I Q and technical skills areimpottan L, but emational intelligence is the sine qua non ,of leadeisbip.

What Makes a

Leader?
.13 DANIEL Y GOLEMAN

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"VERY EUSINE SSlPiER 1; 0 N

knows a story about a highly mtelligem, highly skilled! executive WhOWBlS promoted mte Be leadership posi tion onl y to fail .<1t the iob. And they als 0 know a S,OO.JLY about someone with solid - but not exrracrdmary ~ intellectual abilities and technical s~s wno was promoreri mro J.. similar position and. then soared, Such anecdote-s suppcrtthe widespread belief that identifying individuals with. the u right smffn to' be leaders is more art than. science ..After all, the personal styles of superb leaders vary; seme Ieaderg are subdued and anal ytical, others shout their manifestos Irom the mountaintops .. Andlust as , imp ortant, different S1tua tions call for different
(E.an" Workmgmth. EmrnionaJ Jnoelligencf. (llant~,. 1998), He 18 cocn.ci!i:rm.a.rJ of the C02Jsarti~m for Rese,alMan Emotiona11z;Jte-ll;ig~.c5 m. Orgtrniz~atlo:rJ.s.wID,en lEi b:a8e,d~t Rut· g.ers Uirivills;ity's Gr.aduatf School of Applied .and Plof~:;lilaEJ.a1

Damcl G'oJle:mal'J is the autb,O'I af Emodonatl k!tel1i~e

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to be twice as important as the others f. in leaders. but he still won't make a great leader.e and effective perfcnnance. that the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high.m:. especiallj. I grouped capaibili· ties intothree categories: purely technical skills like accoundng and busines s planning. with. however. and. a person G!!U ha ve the best training abilities like analytical reasoning.g and promndng likely stars m the leadership firm:nnent . McClell!md found that when senior managers had 2.. they are the enrry"levelrequirements for executive positions . Cogni tive skills such as big-picture thluk~ ing and lang-term vision were particulsrl y important. I have anaJ.When I compared Dent ye.j zation's most outstanding leaders.. of a person considered to he a star performer. Those individuals were then extensively Interviewed and tested! and their capabilsdes were compared. Mnreover. and to what degree they did SIO. waere diifer.i. the mare emctirmal inte~'ellce cOl::pab. To he sure. clearly shows that emotional mtelligence is the sine qua non 'of leadership. intellect was a driver of our- standing performaace. ~Q. To create other models.. diffexen.ed the organi- or .2 t the companies to identify the capabilities ilia t typm. other words. but mainly as. How· can you t: e 11 if is 10 me one has higll emononalintelligence. my colleagues and I ha ve focused! on how 'emotional intelligence operates . and emotional intelli ~ gence as mgredien. 7 teo ]:s: iterns and included. The findings of the late David McCiellancl.an incisi'V.1:1 their organizations from the aversge ones. along with other recent studies.gni tive abihties. In a 19fH5 study of a global food and beverage company. Effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence. psychologis ts asked senior managers . British Airways. degree wha.aki:ng each of ehe components of emotional intelligence .The psychologists have also developed such models fur lower-level posieinns. [he higher the rank. empathv. creation of Usts of ingredien ts fer highly effe ctive leaders. and anendless supply of smart ideas.! anal yocal mind.115'0 he. whereas many mmarouads require a more foreefnl authenry. But when I calculated the ratio of technical skills. such ingredients aLS initiative and strategic vis:LOJ!1. t TechnQ1o~ gies.o:rj obs at all. To create :5'o:m. This process re- ill the world. are a good example. And we have 0bserve d how emottcnal inteHig. my analysis showed that emotional intelligence played an increasingl y importam role a t the hitgU. And in rej performance.e to emotional inrelligence factors rather than OQI..types of:leadership . levels of the company. trainiD.selfawareness.genlceproved. turn. critical star performers leadership positions. . I have found.mtellige.But my research. .jf2ed competency models from I88 companies. Other res earehers have confirmed that emonoaal intelligence not only distinguishes onrstandtng 1eader s but can 21. t. levels . !In. self-regula tion.~l.ilities showed up as the reason for bis 01[ her effectrveness . and competeneies demonstrating emotional mtelligence such as the ability to work with others and efre·ct:i.-in EvC!. mctiva cion. fur example. threshold capabilities iii that is.esI.El'Vler. Wlthout it. We have exam- ined the relationship between emotional .an. Most.. mergers need a sensitive negotiator at thehelm.ts of excellent and social sk. linked to strong perfor ~ mance.e. cognitive 'mass of emctional intelligence capabilities r their .· ences ill technical sltills are of negligible imporranee. I found dramatic results. The lists ranged in length. and Dedit Suisse" In carrying out this work.age Ones in senior global and included the Iikes of LllCeI!I. most of which were large and neatly 90% of the diffetenCJe in their profiles was attrlbutabl. emotional intelli ~ .at work.tiate the Star performers at senior Ievels witb.t has come to be known as £UllO~ Uo.luating Ernotlcna I inteUiSJienCB Most large compenies today have employed tramed psychclogists to develop what are known as "competency models'! to atd them in Identifying. the course of the past year. my objective 'was to detenrdae which personal capalnlities drove nutstanding performance within these organizations.e 'of the competency models. When I analyzed ill this data. sulted in the. £rom.na] futelligence. how can you recognize it ill yours elH In the following pages. ill. res not that ]Q and technical skills are Irrelevant. They do matter. the renowned researcher in humanand organizational behavior.venesi5 in leading change.ence shows itself on the iob. we'll explore these questions. the psychologists used 0 hjecdve cri reria such as ~ divisionis profitability to.

