PUBLICATI·

'Wnen ha'ly decl1alfetl war on ~ '1" flee

DrHrul'll on Hll June J1940, the looir.errlIn~tn 'Iiu,u,ion, Ill~d 01'1 pErgler iI fomid[!Jo1e ~lTI1~off 1~" d~,vis~!o.nI:S. bis T im~ss:ivc figllre cOrilce;doo ol1i~ or ~he l'IIma,n 'we..tk lie. ses of dle ~l ~hm Am~ . n~ever.lIuat each dh i'~im'il W':''I;'' mf~j' l\VO rllii:31ilm:rry regm.:ne 'u,~ g,'triQug h1SIead ~ r the sDa.D~i.1'I, I. [Ehret::reg. nems In ~U other 'l1lnmie~" Atm. 'in eaeb divi:s:iol'l! Ihel ':"' ~1l:$ Qmly (U'Ie regim,e I; of • rtl ll ery. 'llihic:h ct)lj~p8rnd lIi'liIfuv()~:1IJb~y 'I,.!liulit other mmi~ Ui:e! had ~, h~-aM fOllir ~JI1'me~)I gITUJ,ps' 1)f'E'division.
~UI ' . If'C'U;[

Again

0'111

pa' ~er, d~

liiri!I1~~f:ts had

alii

i:mpf:\Ii!;$$jve 2i'L'1l!11oredfo ce
VlIs.

0".

eve'ra!

.~ml.'l!s'_'lnd tanks. Umtofu:unucly

1.h~'S rott:e

l\'VQ-m~1il~igb[ 1mb armed '~"JLh[win old snd au I~)' dste w,tlh t i9ro~ Iln'itllI'iOOIi'O:£gun' bed!liI~A.'.U;'I"ffial',llJrisa.'3

o'1i2n\jh~! m~ ngly ,tn:ade up 01' nUK:hillegllln~. M'J[)5f ~u1Uh,;l.ry piece were
'i,II,.'8i1'

booey [mlkefl as re~~a1j:ons in 19~ ~. The Ilalnms: al~o' had th-e (H8.~ldv!iUlt~e' 0" Jml:lly of ul~1ij; .5;{J'ldle~: ~u~ving ahrcmlly 'C",}1J,g~uin 'Eil:dQpdl3 min J,9.l5~3161 ifH.d S~alfn iu 193""-19_ A. I.ot or dle..'il;!: 8( ~die 'S were Ithu \: at weary. l1'1l!tsa. "Ie rera II'I~ of . ,vtrali t:onmd-s had Iict~h-1'e;dl Ht~h;:home leave, and 0 .'elm: 001 IlJU'.I!m:E,,'nl!~or ready 'ft rthe ki rid of war lh~t wasto faee ~heJlfl in J '9'411-4-3" Th'e lta lan' did have M'Ilrun}t Slllp.!i!tb units wm'~ih ~2. [:, g ~nnents Q:_ Hue' famous Be~:gHeri H~tn hllalil[ _ illlid 'tell of A]pilili. ""C[,.l, k" mo ullai'ul tJiOOp v·eruired from alhL!lm.rot) people of ]~.aly·smou ~t;a' nous regions, S'Oll'ilat iIii !i::I,llllry dhti_llion< W~ '~!F~rdooas; elite un ~l ., ~flf ins.tfi!ln(:e. ~he Lupi ~.li1,(, . "llUl ~Wol "".~~of Tl!I~a:ny VI,. '[II;; ,[ rl:'L~ ;:r.it- of MIDs_~ol.itlli. '\\rh,t e ~he;nd,~ift'~: Ii Sfj,rnJit't ,Oremldier~ of .,iWO~_ had a lpniS t- nd illustri otiS. hi$IO:F)f.:' t lhe.s;~an: o '~llewar

th' llalians n;}d [L.riliti 'llit':ir bc...'\~ in dirfiic.mh Cir.CUlfl1 ·t~nc,es CilJn:y OU~ Mt1SSoI1inm"$ orders, bUI f"rcndl de,ren"'~~ p,u!l:nI'Bdl [tor:~Sltnm,g und 0"11)' ~Ilong C4J!IIllp.Etign of ,~I't~'idofJ wO'Illd h ~ ve 'reduced ihelrbl. [he' were wea1her , uri Faa the' ~Jnp.~1ign ,~~o ~d II)' ~ff~c~e·1 ~h halhm •• ,11is i, c-iI, , I1Iph.iealUy iI ~UStf"dJlOO by ~.1;m I 51 e a~~ of fr'O~tt,ii~e ~ !,hel~'su HTe~d The campai In :rx.pa e ,mit'il,)1of abc nMiWS of I he ,rnita~j.a1Jln1]li'~i.llLjl flO:!." [he nr~llhue. and 's:ho" ed ~Il'ar no maner" ~l(lW bmw a'lIi 1Ittilivitlll,m[ ohlier :lfill~)I ibg," mhe !Fus¢,is~ ,regim~ 'W s im::Or~lble ~gmg \~ , e IcII;!I1JCI~ RaUIU~ii.'~ \ilI1ur til" b1Jicl· campni,g;!1 cliidl aclllme\'c w~ s I.e gi''i.r'I;-lu:s~HI'1Ji wluu 11"" reqnired - 'i,~a: casualti -,!: He hild earlier uo'l,dMm'Sh.a,1 B adoglio" hb Ohic ' of Sur('f, . "1need ufill:y .a f~\_ llilol1sa.ndl dead 10 en. ure l ha\i'e the rig'lt to sh lin ~l'IC peace table hl !tilt':: capa ilfy of a 'lbe]~ i~~r.-eI1lC',. TI~~sacri 1ce [) hiBm so d e- s did g~~i Mru .{ilJ iOl ri, n a.~pi~1l. vi! lag_I!:lSLnd oceu P-llI.:[ ucm rllg'h ts over the .otl!lhe en F:rcnc' I. ptovi nee of prun..'cnt."4il:.
w

:~r..nn~I'liy iti<llwllt:L:'

~"t

ventare illl '[he Eur'OpeoIitl ~heiililer \n.'4S, l ally ~,itlVflI ion QI Greeee four ~1iLonLh.'i later. Germ;)ny!~, vjritlJ~lil ta!ket)wr of Roonmw willlol:.Il con:-.ulfn:g the' ~t3lian dklato:', ,unruri3J[e.cl Mus;s,o]in1.. who decided £0 ~~)' 'rliller ~~!~t his awl coi n", H,e 1()o'kcd ;.u,\Qtutdi' for, U 51L1 ~1:i1Lble vk~li:l1t,'nnd deGi'ded ":II~
Greece '" Quid be prfecl lin .- e role of a lieial '111mb. Itml1i8ll.p.r,~~andlfl to ~~~,med [he GFeek.'ll hai ~ rroostomucl to fight ter fl . orrept gow~mmeni, lliuu,
I

-hj~1' oUI"i' . I~CS.tmiliHI~1

,n

WOulM

fu.dy

had 3

iofa."~ry divisions.

rOIiJf.

Alplni"

Uio'o

motorized,

[three

H'lJlck

~r:an~port.'iLtd. m;wo :J!rQ10I~ i~!"d 111;\'0'Celere ligh~ di\<'is~OJb . ,~1~&hmlil£'. h~ Albmluia there ~'rc 'ImCt: in[l1Jn~IrY· A Ipi'1iI1 aru] OIle irruBor-ed di, i:· i.m~ , ,,,rilth a fllJi'tIter One inf~llItry ]iv' i.on ilia ~h fiu.:.@:,e~~a ~Lntbi. 11t'" rei!'1~IOf Itle Im~liaQ Af.T!fJ)'; ~doll;g H M~h ~I l:;lrj:!';!: llJumber 0; Oo~oilEnl IJ1 nll-s,wal-; SMltjo,m~ ~InNor. h Sind 1:~~Sl AJneaJ. ~ta:1:~·· first 'Ilf] i]liTanI On.illT:)IilmOn in '~ WI] i 'I{ d v·d the tlWoh -i!l}l'i.! of S(iII,!JEb~iJ8jL ~ ~ I'~ I rnrtt:c. ~I ng; lie nJD "Uy IllQUl]rtU nOll~' w~·.!)em AJps hor..'t. cr. ~!iJtl, lh{!' ;" nnch om ~'he \f~rge of dCrWlI, iIii J um~ I 940 ~u]d ,o~I y a fe""~ days awr~y fWlll capitY:1 mion. 'MU$:>o:~i n i, dccLan:d W-W' an UIlL~11ri ,t:L:nd (lre.'rt B,1rij I:::f~r" Orli 10 Jm_u'!e, Ute Jt~H~n I ':gh . 'Qmm. nd. COlf!lfmnndl~S~prclllto.. h Id cnlvm c~ged ~L -nen-",~~ e .I.mEe,g)' ~~gah] l Prot~l« Dc_ore Ihe "tilr dll n ~hejll. n (XI,~i[jgn~ 'llmd U) b!.: d~eJllg.e~ iiii ti :~,~~ ~ :ll M 1i1~~]licd":o;; eon1m'il1il~.I ffii ~ ~.j}'ITtri.ed I' 'j. lr.CiI£mll ql~fHle d::ay ri~Jub ItuU "I wouM t~.1\ • \~.$ to 'IJlro;per,~y 'O'rgani~ '~hc offc!I1sl\,'C imd. bring ~r dfle '.!Ile~_onlrY I ~Fh ~s h~3r'ly ;lrtiiUery riI~d~dl [I reduce Inc \'lel~~~uHI Frefi!;ch'onL,c~~]on. ,Mu. olirn~\' !lu,ld have [liO e:x,cus . =.iI;r.'id] is...~ll.mdQlrcien:;, for tbe;oJfmiisivc to. 'hegi~] on l7 J!lI1£', dlie $iml]f; d~lY I~ninl;.e 3.s~ .at': 1i11m131'i), for uli IHillris;tiiciil!. 'Ttn:~s ord~,t·'W~, ctlitmt,e.,llua.!lde,d ~~ he b!ls'~,rUil!lllJb.:, aitd b~1 lhe'Lillie lhe dehycd offem;i~c 1i,i,la,s IUlHtdtoo on 20 lu~e;. ,.... inf~fHrj' ;tI!Il ~ al "inc 5 dj,visiol}.· pbls ,a Sl1m.U arE! ored {::I~mt~liil .ti1ud been lii,H -lSedi OQ rh~ 'border. uflldl!N1',~ y.. U c· .11 ,11 ~lll' ,exp "'r:icltcod d:~tT1cllltDe!'i!. Thr....., boggllild down on a n arrQ'i.Y' rr.tml; 'Ii ritb :p 0 "'?ITt· U er w-· mle~pGcicd ~isl.:anc'C' fruro f1n!n-clii ,tLlpilil~ Uni[[N nfi:ddlll~ pmg~iS; ,Iuw ;llld OOS[~y. TBii.c. [[~CleTI!lI;Jjn'IWe(lJti1cr ,also n:lCiihrlllt l~)C. Itn:l.i.all1 ,Air. 'Force cou'ld not gi ~r,e SiuJ,~[',iII9C1 [0 l.h~ offen" ,~v~ ,~nd the f (~QrLudl ~Ln I~,fan~(y~Hdll() ItlJUl1i ~·'h co '~1.)I Fr, nl ill ~L~ mil~s ~ain ~ weU·pr>epned Frefldl po :L~ iOl1s with .ElO air am:11 n,1.,. I,~ghl( @Jl1in~l"y wlppon. Tb~ Frenclil had ·a!kriD p,lI'e,pt3_~ w,el!.. \!'~iQ'1!1 j] ~;erie· of we!l:..s1.1,cd dfnmU"~ion( ~ Ilo,lii& bO]ldeif' ~~;se;_~ lb~i'l1Ig S~l Q,:ff: 0'111 1 '~ J Ijme. ~'hcsc de:.i]lol ilions It~~d ~) the h~ n,:tllS and stoppcd :a ~Ol ,oE ~IJIppC)l:t e.!e T1eIlLS fr-O'TI1J g.el! in! '~Q the U . rwll e~ 1'(' Ibe I~nd (l" du!' 'rig'~~~n~. '-I.ow - e:r 'mhe ]~a!lill;IlS did m,u,n~~e ~Q occup.y the vi~~a~es 01' L~nsJeoou~ and Ten1lignoJ'll mUJ III Ar.c \f~Lil~y ~rQ~ ;.he :F:reuch 'JLJllTtmder 0Im. 24 Jh;u[lc_
Ai IDt;)n if.U;j, ~:heoffen s:ive
'W~:;;:

dl~ i~~~~~' :""S: l'Ule'lf8, he llall ~r!I in as ·iOn of r Grrcca' in buc OCllQb~r ~9'40 '" a~ one of [he wlJ'~t·c,{ll]JC'ei·~ .• u:nd poor:!i)" plaaned 'c:nnpaigrn, Qr ¥l\VU. A'~ the behc m,J MI1I~,·()Hni: it W.~~8l:gtulized 'in o t~,~,lhan rwo wee 10;:" b hai::;u1I gene rals \ new the army Wfl!i nun p,rnpaJ:-ed UOT lhe invaslon aad who had ~i ~ 001!,!, 'ldence in ~'he O~I[Cillrne, II , ru net jill "'~ r'1:e hi, G errn ~~ud:JUy I~at MIIJ!.iSQ~~n 'kepI i111 [til '" "nark ~}bour the invaslO'_riI" IJS M,ru-siulll i • 'rnzjnflli. It~ an l,,:oJnnfiarndel" ilfN -O'rt~ A liD '~ Ufldi Cihi 'f' or Ant'l~ ,,(11'I.'Ff .. 'O:I'I~:y heard ,aoout ~he iova_ioJl ;,mm a nldiio broodeD ,t!
c~pi
[Ill ~alc

and

:BCt:(:pl

"'no

, le inv cV:i ()Il W.a~ bJ!linctilic.d W:Tom 'riI~,,\,l]ly ctmquer-ed AI ~:nj "l\lhich bad (Jnly heen po-,al til·, ;·~Ul~ Bmpi rei. ~ifi~C: A 'ri ~ !9.J~~J UcliL before [he; III 'ac-k lhere iill!l were ' n~)f '~ll~u~ I 'O,,()(· ~~ ~l lirul m mop j n .. ~tmiilit'l+ mldl :ni~~lly ~hcEJ,e were of :f:coru:I~1 im: (iudl' , ~mdt· C~lJi1lbifa ~eri am;] Fronl'ic.ii 1~r-oop• Linthe F~~,' mOil! til ~ OOfarn II:h~ i~"1ISi ion. a 10m I nf 60.UC)() more e 'pene n, 'cd rroop~, hm1: be~i'IJ ~1Jl1,

lr

Ital m h~lp w'~I~h in':'lWC;.'O;E ~spnn r ~ '"UOJ lO-mru c~Inob~liz~niufl: ine d"signeci j, ~avc m, 'n~y.Thi, I1iIl1.i:hnf( [ilL:- majority of I-mops i'!Jl ~Ii in ,"l!sion ron;:~ '!rvellC 111J!;!:)l::tx:lfieru::ed ,row N!~.:-rri!li~:s·",Th ,11~~u.kcnrnJi:]n~rn:,\VGrs~. dt~ ll1!\radli Fig;
~ ttl
,~Lml.ir' W~LS 1iJ;liIr~1 mabhil'. 11(:'llll\~l1}j IlUill

b:u~ked ,,,ut ",vilth A I aflli~n 'v~~lurucc:(':) Who ~. er~ alm{}" Jt liOlaHJI

~omc W,~S mmid~lIlp of

I1rill1l~ di",,'.I'SlOrlt.:';: illf

lJ:Je 9d,.

(Inr!

'~l llil Arm ie-s.

'Ifnm, :lind 686 gu.n '. De~pt:n:8!tel y ladd ng i11mol~'UuanslXH'iI.. 'the ,h~,dl~ll!ii tnh,l liveh!i)~~ • word of!j, '1uH-3rm' mU'iUiliuQn, 70 dAY.. ,of IHL · ru,el fOIr i'm:s. few. m.l:')lror IIN~hide \" ,~Id 40 days of al~er . lII,ppUcs. AnOln~ factor JL:OlIJjnmil'iJ,g a;gainst: ~:b!!i.' I:l;,~l~aoi!Wl»l ~~'Ul! '\; ~ lilaat they were 9lUl.teJd f~g ahll,1 e .2 'Ornn of moum,ai:m:uJ· oord Ii fLli lhi;ird (f 'tt~ f\l Wtlll:j a I'! ~' reek border ~!\

__ 11(,): " 7.000 ,un

~ompQ,"d

'~jjjcred'i bl y.. 'IJO mrmpi 'lhI~d !been :1lJ~~'ared f~ ~h~iie :r~1I0I!Hnai nOU$ ,r. '"gi(:(!fh ~ . I r(Qil WI.: rc OrlC n a(:l:'i,jfJlJJ ifi~ III indlly 11"111'0' Gl'f.'eik [ljrLnl u:ny. The' \"~ath.il}r W~ "i!ll'soagaij nM,~he ha] ius, ns 'the .~~t9dt co:urtt: idoo tviIh lit . Gret:k. m:UIliY ~asOIll wMn ,r:h1efS were \ o~len afltd ~einpe:r~lllll" roppcd to ~'Jolow r~ "zit'll!. ., O'i U:ilJI- n ·:oldj,ers, did IllQl 11~1· "inle b~'l! .~- - ~d IthL, u e re,."UJ! t~ ~ if' 1)JJ~l ~c -. I f.' INMbi m.c b~ til e,~ld D~c~n:ibe.r_ or :1111gb 1111UllllaiB'lS). '1'1W.a'S::lI'I!':o ,::l~l.u'tled Ihe h3~i ~l, h d an O"'fC!J"I,-'.libcJmin ·1Jj~et]ilJr.![)1 mn l'iI,umJi),rs lind ~quilPm,e.lilt O'rer IJi](~ Gree\. ~hol!Jgl'1ln li s was 1!10~ I'he ,cMer lit] fUCl l~' nrcck~ 'lilad ihl~ f!CE:il~Mt~ of irnfLlfllry p'~r di,'l,i'hdm~a~ o~l~tI k~ It:lly s '\ o. plus i I hm:ll ,~.'IlO]c medi iJ:IlU atti Hcr)'. fllllld mct:ll:~Ii!BglUliI'~, \Vl1€!~ lihe [tQJlhms djd h{l~d an advMtaJge "t ,~nair, ower ru'lld at.lirmr. wil'h GIf'~~ hil,~ing on'ly :.1 l!im.all u:ir . oreeand "(~rli1U~d IYIlI ~ank, The .' 'm \\"0 adl,~ I'III~es. well' • l'iJ'uJ ·~:IFi!jd . y 1

The c;:l'mlPoc~gnhi the ··.:ups(;"Ould Ih~tird~ybe d"dhed 31.';; a great ~ucce, ~. 1,'~We[l thon,gh maJI g~ins were' 'h"1llITIpel,cd by the 'f'ttsci:iI: 'pa:O:.Img.r~.lmd~l,~lI1jJctd De" Allhe $run~ time. Ibe divis~Qn~, iighd'fllS ,:ah;m'gthe; C~ned' Al;UJ:" ,th~ ~mJltlrem 'Fr-clIlch ~t, .:dso nmde ,it Ie (nogm" in mlu:~:fque·:[ 10 take th'" lcity N ic lbri:ure the ffcn.dli -·lJm~t'der. 01l1!1 ,about tWO Ihi rdls of'the U),'I,,\ITI ': -C'lIliOM" JI1I 't ,t;-~flfl 0' c'r y 0' !he bfirder. Ittnd ber;;n ~rlrph]'f¢d 1:].j~Jt'Kr~ :h£nllJl~i~~k~~~ A:~tenrlp.ts ttlJk,e [the well'~(i.< ~rl;mded dt!i !l)f Nice ~,'llh it;; ~,"1 to!. ·id guuj. (h'icll'li..Irl~rjlg liIlaIT~ h~\Ty lY1pe~) aIM I Qo'thing 'with ~hre~ h;;lli'·11 cllivi ion' . lopped (-y Ltfie cm•.)'·~: dc:fenMi "spit~ lh ..it bm~f)'. ltuUan[oo,se . in lhe 't'hur-day ~af1tmjpai;gJnW~~ ItChU'EV~I;y l~lW}f witb nU:n:e [(11 n ,610, kmed und 1316.] W{UHlded. ',,- well as .i():O M'iis~~rn~~ a

lhe

rUCI, !.IK~~

Ihe' ,~.mU'foue

'I,-"'~:;;' Il,I;.'!Ver

or

of mJl:ic~I{;~J.ther. plus __ \ !nfl'

[,eIT:Eui III

(~n1ployed dlllrifllg I:he '-~~]'y . tfJ,gc bc.C3ilIJSC IIiJatle l~e lIse O'f ;gJ.Jrnored II C1'~fS d'i m CIJ It

"Ie.l1eml . ·eb~$dm 0 :': isc'Orni--'il,Tj:l., 'Lilt:: ~U).~I"Ui'i :Ollll1:1l3Jider Dil ",,\Ibanui •• l.cfl: 3, C :illfiHttll II;:cn,ref1 Qg [01'\:,1;: on e:a:iu,em H.ank ~f1t dtc p'! IlIdu 'Moun ullin' Iilnrn ~!i.'in~ '7'O,O}t) mt'!H inl{) G~'€"e'C'e CIlI) JS OCh'lbe~'.' Ie :~ul'l:i illS ~uh'aIll'C-cd in a fOllt~ PftQlliigL.:d atnat;k p 1:0 40km ~mO' 'reek t,en:itor-y.. \"o'ith 'lhe II,,, O-Slroflg Juli.t. -,tpii:l~ Dh m~,\:uil 'Ma.kinl~ smxl pro;~5-~. e\'·e[J ~hou,g;h by 31 ··:01. . ~r its Inen

ms

:hnd heen

reduced

10

hard

rOjdilOflS, ACtcr

~ "rie:w days 1lJ[ li"eij.rft~'I;I~,IJ em.'.;,)' :pfQ,gre~o;;.s.

,3

l'l:zdian 'Dll''OOp~Ot::.gllllll fa _i]JS' rn!tJ11 ~~ntambll' he ' fron'l (: verlooking mountains. llil ruJdri~; 1'1. the}' . :t,'(! othe ,~t de. '!ch as des ;m'oy~dl brid.ge ~Imd
'e~£ofl~Il)f ~woHei1rive .s,

The (bl2:~k~,then km'lIich~d,it c(mr:iUc.j';off~;filiSJi.\'~ ,~ti1:h rhree dlvl ions pus:hi ng "he Ilan~~n-, back ll'of1:tiiward. TIle J'u/m Alr:iidl Dlvisicn W'_, .' um"OLllI1Id.ed hy , .N(J~~mb vr. ~O:~i rig il imo ii db; :rderb retre _t; By 'l: ." o¥cl'nbL1r I ne :f~Hli';:Ln~ w~rc in gcmc:ua] retre'at all alon.,g I'h~ ("1fIn.uu.,~Ind by I.be Iii: ~h 'n~3V)' 'ifi gin 1n._g, \W!!io
't;)

,in; place at :K:omh:ojus 'um,;cle'- Greece, On 21 N u\l~mlbc r 'the Ch:eek
}>

~,l1ey ~ad eM~bH-hed ~~ dC'feliisi ~ hll. IUr!I.n:Eng.c stWflroS rrom Klifiln~r.d en the coalt~. FQr I.h~ tl~e~i of ~hl! ImiOf~,f.h.,~L~t:l~.('iliil:n,C:T(1S'lJC~ • wj~lr. ooth s ~d\e"exhausted Iln(!l, genemJ,~,lI. tilOl,[I~rng.wINiJ in,C)' had until dlC end u' the yea.f. Beth 'kliL;~ 'ljff~ gt! i'::'Lt~y I ron~ the col dU4rhrtg me 'i.~'lnh!Tmearh bfiCiJI.f1:SC ~m-rorm:s w>el"a:t i U,}' ha Llelll.l:ate for ~he·cor~diliClH • Uni'f.o;m:LS rtltlfl 'beC:J1It1!C' um~ and b ~1'~ 'WQl '" ,o.ut C'm.'IJJ~:h'llg 11fI~lW seldien ' 0'111 bod'i t-;,i:dic: . W \~rl1)~ their 'CC~ ill nqgs. Due ~@ IJ " ~h~u:!rr;e uni (01"1111. iJlmj l{.'"Cpin 'i the ep ~~lin ~ft'cn 'Q1t 'h1Jged ef
'~e!'lC'h_ • the nu moor of t'a~tl3Hties

:recil;Plu~ed .JJJi~· t d,:,lng 200 ' Il'fi '·orh: r HZ'" \. 4.':1 ,i;i ! 5 'Ill; d .s1J1i1~ , 'Ild ()(' ~ rna<:hm neg~U1 • :B.y 3, D!JI, ~~rnb~i' G',rec 'h d crossed Ilu~:KaI41ma~ Ri~:r and l,hc ',..'V~re advanci illS laI.Long the C;OID;~I deep iiFMlA:'Ii A] bz!.!rrDmll :ter,r]lO-fY, ln a S:~_;U'!ii 'OfF pani,c. b'Jly W~L meenwhile br'flglng "11 l!lr~~ "Iunben.; of pioocm~HI iC'inforeemcnt· ~ml u~h the n nhtn:11I ~,Ib~lll'lmnlll, orts ItJl~y 'h~h:1. .8)'.5 Dt:cemkl" p

Opeol~miorll Bji;j,lin£1tOssa H ft:w 11l10Il1lh~,Ii lcr, : :'8Jrler, 'he Kingdom o~ ¥U~'osh]via, under lime: rule Jfii' regcnr!, Prince f~iI;I~. i h~ agreed atrer u ,e:::OIlI1bi'lrnnion Gennan tin rears and (YJ.'Iom EO johl the i'e· Tri~i'HllI14;;' P,a£'t. 'wi,~h GCr:tn~l.ilY. lh~~y ,-~Dd ar}'lI!t:1. All~noli.lgh -Pu]~mu:! PI:)ul \lI1i relueten ~ 1i0 U'IlMY.' in hib. h,)1 Wil h I be A;;::i!\ I :ouren. •. h. J(fie" there \\'3;,; ~ilU~ dloicc In hb isel ted counlr. he agreemem Wa., .ii~lIIcden ')5 Mru'Ch.1.J:t [lW d~:;, I, '[cf mil'l~!I'j' ,:oup by Lto~ pro Allied { Yn:I(gohI!v m'i~it ~ryC!: ftl~llcld,)1 dnmpcl [11ings, l;-iHl.le~" \JJ.'1J~ mu ,~),~ ;:U lhi s pereeived be ~r:~~~1 y 'VUlf~lo~lavira b au,d he imlbl~dna~!: y ,on'rllered ~n..:: j,nV'd£,jon ()o', ~ Greec HId 'Y'l;Igo .:]avi u under 'm 'Ie CPd..:: l:~~ma Opcm'Liiall1 .M t1Jrl ia,
iiJvru ion of D'he ·"'oviel UO]Orll.

