrkan, men forra Ernst ar
.
. .

.

.

.

.

.

Han ar en lag manniska, jag Vilken av de tva bergstopparna ar den (lowest) ? 9. Hur gammal ar Erik? Det vet jag ej sakert, men han ar (older) an Karl, och Alfred
sondagen var det ... bar sallan sett en ...
.
. .

7.

8.

.

.

.

ar den

.

.

.

(oldest) av gossarna.
eller

10.

Vem
ar
.

ar
.
.

.

.

.

(most

musical},
tive)

Anna

an Klara.

12.

Klara? H'ar du

11.
sett

Anna

(compara-

en ...

(more desolate,

ode) trakt an denna?

E. 1. Ar icke katedralen i Koln en av de aldsta, storsta och hogsta kyrkor i varlden? 2. Jo, det finns endast fa, som aro aldre, storre och hogre. 3. Nar tycker ni, att det
ar intressantast (310) att resa?

Pa sommaren,

ty da aro

dagarna namare.

langre, man kan se mer, och det ar mycket ange4. Hur lang tid tar det att komma fran New

De snabbaste angarna gora overtill Liverpool? resan pa mindre an sex dagar. 5. Det ar ett misstag, att
York

EXERCISE.

179

de europeiska tagen skulle vara langsammare an de amerikanska. 6. I flere lander i Europa aro snalltagen bland de
snabbaste,
flere

som det over huvud taget finns. 7. Har man ej klasser darborta an har? Jo, det ar vanligen tre
i

klasser;

Tyskland har
fara
i

man
9.

till

och

med
i

fyra.

8.

I Sve-

rige resa endast de allra rikaste

(316)
reser
10.

forsta klass, och

de

fiesta

tredje.
i

Man

andra klass dar an
borta?

var forsta.

bekvamare (318) i Vena bor i huset dar-

en kusin.

Tva av vara narmaste slaktingar, en farbror och 11. Den forre bor i framre del en av den ovre va-

ningen, den senare i den bakersta delen av den undre vaningen; resten av huset star tomt. 12. Jag skulle garna
vilja

hyra huset,

om

dess yttre vore vackrare, dess inre dar13.
1 Skulle du vilja gb'ra en langre

emot behagar mig.
tur
1

i

min

bil

i

eftermiddag?

Ja,

med

Translate: extended; form of the noun.

langre means here rather

stb'rsta nb'je . 2 Note the indefinite long.

2

1. There are large and high churches in most cities, C. but there are business buildings in New York which are larger and higher than the largest and highest churches in

the world.

in the class.

oldest brother is the most diligent boy In point of 1 studies he is at the head (framst, 310), but in sports he is poorer than most of them. 4. We had the most beautiful weather on our
2.

My

3.

trip to-day; it
5.

was

less

warm

than on our former

trip.

Have you no nearer and
No, he
is

he?

my

better friend in this city than 6. I do not nearest and best friend.

know whether

I shall travel first or second class.

Would

2 you advise me? 7. If I were you (i ert stdlle) I should is more comfortable than rather travel second; that class

our
8.

first

and only the wealthiest

travel first class here.
3
;

The

fastest steamers are not always to be preferred
less.
9.

a slower and larger steamer rocks

Don't you think

180

VOCABULARY.
is

that the interior of this house

much more

beautiful than

the exterior?

Why
etc.

(308). don't you rather rent that
*Use impersonal form of gdlla.
*att foredraga (301, c).

Yes, but it is more beautiful than modern The house next to ours is for rent (301, b, note).
?

It has

many more modern

improvements (nutida bekvamligheter).
Translate
so,

(171, B, 2) skulle jag hellre,

VOCABULARY.
en affiirsbyggnad, -er, business building angendm, -t, agreeable (en) bekvamlighet, -er, comfort bekviim', comfortable bredvid', next to, at the side of ddrborta, over there
endast, only

en klass, Idngsam,

-er, class

slow '(not lone-t, some; to be lonesome att ha trdkigt) ett miss'tag, mistake modern' -t, modern
,

ett noje, -n,

amusement,

pleas-

ure

en rest, -er, remainder -t, European en slakting, -ar, relative en farbror, -broder, uncle snabb, -t, quick, rapid fattig, -t, poor fo'redraga (insep., see draga), ett studium, -er, study till och med, even prefer torn, -t, empty, vacant gunga, I, to rock, to swing en tur, -er, trip gdlla, lib, to have a value; to be a question of vanligen, usually en dngare, steamboat Jiellre, rather 1 i'drott over huvud taget, on the whole -er, sport en overresa, -or, trip across en katedral', -er, cathedral
europeisk,
,
,

*ldrott

is

generally used collectively in the singular.

LESSON XXIX.
Comparison of Adjectives (Continued).
is expressed by or by sa. .sow, lika(sa) .som, (just) .as; so (as) ... as, the latter generally after negatives lika or sa is occasionally omitted: han dr lika gammal som jag, he is just as old as I; hon dr ej sa lycklig, som hon brukade vara, she is not as happy as she used to be; han dr tapper som ett lejon, he is as brave as a lion.
. .

312.

A

comparison of equality
as.
.

.

;

NOTE. A comparison of equality with adverbs is expressed in the same way where there is no equality the correlative as as must be rendered by d som only han skriver lika bra som du, he writes as well as you ; kom id fort
; .
. . .

:

som

mojligt,

come as soon

as possible.

313. The comparison below the positive is formed by using the adverbs mindre, minst (less, least) han dr den minst framstdende av de tre brb'derna, he is the least prominent of the three brothers.
:

314. The adverb the with a comparative is expressed by dess, desto (sometimes ju) ; the correlatives the. .the by ju (normal order) .dess, desto or ju (inverted order) as, jasa, han kommer, desto bdttre,so, he is coming, so much the better ju Idngre han stannade hdr, dess (ju) fattigare blev han, the longer he remained here, the poorer he became.
. . .

;

;

315. The comparative and the superlative are sometimes used absolutely; the comparative then denotes a rather high degree and the superlative a very high degree; as, en sto'rre penningsumma, a rather large sum of money jag gor det med storsta noje, I shall do that with the greatest pleasure min
; ;

baste van,

my

dear friend (in speaking or writing

182
to

ADVERBS.
;

some one)
,

kdraste du (kdra du

is

perhaps more

common)
is

in speaking to very intimate friends.

316. Distributive Superlative. The superlative often strengthened by the adverb allra (old gen. plural of all) den allra storsta, den aUra vackraste, the greatest, prettiest of all (the very greatest, pret:

tiest)

.

Adverbs.

317.
of

The indefinite forms of the neuter singular most descriptive adjectives can be used as adEx.: adj., god, good; adv., gott;
adj.,
adj., vdnlig,

verbs.

friendly; adv., vdnligt;
hastigt.
NOTE.

hastig,

rapid; adv.,

Some adverbs

are

formed from adjectives in -Kg by means of the

ending -en; trolig-en, probably; mojlig-en, possibly.

318.

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

their degrees of comparison like the adjectives. few except those ending in -t can be compared.

Adverbs form Very

Examples
hovligt ddelt troget

:

tungt
319.

The

bra, vdl

gdrna
ilia

ndra
Idnge fore fort ofta sakta

fram

EXERCISE.

183

320. The comparative and the superlative of adverbs are invariable. Apparent exceptions are a few idiomatic absolute superlatives; as, de voro
det narmaste ett hundra, they were very nearly one hundred; han kdmpade i det Idngsta, he fought as long as possible; han hdlsade mig pa det hovligaste, he greeted me most politely; han kom med det snaraste, he came as soon as possible.
i

321. So also the Swedish equivalent for the Enghon gick det tystaste hon as ... can, could kunde, she walked as quietly as she could; han Idste det tydligaste han kunde, he read as plainly as he could (also sa tydligt han kunde; note omission of
lish,
:

som, as).
322.
mojligt
;

As.

.

.as possible is expressed

by

sa.

.

.som

sa snart

som

mojligt, as soon as possible.

323. The English more and more=aUt+the repeated comparative as in English (a single comstormen rasade allt hdftiparative may be used) och hdftigare, the storm raged more and more gare
:

violently.

EXERCISE XXIX.
A.
1.

Gar du ofta pa 1
eller sex

teatern,

Karl?

Hogst

(at the

ganger om aret (338, note). Jag gar pa forelasningar och konserter. 2. Konserten i gar var troligen den mest lyckade (308) sedan sa2 songens bb'rjan, salongen var i det narmaste fullsatt. 3.
most) fern

mycket

hellre

De

olika

numren pa programmet mottogos med
bifall.
4.

det allra

varmaste
lika bra

Jag

tyckte, att frb'ken Forsell sjb'ng

som

fm
5.

talad

(308).

Jungstedt, fast den senare ar mera omVad skall ni gora under de stundande

184
helgdagarna ? hos min bror.

EXERCISE.

6.

Jag skall avlagga ett kortare (315) besok Halsa honom pa det hjartligaste 2 och sag
till

honom,
raste
2
.

att jag skall skriva
7.

honom med

det allra sna-

Kara du, maste du verkligen resa? Jag ar sa men kom igen sa fort du kan (321). 8. Ju oftare ledsen; du kommer, och ju langre du gb'r ditt besok, desto battre, ty du ar alltid en mycket valkommen gast hos oss. 9. Hur gar det for Erik i skolan? Icke sa bra som det gjorde i bb'rjan; han var visserligen icke den allra basta i sin klass, men han var flitigare an nu och gjorde sitt basta. 10. Nu synes han mera lat an dum (308, note), han arbetar utan
det ringaste intresse och ar alls icke uppmarksam i klassen. 11. Karl daremot studerar det flitigaste han kan och ar

framst

i

sin klass.
bli

12.

Jag har hoppats
i

Erik skulle

uppflyttad

ar,

men

2 i det langsta , att det troligaste ar, att

han far
1

sitta kvar.
go,

Pa

is

target, to

used in the sense of to in a number of phrases: att 2 320. go to the theater, to market.

fa

tealern,

pa

B.

Conversation.

1.

Vart gar ni

heist,

pa teatern
i

eller

pa en forelasning?
talrikt?
3.

2.

Var

auditoriet vid konserten
4.

gar

Fann

ni konserten lyckad?
?

Appladerade

ahorarna de olika numren 1
Forsell eller fru Jungstedt? (ett) besok hos er bror? 7.
8.

5.

Vem

sjong bast, froken
ni (att) avlagga

6.

Na'r

amnar

till honom an? Gor en jamforelse (comparison) mellan Eriks och Karls

Har

ni skrifvit

arbete
1

i

skolan.
is

Indef.
is

sound

form nummer ; one m no longer intervocalic.

dropped in the

def.

form since the long m-

G.

1.

Do you

attend the theater oftener

now than you

1 used to (do), Carl? 2. No, extremely seldom, and when I 2 I attend mostly the opera. 3. I have never bedo attend,

fore been as occupied as I am now; the more (314) I do, the more there is to do, it seems. 4. Aren't you working a

VOCABULARY.
little
2

185

to

(274, ) harder than you used to? 5. Perhaps. I wish have a certain work ready as soon as possible in order 6. Where do you intend to spend it? to get my vacation. At a watering place? 7. No, I have been at watering

places several (flera) times before. This 8. to take a trip to northern Sweden.

summer

I prefer

mine most (hogst) interesting account of the 9. Are you going alone? beautiful sceneries of Lapland. we shall be four, perhaps more (flera}. 10. Would No,
friend of

A

has given

me

a

as soon as

you permit me to go with you if I could be ready you? 11. With the greatest (315) pleasure, the more we are, the merrier it will be. (314)
(skutte)

D.
2.

1.

Is Eric as diligent as he

was in the beginning?
it

No,

I

do not know what
if

is

the matter with him,

he were growing lazier and lazier (323). he not here yet ? Perhaps he will come a little later.

seems as

3. Is

he wrote
other

me most politely that he would time. 5. He sent the most cordial
6.

rather

4. No, come an-

(316) greetings

to all his friends.

My

dear

(315)

friend, can't

you

come
as
l

to see

me

a little ofterier than you
1).

do?

Come

as often

you please (287,
Ytterst

hogst, in the highest degree, very, and ytterst, extremely, exceedingly, are often used to form an absolute superlative. *For del mesta (320).

VOCABULARY.
ett

auditorium,
visit)

-cr,

audience
(a
off

for det mesta, for the most

avlagga, insep., to
;

make
take

part

sep. lay,
-er,

en badort,

watering place applause en torjan, beginning
ett bifall, approval,

en forelasning, -ar, lecture en gdst, -er, guest
hjartlig,
-t,

cordial

hard,

h&rt,

hard
interesting

dum,
fast,

-t,

stupid

intressant',

although friimst, foremost
full'satt,
Sivedish
,

eft intres'se, -n, interest

karihan'da, perhaps

crowded

en Mass,

-er,

class
13

Grammar

186
kvar (adv. and
predicate)
lat

NUMERALS.
adj.
left,

in the

over

sjunga, sjong, sjongo, sjungit, sjungen, -et, to sing

(no neut.), lazy
-at,

en skildring,
snar,
-t,

-ar,

account
quick;
snart,

ledsen, sorry

rapid,

soon norra (indeclinable), northern stundande (indecl.), coming ett nummer, number synas (dep. v.), I la, to seem, om'talad, -at, mentioned; appear celebrated en sdsong', -er*, season en opera, -or, opera; opera tilldta (insep.), to permit house troligen, probably
lyckad,

successful

,

ett program', program ringa (indeclinable) insig,

uppflyttad,

-at,

moved

up,

promoted
upptagen,
-et,

nificant
sceneri',
-er,
,

occupied

en semes' ter 1
vacation
^Semester
is a

scenery -rar, semester;

verkligen, really
visserligen,
to

be

sure,

cer-

tainly
vacation from work, ferier a vacation from school.

*Sasong

is

a social season, arstid, a natural season.

IDIOMS:

1.

att sitta kvar,

not to be promoted.
is

2.
3.

att tli uppflyttad, to be promoted.

Hvad

fattas

honomf What

the matter with him?

LESSON XXX.
The Numerals.
CARDINAL 1. en [neut.
2. 3. 4.
5.
6.

ORDINAL
ett;

(den) forste(a), 1st

def. ene(a)'\

tvd
tre

andre(a), 2nd
tredje, 3rd, etc.

fyra
fern

fjarde

femte
sjatte

7. 8.
9.

sex sju dtta nio

sjunde dttonde nionde
tionde
elvte

10. tio 11. elva

NUMERALS.
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

187

tolv

tolvte

tretton

fjorton

trettonde fjortonde

femton
sexton sjutton aderton
nitton

femtonde
sextonde sjuttonde adertonde nittonde tjugonde
tjuguforsta

20. tjugu

(tjugo, tjuge) 21. tjuguett

22. 30. 31. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. 101.

tjugutva
trettio (tretti)

tjuguandra
trettionde tretti(o)forsta

tretti(o)ett fyrtio (fyrti)

fyrtionde

femtio (femti)
sextio (sexti) sjuttio (sjutti)
attio (dtti) nittio (nitti) (ett) hundra hundra ett

femtionde
sextionde sjuttionde attionde nittionde

200. tva 250. tva

hundra hundra

hundrade hundra forsta tva hundrade tva hundra femtionde
tusende ett tusen ett hundra femtionde

femtio
1,000. (ett) tusen 1,150. ett tusen ett

hundra femtio
1,000,000. en million

REMARKS ON THE CARDINALS.
325.

The cardinals are

indeclinable

when used

as adjectives with the exception of en, which has the neuter ett: det ar tjuguett barn i rummet; but

tjuguen gossar.
326.

When

genitive but are otherwise indeclinable:

used as nouns they take an s in the de fyras

188

NUMERALS.

adertons sammankomst, the meeting of the eighteen (the Swedish
dsikt, the opinion of the four; de

Academy)

.

NOTE. The numbers, million, milliard, billion, etc., are declined as nouns of the Third Declension: tre millioner manniskor. Hundra and tusen may also be used substantively and then take the form hundrade and tusende with plural in -n:
det tjvgonde arhundradet, the twentieth century thousand.
;

del forsta tusendet, the

first

tu is used for tva in certain set such as, pa tu man hand, in confidence phrases; between two de unga tu, the engaged or newly married couple ett, tu, tre (in counting time, also in the sense of suddenly) ; cf. adv. itu: riva itu, tear in two.

327.

The form
;

;

328. Tvenne and trenne are sometimes used for two and three but never in connection with other numerals. Bada and bagge are occasionally used with tva for the* sake of emphasis: bada tva, both;
in such expressions as vi bada, de bagge, etc., we two, they two, bada and bagge have the force of numerals.

329.
ett

Hundra and tusen are always preceded by
:

may be left out) ett hundra femtioatta; ett tusen ett hundra sextiofem; och, and, is not used between the hundreds and the tens.
(in counting ett

330. The forms tretti, fyrti, femti, etc. are used mostly in compounds: femtiatta, sextitre.
NOTE. Fyrtio is pronounced generally pronounced arton.
as
if
it

was

written

fortio.

Aderton

is

REMARKS ON THE ORDINALS.
The ordinals are used as indeclinable adjectives, except forste(a) and andre(a) which follow the weak declension. They are usually preceded by
331.
the prepositive definite article, but

may sometimes

NUMERALS.
:

130

be used without it den forsta, den andra, den tredje; but forsta dagen (also den forsta dagen) i veckan ar sondagen, the first day of the week is Sunday; det ar andra gdngen han ar har, it is the second time he is here. 332. In compound ordinals only the last number takes the ordinal ending, den ett tusen tvd hundra
sextiofjarde.

333. 334.

The ordinals take the genitive

-s:

Karl den

tolvtes dod, the death of Charles XII.

The
ten.

cardirrals are occasionally
;

used instead

of the ordinals

these follow the noun

:

pa sidan

tio,

on page
335.
dicate

letter or letters

The ordinals are often abbreviated, the last being used with the numbers to inthe ordinal. Ex.: den 5:e, den 8:e; the numbe used alone after the article: den 5

ber

may

februari.

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME (O'CLOCK)
:

.

336. The following phrases illustrate the manner of telling the time of day Hur mycket ar klockan? what time is it? Klockan ar tio, it is ten o'clock. Klockan ar halv tio, it is half past nine. Klockan ar en kvart over fyra, it is a quarter past
four.

Klockan ar en kvart fore
ter of four.

(till, i)

fyra,
it is

it is

a quar-

Klockan ar
four.

tre

kvart pa fyra,

a quarter of

Klockan ar tjugu minuter fore minutes of three.

tre, it is

twenty

190

EXERCISE.

Klockan dr tjugu -minuter over ire, it is twenty minutes past three. Klockan har jiLst slagit fyra, it has just struck
four.

Pa

Precis

slaget ire, at three o'clock sharp. tre, at three o'clock sharp.
o'clock.
o'clock.

Vid niotiden, about nine

Fram at tiotiden, towards ten Han kom klockan tio, he came

at ten o'clock.

EXPRESSIONS OF MEASURE AND PRICE.
337. After nouns of measure t*he thing measured used without preposition: hon kopte fyra meter svart tyg, she bought four meters of black cloth; giv mig ett glas friskt vatten, give me a glass of fresh water.
is

338. After an expression of price a noun measure requires the def. postpositive article

of
in-

stead of the indef. article in English: detta tyget kostar tre kronor metern, this cloth costs three

crowns a meter;
piece.
sions of quantity, but the
:

tio

kronor stycket, ten crowns

a-

This distributive use of the def. article is found after other expresnoun is then preceded by a preposition (generally han fortjanar trettio om, pa, or <) tvd ganger om aret, two times a year kronor f veckan, he earns thirty crowns a week.
;

NOTE.

EXERCISE
A.
1.

XXX.

En gang ett ar ett, tva ganger En gang tva ar tva, tva ganger tva ar fyra, 3X2=6, 4X2=8, etc. 2. Eead in Swedish: 2X12=24, 3X12=36, 4X8=32, 6X7=42, 7X9=63, 7X10=70.
Practice orally.
ett ar tva, etc.
3.

19,213.

Addera 1,563, 2,348, 11,213. 4. Subtrahera 15,113 fran 6. live the differ5. Multiplicera 580 med 213.

EXERCISE.
ent expressions for:
3.15; 4; 5.25.
7.

191
1

It

is

Name

a quarter past 12 ; 12.30; 1.45; the numbers 40, 41, 50, 53, G4,

67, 78, 89, 94, 100, 104, 205, 209, 371, 498, 1,000, 1,001,

75,012, 2,098,427.
'At a quarter past twelve, abbreviated to kl. : kl. 12.15.

klockan en kvart efter tolv;

klockan

is

often

denna stad bo 2,656,342 manniskor, men den ar anda ej pa langt nar sa stor som London, ty dar bo nara 7,000,000 manniskor eller nara tre ganger sa manga. 2. Hur manga invanare bar staten Minnesota? Omkring
B.
I

2,000,000, tror jag. talrik, nar man tar

i

Minnesotas befolkning ar ej vidare 1 betraktande, att det ar en av de storsta
3.

staterna

i

Unionen.

4.

Med

vilket tag resa vi

till

Stock-

Det gar ett tag ... (a quarter past seven), om vi stiga upp ... (at six or half past five), sa kunde vi a'ta frukost pa hotellet. 5. Sag till uppassaren Har ar den, jag fick den for nagra att vi onska rakningen. minuter sedan. 6. Den ar val tamligen sa hog, formodar
i

holm

morgon?

jag.

Ah nej, icke sa varst, 22 kronor och 37 ore, 10 kronor for rumrnet, 8 kronor och 50 ore for supen och frukosten
7.

och resten for diverse smasaker.
icke

Da

aro naturligtvis

drickspengarna

till

betjaningen inbegripna?
8.

Nej,

dessa far
sig till?
snail,

man

betala sarskilt.

Hur mycket
9.

belb'pa de

2 kr. eller 2.50 2 racker.

Skynda

dig, ar

du

annars forsumma vi taget. 10. Det bradskar ej, vi ha annu en kvarts timme pa oss (to spare), innan det gar;
kloekan har just slagit
sju. 11. Jag har kopt en hel del (en massa) saker pa torget i dag: 1 kilo mejerismbr, 4 tjog agg, en skinka pa fyra kilo och diverse gronsaker. 12. Vad Smoret kostar 2.50 kilot3 och kostar smoret och aggen?

aggen 1.50
sometimes
3 Also

tjoget. Widare means wider, further;
it

it

has an idiomatic use which

is

hard to render;
femti.

may be
is

translated

by

very.
pr-

*Tva

och

(pronounced d)

per kilo, ver

abbreviated to

192
C.
1.

VOCABULARY.
In the
city of London live almost 7,000.000 more than three times as many as (312) in our

people, or
state.

2. Was your bill at the hotel very high ? No, it was not as high as I expected; it amounted (B, 8) to about 1 3. Did you have thirty-six crowns, the tips not included
.

breakf ast at the hotel before you started ? No, we only had time to drink a cup of coffee and eat a sandwich. 4. Did

you oversleep ? Yes, we slept to a quarter past six and the train was 2 to leave at ten minutes past seven. 5. How many minutes do we have to spare (B, 10) before the train
leaves?
6.

Let
five

me

see,

minutes of

by (enligt)
7.

only fourteen minutes; it is nine mj watch. Hurry, please, or we

shall miss the train.

you?
holm.

I should like to look at.
8.

(In a store.) What can I do for some view cards of 2 Stock(till)

We

have cards at

various prices.

This

ten ore apiece (338) or a crown a dozen, that, five ore apiece, or fifty ore a dozen. 9. I owe you three crowns

kind

is

and seventy-five

ore, I believe; here is a fifty-crown bill,

can you change it?

10. Yes, here are forty-six
.

crowns and
is

twenty-five ore in change (tillbaka)

11.

How much

a

crown? A crown is one hundred ore; in American money a crown is about twenty-eight cents. 12. I wish to change one hundred and forty crowns into (i) American money.
'Use the plur. of the p. part, of inbegripa.
the whole expression stockholmstyer.
*Skulle.
3

Use over or translate

VOCABULARY.
en befolkning,
-ar,

population

ett dussin,

,

dozen
see

behaga, to please beldpa sig till, Ila, to
to

forso'va

amount

sig (insep., sova), to oversleep
(insep.),
to

forsum'ma
lect;

neg-

en betjaning (generally no pi.), service, servants

to

miss (train)

gronsaJcer (pi.), vegetables (ett)betraktande, consideration del, -ar, part inhabitant en invanare, brddska, I, to hurry diver" se (pi.), diverse, various mejeri'smor, creamery butter
,

NUMERAL FORMATIONS.
niira, near,

193

almost
price
bill;

en supe, supcer, supper
talrik,
-t,

olik,

-t,

unlike, different
,

numerous
back
,

ett pris,

tillbaka,

en

sedel,

-lar,

femti-

ett

tjog,
,

score

kronesedel, fifty-crown
bill

ett torg,

market place

en skinka, -or, ham en smdsak, -er, trifle en smorgds, -ar, sandwich en stat, -er, state
stiga upp' (see stiga), to get up, rise
ett stycke, -n, piece

tamligen, fairly, pretty en union, er, union

uppassare,
vtinta,
I,
I,

,

waiter

to wait, expect

vdxla,

to

change
,

ett vykort, ett dgg,
,

souvenir postal

egg
take a

andd, yet
i

IDIOMS:

1.

alt

taga en sak

betraktande,

to

thing

into consideration.
2.

3.
4. 5.

icke pd Idngt ndr, not by far. icke vidare mycket, not very much.

6.

utan vidare, without further ado. Vad behagasf What do you wish? What can I do for you? Jag ar skyldig honom tio .kronor, I owe him ten ten crowns.

LESSON XXXI.
The Numerals
(Continued).

NUMERAL FORMATIONS.
339.

From
The

the cardinals are formed

:

variatives by the use of slags (the geni(a) tvd slags, two kinds of; tive of slag, meaning kind) tre slags, three kinds of; manga slags blommor,
:

many
(b)

kinds of flowers.

multiplicatives by the addition of dubbel for the adjective and dubbelt for the adverb more rarely by the addition
(neut. dubbelt, pi. dubbla)
;

The

of -faldig

(-t,

-a) for the adjective

and

-fait for the

194

NUMERAL FORMATIONS.

adverb: dubbel, double; tredubbel, triple; fyrdubbelt (neut. and adv.), quadruple; kragar av fyrdubbelt linne, collars of four-ply linen; dubbelt sa manga, twice as many; mangfaldig, manifold; vetet avkastar trettiofalt, the wheat yields thirty-fold. (c) The iteratives by the use of gang, time plur. ganger: en gang, once or one time; tvd ganger, twice or two times tre ganger, tva dr lika med sex, three times two equals six.
;
;

(d) The distributives by the repetition of numerals en och en, one by one, one at a time och tva, by twos, two at the time; de gingo tvd tva, they went by twos, in pairs. (e) The collectives by suffixing the word tal to numeral
: ;
:

the tva och
the

1. To denote a decade or a century thus, 80-talet, the eighties; han gar pa fyrtiotalet, he is in the forties; 1500-talet, the sixteenth century (1500
;

1599).
2. To denote an approximate number: about ten; ett tjugutal, about twenty.
NOTE.
dussintals,
;

ett tiotal,

Observe expressions like hundratals, hundreds, tusentats, thousands. tusentals manniskor voro narvarande, thousands of many dozen people were present.

340.

From

the ordinals are formed

:

(ct) Fractional nouns by compounding the ordinal with the noun del, part (plur. delar) : en tredjedel, a third; tva tion(de) delar, two tenths; en halv, one half en tjugutvaendel, a twenty-second part so also en tretti(o)tvaendel, etc.
; ;

NOTE. Half, halv and hiilft. Halv is used as the denominator of fractions and as adjective, otherwise hiilft is used ett halvt dussin, half a dozen ena
: ;

hdlften av huset, one half of the house.

(b) Fractional adjectives by prefixing halv to the

EXPRESSIONS OF DATE.

190

next higher unit: halvannan, one and a half; halvtredje, two and a half, etc.
NOTE.

