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**Closed loop hydraulics
**

Workbook

094469

Authorised applications and liability The Learning System for Automation and Communication has been developed and prepared exclusively for training in the field of automation and communication. The training organisation and / or trainee shall ensure that the safety precautions described in the accompanying Technical documentation are fully observed. Festo Didactic hereby excludes any liability for injury to trainees, to the training organisation and / or to third parties occurring as a result of the use or application of the station outside of a pure training situation, unless caused by premeditation or gross negligence on the part of Festo Didactic. Order No.: Description: Designation: Edition: Layout: Graphics: Authors: 094469 ARBB.REGELH.GS D:S511-C-SIBU-GB 08/2000 17.08.2000, OCKER Ingenieurbüro OCKER Ingenieurbüro A.Zimmermann, D.Scholz

© Copyright by Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., D-73770 Denkendorf 2000 The copying, distribution and utilisation of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorisation is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registrations. Parts of this training documentation may be duplicated, solely for training purposes, by persons authorised in this sense.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

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Preface

Festo Didactic’s Learning System for Automation and Communications is designed to meet a number of different training and vocational requirements. The Training Packages are structured accordingly:

**T Basic Packages provide fundamental knowledge which is not limited
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to a specific technology.

**T Technology Packages deal with the important areas of open-loop and
**

closed-loop control technology.

T Function Packages explain the basic functions of automation systems.

T Application Packages provide basic and further training closely oriented to everyday industrial practice. Technology Packages deal with the technologies of pneumatics, electropneumatics, programmable logic controllers, hydraulics, electrohydraulics, proportional hydraulics closed loop pneumatics and hydraulics.

Mounting frame

Fig. 1: Example of Hydraulics 2000: Mobile laboratory trolley

U = 230V~ Profile plate p = 6 MPa

Storage tray

TP511 • Festo Didactic

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The modular structure of the Learning System permits applications to be assembled which go beyond the scope of the individual packages. It is possible, for example, to use PLCs to control pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical actuators. All training packages have an identical structure:

T T T T

Hardware Courseware Software Courses

The hardware consists of industrial components and installations, adapted for didactic purposes. The courseware is matched methodologically and didactically to the training hardware. The courseware comprises:

**T Textbooks (with exercises and examples) T Workbooks (with practical exercises, explanatory notes, solutions and
**

data sheets)

**T OHP transparencies, electronic transparencies for PCs and videos
**

(to bring teaching to life) Teaching and learning media are available in several languages. They have been designed for use in classroom teaching but can also be used for self-study purposes. In the software field, CAD programs, computer-based training programs and programming software for programmable logic controllers are available. Festo Didactic’s range of products for basic and further training is completed by a comprehensive selection of courses matched to the contents of the technology packages.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

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Latest information about the technology package Closed loop hydraulics TP511. New in Hydraulic 2000:

T Industrial components on the profile plate. T Exercises with exercise sheets and solutions, leading questions. T Fostering of key qualifications:

Technical competence, personal competence and social competence form professional competence.

**T Training of team skills, willingness to co-operate, willingness to learn,
**

independence and organisational skills. Aim – Professional competence

Content Part A Part B Part C Part D Course Fundamentals Solutions Appendix Exercises Reference to the text book Function diagrams, circuits, descriptions of solutions and equipment lists Storage tray, mounting technology and datasheets

TP511 • Festo Didactic

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Table of contents

Technology package TP511 “Closed loop hydraulics” Safety recommendations Notes on procedure Standard method of representation used in circuit diagrams Technical notes Component/exercise table Equipment set TP511 12 13 13 14 15 16 18

Section A – Course

1. Pressure control loop Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Pipe-bending machine Characteristics of a pressure sensor Forming plastic products Pressure characteristic curve of a dynamic directional control valve Cold extrusion Regulated pressure control Thread rolling machine Characteristics of a PID controller card Stamping machine Transition function of a P controller Clamping device Control quality of a pressure control loop with P controller Injection moulding machine Transition functions of I and PI controllers Pressing-in of bearings Transition functions of D, PD and PID controllers Welding tongs of a robot Empirical setting of parameters of a PID controller A-3

A-13 A-25 A-33 A-39

Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Exercise 5: Exercise 6:

A-49 A-61 A-75 A-89

Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9:

Exercise 10: Pressure roller of a rolling machine Setting parameters using the Ziegler-Nichols method A-97

TP511 • Festo Didactic

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Exercise 11: Edge-folding press with feeding device Modified controlled system with disturbance variables 2. Position control loop Exercise 12: Table-feed of a milling machine Characteristic curve of a displacement sensor Exercise 13: X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic directional control valve

A-105

A-115

A-125

Exercise 14: Feed unit of an assembly station Linear unit as controlled system for position control A-141 Exercise 15: Automobile simulator Assembly and commissioning of a position control loop Exercise 16: Contour milling Lag error in position control loop Exercise 17: Machining centre Position control with modified controlled system Exercise 18: Drilling of bearing surfaces Commissioning of a position control loop with disturbance variables Exercise 19: Feed on a shaping machine Characteristics and transition functions of a status controller Exercise 20: Paper feed of a printing machine Parameterisation of a status controller Exercise 21: Horizontal grinding machine Position control loop with disturbance variables and active load

A-159 A-173 A-185

A-191

A-205 A-215

A-227

TP511 • Festo Didactic

3 1.3 2.1 2.9 1.3 3.7 Controlled systems with and without compensation Short-delay hydraulic controlled systems First-order hydraulic controlled systems Second-order hydraulic controlled systems Third-order hydraulic controlled systems Classification of controlled systems according to the step response behaviour Operating point and system gain B-35 B-37 B-39 B-40 B-41 B-43 B-45 B-46 Chapter 3 Controller structures 3.4 3.2 1.6 2. follower and timing control systems Differentiation of a signal Integration of a signal B-3 B-4 B-8 B-10 B-12 B-14 B-16 B-19 B-20 B-23 B-25 B-27 B-31 Chapter 2 Hydraulic controlled systems 2. PD and PID controller B-49 B-51 B-53 B-55 B-57 B-59 B-62 TP511 • Festo Didactic .11 1.2 2.12 Signals Block diagram Signal flow diagram Test signals Open-loop and closed-loop control Terminology of closed-loop technology Stability and instability Steady-state and dynamic behaviour Response to setpoint changes and interference Fixed-value.5 1.10 1.5 2.6 Non-dynamic controllers Block diagrams for non-dynamic controllers P controller I controller D controller element PI.1 3.2 3.4 2.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.1 1.8 Section B – Fundamentals Chapter 1 Fundamentals 1.5 3.

3 Function of a measuring system Measuring system designs and interfaces Selection criteria for measuring systems B-131 B-132 B-133 B-136 TP511 • Festo Didactic .7 Valve designs Purpose and modules of a directional control valve Designations and symbols for dynamic directional control valves Mode of operation of a dynamic 4/3-way valve Steady-state characteristic curves of dynamic directional control valves Dynamic behaviour of dynamic directional control valves Selection criteria for directional control valves B-97 B-98 B-99 B-102 B-105 B-111 B-116 B-120 Chapter 6 Pressure regulators 6.1 4.4 6.5 Function of a pressure regulator Pressure regulator designs Mode of operation of a pressure regulator Pressure control with a directional control valve Selection criteria for pressure regulating valves B-121 B-122 B-123 B-124 B-128 B-129 Chapter 7 Measuring systems 7.2 4.1 7.4 Structure of closed control loops Hydraulic and electrical controllers Analogue and digital controllers Selection criteria for controllers B-83 B-84 B-90 B-92 B-95 Chapter 5 Directional control valves 5.4 5.9 3.3 5.10 Block diagrams for dynamic standard controllers Status controllers Selection of controller structure Response to interference and control factor B-68 B-72 B-75 B-77 Chapter 4 Technical implementation of controllers 4.9 3.5 5.8 3.1 5.3 4.7 3.2 7.1 6.6 5.3 6.2 5.2 6.

commissioning and fault finding 8.6 Closed control loops in automation Planning Assembly Commissioning Controller setting Fault finding B-137 B-138 B-141 B-144 B-146 B-149 B-155 Section C – Solutions Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Exercise 5: Exercise 6: Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9: Pipe-bending machine Forming of plastic products Cold extrusion Thread rolling machine Stamping machine Clamping device Injection moulding machine Pressing-in of bearings Welding tongs of a robot C-3 C-5 C11 C-13 C-15 C-19 C-23 C-25 C-29 C-31 C-35 C-39 C-41 C-49 C-55 C-61 C-65 C-67 C-73 C-77 C-81 Exercise 10: Pressure roller of a rolling machine Exercise 11: Edge-folding press with feeding device Exercise 12: Table-feed of a drilling machine Exercise 13: X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Exercise 14: Feed unit of an assembly station Exercise 15: Automobile simulator Exercise 16: Contour milling Exercise 17: Machining centre Exercise 18: Drilling of bearing surfaces Exercise 19: Feed on a shaping machine Exercise 20: Paper feed of a printing machine Exercise 21: Horizontal grinding machine TP511 • Festo Didactic .1 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.3 8.10 Chapter 8 Assembly.

11 Section D – Appendix Operating notes Storage tray Mounting technology Sub-base Coupling system Guidelines and standards List of literature Index Data sheets 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 19 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

12 Technology package TP511 “Closed loop hydraulics” The technology package TP511 “Closed loop hydraulics” forms part of Festo Didactic’s Learning System for Automation and Communications. hydraulic actuators are activated. A basic knowledge of electrohydraulics and electrical measuring technology is therefore recommended to work with this technology package. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The training aims of TP511 are concerned with learning the fundamentals of analogue control technology. The exercises in TP511 cover the following main topics: T Pressure control with PID controller (exercise 1 – 11) T Position control with PID controller (exercise 12 – 18) T Position control with status controller (exercise 19 – 21) The fundamentals dealt with in TP511 concern: T A classification of hydraulic controlled systems T A description of different controller structures T Notes regarding the technical implementation of controllers. valves and sensors T Tips on the assembly and commissioning of hydraulic closed control loops The components of the equipment set to be used for the individual exercises are listed in the component/exercise table overleaf. With electrical control and closed loop elements.

First. Make sure that all cable connections have been established and that all plugs are securely plugged in. T Use only extra-low voltages of up to 24 V. since: Couplings must be connected unpressurised! 7. 5. 2. Make sure that the hydraulic components are pressure relieved prior to dismantling the circuit. safely latched and securely mounted. switch off the hydraulic power pack and then the electrical power supply unit. 6. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Please check that all return lines are connected and all hoses securely connected. switch on the electrical power supply unit and then the hydraulic power pack.13 Safety recommendations The following safety advice should be observed in the interest of your own safety: T Caution! Cylinders may advance as soon as the hydraulic power pack is switched on! T Do not exceed the permitted working pressure (see data sheets). All components must be securely attached to the slotted profile plate i. 3. T Observe general safety regulations (DIN58126 and VDE100). Notes on procedure Construction The following steps are to be observed when constructing a control circuit. First.e. The hydraulic power pack and the electrical power supply unit must be switched off during the construction of the circuit. 4. 1.

2xx. etc. TP511 • Festo Didactic .14 Standard method of representation used in circuit diagrams The hydraulic circuit diagrams are based on the following rules: T T T T Clear representation avoiding crossovers as far as possible Symbols conforming to DIN/ISO 1219 Part 1 Circuit diagrams with several loads are divided into control chains Identification of components in accordance with DIN/ISO 1219 Part 2: • Each control chain is assigned an ordinal number 1xx. – a digit for the consecutive numbering of components in accordance with the direction of flow in the control chain. – a letter for the component. Example: 1V2 = Second valve in control chain 1. • The hydraulic power pack is control chain 0xx. • Identification of components by letters: A – Power component B – Electrical sensors P – Pump S – Signal generator V – Valve Z – Other component • The complete code for a component consists of – a digit for the control chain.

T All valves. These prevent inadvertent oil spillage. 152971. T The maximum permissible pressure for all hydraulic components is 12 MPa (120 bar). For the sake of simplicity. The working pressure is to be at a maximum of 6 MPa (60 bar). T An adjustable pressure relief valve has been integrated in the hydraulic power pack Pt. No. T In the case of double-acting cylinders. the system pressure has been limited to approx. Fig. 3: Symbolic representation of sealing couplings Flow restrictor Hose Shut-off valve TP511 • Festo Didactic . No. 2: Pressure transference T If the connections are released under pressure. an increase in pressure may occur according to the area ratio as a result of pressure transference.7 and an operating pressure of 6 MPa (60 bar) this may be in excess of 10 MPa (100 bar)! Fig. 6 MPa (60 bar). Exception: This is not possible in the case of hoses and non-return valves. these couplings have not been represented in the circuit diagrams. For reasons of safety. equipment and hoses have self-sealing couplings. pressure is locked into the valve or device via the non-return valve in the coupling (see Fig. This pressure can be reduced by means of pressure relieving device Pt.15 Technical notes The following notes are to be observed in order to ensure trouble-free operation. With an area ratio of 1:1. 3). 152962.

BNC/4 mm Cable. BNC Cable set. 1000mm Hose. universal Power supply unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TP511 • Festo Didactic . 3000mm T-distributor 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 6 2 2 2 4 1 1 7 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 5 6 1 7 8 9 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PID controller Status controller Universal display 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Digital multimeter Oscilloscope Function generator Cable. BNC/BNC T-piece. 600 mm Hose.16 Component/exercise table Exercises Description Power pack (2 l) Power pack (2 x 4 l) Pressure filter Braking cylinder Linear unit Loading weight (5 kg) Pressure relief valve Flow control valve Shut-off valve 4/3-way regulating valve Hydraulic motor Flow meter Pressure gauge Pressure sensor Hose.

The necessary technical knowledge required to complete an exercise is provided at the start of each exercise. TP511 • Festo Didactic . progressive exercises are used to explain the assembly and commissioning of analogue closed control loops. “Fundamentals” contains general technical knowledge. and for selfstudy purposes. Section D.g. Non-essential details are avoided. Section B. a list of literature and an index. in classroom courses. “Course”. “Appendix” is intended as a means of reference. e. Section C. Theoretical relationships are illustrated and the necessary specialist terminology is explained in a clearly understandable way by means of examples. More detailed information is given in Section B.17 Workbook concept The workbook is divided into the following sections: Section A – Course Section B – Fundamentals Section C – Solutions Section D – Appendix In Section A. which complements the training contents of the exercises in Section A. The layout of the book has been structured to allow the use of its contents both for practical training. “Solutions” gives the results of the exercises with a brief explanation. It contains data sheets.

18 Equipment set TP511 Equipment set TP511 – Closed loop hydraulics. 167088 162254 Quantity 1 1 Components for position control.091070 Description Pressure filter Pressure relief valve Flow control valve Hydraulic motor Pressure gauge T-distributor Order No. 184471 Description Components for hydraulics general Components for pressure control Components for position control Order No. 184472 Description 4/3-way regulating valve PID controller Order No. 152295 Quantity 1 TP511 • Festo Didactic . 152969 152848 152842 152858 152841 152847 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 4 Components for pressure control. 091070 184472 184473 Quantity 1 1 1 Components – Hydraulics general Order No. Order No. complete. 167089 034065 162253 Quantity 1 2 1 Additional components for exercise 21 Description Braking cylinder Order No. 184473 Description Linear unit Loading weight (5kg) Status controller Order No. Order No. Order No.

BNC/4mm Cable. 1000 mm Hose. 3000 mm T-piece. BNC Universal display (included in measuring set) Order No. BNC/BNC Cable set with safety plugs Measuring set Power supply unit (for mounting frame) Table top power supply unit Oscilloscope Profile plate.19 Description Power pack (1 x 4 l) Power pack (2 x 4 l) Workbook. 152962 186085 094460 094469 035681 184133 183736 152918 152919 158357 167091 177468 159396 162417 152917 159409 152960 152970 158352 159298 183737 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 4 2 1 1 List of additional devices TP511 • Festo Didactic . GB Digital multimeter Pressure sensor (included in measuring set) Flow meter (included in measuring set) Function generator Cable. 550 x 700 mm Hose. DE Workbook. 600 mm Hose.

20 Symbols for the equipment set TP511 Designation Double-acting cylinder Explanation single-ended piston rod Symbol Double-acting cylinder double-ended piston rod Pressure gauge Flow control valve adjustable Pressure relief valve adjustable Pressure regulating valve adjustable Shut-off valve Reservoir Connection at both sides Energy source hydraulic Manual operation general Plugged port 2/2-way valve Normally closed TP511 • Festo Didactic .

way dynamic valve mid position closed Converter general Adjuster general Sensor hydraulic / electrical Pressure gauge general Flow sensor electrical Limiter electrical Pressure sensor electrical Flow meter general Amplifier general Operational amplifier general TP511 • Festo Didactic .way valve Explanation mid position closed Symbol Symbols for the equipment set TP511 4/3.21 Designation 4/3.

22 Symbols for the equipment set TP511 Designation Regulator general Explanation Symbol Electrical actuation solenoid with one winding Electrical actuation solenoid with two opposed winding. infinitely adjustable Manual actuation by means of spring Pilot actuated indirect by application of pressure Switch detent function Working line line for energy transmission Line connection fixed connection Link collecting or summation point Electrical line line for electrical power transmission Linear scale Mass TP511 • Festo Didactic .

23 Designation Transmission element Explanation proportional time response Symbol Symbols for the equipment set TP511 Transmission element PT1 time response Transmission element integral time response Transmission element differential time response Transmission element two-step action without hysteresis Transmission element two-step action and hysteresis. different hysteresis Transmission element three-step action Transmission element three-step action with two different hysteresis Transmission element PD time response Transmission element PI time response Transmission element PID time response TP511 • Festo Didactic .

C.24 Symbols for the equipment set TP511 Designation Voltage generator Explanation D. voltage Symbol Voltage generator square-wave voltage Voltage generator sine-wave voltage Voltage generator triangular-wave voltage Oscilloscope Display indicator light Voltmeter TP511 • Festo Didactic .

PD and PID controllers Pressing-in of bearings Transition functions of D. PD and PID controllers A-3 A-13 A-25 A-33 A-39 Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Exercise 5: Exercise 6: A-49 A-61 A-75 A-89 Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9: Exercise 10: Pressure roller of a rolling machine Setting parameters using the Ziegler-Nichols method Exercise 11: Edge-folding press with feeding device Modified controlled system with disturbance variables A-97 A-105 TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-1 Part A – Course 1. Pressure control loop Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Pipe-bending machine Characteristics of a pressure sensor Forming plastic products Pressure characteristic curve of a dynamic directional control valve Cold extrusion Regulated pressure control Thread rolling machine Characteristics of a PID controller card Stamping machine Transition function of a P controller Clamping device Control quality of a pressure control loop using a P controller Injection moulding machine Transition functions of I and PI controllers Pressing-in of bearings Transition functions of D.

A-2 2. Position control loop Exercise 12: Table-feed of a milling machine Characteristic curve of a displacement sensor Exercise 13: X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic directional control valve A-115 A-125 Exercise 14: Feed unit of an assembly station Linear unit as controlled system for position control A-141 Exercise 15: Automobile simulator Assembly and commissioning of a position control loop Exercise 16: Contour milling Lag error in position control loop Exercise 17: Machining centre Position control with modified controlled system Exercise 18: Drilling of bearing surfaces Commissioning of a position control loop with disturbance variables Exercise 19: Feed of a shaping machine Characteristics and transition functions of a status controller Exercise 20: Paper feed of a printing machine Parameterisation of a status controller Exercise 21: Horizontal grinding machine Position control loop with disturbance variables and active load A-159 A-173 A-185 A-191 A-205 A-215 A-227 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

e.g. For instance. digital or analogue. addition of several pulses of identical size. Analogue pressure sensor The sensor used in this case converts the measured variable “pressure” into an analogue. The form of output signal can be binary. and converts this into an electrical or mechanical signal. Sensors are also occasionally referred to as signal converters or. flow or speed. ON and OFF or 0V and 10V. temperature. in conjunction with closed-control loops as measuring systems and measuring transducers. the pointer deflection of a pressure gauge or a voltmeter. T The digital output signal corresponds to a number created by the T The analogue output signal is produced in a continuous curve.A-3 Exercise 1 Closed-loop hydraulics Pipe-bending machine Subject Title T To learn about the mode of operation of a pressure sensor T To be able to record and evaluate a characteristic curve T To be able to understand the significance of a characteristic curve Sensors A sensor acquires a physical variable. Training aim Technical knowledge T The binary output signal describes two switching statuses. Theoretically. e. increments of a scale or bits. The characteristics of the sensor are: Supply voltage 13V to 30V Input variable 0bar to 100bar Output variable 0V to 10V or 4mA to 20mA TP511 • Festo Didactic . it can assume any interim value.g. electrical signal. such as pressure.

Sensors are particularly suitable for measuring input variables in this range. T Output range between the smallest and largest possible output signal. T In the linear range the characteristic proceeds in the form of a straight line with a constant gradient producing a unique correspondence between the change of the input signal and the change of the output signal. It is calculated accordingly from the change of the output signal in relation to the change of the input signal: Transfer coeffizient K = ∆ Output signal ∆ Input signal T Hysteresis describes the difference between characteristic curves recorded with rising and falling measured variables. A1. The following characteristic data can be read (see also fig. The maximum difference as a percentage in relation to the input range represents the operative characteristics: max. difference Hysteresis H = Input range ⋅ 100% TP511 • Festo Didactic . A1. which should be as small as possible. T Transfer coefficient (frequently referred to as gain) is proportional to the gradient of the characteristic curve in the linear range.A-4 Exercise 1 Fig.2): T Input range or measuring range between the smallest and largest input value which can be recorded.1: Circuit and block diagram of analogue pressure sensor Characteristic curve The relationship between the input and output variable of a sensor is described by means of a characteristic curve.

2: Characteristic curve of a sensor TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-5 Exercise 1 Fig. A1.

The pressure in the hydraulic cylinder is maintained constant by means of a pressure control loop. The closed control loop is to be reset in the course of maintenance work. To do so. wall thickness and material of different dimensions. First of all. the characteristic curve of the pressure sensor must be recorded. the characteristic values of the measuring system are to be checked. The measuring system in the pressure control loop is a pressure sensor.A-6 Exercise 1 Problem description A pipe-bending machine is used to bend pipes of varying diameters. Recording the characteristic curve of the pressure sensor 3. Positional sketch Exercise Characteristic curve of the pressure sensor 1. The required bending force is produced by a hydraulic cylinder. Deriving the characteristics of the pressure sensor from the measuring results TP511 • Festo Didactic . Designing and constructing the measuring circuit 2.

Characteristic curve First. The characteristic curve of the pressure sensor is represented by plotting T the input variable (pressure p in bar) on the x-axis and T the output variable (voltage V in Volts) on the y-axis. Execution Note the following when recording the characteristic curve T accurate setting of pressure values T rising or falling direction of measurement. a characteristic curve has to be recorded on the spot using the devices available. The accuracy of a measuring circuit of this type is generally adequate to check the sensor function. These are displayed by means of a pressure gauge. The electrical circuit consists of the voltage supply for the pressure sensor and a voltage measuring device for the output signal of the pressure sensor. Once the maximum pump pressure has been reached. this series of measurements is repeated with falling pressure. Pressure is then gradually increased by closing the pressure relief valve. The pressure levels and the pressure sensor readout are entered in a values table.A-7 Exercise 1 1. the pressure relief valve is opened completely. 2. Measuring circuit Frequently. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The entire oil flow returns de-pressurised from the pump to the tank. A pressure relief valve is built into the hydraulic circuit to set the different pressures. The pressure sensor display shows 0V. Hence the input variable of the pressure sensor (= pressure in bar) is measured by means of a pressure gauge and the output variable (= voltage in V) by means of a multimeter.

often necessary to carry out a check by means of a series of measurements. however. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Since the pump supplies less than 100bar. These values can be taken from the data sheet. since any possible differences are more likely due to the inaccuracy of the pressure gauge rather than the features of the pressure sensor. It is not possible to establish the complete measuring range of the pressure sensor with the items of equipment available. which is the most important one for setting a closed control loop.A-8 Exercise 1 3. Characteristics The most important characteristics of a pressure sensor are: T T T T Measuring range Connection values Transfer coefficient Hysteresis. It is nevertheless possible to calculate the transfer coefficient in the linear range. There is no point in calculating hysteresis. it is not possible to traverse the entire input pressure range. It is.

A-9 Exercise 1 WORKSHEET Characteristic curve of a pressure sensor 1. starting with the hydraulic and then the electrical part. Measuring circuit T Familiarise yourself with the required items of equipment. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . What characteristics describe the pressure sensor? Input range: _____________________________________________ Output range: ___________________________________________ Supply voltage: __________________________________________ Designate the characteristics of the pressure gauge: Measuring rang: _________________________________________ Measuring accuracy: ______________________________________ T Construct the measuring circuit. Circuit diagram.

What output signal does the pressure sensor supply? T Slowly close the pressure relief valve. T Switch on the voltage first. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Traverse the measuring range by way of a test. Characteristic curve T Open the pressure relief valve completely. electrical 2. T Then switch on the hydraulic pump.A-10 Exercise 1 Circuit diagram.

Identify the axes: x-axis for input variable y-axis for output variable Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-11 Exercise 1 WORKSHEET T Record the characteristic curve of the pressure sensor. Observe the direction of measurement: rising or falling input variable! Measured values 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Measured variable and unit Pressure p in bar Voltage V in volts Voltage V in volts Direction of measurement Value table rising falling T Enter the measured values in the diagram.

A-12 Exercise 1 3. Characteristics T Establish the following characteristics from the diagram: Input range: Output range: Measuring rang: Linear range: Transfer coefficient: Hysteresis: T How do you evaluate the use of this pressure sensor within the framework of the circuits given with this equipment set? State your reasons for this: TP511 • Festo Didactic .

TP511 • Festo Didactic . The most important features of this valve are described below.A-13 Exercise 2 Closed-loop hydraulics Forming plastic products Subject Title T To understand the function of a dynamic directional control valve T To be able to record the pressure/signal characteristic curve T To be able to establish important characteristics from the characteristic curve Training aim Dynamic 4/3-way valve A dynamic directional control valve is used to set the pressure control loop used in the following. In this exercise. pressure and flow rate. This simultaneously influences the direction. thereby changing the cross sectional opening at the control edges. Hydraulic connections A and B: P: T: Working lines Pressure supply Return line Technical knowledge Switching positions Flow from P → A and B → T Mid-position closed Flow from P → B and A → T Electrical connections Voltage supply Control voltage (= Input variable) +10V 0V -10V Switching position (= Output variable) P → A and B → T mid-position closed P → B and A → T 24V Continuously adjustable valve spool A required intermediate position may be set in addition to the three switching positions. the control of pressure will be the prime consideration.

Pressure can only build up in the mid-position range on both connections. Thus the pressure/signal characteristic curve is only of significance in the mid-position range. then one output is opened and the other closed. If the valve spool is moved sufficiently in one direction.1: Symbols for dynamic 4/3-way valve Pressure/signal characteristic curve of a 4/3-way valve The pressure/signal characteristic curve is created by means of recording T the control voltage as input signal and T the pressure at the power port as an output signal.A-14 Exercise 2 Fig. A2. The working lines are closed during this. TP511 • Festo Didactic . This results in maximum pressure at the one output and practically nil pressure at the other.

one each for output A and output B.A-15 Exercise 2 The pressure/signal characteristic curve consists of two curves. However. It is specified in bar per volt and should be as large as possible so that even a small change in control voltage results in a large pressure change. i. the valve spool does not necessarily cover both outputs equally. The following characteristics can be read from this: Hydraulic zero point The valve spool covers both outputs equally so that there is zero flow rate. In the diagram. TP511 • Festo Didactic . whereby different pressures may occur at the outputs. T Negative overlap produces a continuous steep curve gradient. the characteristic curve is almost vertical. Asymmetry Asymmetry is the difference between the electrical and hydraulic zero point. which can be compensated by means of an offset added to the control voltage. Electrical zero point The control voltage is equal to zero. This phenomenon can be compensated electrically by adding the overlap jump automatically to the input signal via the valve pilot. 10% is required for good valves. T Positive overlap is characterised by a jump: A pressure change is not possible during the closed mid-position. Pressure gain often relates to the signal range of the control voltage and is specified in a percentage stating what percentage of the control signal is required in order to reverse the entire pressure. Pressure gain Pressure gain is the ratio of pressure change to voltage change (= output/input). Overlap This can be seen from the pattern of the characteristic curve at the hydraulic zero point: T With zero overlap. but only 1% for excellent valves. this is the intersection of the two curves.e.

A-16 Exercise 2 Fig. A2.2: Characteristics of a pressure/signal characteristic curve TP511 • Festo Didactic .

The pressure of the press is to be set automatically by means of a pressure control loop. One cause may be that the working pressure is no longer constant. variations occur in the size of the product. Some time after start-up. The pressure/signal characteristic curve must therefore be recorded and an assessment of the operating status made in comparison with the characteristic curve of a new valve. Pressure is to be controlled via a dynamic 4/3way valve. Problem description Positional sketch TP511 • Festo Didactic . This may indicate wear in the directional control valve.A-17 Exercise 2 Plastic plates are to be precisely formed by means of a hot-forming press.

This is why as near to a constant a voltage signal as possible is essential. Measuring circuit The following are measured for the pressure/signal characteristic curve: T the control voltage as input signal and T the pressure at the power port as output signal. 2.A-18 Exercise 2 Exercise Pressure/signal characteristic curve of a dynamic control valve 1. Plotting and recording the pressure/signal characteristic curve 3.1V and + 1V. The following devices are required: T A generator to set the control voltage between .e. which is near the mid-position. even a small change in control voltage is followed by a measurable change in pressure. The valve used here has a very high pressure amplification. Establishing the characteristics from a characteristic curve Execution 1. These are used to construct the hydraulic and electrical circuits. in this case with a control voltage between . A second pressure sensor on the other power port facilitates the recording of the characteristic curve. Pressure/signal characteristic curve The pressure/signal characteristic curve is only of significance in the proximity of the hydraulic zero point. from which the pressure is calculated (see exercise 1).10V and + 10V. TP511 • Festo Didactic . T A multimeter for the voltage signal of the pressure sensor. T A voltage supply of 24V for the valve and 15V for the sensor. Constructing a measuring circuit to plot the characteristic curve 2. i. T A pressure sensor to measure the working pressure.