O'r

,I

ool'n

this l)fitzkdt:~ Ctull:lIJr,ri.,gn lu,.~cd frurn 5·21 A.P(tii .ruttl rcsu [red ~n Ibe c~~tnpkte d.c:'fe~!, md occupation 'of bo~b Greece a,m:!: Yu.go l.a,vi~, Dur1nc the German ~ m nVD·1 In. mheInLi ian 9E~1tt Arm)! tim1i }'\'lbu.i'I:ia tid \1"U,cd 'ba·k tntQ Gre~le' nuddng rnajar iIfIf"O".Jd. i:L1~OHpi rus b,y Iltir,· 17"lh. Oil 2 I Ar'JIri I I'he ,fn-ajor Gm~t £tt.n'iJia :-i1,.ll11[i!Jipdcoot! ~o ~hjg Germans, but at 'Mus:!;ol hlr~inslstence, ~hrJceremony J1~d
to be 'rrepciL'n:d ~m the 23,rd in fmm of ~mn lian representative, A tots] I) lib '. 're~k d~"~~~'L ~s, ! itE dowf!1 their :mllils under U c'~ u:r:rer der ~c'!fits. lUmImber units col1ti~lIcd itt) .figllr~,J~r!JF.lrr~~d~ B,rin lit ~j'oops wit I to ugcd ,~,fl.ghr~in~lretreat. :

frontl \'w'i( us afilm E.ion"

s.uct

as

tlry

g;]l1grtne

rose al3tinm Ibg'l:y.
now rcclL:,j\,',imJ" lwther re'i:r]f(ai"C n\ber"~· _ TIIe."ie·

194~ opened with a ,itUrjm L Jivisicn G.reet auack launched on ' , J~nllar)'
agnil1- i 'mhe [6 I~,alhm, di ishlllS ~illi1l!i Ii' J illm~
l1:f~tli)'

11-.· B rn ~'i$h 'V!.!~Force was e'frB:nl;UI~~n); ~'!ir'aCtll:1.00 from ~jo:n:sin. the ~,~utl:l. o the ',' reek i!l.I311d of Cret,!.::. \vhi hi Wa~ dlii'~y n capLl!lr~ b (it:1iI1'n'· n fo rees ~uItllt~ begi IIlni III of 1 U,1lC-. i'th ~h~ frull~ . r Crete. uhf! W eonq u "'$( 0IIl' G reeee ''''\~~~:;;, cQm]l,h~l:e mild )'l'!nr:!ii: o[ Ax... loecup~lIj'l)~ 'Were '~Q fonow~ w ~lh U'H'! ha'H~n A li1E1y gh/.eli I[Iitu rnai I1l ,wm:i en role luu[i I 1M Hd~ o ~._uss.o'lli n:m in 194.3_
[[i['t."'C:.k, m~bill~r~nd.

:'lQur~'h~hml1.gh th

,rein'fr['j~m~~leln:s tl:W~.ena!l:ii.v~dl III the ~:rOillt h~ jn .... "Ol!Bipl~te IJIt~i~swith II1'Luch of

~:Ilaly d~("~.ared ur QJil Ybg:o,Ja,\'ia 00 6 A~r.i1and rl1e -rid A'li1l1y b~gmt aJu.Jt':ldn,g \

~uap.ll11"fH

fIIItd

c\ren l'he

soH ic t-"S •

per.K)I~!l'1 I~p'.ar; 1l1iuln.!,

lBr)1

'dll: .umrnm'r of' muaHu I {)_ in '·Ibnllli:u. IOD,ked i1nprel> shrc "Ir ~c.asljrn 111ClUY. "~i[th.:1 J A63 ['I'lCU ~eJlg, 'f,omlCd, in. ) 3 de-fen ':i e waU 110, hold ~lIek (rnr!llte]i' Greek itd ~j}nce .Bv '1 J.mN lIiU'y '~heGrcclb. \,\.re:retndvall1c j,ll,V om '[he ltm,'flI of KlisU-J1:'iII... ,]tl'l ~t;;c' lm..,.n r~! n,g (m dlC 'IOtl1, D~ f:i.ilg Ii i .bi ~tCf IigJ Ihrig. b til h . ides ~lJffered he;,nry 'Im:~es 3S 'rhey fourg'h[d CITiI' ;el'l,f,es '~CIa SldWS'[[~L l'te LUjJ'i di TO'Sl.·tmlj ~lII1d .Pil!e~'()/;o Infan:lt'y D'vii:s 'o.fib • ·ud who l [ OHl1 fI!W or the Ju.Ua A 'Ipi:ni. Da""i~iuli1. s'L}'ffuf.~d 'f.tUr~jc~J~ ffilr]y bcovy 'C~.t51.I~J !i~ tfJJ ItMs n~ I.nllIi~ 1.Iiu:u l:3sU~dLill[~ I ,the end 0" J al1.ltIary. " [l h~Ji~n offe.m;i \Ie IJ) fel;;ilpllil ~ 1(~iSIIJ fa 0171 chill:

,ac.mss the' [t[]iI3Jll- Yl1!gosmv bordeli on ~h '"]I:h, TH1.e2nd AnTil)1 ,c-omprisilrlg the ....h. 6:mll ~md 1]'tI t :p. wij,I·I~eiglu: infanmry di~ i&iol11~. a' .crl a;" I.e elere
I.

1.6(11 C-aUed. :.1lld the 't~hnlng ~e~'e[{l'~d unce n",;,ithel· sidelble hJ~, ike a, ded:dve b~ow.
" l,liIS~td~ flI"

agUHflI, ifllW a

~mdtalmn"_ ~mh

I:Iry anlil bri II 1:1 o:l'tllhori ~J l'O hear 01)1 'the ~tuill ~on ~md tS, 2 Mare 'b '~o.rau ]fIISpec~;OI]~Ol!ll' f mbe fro Ill: =11K~ad .or 1 . .I.~JlJle.. s:c~lC' II';'ll5:Jfi 'spmi ng, offensi"ile- "f,hi·Sl Pri n~~l VIZiJ:rn" :S.~J.i"ng oHh.1fI 'i\"lJ: begal1l on 9. M';!IIrch :!lind w.~s ~nU:.!rlded 101 'Lie.l)!,1ke Kl i':'IlI,ll:rnull1ld: ~'ivc '~h~ r'lotill i:~fI:tii sOil1e 'jlIC"fl'"-f,;jilJ'iling ''ific\uJriJe~ befum an ~N,pGc·ti2d Irrui liilary irl't.c,. e'l1tioJil b 'ThL;:off'eJ][~d'~ 'Ii 'a.'i LHldertakcn b 7 h •.• d,h 'siQn~, .:<2 ,reeiolieo'~.· a.I'ng .13, Jian Grutoik. di''II'i o.i( a'IJS 04 I lenl - I, rml,<i!.e • riji"nl gai Ill, b fore- ~ u.~ Iin~ on Ut ~

d0dd~d

to

:Irriwd

mllil A~l'm'l'i;,a,on

CO'JiTIi·and Auto ranSIXJr.~::!Iibl}e Gorp!!i. .lBtiVtlJtl.-ru :alom~ (:'i." 0 iil.J:..t: • One fOlU made fo.r ~ 'hll,'b1i1(D",a 'In S, I!I.) lore i.a. 1;,\rh:~ch soon reI, ~ h~Ie the uthl;F, fori;."e 8 n adv.anC€d !liolll~h"'ltn[rd:s; :lJI.lollg mhc b.a:~ma[i'Q:1!I t':OUst Tbe [lali;;H'IS, I:GO'X. ~'vttn~1 'DQa~m~J lown,Ii •ml -Iudi 1Il~Z~rn. ~,il'· enik. ··:_:It and !hen [ii11;alt Dub!;','liVliiilli: on i Llt!!e B71 h, At [he tun d me" thr; ::th Am~:'f hll~tlded uOflhv ;Hlrds fliOilf! A bani '-1, ~ iilll s=t'rell inr~l:iIUr)~d~'!,~~s.km:s. one afIlfliO'II(.'iC!I. dhr~!!don,. I'hu1!lc, iI:!',uvHhy re,g:irnciI...., and. [VIla ]?I'jxJ:. rlq)ptWI' ~lW, 01' Brlac,bjli n In~i(iormeu. lhi ,r01Xie. ilJ c m~-de rOT I lI! brOi'!,fflik. "e.~·ten~ M,'QIfII,;;m.egro iIDd! it t Ldlll.em (Xi{}.~.~.~. e '. I: ken by 'tile ·nll A 'my be!f.o;rn they jeil1l~d up wi~h lhe~r comrade in dle 2nd AOIl(Y in, [)u'bl'oVl'Uilk o III 111Apri ~. ':11,e Yugo'!id(Qv A m1)~ smrendieJ'il,. th~ :'lHma I[bJ]· ar~.dJ . "'ti, :rJ4il(JO plli:iOliU,::1;" OfW.tlli \Ve.ii"e! '~en. ]I!ll.'he~r hi;l~h~,. ~vel!'.Dhl3: Gt:'i1I1UU1S and ,hm Imal~~mslet nn:iny ugos!" soUiers de1l1 bil~z~ Dnd rn!['It.a~d o'fp'r.s 'oon ;lrter.
1

L

Many
the

0['

rht:-~e(l\et'eal,eod
n~ g1!lerff.i;~ I~s.

-rm;mJ I hell look to

'[h~ hi I~ ~) ~onttn1JeL~~e1 In agoJns ~ t

J'\.K~

res~

T

~

I,,~hh. De Ipernte fr-onLal nU:B~k OJ:! (h:l:g~iDl O~~.k -pmi:ulitllll': wos,l, [he' ha ~l~~n's. de~r~y withOUt, g~hJdng mJn~. mal [cr.riaory. 'h:lltc Ii) ~Iized0 'enbii,tt:s rotninueJ ~'fh~l' 'b;(icf r~sp'il:e.,btu ag~lin [h.~ :I'ta~n 'tmule Ht,tle pgres" iI. ~f" de.pil'~ I[ ll! :$l,Ijc;:id.d Ibnrvcry of sol1tDCof IIlle:tr ~.uacks. or ~he res~ of_.arrh 'th~ fi,~hl i:n..; boggt:(~ ,nuwlJ1 'inI ,'1 ~cl'jc~ o.f local. illta.('k ,,11 01,CIJ(lIC1ter~:tt,~C'k,.",'W~.IJ:ullH tliuy ' "'ignificilJ l g:l1.i'lrLfor e itbel side'.
1"

_ onh,

roc..-ulJl • Milia,a!')" IIi ,h~ d Ire:MJ.y·~e sent b,Y 'Br~trLinlto a~ee.e (lh1 ] mnical ~yQ IiIclud.~tlf Ua~ian 9(1 iII~i!;,!ry ~8pl JIg'l'ed i fl Ln,,-yo iu l'94.0~4 ~"~ 'well ~~ iOI hti: r antla'l1'tt:: Il1'C~;:ouch !i'U" . nh,'er-,s,11 . 'ar:~leI~~ W fo.l.l'Q ,an ~d hoc On.'iEk Dllfil ~d: br' g~~dlc"the ,'. i.h fOl'Oe ' ptJQrl,,;equi,p,~ w ~th old" ~ror:n~onl ~31ilb. r~iUery and r()~h~F eq,LI'ipI11!1:'!nl C'oi'lect.J;1di fr,ol'1.l vanol!l: 'maree:"" .Ph. idun~sh sent [0 bol' ~er' ~he Gr'c~:k. r ~~r eflftorl, !~11~ Britis.h ~ ~pcdi i n~ry PtlrC~ l,;iOlLI'm[] ~lo,Ii't~lll" iA,lht.!lil faootl 'tAl i1LI1. Ithe: iiilU:il \Ien~lon '0" .-ermany ill .-~1Jri~ ~941.
l'kill]
fDW

the Brhis,h .' T~edi[;o:nl1lf,)'FomL:.". '\V,·f'ort:'t:'. tnl H~aid the -Greek::.; 1:l~S'JJ1I (Hsemb-addng on 7',,;far:ch. Thi. :-;£,~lleh r01i..lr~dliv~sioll1 fo~'(;""C'of $s.rmo Brhish. Ne ..' ZcaI~nd.,lI 'lroUan. anQ, Fr~ iPo.lj~\ihUuop' \.M~ 1'tiIl ,I~te If
-.I~lw:hUe.

veter~fI . ,arnd

w=~~

A,pan (rom th ~ ··~11 Aml;. OJ the: R,u;.-,i,j;J:1'I Fmn.'L .eL:' bE.fow. 'tIl~ mttin ~WUribillt~o.n t):f the [ud ian f\nIl1)' to !h~ A::d~'iwru;' cHort '~nEll!rop • .1rU:::r A pni~ ~ i 'I. a' ~~.oc:cupatlo.~ :g~mli' OF.l~, L~~~ iIll1liftl1he.rsf '~m! tmt)p~,':vere tiod ~~~ o ian. dow" In , " ,tI.f.Il1ll:m lrol~~ i~j re.~cc and ,gi~n$.,I,;,Vf yu~o b\'i~l'lir~-e I ~~Jli!ln G .. " :1mli~"i "iJ,'II.Hl~ ~i\';en l.·Cl!fp~uno.n . u'ti,es - the 9~ 1 Army hn AJ~ni:!i"!, ~(l:il)nlC:IlBgr., ~md:H,t:r.lcg.ovi Ina, the 2n~]A mlDY h~,C,iL ms[al Cma~i~~.no P!~I1:-_j'of ~no'!lell1ira. &iIld Ihlc 'I Uh Air!rl~'on lh!!: GJ,~;t 'nl~i~11~frld :.Imil ,~'.t'Ln~md ,a:roul'ld various Greek i hJJj~d~., ~d B II. 3 there \ve~ :J tOm]. .. 30 dhd lOfh ~ cmmlllhted to . -OOlll p~.ti '11 d IJLlt6, ~n clile 8al ku iii. W lLIil 'ix iD ..lh ill; t. n'lf1C ~n Orcce W'ld ~.. i'n v,a 'ou~ Ir~gIon:s. of 'Yl~gos.l~\'ia, ,As ~II ~ r"cgu:hu ItroOp-S .. :[WI!U 194'I ~lal~ml QOl;;)lII,P')ri 08 J;lud'l.o:1.i~i~~ ,~I~I rai.~eClllocal vol~lI1.t~~~ wi ~Iiflg. '10 fight tl~~n~t ]JfD'I;;OrnmlI!lD~~stiJ~n.i aJl:1S mn paru cfYu,g.osl8!;1' 8. T-~£ 'c \ re' kl1m~ll1lus tile Mml.b .. Vol'OI!lH~rl~1A:rni-Cnnummisl1:1 (~ ,VA·. ,M", :1 l!Inils were romlcd in or;:cu(riAJ :r~,gon!oi; of dll~ OOlUll ry ax we It 9E iIl m.,~,11 ~ iaf!Hlm~e;;;;J~d ~r~ ... :-iilllch ;I.S Dulrni~:ujf~. SI.orVlJ'ai1 ~Jj and Mo.l1ICfilc.gro. Thi', e;n1[-errru::ily cl.u'."ers€' ,ar~UI:iiXillion lIte ~I!ded C d'IJolie"',lm~eni n$ ;m,d Dalm;.I,'i'~l!ll":., a \1 el'li ,~' Gre~k Ortiroitlo., ilil d Mu. ihlIl

'tol Unllecrs , Ai l(Jgeth~r. .a~muS't 30.:00 de~achmCT!lt. ... as:-;i,gJLled w I !,[LI:~~mtim v~, i('EI:'iI8
_ argc IlI:UHlt[Jer' of "miiall1 troop.

\,ojlmlccrs s·crveJ in ] 19 i L::rV in£, inr tit i.r regji,1I'1;~.
Ml'VA'

T~e

in Greece: d}~,ged ,drmTi::ltkaUy wi'~jh the ];:U!I,!1C:i(J of O~roliClrll Manta b,Y ae."liiIll~kilY 9t the sl nil: 0: Apri I, Hi t~er·s i"~cn,;~ruiml i.n I.be·B,alkaJ1Js
$.~'~J\~~I.~OI1l.

n :Li\~c:'\ - . i .m 110he Ip '~~ ,h~Um~ly tilll Esh off Gn.."e{';!I.i:'. WId .'ceoJ ~Uy Iy oil ,fund nl{.'Jl~ ililP :r~aml,~~ W pUllIih YlUgohl' i.a. AI. 0" by OI..'Cupyi:ng ~Olb .. cO'l.]fIi~lie...'\ e W'OILI~~ r-en'bO\re; 811]Y 'thrciU~ to b·is, nUFJI~ ~~fhetl he l ~l!Im;,he-d ~!r~· h
narllw:)

Mil 'ljr'ari,ol~ an'i-F,JaJil.l:sarn loFf~miii¥(:;~ in ¥ug~l.vi'· i,i1uing Hac m.'ictJIP~.riQn. figluiing aUong iel!.: G~rmtlfi ~ti:d! Icutt'll a!llt~-cl))n~,mrul!1jl~'~ hJlnl!~e[s. They '~I.'Ifr.~d \.f(1 .Iu;:a 'i.')' C8S~~~m.c~, Ihrcm~ll0ul: ~he yefl1f:<i or occupi1tiQrl. <'tlfu..l :lin fa(t .. l]lure Haliru-ls v.1\!;;"[~ , t:i~~Cl:j ~n .. ilJg.~I~I\'i~~, lmtn h. the Nr~hAfrican cru1t!J!1)3~, '1t

we e jlfl"'olved

the Bfllbill' , uoel1l1ilUY ]lmmehed Opei1nio~'Il llrrrbu[I()sfm, uh~ invasion of dliC .. SOll,fLel U11!i{)IL ~I~1'le~' I,y iIIlfOIf'Il11edMus~olln i of thL3 tllvasioi1 as it bc'gml. and rm mlho~,gh 'the' D!iI,ce' ~colk'~hij Jlnt:'k.. f a p!re-.w~rHh~,g :~'S a sHghl'. he hmliledi~l'lle'~Y o l'![~~dsub~!OIf1lhd '01,.1 bers of troops 'II~ m 'fight. ]11: I'lrue ;;a]JlI,i-col'!:lnrunm ~n IC{1I,ltKldl,e ;,j~l~HkSet PtJS'CjiSflil'!!ij arehenemy, A'S ; 11: JI!I~lI~ '~940'f M 1IJ~~~,11 i W.~~I1IJtS(~ :sh:Il'~' UII1I 'lQ (:my ~p((!~Is, ~rom dnc expec t~~ tdc'[CtLtof the SO'V~'C'~ U nien, ~o he '!NH~ 'un ,~ IllJl.$h In $~this; ~roopsto the 'rent, ['~e sha!red ~:I itk'x;I'5: \f~ews on the racial infu~iYJ'it;y alr R:ussi.:}[l,peop~e ~'Vldhe' fi;!iI ~y expected the' 'Ge:rm~n Anny - wi~ll hi;;;. help 'w'01ll1d!'[!alye~horl '~?ffirt';of ~he 5k~vie( Arrrned Farces- The o'hier of an h~ltan i!.\i~~~tijollilUr f~ 1:0, f:i,~ht h" R!]~'~i:ll was 'Ill0 I, ,glffiCioo 'w;~dll1e;Iii~hiJisi:.l..lI.j;m by ~Jut~e:r. hut .Mlt~J:iJlIn·~ I'DiS;ui5l~(iJc~ '!ill~rutu:t ,ifi~ cotl~d 11101,i'~ally 'It::f[jJ!!iec h US. ,~~Uy'.s h~~p. Hiller ~1lI M !lnU\'C mm;h :~rcfL:liI\id [h~ ,hal'iui1ll1: [Q {:ClJ];Ob':i~ tr,~th~' ti:i;L~Jr:fftJn1ii c on ~~i! ,I']glni nit i'iiI NUWlh A:fri,~liL. A 62.n[l()·,~n~n oCpt,pLl1 Sp~,i:;dm~~' [i!'ll~ itln~ :U[IJ ~!Jl5shL (CS] II,. 'W[jj~ tIJ uk'kl~' or;g~m IZ¢d.lt t!t:in~isc:cd of [W~) i:n'tatiir), dhl'~'~~ O:Il1S,~ ~le 7';)'rim~; lklrilJ'1.iO ,::tnd J:rd U,gln Ct:,]e~' Divisions, ''IViin dirnl\r ei'~hl a:n~:i'~al1k gWIlS and eight] ighl ani iaircraJi: g uns per di~' is;totn" plus ,{i, few b~u~rl~s of ['ie b~

s';:ilindaa.'d~ the ARM] l:t, wa~ 'W'¢II su pp~ied rwi'~h 'moft:ot vehicles &'nd m"it~lery, 'With seven rrlJeW divhdons aclded to the three ~1~Jdy in l ,ARM ut). BY
~[~.ii£m

DCl!l-d'iv

is,ion.

rOml

i:L'~~On IIlml~!8-d

IJlI~'

Sm'h Army.

0:1'

A l'NUlflr

,ltnJiam_" b:,r.

,R,r./iss.rCI

I

R,lBssi.~l. the ,~n'Crea:!ie in ~~'!.Im;oo,fs 0"[ mes oo;nn:Ullilinlmli;l:nl ~'l~~I:y 'DJ:J1lJ M i~~ affard,

:~lQd eql~i,lfl\l'neDl[ W;ilJS' a Ltlliljor

The

di ,f:LiiiiioiilS ''''''f~re' the 5ij'or[e',Y(.'{;j ,RtJJ l't'I'.r~H~:"", Ct,~,,;S"eTi(/, ~UlId '~(·~mzc. ,uvi;5,i!n1JS. us well as 'ih~ 1.1ide)!'uimJi" J~~Ufland C.lilw·e~:r,~;a ~nfam~\1' D Adp:irui Divisions" The ~I:h ,f\11'ff,t)' a:~8(i ~nclucl!ed ~wo Ge'nma~f1l divisiiorl!$ ("298tb ;[lind
'tn~,"l!t
I,

,52iI)C~t, a, Croo'tuon 'IIO~,IIJ:I!i~~~r~l2:gi;j]l1Ii ~u:!;dthree ~egiQn~ of MVSN voh.lirMee:f5; , "V~th ~ ,~I'rnru,g;tih of ,435.rmO 'jrn'ien. !000 a¥tiJl)~r)i pieces, 420 m~~~ 25 ;I(XW

~fI!ilr~ry, Ille CSrR w~s ~oofly tInned tbr ~be I1ghlhlg i,1 W~$ to fuce lh~ru',

16,700 mator \l'ehk:r~ all,d, 64 aii:c~di" the ~l~bA'IDil;Y'"was a, m~jQr. oomnrin:n'ite;nl en the r~n cf tv~IlI!)S\'i'ln nl, 1'1:ril'~ mO't(:lf veib udes In p~n'i:CI!!:~Hr 'WOU ~d 6ilavC'been 'bene'll' ~1Ti!:llilio\.ied ~l!l Nort:h A.fr~C:mJwhere evelf! ,~ fmction of them 17" ~ oou.k11 h,tt'!f\lt g~,vcu !iwm:ic h~1 i'm1 ftJ(~el; the mobiJit}f .'hat. ]S '~~ v1t~1 ln ,d~l1 fiJ!iI'il~ rmg. :E::v,~riI :h.{J-1i,gJ~, lb~ r~'iOIlJ.ro!?~ m:hat ha:ly :p,UI, :Ul1jEO ~1TIie.'lR:tlI:s..l;j;i~'nr-O~~l we['~ 1 F
hCl[S~5i

~~r[iihll ,~Jr[(]or comsiSI;.ed of ~ re~\! tJ ~~:;;~.n L~D1k-:-J1~lm~, bad pro!lr.f(:d ItolmJ ~,y IJ~JJI~mu 11i1!L~t:: fi:ghrt~~ri~ U b,y~'~~ ~,94il. ir.

effort oiTi [~,,:'ur part, tltey '\ve:ru un[)r ~I t~m]j~* 19potbolJi of P need~1 ~o slJ.st8Ji'n l~'il~ki ltd 'Of h.1t~i] warr~}ru f(m,ghll i'iJ1 tl:i.t:i' 13:tlst!
:lJ:

nti:lllnn'Loth

'lrl.iJti}1l '!;,'W5.

