Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States

CPT 100 COPTIC LANGUAGE

Servants’ Preparation Program

TABLE OF CONTENTS
• Introduction • Lecture #1 – The Egyptian Alphabets • Lecture #2 • Lecture #3 • Lecture #4

CPT 100 © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States

Coptic Language

Clearwater. Mina Coptic Orthodox Church 2930 CR 193. Mary & St. FL 33759 The Coptic Language Introduction Father Kyrillos Makar CPT 100 1 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern USA St.

Atiya. The pronunciation is the traditional pronunciation that is used by the Church as well as the few families who use Coptic as their daily language. R. the last 7 letters are directly derived from the Egyptian Demotic Script. 4.Notes 1. The Coptic Language(s). The Coptic Encyclopedia. Switzerland as "one of the most beautiful. NY. 8.. 1991. These lessons are designed to teach some introductory basic principles of the "Bohairic" Coptic Dialect which is used by the church in its liturgical services. CPT 100 2 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .. 3. The Coptic language is described by Professor Rodolphe Kasser of the University of Geneva.. A.S. Macmillan Publishing Co. There are 32 letters in the Coptic alphabet. The first 25 are derived from the Greek letters that have their origin in the Egyptian Hieroglyphic script.. Vol. ed. most cleverly structured and most musical in the world" * 2. * Kasser. Page 145.

With the mouse. drag the "Coptic font" file from the (A disc) to the fonts. Notice the position of the Jinkim. . In one "window explorer" open the A disc (or whichever directory you have the Coptic font in). Go back to Format. appear (on the English key (" '). in the other "window explorer. then Autocorrect as you type and remove the check mark from "Straight quotes….. then Autoformat. Put them side by side." And Press OK. 3. then Options. open fonts (from control panel. CPT 100 © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States 3 Coptic Language . then Options. then Autoformat. How to make the "epsee" letter a." And Press OK. To Install: Open two "window explorers.Keyboard for the "COPTIC" font 1.. Go to Format.. b. then Autocorrect and remove the check mark from "Straight quotes…. It corresponds to the English ~ 2.. then fonts).

CPT 100 © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States 4 Coptic Language .

These gigantic stone structures . engineers. Leonard H. the Egyptians required only a brush and some ink. however.2 states that "One of the most important contributions made by ancient Egypt was papermaking. The most famous pyramids stand at Giza." Egyptian Alphabets as the Ultimate Source of the Modern Western Alphabet: CPT 100 5 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . basic forms of arithmetic. They invented a form of picture writing called Hieroglyphics." The rapid development of their writing system was facilitated by their discovery of methods to make paper and ink. They built great cities in which many skilled architects. Jr. Before the Egyptians invented paper. The best known achievements of ancient Egypt. They also invented papyrus. which crumble. pen and paper first brought about by the Egyptians was such a revolutionary step that it is still the fundamental basis of most handwritten communication today. Paper was made from the papyrus plant that grows abundantly in the marches of the Nile Valley. writing was done on clay tablets. or on stone. and sculptors worked. Lesko who wrote1: "The ancient Egyptians made outstanding contributions to the development of civilization. which is heavy and hard to carve.LECTURE # 1 The Egyptian Alphabets.marvels of architecture and engineering skills have been preserved by the dry climate for about 4500 years. doctors. They created the world's first national government. Unlike the rest of the ancient world. Their relationship to other alphabets Egyptian Contributions to the development of civilization: The contributions to civilization made by Egypt are best described by Dr. a paperlike writing material made from the stems of papyrus plants. are the pyramids they built as tombs for their rulers. Fairservis. The Egyptians developed one of the first religions to emphasize life after death. They serve as spectacular reminders of the glory of ancient Egypt. and a 365day calendar. Walter A. painters. and they could easily carry these materials anywhere they went." Donald Jackson also affirms3 that "Indeed the marriage of liquid ink.

