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API~TOTEA01~ I{ATHrOPIAI

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A RISTOTLE~S

CA TEGO RIES

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OrvOfJ:Jl ;;,.6rrol1 fWW6Y, d'S; I<Md. 1"o{)rfOp,a A6~;iOS o!;aEas ~T"p(JoS·(t1-' yrip ,,(oS &.1i'oo~84i -r{ e(17'w ~ a:~4Ic~'~KM'~pcp 1"0. {~{,_I) €tll(r,~> i«'CIJ'I'JpolJ A6yoll' arooO,.wO'et, uv~'JJvlJ'r.w 3i MJ"'Ta~ wv 'TO 'Til! 5v'op..a l,oWO,," M""'~ 0: I,a-TU ·wiJI'op.a M')IQs:' 'l'":ijs: {)~(T.ta, 0' a:~h6S', of>(u' ,~{W " 'T€ QlJtJpOMrOS I·w.l J ¢ '>if) ~t'a~ "lap (ilV pW7i'OS Ii:!iL. c po'US 1{o~Vtp (WOIMI/n mpoo(tyop<v~.. at ~CPOi!' > Ka~ d l\6yos 8~ 7"11, o,tJllta, &

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I, 'l'hin,gl1l;'1'['<: eq'ui,vocGllIy ~ named, when they have lib-. name only in common, the delinition (01' state~ men't of essence] corre.sponding with the name being dl~ rent. ForInstance, 'w]ti]e a man and a portrait ~'R,npr(jp~r.ly both be called 'mdma1s; these are !'quh'oC!!.cUy namec!,b Pmi' they have the name 0I.1y In OOIlUll~(lin. th c de HrI]tions (01' statemen l.s of' essence) C"'l'1"CS:ponding with til name being diffel: .nt. For II' you 111JIea~kcd to de:tnne what the being an animal

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'-! tve ]]:'I, either elise a def nitaon appropna te to that , e alone. Things al~ 1!1nh r)c&]Iy nmned" when nut on]y they I ,I'm' the: same name but the name means the S!ll,lru~ illl enoh ea.sc,-has the same d,efi"hituon (!Ol'l'espo,nding. 'Ilms ,1fI, man and fin ox !II"{: can!:!:] r antrnals.' The
f

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~ I retein the tl'adil.kmal. tendeelngs, • ,!111\'ocal,' .i1lf~uely", and equtvocal.' The O!I.lillIl,lU'lr lJI)m(l,el'. I !illl>pect, will be liUI~ fam.il1n., with the former. He may, i:f' he l'lle!i.5'es. lqilstitllte ,such t"Crm~ as 'l\Jnblgllous,' 'unambig'l!Il)lIs,,' Unlvonal hss the nJ",antage of heinga p[).~i~~L·e t~.;rm" ~ Z~w in Greek ,hELd two llw~n~llgs, tha:t i, 1:0, say, living 1~
! 1

flf essence. POI' if "\,'OU ane asked what is meant by Uwili'beth of I,hem 'bel fig ealled r animals,' YOll give III t p.tuticu ]it(lf' name in both cases 'lhe same definition. Things are ,.derivatively; named that deelve their 11\ fI name from some other, th at Is ghren i~new verbal
~,n(],! ~'n.dly, l\ti.gtLru 0'1' htUlg.ein pail1til'i#". CDb1iI" Mc,rr. SlCnl:P:ttl'l'e." We ,have ~o arnillgll,olls noun, HtI~\', or, W~ u.se ~he worJ 'h'i'll'llg of pOl'L~,'lllts to maan true 1 '''''lthl~,
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1'."104')is t11e same ill oo'l;h eases ; $0 {l]~o'tliite ~~Iltement

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I i:L1f; Inl trulce, r grammariafl "fyom' grammar: II, 'III ' III'rnl ,1111,' hero," and So on," , II, 'Wi' In,ly or we rnay not combine what we call ",,1 • ,·'\rprt'H ..irnui'! and phrases, Combine them ; \ "til III \ t" 'P1'Uj)() itlon -for Instance, • men euns ' Or I Iml III \V,llt ' -\\IMle example, of tmc01ubiioed forms II~I' ' nmn,' • ox,' • ""una' and' wins J' and the Uke. nl~ ~II, fo-rthe tloings thn,'~Ilre 1m!ani; wh':llwe tbus