Tho CS,I R i]f,rh,re~ ,~ii fml~ uf~~f a 2.5~dIIY j01JJrrrmy frt:n:n M~J!y'to I,~~€''wlIti1€.'m ~h~ ~
Ukua~l'li;:'" ine'hJ!di n~ disembilrkm ion ~I, r~ri'l,h,c.,th in RiOm~~fi~ In total, .22:S ~~. lIi~['~ W'e~ u sed to lra!l~~lOfil '~he CS'i!r~ ~o Rf:mmm]~:m:, fro~11I where the l'~~ !Jjlll~ n IIillItll 'marl 1.0 i..r-dv~1a:1!I1I)~he'r 300kl]ITi, ~(!i ~b)lil:'~[' tiO:IiI!l;:~iliU:~[idi~ ;lr-(l~!):, Fl nall '}/,311Tlv ing ~i Ute ([(m~ 1:il ,Arug]jst 1.'94I. th~y ill:runed!i:ll~~~,Y fOId..glln a 1t1I1Jg~rllml ilng !!I\;f~mc;nt killHwra by i}u~hUil'iiiillls as ~he :Olinlc ud; lwt1 Ri'v:cn; t [11(,;' B,u,g and Dniever).. 11'te ~dvaflce [,0 the Dnie,pcr River was '~e~ by ~'h~ /t:IN,UiJif/1 ~nflmtD'Y Di'ifisi~l!'ll ush'!l,g [iIl1ll:S~, ~lifthe u~n1J!w Dh~~,'i:io,!~".:oomp'~or lr-oi)lI'1i~l)l"1:'" [~~ .septe'l'I'!b~l: tm_~ 1,Ori1l0' D.i\'·i!,d;~111f~glrlli_[l~ ,alori~~Dd~~h~Germ LUI SS \~iIdn,g Divi~io!l l{Juk the I!}'v~,rn Dflieproffj!L::'~lI',o!i/sk. th~r.el''Y ~~ui'lill:fti,gth~ IJrnise of Lh~ G~rr:r:nu] iI.~mm~l!ld~~~.fIj ttlre mivrunce (Kill I he irldl!l~'j;!rlal rogio:11 or ehe ])OillCI:S ll~ls~ :ii~l [ fa

under [he Clmnm.1[lld of Gel1el'3l~t~'Io (jmi'b~) ~di i' Messil:'~s ru]J1f~tl;,;"f'IJl(!:nt" Itill! '8d1 A liTIlIy I!:.iO'~~Um,Iil:~d'iJl'! I ti1t1' S(Jlme :rOile as the' ('1 Itt :and advanced whh Itb:e
.~ il1t.

IG.~ rrnans lc!\J,._r.lfiif"~:S tim IR~v,grDon, From #\u,gUR'( ~ 9-42~.lI! ,~e.rie.sof deretrlsh~ ~a~des; 'W~ re ~,b~,g~~'t y. iilll~ &1,111A.rn:iY ~~IO:ilg li ili~ ~jfthe I)ul'il a.~ tJhe SQvL~a~ b i'~~
bui It lI~~ l'heiJr' ~tr~rn:glh I~r fL majur 91rfiel~s;'V~. Alt th~ ~Hrn~ ii1iTIC, to 'EJ:1~ .QUilh~~liil ~ ,p'r 1~:ilHanposiltkms -J!l1Ilhc D,tJ!~T tile !i(anic b~l~~'te the d.~yair Stali"grad w~ .r~~' ~~Jl::in,g 'plm::e, The ~u.'u3tking (ie~~m i6{h )'ij.,rmy ~w.l"Jm ;il $lrel.~,glh of 2&4l,~OOO m~iI:ii). as iL!~~n;~mil~)' ail ~ ,~~ s;dilG'ait by a StY'iI'i.'~1'Off@llISii'v,11l' LHt:l~dI!.¥;'[.my~ w (:!!!I[ II Ronil~ I~i.:ltD eI~:v~~ i lfifl~ gU,fij rd il:ng Illt; '~~filk$, COilinp~ t=::idy S;runr'OlHlth::d~ llnC' (;eH!l1~!1~ stn.~,ruded ,~m u.ntH j ~ jlaru!!,anr [943 'when OOl)()O ~!Jrvh?inJ rmtcn !Jf

air

Dn~ 6nill A m'll),1 SI;II']'ClIJidertl~,

tk!(!oor. '~heCSIU c~\'cred
.~\fIiilY(houp

d'~e~fl fh]]llk of the l 'I ~bAnuy (~)!'I!ftor dll~ (_h~i'i1J13f1j South) ;lis the first ~IiIO'W;S of ttiu!l;'; 'Rill ~f;~,un, wintle!" f~U.

~arUer Soviel r'kffej'~sll'1e~ had I~hww~'II~he Qem'hf~fII~' Ital uai1 b.ac'k from Ul~\Uf ruld I ~!!lel'l~1~iI."J(llg '~he D-Q11. 011 1('J, De~ember a:~leJr'a 9[g-'mi nunc :Il~'ai'~~e£"y burr~ge" the
Scviel ,I,~lG~~~:-; ~d

6l~,A~mi~8 brok~ !:t1r.mrgh lhe' ~hh Ann:,-:::;; h~(ft ,]~"k and f

limmih

OClQJbr;U' and NO'voLl,mlJloor, ~il;}!t. CSlllt a df"'lill:Coo, Itl1lro~b rhu. D\!JJ1iiH1' 8'~bl '~~I!jug lin[c....k:nttWlll but SnJr,;ili1ec.ie {Q\lfflS stich .u JcJ!aUler.viJ1a. GO'rh)v~{:Th :a:lld ~kotDwd}ll:O'~~a; ~n:n;d,in d~ proces:;;: talking [2;,000 ,~o'lti'tel prjisOf;if.;.IiS. W!~h ~he COOqUil~l:of I'lire Do.n.ets- B,a,<:'in, AfHl')I GTQIIJlp Smnh '11I'1I0\1I0cT nll\ll,~ar-d~Ifhc t ity of '['O&1IO'V u~ah~ Wi'llTi '~he CSnt Olil i[s, lefl. ,iilllll1k. Althtnl~'1Ta R;OMOY feU to th~

:.iLd'V~liiC'Od, 5kn1" ~

'f.hlUli! ~hit~ SO'l;lbct)I'd Gl!!ar:d!i,

,1\ rP!lj~ {n~:uI.. up e

of four

1~~II~k

Ge,r.muns, Sov~c~ ir(:Si~t~ll~~ W.H~ g;f.owin~ ,and d~£' IblUmJS ,al~d (tJ.t;;tir GenTimiJ :uUy bad to' go Ol~~ 111C (jLe'fenls'~\ie 'lor thll wi rgter 9S telli~~~r~1t] res clrop,~);;!d ~j!l; ~,ow ;I_,S ~301lC. As hn. R!l11Ce iflj [940 and 'G[1eoce1A[~wnim ~fIJ J 940-4L o.rdillklJY ]li[i~11J oo~dl~r~ !ll1Jl,l'fe~dJ '~-e~vJb,~)' I) the (lo"d.utiOfll5) wi'th 1i'lt4~e 01' rHl 'W j.rlL'~eif' i tJiQtni~ tIi\i.amlabl'11l:" Thily- ,:Ve[~ ,rWl ,tlilflil'U~ I D1thh;~s Ilh8: :R:li'S:~~~ will UelJ;" an ~o lDQk Iln~ 'uerralilil AiiTIllY by 3lH'pri~, &_hel.r s.o1,d~,~r.s i"1fI8dcqti!lUi~ly dOl(h~d for [1'1£ elm;:mel,~ coM ~eUllpei"'alin'$.
DUlwiIlg

ootps ;,tnd ()~:v~ ,nrmt:h~ulI ~z~dcorp.~) ~Utot:k0~[It~ 8U'I.Army's ri~in flUJT.l'k. l'ou.dl"r o!Jd,gul'U'I.'cd, Ute haJli ~rH'Swere f~octd ~o relreali: ae;rross t~]e@pc'1I, SI£,ppCS ,1Cl:av:un;g 15"OOfl'1 filcn ctH gff'm:ld SUr.!i'flU nde~- M 'IDI1e 8~h A:m1i!t fled, it disi me.grnte~ 'snd ,m;l~holil,:gh 111ml,)1o:f ~tg Illlen llieaC"h,ed Inew Gennai'll defreIL~i¥e I ~ne;.lil,n~,~'!l~~S:ffirnushoo ' ,a~ ;)I, u~fi[j~, ,mi Ih.auy f!."KD'G~. ]'I~ \~a,;~ docloed to wiftiildra'\v '~h~ :81"1] A mn:}I fmnrr Russ;i:El. and, by tilt!: ,~ridor M,~r.ch I 94] i~he~lH~orllYof [h~~ ~tal i~;F,lS w~ru ~ac~ '&~o~-ue; Sior~'~ hfLl'imll ~m.i.'ts; dlid oo.itU~r~FLJe'Eo .:t~rve in, th.e m~ti.prutl sut! ro~e: ,im l~ u!i<si:~1.11'IJH~ the 'f~U of Mus:SQ:lii !lii~bt!.~,the hnpendinr8 A]iied f:~'rehl]toO I1,:nl)i'i[seU mQ!a!'l!~: i!\ IIn!l'Jlly :gf!,1en.:[;I,s pO$s~b!o. ",,\rere' Inei)doo ;n home. a Item bl~' :f.OtrIt~Jy. 'W~:!tn ~ltnoo~ :35.fiOO k] ~I~d or fl1Jiss~,ng.,~Uild::Hl.OCItJ wotln (lal. A Ilbout~ hl1m~11I~Ofii~~ \Vere tmgl";, loss.e:s '~n m a~erial w'!!1i,ein S9J:lte W,[i:YS m,ore Ci'U;rusl.u.o,p-hic for mille n~1 bm '!,JJ,i1lJ' effoH:, "vi~h ] &O(m mt~IiCVJrvthide.:s ,m~d 820 nr~'ji~lery !pieces lOin. Thc:."Ye :i'iglll~~ iii 1'(:' Mu.mU I cmwpm:eo with 'nlhe .si:~I~e of '~gh:~ ~J]!g O'~ the luS's.iiiU~ Fm;r,lt, but :oor :~tajl.)' 'W,Llh i~ 11i_l11:~I,{-~ ·im],dllJ~'mll;"i'.al c.1~ad !;y.. los$e....;;. in '~:U~,PJ;nJfi,nl were '~~pl~c~uJb'le. \>Vht:m l'Il~ A Uii.1lS ; I1v.ad~d Si)(;ily i~l ~.94l~ I m$y f~~~dl JaiI,!Y seoond- ~nIL~. b~d!)f 'eC]tl~pped lI~i.'~s '~]1i.u:co~ Id hii1¥e done with ~ poru km of tile ''i.'''-e~pon~y ~o:n~II'!I m,'U$..liI)ia.
~.'Q$~~~

The

",f M~l'Ilisol ~'Iia:lr'lfi ru::hl':e,a~n;iru ~iii .R,!JJ~i.:il; ~re:

thoe ChrrUs~1lJl;;;I$ .l~nod~heavy ~vie~
lhr.:: :s::~ not on:iryi C R.
W$~k~
[a

"lMt~

b ~_,gpin fil.

:~~3~,im:!!)