3: Evaluation of pressure/signal characteristic curve TP511 • Festo Didactic . asymmetry. Characteristics The following characteristics can be seen from the pressure/signal characteristic curve: T T T T T T T linear range. 3.A-19 Exercise 2 3. Pressure gain is converted to a percentage share of the signal range according to fig. Read the signal range between the intersections. A2. Extend the gradient curve of the linear range across the entire pressure range. hydraulic zero point. Plot the control signal in percentage values in relation to the signal range. The pressure gain is proportional to the gradient of the pressure/signal characteristic curve in the linear range. electrical zero point. pressure gain. A2. 2. Draw in the intersections of the gradient curves with maximum and minimum pressure. Fig. hysteresis. 4.3 by means of the following steps: 1. The hysteresis and pressure gain must be calculated. The hysteresis is described in exercise 1. overlap.

A-20 Exercise 2 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

A-21 Exercise 2 WORKSHEET Pressure/signal characteristic curve of a dynamic 4/3-way valve 1. Measuring circuit T Familiarise yourself with the dynamic 4/3-way valve. Circuit diagram. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . What hydraulic connections does the valve have? Where on the valve body are these connections? What electrical connections does the valve have? T Construct the measuring circuit according to the circuit diagrams.

Pressure/signal characteristic curve T First of all switch on the voltage supply. T Specify a control voltage of 0V. What values will the sensor display in the course of a series of measurements? T Select the appropriate measuring range of multimeter. At what control voltage does the pressure no longer change? TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V and as high a resolution as possible.A-22 Exercise 2 Circuit diagram. T Select a setting range of a maximum of 1. electrical 2. T Switch on the hydraulic power pack. T Check the pressure sensor display. What is the value set on the pressure sensor? T Alter the control voltage.

Measured variable and unit Voltage VE in V Pressure pA in bar Pressure pA in bar Pressure pB in bar Pressure pB in bar Measured values Direction of measurement (rising/falling) Value table T Draw the characteristic curves in the diagram.A-23 Exercise 2 WORKSHEET T Record the characteristic curve for both outputs whilst observing the direction of measurement. T Designate the axes and select suitable scales. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Characteristics T Establish the characteristics of the valve from the diagram: Linear range: Hydraulic zero point: Electrical zero point: Asymmetry: Overlap: Hysteresis: Pressure gain: % bar/V bar/V Signal range of pressure gain: % % V bar V T Evaluate the features of this valve with regard to linear range.A-24 Exercise 2 3. hysteresis and pressure gain. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

in this case a voltage. with or without compensation. but also the time characteristics of the output variable following the input variable. A controlled system without compensation would never reach a limit value. This is known as a “controlled system with delay”. As far as pressure regulation is concerned. T Controlled system. Each of these elements can be further subdivided. Runtime performance When describing the transition behaviour of a controlled system. i. With pressure control. it is not just the relationship between output and input variables which is of great importance. Only when the container overflows or by switching off the supply can a limit value be reached. 2. The controlled system consists of T a dynamic 4/3-way valve as a final control element and T a reservoir as a controlled system element. it reaches an limit value. One example of this is the filling of a container: For as long as the supply is maintained. T Measuring system. the volume in the container increases.e. this means that a specific pressure is set as a controlled variable with the actuating signal.A-25 Exercise 3 Closed-loop hydraulics Cold extrusion Subject Title T To be able to describe the runtime behaviour of a closed control loop T To be able to create and evaluate transfer functions Controlled system A closed control loop always consists of the same elements: Training aim Technical knowledge T Closed-loop controller. The pressure in the reservoir does not rise to some random level. TP511 • Festo Didactic . with or without time delay. The runtime performance of the controlled system is thus described by two characteristics: 1. This is characterised by a “controlled system with compensation”. the output variable (= pressure in the reservoir) follows the input variable after a delay. The controlled system is the point where the controlled variable is physically formed.

A3.2 illustrates a typical transition function in a controlled system. The step response is also known as the transition function. T Triangular signal – produces the ramp response. T Sine-wave signal – produces a sinusoidal response. Controlled system type – with compensation and delay.1: Forms of signal and their generator symbols Fig. Fig. with stored energy. Time constant – TS This corresponds to a “controlled system with a high-order delay”. i. Fig.A-26 Exercise 3 Transition function Defined test signals are used as input variables to establish the runtime performance of a controlled system: T Square signal – produces the step response. A3.e.2: Transition function and block diagram of a controlled system with compensation and delay TP511 • Festo Didactic . A3.. The pattern of the transition function enables you to determine the type of controlled system and to establish the time constant: 1. 2.

Describing the controlled system type and determining the time constant Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . for which a defined press pressure is to be maintained. Constructing a measuring circuit 2. In preparation.A-27 Exercise 3 Blanks are to be reshaped into sleeves by means of cold extrusion. Recording the transition function 3. Problem description Positional sketch Transition function of a pressure control loop 1. the runtime performance of the controlled system is to be determined. A hydraulic pressure control loop is to be constructed for this.

Measuring circuit The following variables must be measured in order to produce the transition function of a controlled system: T Correcting variable y as input variable and T Controlled variable x as output variable. tubing of different lengths.A-28 Exercise 3 Execution 1. Tubing of different lengths is used as reservoirs: Tubing length L: Volume V: 0.6m 0. This results in the following circuit diagrams: Circuit diagram.1l The following devices are required for the measuring circuit: T T T T T T a pressure sensor. reservoirs of different volumes are installed. voltage supply for valve and sensor.05l 3.02l 1. an oscilloscope to record the transition function. a frequency generator to actuate the directional control valve.6m 0. Both variables are plotted over the time t. a dynamic directional control valve.6m 0. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . In order to compare different controlled systems.

To represent the transition function.A-29 Exercise 3 Circuit diagram. The time scale must be adapted to the reservoir size.1). a setpoint step-change of w = 0V ± 1V is sufficient. 3. Transition functions Since the valve already reverses completely with an actuating signal of VE = ± 1V. electrical 2. correcting variable y and controlled variable x (= pressure) are plotted over the time t. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Controlled system type and time constant The pattern of the transition function enables you to establish the controlled system type and to calculate the time constant (see fig. A3.

A-30 Exercise 3 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Measuring circuit T Construct the circuit according to the circuit diagrams. i. 2. Controlled variable x: 2 V/Div.A-31 Exercise 3 WORKSHEET Transition function of a pressure controlled system 1. Transition function T Set the following setpoint value: w = 0V ± 1V. Reference variable w: 0. attach the pressure sensor directly to the directional control valve initially. Insert various tubing lengths as reservoir volumes in the circuit.5 V/Div. f = 2Hz.e. as square form T Select the following scale on the oscilloscope: Time t: 50 ms/Div. Start with a circuit without reservoir. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Plot the transition function on the diagram. T T T T T Display a step response on the oscilloscope. Plot the transition functions on the diagram. Display a step response for each of these on the oscilloscope.

6m 0.1l Value table Variable Tubing length L Volume V Time constants TS Tendency increasing increasing TP511 • Festo Didactic .6m 0. Values 0 ∼0 0.05l 3.6m 0. Controlled system type and time constant T To what controlled system type do you attribute the controlled system in question? Compensating: Delay: T Establish the time constants TS of the controlled system and evaluate the change in time constants in relation to the storage reservoir.A-32 Exercise 3 Diagram 3.02l 1.

controlled variable x System deviation e = w .A-33 Exercise 4 Closed-loop hydraulics Thread rolling machine Subject Title T Familiarisation with the configuration of a PID controller T To be able to check the characteristics of a PID controller card PID controller card In the case of a PID controller. A4.1: PID controller card TP511 • Festo Didactic .x Control signal y ± ∆U Range of control signal ymin to ymax Fig. T y = yP + yI + yD yP = K P ⋅ e . yD = K D ⋅ de . dt The results of the elements are added together at a summation point: Apart from the closed-loop controller. yI = K I ⋅ ∫ e ⋅ dt . T one I element with. T one D element with. the following connections are also on the controller card: T T T T T Input variable: Comparator: Offset: Limiter: Voltage supply Reference variable w. three closed-loop control elements are connected in parallel: Training aim Technical knowledge T one P element with.

10V 0V .10V or ± 10V Problem description Screws are to be manufactured on a thread rolling machine. The thread is to be created by means of the impression of a profiled roller.5V or ± 7V 0V .10V 0V .10V or ± 10V 24V 15V or 24V 5V ± 3. Positional sketch TP511 • Festo Didactic . The roller is to turn and press the screw against a guide which is also profiled. This is set via a hydraulic closed control loop. The PID controller used for this is to be checked. The contact pressure of the roller must be maintained at a defined value.A-34 Exercise 4 The characteristics of the PID controller card are: Input variables Reference variable w Controlled variable x Output variable Correcting variable y Supply voltage Other characteristics Voltage connections for sensors Offset Limiter 0V .

T Limiter at ± 10V. T a generator of input signals of approx. Constructing the measuring circuit 2. This produces the following basic circuit: Circuit diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . Establishing the range of the input variables 3. The controller card is to be brought into the initial position: T All controller parameters to zero. ± 15V. Measuring circuit The following devices are required to check the function of the controller card: Exercise Execution T a voltage supply of 24V for the controller card. Checking the function of the summation point 4. T Offset in mid-position. Setting different output variables 1.A-35 Exercise 4 PID controller card 1. T a multimeter to measure the output signals.

Overload is displayed via an LED. The output signal is thus y = 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic . 3.A-36 Exercise 4 2. The input variables and controller parameters all are to be set to zero. Summation point Both inputs must be connected to check the summation point: T Two input variables w and x produce T the system deviation e = w . Output variable To set the output variable. Input variables Measure the range of the two input variables T Reference variable w and T Controlled variable x. 4. and the correcting variable y use T a limiter and T an offset. This signal is shifted and held within a defined signal range by means of the offset.x.

Input variables T Measure the signal range of input variables w and x. Characteristic Reference variable w Controlled variable x Max. Measuring circuit Familiarise yourself with the PID controller card: How are the following characteristics designated on the card? Input signals: Summation point: Elements of the controller: Output signal: T Bring the controller to the initial position: .Offset potentiometer to the centre .All controller potentiometers and selector switches to zero . value Min. T Compare the result with the characteristics in the data sheet. value Comment Value table Always measure analogue signals against analogue load! TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-37 Exercise 4 WORKSHEET PID controller card 1. Which LEDs are illuminated? 2.Limiter selector switch to ± 10V T Construct the basic circuit and connect the voltage supply.

A-38 Exercise 4 3. Summation point T Check the function of the summation point: e = w .Range selection.Offset and .x Value table Reference variable w Controlled variable x 1 1 1 0 0 -1 0 1 -1 -1 1 0 Summation point e Comment 4. Output variable T Measure the range of the output variable in relation to .10V to + 10V Max. offset Min. Value table Range 0V to + 10V . offset Comment TP511 • Festo Didactic .

A5.A-39 Exercise 5 Closed-loop hydraulics Stamping machine Subject Title T To learn about the function of a P controller T To be able to record the characteristic curve and transition function of a P controller Training aim T To be able to derive the characteristics of a P controller Proportional controller (P controller) The proportional element is an important element of a P controller. A5. The P controller consists of the comparator. The equation of the P controller is as follows: y = KP ⋅ (w .1: Block diagram and symbol of P controller Technical knowledge TP511 • Festo Didactic . P element and limiter (see fig. The equation of the P element is as follows: yP = KP ⋅ e The input signal of the P element is the system deviation e. and transfers the output signal yP. The amplification factor is described as the proportional action coefficient KP.1). made up of the reference variable w and controlled variable x: e=w-x The output signal yP is pre-processed as the control signal via the offset and limiter. It amplifies the input signal e by a specified factor.x) Fig.

1 The transition function describes the time characteristic of the output variable in relation to a defined time characteristic of the input variable. The following are typical characteristics of a P element: T The time characteristics of input and output variables are identical. Fig.A-40 Exercise 5 Characteristic curve and transition function of a P element The correlation between input and output variable can be represented in two ways: 1. A5. The characteristic curve illustrates the dependence of the output variable on the value of the input variable.2: Transition function. whereby a step function is used as an input variable. height) of the output variable is greater by the factor KP than that of the input variable. The time characteristic of the output variable changes accordingly. 2. sinusoidal).e.2 It is also possible to select a different time characteristic of the input variable (triangular. The following characteristic generally applies: Transfercoefficient K = ∆ Output ∆ Input 2. characteristic curve and block diagram of P element TP511 • Festo Didactic . T The step amplitude (i.

the force of the stamp is to be set by means of a pressure control loop. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2. Problem description Positional sketch P controller 1. Using other test signals Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Plotting the characteristic curve of the P controller 3. In order to prevent any damage. Recording the transition function of the P controller 4. The stamp is to be moved by means of a hydraulic cylinder. The characteristics of the closed-loop controller are to be established prior to the closed-control loop being constructed.A-41 Exercise 5 The date and serial number are to be stamped on to workpiece identification plates.

System deviation e and correcting variable y or yP are to be measured against analogue measurements! The following equipment is required: T the PID controller card with a P controller. T an oscilloscope to record the time characteristics of the output variable. The setting of controller coefficient KP results from the value of the potentiometer and the value of the rotary switch. Controller coefficient KP = 1. It is also possible to measure the P element directly: T the system deviation e as input signal and T the correcting variable yP of the P element as output signal. The following settings are to be carried out prior to switching on: T T T T Limiter to ± 10V. Offset to centre (= 0). T a multimeter for the commissioning. All other controller coefficients to zero. T a power supply unit for the voltage supply of the controller. Measuring circuit To be measured are T the reference variable w as input signal of the P controller and T the correcting variable y as output signal of the P controller.A-42 Exercise 5 Execution 1. T a generator for test signals from ± 10V as input variable. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

a number of characteristic curves are recorded using different controller coefficients.A-43 Exercise 5 Fig.3: Setting of proportional coefficient KP This results in the following circuit diagram: Circuit diagram. Characteristic curve of a P controller The characteristic curve plots the output variable y via the reference variable w at a constant controller coefficient KP. A5. For comparison. The controller coefficient KP corresponds to the transfer coefficient of the P element: KP = y y = P w e TP511 • Festo Didactic . electrical 2.

A-44 Exercise 5 3. Transfer function of P controller A step-change input signal is specified to record the transfer coefficient. Other test signals Further test signals are the triangular and sinusoidal function. where the controller amplification KP is shown in relation to the amplitudes from output to input signal: KP = Amplitude output Amplitude input TP511 • Festo Didactic . The proportional-action coefficient KP can be read from the ratio of the step heights: KP = Step amplitude output Step amplitude input 4.

5 -1 -5 -10 Output: Correcting variable y in V with proportional coefficient KP = 1 5 10 0.5 0 -0. T Carry out a series of measurements using different controller coefficients KP. T Measure the control variable y as output signal of the P controller.Offset to centre (= 0). 2. Characteristic curve of P controller T Specify different reference variables w as input signals. .Limiter to ± 10V.Controller coefficient KP = 1. Carry out the following controller card settings: .All other controller coefficients to zero.5 Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-45 Exercise 5 WORKSHEET P controller 1. . Input: Reference variable w in V +10 +5 +1 +0. Measuring circuit T Construct the measuring circuit according to the circuit diagram. .

Diagram Which feature of the characteristic curve does the amplification factor KP describe? TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-46 Exercise 5 T Draw the characteristic curves in the diagram.

as square wave form KP = 2. Diagram with frequency 2Hz T Draw the step responses in the diagram for What is the equation of the P controller? Does your measurement agree with the equation? TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-47 Exercise 5 WORKSHEET 3. Transition function of P controller T Specify a step function as input signal: w = 0 ± 1V KP = 1. KP = 5.

Other test signals T Change the input signal to triangular. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-48 Exercise 5 4. T Draw the ramp response of the P controller for KP = 1 Diagram and KP = 2 T What would the pattern of the output signal be with a sinusoidal input signal? Enter the pattern for KP = 2 in the diagram.

Since the closed control loop is made up of several elements. When commissioning a closed control loop. the control direction is correct. The polarity of the signals to be transmitted may be reversed at each interface. T the measuring system in this case: a pressure sensor Control direction The above mentioned devices are interconnected in such a way that the following correlation applies: Training aim Technical knowledge T increasing reference variable w produces T an increasing controlled variable x. this may result in a decreasing controlled variable being generated with an increasing reference variable. the control direction must be correctly set. Setpoint and actual variable in the closed control loop thus respond in the same direction. the loop is interrupted according to the measuring system and the changes in reference and control variable then compared. TP511 • Festo Didactic . i. The Setpoint and actual variable respond in opposite directions: the control direction is wrong.A-49 Exercise 6 Closed-loop hydraulics Clamping device Subject Title T To be able to construct a pressure control loop T To be able to check the control direction T To be able to set the control quality at optimum level Pressure control loop The elements in a pressure control loop are: in this case: a P controller. this results in several interfaces between the elements. T the controller T the controlled system in this case: a reservoir. To do this. If necessary.e. all interfaces must be re-measured and corrected until the control direction is correct.

the transient response of the controlled variable is assessed after a step-change in the reference variable. Generally. The following characteristics are determined in detail: T The overshoot amplitude xm is the greatest temporary deviation of the controlled variable after a step-change in the reference variable. The interaction of controller and control system are optimised by means of setting the controller coefficients. The above definitions have been quoted DIN 19226. T The settling time Ta is the time required by the controlled variable x to enter into a new steady state after leaving its steady state. To evaluate the control quality. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The control quality describes the quality of closed-loop control.1: Closed control loop with interruption of control direction setting Control quality In the closed control loop. T The steady-state system deviation estat is the difference between reference variable and controlled variable maintained in the steady state. the controller and controlled system are in constant interaction.A-50 Exercise 6 Fig. a good transient response is obtained when the values of all characteristics are as low as possible. The overshoot amplitude is measured relative to the new steady state. A6.

i.e. If this is not the case.3: Stability TP511 • Festo Didactic . Fig. A6. then the closed control loop operates unstable. This status is typified by the persistent oscillations of the controlled variable.A-51 Exercise 6 Fig. A6.2: Characteristics of control quality Stability of the closed control loop A closed control loop operates stable. if a new steady state does not occur. if the controlled variable assumes a new constant value after a step-change in the reference variable.

whereby the limit of stability has been reached with the critical value KPcrit.4: Dependence of limit of stability on reference variable TP511 • Festo Didactic . This coefficient is increased until the continuous oscillations occur. Fig. Since the controlled system and measuring system are specified here. In many cases.A-52 Exercise 6 The stability of a closed control loop depends on the coefficients and time constants of the elements of the closed control loop. that continuous oscillations occur during a step-change pattern of the reference value. the limit of stability can only be determined through the proportional coefficient KP of the P controller. it is necessary to determine the limit of stability for the different reference variable step changes. whereas the oscillations settle with another value. the limit of stability also depends on the reference value. It may occur. In that case. A6.

Determining the limit of stability Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . wooden boards are to be retained by means of a clamping device. Problem description Positional sketch Pressure control loop 1. For this reason. Equally.A-53 Exercise 6 On a veneering press. Closing the control loop 4. a pressure control loop is to be constructed and commissioned. pressure must not fall below a minimum variable. Clamping pressure must not exceed a certain level to prevent the wooden boards from being damaged. The control quality is to be set to an optimum level for the pressures specified. Setting optimum control quality 5. Checking the control direction 3. Constructing a pressure control loop 2.

In addition. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-54 Exercise 6 Execution 1. For simplicity’s sake.1l (to be accurate: 0. T and step responses of the controlled variable recorded via the oscilloscope. a long piece of tubing is used in place of a reservoir.09l). At a 3 m length. the volume of the tubing is approx. a dynamic 4/3-way valve as final control element. Circuit diagram. for feedback. Proportional coefficient KP = 1. Offset to 0V. In order to record transition functions T step functions are specified as reference variables via the frequency generator. as controlled system. 0. Other controller coefficients = 0. The controller card must be in the initial position prior to switching on the voltage supply: T T T T Limiter to ± 10V. This produces the following hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. a multimeter is required for commissioning. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop consists of T T T T a P controller a reservoir a pressure sensor as control device.

which can be verified by a comparison of reference and controlled variables. 3. electrical 2. this produces typical effects. an increase in the reference variable w will also lead to an increase in the controlled variable x. then the interfaces between the elements must be checked: 1. with the control direction set correctly. 2. Control direction The control direction is checked by comparing changes in reference variable and controlled variable. Thus. whereby pressure pA increases. If this is not the case. 3. TP511 • Festo Didactic . If the polarity is correct. The rising pressure is measured via the pressure sensor. rising correcting variable y opens the valve at port A. if the changes are in the same direction: T if reference variable w increases. then the correct control direction is maintained. The control direction is correct. A rising reference variable w produces a rising correcting variable y. If the polarity is incorrect. Closed control loop The control loop is closed by connecting the pressure sensor to the controller card. This results in a rising controlled variable x. then so does controlled variable x.A-55 Exercise 6 Circuit diagram.

T Steady-state system deviation estat. By offsetting the mean value. T Settling time Ta. if the values of all variables is as low as possible. an overshoot amplitude (= pressure above setpoint pressure) may be acceptable in the case of a pressure control which is to set a setpoint pressure as quickly as possible (= short settling time). TP511 • Festo Didactic . The tolerances for the control quality variables and their priority is to be determined subject to application. the entire range of potential reference variables is examined. Control quality A step-change reference variable is to be set. In addition. Pressure can be set at between 0bar and 60bar. say w = 3V ± 2V in square wave form The following characteristics apply for the control quality: T Overshoot amplitude xm. In this way. a small step of the reference variable is set. To demonstrate the dependence of the limit of stability on the reference variable. Limit of stability The limit of stability KPcrit is determined by means of increasing the proportional coefficient KP and is reached when continuous oscillations occur. the closed control loop should operate stable.A-56 Exercise 6 4. producing an appropriate reference value of. overtravelling of the reference position is to be avoided! 5. In the case of position control. An optimum setting of the controller coefficient KPopt is obtained. This corresponds to 0V and 6V on the pressure sensor.

Control direction T Interrupt the closed control loop by not connecting the pressure sensor to the controller card.Proportional coefficient KP = 1. then the control direction is correct: +w equals + x.A-57 Exercise 6 WORKSHEET Pressure control loop 1. T Set the controller card in the initial position: . 2. TP511 • Festo Didactic .Offset to 0V. T Check the control direction: Does the controlled variable x increase with rising reference variable w? If “Yes”.Limiter to ± 10V. Pressure control loop T Construct the pressure control loop. carry out a check of the interfaces. Use the hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. T Nevertheless. . Make sure that the following conditions are met: +w +y +w equals + y equals + x equals + x The control direction is correct when these conditions are met.Other controller coefficients = 0. . .

• If “Yes”. Check the effects of the following polarity reversals: Value table Reverse polarity Reference variable w Correcting variable y Feedback r Change in controlled variable x with increasing reference variable w TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-58 Exercise 6 3. T Check whether the system deviation e becomes smaller. • If “No”. Closed control loop T Close the control loop by connecting the pressure sensor to the controller card. reverse the signal connections of the pressure sensor. then the connection of the pressure sensor is also in order.

Steady-state system deviation estat. .A-59 Exercise 6 WORKSHEET 4. 1 V/Div.Settling time Ta. 1 V/Div.02 s/Div. T Select the following scales on the oscilloscope: Time t: Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: T Determine the characteristics of the control quality in relation to different proportional coefficients KP: . Control quality T Set a step-change reference variable: w = 3V ± 2V f = 5Hz in square wave form 0. KP 1 3 5 8 10 12 xm (V) estat (V) Ta (s) Oscillations Evaluation Value table T Which controller setting do you consider to be an optimum setting? KPopt = TP511 • Festo Didactic . .Overshoot amplitude xm.

Limit of stability KPcrit Value table Reference variable w 1V ± 0. Limit of stability T Determine the limit of stability by increasing KP until continuous oscillations occur. KPcrit = (with w = 3V ± 2V.opt = Stability: 5.5V 3V ± 0.opt = Steady-state system deviation estat.5 V as reference variable and determine the limit of stability for different reference variables.5V Evaluation T Which critical proportional coefficient KPcrit is the most important for the design of a closed control loop? TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V 2V ± 0.5V 4V ± 0.5V 5V ± 0.A-60 Exercise 6 T What then are the characteristics of the controller quality: Overshoot amplitude xm.opt = Settling time Ta. 5 Hz) T Set a step of ± 0.

With a constant input signal this results in the following equation: yI = KI ⋅ e ⋅ t A complete I controller consists of T the comparator to form the system deviation e as input signal of the I element. T the I element and T the limiter to form a suitable correcting variable y.A-61 Exercise 7 Closed-loop hydraulics Injection moulding machine Subject Title T To learn about the function of I and PI controllers T To be able to determine the characteristics of I and PI controllers T To be able to describe the purpose of using I controllers Integral controller (I controller) The behaviour of the I controller is determined by the integral element.1: Block diagram and symbol of integral controller TP511 • Festo Didactic . A7. Fig. Training aim Technical knowledge T The I element adds the input signal e via the time t and T amplifies it by the factor KI to the output signal yI.

whereby the following applies: TI = 1 KI Fig. The ramp gradient is determined by the integralaction coefficient KI. T The I controller can. A7. TP511 • Festo Didactic .e. be used to reduce system deviations to zero. there is no steady-state system deviation (as in the case of a P controller).2: Transition function and block diagram of I element Use of an I controller: T The I controller reacts only slowly to changes in the reference variable (in comparison with the P controller) and are therefore rarely used alone. however.A-62 Exercise 7 Characteristics of the I element The transition function of an I element displays a ramp-shaped pattern since the I element carries out a continuous summation (= integration) of the input signal. i. The integration time TI elapses until the output signal y has reached the same value as that of the input signal w.

It combines the advantages of both types of controller. The integral-action time Tn is the time required by the I element to generate the same output signal as the P element. A PI controller operates according to the following equation: yPI = e ⋅ (K P + K I ⋅ t) = e ⋅ ( K P + 1 ⋅ t) TI Fig. giving a controller which is able both to react quickly and to eliminate system deviations. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A7.3: Block diagram and symbol of PI controller Characteristics of a PI element The transition function of a PI element consists of: T the step function of the P element and T the ramp function of the I element.A-63 Exercise 7 The proportional integral controller (PI controller) A parallel circuit consisting of a proportional and integral controller forms a PI controller.

A-64 Exercise 7 The integral-action time can also be calculated from the coefficients of the PI element: Output signal of the P element: Output signal of the I element: Integral-action time Tn: And thus: yP = KP ⋅ e yI = KI ⋅ e ⋅ t yP = yI KP ⋅ e = KI ⋅ e ⋅ Tn Tn = KP KI Hence the following applies for the integral-action time: The equation of the PI controller can thus be simplified to: yPI = e ⋅ K P ⋅ ( 1 + t ) Tn The characteristics of the PI controller specified are: T either the controller coefficients KP and KI. T or the proportional coefficient KP and the integral-action time Tn. TP511 • Festo Didactic .4: Transition function and block diagram of PI element Combination of P and I controllers By combining P and I controllers. A7. Fig. it is possible to T minimise the disadvantages of the individual types of controller and T maximise the advantages of the individual types of controller.

tendency towards oscillations tendency towards oscillations Table A7. Constructing and commissioning a measuring circuit 2. I and PI controllers Different pressures are to be set on an injection moulding machine: a low charging pressure to fill the mould. A pressure control loop is to be constructed to be able to achieve the required pressure quickly and accurately and to maintain it for the required period of time.1: Advantages and disadvantages of P. You are to examine whether a P controller is adequate or whether a PI controller would give certain advantages. Recording the transition function and characteristics of the I controller 3. Comparing the use of the P.A-65 Exercise 7 Controller type P controller I controller PI controller Advantage fast accurate fast and accurate Disadvantage inaccurate slow. a slightly higher forming pressure to fill the entire cavity and a higher calibrating pressure for accurate hardening. Determining the transition function and characteristics of the PI controller 4. I and PI controllers Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Problem description Positional sketch I controller 1.

T an oscilloscope to record the time characteristic of the output variable. Integral-action coefficient KI = 1. T a multimeter for commissioning. All other controller coefficients to zero. T a power supply unit for the voltage supply to the controller. A7. Offset precisely to zero. The following settings are to be made prior to switching on: T T T T Limiter to ± 10V. T a generator for step-change test signals in a range of ± 10V. Measuring circuit The following are to be measured T the reference variable w as input signal of the controller and T the correcting variable y as output signal of the controller. The following devices are required for this: T the PID controller card with the I controller.5: Setting of integral coefficient KI TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-66 Exercise 7 Execution 1. The setting of the integral-action coefficient KI is the result of the value of the potentiometer and of the rotary switch. Fig.

can the characteristics be correctly established. If the input signal is not exactly symmetrical to zero.A-67 Exercise 7 Circuit diagram. It is therefore a measure for the rate of change of the correcting variable y. Only by following the above conditions. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The integration time TI is reached when zero of the correcting variable y has risen to the level of the step-change w. The setting of signals for the transition function produces difficulties as a result of the time dependence of the output signal. This can be rectified by a slight readjustment of the zero. The integration coefficient KI indicates the increase of the transition function. 3. electrical 2. the magnitude of the stepchange w equals = 10V (not 20V!). The following points must be observed in order to determine the characteristics of an I controller: 1. I controller The transition function of the I controller is as follows: T the step-change reference variable w T results in a ramp-shaped correcting variable y. With a reference variable of w = 0V ± 10V. then the output signal drifts in one direction until it reaches the limitation. Various transition functions are illustrated on the worksheet. 2.