are certainly based on the Egyptian word-syllabic writing".6.6 was directly derived from the Phoenician alphabet4. The second letter. Around 700 BC Demotic writing was developed. around 1800 BC. or beth. Semitic workers were used at this site. The Greek alphabet.7. In the same reference4. which is the progenitor of Roman (Latin) letters4.7. succinctly summarizes the development of modern Western Alphabet from the ancient Egyptian Alphabet in the following: "The Egyptians mined at this Sinai site (the ancient turquoise mines) both during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. This was simpler and faster to write than the hieratic.. in a table form. its name is aleph. During the reign of Ammenemes III. Paul Johnson. was soon developed by Egyptian scribes who used it for both religious and nonreligious purposes5. The Phoenicians. The Greek alphabet. beginning with the sign writing of Ancient Egypt". Around 1500 BC. Compton's Encyclopedia6 states that: "The Latin Alphabet is a development from the Greek alphabet.6. in his book The Civilization of Ancient Egypt11. the development of each letter starting with the Egyptian (about 3000 BC) followed by Semitic (1500 BC) followed by Phoenician (about 1000 BC) followed by Greek (about 600 BC) followed by Roman (114 AD) and finally the modern alphabet. Barbara Mertz states that: "The birds and the bees of the ancient Egyptian script may have a more direct relationship to our own alphabet than we realize9". she shows. The first letter of the Phoenician alphabet. one of the Semitic peoples perfected an alphabet around 1000 BC. this first Semite writing seems to be an original and individual creation. evidently a man of creative CPT 100 6 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . Its principals however. or alpha in Greek. is an adaptation of a writing system which was developed among the Semites of Syria about 1500 BC. Marianne Cooley4 states that "The English alphabet developed from a number of early writing systems. or beta in Greek4. Davies10 cites a quote by Gardiner describing this observation: "The hieroglyphs lives on though in transmuted form within our own alphabet". became . Hieratic. the Semites developed an alphabet which is based on the Egyptian hieroglyphic system4. meaning ox. in turn. which is a simplified cursive form of the hieroglyphic. became . the English alphabet of today can be traced back to the sign writing of ancient Egypt.The Egyptians developed the Hieroglyphic Writing around 3000 BC4.8. The scribes used it for correspondence and record keeping5. . . Outwardly. meaning house. The Greeks not only took the forms of letters. It consisted originally of signs that stood for words or ideas. but gradually each sign stood for a syllable or a sound. Based on the above-mentioned facts. One of them. they also took over some Phoenician names for the letters.

In northern Syria. Egyptian" have the same origin. and above all by the Phoenicians. retaining even the names of the letters. This Ras Shamra script. the letter "B" from the hieroglyph for "crane". The origin of the word "Coptic": The words "Copt. The ultimate source of the Western alphabet. made essential by the structure of their own non-semitic tongue. The Development of the Coptic Alphabet: A. tablets and stylus. the Greeks took over the Phoenician alphabet more or less as they found it. is ancient Egypt"11. whereas the last 7 letters are a modification from Demotic letters (table 2)13. and Ptah is one of the famous Gods of Old Egypt). in various forms. ancient Ugaritic. It is merely a modified form of the CanaaniteEgyptian alphabetic script.ingenuity. The Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia12 traces back the origin of several English letters to their hieroglyphic origin. the letter "A" is traced back to the Egyptian hieroglyph of an eagle. acquiring cursive characteristics in the process. etc. and that is the old Egyptian words describing Egypt as "EKA-Ptah" meaning the House of the Spirit of Ptah. They reversed the direction of the script from right-toleft to left-to-right. It was gradually adopted by the entire region. The first 25 letters are modified from the Greek alphabet (table 1). They switched the signs for six Canaanite consonants not used in Greek to vowels. therefore. and thus gave the world the structure of the alphabet more or less as we have it today. ( E means House. In the ninth century BC. The new script survived and gradually spread north through Palestine and Syria. His stroke of genius was to select the alphabetic signs from the hieroglyphs. The origin of the Coptic Alphabet: The present 32 letters of the Coptic Alphabet are derived from two sources. it was adapted to the writing materials of the area. it took on a cuneiform style . has no other connection with Sumerian or Babylonian cuneiform. CPT 100 7 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . For example. became familiar with Egyptian hieroglyphic writing and determined to adapt it to his native Canaanite language. but the really important change they introduced. B. then unwritten.that is. rejecting the consonantal groups and the ideograms. Ka means Spirit. was the vowelsign. the words "Coptic" and "Egyptian" are linguistically one and the same word. who had an alphabet of twenty-eight letters. Coptic" as well as the words "Egypt. it should be remembered that the origin of these Greek letters can be traced back to the old Egyptian letters4. near the ancient port of Ras Shamra. Therefore.