dejfej~~'S

~~~th~ CSlR 1.J~,7 de~d,~ 'Ollie' t n
"'t'-d1.lIW~~J;o,':~ IIIii

The

SOV],B~,

'al,I~C'k~liIt'ld {)'X[;'O'JiJI;'.rn, malllY

but ,j;JI~o ~Ile in me!fJ wili(} ;;;v~re wonl (fILU:!ZIJud in [I~~ yf :r!iiJ)~3~~m~li1iI. ~ 21 J'ilI1'!,n.u;~' ~ 942,. ,t~ O m~{lr ~~@l,fie[ ~ffellsi\':e W,~ ~~uftdled l~~[ C!i)l1Itli'ii,!i)ed hll W 'Fel::w~~H1',m,nd 1\1afC'b;~ Wil'th[!~Har.t and O;elmnm [roop'S '~rn'ml:n.gad boc fnrcesl ~oiC!j)~n;~er '~hese au~c'k$" Limrllil:cdl ,rei~JfO'UPClil1Ciilh; ~id be,ghil, :anh1 un.g {l(Jt. th:is tiim~' from ~:tc9JIYt aldto1;.igh 001 mhLi:!'1J: ~'IiIClilu.l~d Ith~ I;:Jil'C ~ltm'J€' Ce.f'I~inn A.~f1:uilli sa{j IlJ ~~'DJtall iOtil ~I;nd j Cro.mtl:m:l, legjon. the.¥ we~ f~otCITtol!,),gim 'to maet.-c n ;m@jjof' d ~'~rei1I~~. At te:as(. ibe C3'1 R .sy~l j,ved the w:i l1I~er. 4Jin,a.by M!i!IJ' ~9~;2...A;.!:.i~ ~O:IlOOS 'were pre['l~Jf~ng 1:0 go ~wer [,~ ~h~' aff;ens~¥e,atmh:1- .As, before., ~he CS[.~" w~:r~~o prou~ot th~ fil ~nl,~ of the Otnilll'arn I[~I CO'~ ~~ :~l nd.'I,i~Lnced ~OW,l,'lro"~iii ~ iPrim aIry ~~bjecli'';ft;'. I.'ne' 'Crirwae'a • of •\f:u~r iD1ri[i,~..i1 'rosi talJl,(C'., :ldvrurmil1lg Al('~~,fooc~ Look '20[1~0l}Q+ [Jir.isQn~rr-s,~iii tel! d~y ~m:l ~t33de guocl p~ogn;:~. A l '~111 jll nt':UlIFe, MllIS~t):1 iil't dt..'-Cid~d i)O ~ drns.~(!4l~y incl:~~s~' ~he l'~~~ «)(ffi I1Il~'rn'lelilt 'hJ the Ea~If:;l:1i, FroruT I ~i~!j1Jl
'ilJl1iei:r ~J.II"l1Il~ tt:[ldi ilJ:!;:]I!.lI'Ip"Ilrn((i~'UE:.

Aclt[io'Ylled~g~~:nfl"'H~~S
I ~nlJl!i1 j'hatdt
[Jt~

[oUmvi n;g CU:I;I(r:ubutor.;,
l

for' ti Did~,y ,~bIlG'ir\!,ill],g ,liDe [0 'usc

Qtte~~dgl!. UII11.1 SC:ilif] ~IIiO .. Robert. S:~ljdnuul. i~e."'rlYre. Cm;~Ii!'~rneiS:~o 'V~:~.eu and E i '[Ilk:' ~t.afr ~.f tim N~i iOloml .M:u.~~i.ln1 d C;(lnlempnrn.ry H R:no.-y. U,il,a~}iOllm~.,andl of 'th~ Uffk·Jo Stor~co ['J~Ho S(~llQ M~!];i.Clti: E{ScJttcito. Pa([Jt'llIhlt [hmljk~ !.o f~Hp,(:K) Cap,pe'~~nflU'lh, wh~~ pnwide~ (nr; wil h d'lic I!maj{l'r.i'~ (jir :photo,grnph~ rtlr

:Elhmogrnph::;: 'I~rom [hei r ~y~ lec't~,on~: j',~11];leS ~'!dPtl, DiIHl DI M~s€~I()t Joo' 6rcm:n~Ua. Alexei ~,¥~n(IJ'!,1,.M aroo Novm:~e. 'Nicol~ Pu@nato. Aloejm]dro M, Ide

,MiJ~$oliaVii ~y~S a{hunan'~ the !illUmb~r lof 1:'JiH~m~ I1gh~xll\g h~ RLi~~i!~ ,')oQouild be ,Ia~gc'f. h~~D1 ~ ,JJl'IItIiI,i~1rge~ji~N. Fttlill(i,lo.IlI1~Ul'i~ lillr~g~r.y Qf aD'llll iLuhe.r ,~~Iy of G@rll1l1~liy. ... , ,~c c::diccl'~h~' CSI~.~ ~OIlilm~~d~r.:. ()(1:.f1 C'L1d !\4~~, In ~ c(mI"Crc'liicc whA!:r.,; l]~ ,nllllfl!l'~i\jlld i~lr::o I'...""i; "'Ill '·""'''''(·1'1'1''(100''''''1' .s .~ _ _ ~llF!iU~d I ""~ __ 'a""" !!!!~~l~t;. i,""F>..... OII:::: "~ ·1"" ~16""1I.. .. "1111:..~ ....'1 ~ 'I.~ ... .,~""" l'\P. ~ _~ ,~~h!;~ ~!_J!I ~'!.e~n!J bII~ ~~~~~ '!JIf~ 1:OI,:,d~,:yilg~~i,liI~t e-i{[~.!1uli:i,io!1l of ~~he ~'he' CSn,R, h'!liO ~ ~llll!u::h la[~er r~J1Ce tlH1l~''''~ilS dislltlli£~d 'frmill his clllillm~rtid ~;iiu~e ,Otf ,Iii.. 1111 Jlil]y J '9142. ,~,ga~i,".£tthe ~d~ic!i."crr M~~-s~:trncll utile Ii" :S~iW~lIi'gi' .ome(l!~'s, Ith~ R. \V~~, iI1Itif~U~, iIii ~i:l.U ~~ .s,
1pII~~1'" 'I!;j

~hi~ boo~t

,~I!i!L-!l-ll!l

,1l!!-I~Il""~_L·I!ito

.. _

I! !I

csa

,5

,~r"!d alrmr~wy giws, an ingtiaJ '[m;p;re~:!SiCliJil 01' lhe am"lOO mi'lh't of ,Mus~glin~~s' e-Cha!iiaed 'a rmy. 'rne m lPno'l'(jglFap~ aJs© :i~!ustrdJle:$r Ihow~\I'er. one 0-1 tri@ '~'undaim~'ntaJ weai::ns;ss~s 01 ~he' ItaUaJ~ AFimy ._ '~he:uni1 possssses VIM~-vlriltage ne~d gYfi~- Mearl"l ~_l1oJ !la'its ; irlJiUer:y' piG~s: We!'F<e' O!W~ O'f OQiI:eafild many Wcere boo~ 3 taJ~en in 'Na'r IrepaJr:~u~on$fr.oiITi th;e ,Austro' HlJ1flgari~ lin '~~En8.

A m'¢,t'~~HZ~, l!Jnil: 01 'Ihe I~a~iariArm)!, p-ht31I:og filiphoo en ,22 'om~'ber 'n14o. The 11il!~$$edranks of motor vehLclas

As with If:le ~~f18l.rjOIU:l; ptilol~raph! lih~i5. [m9Jg~ . I~'m~ "j,j, a.llter I"QW-, (Iif' "",\i![i!I,~' - yU'~\OC\e IL'r:iI'ti:· .~ p',~' ~ ~.f~j ~ 0' ~
iank!9'H:es is meant to fmp~,es:s,'ihe Vr€w~r wJ~h Ihe ,~h~eFnu rnba<1" or 'h~JJnl<s, on lPii\F!'C!I.(;j'e'. ~jf'I 19140 the Ilana n Army di.~ hay€! linO~ thal!"l 1000 io ~~~va08 in '~riOta$ mo:d'ehlh, but. Ilhe,~ were too 11ghn~ a.rmored af!lc ~();D'fly arm~ to be: of' ;afi!,Y' al comba[ !W~e. Never~tu:~l\e.,~, ~ 'th~ d~rnlsee .servj~, on ,all' f~LIi[:'llts,irtch,!,dlng AU$~~a!'Irom 19'41 olil'WardS. Ihough Ilhey were soon n:~J'ega!ted I~ ht '~~OF~' dliJ~ie,sas soon I~ as: he-aViier lan~s· be,caJme arva~ISlble_

'] 4'SJif35 lh;i)WU~:ers rofmi'n~ a ca:rna:py ~r !be' ere-WG. The ~49{.35t v.ra:s Qn~ or '!~e 'C!kf~st ltafla:n a~ti~IBJry pi@c~ rfil seNioo·, ilhe. d:e:!!lig;fiI, dalirn9 'frljjTI , '1 '90.0. This, ,al!"!ti~,u~;ed gU1il1 ShCELJlICl rraw DeeM ~~p1aced by nice, mm1em 149140 bllH ~h~ mooe1
was n~~r p~OduClilld in aml~gh quanliily,

oar-oilier' IJI!lJslrnli'cm ~1' Ila~'$ UI~re,par'OOrta~ inl figttltifilg a mcdem 'war" '~h!is n9'aYij alcllller)l regTrmmt poses j!lJ1S'1, belf'ON 'th:e war with iLs
~[i!

meaning' '111 re were' :s:till nearly '900 1"4'9/3B gU-flS e il1l sE;jV,iw' in J'une 194-0. Lange f:'1umbe~:s01 1111 149/;95 Sle,r\i'~ell Oilii t~ e: Gree\l('"'A!lbafilf~1ft FlI'm'il r 19'~,O-4'1 and TrilN:orltl Atr,it'ta, ttntil '1942,

6

In ~ 1l1ol:ltypos6d p:lteJwg~~ph, th,is $m~Jrliy 'WlrrH30 ol!.l!l: 7mm alfJm:aJII~gun cr~ ta~~s: up posmon aIH:)~lr'_d1 4 Ut!i weapon dlJrun,g a pre~wa;r ·exerd~e,. a 'Ihis $Icerne had [been i'n a UIe\a1 combarl: 'Si!Ut9iUOn ~ the men would taa\ile. been Bxlinemeh; exposed ~Ild vulneirabre tro enemy fi rs, Thi9: ITI@tiI haw' 'Iaken '~n~wne~l$ ~iV 'me 'camage ki' ~ ive it mo[''e st21lcHirty :1S!nd the 'Ii~r ,a'il!1lS,'~hJ'o~jgh~lh~ sighls wo~le, adIu$~in:9J Ut~ trajiectory wlimhlthei w1ieel .on the. liEiij..

,/1;. F,u01Be:Mihlagnat'orv IBred~ Moo~;l,o 3~ righi' macl'i!ioe;Q]lIrtI or~'W' oll11ield ,'@~'rci$;6,g: flire-s Ih~ir w~a-;p!Q;riJh'olTI lihte ~~r '0'1:al,1 graJS~c il"1f;,~ 'SIfOO-a SO! 8$ it 'MVaJ~ ~~I"'II~ t 'iMli~ ,a d~~~pIT:!i:!ifn or 'Ih~ MOO'ElI '~'~24.!, ~s' oe rlJaill1ly mn tlne' tlf Uile oosl-de:sfg ned mact1r~~guiil~in itfIervice during '!liM II" but it was ;Jill 'the ~t~I'j;anshad', IE~ch Ii,

fnfan[ry [regImenl ~n ~940 na,d 1 11.,6'~edas, as: wed~,~s 27' cd ei!her ei '~he'hvo main l:vp'~ of hea,V¥' rnadh~!legu

FlI,

7'

DurirtQI tlhis; tbuifd'Up to UIdy~ 'etr1l1ryfr110 'IJh~, war, ~his Fi~l: ~ 914100 m~clium machi.rtegun Ci"~W tr;aios, wilh 'ill"U9'ir weapon. fh.e' ~9'] 4135 ~$ a imtLidBrteaHoiih Ol~Ihe IReveltl MlUdeill~ 191,4. which W'a~, Ihe ,slJaJrldard ltal ian 'h~e.vy mach iiil~gon of Vfflij _COfri!'lI'ili!Qoly ~llled th:~ iIlFi~I'·,Re\!\~JID'; be~se lit 'w~ m~rlilJfuclur,:ed by 111.e rorme'f, il was by most aceou nts worse than Uta origjnal ver,s&on thai! h~d a wa~e'~oooled b9Jrret I'ls f'aulls; inclw~eJ~ ~ ba~nel Ih9!I' cruemeat·ed ::~lfld iOile(l an 11lJ,l)rreation ,1SY'SIlem Ihal ea:s~ly g~ilt,~1LUp' in Si!:r.vije€,. -

The ~oaderOil ai mo:rlar ~r,ewdrops a ,i'(tUlflid iii1l'O' th-e' '~ube or his S~ l!if'iim 8,111'14 Model~o 35 b~()f:'~ It~iy's d~daJrnliQn of '~r ,ag.ai'n$:~'B~r~ain ~nd France. Th e,
photCl<§ raph calli tle dat~dI be/lore 194-0 by U:ile corpomrs- c:hev~olll raJrnk, rnsii!"in~a, which 'is 'Ihe !--nll U - - d r~.[}m 11 o~-7 ~" ,t 'fl~n t~' i .: ';i ,i'l"'" ~'h-}i~ _318 Q1~~ ",0 _i:r-n.". ~~_orre!i -' ~~~I. ,~J3 trlhev:rnns. ~jnl€d u,pwards ant'd 'Ihis NOD looks II~, he has ~:k'E!ln Ihe ,olld corw,d it'!lSlgroa ~nd turn6d i,t upslde down to ~.LC:;I~ptit t.o' the- nB1m dress regllJlaUofls.
~ _!

III '(his, photogr.aph 'Iabn on 'Ih~ Fr~nch .comer belor~
'the 'waf~ a group ,cd oUl~rn, f~rn variOLiS· uni~$~N.'!J8 'itJeh' head'qi.:J@Jriers' dUlrhg lim e:(eml:51e. 'The id€lnIUi:abl'~'(jfficelr'S ~r~ f'oom len to ~ght~a 'IJe!lJtlSln~rat eelenel, aJnd ,in !he, ,ot!:fJ'1lier' of '~he tlil nee man '9 rowp, :aJ m~:o r (If '~mO$p()r[ H-oops. with an, .ABpi~icolonei' next 'b:) him tWllth, Ihe db!'~sf,o"SJ~s~ield ,o;n 1iis letl' rs~~e~). The n el'l:I' Gfifioe r in [he' '[opegooUlnd :Is Ihe. general 01 a d ivisiQrrl, ,5Ilni(d 'fnnally ~t'te m~n tOfii ~h'~ !f,,~lr righ1 is ,~n
Arplnl lielntsnant ooienel.

Wirel,e.-Ss. ope ~,atms [0'1 Ihe iEIli1i1ery. branch are uSlng an i RF2 r.adio.on the Alpine!! Rronl in 19410.Th~ cr,&w hsSJ 5@i1 ~;p-, Ui~jr oommunipa:li(m IPost mn a

disputed

\I'

e-

lh~}Qa ~h;6i ItaJ1ian· en

IFrenon t'iorde!f'. ~;F2 md~o.s: we FI3 used mainly 0r communications be.lVi.iIe-e!lli ~rml:e ry u nits and divisrol1aln

headql!J18.rtSffS. To·r) hea,vy
one 1Ifh8111 'th~ ~ F2 wu

i.!i'~lny

fOF

Ga:nr.i:eG!by pack mule~ or wh~nl o@c8ssary;, by its two~manl crew ~r shorl' ,dlataJlCfi.

AJmler~men !l]r 'lt1e' Gu~rrd:la aile. Fr'O'f'lt[era (F~ontl,er G!.JaJl'd} stand in ffrnnl, O'f (!, Skoda 300115 ll'iJ()'~tz.er Or! 'he border w~th franc:e inl 1940. The ItaJliall Frontl@r Gillard' was not only re.sport91t)le lOr P:~t1roIHngltaJlys borders, but'lhey wer,e also ftftvUy invo.l':vedJ in miritary. opemidtons iij!J~ongside. Ute. regul1al a.I1fllY. Du ~k];gl thci9' inv.esion O'~.F·r.ano.~in June ",940. lt1eru 'W~'F~' ts rt Ffonl~er Ellrti Ilery gmups aJntdeig!'U: Frontier Gua rrd inrantry U'nUs on Ihe. stf:eiil;g~nof Ihe In~adJng 1s.'t and ~th Ilaliia'f11 Armies, il'lM~sS6o'lnm 3lErOI'~ anii lery piec.e WQ:S· the se.c~lild heaVilest gUnl liT'll he s ~ Ita~lanArmy, but tn-em 'were arnly Uv.e in 5leNiOO in 194(t

A ~wI~yI~YI~pedl Alptrto - weigfned (fawn by. hI~ eiCI,uipn1'nii~nl and wilh ~

Ga.'f.'CSi ~U ,8!iH rillE!! $~ung !!)'\,IItr hi:S shouno'er '~!:J:d'i,1alnoos Ipa,g;t ~ rooky. no outcrop ..Alp',ni eQUlrpment illch,ltted (I. mrru)Ui"Uain rucksack, cirmbl{1lQ ro,p$. ;Eil)';ieJ and an M11934·iss.J~ alpansEock usen.llil [0 'traversing .he mOL!ntafftloua, terra~n lypical Qt I e ,cal'ifQpaigl"!l ag.a)rnsl FnilJ'I~:in ~940.

Artill~.,m:af!' of ai!i Alp~nidl\1,:isiolrnPNpare to Iload up l!rieir mules Wilh equipmerli~ be.lme ,mov.ung roNloSJrd. An At;plrd (fi'V]~BOf:1 ~nc:IHcred a:n aJrli Ilerv I'i,egl~n~ wUh Its p.aCk ar<I:iIIf.~;,ji'y as~lvbrok~J1 dOWnl i'nto ~~Te~ lOads. ~hat'Cou~d be ~tlr~led by rnllllie. Wilh ,previous expeuiartce o~ fiQhlin~ ak~n;g' e their mO!lJllminOU5' iborG~rs~ me UlaliaJrilS made wid'es,pl1ead USB' ©f tnese hH!rTIy CrealUJMS duling WWU on .s~~J·~1'lfQru~", -

IFl~iV€~1 od!e~:]:0...1\ :enlUeuy tm~kJ~ :pu'lllng 105128 All!saJdcH3!Qnoe'lde:r M CaflfiloullaJgetllSPA 3B ~ight trucks d~~~l '~hfOUgh,9" bord,~,r- iIh~g~a!l)tdl r;~;jJ~~VB' v an €Ift1th !.:i$li~_$~'ic We~oOm~ -(tom same 01 me I{.lGai.:s;. "As wilh most border ~:on~ll€ts mtalny of th,'!;, pe~pt~ (If' ~talie;~ ~JI"I~~llfY' i n th;~ mi:xGd Ital iarHFrenctrJ

popu la~iQns, wou~d g~ee't Uile ifWadars as "m~te.rato~".

came' 'I n thr:ee main If.I1I©dels; 'ihem w~)i\e'rno~,~Ulan ~moo~nservroo' in '~~O, P~v@si '~raCL'Ors C~m@ into th liJ-lr Gw!1 in, '~ha:WllEdrHy oondi~iol1'5 '~a~d @'1'iI th-e Greelk and Russian Ff'OFiiI:s"Oi"i~Y'aboul 60% ol~ I'~afian 'IroOps fijI~ot'ua~lY' ~~c!ho~ the' honnl'ne' before 'the. erad ,O'~ 'n9hl~m;91 on 2:4.Ju ne,

9.uf!~ haU an ~ mounl:aiill ~\aa.dto ~\i'i!3i1 fu r~r !Or.der,~before' moving '!'orward. P.ave5~ arli11lery tra!CIQ,1'$ 'W~Fi'~ introduced inlo n~nii!Jj"i $~PlJiC9 illl Ih~ early 1930s :aoo

CarnoI;JlUa'9.ed' 8,1PATL3'7' Iighl arHllemy IncllDrs "~owin~ ,armnru,lIlition ira,i le'rS. :S~IJP alQllg a ,r~~WlI~d renched

c~nied ;a, :s:1);!"man gun Ci~
or 100rn,1in
'lield

m®unl:a.if;l road. 1l1E:~11..37' was an ex;cellern ve:hk;.1e~Uta!

of l]'p 1'0 40kJlLl11_ eec~usB Oil:'~h~speed Of '!his veht()le, ~Lder 'WOOL]91l''' wne:a~8d fi:eld gt)i1$ had to be: rnodemiZlad ~nd '~i.tted wi1h ime!tai whe.els wilh r1lJlbber'Hf:\9S. il:iy ,June ~940 thls p~ooeJ~Swa:S~ ,sUlI' in ils ~·!l!rly 5'L~"~s Wi~n ~67 7§itrlm iietd guns alnd 1 (it) ,;OQmm types Cljc:lapted.

gU1n1 ,a]: Sipe~d'cS

and low.ed el'R~eJ~a 75mm

10

An iL mOl 811 4 Model 35 mortar team we:a.pon across h illy '~ertaJ'il ~s 1hey ,atWi!liflce 'toward's. Fr:e.Ii1M [~OSmOn:i 0.1'1 -he' ,'ne FOOM~ 81i mm mortar is br.o:~n The ,~I'ioto 11$ thn~e c.ompo;nfmt parts wulh Ihe. bS!~~~ cam~d by Qr];i3~ (crElWtf'ilaJn" th~ basepla~e ,anf:}'tne~~ ~ and llile ~e;gs, ,s. Ulfrd man. {by A few' ~ man Calmes ,a spars' banel. and Ihe IlHnman presumehly c:arrfes a few roulI:'LolS as weI:u ,0 her k~.
'Ca' - S . elr

A. ooJumn of Bellelli 500 M3:S mOl!Or~Uicydes stops "f'Ora

break, as ~h~y a;~afloe into :FirMch 'm ~toryalIong ~ m!:il.cd
at ltLe' base or ,- ,e Alps. Eie:i1am m.o-l0r''';~r'ic:ydes W13I'e" useflUl little vehicles, wide!y lemployed by 'Ihe lararrns on

all ~ronl,sduring tne W8If.'T,h'Ei' ~ead mcro.re.yclf;s~is df1~&d in OOrlrvenlion~~irdanl'ry' faJ~hicm bul has. ,a, PaJUiiof 'rjdi~ bOO'I"S, on. A 'C\arc9Jno call'bir:u~,is ,s~ung o.Vi3,r his shou~dB~;

115f2; Moda~ 1 1 t,ield guns is t!mll19hl inrto acti'c!n 10, bomb~m Frel\3ch tPQSitlQnS "rom ,a f.JiI15~de,A Iil:lery ofl tf."l is, ca,lllb~'r: 'iV(uJ~d rnaks nttrli rmei'i4ed_ I~ "" ~ _ '~lfw'f 1;' - - ;II I' - ~h . It:'r'~ifiI'''h ~Ii.!'. '~l.IcalvlOIl!S ylLflrm.g me _ .. L,rL soort campiai gVlJ. 'fhe '~'act'~hatMIlJS:~Ollfi~ (lilly ga'lle [hiS g-einera.l~ S, few (i'oays' rlCltfC~ to lauflich aJlfIl 0'~feI:l$1\leaga.lnst FralitO~ mhl'il ' 'Ihat 'Ihe: h~.a,W',i~ul'ilt:eTY' needed to
. pression on SijJme of the, s~mn'Sily

A

Pti~ O'f 7.5nnm

oomba;rdI ei. positions was not i: plaw.

:1 ]

'~0<Uii'

,A 18 i9rnagIi e ri unit in [h;~ Mont Denis seetor ,Uw:in@~ds hi~cl'e's fr.om th~ b~ck, Q,f 8r~¢hi M ~ioh~!"Iii.Hn 36 tr.ucks. BlcyolEi"'fflOlJJlrlited [~r:5a'£III~eli w{lIuld be '~mn'Spo rL:ed rleBlr '~:l) 'the tlJ'!OFlil, :lflI 'Irudks b e('Ore (:Onllin~i 1"19~h€lh:'advtl!nc@- lh8 Fr~nch campaign 'w,a,s ,!3J serles of s.top~la rl .[ldiVanOO5, aJndin Ihe Mont. Genis r5:.ectm, thle l~aUan ,~dv\e.I':rQ~ as, st'opp;ed by lhEi Fffll1cfil lurra em;~jacsl1'!:ef:lt w ~Il'k.1!II il':;,'Pr."f~ 'CiI'i:;m- '"" '11:I";'J\i-Il n' "Ft!"" 'I.. ,,.;r.. ~If'. _~~ ILl 1~'iZilI!Uj~!I.!J ~~
{r!J.' \I

The ¢~ew of ,a, 75121 M 1'911 "Fi 1;0' gu n 'Qe1S N:ltrldy 1'0 sh~11Fmnoh f-bfm~oalion~ in the dls~anl' ~m3. ll"lile lhe NCO appetLrs W, be reaoln:g ~n~llli.JclionlS, W ~!Fomh~ marrn,.i~t hf;s ITI'1i)fi! wail :pa'U~n11P1 I'~d 'th!31ir gun. The 7W2"'f was: one! 01: Itle. to most lrnp!lrtror:tt !~aHan ~'eld gUlns fn ~erms O'~'nu-ml~l'I~ffl! f'Ift!~rJil' 'tMn 18"00 1Mlh , '~ln.il11li " ,!II:! ~erv!c~ mi ,~~'!.!,

*

M lialritrr"velilie!e ot~'Slaole ~5 w~le..eIF~dlut of: i!$ h.olding sh~eJ: n ( O '~ne'Il'cdi;;u'!mf'~al!"!of!IbOrner to b"l@ok Ihe mad. i3@.'lhIhe 111:aJ]~s.
~ml 'lheFr-errc.h :hl$td w*ll~c-oos~ri,;Jc:too, iortit:ioo~Qri$, or'! '~he-ir bord~~s. GlrcJd any ullsup,pofrled in/rianl ry S;$saJUIl. ag.ajn~t 'tt'll®rn Wa.$ :bound 'It! ca.i;J&~; eavy ca5lJJr3J~&ei;S'for Ute' ,aUalckingl loree. h

,A '001Ulmrn of AllJl~OC8rreHe OM ~iElMIT ~i:gh~biiJ~ 11\tdls tn~i' ad~no~ F 'Ihrottgh an aliplhe 'ilillage. The Pii!JOOceLrj!\e~~e ~ame i n ,se-~ Fail modells; and was designe:d to Ira,verse difHcu It a.rlId e'Spec:iIB,'lllt' ITI\1ufiltaJiIlOU$ leiiiraBn! In u rrn,g the, lfrench ,!Carmp~jg~. lh,y w,a ~ m~]rdy u ~e--dl by Ihe Tneste, MIiJ~OriZ9d Otv,lsion,
11 "'J! JJ .......

A m~d grolLJPo:~an:iUeN~ymei1 ,and IFaScist PNF otliciaJts po.Ses for Ute,iCamSffi Ifli day ,aftef ~he Fn:tnch lbomb~Hdmef:)tt. 01; the ~tana.nborder ~,own of ~ren1rmjg~a" U the 9.O'Jdr,~,1'S w~,r ~he bwstirl<!~,side c.a{~ aJncl some [ha\,l'~ [the A !tier ga;iters and lwo.~podre" laathra,r bll3irl'l1nlier worn b~ Ihe aJtlUtaiJY.

This d:eS'~my,edL3~35 Itghit tarnk I~ng on 'Ihe side at a: mounlain mad lod~ as '~hough U has, been opened by iii can op~nef ,after tlaing hit by FIene 1 :sf: aIUire., The fCh'Ulf bi3:II:a~ions f l.3~35 tanks u$ed dUf,l'ng the ,campaign o ~su~larede.,a~ C"a~uames elth8Jr hom Fre.nch mines or alFm~e'r~'lire. TI'I~, 1~,t h Baltal~on ~a's sent agaillst French iPoslUoncs ,on:23 J'uflle. and me 41t! 8atiaJion did if.'le,same .he ro~I'6~~in9 day, ,On bothl occasions Ihesa units; sune.rled Isss&s to FrBFllCh minl!ff!eltls, (TiEmlltMUSG1.Jm)

Soldrers~nJm~d in fighUng ag}aillsl: Fral10e ,aJl'e JGaded Oi"lim.o ,8: oos¢taJI ~fair'1'ror the. s~10rl JOu rn ray baCk to illl UaJri:an mil itary l~pStliil, Tine b~~ef bul b~tercaJrnp;aigl1 In ~e Alps eost the ~'t2iljman!S 2:300 wo,:I"Idad i3Jnd2000 cases oI r~tblt~. as weU 8.$ more than ~n~dl"

~ne

eoc

,Arer
pia

nosliU'tr,es on tn e Ffenctl ~lIalkm

the

cessation

01'

bOrd,etU".

g,elld~um[erje bar rac1ks the inew HQ O'f 'the roca~ FmnlJer' bJ'lfgade. 'The s:oJd e.r.s di:&p ao/ thrrgl bfao.k c~ol:h, ,cOllar of trH~ M'1937' tunie, which w~s

red€!

n.aUaJrt

~n

tn)rv~

Ca ra,bi npe:ri

,01'

a French

replaced during

'he sa rrry s,te9~~$ of 'Ihe 'War by aJ Qm.:Ygreen one.

1" •