In that case. when yI = yP. The addition of the two signals produces the transition function of the PI controller: y = yP + yI. y = ± 10V. the proportion of the P controller is calculated first: yP = KP ⋅ w The integral-action time Tn has been reached. the transition functions of the individual elements must be measured. this does not result in the ideal transition function illustrated in the worksheet. After that. A subsequently resulting step-change of the P element yP is therefore incorrectly interpreted. Fig. PI controller The transition function of the PI controller differs from that of the I controller by displaying an initial step-change. it results in the same ramp-shape as the I controller.6: Measuring of integral-action time Tn TP511 • Festo Didactic . If the output variable of the I element yI exceeds 10V. A7. this does not become apparent in the correcting variable y. When the signals are set. This is due to different limitations of the P and I element and the downstream limitation of the correcting variable: Limitation of P element Limitation of I element Limitation of correcting variable yP = ± 10V. To determine the integral-action time Tn. yI = ± 14V.A-68 Exercise 7 3.

TP511 • Festo Didactic . P-. A7. I and PI controller Use the table to evaluate the different types of controller relative to the speed and adjustment characteristics of the system deviation.7: Calculating of integral-action time Tn 4.A-69 Exercise 7 Mathematically. the integral-action time is the quotient of the controller coefficient settings: Tn = KP KI Fig.

A-70 Exercise 7 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .Limiter to ± 10V.Integral-action coefficient KI = 1. Measuring circuit T Construct the circuit according to the circuit diagram.All other controller coefficients to zero. . T Set the controller card as follows: .A-71 Exercise 7 WORKSHEET The I controller 1. I controller T Enter the integration time TI in the diagrams and calculate the integral-action coefficient KI.Offset exactly to zero. 2. .

Fig.A-72 Exercise 7 T How does the integration time TI change with the integral-action coefficient KI? T Do the integration time TI and integral-action coefficient KI change with the reference variable w? T Represent the transition function on the oscilloscope.the coefficients of the PI controller: KP and KI . A7. 3. The settings can be taken from the diagram.6: Measuring of integral-action time Tn TP511 • Festo Didactic . PI controller T The following are to be determined from the diagrams .the integral-action time Tn.

A-73 Exercise 7 WORKSHEET T Represent the transition functions on the oscilloscope. I and PI controller T Evaluate the features of the following types of controller: Properties P Velocity Steady-state system deviation Controller type I PI Table TP511 • Festo Didactic . P-. Why are there deviations from the ideal representation? 4. The settings can be taken from the diagram.

A-74 Exercise 7 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

the gradient for infinitely small time increments ∆t is calculated (= differentiated) and is described by the following equation: yD = K D ⋅ de dt The complete D controller consists of: T the comparator to form the system deviation e as input signal to the D element. the D-element operates according to the following equation: yD = K D ⋅ ∆e ∆t In the case of input signals which can be changed at random. T the D element and T the limiter to form a suitable correcting variable y. TP511 • Festo Didactic . With an evenly increasing input signal.A-75 Exercise 8 Closed-loop hydraulics Pressing-in of bearings Subject Title T To learn about the function of a D controller T To be able to determine the characteristics of D and PD controllers T To be able to describe the transition function of a PID controller Derivative-action controller (D controller) The derivative-action controller reacts to time changes in the input signal: Training aim Technical knowledge T The D element determines the time change in the input variable: ∆e ∆t T and amplifies this with factor KD.

1: Block diagram and symbol of D controller Characteristics of a D element The transition function of the D element merely displays a spike pulse: The gradient of the step change function is infinitely great at the time of the change. This results in a constant correcting variable yD = KD ⋅ ∆e/∆t. This is why D controllers are very rarely used on their own in technical applications. The ramp response of the D element is thus a square function.A-76 Exercise 8 Fig. this briefly exhibits an infinite value and then returns to a constant zero. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The D controller responds more speedily to changes in system deviation than a P controller (see transition functions). however not able to compensate steady-state system deviations. the gradient is zero. The characteristics of the D element can be measured by means of the ramp response: The triangular function as input variable has a constant gradient ∆e/∆t. The input variable does not change after this. instead D controllers are used in combination with P and I controllers. A8. Since the gradient of the input variable is represented at the output of the D element. A D controller is. whereby the magnitude of the step change yD is then determined from the gradient of the input signal and the derivative-action coefficient KD.

This time difference between the P and PD controller is described as derivative-action time Tv. The ramp response of the PD controller displays T a step change (square) from the D component and T a ramp from the P component. the PD controller reaches a specified correcting variable y1 sooner than a P controller.2: Transition function. a P and D element are connected in parallel and then added together. Ramp response and block diagram of D element PD controllers In the case of a PD controller. This results in the following equation: yPD = K P ⋅ e + K D ⋅ de dt The transition function of the PD controller is made up as follows: T the spike pulse of the D component and T the step change (square) of the P component. This means that the P controller requires a time lead over the PD controller.A-77 Exercise 8 Fig. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A8. As a result of the step change of the D component.

A8. A8.3: Block diagram and symbol of PD controller Fig.A-78 Exercise 8 The derivative-action time Tv is the quotient of the coefficients of the PD controller: TV = KD KP The following can therefore also apply de yPD = K P ⋅ e + TV ⋅ dt Fig.4: Transition function. ramp response and block diagram of PD element TP511 • Festo Didactic .

5: Block diagram and symbol of PID controller TP511 • Festo Didactic . KP. Tv. Tn. KI. an I and a D element are connected in parallel and added together. and the derivative-action time Tv in the ramp response! Fig. A8. KD. a P.A-79 Exercise 8 PID controller With the PID controller. The output signal is: yPID = K P ⋅ e + K I ⋅ e ⋅ t + K D ⋅ The integral-action time Tn = TV = KD result in: KP KP KI de dt and the derivative-action time 1 de yPID = K P ⋅ e + ⋅ e ⋅ t + TV ⋅ Tn dt The PID controller can therefore be described by means of the following characteristics: T either by means of the three coefficients: T or by means of a coefficient and two time constants: KP. three control elements. The integral-action time Tn manifests itself in the transition function.

6: Transition function and block diagram of PID element Comparison of controller types The advantages and disadvantages of the different types of controller are set out in table A8.A-80 Exercise 8 Fig.1: Comparison of controller types Controller type P controller I controller PI controller PD controller PID controller Advantages fast no steady-state system deviation fast. Table A8. it is therefore essential that the type of controller be selected according to the type of controlled system. When constructing a closed control loop. tendency towards oscillations tendency towards oscillations steady-state system deviation TP511 • Festo Didactic . Which type of controller is suitable for a controlled system also depends on the type of controlled system. A8. T steady-state system deviation and T tendency to oscillation.1. An evaluation is made of T speed. no steady-state system deviation Disadvantages steady-state system deviation slow. no steady-state system deviation very fast very fast.

the process must be slow and at constant force. A hydraulic drive unit is required for the high forces. Establishing the construction of the PID controller from the transition function Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-81 Exercise 8 Bearings are to be pressed into a housing. A PID controller is to be used as the control device after an initial investigation has been carried out. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2. Problem description Positional sketch D. a pressure control loop is to be planned. Determining the time constant of the PD controller 4. In order to prevent damage to the bearings. PD and PID controller 1. In order to maintain the force at a constant level. Recording the transition function and ramp response of the D controller 3.

The following settings are to be made prior to switching on: T Limiter to ± 10V. a multimeter for commissioning. an oscilloscope to record the output variable. T All controller coefficients to zero. a power supply unit for the voltage supply to the controller. electrical TP511 • Festo Didactic . Circuit diagram. The following equipment is required: T T T T T the PID controller card.A-82 Exercise 8 Execution 1. T Offset to centre (= zero). a generator for test signals in the range of ± 10V. Measuring circuit The following are to be measured T The reference variable w as input signal of the controller and T the correcting variable y as output signal of the controller.

7: Slope of reference variable w Fig. A8. y = KD ⋅ ∆e ∆t The gradient of the reference variable w is calculated from the amplitude A and the frequency f: ∆w =4⋅A⋅f ∆t Fig. D controller The transition function of the D controller produces T from a square-wave signal for reference variable w. A8. T a square-wave signal for correcting variable y The magnitude of the step change of the square-wave signal is dependent on the controller coefficient KD and on the gradient of the triangularwave signal ∆e/∆t. T a spike signal for correcting variable y The ramp response of the D controller produces T from a triangular-wave signal for reference variable w.8: Setting of differential coefficient KD TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-83 Exercise 8 2.

9: Calculating of derivative-action time Tv 4. Fig. PID controller The transition function of the PID controller is made up of the typical components of the P. A8. A8.6). I and D element (see fig. PD controller The derivative-action time Tv is the characteristic of the PD controller and is calculated from the ramp response by means of comparison with a P controller (see fig.4).A-84 Exercise 8 3. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A8.

Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . .Limiter to ± 10V. T Carry out the following settings on the oscilloscope: . square wave form T Plot the ramp response of the D controller by changing the reference variable to a triangular function.A-85 Exercise 8 WORKSHEET D. .Offset to centre (= zero). PD and PID controller 1. KD = 25ms f = 5Hz.All controller coefficients to zero.Signals w and y: . T Set the controller card as follows: . Measuring circuit T Construct the circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram. D controller T Record the transition function of the D controller using w = 0V ± 10V. 2. 5 V/Div.Time: 20 ms/Div.

KD KD = 25ms triangular wave form = 25ms Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .5.A-86 Exercise 8 T Calculate the gradient of the reference variable: ∆w =4⋅A⋅f = ∆t T Calculate the correcting variable y: y = KD ⋅ ∆w = ∆t T Does your measurement agree with the calculated correcting variable y? If not. KP = 0.w = 0V ± 10V. PD controller T Record two jump responses of the PD controller using .1. . KP = 1. 2. 3. repeat the measurement and closely observe the gradient of the reference variable. f = 5Hz.

f = 5Hz. TP511 • Festo Didactic .KP = 0. KI = 25 1/s.A-87 Exercise 8 WORKSHEET Calculate the derivative-action time: Tv1 = Tv2 = Compare these with your measuring result: do the values agree? 4. PID controller T Record the transition function of the PID controller using .5. .w = 0V ± 10V. I and D element in the transition function. square wave form KD = 25ms Diagram T Designate the components of the P.

A-88 Exercise 8 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

i. This is therefore a system with first or higher order compensation and delay.e. With empirical parameterisation. Empirical parameterisation of a PID controller A controller is harmonised with the controlled system by setting the coefficients (= parameters). the controller and controlled system must be harmonised: Technical knowledge T A pressure control loop is a system with compensation and delay (see exercise 3). by trial. and T by calculation. according to mathematical methods. T P. TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-89 Exercise 9 Closed-loop hydraulics Welding tongs of a robot Subject Title T To be able to construct and commission a pressure control loop T To be able to set the parameters of a PID controller using an empirical method Training aim Appropriate combination of controller and controlled system When constructing a closed-control loop. PI or PID controllers are recommended for such distances. the following method should therefore be adopted: T change the coefficients consecutively and T test the effect of the control quality. i. The aim of parameterisation is to set the controller so as to achieve T the best possible control quality T and to ensure a stable closed control loop. it is essential to proceed systematically.e. Two methods are basically available for this: T empirical.

Commissioning a pressure control loop 3. The contact pressure is to be set by means of a pressure control loop. The welding tongs of the robot generate a high contact pressure. Setting the parameters of a PID controller using an empirical method TP511 • Festo Didactic . approach of the next position and new pressure build-up. This is followed by pressure relief. The process is to be as fast as possible to accomplish as many spot welds as possible in a relatively small period of time. Positional sketch Exercise Pressure control loop with PID controller 1. The pressure control loop is to be constructed and the PID controller set at an optimum level for this application. metal parts are to be joined by means of spot welding. which is to last until the welding joint has be made.A-90 Exercise 9 Problem description In a car body shop. Constructing a pressure control loop 2. A PID controller is to be used as controller.

Circuit diagram. This produces the following hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. T step responses of the controlled variable are recorded via the oscilloscope. for controlled system. for feedback. T All controller coefficients = 0. Pressure control loop A pressure control loop consists of Execution T T T T a PID controller a dynamic 4/3-way valve a reservoir a pressure sensor for control device. a multimeter is required for commissioning. T Offset to zero V.A-91 Exercise 9 1. The controller card must be in the initial position prior to switching on: T Limiter to ± 10 V. To record transition functions T step functions are to be specified as reference variables by the frequency generator. for final control element. A long section of tubing is to be used as a reservoir as in exercise 6. In addition to this. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic .

1 Control direction To check the control direction. 3. Empirical parameterisation The aim of setting the controller is to obtain optimum control quality. electrical 2. The control direction is correct. The characteristics for control quality are: T Overshoot amplitude xm.2 Limit of stability The limit of stability is determined via a step-change reference variable w in the mid correcting range. Increase coefficient KD TP511 • Festo Didactic . Commissioning 2.A-92 Exercise 9 Circuit diagram. set the coefficient KP = 1. T Steady-state system deviation estat. if the controlled variable x also increases with an increasing reference variable w. 2. T Settling time Ta The following procedure is recommended: 1. Increase coefficient KI 3. The critical coefficient KPcrit is reached when steady-state oscillations of the controlled variable x occur. Set coefficient KP < KPcrit 2.

T If the control quality deteriorates or the closed control loop becomes unstable.1: Empirical parameterisation of a PID controller TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-93 Exercise 9 whereby the effects of the control quality characteristics are to be taken into consideration: T If the control quality improves. then the coefficient can be further increased. A9. This simple procedure must only be used. then the increase is to be reduced. if the closed control loop can be made to oscillate without causing damage or risk of injury! Fig. if T the values of all characteristics of the control quality are as small as possible T and the closed control loop is stable. The optimum setting has been obtained.

A-94 Exercise 9 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

All controller coefficients = 0. Commissioning 2. .A-95 Exercise 9 WORKSHEET Pressure control loop with PID controller 1. 2. 2. . and test the control direction: Does the controlled variable x increase with the reference variable w? If not. Pressure control loop T Construct the pressure control loop.Offset to zero V. Use the hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams.2 Limit of stability T Set a step-change reference variable w: w = 3 V ± 2V. T The controller must be in the initial position: . square wave form T Increase the coefficient KP until steady-state oscillations occur: KPcrit = TP511 • Festo Didactic . check the interfaces for correct polarity.1 Control direction T Set the coefficient KP = 1. 5Hz.Limiter to ± 10V.

Controller coefficient KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Control quality xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Comment Value table T What are the optimum coefficients of the PID controller? T What is the control quality obtained? Value table Optimum controller coefficients KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Best possible control quality xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability TP511 • Festo Didactic . by changing to 1Hz or 0. This enables you to evaluate the characteristics of the control quality correctly. Note the change in control quality after each change of the controller parameter.A-96 Exercise 9 3. Empirical parameterisation T Set the PID controller in such as to obtain optimum control quality proceeding step by step.5 Hz. T Adjust the frequency of the reference variable w to the settling time Ta.

Particular attention has been given to the fact that interference can also be compensated. A10.2).1). Establishing the limit of stability of the closed control loop (empirical). PI. this method specifies good controller coefficients. PD and PID controllers were established from a wide ranging measuring series using pressure regulation (= controlled system with compensation and delay).A-97 Exercise 10 Closed-loop hydraulics Pressure roller of a rolling machine Subject Title T To be able to set a PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols method Ziegler-Nichols method The Ziegler-Nichols method has been developed to provide a middle course between purely empirical and computational methods of parameterisation. Empirical fine-tuning can then still be carried out after this. 2.1: Critical period of oscillation Tcrit TP511 • Festo Didactic . Fig. The limit of stability is determined via the P controller. This produces Training aim Technical knowledge T the critical coefficient KPcrit and T the critical period of oscillation Tcrit (see fig. A10. Calculating the controller parameters in accordance with standard formulae. In practice. Optimum settings of P. 2. 1. The coefficients of the controllers are calculated from this on the basis of the formulae (see fig. It is reached when steady-state oscillations occur. A10. The Ziegler-Nichols method can be divided into two steps: 1.

6 ⋅ KPcrit = 0.12 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.12 ⋅ Tcrit 0.05s s T KD = KP ⋅ Tv = 12 ⋅ 12ms = 144ms TP511 • Festo Didactic .6 ⋅ 20 = 12 T Tn = 0. Optimum controller coefficients of the PID controller: T KP = 0.6 ⋅ KPcrit Calculation of characteristic values Tn 0.5 ⋅ KPcrit 0.12 ⋅ 100ms = 12ms T KI = KP 12 1 = = 240 Tn 0. A10.A-98 Exercise 10 Fig.8 ⋅ KPcrit 0. Limit of stability of the closed control loop: T KPcrit = 20 T Tcrit = 100ms 2. Controller type Kp P PD PI PID 0.5 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.85 ⋅ Tcrit 0.45 ⋅ KPcrit 0.2: Controller coefficients according to Ziegler-Nichols method.5 ⋅ Tcrit Tv 0.12 ⋅ Tcrit KI KP / Tn KP / Tn KD KP ⋅ TV KP ⋅ TV Computing example for a closed control loop with PID controller 1.5 ⋅ 100ms = 50ms T Tv = 0.

This PID controller is to be set at its optimum setting. Setting the PID controller in accordance with the Ziegler-Nichols method 3. One roller has fixed bearings and the other is pressed against this by means of a hydraulic cylinder. Constructing and commissioning the pressure control loop 2.A-99 Exercise 10 Metal sheets are to be drawn through two rollers in a rolling machine. Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Altering the controlled system and resetting it to the optimum level. The contact force is to be as constant as possible. Problem description Positional sketch Ziegler-Nichols method 1. which is why a pressure control loop with PID controller is used.

2. A10. The settings are evaluated under point 2 with the help of the control quality obtained. T regarding the characteristics of the control quality: .critical oscillation time Tcrit (see fig. Set the controller: . Modified controlled system The pressure control loop is altered by removing the reservoir (tubing). Pressure control loop The closed control loop is to be constructed and commissioned as described in exercise 9: 1. . thereby producing different time constants. 3. T regarding the oscillations in the closed control loop (stability). Construct the circuit 2.2).A-100 Exercise 10 Execution 1. . The comparison between the empirically determined parameters (solution to exercise 9) and the values calculated here show clear differences: T regarding the values of the parameters. This results in the following: .Steady-state system deviation estat. Establishing the limit of stability of the closed control loop by increasing the coefficient KP until steady-state oscillations occur.Limiter to ± 10V.1).critical coefficient KPcrit . A10. The controller is reset: T according to the Ziegler-Nichols method and T empirically. . Calculating the controller parameters in accordance with standard formulae (see fig.Offset to zero.Settling time Ta. Ziegler-Nichols method The Ziegler-Nichols method is divided into two steps: 1. 3. TP511 • Festo Didactic .Coefficients to zero.Overshoot amplitude xm. Check the control direction 2. .

2.Tcrit = T Calculate the coefficients of the PID controller using the ZieglerNichols method: . • Offset to zero.12 ⋅ Tcrit = . square wave form T Determine the limit of stability of the closed control loop: . T The controller must be in the initial setting: T Set the correct control direction.KD = KP ⋅ Tv = TP511 • Festo Didactic .KPcrit = . Use the circuit diagrams from exercise 9.Tv = 0. 1Hz.5 ⋅ Tcrit = .Tn = 0.KI = KP = Tn .KP = 0. Pressure control loop T Construct a pressure control loop using a PID controller. • Coefficients to zero. Ziegler-Nichols method T Set a step-change reference variable w: w = 3V ± 2V.6 ⋅ KPcrit = .A-101 Exercise 10 WORKSHEET Ziegler-Nichols method 1. • Limiter to ± 10V.

KI = KP = Tn . Is the closed control loop stable? T Check the control quality: .A-102 Exercise 10 T Set the calculated coefficients of the PID controller.Overshoot amplitude xm = .Tv = 0. Which controller setting do you consider to be better? 3.5 ⋅ Tcrit = .KP = 0.Settling time Ta = T Compare with the empirically obtained control quality (see solution to exercise 9).KD = KP ⋅ Tv = TP511 • Festo Didactic .Tn = 0. Modified controlled system T Remove the tubing (= reservoir) from the hydraulic circuit.Steady-state system deviation estat = .6 ⋅ KPcrit = .12 ⋅ Tcrit = . T Determine the limit of stability of the closed control loop: KPcrit = Tcrit = T Calculate the coefficients of the PID controller using Ziegler-Nichols method: .

KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) xm (V) Control quality estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Value table T Carry out the empirical parameterisation of the PID controller and check the control quality. Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) xm (V) Control quality estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Value table T Which PID setting do you consider to be better? TP511 • Festo Didactic . Controller coefficient according to Z.A-103 Exercise 10 WORKSHEET T Set the coefficients according to the Ziegler-Nichols method and check the control quality.-N.

A-104 Exercise 10 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

which manifests itself in a change in control quality. A11. It is often not possible to attribute the cause of interference to one device in particular. this changes the behaviour of the closed control loop overall. in which case the closed control loop must be examined systematically. Technical knowledge Fig.A-105 Exercise 11 Closed-loop hydraulics Edge-folding press with feeding device Subject Title T To be able to carry out the commissioning of a pressure control loop T To be able to set the parameters of a pressure control loop with interference Training aim Interference in the closed control loop Each element in a closed control loop can be affected by interference.1: Disturbance variables in the closed control loop TP511 • Festo Didactic .

A-106 Exercise 11 Table A11. This may lead to temporary overloading of the power pack and moreover result in eventual leakage due to component wear. electrical supply networks Leakage Forces. This impairs the follower behaviour of the control loop. This can lead to steady-state system deviations. Signal delays may result. Either situation can lead to interference in the pressure control loop of the edge-folding device. moments Measuring errors Problem description A hydraulic edge-folding device is to be expended by means of a hydraulic feeding device. Offsets shift the operating points of closed control loop elements. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The feeding device is operated by the same power pack as the edge-folding press. Leakage loss in hydraulic components can reduce the line pressure.1: Examples of interference variables and their effects Type of interference Noisy signals as a result of electrical fields Effect on control behaviour Electrical signal lines without screening act as antennae for interference signals from adjacent electrical equipment Hysteresis in closed control loop elements leads to asymmetrical transmission behaviour. The extent of interference is to be reduced to a minimum by means of appropriate measures. For example the hysteresis effect on a dynamic valve results in different flow characteristics for the two directions of opening. Incorrectly installed or unsuitable measuring devices lead to falsified signals. Forces or Moments acting upon the closed control loop cause changes in the runtime performance of closed control loop elements. which impair the stability of the closed control loop Hysteresis Offset Supply networks. Under-sized hydraulic or voltage networks cause fluctuations in the transmission lines.

Constructing a pressure control loop 2. Commissioning a pressure control loop 3.A-107 Exercise 11 Positional sketch Pressure control loop with interference 1. Optimum setting of a PID controller 4. Examining the effect of interferences Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic .

In addition. Both are connected to the hydraulic power pack via a by-pass. The most frequent interferences in hydraulics are T Pressure drop and T Leakage. a long section of tubing is used as a reservoir. This permits the simulation of a pressure drop in the hydraulic power pack and a leakage in the pressure control loop.A-108 Exercise 11 Execution 1. for feedback As in all the other exercises. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The pressure drop at connection P of the valve is measured by means of T a pressure gauge or a pressure sensor. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop consists of T T T T a PID controller a dynamic 4/3-way valve a reservoir a pressure sensor for control device. a multimeter is required for commissioning. for final control element. To record the transition function T a step function is specified as reference variable w and T the step response of the controlled variable x recorded on the oscilloscope. for controlled system. The interferences are to be simulated by means of T a pressure relief valve and T a flow control valve.

electrical 2. hydraulic Circuit diagram. T Offset to zero V.A-109 Exercise 11 This results in the following hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Commissioning The controller card must be in the initial position prior to switching on: T Limiter to ± 10V. T All controller coefficients = 0. Circuit diagram.

4. The optimum coefficients of the PID controller are then calculated from these according the Ziegler-Nichols method. A step-change reference variable w in the mean correcting range is used. the pressure relief valve and the flow control valve are closed completely. To check the hydraulic circuit. The computational and empirical coefficients of the PID controller are set and compared on the basis of the control quality. 3. This produces: T the critical coefficient KPcrit and T the critical period of oscillation Tcrit. Coefficient KP = 1 is set to check the control direction. PID controller First.e.A-110 Exercise 11 The interferences are switched off in the hydraulic section. if the controlled variable x increases with an increasing reference variable. The best possible control quality is set by means of empirical parameterisation. the flow control valve and the pressure relieve valve are slightly opened. The limit of stability having been reached. The setting is evaluated on the basis of the characteristics of the control quality. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The effect on the transition function can be seen even with minor changes: The pattern changes and the target pressure can no longer be reached. This results in two settings for the PID controller: T calculated according to the Ziegler-Nichols method and T empirically determined. steady-state oscillations of the controlled variable x occur. The control direction is correct. Effect of interferences The following interferences are investigated in sequence: T leakage and T drop in supply pressure. i. the limit of stability of the control loop is established without interference.

PID controller T Optimise the coefficient of the PID controller for an interference-free closed control loop. T Close the flow control valve and the pressure relief valve completely. 2.A-111 Exercise 11 WORKSHEET Pressure control loop with interference 1. check whether a pressure drop is created if the flow control valve or pressure relief valve is opened. T In addition. square wave form T Determine the limit of stability: KPcrit = Tcrit = TP511 • Festo Didactic . .Offset to 0V.All controller coefficients = 0. w = 3 V ± 1V. . Commissioning T The controller must be in the initial setting: . T Connect the electrical and hydraulic power. and check the control direction: Does the controlled variable x increase with the reference variable w? T If “No”. 3. T Set a step-change reference variable: 1Hz. T Set KP = 1. Pressure control loop T Construct the pressure control loop with a flow control and a pressure relief valve in the by-pass according to the circuit diagram. then check the interfaces between the devices for correct polarity. T Make sure that both valves are completely closed again.Limiter to ± 10V.

Tv = 0.5 ⋅ Tcrit = . KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Controller quality without interference xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability T Determine the optimum coefficients empirically: Value table Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Controller quality without interference xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability T What settings of the PID controller do you consider to be better? TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-112 Exercise 11 T Calculate the coefficients of the PID controller using the ZieglerNichols method: .KP = 0.6 ⋅ KPcrit = .-N.KD = KP ⋅ Tv = T Evaluate the control quality using the calculated coefficients: Value table Controller coefficients to Z.KI = KP = Tn .Tn = 0.12 ⋅ Tcrit = .

A-113 Exercise 11 WORKSHEET 4.calculated using the Ziegler-Nichols method and . TP511 • Festo Didactic .empirically determined. Effect of interferences T Investigate the effect of a leak by slightly opening the flow control valve. T Determine the limit of stability with leakage: KPcrit = T Compare the control quality for the two controller settings .-N. Controller coefficients to Z. KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) xm (V) Controller quality with leakage estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Value table Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) xm (V) Controller quality with leakage estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Value table T Which PID controller settings do you consider to be better? T Close the flow control valve completely again.

calculated using the Ziegler-Nichols method and . KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Control quality with pressure drop xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability Value table Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) KD (ms) Control quality with pressure drop xm (V) estat (v) Ta (ms) Stability T Which PID controller setting do you consider to be better? TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-114 Exercise 11 T Investigate the effect of a pressure drop by setting a supply pressure of 45bar via the pressure relief valve.-N. T Establishing the limit of stability with pressure drop: KPcrit = T Compare the control quality for the two controller settings .empirically determined. Value table Controller coefficients to Z.

Fig. A12. which is used as the measured value for the slide in the position control loop. Displacement sensors operate according to different physical principals. this results in: Va = Ve ⋅ L L tot Resistance R changes by moving a slider across length L.1: Voltage divider principle of linear potentiometer TP511 • Festo Didactic . The displacement sensor used in this exercise is a linear potentiometer.A-115 Exercise 12 Closed-loop hydraulics Table feed of a milling machine Subject Title T To learn about the function of a displacement sensor T To be able to record and evaluate the characteristic curve of a displacement sensor Training aim A slide is to be moved to a specified position within a position control loop. The position of the slide is measured by means of a displacement sensor. This also changes the output voltage Va. Linear potentiometer A linear potentiometer converts the physical “displacement” variable into an electrical voltage according to the principle of a voltage divider: the output signal Va is tapped on an ohm resistance Rtot with the input voltage Ve at a given point via the resistance R: Va = Ve ⋅ R R tot Technical knowledge Voltage divider formula Since the resistance is proportional to length L of the potentiometer.

A detailed description is given in exercise 14. TP511 • Festo Didactic .2: Electrical connection diagram of a linear potentiometer Linear unit The displacement sensor is a preassembled linear unit. In this way. A follower is permanently connected to the slide. A12. A scale is to be attached parallel to the slide on the linear unit for comparison. the displacement sensor can be tested by traversing the slide.A-116 Exercise 12 The linear potentiometer used in this exercise has the following characteristics: Supply voltage Measuring length (= input variable) 200mm + 1mm Output variable 15V to 24V 0V to 10V Fig. The linear unit is hydraulically operated by means of a directional control valve and a double-acting cylinder.

The characteristic curve of the displacement sensor is to be recorded as part of maintenance work. Problem description Positional sketch Displacement sensor 1.A-117 Exercise 12 The feed axis of a milling machine is to be operated via a hydraulic position control loop. A displacement sensor is to be used for detecting the actual position. Recording the characteristic curve of the displacement sensor 3. Deriving the characteristics of the displacement sensor from the measured values Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Constructing a measuring circuit with hydraulic linear unit 2.

the valve is in mid-position. A simpler method would be to use a P controller with KP = 10. T The double-acting cylinder is actuated via a dynamic 4/3-way valve with mid-position closed.A-118 Exercise 12 Execution 1. With 0V. This would. The voltage levels are between . T The directional control valve is actuated via the voltage level set by means of a generator. hence this is to be assembled and securely attached as a complete unit. The scale is to be attached to the linear unit. however pre-empt the next exercises. A retracted piston rod represents the zero position. Note A certain amount of practice is required to be able to approach positions accurately via valve voltage. T The linear unit is operated via a double-acting cylinder.10V and + 10V. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . Circuit diagram. which is measured by means of a scale graduated in millimetres. Measuring circuit The following points must be observed for the measuring circuit: T The input variable for the displacement sensor is the slide position. Hence this note. T The output signal of the displacement sensor (= V in volts) is measured by means of a multimeter. T The displacement sensor is attached to the linear unit.