Only the

first is

in

common

use.

(c) Ordinal adverbs by using the preposition for with the ordinal for det forsta, first for det andra,
: ;

secondly, etc. (d) Distributives by prefixing var to the ordinal
:

varannan

var vartannat), every other; tredje (neut. vart tredje), every third: varannan dag ha vi rakning, we have mathematics every other
(neut.

day.

341.

EXPRESSIONS OF DATE.

(a) In giving the day of the month the ordinal is used without any preposition as, det ar den sjatte In augusti i dag, to-day is the sixth of August. a letter the date is placed before the name dating of the month, not after, as in English: Boston den
;

5:e (or 5) oktober.

Observe the following date idioms: Vad ha vi for ett datum i dag? What date
it

is

to-day?

Det ar den femtonde juni
fifteenth of June.

i

dag.

To-day

is

the
will

I

morgon ar

det den sextonde.

To-morrow

be the sixteenth.

Vad for en dag ar det i dag? What day (of the week) is it to-day? Det ar onsdag i dag. To-day is Wednesday.
(b)The date of the year

number often preceded by
ially in the

given by the cardinal ar, in the year of, especis

case of historical dates; as, Napoleon ar 1821, Napoleon died in the year of 1821. dog

196

EXPRESSIONS OF TIME.

342.

With the names of the days
;
.

of the

week

the prepositions pa (on), om (about), and i (in) are used pa requires the def form, om the indefinite

and

i

the genitive of the indefinite: pa
;

mdndagen

voro vi borta, on Monday we were away i mandags voro vi borta, last Monday we were away; pa sondagskvdllen voro vi i kyrkan, on Sunday evening we

sondags kvdll for han till Neiv York, Sunday evening he left for New York; om lordag, next Saturday; om so'ndag kvdll, next
in church;
last
i

were

Sunday evening.
The day following t is the last day of that name, while the day any day of that name in the past or future the day after' om is the next day of that name (for other uses of f and om see 338, note, and 343).
1.

NOTE

after

pa

is

;

2. Pa followed by the def. sing, and om followed by the def. plur. may denote indefinite or recurrent time: pa sondagen horde man ga i kyrkan, on Sunday one ought to go to church rod gor ni om sondagarnat What do you
;

do on Sundays?

343.

Note such expressions -of time as:

pa pa pa pa

morgonen, in the morning;
fo'rmiddagen, in the forenoon; eftermiddagen, in the afternoon;

middagen, at noon;
;

vid middagen, at noon; pa kvdllen, in the evening pa natten, in the night; vid midnatt, at midnight
i
i

;

kvdll, to-night;

gar

kvdll, last night;
;

i

i
i i
i

kvdll, to-morrow night morse, this morning gar morse, yesterday morning

morgon

;

;

morgon, to-morrow b'vermorgon, the day after to-morrow;
;

EXERCISE.

197
;

at noon to-morrow tidigt morgon, early i morgon bittida, early to-morrow morning;
i i
;

morgon middag, to-morrow

i
i i
i

in the beginning of April borjan\ \pa april, the latter part of April in the middle of April mitten)
slutet
;
;

;

i
i

sommar, this summer fjol sommar, in the summer of
;

last

year

;

i
i

somras, the past summer (of the same year) dag for ett arsedanl to _ d

;

dag

ett

ar sedan

}

morgon om ett ar, a year from om mandag, next Monday om sommarn, in the summer; till sommarn, next summer.
i
;

to

morrow

;

344. (a) In addressing letters the street name is written as one word with -gatan (def. form of gata, the house number follows the street name: street)
;

Herr Carl Lind,
Storgatan
NOTE.
tr.

8,

4

tr.,

Stockholm.
(trappa or trappor, stair or stairs) signifies story.

(b) In giving an address, i nummer -\-ihe number generally precedes the street name han bor i nummer 11 Linnegatan (also i ll:an [elvari] Linne:

gatan), he lives at

number

11 Linne Street.

EXERCISE XXXI.
A.
1.

Supply in Swedish whatever

is

indicated.

Hur

stor del av ett ar ar en
ar.
2.

manad?
. . .

En manad
eller ...

ar

en tolvtedel av ett
haller en hel.
eller

Hur manga
.

(twelfths) inne-

En

hel innehaller
alltsa

.

.

(|f)

(|t)
hel.

...

({),

gar det

..

('{fete.)

pa en

198
3.

EXERCISE.

Hum
Vad

adderar

man

...
till
. .

()
.

och ...

()

?

Man
. . .

for-

vandlar bada braken

(twelfths)
blir det?

och adderar de
blir

bada taljarne.
5.

4.

Hur mycket
?
.

Det

(ff ).

gor man sedan naren och erhaller
. .

dividerar taljaren med nam1 (liV)- 6. Vad for datum ha vi i

Man

7. I dag dag? (the sixth) november i dag. ha vi salunda arsdagen av Gustav Adolfs db'd vid Liitzen,
.
.

Det ar

.

han stupade
1632.
8.

.

.

.

(the sixth)
tid

november

.

.

.

(in the year of)
. . .

Vid vilken

pa dagen stupade konungen?
.
. .

9. I dag fira vi pappas (in the morning), tror jag. han foddes (50th) fodelsedag; (the ninth of) augusti 1861. 10. I gar for en vecka sedan kom min bror hem fran
.

.

.

Tyskand
. .
.

for att deltaga i firandet. 11. Sverige ar mer an sa stort som Minnesota och har nastan (twice)
. . .

(three times) sa

manga

invanare.

12.

Hur

langa aro feri-

erna vid den svenska folkskolan

? Skolan slutar i mitten pa och borjar igen i slutet pa augusti. 13. Sommarferierjuni na racka alltsa omkring ... (2 |) manader. 14. Vilken ar

den genaste vagen, den
ge leda
till

till

vanster eller den
15.

till

hb'ger, bag-

vagen till den ar bortemot en och en halv kilometer kortare. vanster, Den andra ar alltsa mer an diibbelt sa lang. 16. Vad ha
vi for

staden, eller

hur?

Lit

oss ta

dag? Det ar fredag i dag, och om (342, note) lordag maste vi ha det har arbetet fardigt for att kunna ta i tu 2 (327) med nagot nytt i borjan pa nasta vecka. 17. Har du varit i herr Lindgrens tradgard nyligen? 18. Eosorna aro utspruckna de Ja, jag var dar i onsdags.
en dag
i
;

aro de allra harligaste rosor, jag nagonsin har

sett, dess-

utom har han manga andra
J

slags

blommor.
det JOT datum,

The
etc.

indef. article

vi,

*Att ta itu

may be omitted, also vilket datum or vad ar med nagot, to go to work with something.
1.

B.

Conversation.

Vad
3.

ar er brors adress

nu?

2.

Pa

vilken vaning bor

han ?

Han amnar

ju att flytta, vet ni

EXERCISE.

199
5.

nar?

4.
i

Vad ha
7.

vi for

datum

i

dag?
6.

Vad

ar det for

datum

morgon om

en vecka?

Nar

firar er

bror sin

fodelsedag? 8. Nar foddes Gustav den andre Adolf?

Vilket ar och vilken dag ar han fodd?
9.

Nar stupade

Karl den tolfte?
C.

(290,

Have you studied fractions? Yes, we are studying note) them now in school. 2. Can you tell me how to
1.

1 multiply two-fifths by one-fourth ? i multiply the numerators and the denominators together and the result is two-

twentieths.

3.

How many
is
?

units are there in seven-sixths?
4.

In seven-sixths there

one unit and one-sixth over.
I

Why

2 are you in such a hurry

am

going

3

to the station to

my sister. I must be there at a quarter of ten and it half past nine now. 5. Is she coming so soon, it is only the 18th to-day; a week from to-day is Christmas. 6. Yes,
meet
is

I

know, but

my birthday
8.

is

a family festival at home.

(on) the 20th and we shall have 7. How old are you ? I am in
are the oldest in the family,

(on)
L

my
I,

20th year.

You

suppose.
9.

than
I.

No, my sister Mary is a year and a half older and I have a brother who is almost twice as old as

I

hope that you will pardon (use
4
,

pres.)

my

delay

in writing

but I received your

letter,

which was dated

Monday, August 4th, only (forst) this morning. 10. You have been away very long, haven't you ? Not so very long 5 I left the city at the beginning of August and came back at
.

,

the end of September; so I was away a little over a month and a half 6 11. Does your brother have the same address
as (som) before? No, he has ber 13 King's Street.
skall multiplicera or hur
5

moved; now he

lives at

num-

''How to followed by an infinitive must be rendered by a clause here hur jag man mvltiplicerar. 2To be in a hurry, att ha bratt or bruttom. IFuture with skall. 4 Translate att jag 'har drSjt med att skriva.
:

fcke sa varst Hinge; rdrst

is

colloquial.

*En och en halv mdnad.

200

VOCABULARY.

VOCABULARY.
adde'ra,
alltsd,
I,

to

add

thus (not also) bliva, to become (in mathe,

gen, -t, near, short (of a road) en hel (-a), unit

matics, to equal) ett ftrdfc, fraction
trouble)

(also

hoger (no neut., indef.), right innehdlla (insep.), to contain en kilome'ter, kilometer
,

brattom (att Jia brtittom), to be in a hurry
ett

datum,
I,

-a,

date

conduct en mdnad, -er, month mitten (def. form or mitt), middle, midst
leda, lib, to lead,

date'ra,

to date

multipUce'ra,

I,
,

to

multiply

del'taga (sep., see taga), to

divide'ra,

participate I, to divide
,

en ndmnare, nastan, almost

denominator

nyligen, recently

ett drojsmdl,

delay

en dod, -ar, (generally sing.), death
er'hdlla (insep., see hftlla), to
receive, get

omkring, about racka, Ha, to reach; last sedan (adv. and conj.), then,
thereupon, after
sluta 1
,

I,

to
,

end
close,

en familjefest,
festival

-er,

family

ett slut,

end

stupa,

I,

to fall

(on the battle
.

ferier (pi.), vacation
ett ftrande, celebration

field)

sd'lunda, thus

folkskola, -or, public school fodas (pass, of foda, give

en

tdljare,
I,

numerator
to excuse
p.

ursdkta,

birth to), lib, to be born

utsprucken,
ut', to

part, of spricka

en fodelsedag,
formo^da,
forvand'la,
*Sluta
I,
I,

-ar,

birthday

to

presume
transform
to

to

open (of flowers) en vdning, -ar, story, apartment en drsdag, -ar, anniversary

when

it

means

shut and to conclude belongs to the Fourth Conjuga-et.

tion; sluta, slot, slolo, slutil. sluten,

LESSON XXXII.
Prepositions.

345. Prepositions govern the objective case which, except for a few of the pronouns, is the same as the nominative.
NOTE.
to

Till
;

and
i

(in) bed

i govern the genitive in a few idiomatic phrases: somras, last summer.

till

sdngi

346.

The following are the most important prepSwedish:
nara, near, close by nedanfor, below nedfor, down ovan, above
ovanfb'r,

ositions in
av, of, off

bakom, behind
bland,

among
from

efter, after, behind enligt, according to

above

frdn, ifran,

framfor, in front of
for, for, before fb'rbi, by, past fore, before, ahead of
'

pa, a, on sedan, since till, to

undan, away from under, beneath, below; aenom, igenom, through, during by uppfor, up

i,

hos, with, by, in, into

among

ur, out, out of

innan, before innanf&Tt within

utmed, along utefter, along
utfor,

down

inom,

in,

within

jcimte, by, beside

kring, omkring, around,

utom, outside of; beside, except utan, without

about utanfor, outside of med, with vid, invid, by, at medelst, by means of bredvid, by the side of mellan, emellan, between at, to, for mot, emot, against, to- over, above

ward
347.
Swedish

The following expressions with

preposi14

tional value are of
Grammar

common

occurrence:

202

PREPOSITIONS.

med avseende pa, with reference med hdnsyn till, in regard to
i
i

to

kraft av, by virtue of or till foljd av, in consequence of, because of med anledning av, on account of
trots av (trots), in spite of oaktat, in spite of
i

Icings, langsmed, along 1 rorande angdende [concerning

betraffande
i

J

stdllet for, instead of

undantagandes, excepting for .... skull, for the sake of for. sedan, ago
.

.

.

NOTE. For... skull and for... sedan take the expressions which they govern between the two parts. For... skull requires the genitive case: for min fars skull, for the sake of my father ; for hans skull, for his sake for ett dr sedan,
;

for Idnge sedan, a year ago, long ago.

USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS.
348. The following are the uses of some of the most common prepositions.

Av,
(a)

of,

off,

Titles:

from, by, for: konungen av Sverige, the king of

Sweden.
(b) Material: klockan dr av guld, the of gold.

watch

is

(c) Agent: han beundrades av alia, he was admired by everybody. (d) Cause=for, of: han grdt av glddje, he wept for joy; fian dog av hunger, he died of hunger. (e)

Quality,

description or

characteristic:

en

PREPOSITIONS.

203 of character, of

man

av karaktdr, av ara, a of honor.
(f)

man

Source

:

received the book it is kind of you.

jag har fdtt boken av honom, I have from him; det ar sndllt av dig,

(g) Partitive idea: onskar ni ett glas av detta vin? Do you wish a glass of this wine? en af mina v anner, one of my friends; den flitigaste av alia, the most diligent of
all.

349.
(a)

Efter, after, behind, according

to, for, at:

Time or sequence:
efter

efter

middagen ar det

sko'nt att vila, it is nice to rest after dinner;

vem

kommer me)?
striving,

mig?

Who

comes after

me

(behind

(b) for: after verbs of asking, looking, sending,-

skicka efter lakaren, send for the har letat efter boken, I have hunted for doctor; jag the book; vem frdgar han efter? Whom does he
etc.:

inquire for?
(c)

strdva efter, to strive for,
:

etc.

according to efter vad jag har hort, according to what I have heard (enligt is more common
in this sense)
NOTE.
Closely
to
efter ndgot,
.

related

judge by something

expressions are found with certain verbs: att doma han rattar sig efter fin fan vilja, he is
;

governed by his father's will.

350.

For, for,

to,

before, etc.:

(a) Advantage, reference, object:

han har

so'rjt

for sina barns uppfostran, he has provided for the education of his children; tala om det for honom.

mention

to him han har ingen forstaelse for idehe has no appreciation of ideal things for mig far du gora det, as far as I am concerned you
it
;

ella saker,

;

204

PREPOSITIONS.

may

do

it;

niska, in

for mig dr han blott en vanlig mdnmy estimation he is only a common mortal.

me
du

(b) Price: giv mig for en krona konfekt, give a crown's worth of bonbons; hur mycket har
betalt for hatten?
(c) Place

How much

have you paid for

the hat?
(especially figurative, a strictly literal
:

before

is

generally expressed by framfor)

med

do'den for b'gonen, with death staring one in the face; ndr faran star for dorr en, when danger is at

hand (before the door)

;

spdnn hasten for kdrran,

hitch the horse to the cart.
(d) Duration of time: det dr nog for en vecka, that is enough for a week (see pa and under).
NOTE.

The temporal before
:

is

rendered by fore and t'nnan.

(e) Succession han har o'versatt det ord for ord, he has translated it word for word; han blev varre dag for dag, he grew worse day by day, steg for
steg, step

by

step.
:

With sedan, in the sense of ago for en vecka sedan, a week ago; for lange sedan, long ago.
(f)

verbs denoting flight, concealment, caution, fear, and the like: han ftydde for fienden, he fled from the enemy; han gomde sig for mig, he hid from me (with such verbs for is sometimes used together with undan) : att varna nagon for nagot, to warn somebody against something; att akta sig for nagot, to be on one's guard against something; att vara rddd for nagot, to be afraid
of

(g) After

something; att skrdmma nagon for nagot, to
(h) In a

frighten somebody for something.

number

of idiomatic expressions: vad

EXERCISE.

205

tar du mig for? What do you take me for? jag gick for mig sjalv, I walked by myself; han skrattade for sig sjalv, he laughed to himself; for att vara bara ett barn, spelar han icke sa ilia, to be only a child he does not play so badly.

EXERCISE XXXII.
A.
1.

Under sommaren bor
1

ni val ej

i

staden?

Nej, da
flo-

flytta vi ut

pa landet; den nedanfor 3 staden.

vi
2.

aga

ett litet lantstalle

utmed 2

Aro era forbindelser med staden

bekvama?
delse

Ja, de allra bekvamaste; vi ha angbatsforbin-

med tva turer i timmen, och efter vad jag bar hb'rt, kommer automobilforbindelse snart att upprattas 4 3. Det ar mycket folk i denna restaurang, men darborta i hornet
.

till

ar ett bord, som ej ar upptaget av nagon. Detta lar vara en ypperlig restaurang, jag bar fatt adressen av en av mina vanner. 5. Dar star han sjalv framhb'ger
4.

5

for disken och talar

sentera er for 6
bildning.
6.

med agaren. Vill ni, att jag skall prehonom? Han ar en man av karaktar och
skall

Jag
for

ga ned

i

staden 7

i

dag for
att

att gora

nagra uppkop
mig,

pa nagot at dig ?

mig 7. Det var hyggligt av dig

sjalv; vill

du kanske,

att jag skall ko-

tanka pa 8

men

jag fb'rskottera, jag

jag ar alldeles utan pengar nu. 8. Pengarna kan bar fatt lana av dig sa ofta. 9. du

Om

gar forbi Lindgrens cigarrhandel, sa titta in och hor efter , om de fatt in av mina favoritcigarrer an, i sa fall 10 kop en
lada.
10.

9

Sa

sorgligt, att herr

Liden skulle do

sa hastigt.

Vad dog han

av 11

?

11.

Av

haftigt sjuk efter

middagen.

Han blev hjartforlamning. Man skickade efter 9 lakaren,
12.

men han kunde
karl
1
;

ej

utratta nagot.

Han

var en praktig

enligt ryktet bar han utovat en storartad valgorenhet. Hans dod kommer att fororsaka sorg inom vida kretsar.
Into; note use of ut.
upp/or, nedfSr denote direction.

'Also utefter. *Nedanfor, ovanfor, designate location *Note use of kommer att; skall may also be

206
used.

EXERCISE.

"Note omission of article. 6 Not till. 'Down town. *Think of, tdnka pa, but if it means to have an opinion of it must be translated by tdnka om: vad tanker du om honom, what opinion do you have of him? 9 349, a. 10 In that
case.
11

348, d.

B. Conversation. 1. Vart flyttar ni, nar sommaren kommer? 2. Var ligger ert lantstalle? 3. Ar det svart att komna in till staden ? 4. Aro angbatsturerna taia ? 5. Pa vad satt kommer forbindelsen med staden att forbattras?
6. 7.

Varfor tror ni

att

den bar restaurangen ar ypperlig?

for tjanst vill ni gora er van? 8. Vad lovar ni att nar ban siiger, att ban ar utan pengar? 9. Var kb'per gb'ra, ban sina favoritcigarrer?

Vad

C.

1.

Where do you

live

1 during the summer?

We

live

in a little country house, which we own along 1 the river a 2. Is it not inconvenient to live outlittle above the city.
3 the city? No, we have connection by steamer 4 every half-hour , and according to the paper we are soon 3 to have connection by automobile. 3. Let us ask that

side of

2

5 policeman for a good restaurant;

I

have not had a bite to

eat since twelve o'clock

now after seven. 4. This looks really cozy; shall we sit down by that table in the corner? 5. Who was the gentleman who just walked past us and saluted ? I met him about a week ago 6 when I took
and
it is

a trip up 7 Gotha canal from Gothenburg to Stockholm. 9 8 6. May I give you a piece of this steak? If you please
.

much, give me only half of that. 7. After dinner I shall have 10 to hurry home; I must be at the hotel before nine, I expect company between nine and ten.
That
is

too

8.

Which

is

the best

way

of getting

11

to the hotel?

By

by steamboat? 9. The little steamboat that 12 in front of the lies there by the quay will land you right Now 10. But it will leave within a few minutes. hotel.
street car or

VOCABULARY.
it

207

backs out from the quay. 11. There will soon come 13 another; I think a steamboat leaves every ten minutes.
12. If

you are ready now, we
14

ancl wait for

the boat.

13.

shall go down to the quay Just in time 15 , there it comes

out 16 between those two big boats.
J

See A,
a.
6

1,

above.

z

Utom

or utanfor.

3

Medelst (med
T

may

also be used).

4

Far;'e

halvtimme or far trettionde minut (note use of ordinal in such expressions).
'349,
12

350,

f

tackar or

om

See A, note 3, above. *Use fa. for precedes omkring. ni bchagar. "Present of modal. "Use infinitive of
;

Va, jag komma.

Translate right by mitt; mitt, middle, is used with certain prepositions: mitt i rummet, in the middle of the room mitt under predikan, right in the middle of the sermon ; mitt pu fingrel, right on the finger. Det plus present. 14P&.
;

KI

tid.

16

Fram.

VOCABULARY.
en automobilfurbindelse, -r, connection by automobile bekvtim, -t, comfortable en bildning, culture, education

hoger (no neuter, indef.), right en kaj, -er, pier, quay

en bit, -ar, piece, bit (bite) en cigar rhandlare, cigar
,

may be, perhaps en karaktar', -er, character en krets, -ar, circle ett lantstdlle, -n, country house en poliskonstapel, -lar, police-.
kan'ske,

dealer

man
-t,

en disk, -ar, counter prdktig, en favorit'cigarr', -er, favorite en sorg,
cigar
sorglig,
,

splendid

-er,
-t,

sorrow, grief sad

frummande,
en forbindelse,

-r,

strange connection
I,

en spdrvagn, -ar, street car en stek, -ar, steak
storartad,
titta,
I,

for'orsaka (insep. v.), cause
forskotte'ra,

to

-at,

to

en tur, -er, I, to advance Gota kanal, Gotha canal luck) tilt, frequent Goteborg, Gothenburg ett uppkop, en halvtimme, -ar, half hour purchase (insep. v.), hemtrevlig, -t, cozy, homelike upp'ratta en hjartforlamning (-ar), heart establish, institute
,

magnificent look trip; turn (also

I,

to

failure

upp'tagen,
nice,

-t,

occupied
I,

hygglig,

-t,

kind

ut'rdtta (insep. v.),

to ac-

Mftig,

-t,

violent

complish

208
utova (insep.
cise,

PREPOSITIONS.
v.),
I,

to exer-

practice
excellent, fine

en vulgiirenhet, charity
ypperlig,
-t,

en dngbdtsforbindelse, -r, connection by steamer en dngbdtstur, -er, steamboat
"

trip

a
,

en
IDIOMS:
1.
2.

iigare,

owner

att

ha frdmmande,
Jia

to

have company.
det ur

att

tur,

to

be in luck;

min

tur,

it

is

my
3.

turn.

att titta in hos nugon, to call

on somebody.

LESSON XXXIII.
Uses of Prepositions (Continued).
351.

Genom

(igenom), through, by means

of,

on account of:
(a) Direction: vi gingo

genom skogen, we went

through the forest.

may follow the noun and has then the form igenom): han var olycklig hela livet igenom, he was unhappy throughout his whole life.
(b)
(the preposition
in this sense
(c) Means: han later hdlsa genom sin bror, he sends greetings through his brother; genom stora anstrdngningar har han uppndtt sitt mdl, by means of great exertions he has attained his goal.

Time

account of: genom sitt ddraktiga upphar han forlorat vdrt fb'rtroende, on acforande count of his foolish conduct he has lost our con(d)
fidence.

On

Hos, at the house of, in the shop of, in: oss, he lives with us; hos skrdddaren, at the tailor's; vi Idsa hos Gothe mycket om konsten, in Goethe we read much about art.
352.

han bor hos

PREPOSITIONS.

209

353.
(a)

7,

in,

into:
(literal)
:

Place

i

rummet,

in

the

room;

place into which (literal) is denoted by in i, into: han kom in i rummet, he came into the room.
NOTE.
i

skolan

go. i

(go into the church, go into the' school skolan (to attend church, to attend school)'.

Observe the difference between expressions like ya in i kyrkan, go. in [house]) and ga i kyrkan,

(b) Place
live in

rdka

i

att leva i fattigdom, to (figurative) att poverty; place into which (figurative) svarigheter, to get into difficulties.
:

:

(c) Time (with seasons and days in the genitive to denote past time, translated by last) : i vdras,
last
i

spring
i

;

i
;

dag, to-day

fredags, last Friday i gar, yesterday i hundratals ar, for hundreds of years
;

;

;

en gang

veckan, once a week.
i

(d) Manner: skriva vrede, in anger.
(e)

hast, to write in haste;

i

Change,
ost,
i

transition:
is

smor och
354.

the cream

grddden forvandlas i changed into butter and

cheese; ga

bitar, to

go to pieces.
to:

Med, with, by,

(a) Accompaniment: mil ni ga med mig i kyrkan? Will you go to church with me? han var med de forsta, som gingo, he was among the first who went.

(b)
leap.

Manner:

att studera
ett

med

flit,

to study

with

diligence;

med

enda sprang, with

(at) a single

(c)

mail

;

skriva

Instrument: skicka med posten, to send by med penna, write with pen fara med
;

jarnvag, travel by

rail.

210

PREPOSITIONS.

(d) In a number of set phrases; as, besldktad med, related to; tola med, speak to, etc.
NOTE.

As an adverb med means along: kom med I

Come along!

Mot, emot, against, toward: (a) Direction: hdren marscherade emot fienden, the army marched against the enemy; var vdnlig emot din bror, be kind to your brother; han kommer nog fram mot kv alien, he will very likely come to355.

ward evening; gd emot nagon, go
(b)

to

meet somebody.
bytte

Exchange, comparison:
I

gamla pianot mot ett nytt, piano for a new; de vunno spelet med tio podng mot fyra, they won the game with ten points to
four.

ut det exchanged the old

jag

Hostility: arbeta mot nagon, work against somebody; sdtta sig emot nagot, oppose something.
(c)

(d) Remedy: hdr dr ett bra medel mot huvudvark, here is a good remedy for headache.

356.

Om,

about, around, in, for, of, a, etc.:
:

(a) Subject or topic han berdttade om sina dventyr, he told of his adventures; vad handlar boken

om? What
nagot
(b)

om

does the book treat about? jag vet ej den saken, I know nothing about that
(at the

matter.

Time

end of which)
in a

om fem minuter, the utes; om en manad,
Wednesday.
NOTE.

taget kommer train will be here in five min:

month; om onsdag, next

Time within which
I

nagra dagar,

shall

have

it

is denoted by inom: jag skall ha det fdrdigt inom ready within a few days.

(c)

Time

at

which

(indefinite)

:

om

dagen,

in

EXERCISE.

211

the daytime; om vintern, in winter; tva ganger om dret, twice a year.
(d) Interest, competition, with verbs of asking, contending etc. bedja om ndgonting, ask for something (inquire for=frdga ejter, see 349, b) spela om pengar, play for money; tdvla om ett pris, to compete for a prize; att anhdlla om ndgot, to re1

,

:

;

quest something.
(e)

Motion past: ska vi forsoka
;

att

Shall we try to pass him? (here be regarded as a separable prefix
stress)
.

om honom? om may perhaps
ga
takes the main

it

(f) Position: han har en bindel om huvudet, he has a bandage about his head med armen om nagon, with the arm around somebody; jag ar vat om fotterna, my feet are wet; norr om Stockholm, north of Stockholm; till hoger om, to the right of.
;

NOTE. Position or motion around, especially generally denoted by omkring or kring.

when the meaning

is literal,

is

EXERCISE XXXIII.
A.
1.

Jag

skulle vilja vaxla en del

1

svenska pengar

i

amerikanska.

Kan
?

ni saga mig, var det narmaste vaxel-

kontoret ligger 2
i

2.

Jag kanner

ej till

3

nagot vaxelkontor

narheten, men darborta om hornet ligger en bank, och dar vaxlar man nog for er. 3. Det var bra, ty jag har sa brattskall

om; jag
4.

lamna Stockholm om*
5

ett

par timmar.