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• 'Conr.!lgoo·us man,' 'collmgc,' in Greek" Dl!t the former 'ObSt.'1:L~.t; thi!i real point by con t5tlI!J; of ~wo werds ill EIIIg~jsh, .By· Ii .t1~w verbal form • ill !Ill-ended .!Ie new termination or infle::doll" 14

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,r~dic[lte • man,' for exaraple, ofthjs O'f that the Slll,bjlf'c:t~ btl t Jl1rn1. is: not f(llJ.ndiin a sub.111'" I " By' in;' • present,' , jf,muud in a subject ' .n do Ii' III. II11lim p~'oolmt (l'1I' found as its pal'ts are contairred ( Inn IIn1 • I meanthat it eannot existas apf.J.l't from jl Ilu' ubjee 1'I'~·I·I··d to" And then U'l(:re is that class i ,I' Jilllng~ which 11\1"(1 prr(:SCI1,t or found! in .f.), subject, li llhrtu!;\'htbe)' ca'mlo~ be asserted of i~y kn.O\U1 subJ"'('I '\\'lmtmrer. A preee of gra'IlU11atical knowledge I I h~,r,~ in the raindas n subj eet but cannot be predi1"~I.,d of Illlly Imowt~ subject whatever, Again" a I'Ii r I'Iou1111' whiteness is fires ent 01' found In a body 0( an • nluu I~i.m.pHe~ som~; l:mch b3s,ls as whst woe ll'ltl1!lid by , II hc:1d~' buteannot ') its,elf be asserted of llI.uy known. Uh,jl'd 'f.\'))!l.tever. \Ve find there ate some things, I'll 1'1'"1' rrver, not only am)!'~ncd (If a. sub] Bet but l)l~,e's~nt "I n III a subject. Thus knQwledge" for instance, I 'I· Jl'Il' sent in I;his 1)17 that mind as a. subject, is .1 fI j~"::;cl·tedof granm:Hll', There is, fillaUy, that ,I e,f thil1.gs which call neither be found til a stLbject 11'11 )'1-' t be asserted of one-this or that man or horse, lur "'1arn,plc. For nothing of that kind lli in or is • ,i ,',~ffi'l111ec1of II. subject. MOl',e genemUy speaking, III' J, l'f!" W'e can never affirm of a subj e.{.1; WJIII t is :in its
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Ik~ !Hr' dllt/Aa 7!l1'ay~1.. .r /' ~"v(~,n ...~p(r,L 't~ €~Q£~ Kat a~ uow,'t'0pat. mov i,;qIDtJ Ka~ iT!'~a'-n-Jtt1S' ~41(jV fi-~Ii' yap 3~a~opa~ 'TJ ·u 'iT.E~ll" KtL~ ,,6 8t.rro1JIJ I<ut '7'0' 11'7'1111.0", Ka~ '7'0 ;"!JoPO}', ~"'~(,I"'"nJI:4-~S Q~ oil8€/Lta. 'TDV'I"ttl1J' , 0·0· ydp 3UMfo,Jp~~ eo i"l')"W7~·,v;~7 ~·Tf~(91:J..'1l·~4'1 3rn{)I.i'R ~rJ}a:.~, 7 WII U Y" ~57j>d,\,\qAo:. Y'£~'W~'-o~8J~, k(;1JA~~t 70S ; \ '" ~A. ,,. I'" ~'" 2, av':Fa5' 0 ~""t'opctl> ""i(J;~.' 7(~ yflp' ~(I.~'W Tw'r' ~fiT ttV1"(L