T Linear range. electrical 2. Characteristic curve The characteristic curve of the displacement sensor is created by recording the T the output voltage V in volts via T the length L in mm for the input variable. 3. T Hysteresis.A-119 Exercise 12 Circuit diagram. it can be represented by means of a block symbol. the displacement sensor should be regarded as a P element with the amplification K. Characteristics The most important characteristic can be determined from the characteristic curve of the transfer coefficient K of the displacement sensor: K = Output ∆V = Input ∆L Within a closed control loop. Additional criteria to be observed for evaluation are: T Measuring range. TP511 • Festo Didactic . as such.

A-120 Exercise 12 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

. .What are the characteristics of the displacement sensor Input range: Output range: Supply voltage: .Where is the displacement sensor built into the linear unit T Attach the scale whilst observing the zero position.What are the connections of the linear unit? . Make sure that the linear unit is securely attached! TP511 • Festo Didactic .How accurately can you read the positions from the scale? .What are the connections of the 4/3-way valve? T Construct the hydraulic and electrical circuit in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Measuring circuit T Familiarise yourself with the equipment required for the circuit.A-121 Exercise 12 WORKSHEET Displacement sensor 1.

T Check the signal flow of the circuit design and set this correctly by correcting the polarity of the signal lines. T Practice the approaching of a position: Re-adjustment of the voltage generator controls the valve and causes the slide to move.A-122 Exercise 12 2. T Switch on the hydraulic power pack. Value table Measured variable and unit Length L in mm Voltage V in V Voltage V in V Measured values (0) 10 50 100 150 190 (200) Direction of measurement rising falling TP511 • Festo Didactic .10V on the generator to position the slide at an end stop. . switch on the power supply. Move the slide to and from once between the end stops and then to an intermediate position. Characteristic curve Risk of injury! Make sure that no one is within the operating range of the slide prior to switching on! T First of all. T Set a valve voltage of e. the measured values in the value table.g. do not approach the extreme end positions. T Record the characteristic curve of the displacement sensor and enter T For safety’s sake.

Diagram 3.g. Block symbol T Evaluate the use of the displacement sensor within the framework of this equipment set. Characteristics T Determine the transfer coefficient of the displacement sensor: K= T Draw the displacement sensor as a block symbol identifying the input and output signals and the transition function. relative to linear range and hysteresis): TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-123 Exercise 12 WORKSHEET T Enter the characteristic curves of the displacement sensor in the diagram. State your reasons with the help of the measuring results (e.

A-124 Exercise 12 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

and T the differential pressure created during the flow through the narrow section.1): T the flow/signal characteristic curve with constant differential pressure and T the flow range/pressure characteristic curve with constant actuating signal. which manifests itself in a differential pressure. A reduced cross section of the opening represents a hydraulic resistance. Two flow characteristic curves are thus created (see fig.A-125 Exercise 13 Closed-loop hydraulics X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Subject Title T To understand the function of a dynamic directional control valve for flow control Training aim T To be able to record the flow/signal characteristic curve T To be able to demonstrate the effect of differential pressure and actuating signal grams T To be able to calculate the characteristic data from standard dia- Flow control by means of a dynamic 4/3-way valve Flow rates are to be determined by changing cross sections of the opening of the 4/3-way valve described in exercise 2. A13. The greater the flow passing through the same cross section. If the cross section of the opening is partially closed. then the flow rate is correspondingly reduced. TP511 • Festo Didactic . the higher the differential pressure. Technical knowledge Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic 4/3-way valve The flow is dependent on two variables: T the position of the valve spool set via the actuating signal. A full opening produces maximum flow rate.

then a set of curves are created (see fig. Fig.1). This proves that the flow increases with the differential pressure and the actuating signal.A-126 Exercise 13 If several characteristic curves are entered in the diagram.1: Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic directional control valve TP511 • Festo Didactic . A13. A13.

there is a signal range with zero flow rate. also maximum actuating signal and T nominal differential pressure. The characteristic curve drops off slightly towards the ends.e. T With negative overlap. The slope of the characteristic curve represents the flow/signal amplification: ∆q ∆VE KV = l in min V Overlap The overlap can be read at the zero crossover of the flow/signal characteristic curve (see fig.2): T With overlap. A13. TP511 • Festo Didactic . the gradient remains constant. there is a flow rate in both directions.e. Fig. i.A-127 Exercise 13 Characteristics of a dynamic 4/3-way valve Flow/signal amplification The slope of the flow/signal characteristic curve remains constant across a wide range of the actuating signal. i.2: Overlap in flow/signal characteristic curve of a dynamic directional control valve Nominal flow rate The nominal flow rate qN is the volumetric flow rate during T maximum valve opening. A13. where the flow saturation qvsat has been reached. T With positive overlap the slope is zero.

Assuming that the control edges can be regarded as sharp-edged orifices by approximation. Since the resistances are added together. double the differential pressure is obtained for an identical flow rate via two control edges. both the differential pressure and the actuating signal deviate from the nominal value. Control edges According to DIN 24 311. The differential pressure is then ∆p2 = p0 . the flow rate must be measured via a control edge. ∆p1 = p0 . in which case working lines A and B are connected together.g. The differential pressure is then e.pA.pT. the following is applicable for nominal differential pressure: T 5bar per control edge with proportional valves and T 35bar per control edge with servo valves. The following then applies: q = qN ⋅ V% ∆p ⋅ 100% ∆p N Nominal sizes of the directional control valve in question Activating signal VEmax (= input variable) ± 10V Flow qN (= output variable) 5 l/min Differential pressure ∆p2 across 2 control edges (= marginal condition) 70bar TP511 • Festo Didactic . an actuating signal is also specified in percentages of VEmax.A-128 Exercise 13 Nominal differential pressure According to DIN 24 311. The differential pressure is often specified via two control edges. the flow rate q can be calculated at any differential pressure ∆p and any actuating signal VE: q = qN ⋅ VE ∆p ⋅ VEmax ∆p N Often. Flow rate at the operating point At the operating point.

Since the speed depends on the flow rate amongst other things. The problem described above. problems occur with regard to the clock pulse of the machining process. Deriving the flow/pressure characteristic curve 4.A-129 Exercise 13 A housing cover is to be machined on a drilling machine. just one possibility is to be investigated as an example. Different positions are approached in automatic sequence for several drilled holes. Comparison with the nominal data Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . This means that the positioning process takes too long. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2. can be due to different causes. After a number of hours in operation. Recording the flow/signal characteristic curve 3. Problem description Positional sketch Flow characteristic curve of a dynamic 4/3-way directional control valve 1. In this instance. the flow characteristic curves are to be recorded. This requires a position control via a dynamic directional control valve.

T A flow measuring device for ± 5 l/min. T In order to be able to maintain a constant differential pressure ∆p1 with different flow rates. The differential pressure can be maintained at a constant level automatically by means of a pressure control loop consisting of a further dynamic directional control valve and a P controller. TP511 • Festo Didactic . three variables must be measured for this: T the control voltage VE for input variable. The universal display indicates the flow value directly in l/min. The following devices are required: T A generator for the control voltage VE in the range of ± 10V. T Two pressure sensors for the input pressure pP and the pressure pA at the working port. In this instance.A-130 Exercise 13 Execution 1. This considerably reduces the time required to record the characteristic curves. Measuring circuit The flow characteristic curves are to be recorded via a control edge. T Several multimeters for the control voltage and the pressure sensors. T the flow rate qA for output variable and T the differential pressure ∆p1 as a constant parameter. the supply pressure pP must be changed. This results in hydraulic and electrical circuits. A pressure relief valve is to be connected in the by-pass for this purpose. T Voltage supply 24V for the valve and the tachometer as well as 15V for the pressure sensors. a hydromotor with tachometer is used (see measuring case).

With small differential pressure. Flow/signal characteristic curve Several steps are to be carried out to prepare the series of measurements: 1. whereby care should be taken that the measuring points are approached from the same direction. in which case the following applies: T the differential pressure ∆p1 for input variable. Checking the signal direction: the flow rate qA at output A must also increase with the increasing actuating signal VE. 3.pA is to be kept constant. With differential pressure in excess of 20bar. the characteristic curve is recorded. Checking the measuring range by re-adjusting the control signal across the entire range and measuring the flow rate by alternatively setting a higher and then a lower supply pressure to determine the differential pressure range. T the flow rate qA for output variable and T the control voltage VE for a constant parameter. it is possible to record the entire characteristic curve. It is also useful to carry out a comparative measurement at output B in order to demonstrate that the course of the characteristic curve is symmetrical whereby deviations in flow values of 10% are permissible. the characteristic curve is broken off owing to the fact that pump power is being exceeded. Following this. TP511 • Festo Didactic .Pressure relief valve open (supply pressure pP = 0).A-131 Exercise 13 2. A higher supply pressure pP must be set with increasing flow qA. Flow/pressure characteristic curve It is also possible to plot the flow/pressure characteristic curve from the measured values of the flow/signal characteristic curve. Pressures pP and pA as well as the flow rate qA are to be measured in relation to the actuating signal VE. .Valve in mid-position (control voltage VE = 0). 3. The differential pressure ∆p1 = pP . 2. Zero point setting: .

3% 1. i.1. If the resulting measured flow rate is for example qm = 2. VE = 5V. Comparison with nominal data The following nominal values are specified by the manufacturer: T Nominal flow rate qN = 5 l/min. A comparison between the measured values and the nominal values is made by means of the basic equation: q = qN ⋅ VE ∆p ⋅ VEmax ∆p N whereby the number of control edges is to be taken into account.9 l/min ⋅ 100% = + 5. and T Differential pressure via a control edge ∆p1 = 20bar produces: qr = qN ⋅ VE ∆p1 ⋅ VEmax ∆p1N 5V 20bar ⋅ 10 V 35bar qr = 5 l/min ⋅ T Flow rate qr = 1. The percentage deviation qf between measured flow rate qm and calculated flow rate qr is: qf = qm .9 l/min This measuring point can be entered in the diagrams.0 l/min .9 l/min TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-132 Exercise 13 4.e.0 l/min. at a T Differential pressure via two control edges ∆p2 = 70bar and T maximum actuating signal VEmax = + 10V or .10V.qr ⋅ 100% qr Sample calculation: T Actuating signal V% = 50%. then the deviation is qf = 2.

hydraulic Circuit diagram. Circuit diagram. electrical TP511 • Festo Didactic . . Measuring circuit T The following are to be measured for the flow characteristic curve of a dynamic 4/3-way valve: .A-133 Exercise 13 WORKSHEET Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic 4/3-way valve 1.the flow rate qA in supply. .the supply pressure at port P. T Construct the hydraulic and electrical circuits for this.the actuating voltage VE. .the working pressure pA at output A.

A-134 Exercise 13 2. T Check the sensor displays: pP = pA = ∆p1 = qA = Setting the pressure T Slowly bring the pressure relief valve to a complete close. How do the sensor displays alter? pP = pA = ∆p1 = qA = TP511 • Festo Didactic . T Set the directional control valve in mid position (VE = 0). Flow/signal characteristic curve Zero position T Open the pressure relief valve completely. How do the pressure and flow rate change? pP = pA = ∆p1 = qA = Setting the actuating signal T Increase the actuating signal to VE = 2V.

Make sure that the flow rate qA rises with the increasing actuating signal VE. Determining the measuring range T Set a high supply pressure pP. Differential pressure ∆p1 = 5bar VE in V qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar Value table 3 5 7 9 10 0 1 Differential pressure ∆p1 = 10bar VE in V qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 1 3 5 7 9 10 TP511 • Festo Didactic . VElimit = qAmax = At which actuating signal VE does the flow rate no longer change? T What is differential pressure ∆p1 now? ∆p1 = T Record the flow/signal characteristic curve at port A.A-135 Exercise 13 WORKSHEET Check the signal direction T Check the signal directions on your circuit.

10 TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-136 Exercise 13 Value table Differential pressure ∆p1 = 20bar VE in V qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 1 3 5 7 9 10 Differential pressure ∆p1 = 35bar VE in V qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 1 3 5 7 9 10 T Record a characteristic curve at output B. Do the flow values qB roughly coincide with output A? Value table Differential pressure ∆p1 = 20bar VE in V qB in l/min pP in bar pB in bar 0 -1 -3 -5 -7 -9 .

Diagram T Evaluate the characteristic curves by answering the following questions: .What is correlation between flow/signal amplification and differential pressure that can be seen from the diagram? TP511 • Festo Didactic .What is the extent of the linear range? .Can a hysteresis be detected? .A-137 Exercise 13 WORKSHEET T Enter the flow/signal characteristic curves for output A in a diagram.

VE = 9V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 Activating signal V% = 70%.e.e. KV = 3.e.A-138 Exercise 13 T Calculate the flow/signal amplification at ∆p1 = 35bar.e. VE = 1V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 TP511 • Festo Didactic . Flow/pressure characteristic curve T Convert the values table: Value table Activating signal V% = 100%. i. i. i. VE = 3V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 Activating signal V% = 10%. i. i. VE = 5V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 Activating signal V% = 30%.e. VE = 10V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 Activating signal V% = 90%. i.e. VE = 7V ∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 10 20 35 Activating signal V% = 50%.

A-139 Exercise 13 WORKSHEET T Enter the flow/pressure characteristic curve in the diagram. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .

pr = T Draw the arithmetic value in a diagram. e. Comparison with nominal values T What are the nominal values for the dynamic 4/3-way valve? Nominal flow rat qN: Differential pressure ∆p: Number of control edges: Actuating signal VE: T Can you enter the measuring point described by the nominal values in your diagram? Yes No T Why is the measured value beyond the set of curves determined? T Calculate the flow rate qr for an actuating signal VE in the linear range of the characteristic curves. T What is the flow rate qA you have measured ? qA = T What is the deviation qf resulting between the arithmetic and measured flow rate? qf = TP511 • Festo Didactic .g.A-140 Exercise 13 4. at ∆p1 = 35bar and VE = 30%.

In this exercise. This should be done as quickly and accurately as possible. two parallel longitudinal guides. Important characteristics of this controlled system are: T the course of the transition function and T the controlled-system gain. It is dependent on the variable of the activating signal. a hydraulic linear cylinder and a displacement sensor. wherein the linear unit is to be regarded as a controlled system. This results in the ratio of T velocity speed v T actuating signal VE. it is intended as a measuring system for the actual position of the slide. The slide is to be moved to a position of your choice. A closed control loop is to be built to monitor the position.A-141 Exercise 14 Closed-loop hydraulics Feed unit of an assembly station Subject Title T To learn about the assembly and function of a linear unit T To be able to describe the linear unit as a controlled system T To be able substantiate the correlation between the hydraulic characteristics Training aim Linear unit The linear unit is made up of Technical knowledge T T T T a traversable slide. which influences the directional control valve in the form of an input signal. Function and characteristics of a displacement sensor are described in exercise 12. A hydraulic linear cylinder is to be used as a drive unit for traversing the slide and is actuated via a dynamic 4/3-way valve. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Transition function and controlled-system gain The significance of the transition function or step response is already known from exercise 3. The speed of the slide can be read from the transition function and is to be regarded as an output variable of the closed control loop.

Inlet control edge Working pressure inside cylinder Symbol pP VE Value / Formula = pmax = constant ≤ VEmax = qN ⋅ VE (pP .p A ) ⋅ ∆p N VEmax pP 1+ A K A KR 3 qA pA = Forward velocity of piston vout = qA q = B A K A KR A KR AK AK A KR VE (pB .1: Hydraulic circuit diagram of a controlled system v VE Table A14.A-142 Exercise 14 This transition factor is described as controlled-system gain: KS = Fig. A14.1: System variables inside hydraulic circuit Variable Pump supply pressure Valve activating signal Flow valve. outlet control edge qB = qN ⋅ Feedback pressure pT ≈0 TP511 • Festo Didactic . valve.p T ) ⋅ ∆p N VEmax Volumetric flow inside cylinder qB = qA ⋅ = pA ⋅ Back pressure inside cylinder pB Flow.

the pressure on the piston side must be less than that on the piston rod side: pA < pB T Hence the drop on the valve is greater during actuation of the piston side than during actuation of the piston rod side: ∆pout = pP . these are however explained in the following. A14.pB results in: ∆pout > pin T Thus. To give you a better understanding.pA and ∆pin = pP . Load and friction have not been taken into account. The arithmetic correlations are not required to carry out this exercise.A-143 Exercise 14 Signal flow in the hydraulic circuit The hydraulic circuit of the controlled system is illustrated in fig. This merely represents the fundamental requirements for extending of the cylinder.1. which results in a reduced flow rate: q A = qN ⋅ ∆p V ⋅ ∆p N Vmax T The piston area AK produces a forward speed: v out = qA AK T Due to the force equilibrium in the cylinder. Constant pressure system A constant pressure system should be used as a basis for a servo system: T Within the operating range. the flow rate of the pump is greater than that of the valve: qp > qvmax T The maximum pump supply pressure is: pP = pPmax = constant T A pressure drop is created via the control cross section of the valve. advancing from the greater differential pressure produces a greater flow rate: qout > qin TP511 • Festo Didactic . The table shows the arithmetic correlation between the variables in the circuit.

q = qA = qB = qmax T The piston area AK produces the forward speed: v out = qA AK T Since the annular area AKR is smaller than the piston area.A-144 Exercise 14 T The speed during advancing is greater than the speed during retracting (with an identical actuating signal): vout > vin Exactly the reverse effect can be observed with switching valves.pA 1 V = qN ⋅ ⋅ P ⋅ Vmax ∆p N ∆p N α pB = pP . the arithmetic deduction of this formula is to be described: qB = q A ⋅ A KR 1 = qA ⋅ α AK qN ⋅ V Vmax ⋅ pB p . which operate on the basis of a constant flow system: T The pump supplies the maximum flow rate: q = qmax = constant T When the valve is reversed. the entire cross section of the opening is released: Full flow passes to the cylinder. the retracting speed is less than the forward speed: v in = qA A KR and AKR < AK results in: vin = vout Working pressure The working pressure pA is dependent solely on the pump pressure pP and the area ratio of the cylinder: α = AK / AKR pA = pP 1 + α3 To complete the picture.p A α2 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

working pressure pA or area ratio a. the piston area AK. the actuating signal VE.A-145 Exercise 14 With: pB = p A ⋅ AK = pA ⋅ α A KR the following applies: pA ⋅ α = pP .p A α2 p A ⋅ α 3 = pP .p A pA = pP 1 + α3 The following applies for retracting according to a similar process of calculation: pB = α3 ⋅ pP 1+ α3 Velocity The velocity can also be calculated from the nominal variables and depends on: T T T T supply pressure pP. The following applies for the velocity during advancing: v out = qA V p -p 1 = ⋅ qN ⋅ E ⋅ P A AK AK VEmax ∆p N qN V ⋅ E ⋅ A K VEmax pP pP 1+ α3 ∆p N v out = v out = qN VE pP α3 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ A K VEmax ∆p N 1 + α 3 The retracting velocity differs only in the case of cylinders of unequal areas: v in = 1 α ⋅ v out TP511 • Festo Didactic .

The following then applies: KS = v VE It is also possible to calculate the controlled-system gain from the characteristics using the above formulae: Advancing K Sout = K Sin = qN pP α3 ⋅ ⋅ A K ⋅ Vmax ∆p N 1 + α 3 1 α ⋅ K Sout Retracting TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-146 Exercise 14 Controlled-system gain The following ratio applies for controlled-system gain KS between T the velocity v for output variable and T the actuating signal VE for input variable.

the hydraulic characteristics of the controlled system are to be checked (pressure and flow rate). the function of the linear unit is to be checked. The values determined are to be compared with arithmetic results. To do this. After a number of hours in operation.A-147 Exercise 14 Several bearings are to be pressed into a housing on an assembly station. Recording the pressure characteristics and flow rate Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . The bearings are supplied via a feed unit. which is operated within a position control loop. In addition. Recording the step response of the controlled system 3. Problem description Positional sketch Linear unit as controlled system 1. the controlled-system gain is to be determined from the step response. Calculating the velocity and controlled-system gain 4. the designated cycle time is no longer achieved. Constructing the hydraulic and electrical measuring circuit 2. Therefore. The housing is positioned by means of a linear unit.

measured with the displacement sensor of the linear unit. measured with pressure sensors. the pressure characteristics in the operating cylinder and the flow are to be measured. All measured variables are recorded on the oscilloscope over the time. In addition. The step function of the actuating signal VE is specified via the frequency generator. Circuit diagram. Measuring circuit In order to record a transition function. This results in the following measured variables: T pressures pA and pB. This results in the following hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams.A-148 Exercise 14 Execution 1. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . T a step function (square-wave signal) is given as the actuating signal for the directional control valve (= input variable) and T the step response recorded in the form of the change in the slide position x during the time t (= output variable). measured by means of a flow sensor and T the slide position x. It is useful to check the supply pressure pP by means of a pressure gauge. T the supply flow rate q.

e. Only when the setpoint step change is smaller than ± 8V is a linear correlation produced between actuating signal VE and the velocity. With VE = ± 9V the same characteristics are still achieved. Step response of the controlled system The linear range of the circuit used here is limited (see exercise 13).g. TP511 • Festo Didactic . at VE = ± 6V (60%) and VE = ± 3V (30%). It is therefore useful to record step responses. The step response for VE = ± 10V indicates the maximum speed possible with the available equipment set.A-149 Exercise 14 Circuit diagram. In order to record the characteristics. it is therefore necessary to establish the linear range first. electrical 2.

= 1 A KR Valve characteristics Nominal flow rate: Nominal differential pressure: Control voltage: qN = 5 l/min pN = 35bar VEmax = 10V TP511 • Festo Didactic . let us calculate the controlled-system gain during advancing from the nominal values: Cylinder characteristics Piston diameter: Rod diameter: Piston area: Piston annular area: Area ratio: D = 16mm d = 10mm AK = π/4⋅ D = 201mm 2 2 2 2 2 AKR = π/4⋅ (D . The following are to be measured T Slide position x and T Time t.d ) = 122.6mm α= AK 16 . This results in the velocity v: v= x in m/s t The controlled-system gain KS is then calculated from the velocity v and the actuating signal VE KS = v in (m/s)/V VE Since a cylinder with dissimilar piston areas is used.A-150 Exercise 14 3. Velocity and controlled system gain The following is to be preset T an actuating signal VE in the linear range. To give an example. this results in different speeds during advancing and retracting and therefore also different controlled-system gains.

6 3 ⋅ pP = ⋅ 60bar = 48bar 1+ α3 1 + 1.11.15m / sec 2 35bar 201mm 10V v out = Controlled-system gain qN p -p ⋅ P A A K ⋅ Vmax ∆p N 5l/min 60bar .15m/sec = 0. = 1177bar 3 1 + α 1 + 1.6 ⋅ 0.A-151 Exercise 14 Pump performance Supply pressure: Working pressure pA = pP 60bar = .12m/sec TP511 • Festo Didactic .6 3 Retracting speed at VE = 3 V v in = 1 α ⋅ v out = 1 1.77bar ⋅ ⋅ = 0.11.77bar m / sec ⋅ = 0.55 2 35bar V 201mm ⋅ 10 V K Sout = K Sout = The following applies to retracting according to this: Working pressure pB = α3 1.6 3 pP = 60bar Forward speed at VE= 3 V v out = qN V p -p ⋅ E ⋅ P A A K VEmax ∆p N 5l/min 3V 60bar .

6 ⋅ 0.04m/sec 4. The established measured values are to be entered in a circuit diagram for the purpose of evaluation.A-152 Exercise 14 Controlled-system gain K Sin = 1 α ⋅ K Sout = 1 1. VE These operating points may be entered in the flow characteristic curves (solution for A13). The measured values enable you to calculate the differential pressures of the inlet control edges: T Advancing: T Retracting: ∆pout = pP . pA and pB. it is useful to record the following characteristics during the step response: T pressure characteristic of power ports. and T flow rate q.pBin The actuating signal VE results in two operating points: T during advancing: ∆pout. Pressure and flow rate characteristics To gain a better understanding of hydraulic parameters during travelling motions. VE T during retracting: ∆pin. qout.05m/sec = 0. qin.pAout ∆pin = pP . TP511 • Festo Didactic .

What are the measured values shown? pA = pB = pP = q = x = TP511 • Festo Didactic . To be measured are: T T T T Step response: Operating pressures: Supply pressure: Flow rate: x(t) pA and pB pP q T Construct the hydraulic and electrical circuit in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Preset is T a step-change actuating signal VE. Measuring circuit The hydraulic linear unit is to be actuated by means of a dynamic 4/3way valve.A-153 Exercise 14 WORKSHEET Linear unit as controlled system 1. Make sure that the test set-up and in particular the linear unit are securely attached to a sturdy base! 2. Step response of controlled system Risk of injury! Make sure that no one is within the operating space of the slide during the following tests! T Set the actuating signal VE = 0V after the hydraulic and electrical power has been switched on.

How does the slide position change T Set the circuit in such a way that the slide advances with an increasing.2Hz. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . T Move the slide into mid-position. x t = 2 V/Div = 0. positive actuating signal. i.5 s/Div 0.e. T Record the step response with the following settings: VE = ± 10V. square signal T What time behaviour can you derive from this transition function? T Reduce the amplitude of the actuating signal VE and record the transition function for: VE = 6V and VE = 3V.: VE rises → x rises.A-154 Exercise 14 T Change the actuating signal VE slightly.

Velocity and controlled-system gain T Calculate the velocity v and the controlled-system gain KS from the measured values during advancing and retracting. VE = ± 6V and x = Linear unit Advancing Retracting mm Time t Velocity v Gain KS Value table VE = ± 3V and x = Linear unit Advancing Retracting mm Time t Velocity v Gain KS Value table 4. T Record the time characteristics of working pressures pA and pB. Pressure and flow rate characteristics T Set VE = ± 3V.A-155 Exercise 14 WORKSHEET 3. Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .

A-156 Exercise 14 T Create a value table with flow rate q and supply pressure pP during advancing and retracting. Pressure pA Value table Linear unit Advancing Retracting Pressure pB Pressure pP Flow q T Calculate the differential pressure at the inlet control edges during advancing and retracting from the value table: Advancing: ∆pout = Retracting: ∆pin = T What correlation can you detect between differential pressure and flow rate? TP511 • Festo Didactic .

TP511 • Festo Didactic . both for advancing and retracting.A-157 Exercise 14 WORKSHEET T Enter the determined measured values in the circuit diagrams.

T Which operating point has the higher flow rate/signal gain? T Are the operating points within the tolerance range of ± 10% of the flow/pressure characteristic curve with VE = 30%? TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-158 Exercise 14 T Enter the two operating points in the flow characteristic curves (C13).

a directional control valve and a linear drive.e.A-159 Exercise 15 Closed-loop hydraulics Automobile simulator Subject Title T To be able to describe a position control loop using block symbols T To be able to construct and commission a position control loop T To be able to measure and calculate fundamental characteristics Position control loop A position control loop consists of: Training aim Technical knowledge T T T T a directional control valve as a final control element. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Fig. The controlled system consists of a final control element and a controlled system element.1: Elements in a closed control loop The representation of the controlled system using block symbols is illustrated in fig.2. i. The block symbols represent the time behaviour of the individual elements. 15. a displacement sensor as feedback for the controlled variable. and a controller. a linear drive as a controlled system element. Moreover. a description is given of the physical variables at the input and output of the elements and the equations for linking the physical variables. A15.

2: The controlled system in block symbols with physical fundamental equations Symbols VE q KV p Eoil Voil t Control signal Flow (volumetric flow rate) Flow gain Pressure Elasticity module of hydraulic oil Volume of hydraulic oil Time F A m µ a v X Force Area Load Friction coefficient Acceleration Velocity Displacement (position) TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-160 Exercise 15 Fig A15.

A P controller is suitable for systems of this type. a PD controller can be used. Equally. A15. Fig.3: Closed-loop gain V0 in position control loop KP KS KP VO Gain factor of P controller Gain factor of controlled system Transfer coefficient of feedback Closed-loop gain TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-161 Exercise 15 Fundamental equations: Flow/signal characteristic curve: Elasticity of oil: qN = KV ⋅ VE p = 2 ⋅ E oil Voil ⋅ q ⋅ t Orifice equation: p q = qN ⋅ p N q =A⋅v F =A⋅p F =m⋅a F =µ⋅v v = v x and a = t t Flow rate equation: Pressure transference: Mass acceleration: Sliding friction: Equations of motion: The transition function of the controlled system shows that this is a system without compensation.

minimum settling time: xm = 0 estat within tolerance Ta within cycle time 2. are a prerequisite. no oscillations whatsoever must occur! The following resulting quality criteria are listed in order of priority: 1. no oscillations. i. A15. minimum system deviation: 4.3 represents the time behaviour of the position control loop using a P controller. This means: T that with a change in the reference variable w at the output T a corresponding change occurs in the controlled variable x at the output.loop gain V0 = Output variable Input variable Strictly speaking. A further.e. The following therefore applies: r = w ⋅ KP ⋅ KS ⋅ t ⋅ KR = w ⋅ KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR ⋅ t resulting in: r = K P ⋅ K S ⋅ K R ⋅ t = V0 ⋅ t w The closed-loop gain V0 is therefore: V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR in 1/s Quality criteria for a position control loop The purpose of position control is to approach a position x as speedily and accurately as possible. i. the feedback variable r is present at the end of the closed control loop. no oscillation: 3. The closed-loop gain V0 describes the response to setpoint changes of this closed control loop. and often even more important prerequisite is for the position not to be overtravelled.e. T The correlation is described by the Closed .A-162 Exercise 15 Closed-loop gain Fig. whereby stability. Stability (no steady-state oscillation): KP < KPcrit TP511 • Festo Didactic . A brief settling time Ta and minimal system deviation estat is therefore required. hence V0 = r w The output variable is formed by the input variable passing through all the elements of the closed control loop.