Hur mycket

Berlin?

kostar ett telegram om tjugufem ord till Det blir fyrtio ore per 6 ord, och dessutom maste

5. ni betala for adress och namnteckning. 8 grammet i dag? Ja, med forsta lagenhet.

Avgar 6. Jag

7

tele-

skulle

vilja siinda ett tusen

adressen och telegi'ammet.

kronor per telegraf till Berlin, har ar Tors 9 jag be om 10 ett kvitto?

212

EXERCISE.

7. Du var val ej hos Bloms i gar ef teriniddag ? Nej, herr Carlen bad mig ga med honom till Idrottsparken, och vi kommo ej tillbaka forran fram mot 11 niotiden. 8. Hur av-

lopte

med

Idrottsklubben Kamraterna vann Kamraterna spelade med kraft och 9. Jag traffade var gamle van Agrell i mandags. elegans. Han talade om de ekonomiska svarigheter, i vilka han ra10 10. Stackars Agrell, ett mindre Ian. kat, och anholl om 11. Visst inte, allt synes ha sammansvurit sig mot honom. han har adragit sig sina motgangar genom sitt slarv. Han hade kunnat vara valbargad for lange sedan 12 , om han 13
f otbollmatchen ?

tre

mal mot

ett.

skb'tt sig.
l

En

del is used colloquially in the sense of tome, a

number

of.

*Also dr

belii-

get or or.

The Latin per is used after 456, b. *0/. an expression of price with the meaning of a; we could also say fyrtio ore ordet. 'Note use of pres. ; also kommer att avga. "See 354, b ; also vid. 'Common
*Kanna
till,

know

of.

4

form of polite request.
iary.

I0

356, d.

"355,

a.

"350,

f.

"Note omission

of auxil-

B. 1. Here is a telegram for you. It is from my brother; wish to answer immediately by 1 telegraph. 2. Could 2 you You will find tell me where the nearest telegraph office is ?
I

one around the corner on the

first cross street.

3.

How

much
dress

does a telegram of 3 twenty words to Paris cost? It 4 costs forty-five ore a word. 4. May I then send the ad-

and signature for nothing5 ? No, you will have to pay 6 5. Will you take for them too. dinner with 7 us next 8 9 Wednesday ? I am so sorry, but it will not be possible for me. 6. Why not? I have promised to take my friend Carlen along to the football
like to

game

in the afternoon.

7. I

should

10 go with you myself ; they are going to compete for 11 into this compartthe championship in football. 8. Get 12 in a few minutes. the train will start ment; Hurry up!

9.

I shall 13 take these parcels with me into the car. It was 10. That seat so kind of you to check that valise for me.

VOCABULARY.
will be
1*

213

very comfortable for you,
11.

if

you are not afraid

to

ride 15 backwards.

you, good-bye! they 16 third time. 12. How far 17 is it to Upsala? ring for the 18 of Stockholm. 13. You Upsala lies thirty miles north

Thank

Now

ought to
there.
15.
to

visit it in

19

14.

They
16.

will

the spring, while the students are still return within 20 a month, I think.

Now we

are there.

Who

is

this

gentleman that comes
,

meet 21 us? Old Upsala.
'See A,
6,

Over

22 we have there, towards the west

above.

2

Sec A,
12

1,

above.
6

3

note
bliva.

5.
1P

*Intet,

not

ingenting.

Use

ata.

See A, 4, above. 7 8 352. 356, b.
13

4

See A,

4,

above,

'Use present of

denotes
21

"Use j;d. 356, d. a determination.

Use

pros, of ga.

prepositive def. article. 358. a. ''-Vaster.

"Use kommer ait "Use langt. 18 356,

bli.
f.

Use skall since the future here 15 18 Leave out the 350, g.
19

0m

or pa.

20

356,

6,

note.

VOCABULARY.
an'Mlla (insep.
v.), to

request

ett

mdsterskap,
ship
-t,

,

champion-

av'gA, to go out, depart; gd av' to break

mojligt,

possible (ly)
-ar,

backwards en bank, -er, bank
baklanges,

en namnteckning,
ture

signa-

ekonomisk,
elegans,
1

-t,

financial

elegance
-er,

norr (adj. and noun, no indef.), north
(en) narhet, nearness, vicinity
ett ord,
,

en fotbollmatch,

football

game
genast, immediately

word
I,

ett paket, -er, parcel

en herre, -ar, gentleman en idrottspark, -er, athletic

polette'ra,

to
-or,

check
valise

en resviiska,
raka,
I,

park
Idrottsparken, Athletic Park
in

to meet; encounter

radd (no neut. indef.), timid,
afraid

Stockholm

inom, within en kraft, -er, force, strength
ett kvitto, -n, receipt

sammansvarja

sig

(refl.

v.),

-svor, -svuro, -svurit, -en, -et, to conspire

en Wgenhet, en motg&ng,

-er,

-ar,

opportunity adversity

skota sig (refl. v.), Ha, to take care of oneself
ett

ett mal, goal;

meal

slarv,

,

carelessnosfi

214
elt sate, -n, seat

PREPOSITIONS.
vaxla,
I,

to

change
exchange
v.), to

en telegraf, en tvargata,
Idvla,
I,

-er,

-or,

telegraph cross street
.

ett

vaxelkontor,
office

to

compete
-at,

vdlMrgad,
IDIOMS:
1.

well-to-do

d'draga sig (refl. on, contract
to see,

bring

att
i

rdka en person,

meet a person;

att

rdka

fattigdom, svdrigheter, to become poverty-stricken, to get into difficulties; jag rdkar inte hdr, I do

not find
2.

my way

here.
to contract

att

ddraga sig en sjukdom,

a disease.

'Pronounced elegangs 1 .

LESSON XXXIV.
Uses of Prepositions (Continued).
Pa, on, upon, at, in, for, to. (a) Place in which: boken ligger pa bordet, the book lies on the table; jag mo'tte honom pa gatan (not i gatan); I met him in the street; han ar pa sitt rum, he is in his room ett hdl pa rocken, a hole in the coat; pa landet, in the country.
;

357.

gd pa target, pa posten, pa go to market, to the post office, to the theater; gd ut pa faltet, pa landet, to go into the field, into the country.
:

(b) Place into which

teatern, to

NOTE.
posten,
to

Till teatern
;

mean? only
till

attendance

att skicka

to the theater as a place ; pa teatern Implies posten, to send to the post office ; att skicka pd

mail.

(c) Direction toward an object: han riktade sin kamera pd mig, he pointed his camera at me; jag blickade (sag) pd honom, I looked at him han syfiade pd mig, he alluded to me.
;

(d)
rest

Time during which,

for

how

long: han har

till

Sverige pd ett ar, he has gone to Sweden

PREPOSITIONS.

215

for a year; han har ej skrivit pa en vecka, he has not written for a week.
(e)
NOTE.
i

Time

at

which pa morgonen, in the morning
:

;

pa varen,

in the spring. Om morgonen, om varen, etc.

is

much more

indefinite:

we must

say

dag pa morgonen, this morning (not

om morgonen),

see om.

Response and expectation after certain verbs Response: svara pa, to answer; ho'ra pa, to listen to; giva akt pa, to pay attention to: ho'r pa vad jag sdger, listen to what I say; svara pa mitt brev, answer my letter.
(f)
:

1.

Expectation hoppas pa, to hope for lita pa, upon; rdkna pa, to count on, etc.: jag hoppas pa regn, I hope for rain; jag rdknar pa din hjdlp; I count on your help; tank pa det! Think of it jag vdntar pa honom, I am waiting for him. (g) With certain adjectives ond pa, angry with matt pa, tired of; avundsjuk pa, envious of; upp2.
: ;

to

rely

!

:

;

mdrksam
etc.:

pa, attentive to; svartsjuk pa, jealous of, jag dr matt pa sddana saker, I am tired of (have had enough of) such things; han dr ond pa mig, he is angry with me. (h) In a number of idiomatic expressions: pa svenska, in Swedish soppa pa oxkb'tt, beef soup att leva pa tio dollars i veckan, to live on ten dollars a week; jag har inga pengar pa mig, I have no money about me; en vdxel pa (a) femtio kronor, a draft for fifty dollars; pa delta sdtt, in this manner; det gar hundra ore pa kronan, there are one hundred ore to the crown.
;
;

358.

Till, to,

in, for, of, etc.:
till staden, till svarta himlen: go to town, to the

(a) Motion to a place: ga
tavlan,
till

posten,

till

216

PREPOSITIONS.

blackboard, to the post office, to heaven; sjunka till batten, sink to the bottom; fora till bords, conduct to the table; han kom till mig, he came to me.
in

(b) Place at or in which: ligga bed sitta till bords, sit at table ;
;

till
till

stings, to lie

sjoss,

on

sea.

(c) Purpose, appointment, destination, transformation: nyckeln ar till att Idsa upp med, the key is for unlocking; de ha kront honom till konung, they have crowned him king; bliva till sten, become stone; har ar ett paket till er, here is a package for you; vara till nytta, be of use; taga till hustru, to marry (lit. to take for wife)
.

(d) Specification, reference: god till karaktaren, of good character; vanlig till sattet, of a good disposition skomakare till yrket, shoemaker by trade benet till bordet, the leg of the table han ar son till
;
;

;

presidenten, he
NOTE.
genitive :

is

the president's son.

Here may perhaps be classed the Swedish equivalent for the objective karleken till fosterlandet, love of country; Guds kdrlek till oss,

God's love for us.

(e) Addition coffee with

:

my

jag dricker kaffe till maten, I drink meals; tag socker till kaffet, take

sugar with the coffee. (f) In a number of idiomatic expressions: till hosten, next fall till pdsk far jag hem, I shall go home for Easter; vad fick du till julklapp? what did you get for Christmas present? vi hade lax till middag, we had salmon for dinner gratulera till fb'delsedagen, to congratulate on a birthday, etc.
; ;

och med=to, up to, including frdn sidan och med sidan trettio, from page twenty tjugu to page thirty inclusive. As an adverb it means even: till och med han, even he.
(g)
till
:

till

EXERCISE.

21?

359.

Under, under, beneath, during, amid:

(a) Place, direction: jag stod under trddet, 1 stood beneath the tree jag star under hans uppsikt, I am under his supervision; under omstdndigheterna, under the circumstances; kom under mitt paraply, come beneath my umbrella.
;

(b) Time under hans livstid, during his lifetime under tiden, in the meantime; under marschen, on the march; under middagen, in the course of the
:

;

dinner.
(c) Rank, value, age: kaptenen star under majoren i rang, the captain is below the major in rank; hans bok dr under all kritik, his book is beneath all criticism; vill ni salja huset under 10,000 kronor? Do you wish to sell the house for less than 10,000

crowns? under tjugu
(d)

ar,

under twenty years of age.

Manner: under tarar omtalade han vad som hdnt, weeping (with tears) he related what had happened under skratt och skdmt, amidst laughing and joking.
;

EXERCISE
A.
1.

XXXIV.

Pa manga
i

1

hant som

gar;

till

ar har ej en sa forfarlig jarnvagsolycka foljd av en felsignal ursparade natt2.

snalltaget mellan

Stockholm och Uppsala.

Min

kusin

var bland passagerarne, han blev raddad pa 2 ett underbart 3 3. Vad vantar du pa ? satt. Jag vantar pa att fa* en vaxel a ett tusen kronor inlost, som jag utstallde pa denna bank

genom
litet

dess korrespondent i Chicago. 4. Jag har mycket kontanta pengar pa mig, men jag har ett kreditbrev pa denna bank till belopp av tio tusen kronor. 5. Har du 7 6 Nej, jag har till princip att tagit ut alia dina pengar?
Sivedish

5

Grammar

15

218
alltid lata

EXERCISE.

en mindre

summa

innesta; jag raknar pa att
6.

kimna

Har du reda pa att ogynnrorande denna bank under de senaste veckorrykten na varit i omlopp. 7. Nu vanta vi ej langre 8 pa honom, utan 9 ga till bords; pa honom kan man da aldrig rakna.
mera
senare.

6 satta in

samma

8. Vad ha vi till middag i dag, Anna? Soppa pa lions, lammstek m. m. (etc.) Maken till middag ha vi ej haft 10 pa lange. 9. Vem och vad ar den dar unge mannen, som

vi traffade

11 pa bjudningen i gar? Han ar en son till dr Liden och ar larare till yrket. 10. Lagg det har brevet pa posten, sa ar du snail. Du har glomt att satta frimarke pa.

Det var bra att du gav akt darpa. Adressaten hade nog 12 13 blivit ond pa mig, om han fatt betala losen.
11.
^57, A. 2 357, h. '357, f. *Fa can often be translated by get. 5 351, c. Generally separated; but de uttagna pengarna, de insatta pengarna; uttagare, T 8 insdttare. 'Adversative conjunction ; trans358, c. Translate, any longer.
lates

but after a negative.

10

357, d.

"357,

a.

12

357,

a,

f.

"Fa, have

to.

B.

Conversation.
2.

1.

Var gardagens jarnvagsolycka

Varigenom ursparade taget? 3. Vem befann vid tillfallet ? 4. Omkom han ocksa ? 5. Vad sig pa taget beloper sig er vaxel till ? 6. Varf or behover ni ej bara mycket kontanta pengar pa er? 7. Varf or later ni en mindre
obetydlig?

summa

innesta

i

banken?

8.

Varf or vore det sakrare

att
till

taga ut allt, som ni satt in? 9. Varf or har ni ej gatt 1 bords forut? 10. Vad ar er tanke om middagen?
^Thought
is

here equivalent to opinion.

C.

What do you

think of 1 the railroad accident which
It is the

happened yesterday afternoon ?

most serious
3.

for

2

many years. 2. My brother, who is on a was among the passengers, but was saved.

trip to Narvik,

How? He

had gone into 3 the dining car and this was the only one 4. The accident hapof the cars which did not derail. 4 because of carelessness on the part of the employees. pened 5. Could you tell me where Stockholms Enskilda Bank is?

VOCABULARY.
I have a drjift

219
6.

on

it foi

5

one thousand crowns.

All the

banks are closed at three o'clock sharp 6 and you have only 7 five minutes to spare 7. I must have the money, for I
.

have very little cash about me. During 8 all my travels I have never been so short of money. 8. I believe that I must turn to 9 you and ask for help. You can count on me.
9. I shall
10

gladly

to-morrow they will 11 cash

advance the amount of the draft for you; 10. Now we have it in the bank.

waited long enough for 12 him and the dinner is getting cold. He seems to have a habit 13 of always coming late.
is your opinion about the book? According to 14 12. How is he as to opinion it is badly written. 15 character? I observed only one fault in him while he was

11.

What

my

under

16 money. 13. supervision: too great a love of Take a little more sugar. Is your coffee sweet enough?

my

17 No, thank you.

for

many
a. ;

years.

have not used sugar with 18 my coffee 14. Mr. Lind will surely be envious of
I

Carl

when he hears

that they have elected Carl chairman 19
;

.

tanka pa, to think of (have in tonka om, to have an opinion of 4 2 8 A betjdningens sida; a is used instead 353, a. 357, d. mind), 357, f, 2. the place is never literal. 5 357, h. 8 Pd slaget of pa in a few set expressions To. er. 8 359, a. "Att vanda tig till, to turn to, tre or precis klockan ire. 10 address oneself to. Garna; future with skall (the future here denotes a
*356,
;

promise). "Use present; we have here a temporal adverb which obviates 18 I3 12 /To till vana att ; 358, c. 358, "358, d. "352. 357, f, 2. ambiguity. I9 d. note. 358, c. 358, e. "Nej, jag tackar.

VOCABULARY.
en adressat',
all'varsam,
-er,

addressee

-t,

serious

gdrdag, yesterday en Jijalp, help
lions

avundsjuk,
ett belopp,

-t,
,

envious

(collective),

chickens,

amount

poultry

en bjudning, invitation, party in'nestd (generally insep. in this sense), to remain ett fel, error, mistake en felsignal, -er, wrong signal (money)
,

forfarlig,

-t,

terrible

in'losa,

losa

in',

to

redeem;

giva akt' (pa), to heed

to cash

220

PUKI'OSITIOMJ.

in'satta, satta in' (see sdtta) to deposit

en restaurangvagn, ing car

-ar,

a din-

iMllna,

I,

to
,

become cold
(adj.),

kontant',

cash
corre-

en Correspondent', spondent
ett

-er,

ett rykte, -n, rumor; reputation rakna, I, to count en sida, -or, side; page; part ett socker (def. sockret), sugar en soppa, -or, soup ett satt,
,

kreditbrev, credit

,

letter

of

en lammstek, -ar, lamb steak w ^rbar, -t, miraculous, wonen losen, ransom; postage due derful en make, -ar, mate, match en uppsikt, supervision ett nattsncilltag, night exur'spara, spdra ur', to derail press
,

manner; way

o'betydlig,

-t,

insignificant

ut'stalla

ogynnsam,
ett

-t,

unfavorable
,

(generally insep. in this sense), lib, to draw
(a draft)

omlopp,
perish

circulation

om'komma

(see

komma),

ut'taga, taga ut' (see taga), to take out

en princip', -er, principle en reda (-0 in compounds)
order; knowledge

en

vilxel, -lar,

draft

vdrdslosJiet,
ett yrke, -n,

carelessness

trade

IDIOMS
.

:

1.
2.

att att

ha reda pd nagot, to know something. gora reda for nagot, to give an account
foljd af, in

of

something.
3.
till

consequence

of,

because

of.

LESSON XXXV.
Uses of Prepositions (Continued).
360.
Vid, at, by, on, etc.:

(a) Vicinity: slaget vid Breitenfeld, the battle of Breitenfeld; vid bordet, at the table; vid stranden, by the shore vid Stockholm, in the neighborhood of
;

Stockholm fdstad vid vdggen, fastened to the wall. Also figuratively: fdsta sig vid nagon, fix one's affections on somebody vid lampan, by the lamp.
; ;

(b)

Time: vid

jul, at

Christmas; vid femtio ars

PREPOSITIONS.

22 1

alder, at fifty years of age; vid forsta tillfdlle, at

the first opportunity; vid Idsandet av detta brev.
at the reading of this letter.
(c) Condition:

vara vid god hdlsa, to be in good

health; vid stark hetta, at a great heat; vid gott lynne, in good humor; han dr vid armen, he is in

the army.

Contact: taga vid handen, to take by the rora vid saret, touch the wound; used thus hand; with verbs like hdlla, to hold gripa, to seize leda, to
(d)
;
;

lead; fora, to conduct; draga, to pull.
(e) Penalty: vid livsstraff, at the penalty of death; vid tjugu kronors bb'ter, at a fine of twenty crowns.

361.

At, toward, to:

(a) Direction=toward, in the direction of, to.
this sense at does not necessarily

In

imply attainment

of the goal; the idea of direction is often strengthened by till placed after the governed word: han

har gatt at floden till, he has gone toward the river kasta ett ben at hunden, throw a bone to the dog; han skot stolen at sidan, he pushed the chair to the side; han sag inte ens at mig, he didn't even look
at

;

me

(in

my

direction)

.

(b) Often before an indirect object (also till) jag gav boken at Karl, I gave the book to Carl.

:

(c) Cause (often with a touch of ridicule or contempt) att skratta at, to laugh at; det dr sa man kan grata at det, it is enough to make one weep.
:

362. A, on, is used in a few common phrases; as, d andra handen. on the other hand d ena sidan,
;

222

PREPOSITIONS.

on the one side; en vdxel a femtio kronor, a draft for fifty crowns a Hans vdgnar, in his behalf. When the expression is literal, pa must be used: pa ena
;

sidan gatan, one one side of the street.
363.
etc.:

over, over, above, across, beyond, about,

Place (literal and figurative) =over, above, beyond: ett stort moln hanger over berget, a big cloud hangs over the mountain; lararen star over sina larfungar, the teacher is above his pupils; over havet, beyond the sea; han ar nog over trettio ar, I think he is above thirty. Related to this construction is over after such verbs as regera, to rule rada, to hold sway (primarily to advise) segra, to gain a victory: Karl den tolvte regerade over ett vidstrdckt rike, Charles XII. ruled over an extensive realm; han segrade over sina fiender, he was victorious over his enemies.
(a)
;
;

floden,

(b) Direction=over, across: bron, som leder over har rasat, the bridge which leads across the

river has collapsed. Related to this construction are expressions like han har rest till New York over

Chicago, he has gone to
cago.
(c)

New York

by way of Chi-

Excess: denna sak kostar over en krona, this thing costs over a crown; det gar over mitt forstdnd, that surpasses my understanding. (d) Duration: han blev hos oss over sommaren, he remained with us during the summer over natten, over night.
;

(e) Cause, topic=about, of, concerning, on, at:
1.

With verbs

like skriva, to write;

tola,

to

EXERCISE.
;
:

223

speak yttra sig, express oneself han skrev, talade over ett svart dmne, he wrote, spoke on a difficult topic; han yttrade sig over dagens frdgor, he expressed himself concerning the questions of the day.
NOTE.

Om

used with similar verbs

may have a

different
of),

meaning:

att

tain

om

ndgon, to speak of somebody

(make a mention

skriva om, to write

about.

2. With verbs denoting feeling: sorja over, to mourn; klaga over, to complain of; gladja sig over, to rejoice at; vredgas over, to become angry at;

fortvivla over, to despair of.

With adjectives denoting feeling: glad over, glad of; ond over, angry at; ledsen over, sorry on
3.

account
NOTE.

of.

say in Swedish, ond pa en person, angry with a person, but ond over en sak, angry at a thing.

We

EXERCISE
A.
1.

XXXV.

Din

for tiden.

far ar visst ej vid synnerligen god halsa nu Nej det ar han inte, men han klagar aldrig over

1 nagot, och kan inte formas att tala vid en lakare. 2. Jag 2 har sagt at honom mer an en gang, att vid bans hoga alder

och
sig

med hans

om

sin halsa battre.

svaga kroppskonstitution maste han varda 3. Ser ni anslaget darborta vid
:

gangen ?
!

Det dar under tradet med orden

"Det

ligger

i

(is to) allmanhetens intresse att skona planteringarna ?" 4. Ja Det ar ett av de manga satt, pa vilka svensken uttrycker

det amerikanska
vikt

ofta

"Keep off the grass." Han faster stor vid hovlighet. 5. Under min vistelse i Sverige har jag 4 forvanats over den stora hovlighet, vanned svenskarna
3

bemota varandra. 6. Har ni varit vid 5 Skansen, det beromda friluftsmuseet, som Hazelius har Vi svenskar aro med ratta 6 stolta darover. upprattat? 7 forsta tillfalle 7. Nej, annu har jag ej haft tid, men vid
vid alia
tillf alien

224
skall

EXERCISE.

jag ga
hb'll

dit.

8.

Doktor White, en av mina vanner
9.

i

London, 8 drag over Skansen.
fragat efter dig.
tillbaka vid
7

for ej sa liinge sedan ett hogst intressant fore-

Har du
till
9
,

traffat

Karl?

Han

har

Ja, jag traffade
10.

gen ; han gick at staden
niotiden.

men Har Klara

nyss ute pa vaatt ban skulle vara sade,
blivit fardig

honom

med

sin

an? Nej, hon var somnade over boken.
laxa
J

sa trott, stackars liten 10 , att

bon

to
is

Fd and forma are often used in the sense of make, cause fa nagon att tro, make somebody believe hon kan icke format, he can't be made to there more compulsion implied in fd. 2 361, b; also till. *Att fasta vikt (av:

;

;

seende) vid, attach importance to; att Idgga vikt pa, lay stress on. c "Also pa. Med rdtta, rightly. '360, b. prepositional compound.
9

4

Note the
S

363.

e.

361,

a.

"Note the

irregularities of liten, neut.,

litet, def.,

Kile,

-a,

pi.

amd.

B.

1.

What

shall

1

we do to-night?
2.

I I

theater; will

you go with me?

No,

going to the think I shall pass

am

2

the evening over my books. I am in 3 such a humor to-night 4 that I could not laugh at anything. 3. I know that you 6 5 are tired of the theater ; I am not very fond of it either

;

7 you know how I have often expressed myself concerning 4. At what time does the play begin? It begins as it.

usual at eight o'clock, I suppose 8 5. main here over Christmas? No, I
.

Christmas.
it

6.

Where

is

your home ?

Do you intend to ream going home for 9 You have mentioned
it.

before, but I have forgotten 11 Stockholm. 7. Is not holm, close by
to

10

me

I live in Djurs-

of

Stockholm?

Yes, and

it

Djursholm a suburb has become famous by reason
8.

of the
tor

many prominent men

that have lived there.

Vic-

12 Eydberg died there not so very long ago and all have traveled Sweden mourned his death. 9. Although across the ocean many times, the rolling and pitching of the ship always makes 13 me sick. 10. How quickly we glide
-I

over the water
Elbe.
11.

!

We

shall
15

14

soon be at the mouth of the

Were you

at

the spring festival at Skansen yes-

VOCABULARY.
terday
?

225

all stayed at are so sorry 10 that we could not 17 12. Were you not out at all? Yes, during the go there evening the weather got better and we went to Berns and

No, on account of the bad weather we

home

in the afternoon.
.

We

18 the music. listened to

13.

Your

eyes look

19

very sore.

20 them. 14. Have you conquite worried about sulted an eye doctor about them? Yes, and he told me to

Yes, I

am

21 by the otudy only by daylight. 15. Take the little one hand, he may be frightened at the sight of horses.

'Future

with

shall.

Why?
7

2

357, b.
e,

3

360,

c.

4

361,
8

c.

5

357,

g.

*Fastad

fid. haller ej vidare pa, etc.

363,

fid jul, at Christmas. 10 350, a. is the Swedish equivalent for all "Present. Why not future with si-all f

Use an adverb. 9 358, e, "Invid (nara invid), i narheten av. "What used in the sense of whole f 13 What order?
also angaende.
15

360,

a.

16

What

preposition?

In this

"Here and there used in the sense case the preposition may also be left out. of hither and thither are hit och dit: kom hit, not kom heir. ^357. f. 1.

"Se-f what?

20

363,

e,

2.

Den

-\-

what form of litenf

VOCABULARY.
en allmanhet, public, generalities

klaga, to complain

en
,

en anblick,
ett anslag,
,

sight, aspect

kroppskonstitution, -er, constitution (of body)
-et,

design, placard,
to treat, to re-

ledsen,

sorry

notice
bemci'ta,

Ha,

ceive
ett

dagsljus,

daylight

humor, disposition en mynning, -ar, mouth (of rivnozzle er, cannon) om'tala, tola om', to mention
ett lynne, -n,
;

framstdende (invariable), prominent fiista, I and Ha, to fasten,
attach

ond, ont, angry;
orolig,
-t,

evil,

sore

en forstad, -sttider, suburb furv&nas (dep. v.), I, to be
astonished
glida, gled, gledo, glidit, -en, -et, to glide

uneasy, worried en pj<is, -er, play (theater) en plantering, -ar, vegetation in parks, squares, etc. en rullning, rolling rddfrdga (insep. v.), I, to consuit

(a doctor)

Skansen, an open air
in

museum

glomma,
ett hall,

lib, to forget
,

Stockholm

hold; direction
-er,

(en) hovligJiet,

politeness

skona, I, to spare, to treat with care

226

ADVERBS.
ett
tillfiille,

en stampning, pitching (of
ships)

-n,

opportunity,

occasion
to

stanna,
stolt,

I,
,

remain

uttrycka, Ha, to express

proud

synnerligen, especially
sorja, lib, to

mourn

en vikt, -er, weight; importance en v&rfest, -er, spring festival
vdrda, to care for en alder, -rar, age

till'bringa

see (insep. v., bringa), to spend, pass
(of time)

en ogonlakare,

,

eye doctor

LESSON XXXVI.
Adverbs.

364. Origin. With respect to their origin adverbs may be divided into three groups:

Primitive words and compounds of such as nu, fort, fast; blott, only; ja, jo, yes; nej, no; ej, icke, inte, not; dar, there; hdr, here; darav, of or from that; hdrtill, to this, hereto.
(1)

now;

(2)

The neuter singular

of the indefinite

form

of

adjectives: beskedligt (from beskedlig), modestly; elakt (from elak), wickedly; klart (from klar),
clearly; hoppfullt

(from hoppfull), hopefully.