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II hili I IJlllivldllll.1 Hn(~also lli1'mcli'lcaUyol'le.. Yet in I '1111 III HI 111:1'1 in~ p·[C\' ntsits being 111"11. QiI" .fQund md .' • !ull~JII I. '!"h,I'IH u pi 'ce of g1·amm~rticall.rnO\~T1edge I I'" lui" !,\It, nld, in IL mind. IIII \. WIII'II til 011 pl''Cdicllt s jrere, '" hen you I'" 111i'jlll' 11'li, I hln", ~'r tha·t of i1notlwI' Ul"irJ.g' as Oif 1'1 hJ11 PI. !Ill' rn·cl'i 11teltherl of the predicate wil] , " huhl J!l'<llIrI. f '~hc subject. We predicate' mim • ui ,~ blillI'II'~ H l,I:r • man' do we predteate • animal.' IIIII I 110"" Ilj' l'h1~ flr that man we can predicate ,"111 III' II n, Fnr 11 Iftian 18 both '!)l1imal' IIlnd ,
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,.,.111 tl'il{io'I' in kind. a 'fake the genera, animal IIwl IIUI1'It'14'dig''. 'Footed,'! two-foobed,' , winged,' II. ~hi LlI" ' In" 11.10101)[11{the diifcren [oi.tlc of animal. :But III "II "' liII !IL' 1'" 1.11 d tn c:1i ~illfIuis.~l a pmi'"f~culm'specie'S III' kuuw'II'.d,K". No speele... of knowledge w:m diffee h ".,1 nll1lo~hl!r ill belng • two-footed.' \1\ II 'I'!l I:hc gC'I1'l'il>, hQWCVCJl', ate SUboI'(U.n.!l.I~e, uiulhh, wEHltever prevents them from having the ilIU' dl'ff'~'l;ontiae. Flvrwe pre.(Ue!ltc the highel' or 1111 r of the smaller 0];' subordinate class. The 111U1i rr uti ue, then, of the predica te will also belong to IIIII ~ub:jl'd. II , 1':[1 h uncombined wOl'd ol'expl'ession means I' ill' 'IIr t.hc :followl'1g things :-wba..t (or SIl bstanee),
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1,1'1\ l'LI'j,tf' (~IHl.(t is, 'Q~a.n.tity), what sort oft1Jimg (thilt I • j~wdI1,y), related to what (tit' R,ebUon), where (that I , I I c,-), when (01' Time), In what. attitud·e (Posture, POI U 1101'1), how cireumstaneed (8t.,ate O<rComliUou), iN .. \ II U I), whd doing (or Action), h,QW passive,
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• "Ce-ordlnete ' ja me~any il1l Gl'·eek • not IU'I.',;,.llged the umle,l' tile ·(lthe~.' ThG iHfl'oL'Gl1Itin. ad(]ed to the ~"GI.UIS COIl!ltitllt~ \I.'hat os known as [he spceqe~, ~u'P!l~~ung that 16