To achieve this. it must be possible to randomly position the cylinder supports. Testing other closed-loop controllers Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Constructing a position control loop electrically and hydraulically 2.A-163 Exercise 15 The cabin of an automobile simulator rests on several cylinder supports. Problem description Positional sketch Position control loop 1. Checking the control direction and setting the offset 3. A position control loop is to be constructed and commissioned. each cylinder is to be equipped with a position control loop. Recording the transition function and setting parameters using the empirical method 4. Calculating the closed-loop gain 5. In order to be able to change the position of the cabin as required. Verifying the positional dependence of the limit of stability 6.

as a control In order to record the transition function.A-164 Exercise 15 Execution 1. This results in the following circuit diagrams. as a controlled system. Circuit diagram. Constructing the position control loop The position control loop consists of: T T T T a dynamic directional control valve a linear drive a displacement sensor a P controller as a final control element. T a step function is specified as setpoint value via the function generator and T the step response recorded on the oscilloscope. for feedback. hydraulic Circuit diagram. electrical TP511 • Festo Didactic .

the polarity of these connections must be reversed. To do this. The slide is to remain stationary with a constant setpoint value. T The control parameters are all set to zero. for instance T setpoint value w = 5V ± 3V (= 100mm ± 60mm) as square wave signal In this instance. the parameters must be set empirically. Otherwise. T the setpoint value is w = 5V = 100mm. Transition function and empirical parameterisation The step function of the setpoint value is to be in the middle of the transfer range and at a sufficient distance to the end stops. Control direction and offset The initial position is to be a position of the slide in the middle of the operating path. The slide moves into the zero position. then this is eliminated by means of setting the offset.e. the control direction is correct. Should a drift occur. The slide is then moved to the mid position. as these do not apply to this type of system. after the power supply has been switched on. Then. Re-adjustment of the setpoint value ensures that the slide advances with increasing setpoint value. Also. by T changing of KP and T measuring and comparing the quality criteria. Note TP511 • Festo Didactic . the control direction is checked. T KP = 1 is set and the slide moves into the mid position. Thus.A-165 Exercise 15 2. i. 3. as is the offset. The Ziegler-Nichols setting rules cannot be used here. Once these conditions have been met.

The combination of closed-loop controller and system can be optimised using the empirical method in this case by endeavouring to improve the quality criteria by means of different controller types. At e. KP = 20 a setpoint step-change of w = 0. 6. then this illustrates that the limit of stability KPcrit is dependent on the slide position. much smaller: 1. 2. Positional dependence of limit of stability A setpoint step-change totalling 6V in total produces a large range of constant velocity. The valve is completely open in this range and no adjustments are made via the controller. TP511 • Festo Didactic . As such.A-166 Exercise 15 4.5V corresponds to a setpoint position value of ± 10mm. T triple loop status controller.5V is sufficient to create a control signal y = VE = 10V. The effective signal range of the controller is in fact. The setpoint step-change of ± 0. The maximum possible actuating signal is VEmax = 10V. Closed-loop gain KPcrit enables you to calculate the maximum closed-loop gain V0max of the position control loop: V0max = KPcrit ⋅ KS ⋅ KR KPcrit KS = 0. The use of a status controller is described in exercise 20. Other controllers The following controllers are recommended for uncompensated systems: T P controller.5V already demonstrates the effectiveness of the controller. a setpoint step-change of ± 0.05 in 1/s amplification gain of P controller with limit of stability m/s Closed-loop gain V Transfer coefficient of feedback KR = 50 V/m 5. T PD controller.g. If the mean value of this setpoint value is moved beyond the operational path of the slide.

Is this really the zero position? T Set a setpoint value w = 5V and the controller gain KP = 1. Control direction and offset T Set all controller parameters and the offset to zero. Does the slide move to a mid position? T Break the closed control loop by not connecting the measuring system to the controller. T Set the reference variable w = 0V and close the closed control loop by connecting the measuring system to the controller card. To which position does the slide move? TP511 • Festo Didactic . then the control direction is correct. To which position does the slide move? T Slowly alter the reference variable w.A-167 Exercise 15 WORKSHEET Position control loop 1. Danger of injury! Prior to switching on make sure that no one is within the operating range of the slide! T The slide moves to an end stop after the power supply has been switched on. Does the following condition apply: + w equals + x? If “yes”. Make sure that the test set-up and in particular the linear unit are securely attached to a sturdy base! 2. Constructing a position control loop T Construct the closed control loop in accordance with the circuit diagrams. If “no”. then correct the control direction by setting the correct polarity of reference variable w and correcting variable y.

T Record the transition function with different controller gains KP and evaluate the quality criteria relative to .System deviation estat .Overshoot amplitude xm . Set the following scales in the oscilloscope: Time t: Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: 0. Transition function and empirical parameterisation T Set a setpoint step-change of w = 5V ± 3V.A-168 Exercise 15 T Check the effects of the following polarity reversals: Polarity reversal Change of controlled variable x with increasing reference variable w Reference variable w Correcting variable y Feedback r T Set the closed control loop correctly. f= 1Hz. What effect does the re-adjustment of offset have? 3.Settling time Ta .1 s/Div 1 V/Div 1 V/Div Frequency and time scales are to be adjusted if the settling time is too long. Set a reference variable of w = 5 V.Stability TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-169 Exercise 15 WORKSHEET KP 1 5 10 20 30 40 50 55 63 xm Ta estat stable/unstable Evaluation Value table T What is the value determined for optimum controller gain? KPopt = T Where does the limit of stability lie? KPcrit = T Record the transition function at KPopt.

5V at 1Hz. It is not possible to display the step responses on the oscilloscope within the above selected scaling.2 V/Div T Transfer the mean value of the setpoint step-change step gradually across the entire transfer range of the slide.5V ± 0.5V Value table KPcrit Evaluation TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V 3.1 s/Div 0. V0max = V0opt = 5.5V 4.A-170 Exercise 15 4.5V 7.5V 1. Positional dependence of limit of stability T Set a setpoint step-change of w = 1.5V 8. You should therefore establish KPcrit by observing the slide. Select the following scales on the oscilloscope: Time t: Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: 0. Closed-loop gain T Calculate the maximum closed-loop gain V0max and the closed-loop gain V0opt with optimum parameterisation.5V 6. w ± 0.5V 2.2 V/Div 0.5V 5.

1 s/Div 0.2 V/Div 0.A-171 Exercise 15 WORKSHEET T Mark the maximum and minimum critical gain. Time t: Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: 0. T In which sections of the transfer range is the stability greatest? T In which section of the transfer range is the stability at its lowest? 6.5V. PI controller KPopt KI xm Ta estat stable/unstable Comment Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic . Other controllers T Set a setpoint step-change of w = 1. and examine whether the quality criteria could be met more effectively by using a different controller combination of the PID controller card.5V ± 0.2 V/Div Select the following scales on the oscilloscope: T Set KP = KPopt.

A-172 Exercise 15 PD controller Set KPopt. Now add increasing I and D elements. Value table KPopt KD xm Ta estat stable/unstable Comment PID controller Set KPopt. Value table KPopt KD KI xm Ta estat stable/unstable Comment TP511 • Festo Didactic . Now add an increasing D-element.

This is why closed loop controls of this type are known as follower control systems or servo control system. the actual value lags behind the setpoint value. The control task is then to adapt the actual value to the time characteristics of the setpoint value. A16.1: Closed control loop for follower control system vsoll t w e KP y Setpoint velocity Time Reference variable System deviation Gain of p controller Correcting variable KS v x KR r System gain Velocity Controlled variable Transfer coefficient of feedback Feedback variable TP111 • Festo Didactic . it is even more important to maintain a specific feed speed.A-173 Exercise 16 Closed-loop hydraulics Contour milling Subject Title T To learn about a follower control system T To be able to calculate a lag error T To be able to measure a lag error Follower control system The purpose of a position control system is not just to position a slide. Often. in which case a continuously increasing setpoint value is specified. Training aim Technical knowledge Fig. i. whereby the actual value follows the setpoint value with a certain time delay.e.

x = const. vist = ∆x / ∆t = vsoll Calculating the lap error A lag error can be calculated from the characteristics of the closed control loop (see fig. however. Fig. A16. T There is. A16.2 illustrates the displacement-time diagram of a follower control system with constant setpoint input. The following applies for a closed control loop: ∆x = e ⋅ K P ⋅ K S ⋅ ∆t e= ∆x 1 v ⋅ = K P ⋅ K S ∆t K P ⋅ K R The system deviation e (in V) is converted into a lag error ex (in mm) with the transfer coefficient of the feedback KR ex = e v = KR KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR TP111 • Festo Didactic .2: Lag error with constant feed velocity Lag error: Setpoint velocity: Actual velocity: ex = w . still a system deviation. > 0 vsoll = ∆w / ∆t = const.1).A-174 Exercise 16 Lag error If a constant speed is specified as setpoint value T the actual speed is in fact adapted to the setpoint speed. The mathematical correlations are given below as an explanation. Fig. which is known as lag error or following error. A16. This is equivalent to a position deviation.

The lag error is reduced as a result of high closed-loop gain V0. closed-loop control can no longer follow.A-175 Exercise 16 The closed-loop gain V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR produces the fundamental equation for the lag error: ex = v V0 Influences acting on the lag error As shown by the fundamental equation. The setpoint velocity is then no longer reached. A16.3: Effect of closed-loop gain on lag error TP111 • Festo Didactic . The maximum increase of the controller gain is however only possible up to the limit of stability at KPcrit. the lag error ex is dependent on T the setpoint velocity vset and T the closed-loop gain V0. a high closed-loop gain also reduces the lag error. If the setpoint velocity is to great. Fig. Since the closed-loop gain is directly influenced by the controller gain KP. As the velocity increases. the lag error becomes larger.

The contour tolerances concern both dimensional and form deviations. Constructing and commissioning a position control loop 2. Positional sketch Exercise Lag error 1. Specifying a constant feed speed as reference variable 3.A-176 Exercise 16 Problem description Models for casting moulds are to be produced on a milling machine. The machining process is to proceed at a constant feed speed. The lag error created as a result of this is to be determined. Calculating and measuring the lag error 4. The models are to be machined via an end mill cutter. Determining the positional dependence of the lag error TP111 • Festo Didactic .

Constructing and commissioning a position control loop The same position control loop is used here as in exercise 15. The transfer coefficient of the feedback KR = 50 V/m produces: V m V ∆w = K R ⋅ v = 50 ⋅ 0.2 = 10 m s s ∆t Example: TP111 • Festo Didactic . thereby resulting in a signal change of ∆w 4 ⋅ A = 4⋅A⋅f = ∆t T The equation (1) results in: v= 4⋅A⋅f KR Fig. The following applies: ∆w = K R ⋅ v = constant ∆t (1) Execution The reference variable w is set by means of the frequency generator via the characteristics amplitude A and frequency f (see fig. Constant feed speed as reference variable A reference variable w with constant time change is set to determine the lag error (ramp function).2 m/s. A16.4: Reference variable with constant gradient The travel velocity is to be v = 0. Within a period T.A-177 Exercise 16 1. A16.4). 2. Circuit diagram and commissioning are described in this exercise. the amplitude A is passed through a total of four times.

5V is recommended. An amplitude of A = 0. The resulting frequency is: V ∆w 10 s = 10 ⋅ 1 = 0.5V as ramp function with 5Hz TP111 • Festo Didactic .2 m/s is therefore: w = 5V ± 3V as ramp function with 0. a smaller reference variable must be selected.83Hz 3.A-178 Exercise 16 For a travel path of ± 60 mm around the centre of the travel range. amplitude A is = 3V.5V 2 s The reference variable is therefore: w = 1. The signal frequency for this is V ∆w 10 s = 10 ⋅ 1 = 5Hz f = ∆t = 4 ⋅ A 4 ⋅ 0.05 s/V KR = 50 V/m Gain of P controller System gain Transfer coefficient of feedback 4. Positional dependence of lag error To be able to establish the positional dependence.2 m/s requires a reference variable of ∆w/∆t = 10 V/s. Lag error The lag error ex is calculated from the velocity v and the closed-loop gain V0: ex = v V0 The close-loop gain V0 is calculated from the gains of the elements in the closed control loop: V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR With: KP KS = 0.5V ± 0. The setpoint velocity v = 0.83Hz f = ∆t = 4 ⋅ A 4 ⋅ 3V 12 s The reference variable w for v = 0.

T Set the control direction and offset correctly (exercise 15. T Specify a reference variable of w = 5V ± 3V.1 s/Div.1s ∆t for v = 0. Constructing and commissioning a position control loop T Construct the same position control loop as in exercise 15. T Reduce the controller gain KP to roughly half of the optimum value. T Record the characteristics of the following on the oscilloscope • reference variable w and • controlled variable x.2 m/s T Set a controller gain of KP = KPopt.A-179 Exercise 16 WORKSHEET Lag error 1. e. Time t: Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: Select the following scales on the oscilloscope: 0.g.). 1 V/Div. 1 V/Div. T Set a frequency of f = 0. e. to KP = 20. T Now change to ramp function. T Check the characteristics of the reference variable for V 1V ∆w = 10 = s 0.83 Hz. 2.g. TP111 • Festo Didactic . point 2. (see exercise 15). KP = 40. Constant feed speed as reference variable T Set the controller gain KP = 0.

the velocity v and . Value table Velocity v constant constant greater smaller Controller gain KP greater smaller constant constant Lag error ex T How does the lag error change with the velocity v? T How does the lag error change with the controller gain KP? TP111 • Festo Didactic .the controller gain KP.A-180 Exercise 16 T Enter the characteristics of the reference variable and ramp response in the diagram (with v = 0. Diagram T Examine the dependence of the lag error on .2 m/s and KP = 20).

T Enter the characteristics of reference variable and system deviation in the diagram. T Record the following characteristics on the oscilloscope .system deviation e.the setpoint velocity v and . T Are the above established tendencies confirmed? TP111 • Festo Didactic .A-181 Exercise 16 WORKSHEET T Set the setpoint velocity v = 0.2 m/s and KPopt again. Diagram T Change the following consecutively .the closed-loop gain KP.reference variable w and . Scaling for e: 0.2 V/Div.

exmess 20 40 T Why is the lag error directly dependent on the controller gain in this instance? TP111 • Festo Didactic .2 m/s and .Transfer coefficient of feedback: KS = 0.2 m/s in relation to the controller gain.velocity v = 0.05 m/s KR = 50 V/m T First of all calculate the closed-loop gain V0 V0 = T Now calculate the lag error exth: exth = T Then. Value table KP e exmess exth Measuring error = exth .Controlled-system gain: .closed-loop gain KP = 40. also calculate the system deviation eth: eth = T Measure the lag error for v = 0.A-182 Exercise 16 3. All other gain factors are to be assumed: . Lag error T Calculate the theoretical lag error exth for .

2V ∆w = 10 = s 20ms ∆t T Set KP = KPopt (e. KP = 40). What is the system deviation measure? e = Which lag error does this correspond t? exmeas = TP111 • Festo Didactic .system deviation e. why? 4.2 V/Div. Scales as follows: Time t: Reference variable w: System deviation e: w = 1. 0.reference variable w and .5V. 0. g. T Set the following reference variable: f = 5Hz. Ramp function T Check the setpoint velocity of v = 0.A-183 Exercise 16 WORKSHEET T Is the lag error the same for forward and return stroke? If not. 20 ms/Div. Positional dependence of the lag error T Record the characteristics of the following on the oscilloscope .2 m/s V 0.5V ± 0.1 V/Div.

5V 5V ± 0. Range of operating path Edge Centre Edge Value table Reference variable w 1.2 m/s and KP = KPopt.5V 8V ± 0. where v = 0.A-184 Exercise 16 T Measure the lag error at different points of the travel distance.5V System deviation e Lag error ex How does the lag error change? TP111 • Festo Didactic .5V ± 0.

A17. Two frequently varying influencing variables of the controlled system are to be examined here: Training aim Technical knowledge T variable mass loads on the slide and T different oil volumes caused as a result of the lines between valve and cylinder.1: Spring/mass oscillator TP511 • Festo Didactic . Spring/mass vibrator The hydraulic linear unit is a system capable of oscillation. very often the characteristics of a controlled system are inconsistent. A17.A-185 Exercise 17 Closed-loop hydraulics Machining centre Subject Title T To learn about the features of a modified control system T To be able to establish the influence of load T To learn about the influence of volume Changes in the controlled system In industrial practice. The natural angular frequency of such a system is: ω= c m The general rule is: ω=2⋅µ⋅f and T = 1/f c = Spring stiffness ω = Natural angular frequency m = Mass f = Natural frequency T = Time constant of system Fig. The columns of oil can be regarded as springs and the mass of the slide is clamped between these springs (see fig.1). It can be compared with a spring/mass vibrator.

the controlled variable then follows at the same distance as the reference variable in an unmodified controlled system. Large oil volumes can be easily avoided. units where the valve is directly mounted onto the operating cylinder are often used. T The lag error remains unchanged. mass load is rarely avoidable. as the oil is only slightly compressible. In practice. since the hydraulic drive unit is particularly suitable for transporting large loads thanks to its high driving power. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A greater initial volume is more compressible: the spring represented by the oil column becomes effectively more flexible. T Accordingly. The controller parameters must be adapted to this system. but it takes longer for the setpoint velocity to be attained. Influences acting on the closed control loop The controlled system becomes slower both as a result of increasing load and also increasing oil volume. This also results in a reduced natural angular frequency. The slower system already becomes unstable with a minimal controller gain. T Overall. However. this results in a higher settling time Ta. which reduces spring rigidity.A-186 Exercise 17 Influence of mass load A higher mass load reduces the natural angular frequency of the controlled system. the optimum controller gain also becomes smaller. The volume change increases T with the pressure raised and T the initial volume. The following changes in the characteristic data of the closed control loop can be seen: T The limit of stability KPcrit becomes smaller. For this reason. Influence of the oil volume The spring stiffness of the oil columns is very high. This slows down the controlled system. by making sure that the line distances between valve and drive unit are short. A different controller may therefore be more advantageous in this case.

A-187 Exercise 17 Engine blocks are to be conveyed towards a machining centre. The engine blocks are mounted on a slide. Lag error with modified system Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . After this. Changing the controlled system by means of load and reservoir 3. Added to this is the fact that the central hydraulics including the directional control valve are constructed next to the system and that the slide is connected via long hose lines. The loading position must be accurately approached for this. the slide is to return empty to fetch the next engine block. The feed slide is to operate free from vibration with and without load and to position accurately. Problem description Positional sketch Modified controlled system 1. Constructing and commissioning the closed control loop 2. which conveys them to an exact position in the operational space of the machining centre.

where the circuit diagram and commissioning have already been described. then the hose and then both together. T creating additional oil volume by replacing the lines between the valve and cylinder with 3m long hose sections. a ramp is specified as a reference variable: w = 1.5V as square-wave signal The characteristics of the unchanged controlled system are to be determined from the step response: T Limit of stability KPcrit0 and T optimum controller gain KPopt0 with T settling time Ta The controlled system is then modified by adding individually the load. Theoretically the lag error remains the same. TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V ± 0. even if the controlled system is subsequently changed. The setpoint step-change is w = 1. 0. The same controller gain KP = 20.5V ± 0.2V. 3.1l) The influences of these changes is investigated with the help of the transition function.2 m/s or a setpoint change of ∆w/∆t = 10 V/s. Constructing and commissioning the position control loop The same position control loop is used here as in exercise 15.5V as ramp with frequency f = 5Hz. This corresponds to a setpoint speed of 0. 2.A-188 Exercise 17 Execution 1. also produces the same lag error of ex = 4mm a system deviation of e = 0. (Volume per hose line approx. Lag error with modified system In this instance. as that used in exercise 16. Modifying the controlled system The controlled system is modified by T attaching a load of 10 kg to the slide.

T Determine the following by setting the P controller: KPcrit0 = KPopt0 = Ta0 = T Modify the controlled system via load m and hose volume V and determine the characteristics: m = V 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0.1 l 10kg 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic . 2.5V. T Carry out the commissioning according to point 2 of the worksheet in that exercise. T Select the oscilloscope scales so as to enable you to completely represent a step response.5V ± 0.1 l Tendency Value table KPcrit KPopt Ta at KPopt T What tendency do you detect from the measured values? Enter these in the value table for each characteristic.A-189 Exercise 17 WORKSHEET Modified controlled system 1. Modifying the controlled system T Set a setpoint step-change of w = 1. Constructing and commissioning the closed control loop T Construct the same closed control loop as in exercise 15.

1 l Tendency e ex T Why do you measure the same lag error every time? T What lag error would you measure with an optimum controller setting? T With which system can you travel at the maximum velocity? TP511 • Festo Didactic . m = V Wertetabelle 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0.5V with f = 5Hz V 2V ∆w = 10 = ∆t s 0. Is ex = 4mm or.1 l 10kg 0.5V ± 0. Lag error with modified controlled system T Set the reference variable w: w = 1.2ms as ramp function T Check the gradient to T Record the lag error ex with KP = 20. e = 0.2V? T Change the controlled system via load and hose volume.A-190 Exercise 17 3. Leave KP = 20.

This mainly deals with major faults developing gradually after long periods of operation. T other faults. wear or pollution. whereby it is best to adopt a systematic procedure. in the valve. T mechanical faults.g. it is essential to be aware of the effects of all potential individual faults. measurable changes such as: TP511 • Festo Didactic . the individual causes can be investigated specifically and eliminated. we shall deal purely with interferences in hydraulics for the purpose of this exercise.g. in the cylinder or the power pack.g. in the interconnection. due to wrong setting. Due to the wear of an individual device.g. a different operating temperature. e. e. Since a fault is often the result of several causes.A-191 Exercise 18 Closed-loop hydraulics Drilling of bearing surfaces Subject Title T To be able to undertake the commissioning of a closed control loop T To be able carry out an optimum setting of the position control loop T To be able to eliminate interferences Fault finding in a closed control loop To be able to eliminate interferences in a system.g. e. Since the testing of all likely faults would exceed the scope of this exercise. when reading measured values or the setting of devices. T electrical faults. due to faulty components or loose connections during assembly T faults in the hydraulics. control device. e. in the measuring system or in the T faults in the closed-loop controller. faults may occur due to a number of very different causes: Training aim Technical knowledge Types of fault T faults due to human error. it is necessary to isolate the fault and to establish the cause. During the operation of an automatic installation. in the wiring. e. e. In this way.g.

thereby also creating a higher input signal. A second possibility is to set a higher controller gain. Drop in supply pressure If the pump no longer produces the required output. 1. The characteristics of the valve are similar to that of a negative overlap. see exercise 14). pressure drop. reduced flow rate q. 2. If the pattern of the pressure/signal characteristic curve is flatter. the required flow rate can also flow with a reduced pressure differential. In order to eliminate the fault.e. i. A different pressure prevails in the chamber of the operating cylinder due to the force equilibrium on the piston (depending on the area ratio. A wider opening of the valve is achieved by means of an increased controller gain KP. The effects of these faults are to be established and measures tried out to eliminate these.A-192 Exercise 18 T power pack: T valve: T cylinder: drop in performance. then a higher input signal is required and the offset needs to be re-adjusted. internal leakage. reduced velocity v of the cylinder. As a result of a larger control gap. 3. The pressure ratio is set via the offset on the valve or on the controller. internal leakage. The pattern of the pressure/signal characteristic curves is flatter. the valve needs to be further opened. reduced differential pressure ∆p at the control gap of the valve. which are normally very sharp edged for zero overlap. 4. This results in the following action chain: 1. Oil escapes towards the tank and is no longer available for the operating cylinder. reduced supply pressure pP. TP511 • Festo Didactic . then a reduced actuating pressure is available for the closed control loop. 3. Leakage in the valve Internal leakage is created as a result of wear of the control edges of the directional control valve. 2.

Long-term. The flow rate reduced by the leakage qL can be compensated by further opening the control gap on the valve. The pressure on the rod side is greater than that on the piston side due to the force equilibrium. it is however only possible to compensate small leakage. The drifting of the piston can be limited by re-adjusting the offset. 2. This results in the following chain of events: 1. If the leakage is sufficiently large. 3. this results in the piston drifting in the direction of a forward end position. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Since a lesser flow rate is required for the return stroke.A-193 Exercise 18 Leakage in the cylinder A leakage is created on the piston seal of the cylinder due to wear. In practice. This can be achieved by means of a higher controller gain KP. the leakage is more apparent here: the retracting velocity vin is reduced. it is more sensible to replace the seal. A leakage qL occurs from the rod side to the piston side proportional to the pressure drop.

Check supply pressure.A-194 Exercise 18 Measures for the elimination of interferences The following table is to provide some advice regarding faults. Measures for the elimination of interferences Error Position error Cause Offset Leakage Remedy Re-adjustment on the controller Replace component Re-adjustment. possible causes and measures for elimination. Exchange power pack Increase controller gain or Check power pack Compensation through offset. on the controller or on the valve Replace component check all signals and correct polarity Replace piston seal Increase controller gain. check valve characteristic curve Drift Offset Leakage Approaching of end stops Approaching of one end stops Reduced velocity Greater lag error Control direction Leakage too high Pressure drop Pressure drop Leakage TP511 • Festo Didactic . Additional advice can be found in part B. Replace piston seal.

The drive unit was constructed first of all and then the electrical controller connected. Constructing a hydraulic position control loop 2.A-195 Exercise 18 Bearing surfaces are to be drilled by means of a position controlled feed drive. These manifest themselves in the form of insufficient accuracy. In addition. Investigating interferences in the closed control loop Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . the required safety precautions have been put in place for the continuous operation of the installation. These interferences are to be eliminated by identifying and rectifying the causes. Problem description Positional sketch Interferences in the hydraulic position control loop 1. Interferences occur in the course of the system operation. The controller was then parameterised and an optimum quality criteria set. Commissioning a closed control loop 3. tool breakage. chatter marks. exceeding of cycle times.

T a frequency generator. The following are required for commissioning: T a multimeter. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . Circuit diagram. Constructing a position control loop The position control loop consists of: T T T T a dynamic directional control valve a linear drive a displacement sensor a P controller as final control element. as control Interferences are simulated by means of: T a pressure relief valve in the by-pass and T a flow control valve between the working lines. The following measuring points are to be designated for the pressure: T supply port pP and T working port pA.A-196 Exercise 18 Execution 1. as closed control loop. T an oscilloscope. as feedback. This leads to a hydraulic and electrical circuit diagram.

Commissioning The commissioning of a position control loop is to be carried out as a prime example in this exercise.A-197 Exercise 18 Circuit diagram. you will have an optimum set closed control loop and a table with the most important characteristics. Hence all the steps described in detail in exercises 15 and 16 are to be collated and commissioning is to be effected with the help of a check list. TP511 • Festo Didactic . electrical 2. When all the points of this check list have been processed.

The interferences are simulated by opening the pressure relief valve.5V as square-wave signal First of all. Interferences in the closed control loop 3. A second series of measurements is carried out to investigate to what extent the interference can be compensated.2 Leakage The same reference as that under point 3. the initial status is recorded: T KPcrit0. 3. The following are to be measured to enable you to make comparisons with the initial status: T T T T KPcrit Ta with KPopt0 Working pressure pA depending on pP. Then. The position deviation is reduced by re-adjusting T KPopt and T offset TP511 • Festo Didactic . The controller is set at an optimum setting with different supply pressures pP.A-198 Exercise 18 3.1 is used here. First of all the interference is determined by means of measuring T the limit of stability KPkrit and T the system deviation e T with increasing leakage. various measures of elimination are to be investigated. T KPopt0 and Ta0. The supply pressure can be read on the pressure gauge.5V ± 0.1 Pressure drop A step function is set for a reference variable: w = 1. The result is T KPopt and T Ta T depending on pP.

Constructing the position control loop T Construct the closed control loop in accordance with the circuit diagrams.A-199 Exercise 18 WORKSHEET Interferences in the hydraulic position control loop 1. Make sure that the trial set-up and in particular the linear unit are attached securely to a sturdy base! 2. Commissioning Risk of injury! Prior to switching on make sure that no one is within the operating space of the slide! Work your way through the check list points in the sequence given. T Safety-related presettings Reference variable Controller gain w KP Other parameters KI KD Offset Limiter T Switch on power supply T Check the control direction T Set the offset TP511 • Festo Didactic . T Close the pressure relief valve and flow control valve completely.

5V Square-wave Controller gain KPopt Overshoot amplitude xm Steady-state system deviation estat Settling time Ta TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V Square-wave Crit.5V ± 0.A-200 Exercise 18 T Transition function Diagram T Limit of stability Reference variable w 1. controller gain KPcrit T Quality criteria Priority Characteristic Tolerance 1 2 3 4 T Optimise controller parameters Reference variable w 1.5V ± 0.

Ramp System deviation e Lag error ex Closed-loop gain V0 T Block diagram with amplification gain Block diagram 3.5V 5Hz.5V ± 0.2m/s = 0.2V / 20ms Reference variable w 1. T Note the characteristics for the interference-free closed control loop: KPcrit0 = KPopt0 = Toff0 = Ton0 = TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V with f = 5Hz square wave form.A-201 Exercise 18 WORKSHEET T Lag error and closed-loop gain (with KPopt) Setpoint velocity vsoll 0. T Record setpoint value w and actual value x on the oscilloscope.5V ± 0. T Check whether the pressure relief valve and flow control valve are closed. Interferences in the closed control loop T Set a setpoint value of w = 1.

Determine the following characteristics and evaluate the change: Values 50 40 30 20 10 bar bar Value table Characteristic pP pA KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 Tendency decreasing s T Try to compensate the interference by optimising KP. Value table Characteristic pP KPopt0 Tout with KPopt s 50 40 Values 30 20 10 bar Tendency decreasing T Is it possible to compensate the interference completely? T Up to what supply pressure pP is compensation possible? TP511 • Festo Didactic . Enter your evaluation in the value table.1 Pressure drop T Simulate the drop in supply pressure pP by gradually opening the pressure relief valve.A-202 Exercise 18 3.