(3) Derivatives formed by means of a suffix: bara (from bar), only; mojligen (from mojlig), possibly; nagorlunda, tolerably.

365.
(a)

Derivative Suffixes.
-a:

The usual adverbial

suffixes are:

borta (bort), away;

hemma

(hem), at
att vara

home.
hemma,
Note the following idiomatic expressions: att vara borta, to be out; to be at home.

ADVERBS.

227
quite; framdeles,

(b) -deles: alldeles, entirely, later on; sdrdeles, especially.
alldeles ypperligt, I honom, I can't aay I like

Note the following idiomatic expressions: alldeles

mar

am
him

riktigt, quite right; jag feeling very well ; jag tycker ej sa sdrdeles om very well ; vi fa se framdeles, we shall see later.

(c)

-e

(in

Idnge, long;

some adverbs of time and place) framme, in front, at hand, at the des:

tination; inne, in; uppe, up; ute, out, etc.
Note the following idiomatic expressions: i morgon aro vi framme, to-morrow shall be at our destination; har du boken framme t Do you have the book / dag var jag uppe tidigt, to-day I was up early at hand ? han or ute och gar, aker, he is taking a walk, ride.

we

;

(d) -en (from adjectives in -lig) dagligen, daily; mojligen, possibly; troligen, probably, etc.
:

(e) -ledes: sdledes, thus; dvenledes, likewise.
(f) -Ugen: bitterligen, bitterly; storligen, greatly;

svdrligen, hardly; nyligen, recently.

(g) -lunda (an old genitive of the Old Swedish lund, manner, disposition) annorlunda, in any oth:

er

way ingalunda, by no means nagorlunda,
;

;

toler-

ably.

(h)

-s,

-es (originally a genitive, generally in
b, e,

com-

pound adverbs, see 365,
alls icke

and 366, note
all;

2)

:

alls in

or icke

alls,

not at

ndgonstans, any-

where; hoptals, in great numbers; tidtals, at times; tjogtals, by the score hundratals, by hundreds.
;

(i)

-vis

(ws=English wise)
possibly;
;

:

lyckligtvis, fortu-

nately;

mojligtvis,

troligtvis,

probably;

styckvis, piecemeal

delvis, partly.

366. Compound adverbs are usually composed of very common form of prepositions and adverbs. adverb compound is hdr, here, or ddr, there, -fa preposition hdri, in this, or that ddrtill, to this, or

A

:

;

228

ADVERBS.

in this
NOTB
there
2.
;

that; hdri bestdr skillnaden, the difference consists ddrav foljer, att from this it follows ,
;
. .

.

.

(or results) that.
1.

.

.

.,

etc.

Hdr and

dfir

are also prefixed to

many adverbs
there,
;

of place to

form
over

extremely

common compounds:

daruppe,

up

upstairs;

darborta,

da.rhem.ma, at (my, your, his, etc.) Another form of adverb compound

home

ddrinne, in there, inside, etc. sometimes met with consists of a
of

noun generally in the genitive case preceded by some other part

speech

(see also 365): avsides, apart; halvvags, half-way; liggdags (pronounced daks). bedtime (also hur dagsf at what time?); ndgonstades, somewhere; utomhus,

outdoors.

367. Position and comparison of adverbs have already been discussed.
368.
the

The functions of the adverb are same as in English.

practically

369. The following examples illustrate the idiomatic uses of certain adverbs and adverbial expressions
Allt:
:

Karl kunde

allt

vara

flitigare,

Carl could cer-

tainly be
I

am

bedragit dig, sure he has deceived you. Alltfor, for: han dr alltfor strdng, he is much too
diligent;
;

more

han har

allt

du kommer for sent, you come too late. Bar a: om jag bar a hade tid! If I only had time! Kom du hit bara! Just come here (threat) om ni
strict
;

behover nagot, sa bara
thing, just

kom

till

mig,

if

you need any-

come

to

me; bara

ett ogonblick, just a

moment.

Ens
to his

(in questions
till

and after negatives)

:

han har

icke ens skrivit

sin mor, he hasn't even written

mother.
all

For

(for ing en) del:

kom

for

all del,

innan jag

reser, come by all means before I leave; gor det for all del icke, by all means, don't do it; jag vill for

ADVERBb.

229
I

ing en del sdra hans kdnslor,

would by no means

wound

his feelings.

En gang: han har varit hdr en gang, tror jag, he has been here' once, I believe; han kommer en och annan gang, he comes now and then; det levde en gang en konung, once upon a time there was a king han skriver inte en gang till mig, he does not even write to me.
;

Gdrna: jag dter gdrna fisk, I am fond of fish; jag gdrna gora det, I should gladly do it jag ville gdrna ha litet mera kott, I should like a little more meat han vill nog hellre (comp. of gdrna} vila sig, I think he would prefer to rest.
skulle
;
;

Heller:

min bror var

icke trott, och icke jag heller,

icke heller jag, my brother was not tired, not tired either, neither was I.

and

I

was

most frequently
alldeles icke,

Inte, icke, ej: of the negative adverbs inte is used in conversation. Note such em:

phatic expressions as

by no means; inte (icke)

alls,

alls

(icke) inte, not at all; inte ett grand, inte en smul, not a bit ; inte det ringaste, inte det allra minsta, not
in the least.

Ju: du gor det ju? You are sure to do it? Han dr ju min far, he is my father, you know det kunde jag ju gora, I suppose I could do that.
;

will very likely come; kan nog vara sant, it may possibly be true nog borde du ha lytt din far, I think you ought to have obeyed your father jag ville nog gdrna ga med, men

Nog: han kommer nog, he

det

;

;

jag har inte tid, I should indeed like to go along, but I do not have time.

230
i

EXERCISE.

mig en kopp till, dr ni snail, give me another cup, please; hum manga till? How many
Till: giv

more?
: ni dr vdl trott, I suppose you are tired dr vdl sant, that is no doubt true lat dr han vdl, ej dum, he is lazy, to oe sure, but not stupid.

Veil

1

;

det

;

men
nog
is

more

*Val has almost the same meaning as nOg ; both denote supposition subjective, has a ring of concern and sincerity which vdl lacks.

;

EXERCISE
A.
1.

XXXVI.

Det hande en gang, att en skomakares hustru blev 1 2. Hennes man hade garna kallat en allvarligt sjuk. men han hade alls ingenting, varmed han skicklig lakare, kunde betala en sadan och befaim sig alltsa i stor nod. 2 3. Han kande nog en framstaende lakare, som bodde mitt ofver gatan) i ett stort, vackert hus, men han emot (tvars visste ocksa, att denne skulle begara ganska mycket for sin
behandling.
overlade saken lange for 3 sig sjalv och kom slutligen pa foljande tanke. 5. Han gick namligen 4 till lakaren och bad honom att besoka bans 5 hustni.
4.
6. 7.

Han

"Har

ni da 6 nagot att betala
ej sa

mig med?" fragade

lakaren.

"Tyvarr

ger er garna allt 8. "Under femtio kronor, atager jag mig icke er hustrus behandling, och ni forstar ju, att ni maste betala, antingen

mycket", svarade skomakaren, "men jag vad jag bar, om ni bara botar min hustni."

jag botar henne eller icke."
icke lange, sa

9. Skomakaren betankte sig mycket pengar hade han val inte, men det gallde ju hans sjuka hustru darhemma, och nagon utvag

funnes 7 nog. 10. "Kom bara", sade han, "och jag betalar, vad ni begar, antingen ni botar henne eller bringar henne om livet." 11. Lakaren atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling,

men denna
12.

8 blev allt varre och varre och dog slutligen.

Strax darpa 9 begarde lakaren

sitt

honorar av skoma-

EXERCISE.
karen.
13.

231

ligtvis icke", svarade lakaren.

om

livet",

"Botade ni min hustru" fragade denne. "Olyck14. "Ni bragte henne val ej fortsatte skomakaren. Lakaren protesters de na-

15. "Ja, da kan jag alls icke inse, att jag ar skyldig er nagot. 16. Dessa voro ju de tva villkor, pa vilka jag lovade att betala er."

turligtvis daremot.

Would have liked to. *Ex. XXXII, C, Note 12. 8 350, h. 4 May be omitted. llonom referring to lakare is the subject of the infinitive, hence hans and not sin. Translate But do you have, etc. 'Translate and there would probably 8 Note allt plus repeated comparative. 9 366, note 1. be, etc.
s
: :

B.

Conversation.
2.

hans hustru?

1. Vem insjuknade, skomakaren eller Varfor hamtade ban icke en lakare med

detsamma.
4.

3. Fanns det nagon skicklig lakare i narheten ? Varfor tvekade skomakareu att hamta honom? 5. Vil-

ken

bb'n riktade

skomakaren

till

lakaren ?

6.

Vad

ville

den-

ne forst veta, innan han atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling? 7. Var denna lakare barmhartig? 8. Vad lovade sko-

makaren
11.

att betala? 10.

9.

Pa

vilka villkor skulle

han betala

detta honorar?

Var

Lyckades lakaren att bota den sjuka? skomakaren enligt sin asikt skyldig lakaren nagot?

fallen seriously ill, and her illness will 2 2. I should have liked last long. to send for a probably

C.

1.

She has

1

prominent physician,
tor

if I

had only had money.
3
,

3.

The

doc-

who

lives right across the street is skillful,

es at least ten

crowns a

visit

I suppose 4

.

but he chargIf he had been

sick instead of his wife,

he would probably 4 not have hesi-

tated at all to

summon
is
6.

health of

my
fee

wife

the expensive doctor. 5. When the 5 concerned, no expense, of course , can
,

be too great.

get your

You know, do you not 6 from him. He is honest,

that you will never
to be sure
6
,

but

al-

7. I heard that the doctor, soon after together too poor. 7 8. I have sent the shoemaker a bill for his treatment.

not seen her since she became better.

Neither have

I.

232
9. I
is

VOCABULARY.

should like 6 to see Mr. Edgren; is he at home? No, ho out for the moment. He is out riding 8 with Dr. Forsell.

10.

Do you happen

to have those books at

hand 8 ? No,

I

have

them somewhere;
,

just wait

and

I

shall

look for them.
will,

11. Please don't take the trouble just

now; you

no

doubt 6 find them later on.
feeling

12.

How
now 11

somewhat
13.
13
.

better

;

until

are you now 10 ? I am the doctor has visited

me

daily.

What was
skall.

the cause?

Too much indoor 12
above.

work, I think
'Not future with

Why?

2

A,

1,

above.

S

A,

3,

Use the

definite

Attention has been called before to this distributive postpositive article. use of the definite article after expressions of price ; often per is used, XXXIII, In expressions of time i and om are used han fortjilnar fyrtio A, Note 5.
:

makes forty crowns a week, 2,000 crowns a year en gang i manaden, once a month. ^Translate by nog, which follows the simple verb or the auxiliary. 'Translate by ju which follows verb 6 invert. Translate by an adverb. ''Hans or sinf 8 365, c. Note. 9 349. b.
kroner
i

veckan, 2,000 kronor
;

om

aret, he

;

There are three common ways of asking for the health of a person in Swewhich are they ? ^Tills nu, tills for narvarande. '-Certain adverbs may be used to modify nouns in Swedish, when so used they follow the noun resan dit, arbete inomhus, indoor work nb'jen vtomhtis, outdoor amusements
10

dish

;

:

;

;

the trip thither, etc.

"Invert.

VOCABULARY.
allvarligt (adv.), seriously

framstdende, prominent
foljande, following ett honorar', fee

barmhdr'tig, merciful
befinna sig
no,), to be,

-t,

charitable,

en Jialsa, health hdndelsevis (adv.), by chance begdra, lib, to demand, charge inomhus (adv.), indoors en behandling, -ar, treatment in'se (insep. v., see se), to betdnka sig (refl. v.), Ha, to see, realize
(refl.
v.,

see

fin-

be situated; feel

reflect
bota,
I,

i

stdllet for, instead of
I,

to cure

leta,

to search for

(adv.), daily fort'sdtta (insep. v., see sat-

dagligen

ndmligen (adv.), namely, that
is to

say
unfortunately

ta), to continue

clyckligtvis,

framme
hand

(adv.), in front, at

proteste'ra, I, to protest rikta, I, to aim, direct

CONJUNCTIONS.
en sjukdom,
-ar,

233
(refl.

sickness

slutligen, at last, finally tveka, I, to hesitate

d'taga sig take

v.), to

under-

dtininstone, at least
ett ogonblick,
,

tvars

(adv.,

prep), across

moment

en utgift, en utvag,
vara,
I,

expense -ar, expedient to last; endure
-er,
1.

o'verldgga (insep. v., see lagga), to deliberate

IDIOMS:

att bringa
att

om

livet, to

deprive of
to hit

life, to kill.

2. 3.

komma

p& en tanke,

upon an

idea.

Har du
to

hdndelsevis sett

min

ftofcf

Do you happen

have seen

my

book?

4. 5.

langre fram (framdeles), later on. for ogonblicket, for the moment.

LESSON XXXVII.
Conjunctions.

There are two general classes of conjunc(1) the coordinating conjunctions, which are used to connect clauses, phrases, and words of equal rank; (2) the subordinating conjunctions, which
370.
tions:

join a dependent clause to sentence.
I.

some other part of the

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

371.
into

The coordinating conjunctions are divided two groups: (a) general connectives and (b)

adverbial conjunctions.
(a) General connectives.

The most important
anting en
. .

of these are

:

.

.

eller,
.

either ... or
. .

bade and och, both ej heller, nor, neither
. .

eller,

or
16

Swedish Grammar

234
icke blott.
.

CONJUNCTIONS.

.utan dven(ocksd), not only.

.

.but also

men, but och, and samt, and
sdval.
ty,
.

.som, as well as

for

utan, but (adversative) varken eller, neither
. . .

.

.

.

nor

372.

REMARKS ON THE GENERAL CONNECTIVES.

Those of the general connectives which connect clauses require the normal order (subject before predicate) with the exception of antingen. .eller, varken. .. .eller and ej heller, which require the
.

.

inverted order

(predicate before

subject)

when

they connect clauses: han reste genast, men jag stannade, he left immediately, but I stayed antingen vet han ingenting, eller vdgar han ingenting saga, either he knows nothing, -or he dares not say any;

thing.
NOTE.
if

more common,

Icke blott... utan tifven may take either word order. The normal is in which case icke blott and aven are placed within the sentence
;

they stand at the beginning the inverted order must be used: han icke blott gav miff yoda rad, utan han lanade mig aven penningar, he not only gave me good advice but he also lent me money ; icke blott gav han mig goda rad,

utan liven lanade han, etc., (aven rarely stands at the beginning). In dependent clauses the Mormal order is used with antingen. .eller: jag vet inte antingen han kommer eller ej.
.

373. The following peculiarities in usage should be noted
:

(1) ej heller translates nor when it it not correlative: hem kommer icke, ej heller jag, he does not

come, nor do
(2)

I.

inverted order when used with antingen and varken but not as a rule when used alone.
eller requires the

CONJUNCTIONS.
(3) samt does not connect clauses in conversational language.

235

and

is

not used

(4) for often takes the place of ty in conversation.

(5) utan is used only after a negative and introduces a contrast which excludes or contradicts what goes before detta dr icke ett skdl, utan en forevdndning, this is not a reason, but a pretext.
:

374. (b) Adverbial conjunctions. A large number of conjunctions are adverbs in form, but are used as conjunctions to connect coordinate clauses. The most important of these are the following
:

consequently annars, otherwise dels .... dels, partly
alltsd,

.

.

partly

dock,

yet, still

ddrfor, therefore
emellertld, yet, still icke desto mindre, nevertheless
likvdl, yet, still

ock, also ocksd, also
sd, so

sdledes, thus

sdlunda, thus an. .an, now.
.

.

.

.

.now

dndock, yet, still dven, also, even

REMARKS ON THE ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS.
375. The adverbial conjunctions require the inverted order: klockan dr dtta, sdledes bo'r han vara

236

EXERCISE.

har snart, it is eight o'clock, consequently he to be here soon.
376.
(1)

ought

Do not confuse

Note the following peculiarities in usage the Swedish alltsa with the
:

English also; the equivalents of also are ock, ocksa, and dven. Ocksa is more common than ock; when used as mere adverbs ock and ocksa like English too often follow the word they modify, while aven precedes: man har ej hort av honom pa manga ar, alltsa dr han troligen dod, he has not been heard of for many years, consequently he is probably dead; jag ocksa har varit i Paris, I, too, have been in
Paris.
(2) Dock, emellertid, likval, and dndock are often placed after the subject and the predicate: angreppet var hdftigt, dock (likval, etc.) blev det tillbakaslaget (or det blev dock, etc.) the attack was fuThe adverbial conjuncrious, yet it was repulsed. tions must be placed after the subject and the predicate when a dependent clause precedes: ehuru han var ddr, fick jag dock ej tillfdlle att tola vid honom, although he was there I had no opportunity to speak to him.
,

An. .an is equivalent to the English now. or at times. .at times (or alternately. ) an grdt hon, an skrattade hon, she laughed and cried
(3)
.
. .

now

.

.

.

.

.

:

Quite alternately. omsom .... o'msom.

common

in the

same sense

is

EXERCISE
A.
en
i

XXXVII.

1.

Det

matsalen

Jigger ett paket smutsiga starksaker antingeller i salongen. Var snail och tag dem

EXERCISE.
till

237

strykinrattningen,

Karl.

2.

Sag

at

dem,

att

bade

1 kragar och skjortor maste vara vita och val strukna, ty 2 de aro mycket vardslosa. 3. Jag later icke hamta tvat-

ten sjalv, utan 3 de maste skicka hem den fore klockan sex pa onsdag kvall. 4. Herr Sjostedt bad mig halsa och
saga, att antingen kommer han mer han icke forran i morgon.
4

pa slaget fem, eller kom5. Klockan fem? Det

ar bara halv tva nu; da hinner jag icke blott att ga till barberaren, utan ocksa att utratta ett par arenden. 6. Har
sir en f risersalong ; ehuru den icke ser fin ut, far jag likval lov 5 att ga in, ty jag har brattom. 7. Jag onskar

att bli

bade klippt och rakad,
Dels 6 saknas
i

men
er.

far ni vara snail och skynda

8.

jag har bratt, alltsa Vad felas den har
dels
6

rocken?

ett

par

knappar,
9.

har

den

mycgatt upp 7 ket att laga pa den, sa skall jag emellertid forsoka att fa den fardig till i kvall. 10. Emedan ni lagat rocken sa
val
1
,

sommarna har och

dar.

Ehuru

det ar

skall jag ocksa bestalla

en ny kostym hos

er.

Var

dar-

for sa god och tag matt pa (of) mig. 11. Jag anvander endast de basta varor och sysselsatter endast de skickligaste
arbetare, salunda
tet.
1

kan jag garantera bade tyget och

snit-

Bra and val would here be interchangeable, val denoting a. higher degree excellence. Bra often has reference to the essential excellence, val, to the outward: skriva val and skriva bra are not the same, the former refers to form, the latter to contents. Bra colloquially may have the sense of very (much): 5 Fd lov, bra mycket, arbeta bra, etc. 2 Note use of later. '373, 5. 4 372.
of

must.

375.

'376,

2.

B.

Conversation.
2.

1.

Var

ligger paketet

med

starksa-

kerna?
ru
vill

Vart vill ni, att Karl skall bara det? 3. Huni ha era kragar och skjortor?' 4. Nar maste
5.

tvatten vara fardig? 7. Vad stedt halsa ?

Yarfb'r?

6.

Vad

later herr Sjo8.
9.

amnar

ni gora under tiden ?

Var-

for gar ni in i en f risersalong, som ej ser fin ut? vill ni ha gjort dar? 10. Vad fattas er rock?

Vad

238
C.
1.

VOCABULARY

1 boy is here from the laundry and asks for your washing, but we can't find it, therefore I came in

A

to ask you.

2. It is

either

on the

little

table in the dining

room or in the hall. Just 2 wait a little, I shall come down myself. 3. It is a very poor laundry, they can neither wash nor iron. Carl is not satisfied with their work either 3 4. You must not wait for 4 me to call for it 12 this time, but send it home on Friday without fail.
.

5.

Neither the collars nor the cuffs were well ironed
6.

last

time.
ter

Both the washing and the ironing must be betnext5 time, or 6 I shall send my washing to another

laundry. 7. I don't know his address ; consequently I can't write to him. 8. My friend writes that he will either come
7 at five o'clock sharp or not at all. 9. Although he will be here in an hour, yet I shall go to the barber shop. 10. I need not only a hair cut8 , but also a shave 8 11. I have only
.

10 three quarters 9 of an hour to spare , hence you must hurry. 12. The coat was almost worn out; nevertheless he sent it

to the tailor to be

mended.

13.

Although the coat was

al-

it, etc. 3 2 1 adverb after the subject. 369, bara. 369, heller; place negative 349, b. 4 'A'a'sia; note definite form of adjective, 357, f, 1, 2. (Translate by clause.) noun is indefinite. What two words translate timef 6 When or equals other8 ''Precis klockan fern or pa slaget fern. Idioni wise, it is translated by annars. 9 IO 3. Tre kvarts timme. Use a prepositional phrase. "376, 2. "See 342.

most worn

11 he sent out, nevertheless

+

VOCABULARY.
en arbetare, workingman an'vanda, lib (impf. anvdnde), to use barber en barberare, bestal'to, lib, to order
, ,

(prep.), before forrdn' (conj.), before

fore

ehuru, although
felas (dep., intr.),
to ail
I,

to lack,

garante'ra, I, to guarantee g& upp' (sep.), to go up; rise open (sun) hamta, I, to fetch hinna, Tiemn, hunno, hunnit, -en, -et, to have time; at;

en

f riser' salong, -ei;

(common-

tain, get

(to)

ly,

rakstuga)

,

barber shop

CONJUNCTIONS.
en kostym', -er, suit, costume en Jcrage, -ar, collar
laga,
I,

239
stro'k,

stryka,

stro'ko,

stru-

kit, -en, -et, to iron; erase,

to

mend;
,

to occasion

en manschett',
ett matt,

-er, cuff

measure

ned (adv.), down nojd, nojt, satisfied
en onsdag,
-ar,

-ar, laundry (en)strykning, ironing starksaker (pi.), laundry

rub en strykinrattning,

(linen)

Wednesday
parcel

sysselsatta (see satta)

,

to oc-

cupy; to employ en som, so'mmar, seam sakna, I, to miss en salong', -er, drawing room; en tambur', -er, vestibule, hall auditorium (in a theater) ett tyg, -er, cloth utsliten, -et, worn out en skjorta, -or, shirt vara, -or, article; merchandise
ett paket', -er,

smutsig,
ett snitt,

-t,

dirty, soiled
,

v&rdslos,

-t,

careless

cut

ett iirende, -n,

errand
not have time

IDIOMS:

1.

Jag hinner
to do
it.

ej att go'ra det, I shall

2.
3.

4.

Han hann dit i tid, he reached there in time. Jag o'nskar att bli klippt, rakad, 1 wish to have a hair cut, a shave. Rocken har gdtt upp i sommen, the coat has ripped
in the seam.

5.
6.

Darren har gdtt upp, the door has opened. Laga, att ni ar har da, see to it that you are
here then.

LESSON XXXVIII.
Conjunctions (Continued).
II.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNTIONS.
:

377.

The most important of these are
;

(a) Comparative: ju....desto (dess), the ; som, as sasom, as, such as ; an, than.

the....

Concessive: ehuru, fastdn, oaktat, fast, though, although; om ock, om an, aven om, even if,
(b) even.

240
:

CONJUNCTIONS.
;

(c) Causal da, efter, eftersom, since, as emedan, because entir, since som, as darfor att, because.
;

;

;

(d) Conditional: bara, if only; if all, in case, if;

om,

if,

whether.
:

(e) Consecutive (result) sa att, so that.

sa.

.

.

.att, so.

.

.

.that;

(f) Final: for att, pa det att, in order that; sa att, so that, in order that; att, that.

(g) Temporal: da, when; forrdn, innan, before; medan, while; ndr, when; sedan, after; 'sa ofta, as

often as
(h)

;

sa snart, as soon as

;

tills,

until.

The general subordinating

att, that.

REMARKS ON THE SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
378. After a subordinating conjunction many adverbs (negative adverbs, indefinite temporal adverbs and certain adverbs expressing supposition, etc.) which in an independent clause follow the simple predicate or auxiliary must be placed before the
predicate: eftersom han icke kommer, sa fa vi borja dta utan honom, since he does not come, we shall have to begin to eat without him; det dr osd-

om vi ndgonsin fa se honom, it is doubtful, if ever shall see him; han sade, att han mojligen skulle kunna lana mig ett par hundra, he said that he possibly might be able to lend me a couple of hunkert,

we

dred.
is

If the independent clause follows, its verb precedes the subject and introduced by sd, so: ehuru solen tycktes skina ganska varmt i dag pa formiddagen, sa var luften ratt sval, although the sun seemed to shine quite warm, the air wag quite cool.

NOTE.
often

In a subordinate clause the auxiliary hava very often omitted: om han inte slosat bort sina pengar, sa hade han varit vdlbdrgad nu, if he had

379.

is

CONJUNCTIONS.

241

not squandered his money, he would have been in easy circumstances now.

380. The following will serve to illustrate the uses of the subordinating conjunctions:
(1) Ju requires the normal order of words, its correlative desto (dess) the inverted order: ju forr

du
do

go'r det,
it,

the easier

desto Idttare gar det, the sooner you it will be (go).

Som may have both a comparative and a causvalue (eftersom is more common in the sense of han gjorde precis som jag, he did exactly since) as I lika rik som du, as rich as you (sdsom is less
(2)
al
: ;

common; it is more emphatic than som: sdsom det nu regnar, har det icke regnat forr i ar, as it now rains it has not rained before this year) som vddret var tryckande, holl jag mig inne, as the weather was
;

oppressive, I stayed indoors.
(3) Om ock, om an are often separated if they stand at the beginning of a clause, ock and an being placed immediately after the subject: om han an vore har, sd kunde inte gora ndgot, even if he were here, we could not do anything.

m

(4) Da and ndr are temporal conjunctions, but both may, like ivhen in English, have a causal value (da is more common in the sense of as) when as
;

interrogative
(5)

nar.

Emedan and

endr are used

less in the

spoken

than in the written language.

Bara=om bara (often om. .bara), if only: det bara inte regnar, sa skola vi ga, if only it does not rain, we shall go.
(6)
.

om

242

EXERCISE.

is also equivalent to whether in an indi(7) rect question: jag vet ej, om jag skall stanna eller
ffd, I

Om

do not know whether I shall stay or not. Som om, as if, as though det ser ut, som om det skulle regna, it looks as though it would rain. (8) Pa det att is less common than the other final conjunctions sa att always denotes result when used with the indicative han skadade sig, sa att han icke kunde arbeta, he injured himself so that he could not work. For att with the infinitive is used when the subject in the purpose clause would be the same
:

;

:

as in the principal one.
(9) Sa ofta, as often as, and sa snart (sa fort), as soon as, may take som but generally do not: sd snart han kommer, sand honom hit, as soon as he

comes send him here.
Observe
:

sd ofta
;

som

heist,

as often as you please

;

sd snart

som

heist,

as

soon as you please

ndr som

heist,

whenever you

please.

its usage with the Like its English conjunction equivalent it is often omitted: jag formodar han kommer snart, I suppose he will soon be here; jag tror icke jag kan, I don't believe I am able.
is

(10) Att substantive

almost identical in
that.

NOTE 1. Subordinate noun clauses introduced by att may be immediately preceded by a preposition: han har ofveitygat mig om att han menar vpprikendast genom att du tigt, he has convinced me that his intentions are sincere
;

kom

miff

till

hjdlp,

blev jag rdddad, only

by your coming
:

to

my

assistance

I

was saved.
2. Prepositions may also govern other clauses jag tanker pa hur jag skall fa bud till min bror, I am thinking of how I shall get a message to my brother ;jag gldder mig over vad som har hdnt, I rejoice over what has happened.