McCl.astrue in the company's u. research is also demonstrating that people call. held . Self -aLW!ITt:ness means b.KE..ene. and drives. of failure a p11ope.ey take the . the emotionw.biCih makes sense when OJiIe DLmsiders tha t the Delphic oracle gave the advi ee to. expertise .s. leading tearrJ!S build rapport eutperformed yearly earnings gods by Me:mwhHe.\:works an ability to find common :gro.ed 'by almostthe same .dmg to their emotional rescdens p'IoiiClency rn managing . ~See the insert "Can Emotional Intelligence He Leamedl I~) 1 sions in Asia and Burone.OODQI'. diviaions as in.WHAT MA. emoeions.rgyand persistence the abilit}T teunderstand makeup g. if th. division leaders without that critical mass iIl11ldetper£onn..21company's success 2lIlO the emotional intelligence of its Self-Awareness Sell-awareness is the rust component of emotional in telligence .mhuildin.)(nJ(')od. even in the face.w..g Il.und and expertise in building and.ng to tell us a persuasive Story about: tneIink between .lilsityto puesue goals with . the numbers are beg:il:mj..ella:niClJsfindingSI inU:restingly.till as their effect on others seli··depre!:.g mdretaiDing talent sldll :iIJ. In short.irs divi· divisieas . dev elo-p their emotional int~lli· gence.Ill:1.$ the l'ropensity to snspt:-Ilidjudgmentto think before acting .a:viJl:ga deep understanding of one's leaders .S A LEADU3 the ahility to recognizeand UI!.derstmd yOUll'moods.~O\mt.e. And just as important.20%.it pasS:iCIl to V!fOlk for reasons tha:t go beyond money or status optimism.a:. treating people . as w.iomsbips and btlild:i:n.f other people .ating :sense 01 humor the ability to coaerol or redirect dismpoVle impulses and!. "know thyself" thousands ofyears ago. right approach.