Characteristic qL KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 Tin with KPopt0 estat Tendency increasing Wertetabelle s s V T Try to compensate the interference by re-adjusting the KP and the offset. Values 1/8 1/4 1/8 1/2 Rot.A-203 Exercise 18 WORKSHEET 3. Determine the following characteristics and evaluate the change: Values 1/8 1/4 1/8 1/2 Rot. Enter your evaluation in the value table.2 Leakage T Simulate a leakage qL in the cylinder by gradually opening the flow control valve. Characteristic qL KPopt Tout with KPopt Tin with KPopt estat Tendency increasing Wertetabelle s s V TP511 • Festo Didactic .

A-204 Exercise 18 T Is it possible to compensate the interference? T How is a large leakage detected? T State your reasons for this: TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Hence. This results in a triple loop controller structure. The status controller used in this instance influences three status variables: Technical knowledge T the position x.g. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A15.A-205 Exercise 19 Closed-loop hydraulics Feed on a shaping machine Subject Title T To learn about the purpose and construction of a status controller T To be able to record the transition and ramp functions of a status controller Training aim Status controller A status controller is to be used to influence the status variables of a controlled system. The status variables in the hydraulic position control loop are e. the working pressure p. the velocity v. Each loop contains an amplifier and the required differentiator. The computational algorithm between these variables is very simple: they are formed through integration. T the velocity v and T the acceleration a. the position x.2). it is possible to calculate back from the position x T to the velocity v = x by single differentiation and T to the acceleration a = by x double differentiation. the control voltage VE (see also fig. the acceleration a. Only one status variable must therefore be measured: the position x.

A-206 Exercise 19 Fig.x) y x = Kx ⋅ x for the position for the velocity for the acceleration y x = K ⋅ x x The results of the three loops are added together at a summation point. TP511 • Festo Didactic . A19. The result is the total gain P. The signal then passes through a limiter before being transmitted to the valve in the form of a correcting variable y. whereby the proportions from speed and acceleration are deducted from the proportion from the position.1: Block diagram of status controller The equations for the three loops of the status controller are: y x = Kx ⋅ e = Kx ⋅ (w .

the function and characteristics of the status controller are to be checked. A status controller is to be used as a control device. Problem description Positional sketch TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-207 Exercise 19 The feed axis of a shaping machine is to be equipped with a hydraulic position control loop. To begin with.

Recording the transition and ramp function Execution 1.A-208 Exercise 19 Exercise Status controller 1. T a voltage supply of 24V for the status controller. Determining the characteristics of the status controller 3. Constructing the measuring circuit 2. Measuring circuit The following characteristics must be recorded to establish the transition and ramp function: T the reference variable w for input variable T the correcting variable y for output variable The following equipment is required for the measurements: T a frequency generator to set the step and ramp function as a reference variable. Circuit diagram. with an adjusting range of ± 10V. electrical TP511 • Festo Didactic . T a multimeter to commission the circuit. T an oscilloscope to record the response functions.

The most important characteristics of a status controller are: Input variables Reference variable w: Controlled variable x: Output variable Correcting variable y: Controller coefficients Position coefficient Kx: Velocity coefficient Kx : Acceleration coefficient Kx : Total gain P: Further characteristics Supply voltage: Voltage connections for sensors: Offset: Limiter: 24V 15V and 24V 5V ± 3. Any exceeding of signal ranges is indicated via LEDs. it is appropriate to use a ramp function as a test signal. Transition and ramp function Since a controller with differentiating elements is used here.A-209 Exercise 19 2. Then.10V 3.10 0ms .10V 0V .5V or 7V 0V .10ms 0 . Characteristics of a status controller All setting parameters are set to zero for the commissioning.10V or ± 10V 0 . The following applies for a reference variable w = 0V ± 5V and f = 2Hz: 1 V ∆w = 4 ⋅ A ⋅ f = 4 ⋅ 5V ⋅ 2 = 40 s s ∆t TP511 • Festo Didactic .100 0V .10V or ± 10V 0V . the characteristics are checked with the multimeter.100ms 2 2 0ms .

TP511 • Festo Didactic . T at connection x for the velocity and acceleration elements. whereby x = 0: y x = Kx ⋅ w = 0.5 ⋅ 5V = 2.5 and P = 1.007 ⋅ 40 V = 2.5V The correcting variable for the velocity loop is calculated with Kx = 7ms: y x = Kx ⋅ x = 0.28 V s The following applies for the correcting variable of the acceleration loop: y = K ⋅ = K ⋅ 0 = 0 x x x x The test signal is applied at different points to measure the transition and ramp function of the individual loops: T at connection w for the position element.A-210 Exercise 19 The position correcting variable yx is the result of Kx = 0.

the offset to centre. T Measure the range of values of the following characteristics with the multimeter: Max.the limiter to ± 10V. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Controlled variable x: Max. Reference variable w: Max.the limiter to ± 10V.all potentiometers to zero. T Connect the supply voltage 24V. Limiter: Do the measurements agree with the setpoint value? 3. . Correcting variable y: Max.the total gain P = 1./min. T Set ./min. Transition and ramp function T Set: .the offset to zero. ./min. Measuring circuit T Construct the measuring circuit in accordance with the circuit diagram.all controller parameters to zero. ./min./min. Offset: Max. . . Characteristics of a status controller T Specify different voltages with the generator.A-211 Exercise 19 WORKSHEET Status controller 1. 2.

2 V/Div.2 Velocity controller T Set the parameter Kx to zero.5. T Specify the desired function at input x. and record the transition and ramp function.Reference variable w: . square wave or ramp 50 ms/Div.A-212 Exercise 19 T Set the following reference variable: . 2 V/Div. T Select the following scales on the oscilloscope: 3. Diagram Which controller type does the transition correspond t? 3. T Set Kx =7ms (potentiometer setting 0.w = 0V ± 5V.7).1 Position controller T Set Kx = 0.Correcting variable y: f = 2Hz. TP511 • Festo Didactic .Time t: . . and record the transition and ramp function.

0). and record the transition and ramp function. T Set Kx = 1ms2 (potentiometer setting 1.A-213 Exercise 19 WORKSHEET Diagram Which controller type does the transition function correspond t? 3.3 Acceleration controller T Set the parameter Kx to zero. Diagram By what do you recognise the double differentiator? TP511 • Festo Didactic . T Specify the desired function at input x.

A-214 Exercise 19 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Status controller: P controller: y = ( w .A-215 Exercise 20 Closed-loop hydraulics Paper feed of a printing machine Subject Title T To be able to commission a position control loop with status controller T To be able to set optimum parameters of a status controller T To be able to measure lag errors of a position control loop with a status controller Training aim Position control loop with status controller A status controller contains three loops: one P element with one D element with Kx ⋅ (w . but in addition the velocity v and acceleration a.1. (as in the case of a P controller) which are influenced. the feedback has not been taken into account in this instance (or set KR = 1).x) ⋅ Kx ⋅ P . A20.x) Kx ⋅ Technical knowledge x = Kx ⋅ v t one D2 element with x t K ⋅ = Kx ⋅ a x t As illustrated both by the equations and fig. w and x.v ⋅ Kx ⋅ P . it is not just the setpoint and actual value.x) ⋅ K P To provide a clearer representation. TP511 • Festo Didactic . with a status controller.a ⋅ K ⋅ P x y = ( w .

a stable setting of the closed control loop can be achieved. Initially. TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-216 Exercise 20 Fig. This overshoot is attenuated by connecting the velocity gain Kx In this way. Then.1: Status controller and P controller in position control loop Parameterisation of a status controller 1. even though the proportional gain Kx (corresponds to KP with P controller) is near the critical stability. 3. the oscillations are reduced to a large overshoot. all parameters are set to zero. A20. 4. The extremely high closed-loop gain resulting from this is the main advantage of a status controller compared to a P controller. By connecting the acceleration gain Kx . the limit of stability is established with the P controller. 2.

a ⋅ K R ⋅ K ⋅ P x With a constant speed. the acceleration is equal to zero: v = constant → a=0 v : y Thus. the following applies with system gain K S = y= v KS = e ⋅ Kx ⋅ P .v ⋅ K R ⋅ Kx ⋅ P .v ⋅ K R ⋅ Kx ⋅ P Conversion results in: e= v 1 ⋅ K + v ⋅ K R ⋅ Kx ⋅ P Kx ⋅ P S The system deviation e with a status controller is: K R ⋅ Kx 1 e = v ⋅ Kx ⋅ P ⋅ K + Kx S The lag error ex can be calculated from the system deviation: ex = e 1 Kx = v⋅ K ⋅ Kx ⋅ P ⋅ K + Kx KR S R By using closed-loop gain V0 = KR ⋅ Kx ⋅ P ⋅ KS the calculation is simplified to: 1 Kx e = v⋅ V + Kx KR 0 ex = TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-217 Exercise 20 Lag error with status controller The signal equation of a position control loop with a status controller is (including feedback KR): y = e ⋅ Kx ⋅ P .

the lag error also increases. T The hose volume is partially compensated by means of high closed- loop gain V0. be set very high so that the lag error is already significantly less than with the P controller. A15. Please refer to fig. The acceleration gain Kx has a direct effect on the acceleration a. to adapt the controller to the modified controlled system to such an extent that the controlled system almost attains the quality criteria of the unmodified controlled system. by optimal parameterisation.A-218 Exercise 20 The first addend of this equation corresponds to the lag error of a P controller: ex = v V0 At first glance.2 for explanation. however. This is confirmed during parameterisation: as soon as the gain Kx is increased. only the very high gain of the P element in the status controller is of any advantage. None of the three loops of the status controller directly influences the controlled system element where the change in oil volume enters. the lag error with a status controller appears to be greater by a component coupled with the velocity gain. in comparison with a P controller. which is dependent on the mass load. The proportional gain Kx can. T The load is compensated by increasing Kx . TP511 • Festo Didactic . it will still not be as great as with the P controller. Even if the lag error is now increased by the velocity gain Kx . The spring/mass model described in exercise 17 results in: T a lower spring rigidity c and T a lower natural angular frequency ω = c m With a status controller it is possible. Hence. Status controller with modified controlled system The characteristics of a controlled system change as a result of T load or T hose volume.

The slide then returns empty. Problem description Positional sketch Position control loop with status controller 1. Adapting the status controller to a modified controlled system Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . Setting the parameters of a status controller 4.A-219 Exercise 20 The exchange of paper rolls on a printing machine is to take place automatically. Constructing a position control loop with status controller 2. The paper roll is to be transported on a slide with a hydraulic drive unit. One large. Measuring and calculating lag errors 5. The position control loop for this task is to be constructed and commissioned. Establishing the stability range 3. heavy paper roll is to be transported at a time from a storing place to the printing machine and attached in a fixture. The paper roll must be precisely positioned so that it can be secured in the paper guide.

for control To be able to record the transition function. Position control loop with status controller The position control loop consists of: T T T T the dynamic directional control valve the linear drive the displacement sensor the status controller for final control element. for controlled system. for feedback. This results in the hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. T a step function is specified as a setpoint value via the function generator and T the step response recorded via the oscilloscope. hydraulic Circuit diagram. Circuit diagram.A-220 Exercise 20 Execution 1. electrical TP511 • Festo Didactic .

The P controller gain is set to 10: P = 10 and Kx = 1 produces: KP = Kx ⋅ P = 10 Setpoint and actual value are set on the oscilloscope. Then Kx is increased until steady-state oscillations occur. The quality criteria to apply is: 1. 3. No overshoot 2. whereby the limit of stability is reached. The proportional gain KP = Kx ⋅ P remains set as high as possible. Specifying setpoint value for mid-position 2. The oscillations are converted to a large overshoot by increasing the acceleration gain Kx . 3. No oscillations during the positioning process 3. This overshoot is attenuated by increasing the velocity gain Kx . Minimal position deviation 4. Setting offset The status controller is used purely as a P controller to begin with in that the parameters of the two other loops are set at zero. 2. Short setting time TP511 • Festo Didactic . Parameterisation of status controller 1. Checking control direction 3.A-221 Exercise 20 2. Stability range Commissioning follows the same steps as those used for the position control loop of a P controller (exercises 15 and 18): 1.

05 s m V 5. The same effects as those in exercise 17 can be seen for the P controller: T smaller stability range and T longer settling time. Measuring and calculating lag errors If a ramp function has been specified as setpoint velocity. The quality criteria is met to a much higher degree than with a P controller. The pure P branch produces the same lag error as that in exercise 16.A-222 Exercise 20 4. Status controller with modified controlled system As in exercise 17.1l each. The lag error is significantly reduced by setting the optimised parameters of the status controller (see point 3. the closed-loop gain V0 is to be calculated first: V0 = KR ⋅ Kx ⋅ P ⋅ KS The values determined in exercises 12 and 14 apply for the feedback KR and the controlled-system gain: m V K R = 50 and K S = 0. To do so. The lag error is to be calculated as a means of comparison.). then it is also possible to measure a lag error in this instance. the controlled system is modified by means of T a load of 10kg T two hose volumes of 0. The status controller is adapted to the modified controlled system by readjusting the parameters. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Establishing the stability range Risk of injury! Prior to switching on. f = approx.A-223 Exercise 20 WORKSHEET Position control loop with status controller 1. make sure that no one is within the operating range of the slide T Commission the closed control loop step by step: T Safety-related presettings Reference variable w P Controller parameter Kx Kx Kx Other Offset Limiter Value table T Switch on the power supply Check the control direction Set the offset T Transition function T Setpoint value w = 5V ± 3V. 1Hz square-wave TP511 • Festo Didactic . Constructing the position control loop T Construct the closed control loop in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Make sure that the test set-up and in particular the linear unit are securely attached to a sturdy base! 2.

T Also examine the limits with high values for Kx and Kx .A-224 Exercise 20 Diagram Limit of stability KPcrit = Kx ⋅ P 3. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Evaluate the transition function: T Increase Kx . then start again with a slightly reduced KP. How does the transition function change? T Do you obtain an optimal setting? yes / no If the quality criteria cannot be obtained in this way. T Leave the KP at the critical value KPcrit. How does the transition function change? T Increase Kx . Setting the parameters of the status controller Set the parameters of the status controller in order that the quality criteria are met.

A-225 Exercise 20 WORKSHEET T Note the optimised parameters of the status controller and the settling time: P= Kx = Kx = ms ms 2 Kx = Ta = Reference variable P 5V ± 3V Square-wave ms optimum controller parameters Kx Kx Kx Settling time Ta ms 2 Value table ms ms 4. = 10 = s 20ms ∆t v = 0.2 m/s T Set the parameters of the status controller established above. with 0.2V V ∆w . T Measure the system deviation e: e= (V) T Convert the lag error ex: ex = (mm) T Check the arithmetics of the lag error.83Hz for ramp function T Check the characteristics of the setpoint value at 0. first calculate the closed-loop gain V0: TP511 • Festo Didactic . Calculating and measuring lag errors T Set the following setpoint value: w = 5V ± 3V. To do so.

For which controller is the lag error greater and why? 5.1 l 10kg 0. T Measure the settling time with optimum parameterisation.A-226 Exercise 20 V0 = 1 Kx The lag error is then: e x = v ⋅ V + Kx 0 (1/s) ex = (m) T Compare the lag error with that for the P controller. Status controller with modified controlled system T Modify the controlled system by means of a load m and a hose volume V. Wertetabelle m V 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0. T Optimise the controller parameter for the modified system.1 l Tendency P Kxcrit Kxopt Kx opt Kx opt Ta T What difference do you notice in comparison with a pure P controller? (comparison with solution for exercise 17) TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Technical knowledge Fig. These are known as the “braking load”. A21. The characteristics of the controlled system are considerably changed as a result of this braking load.1: Hydraulic controlled system with braking load TP511 • Festo Didactic .A-227 Exercise 21 Closed-loop hydraulics Horizontal grinding machine Subject Title T To be able to eliminate interferences in the hydraulic position control loop Training aim T To be able to construct a position control loop with braking load T To be able to detect interferences due to braking load Controlled system with braking load Forces occur on a machine during the machining process. which act against the feed.

since qA smaller smaller. ∆p = pP . A21.pA.1. The results are summarised in fig. since KS smaller smaller. T The braking load F is converted into a load pressure pL via the piston area AK: pL = F AK T The working pressure pAL is greater with braking load than without: pAL > pA0 T The differential pressure at the inlet control edge of the valve. since pA greater smaller. becomes smaller with increasing working pressure pA: ∆pL < ∆p0 TP511 • Festo Didactic .1: Changes in system variables as a result of braking load Variable Pump supply pressure pP Valve activating signal VE Braking load F Load pressure pL Working pressure inside cylinder pA Flow valve.A-228 Exercise 21 Table A21. since vout smaller smaller. The following describes the changes in the main characteristics.p A ) ∆p N qA ⋅ AK v out VE smaller. only the advancing piston will be examined. since v0 smaller KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR v set V0 Characteristics in the closed control loop with braking load The description of the hydraulic characteristics in the closed control loop is set out in detail in exercise 14.1 and table A21. To simplify matters. inlet control edge qA Forward velocity of piston vaus System gain KS Closed-loop gain V0 Lag error e Formula F AK pA + pL qN ⋅ Change as a result of braking load constant constant constant constant greater (p P .

T The forward velocity is reduced proportional to the flow rate: vL < v0 T KS = v / VE results in a smaller system gain under load: KSL < KS0 T V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR results in a smaller closed-loop gain under load: V0L < V00 T e = v / V0 results in a larger lag error: eL > e0 As a further explanation.A-229 Exercise 21 T Since the flow rate is dependent on the differential pressure. the mathematical procedure for the working pressure with braking load is set out below (analogous to exercise 14): Force equilibrium exists at the piston: p AL ⋅ A K = p B ⋅ A KR + F Area ratio α= AK A KR produces the working pressure p AL = p B ⋅ 1 F ⋅ α AK or p AL = p B ⋅ 1 ⋅ pL α and the back pressure p BL = α ⋅ (p AL . this is also reduced under load (see flow characteristic curve of the valve): qL < q0.p L ) The flow rate equilibrium in the cylinder is q AL = α ⋅ qBL TP511 • Festo Didactic .

The lag error.A-230 Exercise 21 The flow rate in the valve results in qN ⋅ p BL VE p -p V ⋅ P AL = α ⋅ qN ⋅ E ⋅ VEmax VEmax ∆p N ∆p N p P . can either be compensated by means of a higher closed-loop gain or a reduced velocity. Measures in the event of a braking load The closed-loop gain. however. which has been reduced as a result of a load.p AL = α 2 ⋅ α ⋅ (p AL . which has been increased as a result of a load.p AL = α 2 ⋅ p BL p P . In practice. a limit has been set by the stability.p L ) p P . can be adapted theoretically by means of a higher controller gain. TP511 • Festo Didactic .α 3 ⋅ p L p AL ⋅ 1 + α 3 = p P + α 3 ⋅ p L p AL = pP α3 ⋅ pL + 1+ α3 1+ α3 α3 ⋅ pL 1+ α3 ( ) p AL = p A 0 + The working pressure pAL under load is thus dependent on the load pressure pL and the area ratio in the cylinder.p AL = α 3 ⋅ p AL .

The feed of the grinding wheel is to be set by means of a position control loop. After a number of hours in operation. Due to the machining forces. Examining the interference behaviour with braking load Exercise TP511 • Festo Didactic . The areas concerned are the hydraulics and faults as result of braking load.A-231 Exercise 21 Guide rails are to be machined on a horizontal grinding machine. The installation has been constructed and commissioned. Constructing a position control loop with braking load 4. Constructing and commissioning the closed control loop 2. Problem description Positional sketch Interferences in the closed control loop 1. Despite this. the feed slide is to remain accurately positioned. Investigating interferences in the hydraulic circuit 3. faults are occurring. which are to be rectified. the load of the feed slide acts against the force.

T a frequency generator.A-232 Exercise 21 Execution 1. The closed control loop thus consists of: T T T T a dynamic directional control valve a linear drive a displacement sensor a status controller for final control element. Position control loop Exercise 18 provides a detailed description of fault finding in a hydraulic position control loop with P controller. for control d Interferences are to be simulated by means of: T a pressure relief valve in the by-pass to the hydraulic power pack and T a flow control valve between the working lines. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The faults addressed in the hydraulics in that exercise are to be examined as a comparison using a status controller relating to: T drop in supply pressure T leakage in the cylinder. for feedback. for controlled system. The following are required for commissioning: T a multimeter. T an oscilloscope. Measuring points for the pressure are to be provided at: T Supply port pP and T Power port pA.

A-233 Exercise 21 This results in the hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams. Circuit diagram. to make sure. However. hydraulic Circuit diagram. the most important points in the check list are covered in exercise 18). TP511 • Festo Didactic . electrical It is assumed that the procedure for the commissioning of the position control loop is known.

5V as square wave signal The interference-free initial status is described by: T KPcrit0 = Kxcrit0 ⋅ P T KPopt0 and Ta0 2. Interferences in the hydraulic circuit A step function is set as reference variable: T w = 1. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The deviations as a result of the interference are to be compensated by re-adjusting the controller parameters.5V ± 0. K opt . x T Taopt T dependent on supply pressure pP 2.2 Leakage The following characteristics are measured with the help of the step response: T limit of stability KPcrit and T system deviation e T dependent on leakage. The supply pressure pP can be read on the pressure gauge. Kx opt . To be able to make a comparison with the initial status. The status controller is to be set at an optimum setting with different supply pressures pP.A-234 Exercise 21 2.1 Pressure drop The interference is to be simulated by gradually adjusting the pressure relief valve. The result is: T Kx opt . The result is to be compared with the P controller (exercise 18).. the characteristics are measured first of all without interference: T T T T KPcrit = Kxcrit ⋅ P Ta at KPopt0 working pressure pA dependent on supply pressure pP A second series of measurements is to investigate how far the interference can be compensated by means of the status controller.

Circuit diagram. The following are to be measured T supply pressure pP and T load pressure pL This results in a new hydraulic circuit.A-235 Exercise 21 3. T pressure relief valve in the by-pass to set the pressure in the load cylinder. The electrical circuit remains the same as that under point 1. This results in a second control sequence with following devices: T hydraulic power pack for the load cylinder. hydraulic TP511 • Festo Didactic . Position control loop with braking load The breaking load is generated by means of a double-acting cylinder. T stop cock to relieve the pressure in the load cylinder to the tank. which acts against the operating cylinder.

A-236 Exercise 21 4. Response to interference with braking load Since the load cylinder and operating cylinder are of the same dimensions. 4. T different controller settings and T different setpoint velocities. The transition function changes with T the connection and disconnection of the load. The force FL.1 Transition function In order to record the transition function of an interference.2 Lag error A ramp is specified as a reference variable: T v soll = w = constant t The following are to be investigated: T different loads. T the size of the load and T the controller gain set. exerted by the load cylinder can be calculated from: FL = pL ⋅ AK AK = 2.01cm 2 pL in bar FL in kp 5 10 10 20 20 40 40 80 4. T a constant reference variable is specified and T a step-change interference connected. the set pressure on the piston side of the load cylinder corresponds to the load pressure pL on the piston side of the operating cylinder. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

6 3 ⋅ 30bar ) 3 1 + 1. whilst no changes occur as a result of the modified controlled system (mass and volume).6 60bar 30bar 35bar 5 l/min 10V 40 50 V/m 0.6cm 1.A-237 Exercise 21 The comparison with the result from exercise 17 demonstrates that the lag error changes as a result of the interference (braking load).6 p AL = pAL = 36bar TP511 • Festo Didactic .2 m/s VEmax = The following is the product of the formulas given in exercise 14: Working pressure p AL = pP α3 ⋅ pL + 1+ α3 1+ α3 p AL = 1 ⋅ (pP + α 3 ⋅ p L ) 3 1+ α 1 ⋅ (60bar + 1. Computational verification for larger lag error The following characteristics are to be assumed for the purpose of an example (in accordance with exercise 14 and exercise 16): Piston area: Piston annular area: Area ratio: Supply pressure: Load pressure: Nominal differential pressure: Nominal flow rate: Control voltage: Controller gain: Transfer coefficient of feedback: Setpoint velocity: AK AKR α pP pL ∆pN qN KP KR vset = = = = = = = = = = 201cm 2 2 Note 122.

pL ⋅ ⋅ A K ⋅ VEmax 1 + α 3 ∆p N 5 l/min 1.03 m/ s V 1 s Closed-loop gain V0 Lag error ex 100 69 2mm 2.9mm TP511 • Festo Didactic .0029m ⋅ 50 V/m = 0.30 bar ⋅ ⋅ 2 3 35 bar 2.6 3 60 bar .A-238 Exercise 21 Controlled-system gain qN α 3 p P .6 m/s cm/s = 0.05 m/s V 1 s with interference 30bar 36bar 0.2 System deviation eL = exL ⋅ KR = 0.45 Closed-loop gain V0L = K P ⋅ K SL ⋅ K R = 40 ⋅ 0.145V The comparison produces: Value table Load pressure pL Working pressure pA System gain KS without interference 0bar 12bar 0.0345 1 s V m/s ⋅ 50 m V V0L = 69 Lag error e xL = v set V0L m s = 2.9 mm = 1 69 s 0.01 cm ⋅ 10 V 1 + 1.0345 V V K SL = K SL = K SL = 3.

5V Square-wave KPcrit KPopt Controller parameters P Kx Kx Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic . Position control loop T Construct the closed control loop in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Risk of injury! Prior to switching on.5V ± 0. T Completely close the pressure relief valve and the flow control valve. make sure that no one is within the operating range of the slide! T Safety-related presettings Reference variable w P Controller parameters Kx Kx Kx Other parameters Offset Limiter Value table T T T T Switch on power supply Check control direction Set offset Set the controller Reference variable w 1.A-239 Exercise 21 WORKSHEET Interferences in the position control loop 1. Make sure that the test set-up and in particular the linear unit are securely attached to a sturdy base! T Carry out the commissioning of the closed control loop.

T Check whether the pressure relief valve and the flow control valve T Note the characteristics for the interference-free closed control loop: KPcrit0 = KPopt0 = Kx = Kx = Toff0 = Ton0 = 2. T Record the reference variable w and the controlled variable x on the oscilloscope.A-240 Exercise 21 2. are closed. Interferences in the hydraulic circuit T Set a setpoint value of w = 1. Determine the following characteristics and evaluate the changes: Value table Characteristic pP KPcrit Tout at KPopt0 50 40 Values 30 20 10bar Tendency decreases TP511 • Festo Didactic .1 Pressure drop Simulate the drop in supply pressure pP by gradually opening the pressure relief valve.5V as a square wave.5V ± 0.

A-241 Exercise 21 WORKSHEET T Try to compensate the interference by optimising the controller pa- rameters. Determine the following characteristics and evaluate the change: Characteristic qL KPcrit Tout at KPopt0 Tin at KPopt0 estat 1/8 1/4 Values 3/8 1/2 Rot.2 Leakage Simulate a leakage qL in the cylinder by gradually opening the flow control valve. Tendency increasing Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic . Enter the parameters and your evaluation in the value table. 2. Values 50 40 30 20 10bar Characteristic pP KPopt Kx opt Kx opt Tendency decreases Value table Toutopt T How far can you compensate the interference? Compare the result with the P controller in exercise 18.

Enter your evaluation in the table. T Carry out the commissioning as described under 1. Value table Characteristic qL KPcrit Kx opt Kx opt Tendency increasing Toutopt Tinopt estat T Can you compensate the interference? Compare the result with the P controller in exercise 18. load pressures. whereby the pressure relief valve and the flow valve are to be completely opened so that the load cylinder is relieved of pressure. Values 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 Rot. then the operating cylinder is retracted.A-242 Exercise 21 T Try to compensate the interference by re-adjusting the controller parameters and the offset. 3. Mount the load cylinder so that it covers the stroke range of the operating cylinder: If the load cylinder is advanced. Position control loop with braking load T Construct a circuit with breaking load. T Test the load cylinder by closing the flow valve and setting different TP511 • Festo Didactic .

g. e. Response to interference with braking load 4.1 Transition function T Set a constant reference variable. e. e. T Set KP = KPopt for controller gain. KP = 40. Values 20 40 60 80 mV mm sec Characteristic KP x xm Ta estat Tendency increasing Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic . T Compare the transition functions with different loads with the help of the characteristic data. Characteristic Connecting load pL x xm Ta on 20 off 20 on 30 Values off 30 on 40 off 40 bar mV mm sec Tendency Value table increasing T Set a constant load pressure. w = 2V. g.g. Compare the transition functions connecting the load with different controller parameters. pL = 30bar.A-243 Exercise 21 WORKSHEET 4.

KP = 40.g.2 V ∆w . e. = 10 = ∆t s 20ms v set = 0. T Compare the lag error using different loads. e.g.83Hz as ramp function T Check the pattern of the setpoint value for V 0.2 Lag error T Set the following reference variable: w = 5V ± 3V with 0. Value table Characteristic KP e ex 20 40 Values 60 80 V mm Tendency increasing TP511 • Festo Didactic . pL = 30bar.A-244 Exercise 21 T As what point of controller gain does the steady-state system deviation estat become zero? 4. Value table Characteristic pL e ex 0 10 Values 20 30 bar V mm Tendency increasing T Set a constant load.2 m s T Set a P controller with KP = KPopt. Minimise the lag error by optimising the controller parameters.

KP = 40. Characteristic vsoll w e ex 0. e. e.1 0. T Compare the lag error using different velocities. T Set a constant controller gain.1/20 Values 0.2 0. pL = 30bar.A-245 Exercise 21 T Set a constant load. g.2/20 m/s V/ms V mm Tendency increasing increasing Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic .g.