Italian soldiers !lfI~f,t~ ocrntidtl;l7Irthr frnto, Gf\eece' aft 1m ~1'QlJrt ,0'1: '~h~ inrv~siQ!"l 10 ~.etlB IOc;robe~ '19'1\1,(1 'On Ule su rfa;.bE' thelr Icomm~Jld'e F:S: WB~'S' oonffde~t iUll Vllsconli iPr:a~ th~ lIal!llJl cQmlilllatndetr, ,sayIng, that moraJe, wes "Very ~tg -", p~~ e:xpres,'Sedl Ih'e, (lOl1cem that '~he: ~~lrus r'i3giQlJ1 ~no!o!!ild be capl;u r.ed quickly 091f,0f'19 '~e $1art of 'Iha: rain/!( saasea, The 1nmall ,ei!!~y.' !gCllrti$ jagaiin~! Gr~ T(~rc~s I h",.t shaIIBiji:C1ilir~

wllhdr,ew in' n~nt of ilihem ~ed the I~amans i!1to aJ 161.'lse sense ~ (ip:tim~$m., 'WhE:~ :~lie Gm;aks

were reHd~, Ul'9V struci.k, $ld deslfgyed laJrg@ Ill! me ar,s ,of il'!i!ffillan 11lInii~s.. b~ginni'f,g ~o pJM th~m: b~!tQk into Altmnra

A!pmnl ~J1ti Ilerymen djsem~aJrk ;a'~' A~naJn port c9!rryifilQ ,SiS f!iiiych 0'1 ~heir gear ~n ian as' Ih~y ,C;;9:nd\o~n ~'h~l's'h]p·s gangplaJli1k. 'The AJrrrar:t~ain ports or Dum~~:o' ~nd Valona \i\fefe irllad'equ~te: fio r brfngJliIg i~ '1t!E!' Sih,~;f,jrern ount '0'1: rnsn aflId material' the ilfWl)lsiotll QW Gre~r::e' reTI~i r'edi. lhmugh~ul, ITIoot' or the; cam,p-a,igfil iUl G~~~'. the siluaJlicm ,ail '(he ports w~ ctJao~,icand d~SOi(9arqiz,@d. a siL~atftlfil no], h~.I~led by t~e smalll Qapacily of' these tialli)ors.

II~a!iafilABprnl and arlflnety' ~m1€ inJ a !!lng $Ull)gg~ing OOi6Jf!I1i'i tlIlong n:riIoYnltail1 roa.d Of! 1h~ Albanlan~areek Fir~n!. The

~r~lILery~5being: tOW"ed by Pa~$ii P.4=1 00 ,4¥4, ~r~il~ery t~~C!!rs 1'lfI'8l'1u.daclureo lor the nl~lfl.afil Amny '(rom 1936-4;2'" AI, Ihe ~fO:nt of ~e, COlufi'in, ,are1 lwo ,mtJ I~:s, carrying bel'W~n Ihem '!he.
barr@11 rld oarlf'l'age o'~ aJ, 65mr:n M ~'7 mooruarn g~n. AlthQilagh ~ (he edcferly :6J5mrrn 'QI!Jl-i"! ,w~s being ~'eFJ!a:oed at !H'le ~tM't oJ 1M 'I'.!IaJ,here we.re sui I 700 'Of' them iml S:eN.ice 'i['[J '19~fl t

a

'1 .

,4 -

DlJJrin~1'th~ blUer fl;ghMng of eSJrly NO\IIEMnbeFJ'!. ~n ~pin]
c;c,tl;.!lA:ilT'i ,advafllce~, inl'O, ~ln~H~,ce wuth th€' liJiMI~rS transport mLl~es. I nthe fQffl9Ir(~ynd. heavi IV ~ad~n ftlot :sold!fam b:~~n ~'O clim'b in10 'th,e ~oolhills· ~n an a.uem:pt to take the high

ground lrem ~he' G.rE"<9ks" 'o N t\VO ,$olld'iElJ"S allJP~~r 'tal lila¥€! tt:1~ ~aooe ~n Sfld ontll ,O'~:lih~m has fasLe ned a leather sILllit~a:se @cmtailni~~ his' perSO\rllal b~l()nQiri\glSl to 'h~s,
back.,

Af~ller~rnffrn rr!~nhandhe a aii,lO-k,'g '1O~8 field gUllil rnto pO$i~ion diJ,~.rng ti.gntgn'Q! Ion Ihe Greek Flroot In N©\iIer-nber' ~ 940. The '~'~~8 ~s ill. l:\e'litBlb'Je Ih::rt gm'l ,!ienledi'~he nla'fialfll Arm¥' well! i n WW~! 'havlFL'9I9nter:ed 8ervi'oe. ~n,.~ '9'14·, n 1~'Emwent ,O~ to ·~er¥tl ,~neve nt' '~rolll dl;]r.ui"I:g1 WWU i aJ1howgl1 by '1, 9;;1·3mal1~~~ being used ,&$ iOOa~~11 '1llFml~iy,.The '1'O~f;2S'was mod~mi'~d by '1111ting MbiH~r,·ti~le=d ~ wnece:ls; but only 108 of 'tine 839 ·in seniice ~n 194.2 ,had! be~ n ICQli1v~rladin thls '!.Wa!y. In thiS ~cightirag again!;l: Greece~ 100;1)11, sidM were <elJf.enly matened itJ"IJ arlmeHY wll~hIbtiJth riI:alIClns~divr:si~s haiV~l'\hll l1Iin~ batleries each.

l5

A arntrQ:lit mu~e is stucl( inl mud On 'thel Gr·eek-'A~biajnia:ii Frci'U whHe i~s hapi'€i$$ h~ndlS1~'I(J;Okson nn. desRl~i:F. The rn~asiioll,of i6f.Bec--e 'CcOOOGiaed wil~ U"Ie,start at tree rainy !$~a$on. and ¢ondllfio~!S Irke ~he$~ Wi3'f.'$ encouo!ered u:rtltil 'I~"le gro!J!nd '[mz:e,. which Ibwug't1l!: prob~ams; of Us OWfll. Bolh Ilaneu!1 ,EH'fJd G~~k s.Qldie~, ware p~lJllily ~q,i!Jip,p,~d for tne harsh c'Om;Iiit~f1sthey '~aoed~n 'Ihe, winte'f ol "94~, l!.alian n~'bmliled bm:uSl, ~ired 001 pr,ol~ct~dt~ f:'$ fj{Qm 'th~' fr()-cst:Ri~ nl~J G:lI!Jsed hea~ ~as·lJames ,on bO'~, sides.

Eh~mag~er~ motomyc:li"$ts S'~ruggle to .make. ptlO',gnes.'$along I;Ii deeply !'Ult~d and mud~OO'i!@redtr;ack in 'the Ktll~mas ,S~Wr 0:1' 'the Greek Frnril1 in '1''9'411.OQ~diUon$ like· tli'te.s;e made amy;a~vance thn)U9lh 'Ihe mouO'~ar!'lOU$, l'el!ff.ain 10:1'G rl~-eoa lF3~dremely t.1lffificu~t

Wi~n a t1Ie~pifllg pu~h hom ,SOlffiile '0'1 U,eir 'infa:ntry oommd19's.

B!B:~gli~ Fii rnO'to~'c~cli\Ms n ~fheir' o-ta G,u:u_~ o M ~Jee ,50000 maChines :~ilher and' ~llde as eal~1y 1~941. The AI~ could J'ea~h speie~ of 'SOkmlM ;elll"ld tn.'€! Ber$Glglierii' werle t~jrredl te explQU. ~hie~r ach~nBS,' perlbJ'l"nanc!8 'to scout m a;nea.d, ~OWevSf, OOfiIditoons in Albania, and

Ilhe-y

t!')t

and adv,anoo

aICli'WS

a. riverl»d1

lTV

wi!'!''! nann i m~$'saJbI~,.

Itamal!'ll mech~lli~edl ·81 m~n~s.weF9' scan ~ bll{H~ed dOWn. Gib'iii'ek r.hiiWFS w~re swollell
.ar:td

G r'i3>8ce' made -an.y kindJ of PJfogresS ~lery dfifHoolI!. ~n;d] the mQtorcycl~:BlSi like. ()~her

m8Jny

we f'\9'

'Virlua11~

,~ 6

fltI a. P'hol'(!Jg!ra~h da:~e!idl~ 0 Fe.bn,Jl~l1'191411! a.rl~lrEHlrne,n draJg "!tnelr' 1,5/3,1 Modell 00 fleld 'g,Lni '~'hm~9h '~he!1snOW. A$' 'Ihe Ilali,ara Army beC8Iil~' bQg,ged dOWn ion, the: AIb8!f13ar"i F'~i£)J'Jt.rnli".ict'n '~ 'Ihe world',$ p~.ess ~~dJloiJI~ed 'tajl~re 'to de·fe8~ , O 'Ihe[r ~reeoe" lFhe orr~1f''I'al ij.S:, ca;ptoofli to tf'tis ph@to staled Ihe Ital lans '"mo\!le ~C'kw,ardsirrGrewl;f_ lis ;an Alpini skT ~iiOOpe.r: looks Of1. a~IWilm!'ilry palmi 1Ji~: a. sn.ow·tOOV'emdi hi.lIs!dle in t~e p'indos I~bn of ~ihe,Alba~ian F~ont This fliJpinQ armed Wml a ca~nG carbine ,Is, well e~u ipped1 ~lih a SiI'iIOW

~lmiSl.rIJ Fiall: 665 S·;too tru~ $tn:.I@g~e Ilh!lr'Ough iii bll~a.~d on the: Gr,~k~ Atl;}anialn Front ,aftiir. ~hoe· ~,oa~ ha.~ jUiS! been opene~ 'f®r 'them. l~·be· se;vefle. 19'40-411 w·liiI~er ta.ced 'by bolh Ihe U'aUa'l1and Greek AJmle~ li'!19id~ Q)etlilf!'Q s~Plplie5: lLBP th~ lronmrte; a 'COnS~lf'It p,rCl.bi~f'rt Fi~~ 3;~'~on.5~'ton,9'rlO ISI",ton to ,
'~ruclis. w~r,e: 'wmkhoree$ I:J se:cll by IJhe WehrmsaTIht
hll"

mUCih·100i: tne' Ite!liaJfi1Ann:~. I~U~ in.e¥ were also ,

u,p

1il~s. an A~p~ii)iJi!JQ~~~k. on hls Ib~Ck. !His ~filr~lty

Qamoufflage suii' ~-er his- gJraymg~;e>en uniform, aJfflghe

ICOW'Imdes,are, s~;~g~nng up '!he slop:e with f,u'lllkit and !!!r~ .armed wilh lh~ mere ,iCiL.mnbe~cme.Carc'6ii10 "1'169'1 rme.

With iit$ wh:e€1's. cSogged wUh Iflm..JC1 Imm '!he AlbaFl~an wifililie:r. a
.'7':5/18 Mods" ~934 hO'Wilzer Of an Alpil1l1i (H\!ii$~e-n .a1rtmery has 's ·Wen dmgg~d into pooitr'Qti! on a h nsrd~~ 'The 1:51'18 W1Il$ produced 'by' Msa]do ,ElInOWaS' one O'~ 1n13 more mode rn Ita lian awtrlle'F~ pisces in ''INWIIII.

17

A.lpini re~ax and play a game Qf' caJrds during ,a lum .n ffgJhttngl [01"1 e Greak'II' AIb.aliliS,n ~FQt'lt in 194 t. ILd'e k;r tne o!rdinary Itel'ian solcfer in 'the w'iil1t'er <of 1:94Q~41 was pmH,y bleak a1f7ld c.o[1ldilions were elten t~Jrible,,·Thl3' Fascfsl Fa rly. oole'C'i'ed 'Wan1!l erathll"lg and gifts ['Of UOOp.51, as; well a!5 semrFli91 'up ~~sl
Q~$

A Jalnen Guastatorr

QS'Sa

It er,Q1r:1aet Ii~s Des.de

in Ute Mer ~o t~y and. 1tnprov~ t'h!a1Ir miJ!"a~e,

l1i!actJiJlegun ar1er ali Italian a.tack 0 .lildh/lidua!1 ItaliaJflj soldier WstS ne'IJsrr In doubt and J!11allY of the mOS!t ferve'nl Fes~sJts died wiL"ti MusSQlrn ~, name on ~~leir l!ips. As was to be ~l'Aecase 1f1J i1''t0$! oampaigns. in[ WWII, 'Ihe mdinary Uali2l1f'! sold'ier' 'was let dbwn by ~hi' regirrne'~ admini:shalive weaknes·ses. MU5sol1nl peers. th~ollgh a . aid leJescope durin a v.isil lill XXVI Army C(lfPS [O'~lhe 91h Army 0 11he 6n~ek ,Frolillin e~rl~ '19'4', a:s ~raiy
pl"sp.arnd tor a big "'~rlmfl1 \iieua:

Bre, a-SO Itgt'L1 'Greek ~0'5jtTons, The cO!J.raga o~ Ins
liS

sprins! ,arreflslw.. He is s.mraundarJ by aUeoliv'I3' s~:aft 'Qfrlio~r:s! nndl!Jding Gen~r;al BitQ I a~ IMussolini's riO'1, shoulder, eeecnd-in-ccmmar c ~h@'gm Anny. In .he same 9J m.:ip. . aJthoug 1'\0'1 'Visl)le here. ,are

Ge[1effi~ Cavajl~ro'. tht:! Arrny Ctae' of Stan, and dlvisiClna~ generatE! oa Alp-inr amj i I'iIfan~rll,as ~!j'l'.!l~ ht{jlil· as rallilking Onic~D"s, at 'the MVSN rni'Iil.iSJ. The D(j~e weBlH~ the. lJJ~i1'oirr'l

of Field Ma~shal 01 'th~ Em pi n-eJ a ran: held 0 Iy ..'i ML!~solim aed Krl'lg V~oto Emanue~ III. r

lOuring 'te same "nlspe-chon tour of Ute Gfi~ek~Alb~nfart Froft~:'in earty 19;!U. II D!.lce losp~l$ a JlI1Qto~cycle unlit

w110se CO!1l1'!1il8fider Is retum~rtg Mu;sso~linrs saBUlJe, 'The Unil is eq!Jllpped wlltnl Mom G u\zzi mororcy>Cies and ,~, !Jingie. m@lor-tricyde carrying 'Ihe lIn~t's rrM 10in ils ca.~go compa:r~rrne.i"V~. 8~hlnd ~he flfIotor--Lriey;cle s~3ncls'the M-OfIIlI8n !Ul'eWthat operailes 'Ihe. llInil's radio; AI1 the men w~.arr the mot(JiFc.yclisl$,' vers~on O'f ~he. Iea.the~'Cf8Si1 helmet; 'th~s wa.s In brown, 1e.;Ii~he. whereas Ihe tan~rs' W flsion was
l

!black.

I .II, -

[

Tna ~r~w of M 'MtGl40 medium tilillk clf tl'1.e "1:a4th Cemauro Artn'Ored Division ~ines up, To an InS;'j}eQtlol1 on !~hlg) reekG Albanian fion A:m the slar~ o~'the inva~ion of Greece in Om,owr ~,9"OI CfN1i:tlUro was equipped wilt! l33-35 t~oketles; betOf:ie being re lrufoll'Ol:;d In NOViemoer '1'940' by a 31 ~'Iank barltali~n of '~h~ muchl bEilUer M 113140. M 131~QS$.>~!fving1n Qlfeeoa ~re 'linliiS;h~d in a rp{Ictin gif."ay·green eamour:lage.
e

An ,artnle.ryr.ifl~n reads a letter from heme

r~hil\a ('13sLlng neaJf l:rte

'1 '9.'40,._41 hghUng. His h:eiflii!el decal. lackif1QIa IlJnlt li1ume'raJ n, the.· ~~nl'ef, fn(llcatet he ~s~rom dvis;ooall arflJery. like· I'iIl~ny IlaiitGiilll 's;ordlers duri'nij the earl,), pair oif Ihe war. h~ sun w.&.ars I e M1937 black vetve,t IcoUar ~n

hOl1ilUn€l' io Gre~ce: durung 'Ihe

his tuoic. Tl'li5 mortar le9:m 'rir,e-s:~IS a, mIT! 8 ~114, Mod~1 35 w9'aporn In supporl of an ,all-ad< d'Lmillg ngh~lng on Ihe Albanlan·Gr~ek, Fr,ont. E'ac~ inlantry drv!sl"CIo , . d a me tar b.a~aUo.n with ~2 B1mm mOl"lal'$, as wei as ~l'l1Oftar COiTiP8Ji1Y in le'am 0. ItJ~ dMsi,onPs 'l,".!O f9.grlme.nls (Mt1 six morl;arFS pe:r ul"1;it). Title! .tooel as mortar waS ibased, as y~erle most ~lP:" n 1.iS€ ~Ih combi1ltarl~,

on

ihe French Brar1d.t.

The C!f'eW 01 a Skoda 100mm 10011'; Model 1916 hOw,itzrer s,lghLs Iheir WeatP0f;l dur~ligigh~ililg in Greece in '1941. Th~s photograph g~s an imp~sslon or Ihe ~YDe or '~erraill1 'ihe ~lBn~m ~rmy faced. Wlilh Im~untairi'l5i ~:owering 3DOrW ~heu~ gun posi·lh:m. ~OOl~'7 hO'witl'e.~;S wer:e laken in t~rg~ li'!u~bel'$, as \W-ar repa ~t[o.I1S (TOm tnlel del'eaJled A1JS'~ro·Hurlgalf\ian~ in 91 ~J, and w-el"e usee as G~\!'~s[O;1'Ial arm~e ry 1b1f lhe. 11al~n$. TI'7Iegun COlJld be bro~n down into. Ulrl~e· paris tor' U'aJln!spor' G¥.ar dif.lioull terraIn 'by cart, but it YdI,S, r8lt1!'t~rheavy lor tt1is purpose, i

,i

campaign.

An IUH35 tanJIcoomma.nder pauses t,O Ip:Cl5e'b'f" t~~ cam~rra on Ihe Greek-Albaniian Front ilihes& smaDi S!liIO'IIirtlLJl5llly IU'S'Bless, lankeUes made 1Li;P mhe' m~iority of ItaUan armored 'v:et>'! i'oles, in 'Giffl€CEl'.Tha Gre.eP-l:s" however, O"~yhad ell handfu'l 01'tanks to oppose Ihe il3lians" 'though Ihey. did oo.p~ure a large iI'l1um.be~' Us.' . of Ml(}l.irnta~noI!JS 1te~:r,.ei!il'1l ,l'1ru~!arn; armor did i'1lIl'~ ~lay a pa:rt in line' biil'el' '1'9'4.().,,4:1'lighling. Sind '~he iSlmva~of ,~)dra ~mlO1" l'I'iI'''lha sprimg mad'e mllie d~JBrence1,0Ilife

olimbs out of ~tl'l~side March 19'41. !He wears a ~taJnd~utHssUJe b.lecl!; ~~,21'ther tankelrS' he mel, and ,coat o.ver b.4ue ave. rall s, !'tali ElHiI ~'al!1lb faced little .real
oPP:OOjU~O!i"l1

An

1M 13140

Cil'@I~ma:"1

halch of his rnedlLrJn iank on ~~he Greek Front rn

from the tiny

Greek alrmored bran~n during Flhe, IllVaSLelln, as ~ey 'had o.nlly a liIaodfui of cV,b$o~et,e: F'Ferm'h Ugh't lanl!l:s and two Bri~Es flletnnars. The G reeks had] or.dered 1'-4,mQ~,el '~ali'lks befo.re the W'dIt' but II'~

'raile-d ~'O ar~rw be-tornl~e~ Invasion.

Footsore Alprni of the Verona Satlalion ,O'r .he Ttide,ntina Divsion me reh along ,-1$ bottom of a vair'ey' du ilniQl an advane~'In AI.ban1aJ 'IrllM~nehh,}4·~. They- aJr-:e carry~!"lg, ~II _-jr krt on 'thefF l)ac:ks and severnI! O:~'tn'S men h91ve raJiril 93-PF:S slung o.w.r ~hea!J" shoutder.s·. lh:e, nna!;ll In 1h~ rear has an ~n9IJ9 'wo04 cape,. So.kfiers ~u;;hlandng~i!;te ~is ~on9 a I(,3J ~ Iloor were e({lrem~~yvu~nl3;r,ab~8 {3.rneks on the to n'\Qh ground above Ihem.

or mehi'f-oroemen1s 'for' lhe Allbal1r:an FrQFIt maJcl1:es f()rw~rd5 as rl't!a~y ,._s to. puslh Greek ((noes back il'llto,'lheJII'own ct'!unl_f'Y. The' :shotUa_ge of Iliot,or ~sp(l t means .hlri@semen wUI have 'to trudge· hn m~les,before' llhey reach 19h Ing. MIiJ!eswere USe.'flll' on ~he·An'Slnlan Front whelF8 FQads·wrs. often b!Ji1SW~aW9' 'forllfluc:ks and otner motor vehic1es.

/Jt, OQlu:mn

,As. 'thiei aSC-elilt i!ll'~Oth€i mOallntaJiJlls b~lf1lS, Illis oQ[umn sta·rlJS LO sirnggle· and men caD'11l" tllei r rif.les .e.n.dJ kit im wl:'l'(;;Bleve-r vay is mos'~ Oi).m~onable. 'line offic@I' Iiln'the C€:itl~t o~'the ,r:;O~Umn with his Irtn.tCIl smarter uniform shows ~ha:teven higher ranks had ,to w:alk. 1l1e lack cd motor ~ra.n5PO_fI: was ,5u,P,posedlly IXIImpensai 'ed 'i'O-f by. I i.aliim soldJem' abili tv to ftli:Udi! 40kmr lril one. day' and 160tcm over Rve days.

A Brreda~(tmm 2o:ttOOM35 anll~i rcra!f1 gun crre'W ,SiNJng5, 'theirr' gun ilr'itO llli!o vertk:aJ posittol1 as Uney fi:re at alt9!cldn91 G,re~k airtcrallt. Ths thre@man crew
i()'~

Ute.Bred~ w,as I'ra]ned' 'fo.
QJol!mdl

us'€' ~heili' w-eapon agaJnst

large~s as we11 iI'JJ5i. iil1 'its maii1 role as a. light ~nnaJfr(;aar~: gun. ,Asth~ Breda was led by 112amijnd ammunitlon (illiP;S:t ~h'e crew had t,o bee 8(!(pert m marnia_Yn sleady ,automaJh~Illre ,by 'fjjt!ing ·rresh mag)EliiiJ'lles ~& lihe~ r.an CUi.

,21

A ,battery or- fO!Jlr '1S2J-S?'~52mm t!EU~I!{yg!UfI$ '~i~El'Sa:~e reek pOOi~Off'i S dllfi'ng 'the! IlaU.alli:!jp~fiIg of[e~15~v.~. These former A~stro~l-l~n:galiafIJ ~Utfl~ W~ re ta~J(.'erJi wall as ,Mparnllons, 'in 1:g~8 wnl1 3D oJ '~he,~ gUN produoed g,oi:i"Ig~n!Q i-taBi2in $8r,vE~, F~m Mar.~h '19'41~ ~wo ba:~l'eJrie$1 ('i 3151 ,and '~,3:.2nd of the 51 s1 A:nmery GmU\p,)
lu~ed I'hem in G.weeceand then '¥Ugo~!~i'a;

f'ully k1tted out Blackshirt
IbeuJo(j '(O~ UtB!

mm~iamen
a

G;r~18k Front ~rd

cO'mrades had ntis'sedl some o,f
0;;;1 ;u!'V!l" ,,",, ~,_ •
o;;;!!,

'imop '11I'aiiii"ll.The' ,aurll(lla;l: (,1f Blackshi~t ra1nlorlCemenis caussd a g r;~3Jt deill ()~ res~lflI~mem '!\rQ!f'r1! regula,F' ~Milll'e;n S{)\Id~e!1:'s wli.o Were ,8,0'9 ry 'lheir IFa8~lst
'~hei

l~tter.eSl ~igh~lra9, Ihe winLe;r of' 1~40~, in ~ .iI,~I, J'im"" s ...... ~ ,,,,~_,;.jir:.n-li' m& ...i. ,A:I' ,.;h"'" "''''m''''' ;!",;, i, '01., '1;,1' ... , ~

'~hamse,lv-es, in tn€J ealrilier 6ghUng.

f;a~st lreinf'Oii!riements were: said to lEI'lvy nne, 'ilstara ns who proved f

'i"!

O~heJrweimoro~l'WIenl$ :for 'the G ~~e-k Fronl, bo~rd a mgnt, pr~e itlll:P~@I~a !t!3l~y.~s [DrosS :aJie) bum. up hil
'~'Or"

'~neSll:;i'Filr1lg CffOO$1.ve. FjJeiftlJ'OtOe-merIl, Q~ 'Ihe ,,A.lb-al1liaI'l Rant \vaJe' almost ~O'~al~y isorgann~eid. d
wlthl mn~~ ~niviflg i~ Inconnplete
I!J]l1it~ wltholJf~,

pmpe re e~llI:ipment, llu~y we re 'the:fIl ,thrGwn plBcemea~ ~r:lJtotihe '~ighlingi "8nd QO!!lS~qlU~!1'~ly 'Ihe~~fIiiIoraJllB,sJIIl'ered 9\ten beF~re they sa'.~ 'aGiiQi1. (Flilippo Ca_(ppelblFlo~

divi~~!ln w;a~ s.ent to Altlell1iaJ in .January 11941 aiM

B!aJc'tr;;shirtsor-th~ l,$tlil Leo~S's~ BatJ~~ioni1st Blacks'nir! legrofil (alt,a;.ched to nile' 'WolVes ,O'~' Tusm:!!WiI~ Lupf Di fOsCrl!'Ja 7111 ~lnfant"Y Di'lli$iQ~ll shirt ,a, ciglEu'en~. The Si1JIfn'eNi!d heavy
C'aSi!Jia~Ues;

b:efore

b~;n~iw~Utdlmwn fur

'oooup~lh~n dulBes. Bla,dtsihir~$ ~e~e rdef.\ltt~i able by the

silverlr r:rts.ce~ b~dg:e! wom on ~heIco.llar and

~t~n"Cl'!ed$ynnb::d WOrn

{lfi

If;~ M3S ~ueel helmet.

tn e Sialrnl8

A group '01',AJpl:nioHteers 'BliJjoy a break lrom '~ightiF19'. wi~h ~he' omcer 0'0 Ihe

wea;rmg IfI~ la~-U\p whRoe· ovemms jad!€t vuor.n by

~I

Ia.~if!g drink b'oln 'his' caJnt:een~s me!al til

G~~t

~OI'1ll@

the· of!icer on 1he h!\f~is, AI pini u nlts,

M afllll~liY Iiel1~~,fiI~ifi~! eorrma nn cd' ,~, fg;j'VjlaJrd oornrrnaJnd post oheclt$; the 'In rnnfJe of 'G~etllk positions, lla~itm (fivisio.nal arliMery on ~n~ 'G~e!9·k~Alban~SlJ"L Root, lik@ lhOOf:i 1,1iI'~h~ d~.rt$ @'r rNojFlh Alrica, p~rt'Orm~d welt Thls was ,~!1j~~te'the fa)tt 'tney we·re, in most eases using o1.Jt-af~(faJte, f~e~(j gUlfiis '~nl d [(fcUl~tt@rrai!"! bett:@r ~uited to moufiltahi iilF!iIt~J1I'.

An ofUcer of IJh@ Fi!lalfl;c;~ Giu~rd lak~~ a smoke bt8ak
·outside h~s dugO!:.iiI: in Albanta cll::.llr~ngi 'Ihe spr~ng of 194'1, The Rn~nc@ GitJl~.udwas p~imarUy responslbl@ for anH.. mu;ggli!nQ s ·dlu t~e.s in tt:'te Ita~iM Army, ~l'iId ~n peacetime il cams UII"I diElf Ihe aJ!.dthoru~:y 'a~:'the M Irrlistry' cd fin~Jl!Oe.'T:h~y' also had a. Cr:JIfillllb~t r(J:le during W,I3Jtim~ VlJih€n ~hey wer'e ontr,er ~h.~ CQmmfiiftd 0.1;h_E'W~r Mjni5'lry. AJlong with other se:ooJid4~rle' [ ~n its I~k~ IFrootTeil'Guard aod F(on~iGr Mili~ia, 'Ih~ ~ i:e 'ihe !JiSed as: froriiUi [te' border I'roops, espe~alll,y ~n Ulie BaAkali1$.