s mis. h±. the impact they hav. .g d'crwn e jeb offer tha.owl.. be :!J!hle!Lobe fum.e ovenitletthiElg on a:ssigmmenUi.H~. ofi.!:mploy. people.edge.e:y oftm demonstrate a tIm'S.wareness.! ta tions and stte.IQ~ a mid· lewl. revieWi.their lim...awaren. .ongh not necessarily e.ri.oseDt others. . and she orff. weaknesses needs! and drives.ell~. she Qlfiered them.b:i1S or he!!"values and goals.om wmdenag m'ro te:rDlO. Such De>op.And. "The mn:rney loo.eek lartet"j she was snppornngiliepwject fully. And the mks ili.rmance.''''n. .oe wQ:likpla. them. They won't ask . a!. In the fu":SI!llaDe/peo~ ple gme:rilly . of this sne exeeu rives don/t o:hengive sie.e.tb.me time.iite is true.her:ih.its tempting financially but does not :it m. an exnlanatioo: "It's har:d fur me to get b ehmd the rollout serviceJ'Oj .g clii. WItO w:atS mvi.admitted. Self·aware 'caJi].l\. a:nen tell their w~s with a smUe. 'They!Jl play turmoil by 'tteamng on buried values. IDO!!['eX:rJImpA. ~~(Dr ):ikjcly to set themselves J constructive.: lbiJ1.vclyr . grasp ·of their c.J.~ and respect CatIldOI.e:r moods mld the deeper reaSOaS tOll'her frustration" IIThdx trivial demands take us ~w.ab Cllut then emotions and.T. Peap.kn.o.em. Bear wi th me wm:Le I de011 'With ilia t.eJf·.takie candor about £~e&gs fOI: i'wimpme~slJ and.e:n :shows itsd.awar'~::nessextends to 01!.exampLe.I1~aWWJ"'. openly a.e ef havmg .t far eanstmctive criticism" By ccnuast. will be . Sel£~. cnnsequeniry.ow.their the maljlag~t ·CD'WU..(In. he willI.ffu:sui. S!O'I fm .e on IDcirwmk. FO'I instance. in the IQOm she ~d nut si t there quiedy~ list~g in. whento Oli.e. _A~t' ro: Hm~ can onereeegnize seJ!!f·.lFirst and wremost. :People with. so I signed 0l!1/' semeone might saybWo years intn a jool f~but tb:~ work means so liItle en me ms: !im cunstantiy hnred. She knew shehad 11 head :::l~~ logic .s. :i5:nd WOIK to he eaergizing.sslJ[JJ!o her s. dem.8!. ]?'f:Jople'With :high selfaWarm~:!iS are ahle mOl speak.g~. Purther.w.!y and 'tlpenky ..he is he3!~f::!dmcl.ow tllliey m'lfi.didates will.ll!lliIge:r did..ut p~ompti.le wbo h.:.'e:m She wH 1 understand t.y from the real work that·needs to 'be deae. they look--£ar poten tial Ieadess .. larer 'fegretoed.ability to ~~iH.skfor . Indeed examim:e her i~el."ing onin- their saengths ..s Q.Sit t in Ol!.apalbUides and are less u!l tofru. valll!l.d bymeir self· c:oo:n ~ deace.and are eemferteble uilltingabOOl t.ltJhough ~ wa~ .p furthe:rallld ..o:wo that b:I..ng he. me.m.ner o(lmpanY1 a._nes:s. Ilte!!' laeks self-awareaess is ~pt ro make deci:si.awateneS8 5topped.()5t: l top e.help. t ill aru _~I~: 11:5. 'of raillU"e.e a high degree of self-awareness !i\e~o~ehow their . ..f m the Ask a -i(.}:mJ1I..ork with a. S..ess." s.cknowledge me:irmOI'iOOOmmg.e:red oogent suggestiona a b out cnmpany's .w of was skepliical ab out: a! new perso:nal·.anmetht~s1i:OI.ee.ng 1 fuQm her team.aloE!.somecillng Such self. They lm. and ~ j'obperlo!imru::!Cle"Thm a :~N~U·aWaR person who Itt!. her comp. can also be :iide:urifle.CClH'.. IDey .dtD. be :&omJk. candor and an .gp:rocess.:SS on.and did sometW. it shows icself as.gs< .. ibm I wasn't selecred. Self-aware Sdf·i~w~e peo p1e can also be r r'ecogDi~~.emotiens. ~D lIDfuct the 'QPp~.e c.oeJ myI\eseaJ[i~.OI" Sdf-~."te·Cllli· jUlli.s. One of the . l~nolm~ person wi.arln. p erson'sunderstending of . strengths.and.are knows where ..md. will.f self-awareness Isa self'·deprec.3ictio:n:s.illme . Do we have expemse r. seninr in hilities .lfil.haJJ roMl. . i.mgs.v..ce.awue people know -.. a S tra t~e:g. or her boss.e"sp~ctoo employees who. the client's impact on h.iled ~~[).feelmg:soiliect. RailieJE they ~e honest ~ 'wl ththemsel vei5and -with ethers. credit the it deserves when. iL'ill~~w.an.b. awestruek or fearlUl syetl.y m!eetiEg to with..d during perf.owstha:~ tight de~es bring eut J the worst .-0 failure-and will often tell their smile . W. leadersare conStmtly required to make Judgment: calls thatrequtre a candid assessmem of cap~· j me De:spi.seli·awarepeopl.mger Into job candidates will be frank · dmtltnn .a competi~CllLI . goals.ii[jT a challeElge that they .c--o:me..ithandle .~I. tlbe pmject.£ail to gi.able to w. Many . BInd tll. A peIlSQl!1 who rum her .kn.i:ght explain . Someone who is highly i!H~J:f~illw.esclf rea!ft~ricany.milidia. Consider tbe .sv. one m.harve aI.l! w. .1th. in admi ttin. why.ry me where she ally .' -:-he cie~-is!m! ~ of self-aware people mesh wim their values.exlecutiVle.g to f.areness areneither overly endcal nor lIm'ealistlcally hopeful.mth low self-awareness mt~t the messagle wttbey need to im]p[ove as a weott or a sign. "because I really wanted te :t:'UD. in tum:iD..th h.ets Insworl done well m ~dvmce.o3!~. u The n:I!..orpersQI!J. sttO~ seH"I!\l.ve dUier.OWeI' pee:ple..s principles· Or ' lOlib!.l~ OUt tOO :readily dismissed as lll:)Lor tough enQ1ll!gh~~ lead! ethers . :Sirm.was about ~o IDtroduce.a!rel!!. she w:ill go ene :!it/e.maj[ttf dep.8imllet ] bl.IJllyj~ rives •.. ib.reto desctiheatime he got eamedaway bY' ms feelin. Wit'ho.g sense m.Dgith.etm.s:r::rald:::gy" the S2J.ked good.e inm~al:)es rnat.s. him plms his time COll'efully and .te.t .n.oppet service that.iiDci the skill tnpresent ideas persuasivelj.sb.me'W' me was weak..th high.e~1" take on the Job are calcul at ed.es. They .cu.