A-246 Exercise 21 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

C-1 Part C – Solutions Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: Exercise 5: Exercise 6: Exercise 7: Exercise 8: Exercise 9: Exercise 10: Exercise 11: Exercise 12: Exercise 13: Exercise 14: Exercise 15: Exercise 16: Exercise 17: Exercise 18: Exercise 19: Exercise 20: Exercise 21: Pipe bending machine Forming plastic products Cold extrusion Thread rolling machine Stamping machine Clamping device Injection moulding machine Pressing-in of bearings Welding tongs of a robot Pressure roller of a rolling machine Edge-folding press with feeding device Table-feed of a milling machine X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Feed unit of an assembly station Automobile simulator Contour milling Machining centre Drilling of bearing surfaces Feed of a shaping machine Paper feed of a printing machine Horizontal grinding machine C-3 C-5 C-11 C-13 C-15 C-19 C-23 C-25 C-29 C-31 C-35 C-39 C-41 C-49 C-55 C-61 C-65 C-67 C-73 C-77 C-81 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

C-2 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

9 6.9 50 4.0 0.0 70 80 rising falling Value table 30 2.8 1.6bar (corresponding to ± 1.9 40 3. Designing and constructing the measuring circuit 2.0 10 0. Characteristic curve The series of measurements for the pressure sensor are set out in the following value table: Measured variable and unit Pressure p in bar Voltage V in V Voltage V in V 0 0.9 20 1.9 Measured values Direction of measurement 60 5.8 4. Measuring circuit The characteristics of a pressure sensor are: Input range: Output range: Supply voltage: 0bar to 100bar 0V to 10V 15V Exercise Solution description The characteristics of the pressure gauge are: Measuring range: 0bar to 100bar Measuring accuracy: ± 1.9 The following diagram is obtained from the value table: TP511 • Festo Didactic . 2.6% of final value. Deriving the characteristics of the pressure sensor from the measuring results 1.C-3 Solution 1 Closed loop hydraulics Pipe bending machine Subject Title Characteristic curve of a pressure sensor 1.8 2.8 0.8 3. Recording the characteristic curve of the pressure sensor 3. see data sheet) The measuring circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams.

1V/bar cannot be established from the series of measurements. Overall.1%) Evaluation of measuring results: T The comparison with the data sheet shows that the measuring range of the sensor is greater than that required for this test set-up.C-4 Solution 1 Diagram 3. TP511 • Festo Didactic . At this stage. (according to data sheet: 0. it is very helpful that the linear range extends across the entire characteristic curve. only the advantage of the transfer coefficient remaining constant across the entire range is clear. Characteristics The diagram produces the following characteristics: Input range: Output range: Measuring range: Linear range: Transfer coefficient: Hysteresis: 0bar to 60bar 0V to 6V 60bar in total overall range K = 1V/10bar = 0. T Also. T The evaluation of the transfer coefficient must be made in conjunction with the controller and all the other elements in the closed control loop and can therefore not be carried out at this point. it can be observed that the pressure sensor has an adequate measuring range and that it is more accurate than the other devices. this sensor may be used as a suitable measuring system in this instance. T The extremely low hysteresis too. Consequently. is a favourable characteristic feature of the pressure sensor.

Accordingly. 60bar.e. Measuring circuit The hydraulic connections of the 4/3-way valve are: P. 2. Plotting and recording the pressure/signal characteristic curve 3. between 0Vand approx. i. Signal voltage: ± 10V (yellow and green). B. TP511 • Festo Didactic . approx. T. The configuration of the sub-base is: Exercise Solution description The sub-base The electrical connections are: Voltage supply: 0V (blue). Establishing the characteristics from a characteristic curve 1.C-5 Solution 2 Closed loop hydraulics Forming plastic products Subject Title Pressure/signal characteristic curve of a dynamic 4/3-way valve 1. The hydraulic and electrical circuits are to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Pressure/signal characteristic curve During the course of the series of measurements. 6V are to be measured at the pressure sensor. Constructing a measuring circuit to plot the characteristic curve 2. the pressure will lie between 0bar and the pump pressure. 24V (red). A.

The following value table is obtained by systemically traversing this voltage range: Value table Measured variable and unit Voltage V in V Pressure pA in bar Pressure pA in bar Pressure pB in bar Pressure pB in bar Measured values Direction of measurement (rising/falling) 0.1 0.0 -0. the output is open.5 -0.5 60 60 0 0 1. T If pressure is close to pump pressure.C-6 Solution 2 The pressure display provides information regarding the position of the valve spool when the power pack is switched on: T If pressure is practically zero. T If the pressure is in between.1V and + 1V.3 -0.0 0 0 60 60 0 0 60 60 2 2 60 59 18 14 56 54 43 38 43 38 0. This applies for voltage values between approx.0 60 60 0 0 rising falling rising falling -1. the output is closed.3 60 58 2 2 0. The pressure display changes if the control voltage is changed.1 56 54 20 15 The following diagram is obtained from the measured values: Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . . the valve is in mid-position.

e.18bar / 0. please refer to the electrical substitute model shown in Fig. T Asymmetry. The deviations may occur in various degrees and in different combinations. The characteristics are: Linear range: Hydraulic zero point: Electrical zero point: Asymmetry: Overlap: Hysteresis: Pressure gain: Signal range of pressure gain: across a large section of the pressure range approx.3% Another example refers to a case with the deviations to be expected. 31bar 0V. i. These will in turn produce variations from the values specified in the solutions. T Pressure gain at outputs A and B vary. The following diagram illustrates a measuring result with potential deviations. For clarification. Characteristics Deviations in measured values may occur as a result of production tolerances.0V at approx. The first example describes a solution for an ideal case (see previous illustration). hence no Zero overlap with tendency to negative <1%. TP511 • Festo Didactic . or not detectable KA = 38 . T Pressure at hydraulic zero point not equal to half pump pressure. hydraulic zero point not equal to electrical zero point.1.1V= 270 bar/V Output A: 2. C2.14bar / 0.1V= 240 bar/V KB = 45 .6% Output B: 2.C-7 Solution 2 3.

1: Resistances at control edges of a 4/3-way valve TP511 • Festo Didactic . B. the intersection changes. C2. Fig.1) T The differential pressures occuring at a restricted point may be regarded as a resistance. do you obtain the above described ideal case. C2. T Only when the overlap is identical on all four control edges. T The total pressure to the tank drops via one connection each. A and T The pressure drop at a connection is divided between the inlet and outlet sections of the control edges. Even with the slightest differences.C-8 Solution 2 Diagram Explanation regarding pressure at hydraulic zero point (fig.

this valve permits a very quick and reliable reversal of pressure. although it extends across a large section of the characteristic curve. rable. TP511 • Festo Didactic .C-9 Solution 2 Evaluation of the valve T The linear range cannot be defined clearly. T The hysteresis is extremely small (<1%) and therefore barely measuT The pressure gain is very high and the signal range for the reversal correspondingly small (<5%). Hence.

C-10 Solution 2 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

2. Constructing a measuring circuit 2. Recording the transition function 3. Measuring circuit The measuring circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Transition function Different tubing lengths used as a reservoir produce the following transition functions: Exercise Solution description Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .C-11 Solution 3 Closed loop hydraulics Cold extrusion Subject Title Transition function of a pressure controlled system 1. Describing the controlled system type and determining the time constant 1.

The following time constants are obtained: Value table Variable Hose length L Volume V Time constant TS 0 ∼0 8ms 0.6m 0.02l 38ms Values 1. since a final value is reached.1l 200ms Tendency increasing increasing increasing TP511 • Festo Didactic . since the output variable (pressure) follows the input variable (signal step) with a delay.05l 90ms 3. T with delay. System type and time constan We are dealing with a controlled system T with compensation.6m 0.C-12 Solution 3 3.6m 0.

8V + 9.9V min. Setting different output variables 1.9V .9. Input variables Characteristic Reference variable w Controlled variable x max.9. Measuring circuit The designation for the characteristics on the card are Input signals: Summation point: Elements of the controller: Output signal: w and x e P. Constructing the measuring circuit 2. value . Checking the function of the summation point 4. value + 9. 2.C-13 Solution 4 Closed loop hydraulics Thread rolling machine Subject Title PID controller card 1. I and D y Exercise Solution description Three green LED’s are illuminated as voltage display in the initial position. Establishing the range of the input variables 3.9V Comment within tolerance within tolerance Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic .

0 = .C-14 Solution 4 3.x) = -1 (= w) 4. offset + 8.(-1) = 1 (= .x) 0-1 -1 . Output variable Value table Range 0V to + 10V .6V + 7V min.1 (= .10V to + 10V max.7V Comment within tolerance within tolerance TP511 • Festo Didactic . offset + 1.5V .(-1) = 2 0 . Summation point Value table Reference variable w Controlled variable x 1 1 1 0 0 -1 0 1 -1 -1 1 0 Summation point e 1 0 2 1 -1 -1 1-0 1-1 Comment = 1 (= w) =0 1 .

5 0. Recording the transition function of the P controller 4.5 -5 < -10 < -10 10 > 10 > 10 10 5 0 -5 -10 < -10 < -10 0.25 -0. 2. Measuring circuit Exercise Solution description T The circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagram.C-15 Solution 5 Closed loop hydraulics Stamping machine Subject Title P controller 1.5 -1 -5 -10 Value table 5 > 10 > 10 5 2. Therefore.5 -5 In the case of values greater than 10V or smaller than -10V the limitation of the P controller is reached.25 0 -0. Plotting the characteristic curve of the P controller 3. Characteristic curve of the P controller Input: Reference variable w in V +10 +5 +1 +0. TP511 • Festo Didactic .5 5 2.5 0 -2. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2.5 0.5 0 -0.5 -2. the other two controller elements of the PID controller must be set at zero. T In order to examine the P controller. these measured values cannot be used for the characteristic curve. Using other test signals 1.5 -1 -5 -10 Output: Correcting variable y in V with proportional coefficient KP = 1 10 5 1 0.5 0 -0. T The controller card is to be put in the initial position.

C-16 Solution 5 Diagram The proportional coefficient KP describes the slope of the characteristic curve. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

C-17

Solution 5

3. Transition function of the P controller

Diagram

The equation for the P controller is: yP = KP ⋅ e

**T This equation does not contain a time factor. There is no time shift of
**

the output relative to the input.

**T There is however a change in the step height:
**

with KP = 1 output and input are identical, with KP = 2 the magnitude of the step is twice that of the input with KP = 5 the magnitude of the step is five times that of the input

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-18

Solution 5

4. Other test signals Other test signals show

**T the change in amplitude is proportional to the controller coefficient KP,
**

hence this is also known as gain.

**T no shift in the time characteristics. All zero crossings and extreme
**

values occur at the same time as the input signal.

Diagram

Diagram

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-19

Solution 6

Closed loop hydraulics Clamping device

Subject Title

Pressure control loop 1. Constructing a pressure control loop 2. Checking the control direction 3. Closing the control loop 4. Setting optimum control quality 5. Determining the limit of stability 1. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams and the PID controller card put in the initial position. 2. Control direction The control direction is set correctly once the above points have been carried out. 3. Closed control loop The typical effects of reverse polarity protection can be seen as follows:

Exercise

Solution description

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-20

Solution 6

Value table

Reverse polarity

**Change in controlled variable x with increasing reference variable w
**

Controlled variable x = 6V as long as w = 0V. The controlled variable x decreases until x = 0V is reached (when w = 6V). A reverse behaviour of reference and controlled variable. Controlled variable x = 6V. When w = 6V, x = 0V changes The controlled variable remains constant at an extreme value and always changes, when w = x. Controlled variable x = 0V. When w = 0V, x = 6V changes The controlled variable remains constant at an extreme value and always changes, when w = x. Additionally, the pressure is indicated with the wrong sing.

Reference variable w

Correcting variable y

Feedback r

With correct polarity of all the signals, the controlled variable ex follows the reference variable w in the same direction.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-21

Solution 6

4. Control quality A reference variable of w = 3V ± 2V produces the following characteristics for the control quality:

**T Overshoot amplitude xm, T stead-state system deviation estat, T Settling time Ta.
**

KP

1 3 5 8 10 12

xm (V)

0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.5

estat (V)

0 0.1 0 0 0 0

Ta (s)

0.25 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05

Oscillations

none none none Overshoot Forward swing Stead-state oscillation

Evaluation

too slow too slow good Oscillation acceptable too much oscillation unstable

Value table

The optimum controller setting obtained are: from the table: through re-adjustment: 5 < KPopt < 10, KPopt = 7.

For KPopt = 7 the characteristic curves for control quality are: overshoot amplitude settling time xm,opt Ta,opt =0 =0 = 0.04s. steady-state system deviation estat,opt

Moreover, this promotes a stable closed control loop setting.

The evaluation of the control quality is subject to the user’s judgement. Therefore, this solution can only be regarded as a reference.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-22

Solution 6

5. Limit of stability With KPkrit = 12, the limit of stability is reached at w = 3V ± 2V. The following applies for a reference variable jump of ± 0.5V:

Value table Reference variable w

1V ± 0.5V 2V ± 0.5V 3V ± 0.5V 4V ± 0.5V 5V ± 0.5V

**Limit of stability KPkrit
**

8.3 7.8 8.0 8.5 1.1

Evaluation

minimum

maximum

The lowest value for the limit of stability is the decisive factor for the evaluation of the closed control loop, i.e. KPcrit = 7.8.

The limit of stability already changes with minor deviations from the specified test setup. Hence the values quoted here only apply for a tubing length of 3m and not, for example, the serial connection of three 1m long tubing sections!

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-23

Solution 7

Closed loop hydraulics Injection moulding machine

Subject Title

I controller 1. Constructing and commmissioning a measuring circuit 2. Recording the transition function and characteristics of the I controller 3. Determining the tansition function and characteristics of the PI controller 4. Comparing the use of the P, I and PI controllers 1. Measuring circuit The circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagram. When commissioning the circuit, the zero of the controller card, generator and oscilloscope must be carefully balanced. 2. I controller

Exercise

Solution description

Diagram

TP511 • Festo Didactic

A7. since the limitation of the I element is greater than 10V. whereas the characteristics of the controller are not (see diagrams). 3. Reason The characteristics of the transition function are dependent on the magnitude of the step change reference variable w.C-24 Solution 7 The integration time TI is reduced with an increasing integration coefficient KI. P. PI-Regler Fig. Integration time TI and integration coefficient KI do not change with the reference variable w. I and PI controller Table Property P Velocity Steady-state system deviation Fast Yes Controller types I slow No PI fast no TP511 • Festo Didactic . 4. the faster the magnitude of the step change reference variable w is reached. Reason The greater the rate of change of the correcting variable y.6: Measurement of integral-action time Tn The representations of the diagram cannot be reproduced in this way.

Determining the time constant of the PD controller 4. Establishing the construction of the PID controller from the transition function 1. 2. square wave KD = 25ms Exercise Solution description Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . f = 5 Hz. PD and PID controller 1. D controller Transition function and ramp response of D controller with w = 0V ± 10V.C-25 Solution 8 Closed loop hydraulics Pressing-in of bearings Subject Title D. Measuring circuit The circuit corresponds to the basic circuit in A5 and A7 for the PID controller card. Recording the transition function and ramp response of the D controller 3. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2.

KP = 1.025s ⋅ 200 = 5 V ∆t s The accordance with the measuring result is dependent on the accuracy of the reference variable w: slight deviations of the reference variable w from the specified setpoint value change the correcting variable y. PD controller T w = 0V ± 10V. 3. f = 5 Hz. KD = 25ms KD = 25ms triangular form Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic . T 1.C-26 Solution 8 The slope of the reference variable is V 1 ∆w = 4 ⋅ A ⋅ f = 4 ⋅ 10V ⋅ 5 = 200 ∆t s s The results in the correcting variable y: y = KD ⋅ V ∆w = 0. 2. KP = 0.5.

025s = = 0. 4.025s = = 0.5 Tv2 = The measurement generally agrees with the calculation. T the ramp of the I element and T the spike pulse of the D element. however.025s = 25ms KP 1 K D 0.C-27 Solution 8 The rate times are: Tv1 = K D 0. PID controller The transition function of the PID controller shows T the jump of the P element. You should.05s = 50ms KP 0. Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic . make sure that the magnitude of the step change yD of the D element is not calculated twice.

C-28 Solution 8 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

Hence. there are also large deviations with this exercise. KPcrit = 8. Constructing a pressure control loop 2. Empirical parameterisation The value table sets out examples of possible influences.2 Limit of stability The limit of stability is determined with the P controller and is reached when steady-state oscillations occur. Exercise Solution description TP511 • Festo Didactic .C-29 Solution 9 Closed loop hydraulics Welding tongs of a robot Subject Title Pressure control loop with PID controller 1.1 3. 2. there are deviations in the result. The settings of optimum parameters is dependent both on the individual evaluation and the special test set-up. Since the oscillation gradient depends on various influences. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams and the PID controller card put in the initial position. 2. Commissioning a pressure control loop 3. Commissioning 2. Setting the parameters of a PID controller using an empirical method 1.1 Control direction The control direction is set correctly when the reference variable w and controlled variable x change in the same direction.

8 0. steady-state oscillation through D element large overshoot with forward swing steady-state oscillation through D element In this instance.2 Stability KI (1/s) 0 KD (ms) 0 estat (v) 0 Ta (ms) 40 stable TP511 • Festo Didactic .2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3 stable stable stable unstable stable stable stable stable unstable stable stable unstable stable stable unstable estat becomes even at zero small overshoot with forward swing steady-state oscillation through P element estat exists estat eliminated through I element overshoot with forward swing steady-state oscillation through I element large overshoot superimposed small steady-state oscillation.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Ta (ms) 40 40 60 0.3 0.C-30 Solution 9 Value table KP 4 5 7 8.5 0.8 1 1 - Stability Comment KD (ms) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 405 5 0 2 3 estat (v) 0 0 0 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 7 7 7 Controller coefficient KI (1/s) 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 24 450 10 10 10 80 80 80 Control quality xm (V) 0 0.6 1 2 0. the I and D elements do not lead to any improvement in control quality. The optimum parameterisation obtained is: Value table Optimum controller coefficients KP 5 Best possible control quality xm (V) 0.6 0 0 0.5 0.

36 ⋅ 1.6 = 6.44ms = 7. the PID controller put into the initial position and the control direction checked. Setting the PID controller in accordance with the Ziegler-Nichols method 3. which gradually decay. Changing the controlled system and re-setting it at its optimum level 1.36 T Tn = 0.12 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.6 ⋅ KPcrit = 0.6 ⋅ 10.36 1 = = 1060 Tn 0.5 ⋅ 12ms = 6ms T Tv = 0.12 ⋅ 12ms = 1.006s s T KD = KP ⋅ Tv = 6. The closed control loop is therefore at the limit of stability and thus not stable! TP511 • Festo Didactic .8ms The transition function initially exhibits small continuous oscillations after some initial overshoots. 2. the coefficients of the PID controller are calculated: T KP = 0. Ziegler-Nichols method A reference variable of w = 3V ± 2V results in a limit of stability with: Exercise Solution description T KPcrit = 10.C-31 Solution 10 Closed loop hydraulics Pressure roller of a rolling machine Subject Title Ziegler-Nichols method 1. Constructing and commissioning the pressure control loop 2. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop is to be constructed.6 T Tcrit = 12ms From this.44ms T KI = KP 6.5 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.

5ms TP511 • Festo Didactic .12 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.C-32 Solution 10 The following control quality is obtained with the calculated coefficients: T overshoot amplitude xm = 1.6 ⋅ 2. Conclusion: An empirical readjustment of the controller parameters is essential for this closed control loop. 3. This results in the extremely high overshoot amplitude xm.26 T Tn = 0.26 ⋅ 1.1 = 1. The settling time may also deteriorate.6 ⋅ KPcrit = 0.5 ⋅ Tcrit = 0. Modified closed control loop The following characteristics are obtained for pressure control without reservoir: Limit of stability: T KPcrit = 2.12 ⋅ 10ms = 1.005s s T KD = KP ⋅ Tv = 1. 80ms. Also.2ms = 1.5 ⋅ 10ms = 5ms T Tv = 0. after which small continuous oscillations are maintained! A very high integration coefficient KI can be seen in comparison with the empirically determined coefficients (see solution to exercise 9).1 T Tcrit = 10ms The coefficients of the PID controller are calculated from this: T KP = 0. the closed control loop becomes unstable as a result of this.4V T steady-state system deviation estat = 0 T settling time Ta = approx.2ms T KI = KP 1.26 1 = = 252 Tn 0.

26 The empirical parameterisation produces the following: Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) 16.-N. KP KI (1/s) 252 Control quality xm (V) 1. A comparison with the achieved control quality shows that the empirical coefficients are more appropriate than those calculated in accordance with the Ziegler-Nichols method.2 Stability Ta (ms) 10 stable Value table KD (ms) 1. TP511 • Festo Didactic .2 Stability Ta (ms) 25 stable Value table KD (ms) 1.75 estat (v) 0 1 The empirical setting of the optimum parameters depends on the user’s interpretation.5 Control quality xm (V) 0. The results should therefore be regarded purely as examples of specimen solutions.C-33 Solution 10 The control quality is then: Controller coefficients to Z.5 estat (v) 0 1.

C-34 Solution 10 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

12 ⋅ 14ms = 1.4 ⋅ 1. Constructing a pressure control loop 2.7ms T KI = KP 5.C-35 Solution 11 Closed loop hydraulics Edge-folding press with feeding device Subject Title Pressure control loop with interference 1. Commissioning The following are required for commissioning: Exercise Solution description T putting the electrical and hydraulic circuits into the initial position T connecting the power supply T setting the control direction correctly 3.4 1 = = 771 Tn 0. Optimum setting of a PID controller 4. 2.6 ⋅ KPcrit = 0.6 ⋅ 9 = 5.007s s T KD = KP ⋅ Tv = 5. Commissioning a pressure control loop 3.7ms = 9.12 ⋅ Tcrit = 0. Pressure control loop The pressure control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams.4 T Tn = 0.5 ⋅ 14ms = 7ms T Tv = 0.5 ⋅ Tcrit = 0.2ms TP511 • Festo Didactic . PID controller The limit of stability is free of interference for a reference variable w = 3V ± 1V: T KPcrit = 9 T Tcrit = 14ms The coefficients according to Ziegler-Nichols are: T KP = 0. Examining the effect of interference 1.

4 Control quality without interference xm (V) 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic . KP 5.2 3 estat (v) 0 Ta (ms) 100 instabil stabil) The calculated coefficients for the I and D element are so high as to render the closed control loop unstable! With empirically established coefficients. the control quality is as follows: Value table Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) 25 Control quality without interference xm (V) 0 Stability KD (ms) 3 estat (v) 0 Ta (ms) 50 stabil 6 Here.4 (5.C-36 Solution 11 The control quality for the calculated coefficients is: Value table Controller coefficients to Z.7 1 Stability KI (1/s) 771 771 KD (ms) 9.-N. the empirical setting appears to be conclusively better.

due to the high I element.C-37 Solution 11 4.6 Stability Ta (ms) 100 stable Value table KD (ms) 9. Effect of interferences The settings for leakage can produce widely varying results. the setting according to Ziegler-Nichols appear to be more favourable since. Hence. we shall merely quote a result by way of an example.1 6 In this case. In this instance.-N. KP KI (1/s) 771 Control quality with leakage xm (V) 0. The following characteristics are thus obtained with leakage: – KPcritL = 12 Controller coefficients to Z. a permanent deviation can be avoided.4 Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) 25 Control quality with leakage xm (V) 0 Stability Ta (ms) stable Value table KD (ms) 3 estat (v) 0. the leakage has been increased until a good transition function can still just be obtained for computational coefficients. TP511 • Festo Didactic .2 estat (v) 0 5.

-N. are eliminated by way of exchanging components and not through the controller! TP511 • Festo Didactic . the series of measurements demonstrates that the parameters determined according to the Ziegler-Nichols are better for compensating interferences.4 Value table Controller coefficients empirical KP KI (1/s) 25 Control quality with pressure drop xm (V) 0 Stability KD (ms) 3 estat (v) 0 Ta (ms) 60 stable 6 The closed control loop becomes considerably slower as a result of the pressure drop: KPcritD is greater than KPcrit0. However. even if it does not appear to be particularly suitable for the case in question.2 estat (v) 0 Ta (ms) 150 stable 5. The advantages of the Ziegler-Nichols method would also still be apparent with a larger pressure drop: because of the high I element of the calculated coefficients.C-38 Solution 11 A supply pressure of 45bar produces the following characteristics: – KPcritD = 17 Value table Controller coefficients to Z. With the calculated coefficients the closed control loop is only just stable. interferences to the extent simulated in this instance. Overall. in practice. the Ziegler-Nichols method may be regarded as perfectly acceptable. Since this was the inventors’ intention. However. KP KI (1/s) 771 Control quality with pressure drop xm (V) 0. a slight pressure drop is still relatively well compensated owing to the empirically determined coefficients.5 Stability KD (ms) 9. a sufficient control quality is more likely to be achieved with these than with those empirically determined.

5 7.0 5.5 Significant measurement errors may occur due to the complex setting.0 rising falling Value table 50 2.0 150 7. Recording the characteristic curve of the displacement sensor 3.5 100 5. Characteristic curve The characteristic curve may be plotted after the signal flow in the circuit has been checked to be correct.0 10. This is to be taken into consideration.C-39 Solution 12 Closed loop hydraulics Table feed of a milling machine Subject Title Displacement sensor 1. 2. Measured variable and unit Length L in mm Voltage V in V Voltage V in V (0) 0.5 0.5 9. Measuring circuit The circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams.1 10 0.5 Exercise Solution description Measured values Direction of measurement (rising/falling) 190 9. The following diagram is obtained: TP511 • Festo Didactic . Constructing a measuring circuit with hydraulic linear unit 2.1 0.5 2. Deriving the characteristics of the displacement sensor from themeasured values 1.5 (200) 10.

C-40 Solution 12 Diagram 3. No hysteresis can be detected. Overall the sensor appears to be suitable within the framework of the available equipment. The linear range extends across the entire measuring range.05 V = = 50 mm 200mm mm The representation of the displacement sensor in a closed control loop depends of the respective application. Two possibilities are quoted here as examples: Verbal description Symbolic description Evaluation of the measuring results: T T T T The measuring range is adequate. The transfer coefficient is constant. Characteristics The transfer coefficient of the displacement sensor is: K= V 10V 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

The working pressure pA at port A rises only slightly. Thus. no flow condition qA is created. TP511 • Festo Didactic . the entire volumetric flow returns to the tank via the by-pass. Measuring circuit The measuring circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. Zero position If the pressure relief valve is completely open. As the directional control valve is closed in its mid-position. the pressure pP at port P of the directional control valve rises. Deriving the flow/pressure characteristic curve 4. the differential pressure ∆p1 increases between ports P and A. Recording the flow/signal characteristic curve 3. Comparison with the nominal data 1.C-41 Solution 13 Closed loop hydraulics X/Y-axis table of a drilling machine Subject Title Flow characteristic curves of a dynamic 4/3-way valve 1. Flow/signal characteristic curve The preparations for the commissioning of the measuring circuit are described in great detail in order to make clear the correlations between the various measured variables. Constructing and commissioning the measuring circuit 2. 2. The sensor displays are therefore all practically zero pP pA ∆p1 qA = 0bar = 0bar = 0bar = 0 l/min Exercise Solution description Setting the pressure By closing the pressure relief valve.

The following measured values are obtain with VE = 1V: pP pA ∆p1 qA = 54.3bar = 0.2bar = 54.5 l/min Checking the signal direction If the flow qA does not increase with the activating signal. TP511 • Festo Didactic . UElimit = 9V qAmax ∆p1 = 3. whereby the supply pressure pP decreases slighly and the pressure at the working port pA rises. = 28. Determining the measuring range In order to establish the limits of the measuring circuit.5bar – 2. the maximum supply pressure pP of the activating signal VE is increased until the flow rate no longer changes.8 l/min. the signal direction in the circuit is wrong. the limit of the correcting range is already reached at VE = 4V.5bar = 26bar The values specified apply for a higher pump performance (4l).C-42 Solution 13 pP pA ∆p1 qA = 53bar = 0bar = 53bar = 0 l/min Setting the activating signal The flow qA increases with a rising activating signal VE. Either the polarity of the activating signal is incorrect or the wrong output of the valve has been used.1bar = 0. In the case of a standard pump of only 2 l/min.

1 3.9 7 2.6 5.7 22.1 20.78 10.6 0.4 2.6 0.4 35.4 35.9 Value table Differential pressure ∆p1 = 10bar VE in volts qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 0 10 0 1 0.19 10 0 3 0.5 5 1.C-43 Solution 13 Flow/signal characteristic curve for output A Differential pressure ∆p1 = 5bar VE in volts qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 0 5 0 1 0 5 0 3 0.6 9 1.5 7 1.1 TP511 • Festo Didactic .3 1.1 0.2 1.8 0.8 10 1.28 20.1 Differential pressure ∆p1 = 35bar VE in volts qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 0 35 0 1 0.8 2.5 36.4 21.2 10 2.4 7 1.9 9 2.8 23.5 0.8 10 3.33 10.86 20.1 0.8 28.9 5.1 1.9 0.3 Differential pressure ∆p1 = 20bar VE in volts qA in l/min pP in bar pA in bar 0 0 20 0 1 0.1 3 1.8 5.2 0.5 5.3 0.33 11.6 5 2.83 10.8 1.6 21.4 0.3 9 3.1 7 3.2 5 0.6 11.9 0.4 36.9 0.1 2.8 9 10 3.1 3 1.27 5.3 5 1.3 1.8 1.5 0.

1 -5 1.5 21.6 The difference between flow values qA and qB are within a permissible range of ± 10%.8 -9 3.23 20 0 -3 1.2 21.4 0.3 1. The pattern of the characteristic curve for output B is thus symmetrical to output A.8 0. Flow/signal characteristics for output A Diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .3 .C-44 Solution 13 Characteristic curve for output B Value table Differential pressure ∆p1 = 20bar VE in volts qB in l/min pP in bar pB in bar 0 0 20 0 -1 0.8 20.4 -7 2.6 1.1 0.0 20.5 20.10 3.