this is how people everywhere in the world would understand. The following are few examples of words of Greek origin that are used in our Liturgy: 1. Many Egyptians. Greek was always the language used in international councils (Ecumenical councils). especially in Alexandria. It was invented by Saint Cyril (826 . in addition to Egyptian (Coptic) their mother tongue. spoke Greek very fluently. many other Church fathers wrote in Coptic. wrote mainly in Greek because. Words of Greek origin that are used by the Coptic Church and many other churches. The contribution of the Coptic Alphabet to the Russian Alphabets: The current Alphabet of the Russian Language is known as the Cyrillic Alphabet. Greek was the language that Saint Mark used and it was the language of the Liturgy that He handed down to his successors. it is very important to remember that over 90% of the Divine Liturgy service and the Praises is in Egyptian (Coptic). our 20th Pope.C. Coptic letters such as (written as ) into the Russian Alphabet that is still in use in Russia today 14 . They knew Coptic and they introduced. However. along with the Greek letters. When the Liturgy was later translated from Greek to Egyptian (Coptic).884 AD). When Saint Mark came to Egypt and started his ministry there.g. including the Coptic as well as the English language: CPT 100 8 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . and the Copts were very familiar with the meaning of these words. two Greek brothers who were missionaries to Russia during the 9th Century. in much the same way as the English language these days. Actually these words are now part of many languages. the Greek language was the cultural language of the world. D. and less than 10% is in Greek.869 AD) and Saint Methodius (815 . However. at that time. The Greek words in the Coptic Liturgy and the Coptic Language in general: In the first few centuries of Christianity in Egypt. Many of the Coptic Church fathers e. the Church kept some Greek words and expressions. Saint Athanasius.

Word pronounced Apostolos Marteeros Angelos Thiyakon Katholikee Orthodoxos Meaning Apostle Martyr Angel Deacon Catholic Orthodox apoctoloc marturoc aggeloc diakon kayolik/ oryodoxoc 2. the Coptic language was the real key to the deciphering CPT 100 9 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . doxa patri (Thoksa Patri) agioc oyeoc (Agyos o-The-os) . As a matter of fact. there are few hymns that are usually sung in Greek./ anect/ al/ywc (Theos) (Theotokos) (Agyos) (Agiya) (Evkee) (Anesti) (Aleethos) v~nou] macnou] v/eyouab y/eyouab s~l/l aftwnf qen oumeym/i (Efnouti) (Masnouti) (Fee-eth-owab) (Thee-eth-owab) (Eshleel) (aftonf) (khen oumethmee) 3.g. "Forgotten Scripts". qen v~ran (Khen-efran) p~ouro (Ep-ouro) taisouri (Tai-shouri) It should be remembered that the Coptic Language represents the final development of the Egyptian language. states that: "The Coptic Church still preserves the native Egyptian language written in Greek characters. Cyrus Gordon. in his book. so that we have an unbroken tradition of Egyptian texts spanning about five thousand years"15.~rictoc anect/ (Ekhristos Anestee) But the majority of Church hymns are in Coptic e. Traditionally. Greek words that are sometimes used but have Coptic equivalents Greek Word Coptic Equivalent Meaning God Mother of God Saint (masculine) Saint (feminine) Prayer is risen Truly yeoc yeotokoc agioc agia eu.