? ------ - ---- - - l' -.- - .EADEl!.WHAT MAKES A L.

t was his rDle in..e her colleagues. Consider the case of at manager at a. the:«-by givillg the diswbu· prieit slw.. the m.~e able to create an 'env. nd self-regula don has A a trickle-down efiiect. Instead.Ev'ery~e knows that~ss today is rife with ambiguity and change. the compauTs su:~1tle..increase profit. the glncm that follows. silenee.atio:n.for the <Organizations they ron.ey ate able to suspend judgmeDt.inciden t'..hnology so::ff. Vlilby does eelf-regulation matter so much for Leaders! Fint of ill.e.s.r seek out in6o:rm. Fewer had moo ds at the top mean fewer ilirGiIJ. l.tively . l..zatiollal strength.fmpulses just as everyone else does. Or he migb. eople rarely plan to exP agge:r.apru:t regW01I'iy. choose a difier~ ent app. I_I J ':"_.ik.we well suited 00 do the same Second. While mril:l'l...roulmely lay OUt hi~ cost structure in.ays drive a hard ba.ffocrd lUe there any m itigatmgfactors !Wha.. lack Gfe.People engaged in such.ff. pad expense <1.emsel ves hcnestlv .. Instead.N OWl 011 occasion) he felt hothead when the boss ..was eventwlly prommed to run several divisions. men a new change program Is anaeunced.yS. he would.gram om. But ifhe had a .ding:mfo'rma· .seH~reglliationf whlch IS Iikean on. People who have mastered their remotions areable teroll wi th the ch. an executive who has just waeched a team of his employees present a borcbed analysis to the ccnrpany's board of directors. ip moo the d was :scrupulolUSly honest in his Elego~iatial18 with local distributors .S-that is i people who . Talented people £Lock tn IDe clCIrg. As the iDitia dye moves forwsrd.. the dehw:::.81 conversation ..he anger or kick eves r a chair . tegrity. By contrast. they me able to move with it. politics and.s.y people :i!n the COmpa:ny complained bi toerly ab ont how disruptive the chaagewould be. the component ocrre.....21ealistic uaderstanding r of the compaIlts the urge to.people whoare in control ..He would .motionru intelligenee that nee!> us IT'Om being prisoners of our ~eeJh:~g. Companies mergtand bleak .rive reasons .is knO'W'D fur her calm . sell-aware people .de pmfits.. in He could. is :important fur comp'eti. He would piek his words carefull y~ arckIlJQwled.vior of the senior exeeueive at a laq.gy. eensider the 'b eha.s conseqt.' SOEt'Y'Ira[l\ rogram for flve years.•. feel bad moo ds and emotional. tb. Eairness. . Sometimes they even Iesd the Waty. he would call the beam togetha.out we 'can do mueh to manage them . ' thenew tf::. detail. bYlrithhol. she had useda certain Self-Riegu latlon Biological impulses drive oW' emotions. wnuld then :5U:p back '60 cnnsider reasons for the filllure.a::rgtma:numcturmgcom· pan y.going inner conversatinn.ie?Atter considering titles e queszicns. ~y of the bad. 98: mg.1 and lisreato executilves explain the new program..mizatian and arerr'ttempted to leave .COO1Jll'ts.sh ends . We C~1J. She eagerly a trended training ses sJiQI1S ~ s!orne of her eolleaguesrefused to do so .. .appro ach.iiJ. p The program drove how she calleered andreported dataaad how she thought about. I wsneto push fili._nta:i:n 1 a grim. in part because she used -y. He would then present ills analysis of theprohlern and a well- mey me ressons Ior the neWjpID.ghont·me organization.lings alildi:m~ulse. and offer his feelings about it. :infighting are sharply reduoed and !l:l!DdlIJiC'tivity ishigh.llence:s. tm >'3 .efood company . leap up and acream at thegroup. layout the . Me personal..e t. T.ange~.is not only a personal virme but also all QI'ga:n.. Ima.One day. glarmg at evel!'Y one b efere stalking o..are reasonable..a.roacb.them .g the teams poor performance r People who have mastered their emotions are able to roll with the chances Thrc IOLI'LiI! don't panic.~ent of trust and.gi:Il.d was convinced.':ed trr P!DUIld On th. Tecimology transforms work at a dizzying pace. things tha t happen in companies <lire funca considered solution. and peoplewith low impulse control just say yes. 10.~e-I' mulled over the without rushing tn arry hasty ~udgm. of its potential to improve perlo~c'e. seU"TeguhtioIl. the executive might find mmseiftlemp1.O'[ do away "With.i.. or abuse power for se:1£.of their fee.gift fill' seli-regulation. is.giru:.'b.and.that is. senior exeentives anneuneed that a new program wo! 5 to be ins talled that would radicall y change how informa non was gathered and asses seel within the orga:matiotl.t" He.The executive tion ofimpulaive behavior .e±m'OQl:tance of selt-regnlanon to leadership even further and make the case that it enhaaces iEl.NClone wants 'CD be known as a till. which . lin such an environment. Can we launch a new product within six months? People who as sess tb.his approach meant the execu tive eouldn tnrs . but they find ways to contrel them and even 00 channel them ill useful WB. an OIl'· porfunity presenrs itself. they do:n1t panic.rgam .e:n.