WaJdied 'b.:Y a C~riOIJJi5 Qro~p o!: B®Js~glTer\i and fnfanIJ)I. 1\-"10 logis~lc suppO'rlt troops or 'the 9~'h ,Army Servltio Logistteo o:pera~el a mobilE &t.eam s~:ermZ~t'lglunri 'Ill) IOr.eafli U Fl~~'0rITi6 !fIjnd bl~nk~l~ 1:0 kUI Hoe and cthsr p~u-:asit@,'S_ Tlitltt lta~ia,n 1QOis[i1crJalwo:rk tor frofb~Hfi~troiiJps in Greece was hill aJfld mas$~ with some' ctiVilsiiol13 atr~vl'ng at the htnd wl~houl' '~hl!jr :5UJ iJi.po.rt sefV~oes. T1,i$l rtmearu: omi~e.ry ,soldUern :sorme~lme~ went ~'H.mgf~.

,.,

til

MEUiti!it ~@~k:scu rlotlsly at a, ,(jreE!'K ro~d :Sigrll rrli Ap~li t{) Mu~'lini'$ ~nnO)lanoe; Gr,~ece$Jgnedi a.n ,,aw-mislioe wIth! Getm;aJ.ri'liY on 21' ~p rll. ~[11 ~n atterrnpl 10 p't~Ji,~ate h~s ~IIYi h1i'U8I!" Q:r,s'8:red t-h€J oeuemnoi!'hy D,e r,~peal!lild l'iJlK.!days lallflJ mill Ihe llalr~ms presellll ~lhis "rima.

A Bersag~ien mlO·tO'r'CJIcUist in U1Ie 'M'a!i':Igi..i\8oo~Ii Operaliid.n 194 ~, Much

R~_fisii!lg '~h(jJi I!;JI,a"gg~f$, n~he a~r in ill vlG,tOrry sal ute, r ~ J;1J.l;}i~an~ Volun!;e;er' Mmlija J'Q:r NatiQnal ,Se-CilJiriW ~MV"S'N) rno[a oonrmf!ol1ly c8n~d th~ t!!~a.Ck$hirt$; or ~mlolil!, rNhe;re, (GCNN), ga;lher ei!l a hlLls1de ~:o ce.loebrarlB ~irnol!'Y love:r G r~~oe, Thie B~ack$hirt$, ,51!.moOlJnd 'Ih~i~ oomfil1andfli1.gi ~mcer~ w~o were O'~n l~c!BIJ~ F.~cisl Pa rly OillrclaJls; 'W~h 1110 re:iij r.nil i~lry ti;aj"i~9.D~p:it,~ M l,!I.oUfili~ h Q;P'9''Ihat Uile, Blaomhlll"l:S. wo(j~d ~eoome '~'ne e~ite foro:e of the, I~Harr.'IJ mfliL;a~. nj'l(;l~t di:d IIiICltiP~r~'ormas weill ,9!S, ~'he~r regl!;J'lar a~m1 cOffl{rades" ~argety dUlE'Jto a I9}O~ Q'I~ trai~iWilg'and tneijr p'~HJrlS'~andard,j)'~ o fflofEt,rs'. ~veffY i!'ltFan~1iY dlv.:isiion was; sup~m~ed C@ haw, an MVS f'IJ I~ion rr!ladeI!.IIP od~ lWO biGUaUons. 'Meh baHaJro(f1, h~ving t6i50 men ,and] ,2~ ,ocrti06IfS.
1

A'f~er Ihe' defeid ai' iGlre.8cB. Mussol1ni - and 0[1 his rig1".,

Mars%al Ugo Cavallero. 'Ihe: Sup~~m€l Commerl!der oi' Ih~ Aniny. ~~dl G~ner81 U Io-:al~uS·Qcadu! Command~r oi liiI~Army iuw Gree;.:le -';inspec'l's unnts in an A~bar!Ji~nkWmBCHiPi in 11890, C~~il@lro b~9ar.lJ h[cSrriUitary C'alrM3"' ;euW'II9' Mode~a Mirite;ry Acad:emy b~ro~e·se\Nfn~ in, the ~tanartTmkjm WaT' of 1,9' 1~1iL ,~{Of@ ~achi ng ~h~ f~nk 01 bri,Qadl€i1l" .g;ei1lerall by '~'918. ~rJ' 194,(] he: stK'1ceeded true ;'\""''+-''''''''..IIli ,r;::(\~!,...f\.~I~~, ,"",'" ." I.ln r'i!!I'l''''' '" cemm _ ~ ... ...Iirn~r In""VLr'l1ilI " ~u l~h,~,~-Yt~I_!;~\ I~,.a a~lI-'. ~~ ¥ !£u....... _ ~ _. prev[\fJiUs1y been Comm.an~;:h~j~;.'hil~Chier ,of' ~t9Jlialiil fm<::e:t:l IltI 1E:a,$,t Ah"ica,L
I f!!;~h II~ II I~· Qil I~

,2-4.

Prh/G.te.• 2n.d Tri- e nl ~na Alpiln i Divis· on WeSII!'rL A .5" 1940
DLJring the

bn~r,bul.oosny

cajTlpajg~ em the mounl:ai!fL'oU5 n91liafil-·

FI'9'J1Ich bordla:r

ill] ~Juna 119~;O. 'four ,sp0ciaJUy '~rained A~p[JfIi

.mo..Uflmajn divisi~ns' were 'i.m/olwd lin the lighlin;gl. ruptni dMs.~Q,nEl; re recruited 'We h o:m
1

tne

m:O'l:Jin~:aijn~!!.l}sprovinc~s I

or lIa.ly M~ gajnoo a gOOd mpU!~"aiLictnd !Jli"ing WWII,a:,s sOme ·cd ~'h-e' besl hoops in the ~18I~a Arm)!, The ,!ii!ho~t V!/es,tem A~~!) n campaigr"! did n01 'f~ally Q1iVt!1·thEi' Alplflli a, chanee '~o ~ho>wth~~r:
p~e55,
btllt 'the;y w.e,re 'heavillY ill'ilO1ved from ,] '9&10 On'WIB.rdS

in, ~I(@~'!t e~mpaign ~n. ~h~ Europ~.aJfl lIhea~,r_ They we'~' ,espec3all~ heav'i:iy' In'llO~ved 11'1 'l~le' n\fa~iQn 01 ~rre~~ in ~ Q,eL@oor '1~4(). and lfil 'IJ~e'~g'htlnQ in H!j~la 'i n 1! 4, 1-;13. 9
This ~Ip.nl ~o'idterdaes not hava' hils ~uII Id~on and has. oiS'car.dsd hi;S M1

~Ga alpine

ruc'ksac'k and

M'1934 .1:l!1pens~too1< wa~king1 st[ok belo~,e he. oc.wocfuC'ts all,,! iassauU_~~i!!i llllnic ls '!he pneHA!'ar M 1937 mm:le~ wd~hr

bl~c1( l'elt oonar that Wli~ rep~acE!!ddluring th,e' earl~l WiSM ~srs by 'Rh~ ,gr~y"gr.!E!~n ~y~..IUn~em~.e:~hi$ tlIn'ic, ~hq:!1i; h :soldi~r 'W€l~r:s .:8. g~;Ei~'"gffl;~,n UlII(f\,l'~rn~te'ad pI' IJhe $~.rJdard p i
gray·gr@~ln $h~rL T.ro~'~lW-r$ r~ th~ ~~-Ua!obl n ly!plI3 ludted a

lnto a palr ·of ribbed heaV'l woolen socks, ~a'i wu~hsp~cu~1 mOl!!fllarn boots. The color of 1he po mj:HJ'JTI on 'Ih@ .Alp!'n i hat ~oo~caited whki:h bSLnaJ~un he belrnog:e"d to. wilh 'llh~ ~otdte~ IOf 1st. 18aUe.'ljorIJna~fig whi~e~ tnel ,2ndi red. the 8rd g~een, and lhe ,4;~h iIlh..ie" Be-sid~\S hls S'u:l!ntd!a.rdl ~my'gr:~e!lleatM'f b@lt wit~ lwin am mUrililfion oouchss, hr$ 'in~'ludESa canvils, h"awrsaCi!( ana: lTJ.t:)t~,I, w~l'€!if bOltla in
'P1;s:

caJ:Iv-as, ho:ld'er:

,~,,~:l

"''Ii ~.

.a p .. 'i n, Fi relnze '-I ,st Inf'a n'lry . Ivi si an Alb n e. 1941
ThRs Ifrlfanlry' Cimplailil wnsulfng hi$ Ino~book belo.ngs. ,to til!! Flrenze ilFl'Fan~fl1DirvfSion. whtc:~'1was partially m(}blll'zed in J Ile. 1 940 ,and $i9'r'l11:O f~9'ht UlIe"Frtnch ·I.h~dmo 11m. Art'&F being br'OL!Jgl1~ up 10 ([ull str,angthl. I 1e d,vP-sro,n was sent to .Albanfa. i~ March 19411
as pan: o~·.he n'lsMive bu, Iclup of 'I~analfl u~ils,on the Gfe€l~_Alban Sin IF-fOlll'. I:nApril Ittie diVISion 'INa'S pali" of lhe Italian 'force
~ftI\la.diIl'h9 Y~g9sl~vra rii'om Alba,nj~1I 'a nd ~t,c8p:~umad

~he 't'OOYf"I o.f

IBibar. H 'Ihen loocama; pan 01' 'lila oc-u,upy fig forGe' in Mom~o~gro
ber'Ore su rf.,~ndering to G.ermans. in Seplember. Ii:uge number of
u~U!,di'vllsJon"s O'ii0f

1'943_

HOwever,

it

men ele@ted to jolo ~oc~ W-larsans in A!lba!:11~rarlher
Ihafiil

~n lfugo,sla"ra itiIind

,the border

ca,pHullatung to ~h~' Gl!rmans. lhe cSlptain Wflaffi BinM 1940 gray-~reemwoOoleo clom ja~ wtth his d~vi>si,QTr(S tabs on ils l~paJs~, lNhil'e his mok II!!! shrnyii"IJ by 'Ui'!3i go.d bretd ba:ckie:d in red Tnsigiilia. on u~sc.u.ff. His bus finS' InfSlntlY tlnmoo

stae

cap

is made frQ'lfrlI a llghter gray clOlh tha th,e ~9ic.k~t.and U hes 'the' badg~ ,on 1he 'rrol1l. Unner his jatke't he ""8m'S a md stripe down Ihe gJay"M~reeo C!O,t~onmirt and tl~ I pliUlS- h€ t:la~ a pafrr of' gabameine

cloth Ibreeohes an 'Wvth 'mhe Infanllf)l-OFl!Ll100

outl€: r l~g. Boots are Uile Sl~lidard blackl~iUhirQ'Hfc.e-r's, IWG ttfll'l could bSl purchased priva:~e~ 'Iil a: tbetter Quailly If Ihe we-arer c£)lJ~d af~O.iJ'id Or! hFS S~FiI1 ~r;Ol.m ba~t he has a, noisier for h]s it,

Bereu9J

M1934

aul'Oma.tio

piiS~O~,th~

'f~'ilO~f,te sidearm

of the

lIaBiall AMy duriing Ihe wall'•

.I

IK' .,

1

light inr~r'illry m! 'Itoe ItaJJan .~lale a~'PiedmorU,

Bersag ieJ (~h.a.fpSinOaIG1S)

Wfjlr@'

rormed In 'I ~s· las tha; army!s

w,hiCfil, after Ihe

!lJl1Iifioati:on 01' lltaly in !;h,e. '1,8608. bec.arn e! 'lh9 IRo-tal lI'al 9liil Army;

By 11940 BSlSaglle:riJ regiments we ra ·alta'Ch€!ld to mO~Ciri2e:d ~nd
armored rorma'Uons of'na

ltarian Army as mobUe rnfantlf~.lhey
SE' V9C!i

were uSt.lallry mounfie.dl irli [r~c:ks·or m.o'tQficyc.les 1:0 ~ep 'LIll' WW1,

th~ ~as-tBmov~ng torma~ions· mhey

in~This man betongs,

to Ihe 5th IRegil!lrlenl: att:ach ed Ie 'ihe Cent~u,~'Ar'mored DlvlS!iOIl!i Ihis unil setr'IJing in (~1e'ece ,and V.ug;oslallia in 19'404,1. .DiU rinQ th e! campaign iill V1uguslavia i 11 A\pr,rr 1 94·1 i mOLorCydksLs li~,e t.hrlSi mO\ill!ld ~head 0,1thei;r 'fOrmatl.ons ·as lhe Ro.y I Yugos~av An'1Y dtsintegra,led be' OM! the lfi.vadi:ngl GermtJI n!6 and II'h~llIlans. .
Thls malJ'1 w:e.<it~S a spooilaJi canli/aS puUo¥~r ,SIl!'lO~ with

lac:;ed honit. a pm'cliool and poputarr u nJrorm ilem wor·n IhroughOlul the WID: On hi,s I'eft' sJl eeve. he has the· specialist badge '[or a di:s;patm rider. while LUile goriCI ch&.v:mns itli:;lh1ale he· is a s$.rg.act.nt On his M11003 st~el helme~ In e proudJy wears the bla:c:;k oo~e~el r~a'ihers worn by 'the Bersagli'-eri s.1nc:e .he"r 1e'$!abll$himefrlt Even though tl\!'ea~ing '~his type 01 ach:;.r,n rne:n't 0.0
aJ

steel helmet may seem .EIl nltlie archaic. the [S~'f;sa.'g'lieri

Would newr g@ into aenen Wi;1hOI:;Il'rlem if thay. ~(luld
p~s51bly hel'p lit Aliso 0'1"1 the 'Irent of his he met Is the

iSte.ndled branch ba(lg,a '0:1' '~he IBersag1ieri wilh~ru~' Roma.n fiiJIri!1ural for Yl.5H ln ~h,e center, The r!cs. of his' un f;ornnl Is rrt1a.de up of' grBrY-g1I'\gen reill"lkl~d breeches and bl~ck boots WOlin wi~h bllaCk lea~1"1er ganefS. 'I~ protec~. Ute lower' leg whE!lOri'chlQ his mom cycle,. HIS am mlUrIltt&OF'!1 ou:eh~s am. s,p9cii~G to line ,B~r$a,glieri p

and cal'lry spa!~el clips fOil hls Carcano
(;aroiJne
i,

M'U39'I

--_
ZGONN'K

..

,

..... ~7"

, irtiam m, 3_th
RU5Sk
I

11'942
or U\1:l MVS~iN~re
forme.d [rom Vor.uiite.e~s
the regul!6J'

Blac.ks.thir[ rID Utiamen

'from Ihe Ita li£IJfi Fascial, P~r1y to sa r~realongside ~egtofil comprising

army. After :tha f'[s!OJ'gaflizatio,:n of '~he Iitalicm Army ~n

':936, a

two

B~ad:l;$'l1rirl ba:'~ta;licm~ was atls,cched' to
UJ(ll~t o.f

G"tell mguletr' intElntry divlsi'on., Althou,g11 ~hes~ Il3nackshl'rt
legr;QriI~,we.r,e 9uppose.d to, act as 'the assault ' l'hiW' divjsion. 'ltlle.ir poor 'Iminilngt arid low qiJalily 0'1' oflicers. meant they were largely ineff~Ii\f.i~j_The.~ \!jler'9
also unpopular

wil~1"Iregular arm!!, comrades, who
'f,e,ce,i,ved f9JvQ[f',ab.!e tre'aimen'l' lli)llatly ,to M I,.isscdlnt

believed]
bec~nJs$

.or ~herr p~reejv,ed

I'hey

Some 8!ao:k-sihirls d~d perrorm well, and $,ft€i;r th,a elild ,0'11 [)igh~ing In Gr-eeoo', IhesG s.eh~ot I~e ullits wefe SElI'-''to Rome' k;.\f ~h:lditlai'liall,fajning and the" ""ormed h1tO "'MI" (or Mussollrlll} baltailiOm!ii, A, numbe of <1M'" batrarioflls W.f3're Slant t'l;) the RiJs$Jan F'ro.lI1i[ wi\e~e they fo LUght

ttl! Ihe wltncbawaI of 'Ihe I~ali~o ,eUh Army in 1943.
h~sm.IRia_m~11: wears th~$Uindam gray~green1 M194-O unitorm with U1e a:ddliti;UFL of a b Ej,cKsh irl, under h'is rurlic. Oin Uile I~e s' af hts jackJ3t is nnEl' 'spacial slyJi2ed F"ed"M"' O\!I~r 'the mp lOr ,il si~"ler

gJadio Rlo:m~n sword. which
IJ nm:mm

'w8.$

the [nsrgniSl of'

'''M" batlaJior1s. Ths O'lh~f ~f;liqu~ pen o.f hilS
is

n~e black

'~az with

long tassel

VItO rn

j,aJunliily Om the balck, or:-his he'ad, The 'fez w~s· tirst worn by ,BtliteArditi' assatla~ troops in WWII and il W',as a!d!opt@d by the, fi ,s,t supporters of Mussol~rLl, m8JlIY of wl'!!OIi1Jp~fously betongred
rid U~9~

1'0'Ih~se tUrrlil's. Apar~.from li!is,

CarC8rt10

rif~e, the f1liIl~~~j~Lm9JOaise armed with an MiVSN is

dagger unique to nu~ Blac.kshirls ..

? .....

Mu~I;nI'! MaJrs~i!!!J1' CavaJlero ,aneSGemera! :Soddu Ini5pec~ a carv.alry 'i.\e9iment :at th e,,close ot '~ighUi!lg ~n G'G~eOe in Apri~ ~94'~_The, rf1~ding Itall~n Affin:il~ fn actOO~r 1940 ifliClyded '!h~~~,c~valry regi m~nts. bl,!lt 1hill'r~, ~s m:t~ scope 'k~u'th6l! dep~~enJt O'~' mounled lroo~,$ ~i1thel eal1y '(~ghl~ng. IIn ~'he ,Aprii fighl~ng. w hOY.l'eVer,ca.\!IaJlry pl'a.yed 9! greaJe-r ~O'le.as 'the more' mohi~~ Ifl:alfalrlf:1lnd ItEiermanl Armies m~led bac~ 'Itile' ~ re~K;S and Yugoslavs .

.~

I!I

!r;; •

..II!!

. -~'.~
e ~IIi! -

...
;he; ,billillne·r ad '~hillnat~uJilal: ag and h n

=-

'

- .... -

tl!

.

Oa9c{l~f-whe!cI~n'g' IB~a:"k;shlr'i5of the: 8ar~Inl'awl~ryDivision parade ~r 'the. ,t::~mera in G:r,e~c:~' 'jth 'Iheif' legEQ,J! 1~f1am W b~i"Ul~r ~dl;}med wr~h ltJf!' ir!Jllp~ri~1 ~agle. !tach MVS~ legion h~ ils CWifiI kibaro witn lits UriJil,nllmerar followed by Legion ~ a~'~hQ ~OPI' ,and ils rl-ame allong !he bottom. b~lh in 9,uid. The ~i!'Sa ~rde of'

nalia1n OOiiIJl

01"

arm s in ~hec~nlh~rt 'rnn~edin .go~d at

(he

ooucm.

2'9

A mo'tD FCY!l::Hsl,armed wil,h a iBreda 30 lighl maCNil~9.Ii.Nl mounl'ed @1i1 his hand~e.'bar.5sl)l]ps and wails, for hi>SJ Oillraoes 'CHIlIh~ C e u'~s;jdrtsof lj.u:b~j;[ljna th'be,y at aQ\!',anoo 'Ihroi[gh Skwen:1a on ~2 AprU .;94,~. Hils, m~chi'liI~ Is a MC)~ tSuzzi MT17 soL!o, on 'w,hicn hl! tl~~, pil~d a: mixt!lJ.re o~! p~~or"!~J gEaJr ·tmd ,oth:e:r k,vt.

-Sappe'rs p~ctioe wi'$.,r:::ylttillil9 an '!he Vugo:~l.a.v bo~dre~ U1$t prior ro the .i if1lW6~On '0'~ th~t ,QOUnlry. With u~;s~ 3 divlc5lens. the 2nd A~m~ was POi~ed Orr th~· l~fiI;1h:iWi~ YiJ.r,g:oolav bord'~n"!whUe 'Ihe 9th ,Army' with ;eigiht divislan.s

was ,neady to i'rlva;de:from 11'~ajl'lan-c::on!mllied nOli~ihemAlnanr18. Both i3J~mi:es had. nlLUmerOIJjS ,atl~{:l.'Il~du.n_ to !'l~dr1fQn::~.rGgtdar di,v~skHlIS.. fn(;h.Joing a la1rge nu.mbert of loo1rdell" ailic.llothet seoonci-Ilne. tsoops,

Dw rfng 'th~: ItaniaJrl ~dv\artoe irrto SI'O!!Ienia in Ap ri~ 1~'4 ,I! !i3J Unjt oJ Bersagn~'FV I1!010ll'l:::vcle' '11vOOpS pauses '('Or a d rl n'k. AU the mOlto~cyde!~ ,ar,e,set to mnve ,!lj!!f at 9. :f:i!ilorll'liertlf~,ti;l'ilittce

wHh ~'heircamines propped agarn,s-I'~ham,The lhree Celere (F~~l~dij~i~i(ln-$ rl1vol~ed in '~h~ ~n1ia!$:ion GJ~ VuglOsla.via inc[uded l,wO!b~llallions of motorcyclEsls with 'lhiB Eu,genJo (),~ SsiiOia DfIvi$l(;Jn, On: '~he ,s~~,~'n.9:Hl th~ C~1~uro al:
Armme[j Divistcm Ihare' was also IMotQr,~yel~8~U'8lionIhe ,22nd B-e,rs8.9:lien

3,0'

Ihrooglil th~ ooil"!~er, (If th@ city' O'~ Hu~U~k+ Her:'8' 1~I~aIiil ;tfOO'p$ man::h into tlhe y1lJ)g~Ia::'!J' ihYwnl ,O'f S~~sak whElm CClrrlHol h~d been d~sPlJtedislnoe. Ihe '9'JHj 00'[ WWII. The I!alitm pO EFt:and lPa1rlO't.Garbie~Gl tfAunnuz~o lOok" O\i\BW ·town Wtifh 2000 06!:rmed 'rollow~'r$ 'in tM~ September ~91gj hopTf1lg I~al Ualy wouJld anne?!: ~t When thet ~9ihJsed to db ~, ne S~I. up .a ·~h();r!.·n~d il!'!.'[l;€:p@~ jj.~fi!l .n~publi:c Ilhat ~Mded unlH IlJeceil'i~er '1920 in de:'fianee of iri't~matr'Oftla~law.
,~1J'!i

ThI'8'U:alian· yt~gO$Ia:v tJord~n" actuan~

r.asres'by ordinary I'nfi!3Jn1IY., Me;s'Sivia Oi~ision Wu to p~rlorm The dutre~ in Montenlegro IJniti~ the U:alian aJrmi9~loein t riM3..

SOHdl~n'$ (j:f ~h)@ ~;sgfM Inranliry [Jh.l\l~~on march 111l'OIhe cejf'rJt~r af ~h~~awnof Cetit1lje in M(}n'he.ne@li'Odmin'Q Lhe· Apri~ 'O'ff;eiF'lsi,\i'e'. The men· a'r,e,w~aJfilng i,uU leU: Mlh M1S39 ruo~adks nstead '0'1'~hli!' standard 'ir:)fantr~t M 1J 93:9 k~psac~. A~ltli'J;ougtJ g~f'lieral~y used by ~h;e Alpl nt! Ihe il'lJck~a:c~w'a:S alS'O U5e~ lfil ~tr!e

occupatltln

Am AIItl~fil c()!umn
C.r.rniS!~fi'S6' ,~cIrVaJr'l~S

o·~ ItH~. 4th

AI~ird
lill I"Ol.!Igh
a.

Div1SiO'!i

Monterheg~in village wi!h ~E'jif eq~ii:H'f1~nl n~ a kit carr ied1 by m~le~. fhie C:un@e~8 OIV~8~J'! l'Qug!h1 Oill 'Ih~ ,souU'iler;:n AI banian f.ront during 'Ihe ~i1:VaS~ml as ~rl, of the. ~<lfUll

Army

Co.rps ·and ad1l8li":u:::edl

rtm~hwest. l'On~It:le! @O;9Jst HaViing ~

'~O~glh~. France ir; 1940 and ~h,elil in
in Yla'g,QI,5lavia in 11 94;

t, mile

d[l\iiisiml

'was St3'!"!t

'~;Q

ff~lmy~d
ofifensi'IJE!I.

RIJ.-ssia. where lit was ~n 'dile 1'9'4:3· SO\l'i~et[)en

''fh.e tiJand cd a IBers~glie.r,i cypils:t l1f!it plays In a n~w~ OCCu:pJt;d
iOlDVn Inlhe
~sinaf'l 'rJ6gi'OftI

!l&Oilham [l'8I!'1!1fllti~n eoast h'r! April 1M1. Bersaglli.e'ri regiments . cloooo Ii'uw oic,yde b~ttaclioli·S.
w~]oh had 'U'iii\liMJ lb\1~ytlle rl:!l)m:p~n&eNtii 3Jfi!d a motorr,cycle l'NiC)hilne;gJU n c,itlm'p'a !'"IY. Tn:i 55

on

'ihE!i

each of

'~9[~n (fame U nder 'Ihe c@lfIitrall
IIB&y ~f~er

Q'~

Vugos~:av;a'.S" defe,a.:~

when ilhe cj)nque~ed cou~i:ry V!laS

u8'atitm 10,1 tne~ pUPipel
C1D~.tJ1:9J.

,aivid~d IUp belw~ei1 Gern;.any. llany IBlnd lHu f'!igiZiiry, a~ well as ~he

S'~~i~e of

.3·1

An .A;8'~4, a rmQ~sd car moves, a long a 1 mCR.Jrltahl r,a:ad in 'YilJgoslaltna i~ l' 942 whi I~ ,00 ~1nit1-JJarttsan:dulie,s. The! A!B-41 was (,I' mOO9f,I\ we ll-des i'g n~'d1 a n,d] rena.l~v~ly w6d1'~BJ!irH~~ i~nmQ~~ c~r wilh a 47I'Tmn main gun.. h :saw se Fv~ce On1 all 'l'il:;f'iltS tchJr.rng the Waf; ln '~~ ,~lkafU; it was, uset1 tor ,pa~rol and esoon dUlie~ by '!he 18€!~glieru and oo.v.t.I,y bmn-ehes. aJ ii.t~ ~[ did Wr!{ e'or,eot~eIVr _

IllrJfan~ry on 80 ,antt'-'partiS8I_n plalJtroi 'tilfie across a 'Fast~ liIowililg rH~r with '~heir' reda,30 It91ht macn'l ne~un ,aJ11 26, May 1,M2. A l;arge' Ir'l~mOOr af l~aJliarllroops Were lied d~ t n!1 Ot~c~'patli)n1 dl!;rlislS in "rfug@s'lav1iii. 'With m®sl~, drrvi!Slfor:1;$ f;Jot, ser'IJingJ in RL!~S;ia or N\oJth A~r~ca U~e in '1i9h~fngml e"

e

Th e!',s;e MonteUlle.grin C~'etii"IJik Volur:"!i~eB'~,$ of CaptaJil1 p,ai:vr~ G i uu sic 's commartd)OO, :are

nnii3lde up or

prc~uredln a, paJrade' in S~,~t'i3lmb@r-·1S~' wtn~re sel"'{Jng uader n~e loose C()l1ljfQ~ ,r,yf lilt Ualian M~AC or{:jMiZalli@n. fhl's uf!liI wi;l:S pa r~, of Co!onel Baljo SlaJflhs.rc~$,N~lion~~ Atrmy 'Of M~filtem~gro alitd 'H€:tr.~~,goV'JII1~ wHltch was
I

$;~

nali~~~llist "baJUaltons !filat