As a French teenager living in Grenoble. The original writings of several early Church fathers were in Coptic. Although the Coptic language. 16. 4. believing correctly.g. 2. is no longer used by significant number of Egyptians. Coptic language was the spoken language in Egypt until the 11th Century when it was gradually replaced by Arabic. the writings and teachings of Saint Antony. Champollion dreamed of being the one who would unlock the secrets of the Rosetta stone. There are some historical records indicating that it was still the spoken language in some areas of Upper Egypt until the 17th century 19. and those of Saint Shenouda the archmandrite were all in the Coptic language21. we have "an unbroken tradition of Egyptian texts spanning about 5000 years". The importance of the Egyptian (Coptic) language. Later on.of the hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts by Champollion16. Christine Hobson in her book "The World of the Pharaohs" 18 describes Champollion as "A genius with a gift of languages. the first Christian monk in the world. 5. Therefore the Coptic translation is considered one of the most reliable and accurate translations available. Egypt was the only country Jesus visited outside his home country. we feel that our old country and our language were blessed through this visit. He studied both ancient History and Coptic language. 17. CPT 100 10 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . The Bible was translated to the Coptic language around the second century by the Egyptian scholars of the theological School of Alexandria. It represents the final stage of the development of the Egyptian tongue. that it would be the key he would need one day to understand Egyptian". and in the words of Cyrus Gordon15.as a baby visiting Egypt with Saint Mary and Saint Joseph . who were very fluent in both Greek and Coptic. 3. France. including Coptic which he mastered early. This great accomplishment of Champollion widely opened the doors to the unlocking of the glorious mysteries of Pharaonic Egypt15. he used his knowledge of the Coptic language to decipher the hieroglyphic writings on Rosetta stone. it still lives on in the hundreds of words in the Egyptian Arabic dialect spoken everyday in Egypt 20. It was the language that Jesus . e. Therefore. at the present time. 1.heard and spoke. 17.

Atheneum. 10. The World Book Encyclopedia. Vol. 4... Vol. Donald. Vol. Snyder.. Page 26. Leonard H. The World Book Encyclopedia. Pages 228 .383. Taplinger Publ. Dodd. Connecticut. Vol. World Book Inc.1995 Microsoft Corporation. Jackson. 6. Fairservis.. The World Book Encyclopedia. and Whiting. 1. University of California Press. 1991. 1. Lesko. Compton Company (Division of Encyclopedia Britannica). Page 258. Inc. World Book Inc. Barbara. 1991. Helen Hemingway Benton. Grolier Inc. Page 60. Gelb.1992. Co. Reference 3.M. 2. Mead & Company. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 96 Encyclopedia. Pages 382 .. Academic American Encyclopedia.165. 1963. F. 1978. The Civilization of Ancient Egypt. The Macmillan Company.. 1974. Mertz. Gift of the Nile. 20. Publisher.229.20.. 9. New York. New York. Berkley and Los Angeles.J. Page 133. Compton's Encyclopedia. Danby. E.Bibliography 1. John W. California 1987.V. Johnson. 1991. 3. Temples.. Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. 11. Pages 19 . R. I. The Story of Writing. Davies. Chicago. World Book Inc. 6. 7.. 2. 12. Cooley. Egyptian Hieroglyphs. 1993 . Page 293. Pages 74 . Pages 164 . 5. Paul. 8. Jr. Chicago.75.. Marianne. 1978. Vol. Egypt. CPT 100 11 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . Tombs and Hieroglyphs: A History of Ancient Egypt. Walter A. Page 284. New York. Chicago. W. New York 1981...