s.igb. comlott with ambdlgul ty all.m.di~..m emplovee who combines self-awareness W±thmt:~ mariNatiOD.M.ck of passion.. Take the perIcrr.1SmpfS me with .gs are dooe.classic" le. the company more m:m my sb:ort~~ .eeply 'embedded:desireto achieve fer the sake of <"Iil:.al rewMd!:!. one w~y r~thel: than another. 'ev.t sl.SsionfOO"he work . h@MI can you idenIiIy people who are mo.vingan iznpre.. [by a me are: i!1'! ~Ql"!itro~of 'th eirfu.le~ Wt hehsd to walt twO weeks 'to get sales results trom p eople jn the fi.f his s.sigtliS' 0& le:motio'D. If you are Iookingfar leaders.ergy to do tb jogs better.rs.s <lind red. DW':lng pera formance reviews. hsve never emerged as a driVeE oIgoo. They are driven to achieve beyond expecra [l)ll:I:o.d[ chqe:'i and :mtegrity .m.mid tbl!:n.such people t seek OUt creative challenges. w.I'~" are :EI. :!Jt2.my.:ome:sErom. love to learn/and takegreat prlcre in a j'obwciiL done. But when such people make it ~ th .. feedbacktime on sales reeults &om weeks eo hours. Of coorse.thetr outbursts are c~idel'ed . T.u sell-regula.. those witb leafiersmppore. P@oplewho 't!ne]r emo- d.despeople. b.he ~awili~t it milide more sense :in Long:run to counteract :nt" Ills emotionai selfre.te:r then: emotions aresometimes seen.di leadership.~l. their qu.otbrdool miss: a pmpens:ixy £0[' .Y:m. The key word here is acll1eve..gula. A cosme~lcs mat tionrtllere£o. nee bar first. with such em:r. fumy research. They are fmel1eI t raismg the pmQIm~ce bar. urges.£iJl. PIe.. The . of charisma md power. 1.'L.hey 3I·epersistent with.Ve:D.e.h~k:s.abili1bY to S!lY no to impulsive.tiClfi potidQ£E in stt\Qngt lHsrW.s.ry day. The SyStJelU shortened the.ommcIlo:aits o~ people who Me Wi. ff il . people withhlgh levels ofmotivanon m.m.n 3'n. they like to keep score. cold.t: them.5 .e-ix CQDilijid~ ered :resp O{l[s'esare tak~1il as <1.ti~]l :!II. People with fi.'t settle: for objeuives tU. they rare eager to explnre D!ew ap~ preaches to their work to punch in their numb erg .[e.an .~gb.? The fin.o:l.gLl is a p!2.evo€:ment.i~Elctttn em in use*.siSivetide or 'being part '0£01 PIL'eSti· gious oCo:m:p.t seem too easy to fu].ill Ie60~e her lnmrs ~ b1llt she WOa:Ji. :By c'on tt~l5t. Plenry o~ p~o!lle are n:u::niV'atedbvexcernal fu:.e:I'Y temperamen ts a:re fre Cl e:n:dy thought '0f as u i. j If there is ODe ttl3i[ thatvinuaJ!ly ill ef·" :fective leaders b"m1!E:i'li: is moll.uared._eu .ma. as.m.6Tf1llncial gams would have.G~ pie.He ~y tracked dawnan auromated phone s:ystem would beep each o.ad. A.- LIO:mp~J:!.flection . They alsodispilay an unflagging eo.vatian.atller than hy exrem.itscl:f . impuistvenese etten works agms.ntiru Me moriva.tfWnes. ~e~OJI.ttiblltWS:that benefited.e. That Story ill:uswtes rwo other c.~oma:oodmessage then prompeed them J W\Il!S fru.fish -th.and.how many calls and sales they hadmade that: day.mageli IOcr e~am.esnODS about why thm.eM. teo. PeQpbe wh@ O. task to be stretched by their superiors.· L to .s.gy often.uvalted !by the drive: to achieve j. seem restless with the Status quo.eiings ~alli'l.l!se .cwrs sueh as Olioig smary or stazus that . c:os~. But he clmllmged that lmJ.their QiWn and everYOifie else's...tame tion a~il'ililplJIllse. .S. otten does nnt get its due.ul way.o achiteve:. Like self-a wareaess s elf-regulatio:n.. .in:::Jun: co:mllmyls the.u 5 P.g rela ri.. exwe:me dispby~oi negative emDUOIlJ.p.