EXERCISE XXXVIII.
A.
van.

En

viss person erholl
ej

en gang

ett

tungt brev

f ran

en

Enar brevet

var frankerat, maste han betala ganska

EXERCISE.

243
ingenting

mycket i losen. annat an orden
ren skrattade

Da ban oppnade det, fann han "Jag mar alldeles fortraffligt." och avsande samma dag 1 ett stort
:

Mottaga-

vannen, avenledes utan att frankera det. lade utan att knota den hoga losen i hoppet, att han skulle
bli rikligt ersatt

paket till Adressaten beta-

som

genom paketets innehall, sa mycket mer dess tyngd lat ana nagot vardefullt. Till sin overraskning fann han dock intet annat dari an en stor sten
orden:

med
1

"Vid underrattelsen
2

att

du madde
is definite

bra, foil

narslutna 2 sten fran mitt hjarta."
Note use of indefinite form with samma.
inclosed.

Narslutna

and the noun

indefinite, so innelyckta,

B.

Conversation.

1.

Vad maste man
alls

betala,
2.

nar

ett

brev ar ofullstandigt eller icke

frankerat?

Vad fann

personen
for att

i fraga, nar han oppnade brevet? Vad gjorde han hamnas pa vannen ? 4. Varf or betalade vannen den

hoga losen utan

att knota

?

5.

Vad

var det

i

all

synnerhet,

nagot varde6. Hur kande han sig vid upptackten av paketets fullt? innehall? 7. Vad hade avsandaren bifogat?
att tro, att paketet inneholl

som kom honom

C. Complete the following according to the anecdote above and the indications given; be especially careful to 1. Brevet var ej frankerat, get the word order correct.
alltsa
1
.
. .

(must pay,
3.

etc.). 2.

Da han oppnade
viss person var

brevet,

.

.

.

(he found, etc.).
lat spela

Nar en
. .

(he received, etc.). 4. Eftersom

han
(lie

insag, att

pa resa, bans van ve.

.

.

honom
att

ett spratt,

.

decided, etc).

5.

Han

onskade
6.

hamnas pa

1 sin van, darfor ...

(lie sent, etc.).

Emedan han

sag, att en
7.

andock ... (he paid, etc.). trodde, att paketet inneholl nagot vardefullt, sa 9. Ehuru han van(it was not light). mycket mer som.
. .

(he paid, etc.). var en av bans vanner,

...

Ehuru han
.

van hade sant det tunga brevet, sag, att avsandaren ej

8.

Han

.

.

244
tat

EXERCISE.

nagot annat,

.

.

.

icke desto
10.

mindre 3

...

(he did not

'be-

come, astonished).
spratt,

An

1

an en annan.
.

11.

Ju

(he played) en van ett 4 tyngre det ar, desto vardeful...

lare

.

.

mannen
sade, att

(one believes the contents to be). 12. Den fattige her om brb'd, ty 5 ... (he is hungry). 13. Han
...
4

conies), desto

14. Ju fb'rr ... (he (he knew nothing). 15. Yara fortare... (we shall be ready). kusiner komma icke att besoka oss i bb'rjan pa juli
. . .

(but)

i

slutet av
till

September

i

stallet.

vanda mig
before).

honom, enar
376, 2.
379, 7.

...

Jag tordes ej (I had never seen him
16.

WS.
D.
to

378, note.

*372.

1.

me.

as 1 the tailor comes, please 2 send him up 3 2. I have sent for you because my friends have rec-

As soon

ommended you

to

cloth that I like 4 , I

me so often. 5 may order

3.

If you have samples of
suit.
4.

a

The

finer

and

more durable the
a little
6

cloth

more.

5.

As

is, the better, even if it should cost the suit now is, it does not please me,

(but

)

you
is

will have to

change

it.

6.

Don't you see that

altogether too tight under the arms; besides it does not fit me very well in the back. 7. You must hurry
the coat

that you can send it home on 7 Friday, for I shall leave the city on Saturday. 8. He did his work so well that all were pleased 9 with it. 9. Since you

and change

it so

8

went away yesterday, he has done nothing but play 10 11. As 10. Since you cannot do it, you must let me try. 11 as it rains, we cannot go out. 12. The boys had seatlong
.

ed themselves at the table in order to 12 study. 13. We have not gone away, nor 13 shall we. 14. He does not believe what

you

say,

nor I either 13

.

15.

The

dearer the food
suffer.

is

and the

colder the weather, the

more the poor

16. 17.

He went

out of the house without saying 14 a word.

Have }ou

VOCABULAKY.
15 thought of how we can help him? dence in 15 what he does.
1

245
18. I

have no

confi-

Far god och. Give at least three equivalents for the English *Tycka om can be used in the sense of like about both animate and inanimate objects alska, to love, generally only about animate obhdlla av, to cherish afjects (also about objects like home, fatherland, ete.) "Use present of verb with kanhdnda, fection for, only about animate objects. 'Either pa or om. What form does pa require? What, "373, 5. perhaps. omf (See 342 and note 1.) 'Either of the three equivalents for the future Which are they ? 9Nojda or belatna. "Swedish uses the supine will do here. "In analogy with as soon as, 380, 9. 12 380, 8. 18 369, instead of the infinitive. "Use infinitive. 15 380, 10, note 2. heller, and 373, 1.
380,
9.

2

please.

"349, b.

;

:

VOCABULARY.
ana, to have a presentiment

narsluten,
passa,
I,

-et,

inclosed
fit

arm,

-ar,

arm
sanda
av',

to suit,
-er,
)

av' siinda,

to send,

ett prov,
(Pi.

sample; test

dispatch
beldten, er'hdlla er'satta
sate;
fattig,
fin,
-t,

-et,

satisfied

riklig,
sitta,

-t,

abundant
sutto,
suttit,

(insep.), to receive

satt,
fit

to

(insep.), to

compen-

sit;

take the place of

ett spratt,

,

trick

-t,

poor

trdng,

-t,
-t,

narrow, tight

fine

tvng,
toras,

heavy
-r,

ett fortro'ende, -n, confidence

tordes, torts, to dare

Jiamnas

(dep.),

I,

to

take

en underrattelse,
tion
varaTctig,
-t,
-t,

informa-

revenge
ett innehdll,
,

content (s)

knota,
leka,
lida,

I,

to

grumble
lidit,

vardefull,
-en, -et,

durable valuable

Ha, to play
led,

ledo,

to suffer

en mottagare,
IDIOMS:
1.

,

recipient

dndra, I, to change dvenledes, likewise o'verrasfcad, -at, surprised o'verraskning, -ar, surprise

ingenting

annat an, ingen annan an, nothing but,
to

no one
2.

but.

att

hamnas pd ndgon,
lata

revenge oneself upon

somebody.
3.

att

ana,

to

indicate.

LESSON XXXIX.
Interjections.

381.

The most common

interjections are:

ack! alas! oh! ah! aha! ah! aj! ouch! fy! shame! whew! 7m/ ha!
halld! hello!

hysch! hush!
klatsch! crack!

kras! smash! kratsch! crash!

o/oh!0!
ojl ouch! paff! pang!

hejl hey! hejsan! heigh-ho!

bang!

hm! hm!
hurra! hurrah! hu! whew!
NOTE
jections,
1.

plask! splash! ptro! whoa! puh! usch! whew! ve! woe!
expressions are also used as interhell ! hail
etc.
!

A number
ffott I
!

of other words and
!

such as
is

look!
2.

Se upp

halt good look out! Vdlan'

! !

halt

!

hjdlp

!

help

!

Se

dtir

!

very well!
to

Aj

the

usual

interjection

express pain.

hu, horror, puh, oppression and discomfort, fy, reprimand interjections are often followed by da: usch da t fy da!

Usch expresses disgust and disgust. These
;

jo, yes, and the be classed as interjections. Jo is used in answer to a negative question or in answer to a question or statement implying doubt:

382.

The affirmatives ja and

negative nej, no,

may

(1)

Kommer han

he come soon?

snart? Ja, det Yes, he will.

gb'r

han.

Will

(2)Du har
I I

val icke tid

nu?

Jo, det

don't suppose you have time have.
(3)

now?

har jag visst. Yes, certainly
Shall

Ska
!

vi fara (doubt)

?

Jo visst!

we go?

Certainly
NOTE.
by well:
ja,

Ja and

jo are often strengthened
;

ja visst, jo visst, certainly, yes

jo da,

why,

yes.

by the addition of da and visst: Ja may sometimes be rendered
I

har jag inte sagt dig detf

Well, haven't

told you so.

INTERJECTIONS.

247

383. Jasd, an interjection extensively used in Swedish, is made to express almost any emotion, as joy, sorrow, anger, menace, etc. It may be rendered by so, oh! is that so? ivell, you don't say! etc. 384. Nej is often strengthened by da, visst inte or inte alls: Nej da, no indeed; nej visst inte, cerIt has other tainly not; nej, inte alls, not at all. idiomatic uses: Nej, vad sdger du? You don't say! Nej, se ddr! Why, just look! Nej, sa vackert! How
beautiful
!

APPENDIX.
The Use
1.

of the Articles.
of the articles

Some

of the

most important uses

have

been given already.

The following summary may be THE DEFINITE
ARTICLE.

useful.

The

definite postpositive article is used:

(a) With abstract nouns, nouns of material and class: leve friheten, long live freedom; guldet dr ej sd nyttigt som jdrnet,

gold

is

man

is

not as useful as iron; mdnniskan dr sJcapelsens krona, the crown of creation.
The
article
is

NOTE.

omitted when the noun

is

not used in an absolutely

general way: han har guld, he has gold (partitive).

Cb)

With names

of seasons

and days of

the. week:

sommaren

dr slut,
gen, on

summer

is

ended;

om

vdren, in the spring; pd mdnda-

Monday. Note omission of next Monday.
(c)

article

in

expressions like

om mdndag.

With many names

of rivers, lakes, oceans, mountains:

Ofre sjon, Lake Superior; Osiers jon, the Baltic; Klippiga Bergen, the Rocky Mountains.
(d)

gatan,
(e)

With names of streets: Linnegatan, Linng Street; OdenOden Street. With names of places of public and official resort: i
i

kyrkan, in or to church;
ratten, in court.
(f)

skolan, at (in) or to school; infor

article.

In a distributive sense where English uses the indefinite In temporal expressions the noun is preceded by a

preposition, generally i or om: tvd Jcronor metern, two crowns a meter; hundra Jcronor i veckan, a hundred crowns a week; tvd gdnger om dret, twice a year. (g) Instead of possessive adjective, see 178.

APPENDIX.

249

(h) With titles used alone in address: vill doktorn vara sd god och komma? Please come, doctor; har kyrkoherden trdffat honomf Have you met him, rector? (See 142.)
2.

The

definite postpositive article is omitted:

(a)

With nouns used

as

partitives

(some, any)

or as &

simple predicate: har ni pengarf penningen (general) dr upphovet the cause of much evil.
Cb) After

Do you have money? But till mycket ont, money is

the

samme, same: samme gosse, som same boy that we saw yesterday.

m

sago

i

gat,

3. The prepositive article is as a rule used in connection with the postpositive article when the noun is preceded by an adjective. It may be omitted in a few instances (cf. tht remarks on the prepositive article, 126, 2).

THE INDEFINITE

ARTICLE.

4. ft thus appears that the definite article is used more widely than in English. On the other hand the indefinite article is more frequently omitted:

(a) Before an unmodified noun denoting vocation, rank character, station in life, used alone, or connected by som, in the former case also before a noun denoting nationality. han dr soldat, he is a soldier; han talade som soldat och ej

som statsman; he spoke as a soldier and not as a statesman. But we must say: han ar en tapper soldat, he is a brave
s.

oldier.

If the noun and modifier form a set phrase the indefinite article han ar han ar svensk sprdklarare, he is a teacher of Swedish han svensk sprdkldrare would mean he is a Swedish teacher of langiiages

NOTE.

is
e><

omitted

:

;

;

a,

kungligt rad, he

is

a royal councilor.

(b) Often in phrases: i hast, in haste, in a hurry; me& grdtande stamma, in a tearful voice; med darrande hand. with a trembling hand; jag har huvudvdrk, tandvdrk, etc., I have a headache, toothache; jag har fdtt svar, I have received an answer, etc.

Note such forms as nagra fd, a few; mdngen, -et, many a; ett sddant, such a; vilken, -et, what a; vilken man han dr! What a man he is!
(c)

en sddan,

Sivedish

Grammar.

17

350

APPENDIX.
Rules of Gender.

Only the rules for determining the neuter gender In regard to masculine and feminine nouns it will suffice to say that sex names follow the sex male names being masculine, female names, feminine. Originally masculine or feminine names of inanimate objects or abstracts are now classed as common gender (Swedish realgenus or den-genus).
are given.
5.

REMARK.

Neuter are:

(a) Almost all names of continents, countries, places, metals, letters of the alphabet, and all words not real substantives but used as such: det mdktiga Amerika, the powerful

America;

det

vackra Stockholm, the beautiful
det sko'na, the beautiful.

Stockholm;

jdrnet, the iron;

(b) Verbal abstracts of the same form as the verb after dropping the infinitive ending -a, with or without change of vowel: fallet, the fall; kallet, the calling; skriket, the cry;

derived from
(c)
1
1

falla,

kalla,
-a
-e

skrika.
(pi.

Nouns ending in ande ende at dome
1 1
,

-n), -an
2
,

(in concrete nouns),

,

,

,

(pi. -n), -el

and

-er

(plur.=sing)
-turn.

!
,

eri,
J

-ment, -on, -skap (plur.=sing.)
2

-um, -eum,

In abstract nouns.

Other\vise

common

gender.

Note* on Inflection of Nouns.

VOWEL MODIFICATION IN THE PLURAL.
6.

The following nouns modify the vowel
also double the final consonant:

in the plural,

some
en en en en en en en en en en en en

en en en bot, boter, fine brand, Grander, fire-brand en en broder, broder, brother en dotter, dottrar, daughter en fader, fader, father en fot, fotter, foot en gd$, gdss, goose en hand, hdnder, hand ledamot, ledamoter, member en en ZMS, loss, louse

and, Under, duck bok, bocker, book

man, man (manner) man moder, modrar, mother mus, moss, mouse natt, natter, night rand, rander, border
rot, rotter,

root
foot-bridge

son, soner, son

spdng, spanger,
stad, stader, city

stav, staver, stave

stang. sttinger, pole
tdng, tiinger, pincers

APPENDIX.
DOUBLE PLURALS.
7.

251

Some nouns have double

plurals, corresponding to dif-

ferent senses of the singular:

en en en en

bors, borsar, purses form, formar, molds gang, gdngar, paths stav, stavar,
staffs

borser, bourses

former, shapes gdnger, times
staver, staves

SINGULAR LACKING.
8.

Some nouns occur only

in the plural, the following being

the most important:

FIRST DECLENSION.
anor, pedigree

snubbor, scolding
sndsor,

bannor, scolding hdvor, goods, gifts
inalvor,

snubbing

sddor, chaff

entrails

dthdvor, gestures, manners

SECOND DECLENSION.
furaldrar, parents

goddagar, easy

life

vagnar, behalf; pd (d) ndgons vagnar, in behalf of somebody

THIRD DECLENSION.
annaler, annals ferier, vacation
flnanser,

ranker,
skrofler,

intrigues scrofula

finances

specerier, groceries

gronsaker, vegetables musikalier, music (written)

umgalder, dues
utskylder, taxes

DOUBLE GENDER.

Some nouns may have either common or neuter gender: the most important of these are:
9.

blod, blood
bolster,

ndbb, beak,

bill

bolster

paraply', umbrella
parasoll', parasol

borr, drill

brarn, border,
doft,

trimming

fragrance

snitt,

redskap-, utensil, tool cut

252
finger
finger musslin', muslin
,
:

Al'PENDlX.
1

span, shaving
tack,

thanks
common gender when
used in a

2 'Generally fingrar in the plural. Always collective sense redskapen, the utensils.

Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation.
10.

Conversational

Swedish presents

many

peculiarities

in pronunciation,

among which

are the following:

(a) The words mig, dig, sig, and saga are practically always pronounced as if written maj, ddj, saj, and saja. (l>) Det often drops the t in pronunciation. Colloquially dem is always pronounced as if written dom. In certain parts of Sweden, especially in Stockholm, dom is used for de. Another common colloquial form for de is di.
(c)

Adjectives ending in
-t

-ig

neuter
(d)
(e)

in

pronunciation:

tro'ligt,
etc.

generally drop g before the probable, pronounced

tro'litt; ste'nigt, stony, ste'nitt,

Ar and aro, is, are, are often pronounced o or e. Och is generally pronounced d, so is also att when

it

is

the sign of the infinitive: jag skulle tycka honom, I should like to see him.
I

om

att (d) traffa

(f) Vad very often drops d in conversation: Va(d) fbe)falls? beg your pardon, what did you say? Va(d) menar duf What

do you
is

mean?

-t in the supine of verbs of the Fourth Conjugation dropped in conversation in many parts of Sweden: tagi (hard or soft g) for tagit, skrivi for skrivit. So also final -t in mycket and litet.

(g) Final

(h) Skall is generally pronounced ska; taga, bliva, draga, hava, 'bedja giva are generally shortened to ta, Wi, dra, ha,
be, ge.
(i)

Verbs of the First Conjugation often drop the ending

-de

of the past tense in conversation: jag tala
I

med honom

i

gdr,

spoke to him yesterday.

are (j) There are a number of familiar words which softened in conversation by the dropping or assimilation of a consonant: tradgdrd, garden, tragg&rd; gastgivare, innkeeper, where stg^= sJi.

APPENDIX.

2o:>

(Jc) The plural ending -or of the First Declension is often pronounced ~er: vecka(or), vecker. (I) For enclitic pronouns 'en, 'et ('t), and -na, see 140, c.

Irregularities in Conversational
11.

Grammar.
met with

The most common grammatical The singular

irregularities

in the
(a)

spoken language are here noted:
of a verb regularly takes the place of the

plural in conversation.
(~b)

Neuters of the Fifth Declension take -ena in the

def.

form of the plural instead of -en, thus becoming like nouns of the Fourth Declension: hus-ena, the houses; namn-ena, the
names.
(c) Gender nouns ending in -n preceded by a vowel often have the definite form the same as the indefinite: han stfir pa grdsplanen (pronounced grasplan), he stands on the lawn; fageln sitter pd grenen (pronounced gren), the bird sits on

the branch.

STRONG AND IRREGULAR VERBS.
INFINITIVE

Al'I'KNDIX.
beta, be

255

named

25G
sjunka, sink

APPENDIX.
tvi,

257

wash

VOCABULARY.
SWEDISH-ENGLISH.
In the vocabulary, only the gender of neuter nouns is designated ; all nouns not marked (n.) are gender nouns. For the principal parts of irregular and Parts of speech are strong verbs the list on page 254 should be consulted.
designated only in cases of ambiguity.

abborre, -ar, perch
adde'ra,
adjo',
I,

anliigga, irr. lish

v.,

found, estab-

add

anliinda, lib, arrive

anse,

irr. v.,

regard, consider,
face
plot, design;

good-bye

adress', -er, address

adresse'ra,

I,

adressat', -er,
affur', -er,

address addressee

think ansikte (n.), anslag (n.),

-n,
,

placard, notice

business; store affdrsbyggnad, -er, business

anvdnda,
ana,
I,

lib,

use

building
aga, I, punish akt (invar.), notice
alldeles, entirely, quite

anticipate annars, otherwise annons' (annongs'), -er, advertisement
apote'kare,
,

suspect;

druggist

alle'na

(gen. def.), alone
i
,

apt it', appetite
in

allmdnhet, public; general
alls,

arbeta,

I,

arbetare,

at all

arm,

-ar,

work workingman arm
,

alltid,

always

arreste'ra,

I,

arrest
to

consequently, thus, so allvarlig, sober, grave, serious
alltsd,

artig, polite
att, conj., that;

(infinitive

allvarligt, adv., seriously

sign)

amerikan', -er, American an-, accented var. prefix
anblick, -ar, sight, spectacle anfortro, III, intrust

auditorium
automobil',

(n.),-ier,
-er,

audience automobile

automobilforbindelse, -r, connection by automobile
av,

angendm, agreeable, pleasant
anhd.Ua,
st. v.,

request

prep, and accented variable prefix, of, by, from, etc.
st.
v.,

ankare (n-*

-^,
v.,

anchor
arrive

avbryta,

insep.,

inter-

ankomma,

st.

rupt; sep., break off

VOCABULARY.
avgd,
irr.
v.,

250
(n.),
,

sep.,
I,

depart
refl.,

belopp
fied
beliist,

amount

avlfigsna (sig),

remove;

beldten, -et, def. -lutna, satis-

go away.
avliJpa, lib,

turn out avsiinda, lib, sep., send away, dispatch avundsjuk, envious

well-read
(till), I la,

beldpa sig
to

amount

bemdktiga
sion of

sig,

I,

take posses-

B
backa,
I,

back
,

bemota, Ha, treat; receive ben (n.), bone, leg
,

bad
baka,

(n.),
-er,

bath

berg

(n.),
I,

,

mountain
famous
stand (a

badort,
I,

bagare,

watering place bake baker
,

beratta,

relate

beromd,

n. -romt,

beromma,
bestd, irr.

lib,
v.,

praise
av, consist

bakgrund,
bakllinges,

-er,

background backwards

exist;

bakom, behind bank, -er, bank
bara, only

test); of

treat;

bestdlla, lib, order

besdttning,

-ar,
,

crew
visit

barmhar'tig, merciful child barn (n.),
,

besok
betala,

(n.),

besoka, Ha, visit
I,

be-,

bedja (om),
bedraga,
befalla,

unaccented insep. prefix irr., pray, ask for
st. v.,

Ha, pay
pi.,

betjaning, no

servants,

cheat, deceive

lib,

command
st.
v.,

beftnna sig,

be (health

attendance betraktande (n.), considera take into tion taga i
;

,

and place)
befolkning,
-ar,

betyda, lib, mean, signify

population

betunka, Ha, consider, deliberate;
bevista,
bifall
bil,
I,

begara, lib, demand, request

sig, reflect

begaran, no pi., demand behaga, I, please behandling, -ar, treatment behdlla, st. v., keep, retain

attend

behova, lib, need bekant, known, acquainted;

applause "auto" bildad, n. -at, cultured bildning, culture, education
(n.),
-ar,

biljett'kontor'
fice
bit,

(n.), ticket of-

en an acquaintance bekvam, comfortable, conven,

-ar,

piece

ient

bita, st. v., bite
-er,

bekvdmlighet, convenience

comfort,

bjudning,- ar, invitation, party blank, smooth, shiny, glossy

3GO
bliva, st.
v.,

VOCABULARY.
become; remain,
bdra,
st.
v.,
,

be (aux. of passive)
olixtra,
I,

biirare,

carry porter

Momma,
bed

-or,

lighten flower
-er,

bust, best

blom'sterrabatt',

flower

borja, I, begin borjan (no. pi.), beginning

C
ceremoni',
cigarr',
-er,

only blygsam, def. -samma, modest
blott,

ceremony

bldsa,

Ila,

blow

-er,

cigar

black (n.), ink
bo, III, dwell, live
boJc,

cigarrhandel, cigar store cigarr Jiandlare, cigar dealer
,

bo'cker,

book
dag, -ar, day
,

D
daglig (adj.), daily

bonde, bonder, peasant, farmer

bord
bort,

(n.),
I,

table

borsta,

brush
dar-

aagngen

away borta, away from home;
,

(adv.), daily dagsljus (n.), daylight dal, -ar, valley

over there

dam,

-er,
I,

bostad, -stdder, dwelling,

date'ra,

lady date
data, date

residence
bota,
I,

datum
del, -ar,

(n.),

heal, cure

part
st. v., sep.,

bra (adj. and adv.), good, fine; well, quite bredvid', by, at the side of brev (n.), letter
brevbarare, brodd, sprout
,

deltaga,

participate

den(pron.), that, it; (art.) the dessutom, besides, in addition
det (pron.),
dikt, -er,
it;

(art.) the

letter carrier

poem
dish

direkt', direct

broder, bro'der, brother

disk, -ar, counter;
dit,

bruka,

I,

use
off

thither
(pi.
I,

bryta av', st. v., break brddska, hurry
,

diver''se

divide'ra,

only), diverse divide

brdk (n.), trouble; fractions (math.) bras pd, take after, favor be in -a brdtt, brdttom, ha
,

doktor, dokto'rer, doctor
dotter, dottrar,

daughter

dram,

-er,

drama
no plur.), drama drink
(pi.

drama
dricka,

(n.,

hurry
brod (n.),
,

st. v.,

bread

drickspengar
droska,
-or,

only), tip(s)

by, -ar, village

cab
delay

bygga, lib, build bdde. .och, both.
.

droja, lib, delay, take (time)
.

.and

drojsmdl (n.),

,

VOCABULARY.
duell', -er,

duel

episk, epic
er-,

duka,

I,

set the table

accented insep. prefix
st.
v.,

dum,

def.

dumma,

stupid,
fool

erbjuda,
erhdlla,

offer

foolish

erfarenhet,
erinra,

-er,

experience
receive, get
sig,

dumbom, -bommar,
,

st. v.,
I,

dozen dussin (n.), dyrbar, expensive, precious
dalig, poor, bad,

remind;
v.,

remember
ersatta, irr.
to replace,

wicked

ddr, there

durbar
darpd,

1

ta,

over there
thereupon,

compensate europe'isk, European
exporte'ra,
I,

darhem'ma, at home
thereafter,

export

on

it

(them)
v.,

do, irr.

die
(adj.),

fabrik', -er, factory

dod, dott
dod,

dead

(-or),
I,

death

fader (far), fader, father familjefest, -er, family festival
familj', -er,

doda,

kill

family
travel, drive, go

dorr, -ar, door

fara,

st. v.,

fara
cfter, prep., adv.,

med',

go along

(drive,

travel )

and accented comply come efter,
v.,

variable prefix, after

farbror, -bro'der, uncle ship, vessel fartyg,
,

efterkomma,
with, after

st.

fast, n. fast, firm, solid, fast

komma
-ar,

fast (conj.), although
fattas,
I,

dep. impers.

v.,

lack,
is

eftermiddag,
i
,

afternoon; this afternoon

ail;

vad digf What ailing you?
poor
,

ehuru, although ej, not

fattig,
fel

(n.),
I,

error,

mistake
v.,

ekono'misk, financial
eld, -ar, fire,

felas,

dep. impers.

lack

conflagration

ferier
fin.

(pi.),

vacation
find;

elegans' (elegangs'), elegance
elektrisk, electrical

nice, fine, delicate
st. v.,

finna,

det ftnns,

emedan, because emot (prep, and adv.), against,
opposite
en, ett, a, an,

there
fira,
I,

(are) celebrate
fish

is

firande (n.), celebration

one

fisk,

-ar,

endast, only en rat; everybody
enligt,

flagga, -or, flag; hissa flaggan,

hoist the flag
Here, several,

according to

more

262
flicka, -or, girl

VOCABULARY.
/riser'

salong,

-er,

barber shop
Mrs.
fruc'-

diligent flod, -er, river
flitig,
fly, III, flee

frisk, fresh,

healthy

fru, -ar, lady, wife,

frukost
flow
kost),

(pronounced
-ar,

flyta,

st.

v.,

breakfast
pi.,

flytande, indecl., flowing, fluent
flytta,
I,

move
,

frukt, -er, also collective frukt, fruit
frysa,
st. v.,

folk (n), people, nation; also collectively, people
folkskola,
forsla,
-or,

freeze

public school

haul
v.,

frysa bort', perish by frost fryspunkt, -er, freezing point frdga (efter), I, ask a question, inquire

fort (adv.), fast, quickly
fortsatta, irr.
fot, fotter,

continue
football

jran, prep., adv.

and accented
,

foot
(n.),
,

fotbollag

variable prefix, from strange, frammande, n.,
foreign,

team
or -match, fotbollspel (n.), -er, football game
,

ha

,

have comfirst

pany
framst, foremost,
fullpackad, n.
fullsatt,
fylla,
n.
fill;
,

fram, adv. and accented var.
prefix,

-at,

forth,

forward

framdeles, in the future, later framme (adv.), at destination,
at

lib,

crowded crowded Ar, have a

birthday
fyrtio, forty
fa,
irr.
;

hand

framracka, or rdcka fram', reach forth, hold out
framstfiende,
indecl.,

v.