115. 1987. Forgotten Scripts: Their Ongoin Discovery and Decipherment. 15. Gordon. Quased Kheir Publication Co. Pisenti Rizkallah. (Arabic Reference) 21.. 16. New York. 17.13. Egypt. 18.). Hobson. 1969. 1991. Page 157. The History of the Coptic Church following the Council of Chalcedon. Christine. 1975. 14. Page 23. The World of the Pharaohs. Reference 13. Reference 13. El Ra-ed Publication Corporation. NY 1989. Coptic Words in the spoken Arabic Dialect (of Egypt). Pages 1 . Guirguis. (Arabic Reference) Publications of the Society of Saint Mina the Miracle-Maker. Reference 13.50. Bishop Yoannis. Dorset Press. Cairo. "A Reference Book in the Grammer of the Coptic Language". Pages 34 . 20. Cyrus H.. Staten Island. 19. (Arabic Ref. Pages 27 . Alexandria. Egypt. Reference 5.35. New York. Page 18.28 CPT 100 12 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . Pages 229 . Pages 48 .. Thames and Hudson Inc. Page 34.230.

Note also that the Coptic names of the letters are in many cases different from the Greek names CPT 100 13 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . ς Sigma Τ τ Tau Υ υ Upsilon Φ φ Phi Χ χ Chi Ψ ψ Psi Ω ω Omega A B G D E ^ Z ? Y I K L M N X O P R C T U V < " W Note that most Coptic letters are written in a somewhat different way than the corresponding Greek Letters. ' w Letter Cap Small Alpha Α α Β β Beta Γ γ Gamma ∆ δ Delta Ε ε Epsilon Not used as a Greek Letter Zeta Ζ ζ Η η Eta Θ θ Theta Ι ι Iota Κ κ Kappa Λ λ Lambda Μ µ Mu Ν ν Nu Ξ ξ Xi Ο ο Omicron Π π Pi Ρ ρ Rho Σ σ.Table 1 The 25 Coptic Letters adapted from Greek Letters Coptic Letter Alpha Veeta Gamma Delta Ei soo Zeeta Eeta Theeta Iota Kappa Lavla Mei Nei Eksee O Pee Ro Seema Tav Epsilon Fei Kei Epsee OO Cap Small Greek a b g d e 6 z / y i k l m n x o p r c t u v .

CPT 100 14 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

I. or as rain it is the numeral 6 as in zebra as in meet as in think based on position in the word as in cook as in look as in mother as in nancy as in box as in British not as in Peter as in room based on position in the word as in take based on position in the word as in fan based on position in the word both p and s are pronounced as in throw as in shake as in fan as in Arabic Kh as in house based on position in the word as in Church as in tea Makes the letter a Separate syllable CPT 100 15 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . Summary of the Names and Pronunciation of the Coptic Alphabet Letter Alpha Veeta Gamma Delta Ei Soo Zeeta Eeta Theeta Iota Kappa Lavla Mei Nei Eksee O Pee Ro Seema Tav Epsilon Fei Kei Epsee Oo Shai Fai Khai Hori Ganga Cheema Tee Jinkim pronunciation A B G D E ^ Z ? Y I K L M N X O P R C T U V < " W S F Q H J { }~ a b g d e 6 z / y i k l m n x o p r c t u v . Z T V.Y K L M N X O (Short) P R S.Table 3. N. B G. G CH TEE as in father . (D in names) as in pen. or as in fan based on position in the word based on position in the word TH as in then. GH TH. ' w s f q h j [ ] A V. O F K. SH. D E Z EE TH I. KH PS O(Long) SH F KH H J.

Figure 1 A flow chart showing the development of several alphabets from the Egyptian Hieroglyphic Script CPT 100 16 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

Consonant Letters n (n) t (t) k (k) 2. CPT 100 17 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . Vowel Sounds f (f) r (r) h (h) z (z) j (g or J) i (i) w (oo) a (a) e (ai) / (ee) o (o) ou (ou) Jinkim A little slash on top of letters to make them pronounced as "separate syllables".1.

