Q#1(a

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Operating principles: y Klystron: Electrons are formed into a beam that is velocity modulated by the input waveform to produce microwave energy. y Magnetron: Electrons are emitted from cathode and interact with an electric field and a strong magnetic field to generate the microwave energy. Structures: y Klystron: A klystron consists of four parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. A beam source (electron gun or cathode) Buncher (velocity modulating unit) Accelerator Catcher (beam stop)

Explanation: The electron gun (cathode) produces the flow of electrons. The bunching cavities regulate the speed of electrons so that they arrive in bunches at the output cavity. The bunch of electrons excites microwaves in the output cavity of the klystron. The microwaves flow into the waveguide, which transports them to the accelerator. The electrons are absorbed in the beam stop or catchers. The collector electrode provides an external path to the electrons to return to the cathode y Magnetron: Magnetron consists of four parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Anode Filament/cathode Antenna magnets

which also serves as the cathode of the tube. In effect. The open trapezoidal shaped areas between each of the vanes are resonant cavities that serve as tuned circuits and determine the output frequency of the tube. into which the antenna transmits the RF energy. is located in the center of the magnetron. The anode operates in such a way that alternate segments must be connected. The FILAMENT (also called heater). The ANTENNA is a probe or loop that is connected to the anode and extends into one of the tuned cavities. so that each segment is opposite in polarity to the segment on either side. The antenna is coupled to the waveguide. and is supported by the large and rigid filament leads. the cavities are connected in parallel with regard to the output. or strapped.Explanation: The ANODE (or plate) is a hollow cylinder of iron from which an even number of anode vanes extends inward. which are carefully sealed into the tube and shielded. The MAGNETIC FIELD is provided by strong permanent magnets. which are mounted around the magnetron so that the magnetic field is parallel with the axis of the cathode. a hollow metal enclosure. Power level Klystron Magnetron 50 MW 40 MW Efficiency 30-70 % 40-70% Operating frequency Upto 35 GHz Upto 95 GHz .

and this will in turn excite a voltage across the gap of subsequent resonant cavities. RF energy is fed into the input cavity at. with reduced energy.1(b): A resonant cavity forms a means of storing electromagnetic energy. In a klystron. . By optimizing the phase of these returned electrons the device will oscillate at the cavity frequency. is captured in a collector. y The electric field causes the electrons to bunch y The RF current carried by the beam will produce an RF magnetic field. Reflex klystron: In a reflex klystron there is just one cavity followed by a reflector that returns the beam back through the cavity. the RF circuits are resonant cavities which act as transformers to couple the high-impedance beam to low-impedance transmission lines. The operation takes place in the following manner: y A beam of electrons is produced by a thermionic cathode and accelerated by high-voltage electrodes y This beam is then passed through an input cavity. its natural (resonant) frequency to produce a voltage which acts on the electron beam. y The spent electron beam. or near. at a particular frequency within a small bandwidth. Comparison of reflex and multi-cavity klystron: Multi-cavity klystron: Multi-cavity klystrons have additional 'idler' cavities between the input and output cavities and these enhance the velocity modulation of the beam as they cause further acceleration or retardation of the beam.

y Magnetrons are characterized by high peak power. y A klystron is referred to as a linear beam tube because the direction of the electric field that accelerates the electron beam coincides with the axis of magnetic field. large size. high stability. small size. y Klystron provide a coherent transmitted signal Magnetron: y A magnetron is a self-excited oscillator used as radar transmission tube. in contrast to a cross-field tube such as magnetron. y Magnetron is not coherent transmission source. y Magnetrons are referred to as cross-field tubes because the direction of electric field that accelerates the electron beam is perpendicular to the axis of magnetic field. The power to the device is applied to the center cathode which is heated to supply energetic electrons which . high gain and high operating voltages. y A klystron is characterized by high power. The applied magnetic field is constant and applied along the axis of the circular device. How does magnetron uses electric and magnetic field to produce microwave power? The microwave radiation of microwave ovens and some radar applications is produced by a device called a magnetron. The magnetron is called a "crossed-field" device because both magnetic and electric fields are employed in its operation. efficient operation and low operating voltages. and they are produced in perpendicular directions so that they cross.1(c): Klystron: y A power amplifier tube used to amplify weak microwave energy (provided by a radio-frequency exciter) to a high power level for a radar transmitter.

would. This driven oscillation of the charges around the cavities leads to radiation of electromagnetic waves. the output of the magnetron. work is done on the charges and therefore energy from the power supply is given to them. tend to move radially outward to the ring anode which surrounds it. In this way. . The axial magnetic field exerts a magnetic force on these charges which is perpendicular to their initially radial motion. in the absence of the magnetic field. imparting energy to the oscillation at the natural frequency of the cavity. Electrons are released at the center hot cathode by the process of thermionic emission and have an accelerating field which moves them outward toward the anode. and they tend to be swept around the circle. That charge tends to be pushed back around the cavity. As these electrons sweep toward a point where there is excess negative charge.

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