I~c~mloolsome Ch'i}lfilik unils, Their ~kILdl'~and·' crossbones ~iarg was 08 t~pie.fl~ CIYe'lnik standard dmufilg WW'I~ ~lheth~~ Ughl',il!lg' i a,garriiSl Ihe UaUlilIiIIs or' Ge~m~ns:j or as iQft~~ was the C~3S~', G!iJJ~pera;ling' \~ilh Ihem agaill'KSI, th,e, pa'rii~an$_ In ~'941 '""4·81. Ilta..1ian oocr.!pa1i:on ~ouce.s ,etten" phi1id to ra1Sf! antl-eomm u!l1iSI: VQlln.!'f!'~'eil3n~ from {UTH::H'l(g,sl ~he S~oveiT1Jian. M~nl'e'negrin :tIin~ Dalmeian Po\P!..da~ioM, 01 Vug,ocslmiia. These amj-emnm~ni~~'va~Ii,J'n~el'$' w~~;~~,oorur~~d '~rO!lil1 l31i!ery iI"@ligioos and athnic gmu[J ,a,nd mme !ijr'~e'n ihiiil_n nQt. ~:h8~r motives 'fQJ fl9hU~g Werie noth ing 10 do wi1h being p.mhall an or Germ~ll1.
I

3,2

AI iJhe' ,:sarna paJi'ad~ ani Ualiarn "mee!'"
irn;peots;
,[9.

Clilel nijk urvi,t mai"flIly dl'\e&~ed 'In

le'~,~:Ao'i~~ Y!,Jg(jS11~v Army
feal\()On;e d with

unltCit!TIs: 2nd

caWhli~96 be·lts. MVAC

'~n)QPS- W81F6 ,armed ilF'!i'tijaJ1y wFl,h ~~~. YLI'9~QS.la,v 'f'irUes. ~nd madilineg uns bercu,~ b'eing, sup]pH ed wHh $lome, trttdia,r;

w,aaponl)! lat~~· Ott

$rMni~.n MVAC WhiL~' ()y~r(jl !',rgOPS i(H'! parad~ Ij'ilijlh :a lU1Ut of l~aji~l'1 so~d1iern 10.... 1' A i" • 'lIr:IlOr"e' .111,01Ag oOn an!t' -par -t' ~i:l_iIi ~Uld" !n '~~2. The White: G ti.ila:r.d8!FJd Q'thetr SlowlflifJJl mFliliilliS such as '~lie L,eQF,o:!1of [rea!th were, r.na.de up of an~H::omm i;IIni~l:S; ~lfijovolunteere,Q: ro f'iglll' pa:rtisans. W,h1t-e Guards w~re b·!ack beret:!;, withl s~un-an;dcrossbon(9'~ badg8S 'arlld a mix of ,~T\i!i!ian, ~ \(lltgoii1ilav and ItaUiiI,.jl ~ulliiQ$, ~ii1 I~~,~ 1~42 soma Whi~e GU;ZIJ~cl'<s we.rle i~suoo
W'j~n ,Slyrp~l;J.s lex,~ltali~nArmy 'bo~ic,a,1 ttmics. worn with the uS'UaJl bl~ck bel:\et

'TrU~~rTu~uO'I@d ITlOCh\JInwin ~rti 118~Yof the'
Alp~ni set
0 IJ I

en an

3Ji"1 U-,p.arUsca,FJ

operation in "rIugoSila~ija In 194~'. The' 75mm 7,5/1,3 mountain 91tJlil wa'S an
ot!!l~al:ed

lteJian ,Army ~h~~wgl"lOOl ~lie'war Th ~e Alprii I dj"'~:$.i·~n$ ,_'lila .Pusier!a. '~f1rJnel'1se ,and Afpf Graj~ ~ s,g:,I'\II'fKi1 'Or"!! ~OOU!P'81]OIil dUJiUes ~rIl Yusos:larv~a. at vaneus ~[me,s du r.frllQ Ihe walr; and ~~r.~ ~I.ways !fJr!' the, ~·orgi'mnl.of any 9JFI!li-p.artilS-arn OpemliGi'iIs_

ww~ desigFli

th~l se.~vOO ~'11e'

33

Anpinl "9J~
"

mOiLi'nt~in ~nm~ Irom lhfi]~r 'IruQk.6.'~hese r110Vlrng Ihem in'OI posilion. The meia 10 $hit""-ste:ave o~der have aJdded spr:~gs or Joliage to th,el'ill" AJpini h-,ats,In, ~n effbrt to cam'Ouffag:e ~hem, (,Jame.s ·Bll.ud)

Having !!Jnlm3lded th.eir 75mm

rsns

Outstde a bart;aCks In Q-OCUl}lerj YugosLav-i'a. ;a n A.lp~n,i ()'rfice~ st~mj:£ ;amid:s~ a molo cycle: bodyguard unil wej~~ng. ~o SSCQr1a . .
f'llr'glh,-J'aiiikfn,gl

omcer.

ihB

:rnoto~cy'dtsts ~r~ wea~ifilg out-oldal\e M 1:9 Hi steel helme-ts l·nslead of Ihe mOIf,e uS'IJ~I: leather mast! h€l~m et, These 0.16$lyll~ ,sleel hetm-ets were sUI I 'iHOm nI1940-~, by arntlakcu,B.n gll.i,i"! crews, and were brough: ou,t o:f storage. ~obe 'W'iJrlF'l by 51fZOOi"l;di-lili1lfl coastal ,ejli\'isions up 1943,.

tm

A moriaC"

and hllfilnllry 8\SlOOrt .ow~, on pa'trol lin an aol ·p~rth;atl drt'1le in S!o.venia jn ~h;8,'SunMmer of
~r'ieW

move,

, 942. Thi.5! opra:,rat&o:n ~ whi'ch began in JlLr.ly, was, to : mp~oyfour Illalr;alf'il divi~ions.a-s well las o~Jier a~lac;hi!d unllts alt'ld Siovalilia:o White !Guard \lOllynteers.

,Soldh~~[s. wiih 'Ulefrr e,r'Gda 30 light machrn,egllJl1I she[~:ar
!behind' ,9: hfJJstilv' ,erected pr:Ol:ect~v~ srone wall white 011 an anU-parUs.arn ope.ra/lio.n. ~iEIJ~ial'f1 'IroOps, 'w~re ~ea,viiy In'll<o:lwd in most, an~i~p~r-lisall opemUons d\,u ring ~he o.ooUptal:lcn and s!uHer'oo heavy. caslUaJtt~,,3. From 1$l~U.~ 43" 'lhey ~os~about $1000 tklllled and more lhan 1S:,OOO woundled, ~i'l1 a ~ur~he.f. Oll0' missing un m;lio1il. 6

SIU~dlTers IfOOP thf'eii4J:9''h n~eth i:okily '~~OOd~d termunl ,ot 'YIi.J~osla"JBa I'n 'ihe morn ing '~IOOn1 whii'~ O'!'i! '~!'llti·parrt!cSa!'i op~~,a1ir)n~.iihe IHali'aJns took p~I1' lri1 ~ev@rnl l~r'g~~le tanlH,p::u:ti'~an opem~ions. in 1941-43, Sj~o!l;al$i:d)e: ermat1 ~n[e's Md tom] \i'01Un~eefS_ G Aecsfsl~mca ir:lWMrL'QIlhoYsamlS ,af 'rmm)e'r [Roya~1Yt.t'Q)O<sla.v s~kJlieffi began: in ,J~I¥ ~'9411, ,and1 th~' caJu~e,wa:s ,SOOn 'tak~n up b~ lirl:Q and his· c(;mnol[JliLi$~ p~J~loo~n$." R'8f.ires5h,i\~ measures: '~i3JI!i;,e.n Genrnaflis, made I~alyis ~iitsl* oJ pol~@Jng Ilhe1megkm much m~re :by
I

drtficulL

in~'atllUy ip-aLro~ i i"! Vug~h';w[a I!Ii'1(W@S t-autiously aeross 'a. 1'r@2·eUlI mad: Uiing lhsm Ei:Kf)Q$edto ~tta'Ck. Ap:~ rt ~rom s{:Mlll-maJe patElols I'lke t~lsr' the lti1i~t:I~were i!iW¢tved un a :S;l;:ri~s of hIUB~~' tCBI\e CIlrilU-partisan opeN'aJ1Ions ~Ii',om~'9-41 ~ A

s~man

'4tl- Op~;ratl011 Sehwca"r:z, kir Insta"c~"

bclurled Ihe. Fejfr.ata~ Vetae2ia', Mmg:fr aJnd PJSJlJgja 'Itli~!l!llilry D'ivis10WilSi 6tod Ih e tti1~ftem~~ Alpin] Dlf¥l~ion. lin total '~tJli$ ~eration illll'!,i\olved ~27,,000 'Ge rmans, IlaJianS ;~.nd BI,.dgan;8JrlSi. ~ts w.~I:1 as
troops.

CnmtiaH1 ltlJOOOhel'nik

A nqa'clh~na9!JJ'fli :!1iJ6~tf,QiJ"l move;s fp,lV ...alidl tlO' ~p.€,!tat~ 'Ih~ir elr.,~da M3,(' ifOi8diym ITIae~ijf~H;tgun CtJ ring 'traJi nTn:g "[(!If' '(n11ti~ · .'. ,. par t-rcS.ar.l1 ()pern~110n:5 K!I 'V'. t'l.igO$t~Ji,lla. "Ii':' ~WO ri~lerneffi are pr:epatri'filg ~o 'gjilffl c!Ov.errlllg 'fire \i'W1lli, 'Ihe~r C.~fCanc::!l carb~nesJ whil~ '~he ~o;adle,r Qr,a,wl$, [ijrwa:FJd wilh .spar.e ,2V'-' rmJlflfJl ~i~JS '['Oil' ~heM3'",
, 35

'!Junng Ih~ Russ~an, L:lmmer s or 1941. a IhI:appy colurTI n (I ItallaJrIJ infan~ry marches 1.'0 ,'t:Ie f~,oi11 h'om their conOriln1lfation areas in AllJm[ln~e ...I~'tnEllltaUans were ~uCky, 'ihey had a $1).~tt3y Imln joumey han""! Italy 10 Ftoma;nian disembar -aHem lP.Qin'!s. andJ tnsn !it 300km marc.n ~:O' Ihe olJ\l1cenlration erea, 'lheei9 men are wea r~ngJ gray l'aUgue liin~form;s ijirJ anl eHo~t !D p(leS~fVe· their' 19 ray.~greei1l unikHms lor fro~'~1i e ~ servJc8.

Two Beersagl er racio opemtl.o.rs ~a.l'1ng g~ayfaJtigue· Hiiiifo.rm$
,L!&e a Model ,RF,2 lra.dio carried [n Ihe lO'O;ck 19! ,B<Elnr;tUI motollOf 'uicyele IC!l)m_bmna~n()n 0'11 the Uf<rainiafl sL@p.,p<9.e.. lin .he d!S~FiOO a I;o'flg cdliuR'I'n 10'~' ~1~1t~_f' iJifan~lry advanc,~ Ihtough corrl11e'lds as they mak..e n~er way 'to the hOil1t

'Ca:\ii'S!~ry' lride. past Ihe camera on I!I:H3~r way tol Ule IlrOnt 'WheFTE~i 'Ihey served 'NUh ~stiru:;{ion in Sc~!li I ~iI1gagefll'loot5. llrNo cava~rY egimenls,. Ihe S!aW')ia and 'lhe LEu~'GierJ Di No 'lla ro I' ae.rv~d on lh ~
E:aslem Fro nil, as 'part 01 '~he Principe Amade.o Duca cfAosf.a' Ce.lere (Fast).

Dlvlsto n . An Italij~Ulcavalry ~egiiment oomprisatl 31' o.tfiicern. 3.7' NCO$; and 798 men wf~h 81 ncrl'Ses. as we1l as slx n'tOtotcyc:tes.. 16 'truck.s and 391 bicyc.hii!S"

e

TWOI B:G1F$ag lieri

have 'Wpm ~nls headgear ad~r!1menl' ~n oomoo;t la]roug~o[Jt 'ihel r
B8rsaijli~ril

:I:Ja!¥Onets 'fid.e in tand'em '~fr~aJ"d~; 'ths! 'h'Ofil~l~nei' dun1ng tine $Ymm~1l' of' ~94 ~. This' ph~l()graphiihow.s '~o90'001 emect the C:Mk~P8·1· '~~fl'~hefS adorning U'1IeTr .. h:e'lmets" With Ithe·j r pro~d uajj~l.Jion. "~hS!

wrull

mQlu[cych!llits

CfIjr,rnoo.

Ca~;i:nilOr

caJ.biif:'tes, iNnlh ioidi'n 91

tJi~~ory.

·edg~d. blatik tJ~me $Mperrmpo~ed over ..

lOuring the ~tanan advalnce Ulf(j,ug h. StItI'lhem FltI~:!5i8, ~n th~ sum rne·r of 1'~'4 1~ 'Ihis smarlly d~:g'S5t!d~appeil' compilillny m~rc:n,es '~o th~ rmrr!. The 'gfa.y~g~.eeJ':I UrIi~t1rmelf the Ual ian so~dler did not usuaJlry r-e:tenn~hi~. weill-kap,!: ~pe.a~arJce for kmg meTi maJro~lrrilg 'il'irough llIie dU5,t of th~ not Fh.J ss ia n SIJ.bRr1m er, &Ig;lnser ~n~igni;a i~ 5hown b'y th:e ~". !tie dW~:!5~ollal paitch
. .
u

IAf~J!llry run :at '~1II11s~@d across opem ,gwound (IJ~ 'they adrva~c.e ·throliJi!il'h Ihe ; outs;kllrts ,of a IU.klairrl;anl I'OWlL Tile 'iiifie~' have I~~: mQst o~: t,near eQUi~fru~wii~' in

Ihle rear ,and onr,y have theijr calLon 'Iaclliaal bags 1:0·oalny lP'are arnmun~~jor!l.

Ru~Si~11 Fmrd: in AUl'gwn '194'1~Arr~h(i'LiJ.gh 'Ihi::;: FrlenCh-.de,EUgned gun was qUltel .adlvalfl~d 'wne n il 'limit ent'@'Fed~eNiOe in '1 fn t, .~~. ,o.bsol\S~e'by ~9'4~. Was Nlevsr~he.~e'S:5.'1,600 wrs;1"a S'ml ill. usa wilh, ~he'naJian Aml"LY a~ 1he OlJtbr,~ak o~ w·ar ~nd ~toon'tlnl!.:led ln soSlNice wif'ltil t 943.
j

The' orew o~·a75Jmm 7?J21 Model 1 11'lileid '9 Urri brings it l'ilUl9 8)ction on 'Ilie

The-

'1 11 ~ piii ~or 'IHle~rr ~UT! du'r1f1g ligh!~in,g iril thEl' Ukfai ii!i3I in

e

C~6W

Oif a 15121 Model fjeld gun digiS, ,a firing

arUliery p.'i~Ge' ~aw WBd~$pre~d 3~JViCi
wUn
Ru ~L. -'l;-h- "r9 gJJJ\'5 i; tl.tii. ____- -'a Wh _ ,A:D, ,e .lil _! 1-"" GS IR: arsenal. W~lh Ij'te

194 '1. This

I~e ItaJfta AI'1lTIY' in fI

eXp~IiI;S1ml of' !he OS IR ~nto .he sni! Army iin '194~; 'tn.e nil.Jmber of '{':5/.27 g_urn, rase

b). 72-

Ort the ,edge of a. PIussian oorrilfr.e~d a 4,7f3.2~ arlm.8nk gruH:l

,cn:t~~d by B~r$a'Q(lieri 'from. 'OJliI~Q11het Cel~!,:.e'I( F-aS'ij dLV~sion$ O'r '~tie C$~FI,~:s readJed [Or' loHor! inl A.!Jglus:t 194.1. 'Th~' 4-71:32
'W,~JSa

~18a_$QJ']abi.y effElctWe ws~po:n 'Wllll1 a high f'a;te Gil 'n reo DUm i"I;Oit ,pote'i"Ii~, enough. ,a.:g~jn~a ne,w Soviel. ~nks .appear'iin,g in Russ;;! ln t9~,1~42. l;s lack 01 a ,shi~ld ITlade:,~e gun,'s orew hl;ghly vldni(~r",abfBc l\Q1 en~rn-y $mal~ ,~rm'g $Ind ;Shell fire., ~m was

I~Uan sQldi~rn,climb aU ov~r a dli.s~bled Sovie·t IB'T·7 'medium 'tank d~U'Cy&d1 in an

lea~lier'grcIDion_ 'l~e BT-'7 ~s '~hemain meclhJtll ~ll"l"k Oir: 'I~e S@'ljJi~'t, A rmy b~ror~ the ~fill\t'Oduc:tion C1,f the '(amolJs T· 34n'6, Any '!.'I!'aJr-bocrly ,Sovie~ t~rt!k~taken b!f ~n:e'1l;alliaJns n o the lEa$'teJrn F'ronl we're
1-,-oj!;lllalll!J'- _~- ~ I!.I¥ 191-, ""mltIlL th-'" U~!.i! __ U...€l~ 11;0,- __ 8 I. _ __ !:i!,~

thad (:aptu r-.ed Lhem. In total
\.I~th~d!!s Otfl' ~ne F'ro nfi ~ ~ndl-tHJing sev~rnll BT-ls, T·S4if'6s.. :al!"!~ a r>ew mghl' 'll3liilks. as, wem as 3 ,a'rm,Of'Eld

I,

nu~ l'talialFl!5 c,ap1tu f,e.d Eal~tern

.~4

Katyusha.
I!ilUfloh~rr

mu H~p!lre ro©;~e:'1

3'0'
,~I

SoIdI rs cur~o.!JJiS!ly xarrlfne a .so~et Su~h~i Su-2 1~'91'tbomber. dgS.'mTOyadbJt!' ~3nBJn. e 1 aJntfa~rc~a.ft:~ifa'Olll 'Ihe Don Front This, 'typ.e ~f AUUEaJf'1 bQmt:e:r \\Vas. rep~e,ced ' by ~he:fm mote s!JlX§siul' lIyushf;n 11-:2 ShlurmQV~k, dlw-bonmber 'room '1'91,42onwards, The ItaiUans senl a sma I~:alt c:ontirngeln, 'the COlfJO Aemo SpedlZrone ',@ he FIuss;a fronl. IIIwas rrUlitl8 up of Urea 22m! Fig;ht~f Group a!'1d 61·$[ Reconn;3;lssanC0 GrFoup.
ll

An Iialiai! S,Lipp!y' c~nvoy watls at a Don Ri~F cFU;$singlin R,ussra to bring up baaly needed supplies 'for ~ng CSIR. U:aHiillln. uok.-s we~e rtot arways rob:US1' I enough 'for (he 'll~mfb1emala ,c.om:nmio.liks eJinco.un!0re:d on Ihe RU.s.SfE!ln Fronl. Med'looie,aJ b~,e:a.'kidOWll1$ lacoe !"!'tya;['ed 1:9, prnexi:S[E!V1t sha r'age ,O'~~ 'Irucks', andl I:hts led to d!laS'Eic measures being 1eken 'to 'mry and solv.,a ~he' prob'Jem. Vehicle.s were ~a~en trom J@gimenlal dep.ots ,a,nd fo~nned io~.o c.eflhaUz-eod mOtor un"'s 'thE9Jt were Uaen ~tum,rKI inln, ad hoc stJPlJhr columns.

This fS!upply cdumn on 'lh9' FnV~F Don ~ mede liP 01 ca~ouflaQed medium andl n~allJy 'truCk 5i [o.wing 1:~a,Hen~\,IrIi I'n ~ roregraund i;s: lila escort tOl ~he oolumn ~a 'lIID.!orcytlIs1 .oLitrlder and Fia~ 108C fietd cgr ~'lfeqd I1fl ooflill@UfUage nel~ing. TIrt~ -OOCwas based (in 'lhe iBaUnai car aid was one of Ihe. mere q_o~nmonly ussd liard Cars in ~ne ~,!alian A~my. It was prodl!lc~d ~h.ro'!J~:hQut ~h war. e
,

3

.'

.

I

A rJiileda.l prersemat~nn (:8r'C;lmony held In Cal,l1o"'J,~Gka OrN 'the Don R~¥ar ~n NO"lembgr '194~ features. :sc~diEtrs from -..... ..-sever.al branches or {he I taJlian Army vmo Iha:v,J9' j,ust re{;~ivedl ,a,~-¥EI 10 tbe rds, Ileft' 0'" 'Ihe group ;are t~!ree 5~lF$a.gll,erf, one a serQe~lfl,t rnE!j!l]f U~e aUte lwo ~ rival.e:!:lL N1eJltl jn ~ine is a, c:QJp.ora~ maJor Qf at rl~R~'rv. Ia,na ~erlf fina-rul'1y 00 Q.f~tcer and seu-gea nt iTtIi9Ijo:r ,of Infanlry '!'rom 'tila' Pa'Subio Infa:n~Ji"Y [) ivhsEon,_ TI'be Sar&&gl_ I3fl are e-asily. Identified by 'tne, black co.¢.klarel mathers 111 I herr ~elrne-Is.whi~e 'Ihe artllle:rywnallil !nas. 'tIMe brown Ilea~lh,r lb\andoIl8W' us~d bJrl ~~s branch of 'h_e army.
.

1"h[S' IBrlsoa, 30 Ugt''lil maehlnegun ~l'ie\", prepares to *rne !th,e,llr weapon '~rom:at'll

~reme~y

'&$0.5"eo.

U~rafnlaJ.~rfver ln Decem'b:8 r 1194t. The Bffid':a was a p~or design with 'the timu~va'tilve int$rchang~ab~e b~ne.1 n~eding to be rep~aced eve ry 250 rtl!l.J nds wh~f1 iUr'edi (apid~. lEvs.r)i' round 'Ii'Qm 'lhe Bredat'\s 2O--round c'l~p was lubrioated wJ~h oil: as it We-flit' Into the chamber. Ihis leading to jams wh€lti the me.chanism W8$ 1lo~IJtd with mud :!:lnd d.i:rt Its lack of' iBJ canying ha n dh~; oom!rnned1 'Wirth its :sharpl ,ooges and not barre.l I IIIada it an IIdInc.mnforr~ab Ie
we~~iXllI 10 lranaporL

po.silio.n on

SIJ

'[meen

rwo infantrymen n the wln~~r 0.

"we hom
1'94.·1
i

benlllild a sfilowdrin during! Ughling on Ithe OM Fii'Ol'lt 'Both men we.aJr I:he st~f:'tdard Mode'l 1934 $IFlgie·

A Rat '~BN

medium l(iJck covered in camounage rnetUng moves irMa a Ukraini,an to'JM'l1 aJongsLda Ihe ma]n raJh"iay whil',e Of.'l;~ 01 Its creW-runs ah:m,gsrde. On Ihe 1efl1:~h~nd :s~deal: the '~fcn; of 'It!e ~mck is. I he. whil'€i"'w1I~ged ~heel S1jHillo:ol 0'1' ~jh~rnoto~ 'transport corps. in l!J2S~ :si no~ 19G6,

in'easLe0' gireatc'tJall wh&c.h was !nadeq,uate for USQ irill mosl Wlinler~. I·Wve~ mind the J6'xbeme temperalures laoed in RllJlssia. Und~r,n.ealh 'I~air ~elnnels liiIey wear either regllJliitioo 'W,003encaps, or l1us'lfiE1E!s~de naps _,or pe, aps, bothogelher to aff.(),rdl some' warmlth,!1 One of ~h@ mer] has icql.l!il!\e~ a ,CaJph,.lredS,oviel Mosi!'iJmNlagant Mi ,SS' [rifle' wrlh Us; bayonel ~rxed" a ~apoi'l IO~3imi~ar vintagJe to the standard It:;llian CaJrC'8in.o' ~ ,8'91' ;

4'

The crew of' a 47rnml 47J3~ anlUa~k hydd1h~s ~n thalli' ij[rYad8-qll!lal~ dOith'~rtg to wa5t '['Or the Mi8\i(t SiZW,le!' aJtac'k '!tn 1 942. 'Ev>Eillf'!'~hotl!Qh Ihe, 4J'mm _gUiM WiE!J$, M.ot PQ,te.i:"Il'I. ~"n(lugh aga.ii1l~t most AUied alrli'filor by' th'is date, iI, w,M, Ih.c. best iii! 1,.;;0 I~""I' ~,'j,o, 11-0 -.... -'1~ hi.. IIi:lIJ JU..,Q ,~IHiU]::!!,~lih.i! :a,'i,i\al V'Je. I...... ~r.ew ts k~~pjlng' ~~-\I\arm :be$~~h~ [0 a Ilil a's ln Ithe Ie<xtreme~ h~Jil1pemtu~$, '[houghl wilh only' their IPoor- qualUy' :!li~~glle~ br:~$ted 9 ra~W~o~ls,ba~acla'iJ~Siandl ~lffl.~s !'!;.;:~\;i' m; 'ioi!ol~ !;,!!g ",!,J. ~8nl' gl. '"':~I ft'i'--f(- -"n-~' "'1oC~ _. Ibi ~

'9~ ..in

'

I

'!O;I

iEI

~I;i,l

.. _ !.IIi;>~

An ome~r .and NCO of a IBem,g6tgi1'er.l r-e~imem dis[;ribute, mail and oiJ:l;e;r Dacka~es usiflig a IlFadilionaJ Rl!!Ssiao Sbjli~lh punled by l~~O di!th~ledJoi.lo!D~in:g' pa,rfe' nGrsas" lUke thei r- German ,~llle~ lihe It~l~aJn~ha~ 'to atJ~pt to th cofilil:mlons th 8"1 'f.a:¢@dll)r'!,'~he.AyssJan IFron~ IJ.rsrngl wJ1a~e'Ver tOTP.I1S, of trnrliSp.Q:rI: I were ;avaUable.

e

YlillHil1he C 81~ ~n~ to R i,JiS~1aJ iru ~ 941~ llh!el 75i27' Modal 19 t 2 trekl gun ~I roaded h~f@ by il:S: ,emv made up the· st~eMg~h o,f '!he InO('Si~.dr;fiwn at - f'1 ~~giment This reg im~nl' had been 'formed froJn ar~il.lery groU,£psor nne l~ a:n.d2l.nc] Cele.~e' D1Vi$iol1S, The alr~ill~rygf~Ulp ol~ lihE) 3lfd [JiviS~lln Ptincipo D~Ci;i::fA~s1a' w.~_s aJf<w ~ltatol1ed 'to! Ut9! Ii1:tUl!at.'When the 8~h hrnny (OF; ' 1I.WIMI !NBS '~[}rmed ln 1 9421 ItiJe 15/27 !Model ~2 W.aJS r~lP'aa:c'ed~n1! 'I.~(J R) ~s: Q~ 75/Zl Mo-eJel ~, 9.luns aJlild 'On!!! gr-oup (Ji~ ~ 00I11I11awl~~e~s.
~I

,An in"l'all~ry capWlJin hands ,"rU!iil'WI on ~ OiJ his men In a po:se-~ p1:1otlOgm~h lnte'rJded .~ Ik'eep up lihll; ~pi~it$ Qf f'ami li~~ !Of I~li~n.~ servi ng en ~h8E~sleni Fratlt- Long,s;ufISring ~taJlian soldijern, 'W;ej\~' l'C!r'tllJll!l'a'te n Ihey ti'e~_iewed In'uJoo in itne. way Q'f' home comlnrts, This man is :';ortu nt9t,~ to ~t i'E!l8stbe issue-d Wm1 a f1ema.ni~n·lyJP9ciEfGuJa' flbllr:' hat th;ffil was r.l at SI'liUU!9Jm lssue.

4.1.

A~p.i!'i~ of Ihe-

Monte

IBa:!t2IJliOI1 1n t,a~ni!'log Wml '~helr
47mm anliiank guns before beig' issue.d wUn white $1101ll,1'Sui!t'S'. I fi! -tl;e meantime, 1hey. ~ave beelill ~$$t1e<1

C;s-wtno. Ski

wi~hwh II~ CQ\i'f;iU'S fo~' 'thair' s~eel helm ells;" and whil,€: canvas
C'artflidg~ belts worn wUh nIl! Smnd,BJidl gray~gm-en unffi:!tm, The

gun has ~t~ Ganiag~ wheeJ5 remov.ed 1'or .,Ering .and its crew is going about lis. ,assigned dtJti~$. In lhEi:ror&goound is a co:rpoml major, ai'me'F ~lI'Id ~rew commei1nde'l',

A~pili'lll or th~ Mont . C~nlloo Ski IBaUali'on cB!mo:u~lag~ in 'Wh~e take a break as Ihey wal'i th&ms~h.i~sarounij ~ haslUy b!lJill. lire. Their s ,is, ,aire dOc'Sle al hand arrld their Camano ' 't 691 carilines ar@ sill rrg over IJrneir shou'h:ie rs "11 rEll8}d1i1I1l19S, Monte Ce.·rv.ifJ'O a.rriv,ed s i:r" Russ1.a, In Feb mall '1'94·2:IS r:eGflfoF;oameOh~,kif the, CS IR. They soon gained ·a good reEDulatl~nas a. well'Imined and we l-sqllJiippedunl~. rev;eI11 gain1ng lila ·gn.!dging' respec~ ollheiif