Consonant Letters Letter Name Pronunciation N (as in No) How to write it n f r t h k z j CPT 100 Nei Fay F (as in Fish) Ro R (as in Room) Tav T (as in Take) Hori H (as in House) Kappa K (as in cook) Zeeta Z (as in Zone) Ganga J G (as in Jim) If followed by e. i. / (as in Go) all other situations.1. 18 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

Vowel Sounds Vowel (s) Name A Pronunciation (as in Father) (or as in Fan) How to write it a e i / o w ou Alpha Eyy E I Or Y (as in Rain) (or as in Pen) (as in Did. King) (as in yellow) if followed or preceded by another vowel (as in Meet) (as in not) yota Eeta O EE Short O OO Long O (as in Broad) (open long O) (as in Broom) (closed long O) Long O Note: When ou is followed by another vowel. it is pronounced as if there is a w between them e.2. oua is pronounced owwa oui is pronounced owwi ou/ is pronounced owwee makes separate syllable Jinkim (`n = en) CPT 100 19 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .g.

Read and study the following words using the letters of Lesson 2 Word Approx. pronunciation in English nofri na-nai (as in rain) a-to-owwi rouhi na-nai a-to-owwi na-nai rouhi e-ho-oo e-gorh nofri e-ho-oo nofri e-gorh nay (as in buy) nan jai (as in rain) jai nay nan ereenee anzeeb yoat (as in boat) owwoh owway ef-too goot goot eftoo oo-gay Meaning or Good nofri nane a~tooui rouhi nane a~tooui nane rouhi e~hoou e~jwrh nofri e~hoou nofri e~jwrh nai nan je je nai nan ir/n/ (Greek word) anz/b iwt ouoh ouai f~tou jout jout f~tou oujai Hi Good morning evening Good morning Good evening day night Good Day Good Night have mercy upon us Coptic conjunction article have mercy upon us peace school father and one four twenty twenty four By – So long CPT 100 20 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

Consonant Letters (cont.) l (l) p (p) s (sh) m (m) c (s/z) q (kh) ] (ti) x (x) v (f) [ (ch) CPT 100 21 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

Cheema Ch (as in Church) Tee Tee (as in Tea) 22 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . (as in Fan) S Feyy F Shai Khai SH Kh (as in Shake) (as in German Achtung).Consonant Letters (cont.) Letter Name Pronunciation L (as in Look) How to write it l m x p c v s q [ ] CPT 100 Lavla Meyy Eksee M (as in Mother) X (as in ax) Pee Seema P Z (as in Pepper) (as in Zone) (in words of Greek origin when followed by the letter M) (as in Same) In all other situations.

word) s~l/l ajp ajpia sai nofri sai peniwt nofri peniwt nofri e~jwrh qen v~ran v~iwt qen v~ran m~v~iwt nem s/ri seri con pacon cwni tacwni c~nau somt CPT 100 23 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .Read and study the following words using the letters of Lessons 2 & 3 Word Approx. through the name the father In the name of the father and. sunrise happy feast our father Hi Abouna Good Night in. pronunciation in English passi ereenee passi eshleel agp agpia shay (as in buy) nofri shay pen-yoat nofri pen-yoat nofri e-gorh khain (as in rain) ef-ran ef-yoat khain ef-ran em-efyoat naim (as in rain) sheeri shairi (as in rain) Son (as in British hot) pa-son soani (as in boat) ta-coani esnav shomt Meaning to all peace to all pray hour Book of the hours Feast. by. with Son daughter and my brother sister my sister two three paci ir/n/ paci (Gr.