l ~ the geJllilS .!l.l!Id "used 'f,o:r {I, d.wIlBing' nt'I', "'e ·then have U~e species ~[iltled ' hCim~.'

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17

ARISTOTLE
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, TEGORIES,
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ane" A~II7'(tj.

~ I give het'8 him 'i1(;;1'SIOn5 ~dl e.ategory. of The Greek as ,a 'rule Is JnOl"J eonereto tllau the eustemary nglJsh tmn!i!.ttti(JllS. The reader !001 here be referred to 'Th~dor Gom.p.el'~, (h.6ek Tl&JJ.ke,-8 (translated by G, G" BErry), vol, fv. c. .j, + ., •• Asserted of a s\lbject" ~l'e J'crfere to the relation of universal to pell'ti.c,ul::Il', .' p~e:>ent ill a slIbjcet" to that of Ill)} attl'ib,~te ro its ptlssessol'" (W. D. Ross, ..tTl, t(l:Ut, p.123). The distinctIon is th~ same as that it}W essential am}

III' 1 ,,,,Ill rfrlg (AnooUon),tI Examples, to speck hut ,•• ",,' hll", ~f ubstance Me ':man ' and' !t. horse,' "I I 'II u~lII.y 'two «l!lbits long; • till'eecnbits in I, II I'll' urnl the like, of QtlaJity 'white' and ,. 1IIIUlii 11,,,1: Tpl'm~ 1 sueh as • half,' . double,' •• h,.' Ilr' he Id to, denote a Relatlon, 'In the 1'1' Il I ,JIIIL't." , in the Lyceum' and silniIar phrases It 1111 1" u ., wltil· Tirne is intended hy phrases like \. I,. In " '}I I; yel1r' and. so on. 'Is lying' i)lL" • It",' "WILli 11'tlst1.we,' is shod' o,r 'is armed.' IW 1111_ j\ ~ilttl', • .uts ' or ' bUfn's: again, illmcaJes ,111m, ' II cut' Dr ' is burnt • a.n AJfection. ul 11111'" Ilf t)l~ile t rIDS in it-soU wHI involve any ,J \>I' ",i nll,rn '~It. Affi~ll1.aHoIl8, as 111180denials, ellln •'1,1 J I' ",h~ 11• lien tCirml'l are combiiled 01:' united I.., .111'" 1",11 It P' ~iUI'C Of negative statement ItlUst I I I I III' hUI' or he ful!lc._;tha~., <It least, is allowed "" "II ml~ hut nn une mbilled word or exprest ion II,., 11'1 I 1I11:1C, , fU an,' • white: ' runs ' 01' ' eonquers ') , II~ I'" /I her IJI' tme [lor be f:1Ise" \. "'lIbNl' Ul('J,;! in Ule truest and strictest, t.be ,'.IIIIILI'\ 'l'I'IIUl tlf that tenll.]5 that wlnch is neitber t II II j,!, 'l1t1~' ean be fuund ina SU bieet. b \Ve take I"""kh (.If 'lr.rus 11 pln,·ti(lula~man ~r a nOI'Se, But ,I" I."·lk af secOII'tda1!Y sl!h stancell-thQc~,e within I • h. h Ill( pccies, the primary or first are included., "'" 111, I' wit.hin wlrieh, being gcneTa, the species III'" • h C' III' contained. For Instance, a. piL:rtiCl1tlar "I II \~" in ·'Iud ill the species called 'ma:n • aud the I" I, ,i 1 "If in ita turn is included in the genus NllIetl
I

, t" .11. l',11b1[lVY ~uwtaflee. tha;~ is W say, the iudivWllIiIl I "II, "r I hut ~1I~n" ~Q'L'example}" and, second~y. s~mhry ,II 'HI'" I thillt 1~, til species and geu-em. In which the
II,

III .1 IIrot: I'lt:a'ks.

An

tot:le un<1ers.lIhs.tuRc:ecil!)iinglllshes.

18

II ,'"111, [I,rLlIII'llitted.

AIUSTOTLl1
2,11.""

oe VT€.po,t OVV. O)'!JT{:U AeyOV"fC(i <JvO',a~ J' Df~" g 'co ". r{'i;ropW11'O~ s.::a~-r0 .. ~eH'. fl>~vep~]!!DJ ilt( TW~' ~l.p"'1'Jf.dvwv t'7't 'fd:i'rf staO' V1l'O'· ~ l(e~p.,'IIQV lteyop.lllWv ap~Yl<'aU)lJ I((JJ TotiVO~ Kat 1"0,1'Mrov J((1.T!'TYop€l:aOa,t Toil {!'11'O~(~f.dvov, OlOl!. &
go.~

\J

"

'7'"

ulllull,'
"1111. Hili

II'III! II III ~l1y.In!JI.J1

'f]le~e, tJ.ie'n, are sf'conc]aey substances, and n.nimnl--otherwise, species and

/i.vfJpwrrof.;

IUj})'
Ka~

~{lKe~J.~'V()V

;l.1y€'Ta,t

-rot}:

'7'U10~

6vBp(or.otl.
ih>fJpWITOV

Im'f'1'JYOP~Vra{ T6U

~)!;

~~';J1mv 1(,a1'l7YOp~e~cr€1"(W J yd.p rtS t{",OpUMro'S' Ka~ ,a.viJp,wm5sJOTt .l{'c!'~ {,qJov. ~()T~ M'a~ Toilrm/t(l.. 1~Q:,~