C-45

Solution 13

The evaluation of the characteristic curves produces: Linear range The pattern of the flow characteristic curves is largely linear. With activating signals below VE = 1V, the flow drops to zero. With high differential pressures ∆p1, the flow no longer increases evenly since the pump performance has been reached. Hysteresis No hysteresis can be detected. Volumetric flow gain and differential pressure The volumetric flow gain represents the gradient in the linear range. This rises with increasing differential pressure ∆p1. Flow/signal gain at ∆p1 = 35bar: ∆q = ∆VE 1 2.4 l l - 1.4 min min 2V

KV =

l l min = 0.5 min KV = 2V V

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-46

Solution 13

**3. Flow/pressure characteristic curve Conversion of the values table produces the following:
**

Value table Activating signal V% = 100%, i.e. VE = 10 V

∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 1.8 10 2.6 20 3.7 35

3.8

**Activating signal V% = 90%, i.e. VE = 9V
**

∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 1.6 10 2.33 20 3.4 35

3.8

**Activating signal V% = 70%, i.e. VE = 7V
**

∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 1.27 10 1.83 20 2.6 35 3.5

**Activating signal V% = 50%, i.e. VE = 5V
**

∆p1 in bar 5 10 20 35

qA in l/min

0.9

1.33

1.86

2.4

**Activating signal V% = 30%, i.e. VE = 3V
**

∆p1 in bar 5 10 20 35

qA in l/min

0.5

0.78

1.1

1.4

**Activating signal V% = 10%, i.e. VE = 1V
**

∆p1 in bar qA in l/min 5 0 10 0.19 20 0.28 35 0.4

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-47

Solution 13

Diagram

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-48

Solution 13

4. Comparison with the nominal data The following nominal values are specified by the manufacturer: Nominal flow rate: Differential pressure: Number of control edges: Activating signal: qN = 5 l/min ∆p2 = 70bar two VEmax = 10V

The measuring point described by the characteristic data lies at the top edge of the diagram. It cannot be measured with the equipment available. A conversion of the characteristics is necessary. With ∆p1 = 35bar and VE = 30% the computational flow flow qr is: qr = 5 l 3V l ⋅ = 1.5 min min 10V

This value is drawn into the diagrams. The measurement amounted qm = 1.4 l/min. The following deviations are obtained: qf = 1.4 - 1.5 ⋅ 100% = - 6.7% 1.5

The measured values lie within the tolerance of ± 10%.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-49

Solution 14

Closed loop hydraulics Feed unit of an assembly station

Subject Title

Linear unit as controlled system 1. Constructing the hydraulic and electrical measuring circuit 2. Recording the step response of the controlled system 3. Calculating the velocity and system gain 4. Recording the pressure characteristics and flow rate 1. Measuring circuit The hydraulic and electrical circuit are to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. 2. Step response of controlled system In the initial position, i.e. after the hydraulic and electrical power have been switched on at activating signal VE = 0, the following measured values are obtained: pA = approx. 30bar p ⋅ AK pB = approx. 48bar a A KR pP = approx. 60bar (= maximum pump pressure) q is practically zero x is desired It is possible that the slide may drift, in which case different working pressures pA and pB will be obtained. In addition, the pressure ratios of pA and pB required to stop the slide are generally not obtained with VE = 0V (for explanation see solution to exercise 2). The correct polarity of the circuit is checked by re-adjusting the activating signal VE:

Exercise

Solution description

T with an increasing activating signal VE T the slide moves in the positive x-direction.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-50

Solution 14

The traversing motion finishes at the end stop of the cylinder. The same applies for negate activating signals. The positioning of the slide by means of adjusting the activating signals requires a certain amount of practice. In order to maintain the slide drift-free in its mid-position, it is necessary to give an offset to the activating signal. The transition function of the controlled system shows that this is a system without compensation:

**T with constant activating signal VE T the output variable x continually increases with the time t.
**

The following tansition functions are obtained for VE = ± 6V and VE = ± 3V:

Diagram

3. Velocity and system gain The diagrams enable you to calculate the velocity v and system gain KS as follows: VE = ± 6V

Value table

Advancing Retracting

and

x = 200mm = 0.2m

Time t 0.7s 1.0s Velocity v 0.29 m/s 0.2 m/s Gain KS 0.048 (m/s)/V 0.033 (m/s)/V

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-51

Solution 14

VE = ± 3V

and

x = 200mm = 0.2m

Time t Velocity v 0.16 m/s 0.1 m/s Gain KS 0.053 (m/s)/V 0.033 (m/s)/V

Value table

Advancing Retracting

1.25s 2.0s

4. Characteristics of pressure and flow

Diagram

**The following value table is obtained from the diagrams:
**

Pressure pA Advancing Advancing 14bar 30bar Pressure pB 20bar 50bar Pressure pP 61bar 63bar Flow q 1.72l/min 0.75l/min

Value table

The differential pressures at the inlet control edges are calculated from the value table: Advancing: Advancing: ∆pout = pPout - pAout = 61bar - 14bar = 47bar ∆pin = pPin - pBin = 63bar - 50bar = 13bar

Here too, the correlation between differential pressure and flow can be seen: A high flow requires a high differential pressure.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

TP511 • Festo Didactic .2: Hydraulic circuit diagram of the controlled system The operating points can be drawn in the flow characteristic curves (C13).C-52 Solution 14 Fig. A14.

with varying equipment sets. A14.g.3: Flow characteristic curves of the controlled system The flow/signal gain is greater during advancing. The ideal result has been demonstrated in this instance. considerable deviations may occur. e.. Both operating points are close to the chacteristic curve for VE = 30%.C-53 Solution 14 Fig. With practical measurements. TP511 • Festo Didactic .

C-54 Solution 14 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

the following applies: + w produces + x.x is the control signal for the valve. The valve is influence by changing the reference variable w between + 10V and . If the closed control loop is closed. Calculating the closed-loop gain 5. the polarity of the signal connection of w and y is to be checked and corrected. The valve opens and the slide advances up to the end stop. if the control direction is correct. 2. Control direction and offset The slide will only move into zero position after the power supply has been switched off. Checking the control direction and setting the offset 3. Hence. In order to set the correct control direction. Verifying the positional dependence of the limit of stability 6. With a reference variable of w = 0V.C-55 Solution 15 Closed loop hydraulics Automobile simulator Subject Title Position control loop 1. and the control direction is direct. Recording the transition function and setting parameters using theempirical method 4. the slide moves Exercise Solution description T to position x = 0 (end stop retracted) with correct polarity T to position x = xmax (end stop extended) with incorrect polarity TP511 • Festo Didactic . Constructing the position control loop The position control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. the closed control loop is divided and the reference variable w = 5V set. This is now the correcting variable y for the valve. The mid-position is reached with a reference variable of w = 5V. If this is not the case. The valve is closed with w = 0V: The slide remains stationary at the position. Constructing a position control loop electrically and hydraulically 2. then the system deviation e = w . if the control direction is correct.10V. Testing other closed-loop controllers 1.

The valve opens to output B. The valve opens towards output A and the slide advances. the slide moves into the opposite end position. TP511 • Festo Didactic . the valve opens further and the slide advances further. If the closed control loop is set correctly. Controlled variable x = xmax (end position advanced) With w = + 10V.C-56 Solution 15 The typical effects of polarity in the closed control loop manifest themselves as follows: Table Reverse polarity Change in controlled variable x with increasing reference variable w Controlled variable x = xmax (end position advanced) From w = . The feedback of incorrect polarity signals a negative voltage. the sign of the system deviation and the control signal y changes. the system deviation becomes increasingly greater. the slide moves into the opposite end position.10V. Reference variable w Correcting variable y Feedback r The following examples with feedback of incorrect polarity serve as an explanation: T The system deviation remains negative for as long as a negative reference variable w exists. the offset setting shows a drift in the position of the slide. x slowly decreases until x = 0V is reached From w = 0V. The slide remains retracted. Intermediate positions are not possible. The process ends once the other end stop is reached. T If the reference variable w is greater than the controlled variable x. Because of this. Controlled variable x = 0 (end position retracted) With w = 0V. The behaviour of w and x is the reverse. x no longer changes. Intermediate positions are not possible.

6s 0. However. The settling time Ta is not reduced any further with greater gains.C-57 Solution 15 3.38s 0.38s -- estat 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- Stable/unstable stable stable stable stable stable stable stable stable unstable Evaluation too slow Value table good very good minor oscillations. Transition function and empirical parameterisation The following characteristics of the transition function are obtained with a setpoint step-change of w = 5V ± 3V with different controller gains KP: T T T T overshoot amplitude xm settling time Ta system deviation estat stability KP 1 5 10 20 30 40 50 55 63 xm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >0 >0 Ta 3s 0. The limit of stability is reached at: KPcrit = 63. TP511 • Festo Didactic .38s 0.44s 0. decaying steady-state oscillation limit of stability The optimum parameterisation obtained is: KPopt = 40. there are already small oscillations.38s 0.40s 0.

C-58

Solution 15

The setting of KPopt greatly depends on personal judgement. Depending on the evaluation of the criteria “setting time” and “avoidance of oscillations”, different results may be obtained regarding KPopt. The value specified applies to a relatively low settling time and absolutely no oscillations. If minor oscillations are permitted during traversing of the slide, this results in a higher value for KPopt. The transition function with KPopt = 40 is as follows:

Diagram

The limit of stability determined here serves as a comparison variable in the following exercises. The limit of stability may greatly vary from the result given here as an example. It is a characteristic which very clearly reflects, how smooth or erratic the movement of the linear drive is. Influences such as bearing clearance, distorted guide, long tubing sections or restricted cross sections in the hydraulic section become noticeable here.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-59

Solution 15

4. Closed-loop gain The maximum closed-loop gain V0max and the closed-loop gain V0opt with optimum parameterisation are: V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR Critical gain of the P controller Optimum gain of the P controller (m / s ) V System gain Transfer coefficient of feedback (m/s) V 1 ⋅ 50 = 157.5 V m s

KPcrit = 63 KPopt = 40 KS KR = 0.05 = 50 V m

V0max = 63 ⋅ 0.05 V0opt = 40 ⋅ 0.05

(m/s) V 1 ⋅ 50 = 100 V m s

5. Positional dependence of limit of stability The limit of stability changes depending on the position of the slide. However, the specified measurement procedure shows only one tendency, because it is not very accurate.

w ± 0,5V

1.5V 2.5V 3.5V 4.5V 5.5V 6.5V 7.5V 8.5V

KPcrit

84 81 79 77 71 68 66 65

Evaluation

Maximum

Value table

Minimum

In this case the stability decreases with increasing slide positions. It is, however, possible for the stability to decrease towards the centre and to increase at the edges. Typically. the stability is reduced when the piston rod is extended.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-60

Solution 15

6. Other controllers PI controller An I controller is not suitable for a system without compensation as this is confirmed empirically: Initially, there is no effect. From KI = 90 1/s produces a small overshoot. From KI = 900 1/s onwards, there is a large overshoot. The closed control loop remains stable, however the I element does not achieve any improvement. PD controller A PD controller presents a useful combination for an uncompensated system. The closed control loop becomes unstable from KD = 160ms. Other than that, there is no change. Thus, the PD controller does not offer any improvements compared to the P controller. PID controller Although the overshoot amplitude of the I element does become smaller as a result of the D element, it is not reduced to zero. Therefore the PID controller is also unsuitable for this position control loop. The empirical investigation confirms the recommendation: A non-compensated system is to be combined with a P controller.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-61

Solution 16

Closed loop hydraulics Contour milling

Subject Title

Lag error 1. Constructing and commissioning a position control loop 2. Specifying a constant feed speed as reference variable 3. Calculating and measuring the lag error 4. Determining the positional dependence of the lag error 1. Constructing and commissioning a position control loop The same position control loop is used here as in exercise 15, where the circuit diagram and commissioning have already been described. Please note the comment regarding the limit of stability. 2. Constant feed speed as reference variable In this instance, it is particularly important for the time characteristics of the reference variable to be set accurately. The following diagram (v = 0.2 m/s and KP = 20) is obtained as a ramp response to the reference variable:

Exercise

Solution description

Diagram

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-62

Solution 16

**A change in the velocity v and controller gain KP shows:
**

Value table Velocity v

constant constant greater smaller

Controller gain KP

greater smaller constant constant

Lag error ex

smaller greater greater smaller

The lag error decreases with increasing controller gain. If the controller gain is to great, the closed control loop becomes unstable. The lag error increases with increasing velocity. If the lag error is recorded directly, a different type of scaling may be selected. The same tendencies will occur as those mentioned above. The diagram will thus be as follows (for v = 0.2 m/s and KP = 20):

Diagram

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-63

Solution 16

3. Lag error Calculating the lag error exth for

**T velocity v = 0.2 m/s and T controller gain KP = 40:
**

Closed-loop gain V0 = K P ⋅ K S ⋅ K R = 40 ⋅ 0.05 1 V (m/s) ⋅ 50 = 100 s m V

Lag error m s = 0.002m = 2mm 1 100 s 0.2

v e xth = = V0 System deviation

e th = e xth ⋅ K R = 0.002m ⋅ 50

V = 0.1V m

**The following result is produced for different controller gains with v = 0.2 m/s:
**

KP

20 40

e

0.2V 0.1V

exmess

4mm 2mm

exth

4mm 2mm

**Measuring error = exth - exmeas
**

0mm 0mm

Value table

Since all other characteristics remain the same and the setpoint velocity remains constant, the lag error in this instance depends only on the controller gain KP. The lag error is greater in the return stroke than the forward stroke, since the system gain in the return stroke (KSin) is smaller than that in the forward stroke (KSout) (see exercise 14).

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-64

Solution 16

4. Positional dependence of lag error Identical setpoint velocity and identical controller gain produce the same lag error as mentioned under point 3.: ex = 2mm and e = 0.1V v = 0.2 m/s and KP = 40 produce the following value table:

Value table Range of operating path

Edge Centre Edge

Reference variable w

1.5V ± 0.5V 5V ± 0.5V 8V ± 0.5V

System deviation e

0.1V 0.1V 0.1V

Lag error ex

2mm 2mm 2mm

The lag error remains constant across the entire travel path.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

Modifying the controlled system The following characteristics are obtained in respect of the controlled system: KPcrit0 = 66 KPopt0 = 41 Ta0 = 80ms Exercise Solution description The increasing load m and tubing volume V produce the following changes in the controlled system: m = V 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0. 2. Constructing and commissioning the position control loop The same position control loop is used here as that used in exercise 15. Changing the controlled system by means of load and reservoir 3. Measuring lag error with modified system 1.1l Tendency decreases decreases increases Value table KPcrit KPopt Ta with KPopt 66 41 80ms 39 15 160ms 30 18 160ms 21 5 1s TP511 • Festo Didactic .1l 10kg 0.C-65 Solution 17 Closed loop hydraulics Machining centre Subject Title Modified controlled system 1. Constructing and commissioning the closed control loop 2. The circuit diagram and commissioning are described in that exercise.

1l 10kg 0. Reason: Identical setpoint velocity v as reference variable w and identical controller gain KP produce the same closed-loop gain V0 = KP ⋅ KS ⋅ KR and hence the same lag error ex = v/V0.C-66 Solution 17 3.1V 2mm Unstable -- Unstable -- The same lag error is produced as in exercise 16. T a greater lag error. the specified controller gain for the system with load and tubing volume lies above the limit of stablity and this setting is therefore not appropriate in practice. T a reduced closed-loop gain. Measuring lag error with modified system Value table m = V 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0. the same applies with higher velocities: Higher velocities can be travelled with unmodified systems. An optimum controller setting with increasing change of the controlled system results in T a reduced controlled gain. TP511 • Festo Didactic . Correspondingly. However.1l Tendenz constant constant e ex 0.1V 2mm 0.

Commissioning The position control loop is systematically commissioned by working through all the points in the check list. Constructing a hydraulic position control loop 2. The list is to be regarded as a exemplary solution. Commissioning a closed control loop 3. Constructing a position control loop The position control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams.C-67 Solution 18 Closed loop hydraulics Drilling of bearing surfaces Subject Title Interferences in the hydraulic position control loop 1. Exercise Solution description Deviations in the numeric values may occur due to the individual configurations possible. Investigating interferences in the closed control loop 1. 2. Note T Safety-related presettings Reference variable w 5V = 100mm Controller gain KP 10 KI 0 Other parameters KD 0 Offset 0 Limiter ± 10V T Switch on power supply T Check control direction correct T Set offset correct TP511 • Festo Didactic .

1s TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V Square-wave Controller gain KPopt 26 Overshoot amplitude xm 0 Steady-state system deviation estat 0 Settling time Ta 0. controller gain KPcrit 48 T Quality criteria Priority Characteristic 1 Stability no oscillations during positioning 2 Overshoot amplitude xm 0 3 Steady-state system dev.1mm 4 Settling time Ta Tolerance < 0. estat ± 0.2s T Reglerparameter optimieren Reference variable w 1.5V ± 0.5V Square-wave Crit.C-68 Solution 18 T Transition function Diagram T Limit of stability Reference variable w 1.5V ± 0.

5V 5Hz. Ramp System deviation e 0.5V ± 0.2V / 20ms Reference variable w 1.C-69 Solution 18 T Lag error and closed-loop gain (for KPopt) Setpoint velocity vsetpoint 0.15V Lag error ex 3.2m/s = 0.1mm Closed-loop gain V0 65 1/s T Block diagram with gain factors Block diagram TP511 • Festo Didactic .

13 10bar 70 0.1s = 0.C-70 Solution 18 3.1 40 22 55 0. Interferences in a closed control loop The characteristics in an interference-free closed control loop are as follows: KPcrit0 = 48 KPopt0 = 26 Tout0 Tin0 = 0.17 10bar 7bar 290 0.09 Values 30 44 0.14 20 12 110 0.2s Tendency decreases increases increases The interference can no longer be effectively compensated if the supply pressure is below pP = 40bar (= 30% loss).11 3.1 Pressure drop The drop in supply pressure has the following effects: Value table Characteristic pP pA KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 50 26 49 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic .09 40 34 0.12 20 20 0.11 Values 30 18 72 0.27s Tendency decreases decreases increases increases An increase in KP shows: Value table Characteristic pP KPopt0 Tout with KPopt 50 32 0.

C-71

Solution 18

**3.2 Leakage The following changes occur with leakage:
**

Characteristic

qL KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 Tin with KPopt0 estat 1/8 120 0.07 0.14 0.08 1/4 160 0.07 0.16 0.12

Values

1/8 180 0.07 0.18 0.16 1/2 220 0.07 0.22 0.2 s s V Rot.

Tendency

increasing increasing constant increasing increasing

Value table

Rectifying faults:

Characteristic

qL KPopt Tout with KPopt Tin with KPopt 1/8 39 0.07 0.12 1/4 42 0.07 0.14

Values

1/8 44 0.07 0.16 1/2 50 0.07 0.21 s s Rot.

Tendency

increasing increasing constant increasing

Value table

Only small leakages can be compensated. In principle, there is no point in correcting disturbances by changing the parameters, since it is the components which need to be changed. In the case of larger leakage, the piston drifts towards the extended position and no longer returns. Reason: Due to the differential pressure, leakage oil flows from the rod side to the piston side; as a result of this the necessary pressure can no longer be built up on the rod side.

A comparison with exercise 17 shows:

Note

**T Leakage and insufficient supply pressure result in a loss of energy in
**

the closed control loop. The controller gain can be set at a higher level. stability range.

T Larger tubing will provide additional energy, thereby reducing the

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-72

Solution 18

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-73

Solution 19

Closed loop hydraulics Feed on a shaping machine

Subject Title

Status controller 1. Constructing the measuring circuit 2. Determining the characteristics of the status controller 3. Recording the transition and ramp function 1. Measuring circuit The circuit is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagram. Only one voltage supply is required. First of all, it is important to set all parameters to zero. 2. Characteristics of a status controller The characteristics of the status controller are checked with the multimeter. These fluctuate within production tolerances. However, by and large, they should lie within the range of values specified in the data sheet. 3. Transition and ramp function First of all, the status controller is to be put in the initial position. During the measurements, ensure that those parameters not required in the control loop are always at zero. Only in this way is it possible to test a loop specifically. With differentiating controller loops, the sign reversal can be seen at the summation point. An additional measurement may be carried out here before the summation point. The result of the velocity loop then corresponds to the differentiator in exercise 8.

Exercise

Solution description

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-74

Solution 19

3.1 Position controller The following transition and ramp functions are obtained in respect of the position controller:

Diagram

The position controller corresponds to a P element (see exercise 5).

3.2 Velocity controller The following transition and ramp functions are obtained in respect of the velocity controller:

Diagram

The velocity controller corresponds to a D element with sign reversal (see exercise 8).

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-75

Solution 19

3.3 Acceleration controller The following transition and ramp functions are obtained in respect of the acceleration controller:

Diagram

The acceleration controller corresponds to the serial connection of two D elements. This can be detected on the second spike of the step response and on the single spike of the ramp response when compared with the velocity controller.

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-76

Solution 19

TP511 • Festo Didactic

C-77

Solution 20

Closed loop hydraulics Paper feed of a printing machine

Subject Title

Position control loop with status controller 1. Constructing a position control loop with status controller 2. Establishing the stability range 3. Setting the parameters of a status controller 4. Measuring and calculating lag errors 5. Adapting the status controller to a modified controlled system 1. Constructing the position control loop The position control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams. 2. Establishing the stability range The following steps must be carried out for commissioning:

Exercise

Solution description

**T Safety-related presettings
**

Reference variable w

5V constant P 1

Controller parameters

Kx 1

Kx Kx

Other

Offset 0 Limiter ± 10V

Value table

0

0

T Check the control direction

correct, if the slide – advances the in positive direction – with increasing setpoint value. correctly, if the slide – remains at the position – with a constant setpoint value.

T Set the offset T Transition function

The transition function shows the same characteristics as that of the P controller. (See solution for exercise 15 or 18)

TP511 • Festo Didactic

T The oscillations are reduced to a large overshoot through K .C-78 Solution 20 Diagram T Limit of stability KPcrit = Kx ⋅ P = 6. Setting the parameters of the status controller The following effects can be seen during the parameterisation of the status controller: T KP can be left at KPcrit. Values set too high for K or Kx also lead to oscillations. Should this procedure fail to fully meet the quality criteria.7 ⋅ 10 = 67 This also corresponds to the result in exercises 15 and 17. x Optimum controller parameters obtained are: Value table Reference variable P 5V ± 3V Square-wave 10 optimum controller parameters Kx 5. Steady-state oscillations occur. x T The overshoot is attenuated through Kx .6 Kx Kx Settling time Ta 2 0ms 0. then it is possible to start again with a slightly reduced KP. (Deviations may occur as a result of tolerances in the circuit components.) 3.7ms 60ms TP511 • Festo Didactic .

In the case of an erratic linear unit (higher KPcrit). Measuring and calculating lag error At a velocity of 0.) are being used as in the previous exercises. Again. tubing sections. a system deviation is measured of e = 0. This can be explained by higher proportional gain: KP = 56 instead of KP = 41. TP511 • Festo Didactic . The absolute value may clearly deviate from the result given in this instance.05 The lag error is then: 1 Kx ex = v ⋅ + Kx V0 1 0s m = 0.00143m = 1.4mm + e x = 0.4mm = V KR 50 m Note As a mathematical check.07V Dies ist ein Schleppfehler von ex = e 0.2 ⋅ 1 5.2 m/s. since the differential elements can easily lead to oscillations.6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 0. the advantage of a status controller can be less clearly seen. 4.07 V = 1. the same applies in that the limit of stability KPcrit can only be used as a comparison variable. What is important with the comparison is that the same components (linear unit. valves etc.C-79 Solution 20 Overall it can be seen that the setting time is slightly lower than that for a pure P controller (80ms).6 s 140 s The lag error is greater on the P controller than on the status controller: s V 1 ⋅ 50 = 140 V m s T The solution in exercise 16 produced a lag error of 2mm. Here the advantage of a status controller only becomes apparent in the following test using additional load. the closed-loop gain V0 is to be calculated first of all: V0 = Kx ⋅ P ⋅ KS ⋅ KR V0 = 5.

2 1. The tubing volume cannot be compensated quite as effectively. thanks to the very high proportional gain. 5. However.2 3.7 5. Moreover. this nevertheless results in a shorter settling time than with a P controller.1 1. in particular with Kx .6 0 0.1ms² 100ms constant decreases decreases decreases increases increases Ta Looking at the setting time.1l Tendency P Kxcrit Kxopt Kx opt Kx opt 10 6. Status controller with modified controlled system The following characteristics of the controlled system are obtained as a result of load m and tubing volume V: Value table m = V 0kg 0l 10kg 0l 0kg 0.C-80 Solution 20 Reason: A higher closed-loop gain V0 can be set with the status controller. which influences the acceleration of the load.7 60 10 4.3 1.e.5 3.8 2.9 0.9 80 10 3. it can be seen that the influence of the load can be very ef fectively compensated. whereby the lag error can be reduced to such an extent that a minimal increase through the Kx -element still does not produce a larger lag error than the P controller.1l 10kg 0. i. this illustrates the advantage of the status controller: the settling time is considerably less than with a pure P controller.8 80 10 2. overlap in a similar way to the P controller. Both system modifications. load and tubing volume. TP511 • Festo Didactic .1 2.6ms 5.

Examining the interference behaviour with braking load 1.0 Controller parameters P 10 Kx Kx Value table 0.5V ± 0.8ms² Deviations from the specified numeric values may occur due to the individual configurations possible. Investigating interferences in the hydraulic circuit 3. Note TP511 • Festo Didactic .5V Square-wave KPcrit 45 KPopt 4. Position control loop The position control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams and commissioned with the help of the checklist.C-81 Solution 21 Closed loop hydraulics Horizontal grinding machine Subject Title Interferences in the position control loop 1. The sample solution is therefore purely intended as an example. KPcrit is merely intended to serve as comparison variable for the results in the other exercises. The safety-related presettings are: Reference variable w 5V = 100mm P 10 Exercise Solution description Controller parameters Kx 1 Kx Kx Other parameters Offset 0 Limiter ± 10V Value table 0 0 Die Reglerparameter lauten: Reference variable w 1. Constructing and commissioning the position control loop 2. Constructing a position control loop with braking load 4.3ms 0.

3 80 30 65 0.4 2. interference can be slightly better compensated via the status controller.3ms = 70ms = 0. the settling time with the status controller is slightly less than with the P controller: T between 70ms and 180ms with the status controller T between 90ms and 200ms with the P controller TP511 • Festo Didactic .1 1.0 80 20 10bar Tendency decreasing increasing increasing increasing increasing 96 0. In comparison with the P controller.5ms 2 Toutopt 180ms At pP < 30bar. Hence.1 Pressure drop The following value table is obtained with constant controller gain KPopt: Value table Characteristic pP KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 50 48 70 40 52 90 Values 30 66 110 20 100 160 10bar 270 240ms Tendency decreasing increasing increasing Optimisation of the controller parameters results in the following value table: Value table Characteristic pP KPopt Kx opt Kx opt Values 50 46 0 0. compensation of the interference via the controller is no longer useful. Interferences in the hydraulic closed control loop The characteristics in the interference-free circuit are: KP^crit0 = 45 Kx 0 KPopt0 = 40 Kx 0 = 0.7 70 40 52 0.3 100 160 0.C-82 Solution 21 2.8ms = 85ms 2 Tout0 Tin0 2.4ms 0. even with pressure drop.3 0.

2 70 120 0 1/4 110 0.12 ms ms V Rot.5 0.3 70 200 0 ms ms 2 Tendency Rot.6 1. increasing increasing increasing increasing constant increasing Compensated through offset Value table Toutopt Tinopt estat ms ms V Interference as a result of leakage is compensated in the same way as with the P controller. Tendency increasing increasing constant increasing increasing Value table The leakage can be compensated as follows: Characteristic qL KPcrit Kx opt Kx opt Values 1/8 80 0.0 0. TP511 • Festo Didactic .10 Values 3/8 180 70 180 0.3 70 140 0 3/8 130 1.12 1/2 210 70 220 0.08 1/4 170 70 150 0.9 0.3 70 160 0 1/2 140 1.2 Leakage The following parameters are obtained with leakage: Characteristic qL KPcrit Tout with KPopt0 Tin with KPopt0 estat 1/8 140 70 120 0.C-83 Solution 21 2.

4. TP511 • Festo Didactic .5 0.1 0 80 20 0.1 Transition function A reference variable of w = 2V and a controller gain KP = 40.2 0.7 0.3 0 40 35 0.2 0. Interference behaviour with braking load 4.15 ab 20 10 0.5 0.7 0. Position control loop with braking load The position control loop is to be constructed in accordance with the circuit diagrams and commissioned with the help of the checklist.8 0.C-84 Solution 21 3.4 zu 40 40 0.16 0 Values 60 25 0.16 Values ab 30 25 0.3 ab 40 30 0.4 zu 30 35 0.9 0.8 bar mV mm sec Tendency increasing increasing increasing increasing A reference variable of w = 2V and load pressure pL = 40bar produces the following characteristics with different controller gains: Value table Characteristic KP x xm Ta estat 20 45 0.06 0 mV mm sec Tendency increasing decreasing decreasing decreasing constant A steady-state system deviation estat is only clearly smaller than KPopt if the load is removed.4 0. produces the following characteristics with a different load: Value table Characteristic Last schalten pL x xm Ta zu 20 10 0.6 0.

0 bar V mm Tendency increasing increasing increasing Value table With a constant load of e.4 8 40 0.2 4.4 Values 20 0.2 30 0.1 2 V mm Tendency increasing decreasing decreasing Value table A load of pL = 30bar and a controller gain of KP = 40 produce the following lag errors with different velocities: Characteristic vset w e ex 0.1/20 0.0 10 0.16 3.2 0.g.2/20 0.1 0.2 Lag error A setpoint velocity of vsetpoint = 0.2 m/s and a controller gain of KP = 40 result in the following lag errors with different loads: Characteristic pL e ex 0 0. the lag error can be minimised through optimisation of the controller parameters: Characteristic KP e ex 20 0.1 2.15 3 80 0. pL = 30bar.1 2 Values 0.2 4 m/s V/ms V mm Tendency increasing increasing increasing increasing Value table TP511 • Festo Didactic .2 4 Values 60 0.12 2.C-85 Solution 21 4.

C-86 Solution 21 TP511 • Festo Didactic .

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