(modal),

get,

re-

ceive
fdgel,
fait

may
,

promi-

fdglar, bird
field

nent
framtid, future
franke'ra,
I,

(n.),

fdrdig, ready
fdsta, I

stamp (put on
France

and

Ila, fasten
v.,

stamp) Frankrike

fodas, lib, dep.
(n.),

be born

Frans, Francis, Frank fransk, French; franska,

fodelsedag, -ar, birthday; till fddelsedagen, for a birthday
folja,

lib, follow

French language
fri,

folja med',

accompany
consequently following
, ,

fritt,

free
sep.,
v.,

foljaktligen,

frikopa,

ransom,

re-

foljande, n.

deem
friluftsmuseum
air
(n.), -er,

fonster (n.),

window

open

for (prep.), for, before
for.
.

museum
-n,

.sedan, ago

frimarke (n.),

stamp

VOCABULARY.
for (adv.), too; too much
for-,

mycket,

forlora,

I,

lose
,

formak

(n.),

parlor

accented insep. prefix, before for-, unaccented insep. prefix forarglig, annoying, vexatious
forbindelse,
-r,

formiddag, -ar, forenoon; pd formiddagen, in the fore-

noon
formoda, I, suppose formd, III, intr., be able; induce
forolyckas,
for'orsaka,
I, I,

connection; ob-bjudet,
def.

tr.,

ligation
fiirbjuden,
n.

bjudna, prohibited
fordraga,
st.
v.,

dep.

v.,

perish

tolerate;

cause, occasion

varandra, bear with one another
fore, prep., adv., and accented var. prefix, usually insep.,

forr

(adv.),

before

forre(a),

former
before,
until
late,

forran
forsena,

(conj.),
I,

cause to be

before,

first,

ahead
,

delay
forsiktig,

foredrag (n.),

lecture

cautious
I,

foredraga, st. v., prefer forelasning, -ar, lecture
forening,
-ar,

forskotte'ra,

advance
proposition
refl.
v.,

(money)
forslag (n.),
forsona,
I,
,

union, society
dictate, pre-

foreskriva, scribe

st. v.,

become
propose
forsova,
forstad,

reconcile; reconciled

fore-Sid-, st. v.,

st. v.,

oversleep

performance foretaga (sig) st. v undertake author forfattare,
forestallning, -ar,
, ,

forst, first

-stader,
v.,

forstd, irr.

suburb understand

forfiirlig, terrible

forstdndig, wise, sensible
fiirstora,

pursue furgifta, I, poison forhindra I, prevent
forfolja, lib,

lib, destroy
I,

forsumma,
(train,

neglect,

miss

meal, etc.)

forhdllande (n.), condition; i
to

-n,
till,

relation,

relative

Ha, try charming fortjusande, n. fortjdna, I, also Ila, earn
forsoka,
,

forklada

(sig),

lib,

disguise

fortrdfflig,

excellent
I,

(oneself)

forvandla,

change,
v.,

trans-

forkyla sig, lib, catch cold forkyld, n. -kylt, having a cold
forkylning,
-ar,

form
forvdnas, I, dep. tonished
fordldrar,
pi.

to be as-

cold

(sick-

ness)

only, parents

264

VOCABULARY.
gang, en gang,
gdr,
i

-er,
,

gammal,

def.

gamla, old

time (in counting) once
walk, path

;

ganska, quite, entirely garante'ra, I, guarantee
gata, -or,
street

-ar,

gdr, yesterday

gdrdag, yesterday
gds, gdss, goose
galla,

gen

(adj.),

near (of a road)

genast, immediately genom or ige'nom (prep, and
adv.),
it

have lib, concern; value; be a question of
(irr. v.), do,

a

gdst, -er, guest

through;
v.,

as adverb
akt' pd,

gora

make

has the form igenom
st.

giva,

give;

Gotha Canal Goteborg (n.), Gothenburg
Goto, kanal,

notice, observe

glad, n. glatt, glad,

happy

H
hals, -ar, neck, throat
Jialv,

glas (n.),

,

glass

glasogon,

pi.,

spectacles

glida, st. v., glide

half
-ar,

glddja, irr.
gladje, no

v.,
pi.,

gladden

halvtimme,
halvsula,
I,

half hour

joy glomma, lib, forget floor golv (n.),
,

half-sole

halvvags (adv.), halfway

hamn,

-ar,

harbor, port

gosse, gossar, boy

grad,

-er,

grade,
,

ho'gsta

in

degree; i the highest

han, he

hand, hander, hand

degree
gren,
-ar,

branch
wholesale

handbagage, hand baggage om, handla, I, act, trade;
treat about

gro, III, sprout

grosshandlare,

handlande,
harv,
-ar,

,

merchant
grata,
st. v.,

weep, cry

hastig,

merchant harrow quick, rapid, sudden
,

grds (n.), grass grasmatta, -or, lawn gron, green gronsaker, pi. only, vegetables
gul, yellow

hatt, -ar, hat havre (n.), oats hedersman, -man, honor hcl, n. -t, whole; en

man
,

of

a unit

gunga,
gd,
irr.

I,

rock,

swing
;

go, run; det gar won't work klockan gdr, the watch is running
v.,

helgdag, -ar, holiday hellre, rather

icke, it

gd upp', rise

hem (n.), home hem (adv.), home; gd home

,

go

VOCABULARY.
hemifrdn, from

265

hemma,

at

home home

haftig, violent,
hiilft,

vehement

hemtrevlig, cozy, homelike Jiennes, her, gen. case
herr, Mister, in address

(noun), half halsa, health
-er

halsa,

I,

greet

Ml'sa pd, greet
halsa pd' (hos),
(at somebody's

herre, -ar, master, gentleman heta, irr. v., to be called; jag
Jieter Karl,

make
home)

a call

my name

is

Carl

halsning, -ar, greeting

hinna,
to

st. v.,

attain;

have time

do or get to
I,

historia, -ier, history, story
hitta,

to find

hamnas, I, dep. v., take venge hamta, I, fetch Mnda, lib, happen

re-

hjalp, help
Jijalpa,

Ha, help
-n,

handelse, -r, event hdndelsevis (adv.), by chance

hjarta (n.),
failure
hjartlig,

heart
-ar,

htinga, lib,

hang
(n.), -n,

hjartforlamning,

heart

hanseende Mr, here
harlig.

respect

hearty, cordial

glorious, magnificent

hon, she

hast, -ar, horse
,

hopp

(n.),

hope
v.,

hoppa, I, jump hoppas, I, dep.

to

hos, with, by, in, in of

hope the house

hog, high hoger, def. hogra, right; to the right
,

till

hojd, -er, height, hill

hons

(n.),

,

chicken,

col-

honorar' (n.), hotelV (n.),

,

fee

,

hotel

hund, -ar, dog hungrig, hungry
hur,

chickens hora, lib, hear hora pd, listen to ho'r pd mig,
lective,
;

listen to

me
,

how
(n.),
-r,
,

horn
house
host,
fall

(n.),
-ar,

corner
i

hus

fall;

hostas, last

hustru,

wife

huvudvark, headache
hygglig, nice, "kind,

hostdag,

-ar,

autumn day

accommo-

hovlig, polite

dating
hyra, lib, rent, hire

hovlighet,
hold, keep
,

politeness

Mlla,

st.

v.,

I

Mil

(n.),
,

dt alia

hold; direction; in all directions

i

(prep.), in, into
st.
v.,

Mr

(n.),
n.

,

hair

i'akttaga,
ibland',

observe

hard,,

Mrt, hard

sometimes
IS

Sicedish

Grammar

266
i'drott,

VOCABULARY.
intyg (n.),
invdnare,
is,
,

-er, sport idrottspark, -er, athletic field igen', adv. and accented var.

,

testimonial

inhabitant

-ar,

Ice
(n.), Italy

prefix, again,

back

Ita'lien

igenMnna,
nize
i'hdliff,

lib, sep. v., recog-

hollow
ja,
ilia,

ilia

(adv.), bad; det var that was too bad
-at,

yes

illumine'rad,
in,

illuminated

jasd (pronounced jas'sd), so; you don't say! Is that so?
jo,

prep.,

adv.,

and accented
-ar,
Jiel

var. prefix, in, into

ju,

yes the
-ar,

(with

the

comparato be sure
,

inackordering,
also

boarder,
,

tive),
jul,

you "know,

board;
st.

room

and board
inbegripa,
v.,

at

include
v.,

Christmas; vid for Christmas; till Christmas
,

infinna sig, arrive

st.

to

come,

just, just

juste'ra,

I,

adjust
n.,
,

ingen, intet, or inget, no, no
one, nothing
inledp (n.),
inlosa,
*
,

jdmrande,
ticket

plaintive
-er,

jdrnvdgs'biljett,

railway railway railway

purchase
to

Ila,

sep.,

redeem,

jdrnvdgsolycJca,

-or,

cash

accident
jdrnvdgsstation, station
-er,

innan (conj.), before
inne
(adv.),

inside

inne-, accented var. prefix

innehdll (n.),
innehdlla,
st.
v.,

,

contents contain

K
kaffe
(n.),

coffee

innestd, irr. v., remain (money in a bank)

kaj, -er, quay, pier
kail,

cold
I,
I,

inom (prep.), within inomhus (adv.), indoors
insiitta, irr. sep. v.,

kallna,
kalla,

grow

cold

call
I,

inse,

irr.

v.,

to

see,

deposit under-

kamma,

comb

inte,

stand not

intet, n. of ingen, no,

nothing

kanhdn'da, perhaps kan'ske, perhaps kappa, -or, cloak karaktdr', -er, character
kapten',
kasta,
I,

intresse'rad, n. -at, interested
intrcssant', n.
,

-er,

captain

intres'se

(n.),

-n,

interesting interest

throw kasta ut', throw out

VOCABULARY.
katedral', -er, cathedral
katt, -er, cat
kilo,

kort
,

(o short

and open),

n.

short
I,

kilogram
,

(n.),

,

kilo

kosta,

cost
-er,

gram
kilome'ter,

kostym',

suit

kilometer

klack, -ar, heel (of shoe) klaga (over), I, complain

kraft, -er, strength, krage, -ar, collar

power
,

klandra,
Jclar,

I,

criticise

kredit'brev (n.), credit

letter of

clear
class

krets, -ar, circle, society

klass, -er,

krok,

-ar, -or,

klassisk, classic

Arena,

hook crown
-er,

klen,

weak
,

kroppskonstitution,
stitution
(of
kulle, -ar, hill

con-

climate klippa, Ha, cut, shear kldda, lib, dress kldda sig, dress (oneself) kldda om' sig, change dress
klimat' (n.),
kldder,
pi.
I,

body)

kunna, know; (modal) can, be able Kungsgatan, King's Street
kupe,
-er,

only, clothes

compartment
cousin
driver,

(rail-

knacka,
ren,

knock;

pd

dor-

way)
Tcusin' -er,

knock at the door

knappast, hardly knappndl, -ar, pin

kusk,

-ar,

cabman

kvalitet', -er,

quality

knota (over), I, grumble koffert, -ar, trunk
koka,
I,

kvar, adv. and accented var. prefix, left over, behind, re-

cook, boil
I,

maining
kvarlamna, hind
kvarn,
Kvart,
-er,
I,

kollide'ra,

collide

sep.,

leave be-

komma,

st. v., in',

komma
konsert',

come come in
conductor
pi.

-ar, flour mill

konduktor',
konst,
-er,

-er,

r er,

concert
tricks

art;

konstndr',

-er, artist
,

kontant, n.

cash kontor (n.), office kopp, -ar, cup korg, -ar, basket
,

quarter; en kvarts timme, a quarter of an hour kvdll, -ar, evening; i gar last night; pd kvdllen, in the evening kyckling, -ar, young chicken
,

kylig, chilly

kyrka,
corre-

-or,

church
a finish
;

korrespondent'

',

-er,

kdmpa
die

ut', I, fight to

spondent kort (o long and close)
,

(n.),

card

kdnna, lib, with)

know

(acquainted

268
klinna
till',

VOCABULARY.
be
acquainted
londondngare, steamer
,

London

with
kdrlek, love kold (n.), cold

lov (n.), permission; vacation

kopa, I la, buy kora, lib, drive

(from school); have to

fd lov,

may

lova, I, promise; praise lugn (adj.), calm, quiet lycka, happiness, fortune

lyckad,

n.
I,

-at,

successful
v.,

mend; bring to pass lammstek, -or, lamb steak
laga,
I,

lyckas,
lycklig,

dep.

succeed

happy
obey
-n,

land, lander, country;
det, in the

pd
i

lan-

lyda. lib,

country;

land,

lynne
gott

(n.),
,

humor;

via

ashore

landskap
lantstalle

(n.),
v.,

landsatta, irr.

landscape land
,

good humor Idda, -or, box, drawer Una, I, lend; borrow
in Idng, long

(n.),

-n,

country

house
lantbrukare,
last,
lot,
le,
,

Idngsam, def. -samma, slow

farmer
vice

Idsa, I la, lock
Idta,
st.
v.,

-er,

load;

let,

allow;

cause

no neuter, lazy
irr. v.,

to do or be

done
opportunity put away

smile
ledsna,

lagenhet,

-er,

leda, lib, lead

Idgga

bort',
,

irr. v.,

ledsen, n. ledset, def.

sad, sorry
lek,
Zefca,

-or,

play,

game

Ha, play
st. v.,

leva, irr. v., live
lida,

lakare, physician Idmna, I, leave lange (adv.), long Idngre, comp. of Idng, lange, longer
Idra,
lib,
,

suffer

ligga, irr. v., lie
/ifc

Idrare,

teach; learn teacher

(adj.), like, alike

lard,' n. Idrt,

learned

lika (adv.),
liten,

(just)
def.

as
lilla,

Idrjunge, -ar, pupil
pi.

n.

litet,

Idsa,

Ila,

read

sra4,

little,

small
life

Idsa upp', also upp'ldsa, recite

litteratur, -er. literature
ttv

(n.),
(n.),

,

Idsebok, -bocker, reader Idxa, -or, lesson
Idsa (biljett),
losen,

ljus
I

,

light;

candle

jus (adj.), light

no

pi.,

buy (ticket) ransom

loge, logar,

threshing floor

VOCABULARY.

269

M
maj, May majs, Indian corn
-ar, match, mate mala, lib, grind

modern', modern

mogen,
ripe

n.

moget,
ripen

def.

mogna,

make,

mogna,
morgon,

I,

man, man, man

man

morgnar, morning; tidigt pd morgonen, early

manschett', manovre'ra,

(indef. pron.), one, they -er, cuff
I,

in the
i

morning

maneuver
fair
(n.),
,

marJcnad,

-er,

marknadsstdnd
at a fair

booth

morgon, to-morrow morgontidning, -ar, morning paper
morse, this morning mot, prep, and accented var. prefix, also emot, against motgdng, -ar, adversity
i

mat, food
-ar, dining room matsedel, -sedlar, bill of fare med, prep., adv., and accented

matsal,

mottaga, receive
mottagare,
ception
mo'torbdt,
,

var. prefix, with, along, etc. medfora, lib, bring, entail
(conj.), while mejeri'smor (n.), creamery

recipient
(n.),
,

mottagningsrum

re-

medan

room
-ar, motor boat become cloudy
I,

butter

mulna,

I,

mellan (emellan), between men, but

multiplice'ra,

multiply

mun, munnar, mouth
munter,
def.

mena, I, mean mer(a), more
I, angle middag, -ar, noon; dinner; i middags, this (past) noon

museum (n.),

muntra, merry museer, museum

meta,

musik', music

musikalisk, musical

musikkdr,

-er,

band
def.

min, n. mitt,

my
dep.
v.,

mycken,

n.

mycket,

myck-

minnas, ber
minut',

lib,

remem-

na,

much
(of river,

minute miss'taga, st. v., mistake misstaga sig, be mistaken mistake misstag (n.),
-er,
,

mycket (adv.), very mynning, -ar, mouth cannon) nozzle
;

md
ma,
i

(modal),
III,

may
hur mar nif

feel;

mitt, indecl. noun, middle;

How

are you?

mitten, in the middle

mjol

(n.), flour
,

mjolnare,

miller

mdl (n.), goal; meal mdnad, -er, month mdndag, -ar, Monday
mdtt
(n.),
,

moder, modrar, mother

measure

270

VOCABULARY.
nyhet,
-er,

mdnniska, -or, human being, person mdsterskap (n.), champ,

newness,

novelty;

news
nyligen, recently
nyss, just

ionship mo'bel, mobler, piece of furniture
mojlig,
morJc,

now

nag on, n. -ot, pi. ndgra (adj. and pron.), any, some
ndgonsin, ever namligen, that
is

possible

mojligen, possibly

to

say;

dark
-or, cap Ha, meet

mossa,
m.ota,

namely namnare,
ndr,

,

denominator

when

motas, reciprocal; meet (one another)

ndr (adj.), near ndra (adv. and prep.), near
ntirhet, nearness, vicinity

N

ntirma

sig,

I,

approach

namn

(n.),
,

,

name
-ar,

namnteckning
night
nattsndlltdg

signature
i
,

ndrsluten, n. -slutet, def. -slutna, inclosed

natt, natter, night;

last

ndrvarande, indecl., present
ndsta, indecl., next, following ndstan, almost nod, distress
nojd, n.
no'jt,

(n.),

,

night

express nappa, I, bite natur', nature
naturligtvis (adv.), of course

contented
-n,

noje (ik), pleasure

amusement,

ned,
ni,

down
(polite address)
o-,

nej (adv.), no

you

accented prefix of negation
-t,

nog, enough nog, certainly;
I

obetydlig,

insignificant
-er,

suppose
adj.,

obetydlighet,
cance, trifle
och, and ocksd, also

insignifi-

noga (adv. and predicate
indecl.), careful (ly)

noggrann, n. -grant, careful, accurate norr (noun and adj., def. form only), north, northern
nu,

oense (indecl. predicate adj.), at variance
officer', -er

or -are, officer

now
for tiden, now-a-days
(n.),
def.

officerskappa, -or, officer's

nu

cloak

nummer
,

numret,

ny, n. nytt,

number new

ofrankerad, n. -at, not stamped, not prepaid ofta, often

VOCABULARY.
ogynnsam,
favorable
oliJc,

271
-n,

def.

-samma,

un-

paraply (n.),
passa,
I, fit,

umbrella
passenger,

suit; be proper
,

unlike, different
-or,

olycka,

misfortune

passagerare, traveler

olyckligtvis, unfortunately

passande,
ac-

n.

,

proper

olympisk, Olympic

patient', -er, patient

om,

conj.,

if;

prep,

and

cented var. prefix, around, about; concerning

pengar, penna,

pi.,

money

pen person', -er, person
-or,

ombord, aboard

pessimistisk pessimistic

om'komma
perish

(see

komma),

pest, -er, pestilence,

plague

piller (n.),

,

pill

omkring

(adv. and prep.), about, around omlopp (n.), circulation

pjas, -er,

plan,

-er,

plane' ra,

play (theatrical) plan I, plan
-ar,

omtala.

I,

sep., relate, tell
-at,

plante'ring,

park;
tag

plant
sit

omtalad, n. celebrated

mentioned;

ing
plats,
-er,

place;

,

omojlig, impossible

down
sore;

ond, n. ont, bad, evil;

plocka,
plaga,
I,

I,

pick
I,

angry
onsdag,
-ar,

pain, torment, trouble

Wednesday
,

polette'ra,

check (trunk)
-staplar,

opera, -or, opera

polis'konstapel,

poskic-

ord (n.),
ordforande,
ordine'ra,
orolig,

word chairman
,

liceman
post,

mail;

post

office;

I,

prescribe

ka pa posten, mail
poste
restante, livery

uneasy
-er,

general

de-

orsak,
otdlig,

reason

impatient

oskadlig, harmless
ovanlig, unusual

postanvisning, der
pota'tis,

-ar,

money

or-

(colloquially often

-ar), potato
precis',

exactly;

precis

kloc-

kan
I, pack packa upp', unpack

fern, five o'clock

sharp

packa,
pallet'

(n.),

pant,

-er,

parcel security; forfeit
, ,

I, preach predikan, no. pi., sermon presente'ra (for), introduce

predi'ka,

princip', -er, principle
ett

par (n.), pair, couple; par, a couple of

pris (n.),

-er,

price

272
program'
,

VOCABULARY.
revolver, -rar, revolver rik, rich
riklig,

def. -gram(n.), met, program promene'ra, I, take a walk proteste'ra, I, protest

abundant
I,

rikta,
riktig,

aim, direct
right,

prov,

-er,

sample; test

(pi.

)

correct,

quite

pryda, lib, decorate, adorn praktig, fine, magnificent, splendid punJct, -er, point, dot

(adv.)
ring, -ar, ring

ringa, indecl., humble, nificant ringa, lib, ring

insig-

upon pdminna, lib, remind
pa, on,

R
raka,
I,

ringa pd' (hos), ring up riva, st. v., tear, scratch
ro, III,

shave
(n.),

roa
prescription

sig,

row I, amuse oneself

rask, quick, brisk
recept'
,

rock, -ar, coat

roddbdt,
rolig,

redan,

already regna, I, rain

-ar, rowboat amusing; ha roligt, have

fun
roll, -er,

rekommendationsbrev (n.), letter of recommendation rekommende'ra, I, recommend; register rekommenderad, n. -at, regis,

ropa,

I,

call,

part (theatrical) shout; pd, call

(somebody)
ruin', -er, ruin

rullning, -ar, rolling

tered

rum
rykte

(n.),

,

room
-n,

reda (-0 in compounds), order; ha pd, know about; ta pA, find out regna, I, rain
rengora,
irr. v.,

(n.),

reputation;

rumor
Ryssland (n.), Russia rdd (n.), advice; ha rdd, have the means to
,

clean

resa, I la, travel, go

rdda, lib, advise

resa, -or, journey, trip

rdgbrod
rddfrdga,
raka,
I,

(n.),
I,

,

rye bread
i

resona'bel, def. -abla, reason-

consult
;

able
rest, -er,

meet; get (into)
get
into

remainder
-er,

svdrigheter,
culties;

diffi-

restaurang',

restaurant
-ar,

rdkas, to meet one
last,

restaurangvagn, car
resultat (n.),
,

dining

another
rlicka,

Ha, reach,
no.
n.,

be sufafraid;

result

ficient

resvdska,

-or,

valise

rddd,

timid,

rev, -ar, fish-line

radd

for, afraid of

VOCABULARY.
rddda, rdkna,
I, I,

save count
bill;

sedan,
calculating,

(conj.),

after,

when;

rdkning, -ar, counting
rdtt
rdtt,

(adv.), then, thereupon, after; (prep.), since, after
sedel, sedlar, bill

(adj.), n.

,

right;

ha

segelbat, -ar, sailboat
segla,
I,

rod, n.
ro'ka,
I,

be right rdtt, red

sail

smoke smoker rokkupe, -er, compartment
rokare,
for
,

semes' ter, -rar, semester; vacation
sen, late

smokers rokning, smoking
riirande,
rorelse,

senare, later sex, six
sida, -or, side;
sig,

page
itself,

concerning
-r,

movement, motion,

him-, selves

her-,

them-

exercise
rust, -er, voice

sin, reflex, possessive,
sist, last;
till sist,

3d pers.

at last

sitta,

irr.

v.,

sit

S
sak, -er, thing, matter

sju,

seven
-ar,
v.,

sjuk, sick

sjukdom,
sjunga,

sickness

sakna, of

I,

lack, miss, feel loss

st.

sjunka,
sjo,
-ar,

st.

v.,

sing sink

sakta (sig), slow down; lose time (watch) sakta (adv.), slowly
sal, -ar, hall

sea, lake

pirate , sjosjuk, seasick
sjorofvare,

sjostrand, -strdnder, lake

salong', -er,

drawing room, auditorium

shore
skada,
-or,

injury,
-at,

damage
dam-

salt (n.), salt

sam-, accented, insep. prefix,

skadad aged
ske, III,

n.

injured,

together

happen
,

samma, (the) same sammansvdrja (sig),
conspire

skepp
irr.
v.,

(n.),
I,

ship
dis-

skicka,

samtal (n.),
samtala,
sceneri'
I,

conversation converse, chat
,

(n.),

-er,

se, irr. v., see; se' pd,

scenery look at;

send skicka ~bort', send away; miss skicka in', send in skicka ut', send out
skicklig, skillful

se ut', look (appearance)
sed, -er.

skildring,

-ar,

description,

custom

portrayal

274
skillnad, difference; difference between

VOCABULARY.
pd, slut (n.), close,
sluta, I

end
close; end;

and

st. v.,

skina,

st. v.,

shine

shut
slutligen, finally, at last
sld, st. v., strike

skinka, -or, ham skiva, -or, slice skjorta, -or, shirt
skjuta,
sko,
-r,

st.

v.,

shoot
i

slakting, -ar, relative slarv (n), carelessness
,

shoe
,

sla,

(irr. v.),

strike
in,

skola, -or, school; gd to school (attend)

go

slappa, Ha, let go; sltippa
ut,
slatt,

let
-er,

in,

out

skolavgift,

-er,
-er,

tuition

plain

skolkamrat,
skog,
-ar,

school-mate

forest
,

smaka, I, taste smeka, Ha, caress
smutsig, dirty

skomakare,
skona,
I,

shoemaker

spare
-ar,

smdsak,
smiilta,

-er,

trifle

skorsten,

chimney, smoke-

Ha, melt

stack

smor
I,

(n.), butter

laugh skriftlig, written
skratta,

smorgds, -ar, bread and butter, sandwich.
sna6&, quick, rapid, fast
snar, quick, speedy
skridsnart, soon snitt (n.),
snail,

skrika,
skriva,

st. st.

v.,
v.,

shout, cry

write skriva om', rewrite
skridsko,
-r,

skate;
-or,
,

dka

,

cut

(fashion;

sko, skate.

good,

kind;

var

,

skridskobana, skraddare,

skating rink

please
snulltdg (n.), sno, snow
,

tailor

express train

skuld, -er, guilt; debt

skydda,

I, protect skyldig, guilty; vara skyldig,

socfcer(n.), def. sockret, sugar so/fa, -or, sofa, seat

owe
hurry skynda sig, hurry
skynda,
I,

solsken (n.), sunlight
solstrdle,
-ar,

sunbeam

som
dep.
v.,

skammas

(for),

lib,

pron.), who, which, that; (conj.) as
(rel.
i

be ashamed (of) skota, Ha, take care
age
slag (n.),
,

of;

man-

sommar somrar, summer; somras, last summer
somna,
I,

fall

asleep

blow, stroke
,

son, soner, son

slagsmdl (n.),
slant, -ar, coin
slott (n.), castle

fight

soppa,

-or,

soup

sorg, -er, sorrow, grief
sorglig, sad, sorry

VOCABULARY.
sova,
st.
I,

275
st.
;

v.,

sleep

stryka,

v.,

iron; lower (of

spare,

save

a

flag)

stroke

spatser'tur, -er, walk; gora en
,

take a walk

strykning, ironing strykinrdttning, -ar, laundry
stude'ra,
I,

spegel, speglar, mirror; ne sig i spegeln, look in the mirror

study study

studium
stund,
,

(n.), studier,

spel (n.),
spela,
I,

,

play;

game
spela

play
,

while; om en kort in a short while
-er,

spratt
ett

(n.),
,

trick;

play a trick on
st.
v.,

stundande, indecl., coming stupa, I, fall; die (on the battle field)

springa,

springpojke,

-ar,
,

sprdk

(n.),
-ar,

run errand boy language

stycke (n.),

spdrvagn,
ed

street car

-n, piece styrka, strength, force std till', irr. v., be (with ref-

stackars, indecl., poor, wretchstad, stdder, city

erence to health), hur star det till? How are you?
stdlle (n.), -n, place;
i

ert

,

stampning, pitching (ship)
stanna,
I,

in your place

stop, stay,

remain

stdnga, lib, close, shut
stdrk'saker,
pi.

stark, strong
stat, -er, state

only, laundry

station', -er, station

(washing) supe, -er, supper
svag,
svara,

stek, -ar, steak

weak
,

sten, -ar, stone
stiga, st. v., step

svar (n.),
I,

stiga from', step forth

answer answer svensk (adj.), Swedish;
-ar,

(n.),

stiga pd', enter
stiga upp', get up, rise stil, -ar, style; print
stjdla bort',
st.
v.,

Swede
serious
difficulty

Sverige (n.), Sweden
svar, difficult;

steal

svdrighet,

-er,

stjdlpa, Ila, upset
stol,
-ar,

svalja, lib, also svalde, svalt.

chair
,

swallow
synas, Ila, dep. v., seem synnerligen, especially

stolt. n.

proud
n.

stor, great, large

storartad,

-artat,

grand,

sysselsdtta, irr. v., busy;

em-

magnificent
stormig, stormy
strand, strdnder, shore
strax, soon
stria, -er, strife, struggle, fight

ploy
syster, -trar, sister
sd, III,
sd, so

sow
so that

sd

att,

276

VOCABULARY.
teater, teatrar, theater;

sdlunda, thus, consequently
sdng,
tell
-er,

gd pd

saga, irr.

singing, song dt (till), v., say;

teatern, go to the theatre
telegraf, telegraph

saker, tain
sallan.

def.
;

sdkra, sure, pd, sure of

cer-

seldom
club rare

telegram telegram (n.), mestelegram'bud (n.), senger boy telefone'ra, I, telephone
,
,

siillskap, -er, society,

tennis, tennis

sullsynt, n.