AOY.OS

Be

'f'(Itj "T,wtis

&ivBpdi1r..Qt/ d~pw'T.'oV

y~ 'TQ~VO/1'«'
l('aIT~ '7"oiJ

IW1"tjrOp~uc€~S""

k'o.l .,..w~"s" d",-

'l'Jr.o yap

..I i Iiii' ~lubj~et.Por ]llstance, we pr€{l"icate • man' "I II 11~llh'idtlal man as the ~t1bjeet, The name of M I" 'lw!'!I-''i cnUcd "man' is asserted of each ]lldi~1.111"; . ull IJL·edIc~-"te 'man' of a man, The d,eIllIIillulIi Hr meal'li'llg of" man' ",HI apply to a, man, in
II " IHUUillu', for ~l man is b0t11 m~m and an a,n:imid, 1 1111". II ml!' .Itnl definitilOil of the ~p'ee.ies ,,·ilI thus both WIII.'11 w,," ome, Or} the eontrary, to thintl:s which " ," I'~r~'MC'iI\t'i:)~" found in ~t sub] eet, we i'i!ld that their

1'1 fUll what we have said i'~ j plain. that the nn(OOe rlldlnHion ·of the pl'cdicates can both be nffi.rmed

d Myo~ KWld. 'l'OV Vno'Ke"~~VOti KQ;T:t]yop'!)fJ~O(Ta~. T Wv 8' Jj.!~1I'o/(er+dv0 .~{J:.n.. ~'ii'"1 ,I1-~V 7WY
'1'01' '\~{OTWl'

'II

I I, I C~

he

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Tf~~ 'TO:; ~1l"OKef.tl-J)iOV' :JO

oMJ" ,l{wAv€~
~~i~OIJ. 'Tilv

l,,' &Lwl.' 3J
1l'O'T€

AoyoS"

.l{'a.'1"11yop£t~

ro:~r'CIf.~i1 ,~'"

Vw(JK.~p.liiw uti T~' fJ'cbp,a'n Ka.~yop'Eha,~ TOU ~hi!()'· £ ,'" , , ~ ~r 1. <:C-' v r l<.HP.£I1Q1) ,,"l.e-Vlmv yap awp.u- A,.;ye7C1.(,'} u ~~I!;1\0')''0; 6 ,.7'0(; AWi~'(IG QiJU1rO'T€ Ko:rd. OfuIYJ:roS l(I]iTWOPJ}0'1a~T!lU.

o~ AOYOV

.l{'aTf}yop~Lofl{J;t

J.8fu.a"!'0'r'.,

T'?v' Vrro[~H·· ·o,t.w ffl MVK:OV lv

Ta 8;

3~,rE"'TI1~

aVTa'is
lKfJ,U''I'(l. I,.

'TWI<'

a"Au
,

fTal!7(!"

rrpWTwJ.'

~(1Tt!',

ifTo~ 1a1f)'~11'OIHi~JLb,wl! Mova~4i1! ~ IZV 6NQKHP.'fj'~W 70{;,,0 8·~ 4(jJ.. p2iV€K ~ ....Jw {((lJj' ,
orov
fI "

lIlnd d"rirli'tiOJ:'J5 we ~~jHlI1iOt, itt least in most or predicate of that subject, Indeeel, II" Iidillilio(l It~olf will III 110 case 1vhni:cver apply. 1111II1i HUll.' ,ft S l1ot:hing, prevents U1': [':'<lID u!:>ing the hi "" l~r llhe 9U bj cet, SlJ_ppose we 'wke ' white ; Il's an hi ~11111:'11', Now' wlli:te ' is, Hu dioubt" Jn J!L body and II,I' Ji ltifilf'fW:d of m body, for' III body, of course, is I 11,.1' II/II it, .' 'file deIi"rJiUOifl, however, of ' w.nit.e • ul I,ln~ ~ullJln", that i I we can' >;.IC,rhite. '~c'an never
'" 11111 ~
,II , illlill'lIl

Iii

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76

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~ ~ l1:a-7d rJ;1f8@~S' rwv


5

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Ka'rIJI"0{l'l11J1IfJ€'TUL
T~vWlf

dj,8pw7o'w",

-ro

/«(l.';1'd ?'DD r~ >, ".CP0].l'·' H yap


j

d 1111,1110(I

'J 'I, I rM{'llted o:f u'lly such body whil!wver!' I,~ I ryl hiing else hut fir$~ substance j~ cithel'