1. Consonant Letters (cont. Some grammatical notes CPT 100 24 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . (k/sh/kh) ' (ps) y (th/t) u (v / i / "o") 6 (The numeral 6 – is not a letter) 2.) b (b/v) g (g/n/gh) d (d/th) .

x. /. in all other situations Delta D (as in Do) in proper names Th (as in this) in all other cases Theeta T (as in Take) if preceded by . u g. Some Consonant Letters (cont.) Letter Name Pronunciation V (as in vase) when followed by a vowel B (as in baby) when it is the last letter of the word Note: If followed by a consonant. .The following are examples of words where b is followed by a consonant but pronounced V abba (ava) Bishop's title twbh (tovh) ask. . pray ebsi (evshi) slumber tebt (tevt) fish How to write it b Veeta g d y ' CPT 100 G (as in Go) if followed by Gamma N (as in No) if followed by e.3. i. k. it is pronounced B in most cases. Th (as in Think) in all other cases cs Epsee PS 25 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

i or u e. long o as in room If preceded by o (See Page 1 – 2) as in v~nou] ./ (psikee) soul (sometimes pronounced psishee) SH (as in Shake) in Greek words when followed by e. p~ouro 2. marturoc 6 CPT 100 So-o This is not a letter. Dauid 3. as in humnoc . /.Letter Name . pray (sometimes pronounced evshee) 'u. Keyy Pronunciation K (as cook) In all Coptic words (or in Greek words that borrowed into the Coptic language) e. 26 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .g.w (ko) put eu.g. . V as in Vase If preceded by a or e as in Eua . It denotes the numeral 6. . i as in did in all other situations.g./mi (keemi) Egypt .ere (shere) Hail KH (as in German Achtung) in Greek words in other situations e./ (evkee) ask. pi.~rictoc (pikhristos) Christ How to write it u Epsilon 1.

/mi remn~.~rictoc aftwnf qen oumeym/i v~nou] p~[oic p~ouro ]ourw . word) fay (as in buy) pe mina This is mina thay te mariyya parthenos pi-ekhristos Af-tonf khain ou-methmee ef-nooti ep-choys ep-ooro ti-ooroa (as in boat) keemi raim-en-keemi raim-en-amerika raim-en-ekhristiyanos angelos (as in go) This is mary virgin Christ is risen truly God The Lord The King The Queen Egypt Egyptian (Coptic) American Christian angel CPT 100 27 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States . 3 & 4 Word Approx. pronunciation in English psalm (Gr.~rictianoc aggeloc (Gr.) Meaning 'almoc doxa mau tamau thoksa (as in them) thoksa patri mav ta-mav glory glory to the father mother my mother doxa patri vai pe m/na yai te maria paryenoc pi. word) psalmos (Gr./mi remn~a~merika remn~.Read and study the following words using the letters of Lessons 2. word) (Gr.

g. Coptic Definite articles (equivalent to "the" in English) 3 for singular masculine pi v~ p~ pitotc e. 2 for plural the virgin the mother the daughter ni nen niaggeloc the angels e. CPT 100 28 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .g. v~iwt e.g. 3 for singular feminine the chair the father the son ] y~ t~ ]paryenoc e.g.g. t~seri e.g.g.Notes 1. y~may e.g. p~s/ri e. nens/ri m~v~nou] the sons of God e.

2. How to say the numbers in Coptic 1 one owway ouai 2 two esnav c~nau 3 three shomt somt 4 four eftoo f~tou 5 five etyoo t~iou 6 six so-oo coou 7 seven shashf sasf 8 eight eshmeen s~m/n 9 nine psit 'it 10 ten meet m/t 11 eleven meet owway m/t ouai 12 twelve meet esnav m/t c~nau 20 twenty goot jout 21 twenty one jout ouai goot owway 24 twenty four jout f~tou goot eftoo 30 thirty map map 40 forty ehmai (as in rain) h~me 50 fifty taivi (as in rain) tebi 60 sixty sai (as in rain) ce 70 seventy eshvai (as in rain) s~be 80 eighty khamnai (as in rain) qamne 90 ninety pistav pictau 100 hundred shai (as in rain) se 1000 thousand sho so CPT 100 29 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

CPT 100 30 Coptic Language © 2008 Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States .

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