,

termome'ter,
till

-metrar,
i

ther-

sang,

-ar,

bed;

gd

stings,

mometer
tid, -er,

go to bed
sarskilt, separate

time;

,

on time

tidig,

early

sasong', -er, season sate (n). -n, seat; bench
satt (n.),
,

tidtdbell', -er,

time table

tidning, -ar,
tiggare,
till,
,

newspaper
beggar

manner, way

satta, irr. v., set, put, place

sutta sig, sit

down

prep., adv., and accented var. prefix, to, until.

sodra, def. only, southern soka, Ha, seek, look for

tillbaka,

tillbringa, I

back and

irr.

v.,

pass,

som, sommar, seam somnig, sleepy sondag, -ar, Sunday
sorja, lib,

spend
tillfdlle

sion;
first

mourn, grieve
sweet

(n.), -n, chance, occaat the vid forsta occasion
,

sot, n. sott,

tillhora, lib,

belong to
be the

tillkomma,
right
v., take taga upp', take up tal (n.), speaking, speech;

st. v., befit,

of

faga, ta, st.

tilldta, st. v.,

tilldtelse, -r,

allow, permit permission

,

tillsammans, together
tillverka,
I,

number
tambur',
talrik,
-er, hall,

manufacture

vestibule

tills

(conj.), until
-ar,

numerous
ha ont
i

timme,
titta, I,

hour
,

tand, tander, tooth;

look;

tdnderna, have a toothache tandvark, toothache
tanke,
tappa,
-ar,
I,

tjog

(n.),

pd, look at score
va-

tjugu, twenty
torn,

thought lose, drop
painting
(n.), -er, picture

def.

tomma, empty,
,

cant
torg (n.),
torka,
I,

'tavla, -or, picture,

market place
off,

tavelgalleri'

gallery

dry torka av', wipe

dry

VOCABULARY.
torr,

277

dry

tysk,

trevlig, pleasant, nice; trevligt, have a fine

ha det home,

tyska,
tyst,

German German language
,

n.

silent

time, etc. tro, III, believe
trogen, n. troget, def. trogna, faithful
troligen, probably

tyvdrr',

unfortunately
,

tag

(n.),

train

tacka, Ila, cover
taljare,
,

numerator

tr&kig,

tedious,

boring,

un-

pleasant
trdng, narrow,

crowded
tree

trad (n.),
trddgdrd,
traffa, I,

,

tdmligen (adv.), quite, fairly tdnka (pa), Ila, think (of) tat, frequent tdvla (om), compete (for) to'ras (modal), dare; may

-ar,

garden

meet, see
reciprocal,

U
meet,
see

trdffas,

under,
etc.

prep,

and

accented

one another
trdnga sig from, lib, crowd up, make a way for oneself

var. prefix, under, beneath,
st.

underhdlla,

v.,

entertain;

support
I,

troska,
trott, n.

thresh
,

underldta,
in twain,

st. v.,
-r,

neglect

tired
itu,

underrdttelse,

information

tu (tvd), two; tung, heavy

undersoka,
vestigate

Ila,

examine,

in-

apart, asunder

underbar, wonderful
undra,
luck
I,

tunga,

-or,

tongue

wonder
var.

tur, -er, trip, turn;

tveka, hesitate

union', -er, union upp, adv. and accented
prefix,

tvenne, two
tvist, -er,

up
,

quarrel

tvd,

two

tvdrgata, -or, cross street tvdrs (over), across
tvaft, -ar,

waiter uppassare, uppbrand, n. -brant, burnt up uppdragen, n. -et, def. dragna,

wound up
iippflyttad, n.
-at,

tvdtta,
ty,

I,

wash (ing) wash
think,

moved up;

promoted
uppfora, lib, erect, build

for,

because
Ila,

tycka,
like

fancy;

om', like;

ilia

om,

dis-

uppfora sig, conduct oneself, behave

tyg (n.), -er, cloth tyngd, -er, weight

uppforande (n.), performance

,

conduct,

uppldsa, Ila, sep., recite

278
uppluckra,
(soil)
I,

VOCABULARY.
sep.,

loosen

utrdtta,

I,

to

carry out, ac-

complish
def.

uppmarksam,
tentive

-samma,

at-

utsikt, -er,
utsliten,
n.

view
-et,

def.

-slitna,

upprndrksamhet, attention upprdtta, I, establish, found
uppsats,
-er,

worn out
utsprucken,
na, open
n. -et, def. -spruck-

composition

(about leaves and
exhibit;

uppsikt, supervision
uppsTcatta,
I,

flowers)
utstdlla,
lib,

esteem
sep., to arise;

draw

(draft)
uttaga,
st. v., sep.,

uppsta,

irr.

v.,

take out

originate

upptaga, st. v., up; to adopt

sep.,

to

take

uttrycka, Ha, express

utvdg,
utova,

-ar,
I,

expedient
exercise

practice;

upptagen, n. -et, busy; adopted

occupied;

urmakare,
urspdra,
ursakta,
ut,
I,
I,

,

watchmaker

derail

vacker, def. vackra, pretty vagn, -ar, wagon, carriage

excuse

adv.

and

accented

var.

prefix,

out (motion)

vakna, I, awaken vaktmdstare, janitor, waiter
,

utan,

prep,

and

adv.,
,

with-

vandra,

I,

wander,

stroll

out; att vara
utantill,

lack

vanlig, usual,

common
def.

by heart
st. v., sep.,

vanligen, usually

utbryta,
ute,

break out

vapen

(n.),

vapnet,

,

out
-er,

weapon
picnic, excursion

var, indecl. adj., each, every

utflykt,

utforande (n.), execution
utgift, -er,

expense
v.,

utgiva,
edit;

st.

sep.,

publish;

spend

var och en, everyone vara, -or, ware, merchandise vara, I, to last, endure vara (v.), to be varaktig, lasting, durable
varje, indecl. adj., each, every

utkdmpa, I, bring a contest to a close; play (a game) utmana, I, challenge
utmarkt, n. utom, outside
cept
utrikes, adv.
,

varm,

warm
st. v., sep.,

excellent
of,

varsebliva, aware of
vart,

become

beside;

ex-

whither

and

indecl. adj.,

Vasagatan, Vasa Street vatten (n.), water
vattna,
I,

abroad, foreign

water

VOCABULARY.
veranda,
-or,
,

279

porch

verk (n.),

work

verkligen, really vete (n.), wheat

vdlgorenhet, charity, oenevolence valja, lib, choose, elect
vdlsigna,
I,

bless

vetebrod (n.),
loaf of
vid, prep., adv.,

,

white bread,

van, vanner, friend vdnda, lib, turn, turn back;
sig,

and accented by vid, n. vitt, wide withvidare, further; utan
var. prefix, at,
,

turn around
mot,

vdnlig, friendly, kind;

kind to
vdnskap, friendship
vdnster, def. vdnstra, left; vanster, to the left
till

out further ado, directly vikt, -er, weight; importance viktig, important
vila,
I,

vdnta (pa),

I,

wait (for)

rest

vdntsal, -ar, waiting
vardefull, valuable

room

vilja

(v.), will, wish, intend,

etc.;

ha,
(n.),
-er,

want
,

vdrd
vdrld
vdxa,
i

(n.), vdrt,
(I

villkor

condition

mute),
I,

worth -ar, world

vin (n.),

wine
vint-

vasnas,

dep.

v.,

make

noise

vinge, -ar, wing vinter, -rar, winter;
ras, last

I la,

grow
draft;
utstdlla

vdxel, vdxlar,
,

winter vinterhatt, -ar, winter hat
visa,
viss,
I,

draw a draft en exchange vdxelkontor (n.)
,

show

office

sure, certain

vdxla,

I,

change, exchange

visst, adv., surely, certainly

visserligen, to be sure
vistelse,
-r,

Y
ypperlig, excellent

vykort (n.), tal card
vdning,
-ar,

sojourn souvenir pos,

A
d, prep, and accented insep. prefix, on ddraga sig, st. v., contract,

story,
i

apartment
vdras, last

var, -ar, spring;

spring
nurse, take care of vdrdslos, careless vdrdsloshet, carelessness

incur
Alder, dldrar, age

vdrda,

I,

dka, Ila, ride dker, dkrar, field

vdrfcst, -er, spring festival
vdt, n. vdtt,

dngare,

,

steamer
-r,

wet
,

vdcka,

I la,

wake up
weather
well to do
-at,

dngbdtsforbindelse, tion by steamer

connec

viider (n.),

dngbdtstur,

-er,

valbargad, n.

dngmaskin,

-er,

steamboat trip steam engine

280
dr (n.),
,

VOCABULARY.
dnnu, still, yet apple (n.), -n, apple urende (n.), -n, errand
d'venledes, likewise tita, st. v., eat

year anniversary dsikt, -er, opinion dtaga sig, st. v., undertake dter, adv. and accented var. prefix, again; back dterldmna, I, sep., return
drsdag,
-or,

o, -ar,

island

dterstd, irr.

v.,

remain

60a

(n.), 60on, eye
,

itervdnda, lib, sep., return dtmins'tone, at least
ditto,

eighty

moment ogonblick (n.), oculist ogonldkare, omsesidig, mutual onska, I, wish
,

ddel,

def.

ddla, noble

iiga, lib,

own
,

agare,

owner
egg

dgg

(n.),
I,

onskan, indecl., wish oppna, I, open ore (n.), -n, Swedish coin over, prep., adv., and accented var. prefix, over
overldgga,
irr. v.,
I,

arnna,

intend

deliberate

an, yet;

than
(n.),

(after

a com-

dverraska,
overresa,

surprise
-ar,

parative)

overruskning,
,

surprise
voy-

dndamdl

purpose
sig,

-or, trip across,

tindd, yet, nevertheless

age

dndra, change;
one's

change

mind

overtyga, overvaka,

I, I,

convince
supervise

dng,

-ar,

meadow

overvikt, overweight

ENGLISH-SWEDISH.
For particulars of declension and conjugation, the Swedish-English vocabulary must be consulted.

according
a,

to,

enligt

an, en, ett
,

accordingly, foljaktligen

able, be

kunna

account,

skildring,

rakning;

about, om, omkring abroad, utrikes

abundant, riklig
accident, olycka, olycksfall

on account of, med anledning av, till foljd av acquainted, bekant accustom, vanja
across, tvars

accompany,

folja

med

(over)

accomplish, utratta

add, addera

VOCABULARY.
address, adress address, adressera addressee, adressat

281

amusement, noje
amusing, roande, rolig
and, och
angle,

adopt, upptaga, antaga

meta

adorn, pryda

another, en annan

advance (money), forskottera
adversity,

anniversary, arsdag

motgang

advertisement, annons
advice, rad advise, rada

annoying, forarglig answer, svara any, nagon; any longer, langre anything, nagonting, nagot
appetite, aptit

eftermiddag; this eftermiddag; in the pa eftermiddagen afraid (of), radd (for)
afternoon,
,

i

,

applause, bifall
apple, apple

after, efter

approach, narma sig approval, bifall

again, igen
against, emot, age, alder

mot

arm, arm around, omkring,
arrest, arrestera

om

ago, for. ..sedan

arrive,
art,

ankomma, anlanda
vara

agreeable, angenam, behaglig ail (impers.), fattas

konst

article, artikel;
artist,
as,

aim, rikta
air,

konstnar
to be

luft

som
,

alike, lika

ashamed, skamsen;

allow, tillata

skammas
ashore,
i

(for)

almost, nastan
alone, generally def., allena along (as in come ), med

land

ask, fraga (efter), bedja

(om)
,

astonished,

forvanad;

be

already, redan
also,

ocksa

although, ehuru, fastan
altogether, alldeles

always, alltid

forvanas at the at, vid (time, place) house of, hos attain, uppna, hinna attend (visit), besoka, bevis;

American
(adj.),

(n.),

amerikan,

ta;

church, ga

i

kyrkan

amerikansk

attention,
attentive,

among, bland, ibland amount, belopp

uppmarksamhet uppmarksam

amount
ha

to,

belopa sig
to

till

audience, auditorium author, forfattare

amuse, roa;
roligt
Swedish

amuse

oneself,

automobile, automobil

autumn

day, hostdag
19

Grammar

282
aware, varse; bliva varse
to

VOCABULARY.
become
of,

belated, forsenad, sen belief, tro
believe, tro;
bell,

away, bort, borta; to go away, ga bort; to be away (out), vara borta

in,

tro

pa

klocka

B
back, tillbaka; back fram och tillbaka

belong (to), tillhora bench, bank, sate

and

forth,

back (v.), backa background, bakgrund, fond backwards, baklanges
bad, dalig, ond, elak
badly, ilia

utom bredvid, vid; (except) besides (prep.) utom; (adv.)
beside,

dessutom, dartill
best, bast

between, (e)mellan
big, stor
bill,

bake, baka baker, bagare

bill

sedel; rakning of fare, matsedel

band, band, musikkar bank, bank barber shop, frisersalong
basket, korg
be,

bird, fagel

birthday, fodelsedag
bite, bita; bite,

nappa (of fish) napp (of fish), bit.

vara;

how

are youf

Hur

star det till?
bear,

valsigna blow, blasa
bless,

bara

blonde, ljus, blond

beat, sla; besegra (in

games)

beautiful, skon, vacker

because, emedan, ty

board (fare), kost board and room, inackordering board (a train), stiga pa'
boarder, inackordering
boil,

become, bliva;
of

what became himf Hvad blev det av honom? cloudy, mulna
sang; sangs

koka

bone, ben book, bok
booth,

bed,

go to

,

ga

till

stand
fo'das

befit,

passa; tillkomma
(prep.)
fore; (conj.)
for,

before

(adv.)

boring, trakig born, fodd; be

,

forr, forut;

beg, tigga;

innan bedja om

borrow, lana; lana av
both,

borrow from,
both...

beggar, tiggare begin, borja, begynna

bada, bagge; and, bade. .och
.

beginning, borjan; in the i borjan
behind,
being,

,

boy, gosse

bakom vasen human
;

branch, gren bread, brod
break, bryta

,

man-

niska

VOCABULARY.
break off, bryta av, avbryta break out, bryta ut breakfast, frukost
bring, bringa,

283
vardslb'shet,

carelessness, slarv

cargo, last
carriage, vagn carry, bara

hamta

bring along, medfora, fora brother, broder
brunette, brunett, mb'rk

med

cash (noun), kontant cash (v.), inlosa
castle, slott
cat,

brush, borsta

bygga building, byggnad burn, branna burnt up, uppbrand
build,

katt

cathedral, katedral

cause (noun), orsak cause (v.), fororsaka
,

business, affar; do a good gora goda affarer

cautious, forsiktig
cease, sluta, avsluta,

upphora

business building, affarsbyggbut,

med
celebrate, fira

nad men, (after a negative,
utan)

celebrated, firad, omtalad celebration, firande
certain, saker, viss chair, stol

butter,

buy,

smor kopa
bredvid

by, vid,

chairman, ordforande
challenge,

utmana

droska cabman, kusk calculation, rakning
cab,
call,

championship, masterskap chance, tillfalle; by chance. handelsevis
change, andra; vaxla( money)
character, karaktar

kalla
on,

call

balsa p,

(hos),

be

charge, begara
charitable, barmhartig, valgo-

soka
called, be
,

beta

rande
charity, barmhartighet, valgo-

calm
can,

(adj.), lugn

kunna
vagn, sparvagn

renhet

captain, kapten
car,

card, kort

charming, fortjusande chat (noun), samtal chat (v.), samtala
skotsel,

care

(noun),

yard,

cheat,

bedraga

omsorg
care (v.), varda, skota
careful, aktsam,

check, polettera

chicken, hons, kyckling
child,
chilly,

noggrann

barn
kylig

careless, vardslos, slarvig

284
choose, valja

VOCABULARY.
compartment, kupe" compensate, belona, ersatta
dealer,
ci-

Christmas, jul
church, kyrka
cigar,

cigarr;

garrhandlare
circle, cirkel

circulation,
city,

omlopp

stad

class, klass
classic, klassisk

clean, ren

compete, tavla complain, klaga (over) comply, efterkomma composition, uppsats concern, anga, galla concert, konsert tillf orhallande condition, stand conduct (noun), uppforande conduct (oneself), uppfora sig
;

cleanly, renlig
clear, klar

conductor, konduktor confidence, fortroende
conflagration, brand, eldsvada

olimate, klimat
clock, klocka

close (noun), slut

connection, forbindelse consequently, foljaktligen
consideration, betraktande consist, besta (av)
conspire,

close (v.), sluta, stanga

tyg clothes, klader
cloth,

sammansvarja

(sig)

cloudy, mulen;

become

,

consult, radfraga

mulna
coat,

constitution,

kroppskonstitu-

rock

tion contain, innehalla contents, innehall

coffee, kaffe

coin,

mynt, slant
(adj.)
kail,

cold

(noun)

for-

continue, fortsatta
contract,

kylning collar, krage
collide, kollidera

adraga

sig

(as

a

sickness) converse, samtala
conversation, samtal
cook,
cool,

comb, come,

kamm
komma
(to a place), infinna sig

koka
kylig

come

comfort, trost comfortable, bekvam

correspondent, korrespondent
cordial, hjartlig

coming, kommande, stundande

corner, horn
cost,

kosta

command, befalla common, allman, vanlig company, sallskap, frammande (guests)

dyrbar, kostbar costume, kostym
costly,

count,

rakna

counter, disk

VOCABULARY.
country, land; landet
in the
,

285

pa

degree, grad

delay (noun), drojsmal
deliberate,

country house, lantstalle couple, par; a couple of, ett par course, gang, kurs; of course,
naturligtvis
cousin, kusin
cozy, hemtrevlig

betanka, overvaga
anhallan, be-

demand (noun),
garan

demand

(v.), anhalla denominator, namnare

deposit, insatta
derail,

urspara

creamery butter, mejerismb'r
crew, besattning cross street, tvargata

description, beskrivning

deserve, fortjana
design, anslag; monster desire (noun), onskan, lust destroy, forstora
die,

crowd, folkmassa crowded, fullsatt, fullpackad
cuff,

manschett

do

culture r kultur
cultured, bildad
cup,

different, olik,

annorlunda

difference, skillnad
difficult,

kopp

svar
svarighet

cure (v.), bota custom, sed
cut (noun), snitt
cut(v.), klippa, skara,

difficulty,

diligent, flitig

avmeja

dining car, restaurangvagn dining room, matsal
dinner,

D
daily, daglig

middag

direct, direkt

damage (v.), skada dark, mork date, datum
date (v.), datera daughter, dotter
day, dag
daylight, dagsljus

direction, hall, riktning

dirty smutsig
disguise, forklada -dismiss, skicka bort

dispatch, avsanda diverse, diverse
divide, dividera
do,

dead, dod
deal, del;

gora
office,

a great deal, myc-

doctor, doktor

ket,

en hel del

doctor's

mottagningsrum

handlande dear, kar, dyr (price) death, dod
dealer, debt, skuld

doctor's fee, honorar dog,

hund
punkt

door, dorr
dot, prick,

deceive, bedraga

down
for

(adv.) ned; (prep.) ned-

deck, dack

286
.dozen, dussin
draft,

VOCABULARY.
entertain, underhalla, roa

vaxel

entertaining,

roande,

under-

drama, dram, drama draw, draga; rita drawing room, salong dress, klada (sig)
drink, aricka
drive,

hallande
entirely, belt och ballet entrust, anfortro

envious, avundsjuk
erect,

kora

uppfora, uppratta errand, arende

drop, slappa ned, tappa (lose)

druggist, apotekare dry, torr
duel, duell

durable, varaktig dwelling, bostad

errand boy, springpojke error, fel, misstag especially, isynnerhet establish, anlagga, uppratta esteem, uppskatta European, europS, europeisk even, till och med; afven
evening, afton, kvall
every, varje, var

each, var, varje

everybody, envar, var och en
(adv.)
ti--

early
digt

(adj.)

tidig;

exact, noga,

noggrann

exactly, precis

earn, fortjana
eat,

examine, examinera, undersoka
excellent, fortramig, ypperlig

ata

economical,

sparsam,

ekono-

except,

utom

misk egg, agg
eighty, attio either (conj.), antingen
elect, valja

exchange, byta, utbyta
excursion, utflykt

excuse (v.), ursakta execution, utforande
exercise
relse

(noun), ovning,

ro-

electric,

elektrisk

elegance,

elegans emperor, kejsare employees, betjaning

exercise (v.), utova, ova, rora
expect, vanta expedient, medel; rad

empty, torn

expense, utgift
slut,

end (noun),

ande

endure, fordraga; besta; vara enjoyment, noje enough, nog
entail,

expensive, dyr experience, erfarenhet

medfora

export (v.), exportera express (v.), uttrycka express train, snalltag
eye,

enter, intrada,

komma

in

oga

VOCABULARY.
fool,

287
narr

face, ansikte

football game, fotbollspel football team, fotbollag

factory, fabrik
fair (noun),

marknad
(fall

for (prep.) for; (conj.)
force, kraft, styrka

f or,

ty

faithful, trogen
fall,

falla,

stupa

on the

foreign,

frammande; utrikes
formiddag;
in

battlefield)

foremost, framst
festival, fa-

family, familj;
miljefest

forenoon,
forest,

the

forenoon, pa formiddagen

famous, beromd, ryktbar farmer, lantbrukare
fast fast

skog

forget,

glomma

(speed),

fort,

hastigt

fortune, lycka; formogenhet
fraction,

(immovable), fast
fel

father, fader
fault,
fee,
feel,

brak (arithmetic) France, Frankrike Francis, Frans
free, fri

honorar

kanna fetch, hamta
feiv, fa;
field,

freeze, frysa

freezing point, fryspunkt

a few, nagra (fa)

French, fransk
friend,

aker

van

fight (noun), slagsmal, strid
fill,

friendly, vanlig

fylla

friendship, vanskap

finally, slutligen,
find,

antligen

frightened, forskrackt

finna, hitta

from, (i)fran
front, front; in front, frost, frost
fruit,

fine, fin, trevlig,
fire, eld,
first,

vacker eldsvada

framme

forst

frukt

fish, fisk
fit.

full, full

passa
flagga

further, langre, vidare
future, framtid

flag,

flee, fly

floor,

golv

flour,

mjol

flow, flyta
floiver,

game,
bed, blom-

spel, lek

blomma:

sterrabatt
fluent, flytande
folloio, folja

garden, tradgard general, allman, vanlig general delivery, poste stante
generality, allmanhet

re-

following, foljande
food,

mat

generally, vanligen

288
German, tysk Germany, Tyskland
get, fa, erhalla,

VOCABULARY.
hall,

bekomma

tambur ham, skinka hand, hand;

at

,

till

hands,

get up, stiga upp
girl,

framme
hand baggage, handbagage hang, hanga

flicka

give, giva

glad, glad; I

am

glad, det gla-

der mig
glass, glas
glide, glida

happen, ske happiness, lycka happy, lycklig, glad
gladja harbor, hamn hard, hard, svar

;

make

,

glorious, harlig
go, ga, resa, fara

goal,

mal

harmless, oskadlig
hat, hatt

God,

Gud

good, god, snail
good-bye, farval, adjo
goose, gas

haul, forsla, kora
he,

han

Gotha Canal, Gota kanal
Gothenburg, Goteborg
granary, lada gras
,

headache, huvudvark health, halsa
healthy, frisk, halsosam hear, hora
heart, hjarta;

by

,

utantill

,

stor

green, gron
greet, halsa

greeting, halsning

heart failure, hjartforlamning heavy, tung heed, lyda, giva akt pa heel, hal; klack (of shoe)
height, hojd

0nef, sorg
grind,

mala
(become)

grow, vaxa, blifva grumble, knota guest, gast 0ttiZ, skuld
guilty, skyldig

help (noun), hjalp help (v.), hjalpa

her (gen. and obj.), hennes,

henne
herself, sig

here, bar
hesitate,

tveka

H
habit,
Twiir,
f,

high,

hog
mycket

vana bar halv (adj.), halft (noun)

highly, hogt, hogligen, hill, hojd, kulle

him,
hire,

honom

w, halvtimme
half-sole,

himself, sig

halvsula

halfway, halvvags

hyra 7m. bans

VOCABULARY.
history, historia
indicate,
out, rac-

289
visa

hold (noun), hall hold (v.), halla;

ka fram
holiday, helgdag

induce, forma. industrious, flitig information, underrattelse
inhabitant, invanare
injured, sarad, skadad

hollow, ihalig

home (noun), hem;

at

,

ink, black

hemma
home
(adv.),

insignificance,

obetydlighet
obetydlig

hem

insignificant,

honest, arlig

hook, krok
hour,

intend, amna, vilja interest (noun), intresse
interested, intresserad

timme
(noun),
(v.),

hope hope

hopp hoppas
at the

interesting,

intressant

interrupt, avbryta

hotel, hotell

introduce, presentera (for)

house, bus;

house

of,

invite, bjuda,

hos

human, mansklig; manniska

being,

inbjuda inbjuaning iron (v.), stryka ironing, strykning
invitation,
island, 6
it,

humanity, mansklighet, humor, lynne hungry, hungrig hurry (noun), bradska; be in ha brattom a
,

det
Italien

Italy,

hurry
sig

(v.),

skynda,

skynda

journey,
joy,

resa

gladje
(v.),

hurry up, skynda pa
I

jump
just,

hoppa

just

ice,
if,
ill,

is

K
keep, behalla, halla

om
sjuk
illuminerad

illuminated,

immediately, genast
impatient, otalig important, viktig inclose, innesluta, narsluta inclosed, narsluten
include,

kilogram, kilogram, kilo kilometer, kilometer kind (adj.), snail, vanlig

kind

(n.), slag

king, konung, King's Street,

inbegripa inconvenient, obekvamt

kung Kungsgatan knock (v.), knacka know, veta, kanna, kunna know about, kanna till

290

VOCABULARY.
letter,

brev;
of

of credit, kre-

ditbrev;
lack,

sakna;

impers.,

fattas,

tion,
lie, lie,

recommendarekommendationsbrev

felas

lady,
lake,

dam
sjo,

ligga

ljuga
liv

insjo

life,

lake shore, sjostrand

like

lamb steak lammstek
land (noun), land land (v.), landa (intr.), landsatta (tr.)