" hJ 'I.
III

oo8~ i«tTU

",j ,
, "I

ul~lirl.>t substance or present ill such aJ,J its 'l'hi,]s ev~~dent fl.'oilfi'l particular illsta:nce,g Id !ly w11' of examples, '\'V"e predicate • illllli'lIal' ~IIIII,' SO \lI'e predicate " animal • also of ant If
HUi.Il. \!j,l'eTethere h" m it could thus

h'l<IlllI1;

Ulldie;rsi.Emd by 'the flame' here TO l\·nIK6J'. and q;'ot the; Greek substnnti ...e ~,rv~~fti$ both of them si(l:l1line<l \ , whit'!1I1e3!i,.' Soa"!.!;o we ~ISc • white' ItI English. M an 00'

no i_ndh-idu.als: existbe affirmed it could


j

, II~,', CNfllfIlIIOilly Sll~"IlkiIl>g". ut alse at Hillel! b I, " II 1111' II~' (I> white pail~t' or ' whire colour,"

81;. ~

noun,

ARJS1'O''l'LE
~ r;

&rOp,Jj1T>01} O.MoS"
O'l'KO'DV

.1A

"f Ka~~V

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t ~ l

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\ • "'.~~ "fap !Ii!1'QOrop TIS ~ ~ '-_ t. . yl!Wp~iunr ..p.ov K(II~ O~'!(e'~(;I""EfpOV 111 dino,8Jl,otk ]j1fep 1'6 r€J!!(I", oiot!
.. roo

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ybrov~' E1-yy~{w ,,~

jUoa.At'ov otJ(J",w' TO "l3o~ 'lTp~rrw O~r:1-l1JS €O'Ttv. , , ~l_'·' 'MJV 1TpW7'lJl' ouuVJ;V T~ d ' _,!M',~>
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o;,1fo<)'w,[J'Ef~ TO
'I"OV ' ..

af tl~e speeies, Co]o'l![r~ a~ain, Is in II .d,\'; so 111-0. in this or that body. l"01' were tllere 1111 I"dl~'~ mm::t111g wherein it could also exist, it , IIlllId MO'&b l in body at all, h. fie, then, all tOi[lgs 1\ Ii II mwt'!', fli\ve what we eall prh]'uuy substaaeee, lif,'" PI'~·Il1.~ 'le i!)t: primm)'" ~t,bstanees (ll' pii"esent :in .II!')' [I~ tholl, subjects, l:i.nd "'ere there no prim.!Iil'Y Ilrl, Ian " nought eke could So milch !IS ·exist. or 't"~' ~1TI.dl'.lryS1100,t.1:!lJJCes $1~ecie3 is better cro.,Ued ul IIIMce. ~hllu gelU]~: it is nearee to primary subI! ,.,' ~tI,m~()I'lc.asks yuu ' wha.t is tt r ' l'egarding a '1'1111 IU'y substanee. Your answer ts bol;hmore IIi I~~ln,tIM\,{l and also more apt to '~h{l ubj eet, provided s I ,III I U1 'n'tttl;~i~s s,peaics, than If ym] !i\huu~dine!IJJtion III, ~t'llU~. lake Ul:i~or that n'lJLI:l, for example, You I. mid lII,'i f! u more iru;,b'lIctive aecounb, if yollt stated I Iii' peoies ()!' • m~m: than yon would, m{yon caned IliIt I ' Il.1I:1 ammal.' The former belO'i.gs the more to hln'~.~ll'('l, ~a:~t,?l' ~on'l!ewhllL~roo wide. 01', agu:in, m I I ,I' ILl) ~ndlv~d~l.l.] ,tre.e, By ;nenlior~llg the species •o. I rce Y(lU W1n gIve a mQre mstrac1.i ve secount than I ~ l(iVlng the g'(1)tIS 01' • plant.' M(:)rI'.OVCl'~ the prhl:~I:l;ry "31)1 batanees most of aU mm.t I1I1 I r name, since they underlie al] other things, whieh Iii I Illn en 'Wm. be e~t]),et' tlleh' pre-dica-tes OJ:' present in I,.'I! IIl!i llh.c1rsuhjlecls. But e:caetly as pI'ima\'y ijl;lbI U1I'1'3
Illdll "

111111 h~' nnil·med

wll.1]e gerru!;

]8

more

removed

ft'mn

tt.