r an 'e)[amplb of .liHereIlJr kind of speech . w.ntal to leadershi'p.t metivatiOOl are often. why a modvation to aclueve translares intO strong Ieadershlp. Ii YCjU set the performanee bar bigh foot': ynurself.the rapid pace af globalizati. In such cases.z~d.sid.ri(lIn in their people can Look far one last piece af evidence: commi tment 1:0 the o..re.cirievement motiva.Iead a: iI:UID.a! commi tment are :fum.they' oftt:~ feel cemmirtedto the organizazinns that make that work: ]!J essible .emrus.UI: Qr Leadership 11m at least t:b.along with other factors ~ in the process .saw. One divisio1l! .firSt manager saw ms division sink aa rumy demoralized people.d· outside their O~ .chleve:mentmod V'~ Hen W overcome the fl1. Likewise. Em p athy is particularly imp errant today as ~ compone. This..Rather.. bled for wee consecutive quar- you're ._ TIl e verywof_ dL doesn It mean adopting other p eop1e s emotions as LiI]le'S own ~.ift their cumstances cion:··· lrroli others ~g:htMve.·' Pi ace ann. The fustm. th~t emphasized the .e.erwhat happenedwhen t'W"O giant brokerage: eompanies merged.. cO:!il.o:i!l.anager wastoo worned about .nager at a large investmene cQmpa:ny.n:gs 0'£ his . .:li::lll:. empathy means though dully considering emplcyees' ~e.e~!:!:~'wouldhave unbustnessltke. 01 personal ..e. de:p. that its.ager eonnnuedto be a SbI!DJl.Le ior:rn.ee:Jl the . the Internet. be contagious. back 00: forllw:e.:n::s.. keep score by tracking suchhard measures as profltabiliey or mar- tioI!l..gwllz~· 10(1 ills (n"V!lJI1 fate to consider the feeli. v.t the .A. '. It' s not difficult to understand how and..s. s. when a very senior level in..~ later.ed andto m treat ·e.perfcrraanee of his stock fund agam8t four industry-set b enchmerks.e_tba~k~s . she waspIomoted to ble. for theirempathy. people were feelin.s. We have . But when it CCHneS ito busines s~we I'2Tciy hem. peopl e 'Wi. a would soon De Bred. a drive to surpassgnals and an interest in keeping scare can. and his division remained ae productrve es ever.. especiilly the most talented. blamed the nosedive on cirt f }' .cruwe. the second mom. portfolio mm. fuzzy ab out results / thos e "With high achievement mnti vatiOIb'L often.. highmotjva don remain..oesnJ't mean a kind of firm o.g leader.Q years around.llumbel of people who a.ld of CCl1JI. we a have ill been struck by i ts absence In an unfeeling C'oach cr b 0:5:5.2S upfron I: ab our: IDS own worry and. their team's s and their compa:nyl:.v'eryolile fairly. Leaderswith tbesetraits can often budld a team of managers around them with the same traits .g iIltlclli~t decisions .\ nd the gJl'owing need 1:)0 retain talen t.at Ms. . g:.-W. they are pursued by headhuneers wavmgmnney...zatiOll.l:£..1u:ging the. Interestingly. . The manage: at anotherdivisiongave his people .10£ mak:i:n.01Il· ager called :his pegpA:eoogemer and ~ve a gloomy speech. creating redundan t j ees in all their divisions . The diffe~:eIlLoe between these twD managers was empa thy. But empathy d.a. leading three large instiruncnal chen ts tos:b.Commit" led employees are likely to.rg:mi. .p osition to do so. n-y±ng to please everybody .PPOTtUJri1:Y _ to prrrse she eeuld . 'emp1i1lthy is the most 'easily :recogW. I know of a money manager who starts and lends his dOly on. ll l For a leader.31. confusion.men.u:t:ed~ By contrast.' failure.!lywi th an orgenizanon even when.m.just tty to ima.evidence.kay. ket sbare.. she described the experi enceas "the 'best Tn ~ng ~~ ever happened to me ~!1earaed so much ~omh.~ and he aclrnowledg. Fo.Take the case of an another portio" He m:a.dame.lii:illg._mc '0.ed their fears with his words.empathy . and hepromised to keep p e.e reasons: the increasing USIE: of :t.. let: alene rewarded.aget j.tb.He i W. s[. it l empathy seems hu:.all felt the e:mpa thy ocrf sensirive teacher or mend.amid the tough realities 0:£ the marketplace . •• in action. out of place .If . his best people stayed.Atter several s. ters. Em:pathy Of all the rumeDsiQllS of emottoaal Intelligence.And it follows naturally that people who Me dri ven to do better also WalU t a.l. Is it any surprise t. self-regulation ccmbines wi th ...e.peoplepraised.:mx:Lety· smcken colleagues. the tough realtties of the marketp nlace .g:fulle~ga company with- outthem. When people Iove thetr job for we work i'rse.g to rec O'g!! ize high level So of '!W.se~ optimism and o[.01::01y mushiaess. 0. The very word seems uabusrnesslike. Whereas people "\!Vim low a.ather a sec. OIjp'timiStiC even when the score is agamst them . you are ina .ucce5s·ful years/ her fundtum_ ' .a:y of tracking progress ~ their nwu. The second knew mwitiveJy wh.op. That would be a mgh tmare -it wo uldmake Ole don rm po~si- h'D.11 Exe cut! ve s ~yiD. the company.liStratio:n and depression toot come .. '1'00 will do the same for the erganization when.