Oermai!l ~meg.

A soldier' cd ttl@ Monte Ci3nt!noAlpini

Sid B~Ualro{f1l pulls on lhick w~nl8fglt)"l'es

as he prep'H,9.'S lor .self'ti~ry duty. He. is. well ~'lJipped 'for Ihe col'4] wl'th :a 'W Ite c.amau~I'.ag~~tIIil.worn (jlite.r he 9ra.y.~9j!\een unifmm. atld a. do. h cover f.er nis helrne;l. ilh;e 18.~g;eC'aw,ss o~"f3'r~OOISare 'walll insula.tool ~ild would M essenUallo S op him sulfuring fros1bilte. Unftilrtu!ila.telly fOt the· avera:ge nalien s.oldier in Russia. S';P~dal \\'rioter clo.llhling was., Jar.geay reslrict~dto speclaJ iUrlits !Ii:e Mo.n e Cmvln-o. \vl'io were. also lueky too bla jS5ue.dl with boots wtilh i nSIJ lat,e-d: V11bram SOI~!$.

Alp~r':!i d riV'efS irni!3n ~uver arc ~ i"! di a m~rsl1i ~n A,Jutoo~re.U:a,OM Moo.el 32 W:h~des: 00 UilfJ Ri!II~sh1! Front Iwl~~JIiI n supply rltne:s w.ere, as VIUI nerah~e to parifi$~n: ~l.Ita'Ckss 'Ih~in" G~~ma!1allieS, en;d] '~he whoL'e' of Uile VieMza Infaf:'litry DiiVisLU:('1 'was used rll'il rear ~rE!':as on Iirles~Q~'~com ic.at.[oo du!i8',s. ITIUt!

11h~ cr@w of a Brsdti,t, :E!O.Ji'f.i5 0mm: 2
Dfings
fr{)fIIt

thei~ ~aJP(m

ilral'o

a!c~i~rn:1111 town a

,e!Jn~j!ilI'rcran :~v,;m
'O,rll

~he Dan

'In IFebruapt 1942. AUhough 'ihe BfGda was' a v·ery ! useJ:l.lI weaJpo~. by l' 942 i!m~ ~n~C.UVeii'iess io 'li1'JIj~1 a_I1H~rcraH: rt1~e'~S lesse.n'jng ~'s moot cOmll:nd ,!!J.i rmaU were :beUlew ~~mored,. i1Ihe ~!il'~il~nk ~ r:'O~~i'kto~ r. ~h~' Br~da ~s sU11a lIJ.s,ehJlI e,apli:m ail1rl loo!lJ'!d rPenelira~e~ w

mo~ armored cars :at 6100111.

This, pMt!Ograp~ shoo~srwinS/I r6 pmt7.ahHy a :staged reeli1ac!mell': [Il[ a hemic ~ng1Elig;efr.iient on, 15 IFElDruar.)! 194,2;, wh~ro troopf31rs of [h,~ $allJ!jia' Cava Iry Regjment ,ch-iuged a;c~'OS:S~'he IS~IiliS'Cm:eJi'lslki ,steppes. ~,n iil"Jis:'l'aJmou~ adiorll~ il,!osilfiPporl:ed merli 'o:f th~ S;,avo!a' c.har,Ql~d a SO'i,!'ie;~UFtiil: Q:~ 2'00.0 ioranlry 'U.I!harUllery.' SiIJIppaTL lhiEl: Savoia ca:ughi, '~he'enerrry cOf!flplelely b~ SIJ ~pri~e ~nd swepl:the ~hraEtSOVlat batl~Hom~ ~lhaba~~'HE!ki, lakirlg 500 pr~sortie'r.s. off; roUE' 'lie1d ,g.l"UiS. SO ma.c'hlneguns !Bod ten mOn8!1'9. As Mil as beilflg, one of Ihe las!'.ewr I;~val~yharges in hLst:ory:. 'Ihe "il~ruQr:Y lNaS, on@ 01Ute! r~ cccasiens d in,mod~rnl wa:ri~re ''tvhen ~a.v-aIIITY'-a~ooe d~f3<.at,e{j,en ill1~'antryf,o~ ~tU;P1POF~ed by rna€hine;gll_nl6i and] artflilery.

!Sao

A laJr.c'~a'SRO neavy '!fl.;t~ of' 34d Aut€l~e'par:to lP'esanLe (~4,1~ Heavy Truck C!)'r.i!1P~!!lY) ~raj1$poftF,!'1gl nve: m ules ro '~he! hom' is, dug out ~f: a rut hi ,a,muddy mad. 11"115,tru.r,c!i;: type' fl fsl. LlIsel~ iffl Ern iapia iJi! .1' 935-3:6 oClluld cs rl1l ,i;iI subsl~l'l!tial IQ~cr o~'32 men 'or S8\i',eW1l horses 0 r- mUII~s, h~¥ could also cal'll' T mght ~ali1~s,. ertfe ot. UlI€' main worikh!lrses of :~h~ Itml~an ,Arlrny supply :system, ,A.s, a talal 01' ,81&563F1l0 trucks we~e bu~lt 'i"JII 1'94'0-413.. The. ~4,llt:I !-[Lealil)' Tr'UlZlk· 'Company. alon@ willh Ihe :83rdl, '96th and '97th CCfi'!lJ:;I.arni~~. ma(tf.l llIiIJ Ihe 29~n H e;,avy Tmc.k Balt~lloll 0'[ I'he CS !'FI.

i~3,

The,

'lwQ~ m:;,F1 ,crew

of:,it

pOlftfllbh;;1 I~am e,throlNer 'res UteJjr wa,apoJi 'ag;eil\'lst a Rn.lutlf pOSrUOI1,. The Mo.dlell ~O weighed 27kg ,61ri1dooul~ 00tI}1 1

la,nej~l,i:amme

M~Cfel

e

be caniai

~lu~n cUs'iaoces, was capable' 011snl'Jc~i -;l1 n~

, 8nHong flalme tor lip I~ . m;a,)(imu m o.f 112 seconns, T.I1!o ope,rahJ'l' w{) e a 1P~~00iIi'le •• ' ~nd gasmask wn~le. hcr,
as.sis1aii"IJ~, 'lNJiJoS~ JOb tt 'MS
I

p~ot-ecl him w@~e' ~ slanaelrd
un1fnrm,

Then~gl

pa 11 of 'Ihe. ~~alian Croatiafl Legi@.r1 par,ade. theilr ~riil's'nagl le:r'lrm~OU1!e W 'Ihe Ilal~an Al"rny On tn~ Russa~mFlf'ofrl~' ~nA:priI1942, CroaUans recrui1ed from 'lhe OO~Hna~ r,egfans of ~he r newly l~dGPooo~.ntnane tomled a Lwo~bat!aIron' MVS~

legion wilt! an ar.ti Ilel)' baJl:talion to s.~ r\l'@J WiI1h 1l1e UaJiaJnl 8th IHmy. 'm~~h a :s~r.lang:th ,od '12'15 me.nl. [he leg!on known a~,th~ L,eglone C~:oa1aAulotran s.portaibJle SEUV,ed with 'Ihe Itallian &0 ,_ ,ob~la 1D1vision. tlui was destF~d durring 'the re~:~'eEU 'from Itle 001'1 Front in Deci!rnber 1'94,2.

C~ek '/()I~Flitee~s ,rzdIhe SaVO'l~ Gr:UfJ!lNJ' arl:l.ached to, ~~le lIali an Army on Ihe EaaLem [F'mn~ ce:lebra~el in ~ei r usual exub.eraJlil~ rn:anner, Ita~lI reeru hI!!dICl ~n'N311 300l.stroOg uni~; ' i 0
~'heoo'R~ssian vol'UIl~,el€r$ ,~~c~s' scouts lor their ,aJmy. TliHily 'to a w~'9 Q[' course iollowling tn~ ,e)l:~m~l~oj Gerrn~m~.wtio, emple;yed Ihousa.nds <0'1RIJ.!s:stan natt{) als in iU,.lxiri~'ry toles on Ihe East,e.m Fron., lihe only ins.lgriF::;I om~y the 'Oossaoks, w GI 11,e Savoia 1(Jn.q;JfJO was a Iric.ofoT ~hevrolll war!!'] OFTIhe lecj sl~a'!le o:~'~he'imdi'ttaTlal T.chelkess'ka l'Li!nt-c..

GellleuaJ n~O'!.l\i:lrIJnl Mes!6e. commander
ilJf~h~ ~UUian

.~old~ernwh OJ

cs~ in 1941-42. ~
h~ve been

~n~pecms

in ~dUoll'll IQ-fi

;CClrrlm.e.ndew u Ft,tH .~e,p'lafled b~ Gernelfa~

the 00111 Front

G.~(ileral Me~se was

ltalo a,l!.ritmkU hll '~he 51;;! mmer o.f" '1. 94~.• G~JtM~!tn ~()Qik aVe"" DOiT!ma.rtr:d1 ,as Ihe C:S I~,was .e;xp3f!ICled 'by the ,arldJlij~n O"~ ~~n new d~ilstun!6 Irita '~hraJIi~n~li'!:ed l ~Itil Arrf:lty.

General Messa i'(i!Spec!$ a '~rench wUh n~ '~TitI)U r~g~_ 1E3;~ro.l'\e' ng 5\iie~ ta'kl ~adi;lfsnlp 0'1 the· enSl R. Me$l$>e. ha,d OOffUfli!~n~~ ·~n !army CQrps during {he fnifas:lor1 01'GI~el!!~~ and had lP:roi!,i\~di rari! ~ble c(lIT!'1ruand~r. tho,ugh hfu5 b.aOk9r'¢~ rid in ~rl'n(lred1 !i:Il[fl;di fIilIctulN:z:ed w.armre ,rn~m:htIha~e madie h~m monteuselul Lo Ihe Ital~aJ_fl1~a~'~tlbr~:in NQIr-~'h At riea .. In Jal1lu9Jry 1943 he I~ ·O\i!~f ,COjTl'm~lld o~ A:.rls l"cllmes in l:i.Jrljs~~ where he aij~~n prol.!l';~d'IQ
be one

~r Itai~lsbest

gefl;~raks.

Engit.l~~'i"$ 'it\i!l'rk. 00. the construGti\Qn o~'a, c-amCl'U~'laged bun~~1i'"in a iiI~Y @aDhu~d [pcpS1 tio:n :i 'the- Don BasJn in S~.ptemnber 1 942. TiMe ~ITlprovrS9d 'il(' roQf 01''Ihe '~~~Ite.lj' tappeaJf.5 'hJbs re~n1'()IrtiedwUhr ri!l~lal f~m ~cti:Qn~ 01 a po.nlQ@n brctd\gre~ RiJbtlle. was th 8 n pi~ed en I:OP 01' l(he· MOr aind c@\i\ere~ wilt:! t!he· calii'l(J:i,d:lage t:l~~JJlngin ~h 8: baokgroul'1idl.
1

SalJdiers dlraggin-gl ~ . ":rmm G~rlno.ne' ca ~7J32 M35 enliitaJttk gun and ;I"s.aJH'1ImUnmon rn~ ~I, Urte d:a,ubrei Sir.ong j, mrlwa_y Une on Iha DOJil From i'n the late S,U01 8r 01194,2. The lm!91'1 m t!.ave C~oaoo caMblne:s slung over '!heir badks~ an,d c<a~ry'lhe barest of' equipment with Type 35 gll)$mask bags. In many eases UTe gasmas ,would have: been diiSCa:m~d and 'he bag lhen u!iu!:d as. an impro'iAsed Ihotd~idl by soldiers.

A, sarp~er armed wilJli a carcane fS carbine attermlis ~\jJ ~emO've' SQ'i/ieL a mioe during a ml ne~dlearing Qpe'ration. 'ifne Ilaf,lan ,Army ord@ired 20 000 18 caJrbrlies in ,Smm c:anlrM~'F'inslJead 0.1Ihe ,slandariCl1 6)5mm lor S'er¥~Qe On Lhe HUSSbalF! FirClnt However, Ig,e ViiciolJ$ rg'Oo.il 5noo'uc.ed by the targer round led 'tQ~hem b~rng, w~thdf.l!tWfil from ~N~ce.

War booty taken by tal ans in IFhJssia, linduded til Soviel. 1122mm nerd 'gun, alnd 'r~litn6lf sUlrpnis~ngty, 91 ,pa. k iO~ Sibew.iarll camel!$ ca:ptulI'ecE by .he Val Ch,jes.e. Alpin,1 8aUalmtll_ Mules.
and 1ri'O:r.5£lS were, mOre' oommoiil draught ~lnhllla~s but ihese 6;io1;OUC erealures werre obviously used ;by 'lliI~ RU~far1S as well. A,[I ~1SI armies, ~n '~he RU$·s~aJ'11 Rrtlrlt 'IT)e.I~edheavily' on horse-drawn t,ransporm so ltailians. ~ oul'd] no dQubl have lUiili:zOO' hes@eamels as did !heir Ro'manii!L~ ames. ~
I

..
1/
'j

A Germs.rIl geM\fa] preSBnlts ~t;Je!'l'On Cross l\I) a C(:i!on~1(iif ~he IDtf.nu lllvlSiion ~n:FI!J~sj",a wni'lGl bro~ef octli~t$ loO(lk The rel@ili(]nsh{p between Itai~~~ ~nd on. ~G;emlanofficers 'Wa~ oflen slraiihled. German ,4illrr1ogarme'1\o'Na~d5U.alf~ at ~U ~~~s caused Igrea;t ~.$e\iil~mef'it, ns EIInd'~he,laUer cQl1stantty oorrnpl'ainedl ~h~irany did not take l'hem :&erkms~. Caftver,S9.iYi Ge~llialll$, :w~~,~ fnj~uat:ed by such Ihifl1Qls as ,I aly"s in$isteln~ on ~;rornO'Ung'~he,~lati!j!S a! 'Wh;Et~ w.e re baJSt-cal~~'in,farury ~ :lfMs'i'onlS (llkB Torin~ and, Pasubld) by ~allln~ illern m@IDii::1::ed wh!!!:n th'ey w~r~ C!lEIarly lI'fIoruhing ,01:lillie sert. .
'I

~ rIJ

a Ilser1U~ ~mpagalida phO'I(;opp~rlunil,y lor the haJi ian prsss, soldi~~ lof ~e 'l"c:;~J'ino Iln~anlry ilJivisicm reed FilUssi'af'l Ghndlren., The' Ualians, wilh Iii mtiire l\Qlarnnt ipci~! al1illllde '~O'It"!@ R:US5P.!il ns, i,iVrSne)1 m,otlfj' II'keiy ~@ '!reaJl: lord1n~Jnl ~easallt~ 'Nilh greel~r ~'li.IimaiJi"illy 'U'ia)n Ge rmsns, 'Ihe

UmbeDt(), P~inee oj fiHedimont and Il"Ieir 'i@ the ~~I~in lifH"One. inspects a, un!!: af A!pi Iii arlijll'~[y :abo~l:l'O leave '1m''Ihe RlJ;SS'SIf1 Front AI'thoug n Urnb~ no lieJld mllltaiF~ QOiiTIIl1fi4ilillid dw,rfnQ ths' ~~ i3ll1dl was !DfUe1all~ cornm an till rl'g! O{'Hc~r dUlnlilg 'U"e camp:a~ n a!gcains~: h~' FT'ench in JUrIle ;, ~MOt he Wit)s never a t $U1pp-~j~et O'fi 'tine Muss.olhlll (egr~,mhei' p~irt-e~"'S raIr"ik of GeJileI;aJ [of ~lug,Ar.my &s ,gh(Jwn b~ the hlSkcgf"li9J an ~'1S, gfef:!llooa,t slee,v&. All ,ar"lilharymen have bayonets fi~d to Ihe~~ artr,lIl~ry.. pattern 1'S Ca reano QrUbirt~s,

"

ImJJja:11 infanliry Ilh i"owgil1t$ t.o C~~ o~pas,siing G ermsn PZ-KP'M, I U tanks Oln Ihen.· 'Yiay 'to~he fron~1In9. whHe olhce.rs shake hands i\,*,ilh iheJill1in a show o[ sof.idalil)jt ' '1'01 the p ropii;lig~U'tOOeamera, The. relarlionship :be<twe.enI~Hftns ,ian.tIi IGQnmancs was g,f1en 110~ S·Q Irr~liIdly wi th a IQl IOf C!lisl,ru5~ 01"1 bolh sfdBSi. Thfs mutual dis-Ilm

.s~emmed maimlly 'from Ilh.e'l::tck '0", respee:t :shown: to ita_liansoldiers by Ge rman o~ioe!r:s and men.

A plaloon ~dvali1c~s,past a fo:rl'om~~ooklng: pa'llj~1horse IDW1!:IJKls ,Ill ~lliwa~ il!~o.ron on the out.skkts at" aU· raJniar.l'town. As the lta~j~n ,~td'M~noeontirn wed [h rq1Jgh U'e· Ukmirt~ ~n 1'9-4J'1 o ~ 42, temp-erattl:.lf'ti'$ dropped to ·~20!l'C arid ltJe bacdlV c[oth:ed soldie~s syflfErred t~nibly.i1ali'ans ana their HilungaJrian ,ei.nd] Romanian counts parts; were Q'fJ~en blamed; unlafrl¥ by Hitfer for ~'aHI,;l .es (iJi the·R.lJssfil1,\Mi Ronlt. Un~l~ title Rom:anian.s. ~Iild HUFlig)iliJ~lI'1S, who .arlt,ernpled to r'Nr\$'~ r iUel"s d~rn~ndl 'for more '~roop5!,MussoUni had no pmbtem 'Wrr~h s~ndirtgl:addmonal, rorees 10 Russia when Hitl'~;r e.sked him to de so rn: 1'942.

Thls sdldi~(' armed with a Camano. M91 Fine with 'j~l{ad ba,~orlie~Ihas Wf8PrPr3>d1 hilltmeU' IlJP as 'Ws.1I as l1e can [to try and $~ave: off ,'Ile bene-chill ifilg QOLtJl.l4.JS 'wl~h all oombcd~nl$ liigh .~ng 'n RI!J's.s~.a.~ wOo.'len items kitiltled by IlalHanl woFll@lmoH.;: al home S i.lipplemenl;ed [inadequate. is.·sue wl'nte~ G!1@'lil~ing. The 'F'ftsciS'n. PNF imHaot:ed Germao wjn~r relie<I' ,cEilrmlpaig])s /illluj lorg,a~n~;zed 'CO~rolSctro'l1l ~fJinit-sat 100011 paJrty C)ffhc:,~ torr peep e ~o.dOliltue woole.n and] other \Minler olo~!h'ing_

4,'3

A pl.altOOn or ~n'afilLiI"Vha~~ ,eJijd ~kes, OOliler d~rirvg: an acli!t.;moe into 'Ihe li!1ldulS~ria'l:s,ubilJrb of a RI!.i55~:tl!n '~n Attho~gh U~~OSI~ I' 8nd Hg suecesser 'th~'8~h ~i'm;r, took a l"Iumbe r or tuwns i~ houi$~"'to~r,oW:5'e. 1fg11,intg du~kfig tf.'l'I~ir sdv:an,oo~ in/to R~gSJia! ~h<ejl'W(S!j~ ~(jr 'Itte, horror of fTghUn~ for St~lin~rad .~I!O;ng$lde .10. ...ioemal1 '!.!l'~i! Army. n~'l'. I"!! itl,~h. U t.., '-k ,Q, - ~,.... me~ Wllenl t~ d@I€!lih ISii ~lfj)_;ch~ 'Ihelr 0'~teM:5hle'lQ {lui' of~:'itiie 6i~ Arrm.y in h'te~'1QMt, 'Ihe~U:9lIians, HUJ(!gariarJfS ~r.'i.d Fl~mef'l]aili1s OOfffirngl the 11a:nks tQrr 'Ih~' )€:ftna![IiS !j'U3'~e' It) SUftl'er G [Fmb'ly.

..

An B'I mm !Modfl 35, mmt~IJ'crew p:repitillffiS '!he~uWGa~~ as Orl!ema.n adjtl5t5 'th-e' ~~ghffiH Tthe MO~iEl:l '35, was 'l)ased on thie, F'rencli ISrandt.dG5iQJ'I ;,lilvO w~ighl:$ .0!1: bomb w.ere 'fired by' th~ Moofll 3<$ - l!tiJi@ 7'.:~m~) twe 'had a rnfkQs' 0'1' 4002011, while t~e. 11:15,,110. round ha,d a. r~ngie, of 1~(rol'lill, c~mjj!8ire~ 'favornb'fy lhi~ with '~!h8Sov~at :82mnm equiva:lenl:, wil1~chon1ly tlad a ran,gJ€' of

,s,100m.

"

H;a.vif1lg '!Jsedl s't'ones 00'buliDl a bu n1\er' ~or pmlection" thi~ lea~ ~ro~ ~, B!&r.sag~leri regimerv~: ~ires ~hair e'redai Modal 3-7 medium: madl1ir!E!Qufll; In the b~lW~co~d of' a Ftusslan wTnte r; the firer Vi'~~n,W~QI~:F:ig.loV€!s, to 5iup hiS ~'1ands be(t~i,ng,l'O 't1i"J@ ~rlgg,er.lhe. Moo'el 3,1 Was a, 9:ood w~ap'Qn with, 'lew of th e' fal!rl~ a~i-OOja1edl~!JilthOl!li!er ~laliafiMachlneguln!s lrr ~eMC€t

A p[n~ski itroops on ,p.a:lmllin ,e, SI10Wy wood an~' we.Ucam.ounmg;ed m th9'!F while snowsuits. They are d e.gg'ing ~upf'lfes behffld Ihern en an [impmvlse~ sledge. The ,Alpini V!Ia,M h~gh1y t~aifiled mounl:aijr'bIrOiIJPS aJ1~well'e l'\e-aUy W;t$Led'in 'the Infardry' role they h~d a_;s part of the CS! Rl61h AmlY 01"1the lro~~n s~eppe5.

woode.n ..
With
up a.gair'i!$1the biUng [cold a rtboto·dzed oolumn slowly moves ·1;aw,Qros. the front. A'I ~he frO!lli and rear of the ooru rna are Iwo Paves1 Model 19;3,0 arlill'S'rv IrncLoirS w ~h ~he~r driv.ers exposed to Ilhe !ree2lflg conditions. In bel~\ieenl the naeters ~5l:aJ wmpped their drivers

StrUQg,Ung thr:ough 'the winter ls a celumn Qil imp,a,viMij supplY catr,ts Pi~sling on s.1~trge.s lrom a traditional s~eigh and puUe~ by pafJ,je ~n[e's. The solldi@r h elp:lng ~(P mow 1~';1e sl.eigh w.Jth ~he sllufilg earbina Fs wrapped up if! whatever' It('l<tllS ,01'i..Ir"IUormand crvman gear he could lind

ILaJicia 3R~J'heavy I~r'iljck,with a soad~e~' ,hl'rc'tlirlg EU'! IUnc:mn'~or;:tab1e ride Oil' a ru n nHng board. Italy's, lack of motor ll"ansp.o rt w.as not helped [by thE) l&cm 'hat Ihe war mfnlstly. did not SUp,pty low·lemper8flUre lub~cants lor v.ehidesl

T'n'eo ndefl' 'of

16enem c-argo 1l'111at:Ol!' ..'tricycle 'I!~mi nes Ihe oon'tefrnf~s, a care 01 pa:ckBlige hGlrrtl horne as he sit$; on h~s vehicle in 19'42, These u~~'fli,1 Ilghl, ~M~tes w,e.~e manul'a,ctllr.ed duri'f"jg 'the ',9308 b~ ~lI'iI~11.Iand Motl) 'GUZ'2i. and were also sometim€l$, 'lilted wUh maQ'hI'ne9~t:1s.lhi-s soldlsr has been i~~l;.iEidw~th 'the !1iQrm:a;nlan~'Style c-i~(Nf1a 'h.n hat whie:h was ~I~en bO'wghl by 'the Ulil~ianl~ mnrr!i~~;;a(iat b~~ W$~ of ShDfta"ge:s 6f ofJll~lal wlrite'r ~ead9a1a~.
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i

Ai. b~igadi'r gei"!~ra;11 cOh~1"'!~1and othJeiF O'flfi~ers ga~I'1~1faJrolJ.!id r ,e, GBpibur,e'd S1l]!Viel, 45mm anlU'ar1lk,gun ~nd ~irrnber- discuss to tbSm~r.1ir:s.Ilalla.ns wou~d ha,v;e:been gml:efu~ l'Or !ilJrIiY Cap:tUf~l~d ,S~\lle~: Wa,!pOfliry but ~heffi~&flO! Ilnudli ~id,elllce a.f l\h.eir u3i~~ ,arllll~ry and ta:nks, 'to Ihe sarns extenrt as Germany;

Ita!iaru !S 0'1 tBif'S, r€',PiIffl '1"0 l:ow a cap~u I'e!l Soviel: 45rnm ,ar'lti1tan'k gun uSin.g! a narliv,e RLlS$iim piimj'e ~edge. 0 p
th~,wlnle~' when 'ihe:y ifmJf'I'i:I I~~j'f''~ru~.s could Inot move on impas:sa!~e A,ussian roads. .

AJ(J!:Sf!'1!1~~~i' tfl! IRussia! emp!~d a

Ihese 51'edges iii'll

S,~

in an effQ'n; '10 counter the S()vJet Army·s ~\!Ip8riorjtv. In armor flili'!id a,r~iJ e!'ry. Indh.dduall hOIJJ\SieS were ~umed .nto maOh ii'il@)g~llIrui!!r is 'Urln,g his Sweda ::30lig:rrt machinegUF'!1 frern loo~i1i~d '.he w,~;iJlO'f one such P't)SlUOI'i!!, G' lis: al least H \Vel cI~!ecsserl tfh91 oofldil~.OM as he wans ,~JO'fcle. ~h.en~>rl So'!,ljel: altacltL .spat'a (;:lllp9, fo.r hi's weapon at~ on the.~aPI, ~o,r lor Ilalians k}-liried ,capliUiI'ed RussilSlln viliages

i.rnprO\i"lsedl fortrlesses and this BemagUe~i

'TW,oIitaHla11149mm Canone de 149/40 Moo'e135 ,tietd guns rea~ to fire '~ro'their dyg~in po:sUiQI1::;. '941-42, This if eld gun ff.r;s~ In plodwced In-} ~9.e4 w.as ane lofi' 'lh!9J ~ew modernl ai1tUery pfeo6s ~n .5en/ice wUh ~he IItaliarl Arm,y frt WWII. The. p n:~ril.y glwn to Ihe Ausslan IFroOI:by M!Jss.ollni Is. !Shown, 't;Jy 1199'; 'fact ~hatLlhere were 36 crr these glJll1s· n Russfa and (lfilly '12 ill service In fNorlh Africa,

On 26 Jisnuary 1'9.43. .he ~'t~mianArm.y oughi. a desper,alle oa!n~e ,ei~ Niko.l:a.iawka, led ~ain~ by ~e Tri.d.~mm·a Ar,pirli DivJsion, where it managed to b~ak' thrQ~ghr1he endrcling Soviet Army. lhrs 10'/119 cdumrn o,f' .SUNI.W·.!'S 'l1rom 'Ihe baUle is wi~hdrawi 9 lm ;,ards a new defensive iline ,e3wblrsh;~ by. 'the G!elfrna.ru;·. A'f,te,r this efiigag~men[ thai ~I3JiiaJinl Am'L:Y OF'! ~he' Eas1ern Fron~ WiEiS v~rtllJ1anlfdeshoyed as !€I fightl>f1g1 force andl 00 was.,·'eM!3lcuail,ed b.ack ,;0' na~y, his, I'efl onfy S!l token 11~~~ian T mmlary prehnce' in RussiSi Ihat '!'ou;g:ht' 011 un!il '!.he anmrSlice lin Septemb.e.~.

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