(adj.) lik; (adv.) likewise, afvenledes
like,

as

tycka

om
to,

line

(fishing), rev

listen, lyssna;

hora p&
lite(t)

landscape, landskap

literature, litteratur
little,

language, sprak Lapland, Lappland
large,
last

liten;

a

little,

live,

leva,
last,

stor

load,

bo borda

(v.), vara,

racka
last night,
i i

loaf,

kaka
lang;
(adv.)

last

(adj.), sist;

lock, lasa

gar kvall; last year,
last

fjol;

long,

lange

Monday,

i

mandags

longer, langre

late, sen,

forsenad

laundry, strykinrattning (place) laundry, stryksaker

long (v.), langta long expected, lange vantad look, titta, blicka; se ut (ap-

pearance)
for,

;

at, se

pa; look

lawn, grasmatta
lazy,

soka

efter, leta efter

lat

lose, forlora,

tappa

lead (v.), fora learn, lara
learned, lard
least,

love,

karlek
lycka, tur

lower, taga ned; stryka (flag)
luck,
,

atminstone minst; at leave (v.), lamna, avresa, ga

M
magnificent, harlig, storartad mail (noun), post

leave behind, kvarlamna lecture, forelasning to the left, vanster;

mail (v), bara, lagga pa pos,

till

ten

vanster
left,

make, gora;
(att), fa

(induce)
(att)

forma

kvarlamnad
ben

leg,

lend, lana
less,

man, man, manniska maneuver (v.), manovrera
lektion

mindre
lata

lesson, laxa;
let,

manner, satt, vis manufacture, tillverka many, manga

VOCABULARY.
market
mate,
place, torg

most, rnest;
fiesta

most people, de

make

may, ma, fa, kunna meadow, ang meal, mal

mother, moder motor boat, motorbat

mean

mena, betyda means, medel by means medelst measure, matt meet, mota, traffa melt, smalta
(v.),
;

of,

mountain, berg mourn, sb'rja mouth, mun; mynning (cannon, river)

move,

flytta
;

movement, rorelse verk much, mycken, mycket
multiply, multiplicera

mend, laga mention, namna, omtala merchant, handlande
merciful, barmhartig

museum, museum
music, musik, spel mutual, omsesidig

merry, glad, munter miraculous, underbar messenger boy, telegrambud middle, mitt (i mitten)

my,

rriin

N
namely, namligen, that is to say nature, natur near (adj.) nar, (adv. and prep.) nara nearness, narhet need, behova neglect, forsumma, underlata nest, bo
never, aldrig

kvarn mjolnare minute, minut
mill,

miller,

mirror, spegel

misfortune, olycka miss, sakna, forsumma

mistake (noun), misstag mistake (v.), misstaga (sig) Mister (Mr.), herr

modern, modern modest, blygsam moment, ogonblick

Monday, mandag money, pengar; make tjana pengar

,

for-

new, ny newness, nyhet news, nyheter newspaper, tidning next, nast next to, bredvid
nice, hygglig, snail, trevlig

money

order, postanvisning month, manad more, mer, flere morning, morgon; to-morrow, i morse: i morgon; this
,

night, natt; to-night,

i

kvall

night express, nattsnalltag no (adv.), nej; (adj.) ingen
noble, adel
noise, vasen,

paper, morgontidning

larm

292
noon, middag; at
,

VOCABULARY.
opera, opera

pa middagen north (noun) norr, (adj.) norra (def. only) northern, norra (def. only),
nordlig

opinion, mening, tanke

opportunity,
or, eller,

tillfalle,

lagenhet

annars

order (noun), ordning, reda order (v.), befalla, bestalla
originate, uppsta

Northern Museum, museet
not, inte, icke, ej

Nordiska

otherwise, annars
out, ut, ute

nothing, ingenting, intet notice (v.j, varsebliva

over,

over;

kvar;
sleep,

there,

darborta;
(sig)

forsova

now, nu number, nummer, tal numerator, namnare numerous, talrik

overweight, overvikt owe, vara skyldig

O
oats,

own, aga owner, agare

havre
pack, packa page, sida

P

obey, lyda

observe, iakttaga
occasion, tillfalle

pain

occupied, sysselsatt, upptagen

(v.), plaga; gora ont painting, malning, tavla

occupy, sysselsatta, upptaga
oculist,
of, av,

pair,

par

ogonlakare

palace, palats

om
erbjuda kontor
affarsbyggnad

paper, papper, newspaper, tid-

offer
office,
office

(v.),

ning
parcel, paket

building,

pardon, ursakta
parents, foraldrar
parlor,

officer, officer

often, ofta
old,

formak
roll

gammal
pa
en,
ett;

park, park
part, del;

Olympic, olympisk
on,

(theater)

participate, deltaga
pass, tillbringa (indef.

on board, ombord
one,

pron.)

passage, overresa

man
once, en

passenger, passagerare

gang
oppen; utspruc-

past (prep, and adv.), forbi
patience, talamod patient pay, betala
patient, talig;

only, bara, endast, blott

open kep

(adj.),

(flowers)
(v.), 6'ppna

open

peasant, bonde

VOCABULARY.
pen, penna people, folk
polite, hovlig, aitig

293

politeness, hovlighet, artighet

perch, abborre

poor, fattig, stackars, dalig

performance, forestalling perhaps, kanske, kanhanda
permission, tillatelse, lov permit, tillata person, person, manniska
pessimistic, pessimistisk
pest, pest

population, befolkning porch, veranda
port,

hamn

porter, barare

portrayal, skildring
position, plats; stallning
possible, mojlig

physician, lakare picture gallery, tavelgalleri
pick, plocka

post

postage stamp, frimarke office, postkontor
potato, potatis

pick upp, taga upp
piece, stycke, bit

power, kraft; makt
practice (v.), praktisera, ova,

piece of furniture, mobel
pill,

utova
praise,

piller

beromma

pin,

knappnal
sjorovare

pray, bedja

pirate,

preach, predika
preacher, predikant
precious, dyrbar
of,
i

pitching,

stampning
anslag,

placard,
place,

plats;

plakat in the

prefer, foredraga, hellre

stallet for;

take the

of,

(heist)

+verb

ersatta
plaintive,

jamrande

prescribe, ordinera, foreskriva prescription, foreskrift, recept

plan (noun), plan plan (v.), planera
plant, plantera,
sit

present (adj.), narvarande presentiment, aning; have a
,

ana
(adv.)
tamli-

play (v.), leka; spela play (noun), lek; spel; pjis
(theater)
pleasant,
trevlig
please,

presume, formoda, tro sig
pretty, vacker;

gen, ganska

angenam, behaglig,

prevent, forhindra
price,

pris

.

behaga

print, tryck, stil

pleasure, behag, noje poem, dikt
poet,, diktare,

principle, princip

skald

probable, trolig probably, troligen

point, punkt, dot

program, program
prohibit, torbjuda

poison, forgifta

policeman, poliskonstapel

prohibited, forbjuden

294
prominent, framstaende promise (v.), lova promoted, befordrad
propose, fbresla
proposal, forslag
proposition, forslag
protect, protest,

VOCABULARY
reach, racka;

reach out, rac-

ka fram
read, lasa

reader, lasebok ready, fardig realize, inse
really,

skydda
protestera

verkligen

reason, orsak;
till

by reason

of,

proud, stolt public (noun), allmanhet, publik public (adj.), allman, offentlig public school, folkskola
publish, utgiva
pupil, larjunge

foljd

av

reasonable, resonabel
recall,

minnas,

komma

ihag

receive, erhalla, fa,

mottaga

recently, nyligen

reception room, mottagnings-

rum
recipient, mottagare
recite,

purchase
pursue,

(noun), inkop

purpose, avsikt
forfolja put, lagga, satta

reconcile,

upplasa torsona

recognize, igenkanna

put away, lagga bort

Q
quality,

recommend, rekommendera recommendation, letter of, rekommendationsbrev
red, rod redeem, inlosa reduce, reducera reflect, betanka (sig) regard, anse, betrakta

kvalitet

quarrel (v.), trata quay, kaj
quick, kvick,
snar, rask
hastig,

snabb,

quickly, fort
quiet, tyst
quite, ganska, riktigt, alldeles

registered,
relate,

rekommenderad

regulate, justera
beratta, omtala

R
railway, jarnvag;
accident,
.

relation,

forhallande

relative, slakting

jarnvagsolycka

remain, bliva, forbliva; innesta

rain (noun), regn rain (v.), regna ransom (noun), losen

(money

in

bank)

;

stan-

na; Mersta

ransom

(v.), frikopa

rapid, hastig, rather, hellre
rare, sallsynt

snabb

remainder, rest remember, minnas, erinra sig remind, erinra (om), paminna
rent,

hyra

reputation, rykte

VOCABULARY
request (noun), begaran request
(v.)
salt, salt

anhalla, begara

salute, halsa

(pa)

respected, respekterad rest (noun), vila
rest
(v.), vila sig

sample, prov sandwich, smorgas
satisfied, belaten, nojd save, spara; radda (rescue)

restaurant, restaurang result, resultat
retain, behalla

say, saga
v.)

return,

aterlamna
tillbaka,

(tr.

;

scenery, sceneri school, skola
score, tjog

komma
revenge,

atervanda

hamnas

scratch, riva

revolver, revolver

seam, som
sea, sjo,

rewrite, skriva rich, rik

om

hav

seasick, sjosjuk
seat, sate, soffa, plats

ride (noun), aktur ride (v.), rida (horse);
right, ratt;

aka
,

be
to

,

ha
the

ratt
till

security, sakerhet; see, se, traffa

pant

right,

hoger; hoger

seek, sb'ka

ring, ring

ring up, ringa pa hos
rink, skridskobana
ripe,

seem, synas; it seems to me, det synes mig seldom, sallan
sell,

salja

mogen ripen, mogna
rise, stiga

semester, semester; termin

upp
bank,
flod-

river,

flod;

skicka send for, skicka efter send away, skicka bort
send,
sensible,

strand
road,

forstandig
allvarlig,

vag
(v.),

serious,

allvarsam,

rock

gunga

svar

rolling,

rullning
boat, roddbat

sermon, predikan
servant,
(coll.),

room,

rum

tjanare;

servants
(at-

row, ro; ruin, ruin

rumor, rykte
run, springa;

betjaning service, tjanst; betjaning tendance)
settle,

ga (watch)

avgora, uppgora

Russia, Ryssland

seven, sju
several, flera, atskilliga share (noun), del
she,

S
sad, sorgsen, sorglig, trakig
sail,

segla;

boat, segelbat

hon

sailor,

sjoman

shine, skina

296
shiny, skinande, blank
ship, skepp, fartyg
shirt, skjorta

VOCABULARY
smokestack, skorsten smoking, rokning smooth, jamn, blank snow (noun), sno snow (v.), snoa
so, sa,

shoe, sko

shoot, skjuta

shore, strand
short, kort

jasa
societet;

so that, sa att
society,

shout, ropa, skrika show, visa
shut, stanga
shut, stangd
sick,

forening

sofa, soffa

sjuk

sickness,

sjukdom
,

sometimes, ibland some, nagon somewhat, nagot somewhere, nagonstades
at sidan

side, sida; to the

sight, syn; anblick,

asyn

(-stans) son, son

signature,
since,

namnteckning

signify, betyda,

mean
emedan

song, sang soon, snart, strax
sore,

sedan

(time),

6m; ond

(cause)
sing,

sink,

sjunga sjunka

sorrow, sorg sorry, ledsen
soup, soppa southern, sodra, sydlig

sister, syster
six,
sit,

sex
sitta

souvenir postal, vy^ort sow, sa
be
,

situated, belagen;
ga, befinna sig

lig-

spare,

skona

speak, tala
spectacles, glasogon

(noun), skridsko skate (v.), aka skridsko skating rink, skridskobana
skate
skillful,

speech, tal

spend (money), giva
time, tillbringa

ut;

skicklig

sleep

(noun), somn

sleep (v.), sova
sleepy, somnig slice (noun), skiva

splendid, praktig sport, idrott
spring, var

slow,

langsam

slowly, sakta

slow up, sakta
small, liten

smile (v.), le smoker, rokare

spring chicken, kyckling spring festival, varfest sprout (noun), brodd sprout (v.), gro stamp, frimarke; without ofrankerad start (v.), starta, borja, avresa
,

VOCABULARY
state, stat

29'
last
,

station, station
stay,

stanna
stek

summer, sommar; somras summon, kalla
sun, sol

i

steak,

steal, stjala, stjala bort

steamboat, angare, angbat steam engine, angmaskin
step (v.), stiga;
stiga fram still, annu
stop,

sunbeam, solstrale Sunday, sondag;
son dags

last

,

i

up, forth,

superintend, b'vervaka
supervision, uppsikt supper, kvallsmat, sup6 sure, saker; to be nog, vis,

stanna

serligen
surely, sakert, sakerligen

store, bod, butik

stormy, stormig
story, berattelse;

surprise (noun), overraskning

vaning (of

a house)
strange,
street,

frammande

surprise (v.), overraska swallow, svalja Sweden, Sverige
sweet, sot, alsklig

gata

street car, sparvagn

swing

(v.),

gunga

strength, styrka, kralt
strife, strid, gral

strike, sla
stroll,

table, bord;
tailor,

set the

,

duka

vandra

strong, stark

student, student

study (noun), studium study (v.), studera
stupid,

dum

skraddare a walk, ga ut take, taga; och ga, promenera; time, droja; after, bras pa talk (noun), samtal talk (v.), tala, samtala
taste,

style, stil

smaka

suburb, forstad
succeed, lyckas
successful, framgangsrik, lyc-

teach, lara teacher, larare
tear, riva

kad
sudden, hastig, haftig, snabb suddenly, plotsligt sugar, socker
suffer,

tedious, trakig telegram, telegram telegraph, telegrafera tell, beratta, omtala, tala om,

lida

saga
ten, tio

at, till

suit

(noun), kostym suit (v.), passa suitable, passande
Swedish Grammar.

telephone, telefonera
tennis, tennis
20

298
terrible, forfarlig

VOCABULARY
torment
train,
(v.),

plaga

test

(noun), prov

tag

than,

an
som; (dem.) denden dar; (conj.) att
da,

thank, tacka
that, (rel.)

transform, forvandla travel, resa, fara travel (noun), resa
treat, ta;

ne,

theater, teater

behandla; besta; bemoabout, handla om

then,

sedan

there, dar

treatment, behandling t'iee, trad
trick, spratt
trifle,

therefore, darfor

thereupon, darpa, sedan

smasak, obetydlighet
tur

thermometer, termometer think, tanka, tycka this, denna, detta thought, tanke
thresh, troska

trip, resa,

trouble

(noun), svarighet,

brak
trouble (v.), besvara, plaga
true,

sann

threshing

floor,

loge

try,

forsoka

throat, hals

tuition, skolavgift

through, genom throw, kasta thus, sa, salunda
ticket,
biljett;
-

-

office,

bil-

jettkontor
tidy, renlig, ordentlig

turn (v.) vanda (om) turn (noun), tur twenty, tjugu twice, tva ganger two, tva

time, tid;

have

,

hinna

U
umbrella, paraply uncle, farbror under, under understand, forsta undertake, foretaga, ataga sig

time (counting), gang time table, tidtabell
timid, radd
tip,

drickspengar
i

tired, trott

to-day,

dag
fordraga

uneasy, orolig
unfavorable, ogynnsam unfortunate, olycklig unfortunately, olyckligtvis,

together, tillsammans
tolerate, tala,

to-morrow,

i

morgon

tongue, tunga to-night, i kvall

ocksa tand toothache, tandvark town, stad
too, for,

tyvarr union, union unit, (en) hel

tooth,

unpack, packa upp
unpleasant, trakig
until,
till,

tills

(conj.)

VOCABULARY
unusual, ovanlig

299

W
vagn wait, vanta (pa)
ic agon,

upon, pa
upset, stjalpa

usage,

set!

use

(noun), bruk

waiter, uppassare, vaktmastare
ivaitlng room, vantsal

use (v.), bruka, anvanda
useful, nytcig usual, vanlig; asligt

wake
,

som van-

usually, vanligen

up, vakna walk (noun), spatsertur wander, vandra want (v.), onska, vilja ha; sakna warm, varm wash (v.), tvatta
u-ash,

vacant, ledig, torn
vacation, ferier; semester
valise,

washing,

tvatt,

tvatt-

ning
watch, fickur, klocka

resvaska
dal

valley,

value (noun), varde;
galla valuable, vardefull
,

have a

watchmaker, urmakare water (noun), vatten water (v.), vattna
way, vag; weak, svag
satt,

vis

variance, be at, oense various, olika

wealthy, rik

Vasa Street, \asagatan vegetables, gronsaker vehement, haftig very, mycket; with negative
vidare, varst
vessel,

weapon, vapen
weather, vader

Wednesday, onsdag
week, vecka
iveigh,

vaga

fartyg

vestibule,
vicinity,

tambur
narhet

weight, vikt, tyngd weighty, viktig
well,
val,

frisk,

vie iv, utsikt
villa, villa

village,

by
haftig, valdsam, sud-

valbargad; wet, vat wheat, vete

off, bra; read, belast

violent,

when, nar
where, var which, (interrog.)
(rel.)

den
visit
visit

(noun), besok (v.), besoka, halsa pa

vilkeu;

vilken,

(hos)
voice, rost

ivhile (conj.),

som medan

voyage, overresa

while (noun), stund whither, vart

300
who, (interrog.) vem;

VOCABULARY
(rel.)

som, vilken
whole, hel wholesale grossmerchant, handlare wholly, belt och ballet wife, hustru

wonder (noun), under wonder (v.), undra
wonderful, underbar word, ord

work (noun), arbete; verk work (v.), arbeta
ivorkingman, arbetare
world, varld

wind up, draga upp window, fonster
wine, vin

worn
worth

out,

utsliten

worried, orolig
(adj.),

wing, vinge
winter, vinter; vintras
last winter,
i

vard

write, skriva

Y
off,

wipe, torka;
wise, klok

torka av

year, ar
yell (v.), skrika

wish (noun), onskan wish (v.), 6'nska
with, hos, meet

yellow, gul
yes, ja, jo

yesterday,

inom, without, utan
within,

innanfor

yet, an,

i gar annu; anda

you,

du,

ni

CONDENSED INDEX OF SUBJECTS.
The reference
is

to sections.
is

In general only the

first

of successive sections

on the same topic
Accentuation,
33.

indicated.

Accent-stress, simple words, 34 pounds, 35 ; foreign, 38.

;

com-

Date, expressions of, 341. Declension, of nouns, 76 ;
second, 80
fifth,
;

first,

77

;

third, 83

;

fourth, 105

;

Accent,

musical,

39.
;

118;

irregularities,

of letter, 344. Address, see Pronouns 109; indefiAdjectives: declension, nite, 110 ; use of indefinite declension,

app. ; foreign, 127, v* adjectives, see

g

;

and proper, 128
127
; ;

adjectives

of

pronouns, see pronouns.

113

;

definite,

122
see

;

use

of,

Demonstratives,

195

;

remarks

on,

124
tive,

;

pronominal,
interrogative,

demonstra;

200

;

uses of, 201.
after,

etc.

compared,
position,

Dependent clauses, word order
104, 2 ; in, 299.

303.

omission

of

the auxiliary

Adverbs: form, 317, 364; 179 compared, 318.
;

Alphabet,
Articles,

1.
a.

Deponent verbs, 194. Double forms, in nouns, app.
postposi-

Apostrophe, 130,

62;
74
; ;

definite,

68;

tive, 69, 70, 71,

stract,

tax,

app.
;

generic and abdistributive, 338 ; synuse of, prepositive, 73

79

;

;

126

indefinite,

63

;

syntax, 64 and

Foreign words, pronunciation of, 18, 4, note 21, 1 22, note, 23, note accentuation of, 38 ; nouns, 127, g. Future tenses: form, 143 use of 294 present used for future, 290
; ; ; ; ;
;

app. Auxiliaries:

expresison of pure futurity, 296. hava,
65,

96

;

skola,
;

190 omission

96; tiara, 66, 188 varda, modal, see modal auxiliaries
143
;

bliva,

Gender, 55.
Genitive,

;

;

of,

299.

132 uses nouns of measure,
;

of,

133
;

;

with

134

objective,

135.

Capital letters, 45. Cardinal numbers, 324

;

remarks on

Imperative,

144

;

substitutes,

147.

formations from, 339. Cases, 129 ; syntax of, 131.
;

325

Imperfect, 291.

Causative,

lata,

262.
;

Comparison, adjective, 303 by auxilof equality, 312 absoiary, 308 lute, 315 ; adverbs, 318.
;

;

Impersonal passive, 187, 243. Impersonal verbs, 241. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives, 265 pronouns only, 265 pronouns and adjectives, 270.
;
;

Compound

verbs, 204.
;

Infinitive,

Concord, gender, 56

adjectives,
c.

116

;

sing, for plur. in verbs, 67,

300; to express purpose, 165, 2 ; att omitted, 300 ; prepositions with infinitive, 302.

Conjugation: 87, 97, 136,
158, 180, 188.

143,

152,

Inseparable prefixes, 205. Interjections, 381,
Interrogatives,

Conjunctions, coordinating, 371 general connectives, 372 ; adverbial
;

214
of,

;

remarks, 216.
134, 338.

Measure, nouns

conjunctions, 377.

374

;

subordinating,

Modal
252
;

verbs,

forms,

251

;

uses

of,

senses of, 255.

302
Negatives, position, 179. Nominative case, 131, 130,
:

INDEX.
reflexive, 150, intensified, 248, note;
c,

134.
;

'possessive,

172

;

demonstrative, 195
;

;

secfirst, 77 Nouns, declension, 76 fourth, 105 ond, 80 ; third, 83 118 irregularities, 127 and fifth, foreign, 127, g gender, 55 app. compound, 35; of measure, 134,
;

interrogative,
reciprocal,

214
;

relative,

219

;

;

250

indefinite,

265.

;

;

;

;

Proper nouns, 128. 42. Pronunciation, 2 Punctuation, 50.
Quantity, 2
;

338

;

verbal,

230.
of verbs for English

Number, singular
plural,

long

m

and

n,

3,

note.

67,

c.
; ;

Numerals, cardinal, 324 325 ordinal, formations from, 339. 324, 331
;

lieciprocal, pronoun, 250 ; reciprocal sense of the passive, 186, a.

Relatives,

219

;

remarks

222

;

omis-

Omission,
article,

auxiliary in dependent of prepositive definite clauses, 299
of
;

sion

of,

224.

126,

2.

Separable prefixes, 207.
Subjunctive, 158
;

Order of words, of verb (normal, inverted), 104, 1, 2; questions, 104, 2 object with variadverbs, 179 nagonable verb-compounds, 210
; ;

uses of, 163
;

;

wish.
;

164
171.

;

purpose, 165

concession, 166

potential,

167

;

(condition)

unreal,

;

ting,

ingenting,

268,

2.

Supine, 91.
Superlative,
see
;

Comparison
;

;

distrib-

Paradigms, see nouns, adjectives, etc. Participle, present, 226; past, 233: past participle and supine, 240. with auxiliin -s, 181 Passive, 180
; ;

utive,

316

absolute, 315.

Syllabication, 54.

51

compound
sec

words,

aries fbliva,

ison
bliva,

of

passives
;

varda, vara) ; compar-s and with in
;

Tenses
(uses),

(forms),
present,
perfect,

Paradigms;
imperfect,

290;
; ;

agent with passive, 183 substitute for, 184 apparent or idiomatic meanfalse passive, 185

192

291

;

293

future,

294

;

in

;

;

unreal conditions, 171 progressive-. 93 ; 290, note ; 292, note ; emphatic,

impersonal, 187. Past tense, 291. use, 293. Perfect tense, form, 94, 6
ings,

186

93.
of day,

;

Time

336; date, 335, 341.

;

Personal,

names,
139.

128,

130,

a

Umlaut, 14.
Verbs,

;

pro-

nouns,

weak,

88

;

strong,
;

89

;

first

Possessives,

possessive sin, 174; substitute for, 178. variable, inseparable, 204 Prefixes,
; ;

172

reflexive

conjugation, 90 third tion, 97
;

conjugaconjugation, 136 ;

second

fourth

conjugation,
;

152

;

irregular

207

;

position

of

object,

210

;

ac-

verbs, 168
al,

passive, 180

cent,

Prepositions, 357, 360.

211; for and fore, 211, 345 uses, 348
;

1.
;

241

;

reflexive,

245
list

;

impersonmodal, 251
;
:

351

;

number,
parts,

67,

c

;

of

principal
verbs,

strong

and

irregular

Present tense, 290.
Principal
parts,

app.

of

strong

and

ir-

Verbal nouns, 230.
Vowels, quantity, 2 ; hard 13 modification, 14.
;

regular verbs, app.

Pronominal adjectives, see demonstratives,

and

soft,

indefinite,

etc.

Pronouns, personal,
67, a,

b

;

139 ; in address, use of title instead, 142 ;

Weak

verbs,

88.
of,

Weight, nouns

134, 338.

SWEDISH NATIONAL SONGS

Dane liksom askan, broder.
Marcia.
J.

H. STUNZ.

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decrease.

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dal.
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mf

5ita
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Var dof Var tin

-

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tar en blom - ma nes en him - mel

sa

skon

(sa (sa

skon),
bla),

var sjung - er var stra - lar

en
vftl

fa so

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gel len

sa sa

nojd

nojd),

varm

varm),

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Du
Andante maestoso.

gaxnla,

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fria.
Folkmelodi fran Norrland.

mf

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tys ta, du a - ratditt

i^t^fefe!
x
31

n_a

NL

Fjariln vingad syns pa Haga.
C. M. BELLMAN.

>

Maestoso.

F. PACIDS.

i>

p-

&

'

:

1.

Vartland,vartland,vartfos-ter-land,ljudhogt,ody-raord! Ej

2.
3.

Vi al-ska va-ra strom-mars brusoch va-ra backarssprang,den Din blom-ning,sluten an knopp,skall mognaur sitttvang;ae,
i

/z

dim.

dim.

'

P

P

lyftsenh(3jdmothimlensrand,ejsauksendal,ejskolJ8eustrand,mer mor-ka sko-gens dyst ra sus, varstjarDenatt,vart8ommarljus, allt, urvar karlek skall gaopp ditt ljns,din glans,din frojd,ditthopp,och

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fr^i
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s

als

-

allt,

kad an var bygd i nord, vad harsom syn, som sang

an
v&rt

va-ra

fit

ders jord.

hogre klinga skall en gang
r>

var

hjarta rort en gang, fosterlandska sting.

allt, allt,

mer alskad an var bygd, an va-ra fii-ders jord. vad bar som syn, vart hjarta rort en gang.
J.

och hogre klinga skall var fosterlandska sang.
L. Rl'XEBERG.

Mandom, mod och morska man.
Allegretto.
Ill
r\

Folkmarsch fran Orsa

i

Dalarne.

Dalmarscti.
Hurtigt. M. M.

J = 100.

IVAR WlD^BN.
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yrty/tr

Lifligore.

f

mf
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Hur
latt

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mf

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la

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tra-la-la,

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la,

tra-la-la,tra-la-la,
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Dalmarsch

4.

KARLFELDT.

Svenska kungssangen.
OTTO LINDKLAD.
Maestoso,

mf

Ur svens-ka h jar-tans djup en gang en samfalld och en

1
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T.^T
till

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H. SATHERBERG.

Nackens polska.
^4ndan<e con moto.
Folkmelodi.

$=
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2.

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Djupt
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i

girs dott-rar

ha -vet pa de-man-te-hal-len nac-ken vi - lar i ho-nom sak-te-li - ga gung-a fram pa den

gro-nan
kla
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sal,

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