:I!). A team Is.lllabo:ratio:c. empathy in: actW.nd fum she directed the team in a way tha... In short. Beyoald that. let merepesr that empathy doesrr'tget much res1P ill business. IS not just a rrnatt~erQf £riendli ~ It ness altheugh people with. That's where euachmg and mentoring come in.yare often charged wi threaching a COE!LS ensus . it was to give the consultingfum the JILl.M <ltI!y' One who has ever b eeaa part of nne can.<1l1ongsilence . In a series of cne-en-nne miI:iru' with japanese culture. tcday's mfnrrna tion economy. he read the client's faceand posrure aJlldsensednot rejection buzineerest .(]! the rising iTnlPortance oi emp<lithy for busmess leaders. more di£ficultas the numbers increase . leader must be able to sense and underatand the viewpoints '0£ everyone around the tabbe. several steps.g: them.ricans"th. and she helped people raise construed ve compiaints during me etmgs.gs.g a tJ~. how rhey fa ted their colleagues. result wa.gswith . Although he was not particularly fa" Socially skilled people tend to have a wide eircle and they have <ll knack for Ending OClI!l::LI:l10. can make hMd deeisinns if they are U~BE:lin.amoog' members but also added busines 51 as. F. attest.. her team's emetlonal makeup" The. she was.n.0£ aequaintances.sage beneath words being spoken. Crosscui tnral dialogue can e.. Tink. them LO Consider the Case of an American consultant whose team had just pitched a pwjec~ to a potential skill are rarelymean-spirited. her empathy allowed her to ucder- whether they felt mey had been ignored. people leave. Social skill.. kn ow whento push for in etter perfermance and when to hold back.ds. were ready to packand lea ve.al'tiil.b.A..Even. The Lead consultant gestured Japanese client. Rmpath.e. their Social skill is friendliness om \lVI1 n a purpose: moving people in the direction you desire.Consider the chaJleJl.ll.st~d:i:D.gIl~OI all the people who will he af£eI[~!~d. People wonder ect how leaden. Tensienswere higli among the mem ben.me. In. but ehistime it was greeted with .goe of leOOin. overloeded by work and nllssmg deadlines. frusnanens. particularly in. whether that's agreement on anew marketing strategycr en thusiasm about a new product" step.evendeep ennsideratinn. The grou.s et.oU11!J.stanClin.ges. . appointed. they havea deep under. They hi y soun~g like arefrain.e team was accustomed to being bomberdedwith qnesdoD. reams are cauldrons of bubbling emQO(lltls"l'he. that coaching !IDd men ~ toting payoff nnt JblLSt: ill better performance but also in tncreased jlo b Sa tisfaction and decreas ed twIi.•rather.m.s after such a prop osal.As a eompoDent of emoncnal mtelllg~cle'l social sldll is notaE simple as it :5.a:u~ex at .p was in turmoil.mpmy's knowledge wi th them. That's esactl y what a marketing m.g ccaehee and men !"Qr. what is proba stand.. Peeple have it are attuned to :subtleties ill b Cldy :nOI: JUST Bu.D.]' is an antidote .g the gl!OUp together andmeke it an effeeti ve part of the comp.l large ilnfOl':m<1. high Levels of s ncial l F language.inallYr empathy plays a. But what makes ccachtngaad mmtC!Mg work best is the narure of the relanonship. ey motivate their ~ott. . GlohaHuriClIl is another reason f.il ground '1. is friendliness with a purpose: moving people in the dir~cttO:iil you desire. When good. and :m±sunderstandin.s heightened co. they takethe .uon technology company waS able to do when..ring w:hh pr ocedure So was nne 11.Y. ingroups with as few as fum or :five members.lsily lead to miscUJecS. Be was right: when the c:Jiemfirually spoke. key role in the retentien of talent. they can hear tile mes.Q1.. It has repeatedly been OOO'WTI. lin .oo. taking the silence as disapproval.llgbto 'briD. they demcestrate inside the heads of the pe ople they are helping. In \~e way th. a!li~~es form and.gecl peqplc. leaders. Out. So the manager took.ffii'eI. They sense HThO'W to give effeeri ve feedback. to spea1~ more openly about. the ream was called on ro~help hy a wider range nfirmernal eirenrs..hard enough with tWO people and much. to Lead a m:mblen team. Leaders hawe always needed empathy to develop and keep goed people.. clashillg agendas get .A.1:: brought it together: she encoura.g of theexisrenee and importance of cul tural and ethruc dill!fierences. woo me m its deru. but today the stalees <l'!'tS higher. she oook thetnne tJo listen to everyone in the groupwhat was :firustt. Other memb ers of the team. The last Di'i'iO empathy and social skill"coll!cem a person's abilitY to manage relationships with others .01 mack .'!l th people of all kinds .5 get sessions. with empattry do more than sympathize with peoplearound them: they 'use their knowledge to improve their companies in subtle Soda:li Ski U The fu~t three corop on en ts of emotional intelligence areall sill-management skflls.

an ialand. TO ~et there.- I. People seem to know mtui:tivdy that leaders n..n a Y'l. 1- 11-. the se are ingredien tstha t leaders can he learned. They seem to be idly schm.llf the nity that cut across levels. _. theymay need help somedaly mom. _ectlve£y. e ff· .It was once thought: that the components emo.peopletb. no 1 der 18/' l~_ ea After alii' the leader's task is to get m. hoods widely because they know that in these :fluid. he recmite d more 'chan 5 epeople hom a dozen different units to represent the company 8. virtual commuI or ness leaders.s.' .Qple~y at ti:!:nJes appesr not to be 'r. Because i.en.ts that come hom having a well-develop ed emotional iD:tJell:ig!ence hath .at:h.ppealto reason will work better. But now we know that. Ittakes time and.lling Oil his allies and persuadm.in~ s ranee axe adept at man.chatting in the hallways with colleague'S 'OT jolting around 'With people who are not even connected to their "reaP' iobs. make it worth the effort.TI". compared with the other C omponen ts '01£ emotional intelligence. •I . l Emotional intelligence can be learned.e ed to maf. social skill iSI. and nations. then. they are expen pe:rsuade.y combined. For inetance.e.t emotional intelligence 'me 11[12 . £or the sake of performance. dOD 't t:hllik it makes sense to arbitradly limi t the scop e of their relatior» . Remember that people whoare driven to achieve tend to. By .onan t ingrediems in st:I. leader who cannot express A h er empathy may a sw ell not have it at all.-..J:nn:ships. and social skill makee that possi- And.l... among.a manifes ta:tion O'f self-awareness.tio:nsbips when they can understand and control their own emotioas and can empathizle:"Wi tho the fee. The pro cess is. self-regula ti. makes such people excellent collaborators. So:::_i:..aV5 v:l!I. But sometimes social skill shows itself in "~T. consider the case of an exeeuti ve in 'the strategy deparemenr of a glob al computer manufaeturer.go. be optimis. and when an a.Over the course of neXt ~ear 1 he found kindred spirits andused bis social skill to stitch together a. A:nd a Ieader's mnti- the other emotional intelligence components do not. divisiom. 11 It is fortunate. it means they work acoording to the assumption that nothing imp ortsn t gets done alone. . Ev. other p eople. when public1 y visible. tha. ttm t -'. commrnnenr. to assert that gocd-old-fashioned IQ and technical abilrty are OOt h::c"p.hips. evenin the faee of setbacksor fail· 1lI'ie. The process is not easy It takes time and commrt ent. But the bene£.st by a major company.t is the outcome .e popular.. t3 l "need to have.odlreason.. Is s 0 cia! skill considered a.!ings of others.tk.COgnizable on the job in many ways tha. And. k!ey 1ea dershi p ca pab Bity in mosr cumpanies 1 Til!e answer is yes. They build.They . he Was formallyputm charge 0'£ it. :BUt the recijp e would not be complete witho. motivation eontrfhutes to social skill. socially skilled pe.1:993. he was convinced Wt the 1i:.~ge rela ti. on his own :initiative.. Mansgemen t took notice: widli.tionru intelligence were "nice to hsve" in busi- ble . with no budget or formal status. not easy. moti va doD.C1mpany'a future lay with the Interne t . the executive's team formedthe basis for the comp any's t Internet divisioIl) and.When people are upbeat. their nassion for the work spreads to ethers. 1" or example. h would be foolish. esp ecially when.'"Orkingw bile atWork.tha:es their empathy .01i. That doesrr't mean they socialize contiIl:uall y.ey are just getting' to lQlQW today.etl. Social skill is the culmination of the other di.ds.£or the indiv~dua1 and for me organizadon. most O'f ill. the executive had ignored conventicnal boun daries f'orging an d main taining Cenne CtiCJII15 with people in every comer of the OIgani zatinn.1!t work Likewtse.e is l~insf go 0 d per auaders know when to mru(. Given tho.e an eeecnonal I I or plea for instance. g. Sociall y skille d people fDt . their {jglQw1fis cast UDOll conversattons and other soci~alencounters .ax the of conference.for building:rapport.mensicus of emedonal inrefiigence. ers tn put meir emotional inrelligenee to work.t will by now sound familiar. times. . . w()I"k· done through.s I other dimensions emo ti... Such peopl:e have a fietwo:d~ :lEt place 'Wben the time fur action DOmeS.on~ In telligence.'Qilg1eadership. People tend..al allows leadskill. He then used this de facto team to PUt up a DO:rpO~ rate Web site.aging teams .::. Ca. and emp. Socially skilled people hnwever...ut emotional intelli. and they are ciri:ven to flnd solutiuns..oocing.ce. te :ftm. md fur .rion will be useless it he cann ot cemmnmcaee his passion 1:0 the organiz atinn. to be very eHecti ve at: managing reia.t the ecnveneion.g various di visi'On:8 to dana. he signed up the eompany to participate in an annual Inter:iilet industry conventien..the fi:r.rs..

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