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y \>00V

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yo<
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stand

1xl al] else that

exists,

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oVo(.a.

I"'i'II.·~ t:u genus. Species hi related to g:e1'll.19 as 11~II,jll't't ,is l'el~te~~, o pl'edi;!8.te" t We predieate zenus "I p res ; hut never, Indeed, can we pre.tea.te J" , Ie~ of geJ:lus conversely. On this further gli'(l~nd I ,. 111111\1 hold that n:f secondary substanees species 1IIIlIfC truly substance U!all gellns,

A B.IS'fO'['U~
B ,,~ \ ,fM;xIVlQV .

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pJi.lJlfJV g'f\epOV lrl.poitJ OfJom JO'Tb,. oilMv .".el \ .:} ., ~.~ Q" ~.",o~ .,"7~S Q.lII]PW'lfOS OVl(i1'~a, 11 0 'T.~} jw(l~S'. ao E~I~6,j.ws:o~ .!leN 'T0.$ '1i'pwros QvC'ta~ 1w611(11'l'WV' ct.\\w" 'Tn .. rS1[ Itt!; ~ 'Tit y€1-'"1 8"Jr~pa~ O~Q'&r.~ ?!'~yov· -row s-Wva yap 3'1Ao~ Till) 'N(HfJT'1jIV (J'~Q'taj.! 'T·W].\!' f(f.;!,,'f· 1]yopmJj!.dvwv" 'TOV ydfJ T~ll'a IJ..",fJpw7OQJJla..l' &.1T(Ia~8o/ .;..~s. Tt i07~, TO l"~V ~rnos 0 "!"6 rb(),~ a,',roSthaDs olK~lw>: J?fOOtJO'E'~ I<al yvoop~,r.Wr"PQ1)' -:70'~10'"€~ 4v8pw· ~O/O].! d'i"l'o~~So1!lS" 'fWW 8' dAAwl~t5 T~ £].! 85 &'w-08wo/ "T~S:, dJlAo'l'plws ~In(n (bT03~Sw,l(wS', otov '\~,tJl(&1l' 1 'TP'£X~t ~ (h-~oflr! TWV 7(J~O&rWJ.! &1TGO,WOJ'g. (~U'i1'!1" di'U:Yrws 1'·00]." J:J\AWI;' 7a{l-r-a p.&~a, oih:;rlm M~I"

1'0-~ ~~{)I!'.

d:mJ<8,oO'f~g Ka.7d~ 70EJ' 'mo:s d:"l-iOpW-WOtl IJ.~FJPW'lfOjl .{1fQS;~avs 1] e""(toN 'l'"DV 'TtVOg i1f7!'ot'
c:.U{:ri::lVr'W~

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than ()il.l~ieri. For this Oil''UU~ man, far example, t • Ilu'kl not wen be more #'ul!f sillbstancc; than, let us ~lIy,t:Ms {Il.' thi'lt ox, "Aj)<:lIl't, then, fl'OCO'!. primary substnnces, species .'l:nd "j'lrw~ .!llone of tbe 8.lings thut wiU.t1.enrema:in over n~t' l'lghtly called secondary substaaee, for they of all p1)~!l~ble prediuates Il.im~edefine pl'i:rnm.~y5uo£'tance. ~""L"o[l~y by ~p(ld.es Oi~ genus call this o:r that mail he I h :lllllcd in a lit 01.' sppropria te wi!ly; imel we m,aj.;e ,.~~ d(>,~nition pr:e..ciser by ~L"L r ting the 8ptild.es or
~I jl,noe
I

.'-i~,nlso

Nn aptel' deseriptlon is 'ro an" 0'£ a enn,CiIr>ete or ImH~'idual mll:n than ieg • horse' of a concrete hcrse.
of Plr]lliLal'Y s:ub$b1..1lcea~none is more a sub-

r~nlso a. genus"

~:fWe t1!l.rn to the .species. themselves


is more of 1_

sullstance Hum another,

l'lOne,.1,l!l.lle~s

mrm 'th!J.(n. by stating'

the genus; 01" animal.'

'ir.'()].'

rQVTd.~.

3~

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Ihh~~ d~,e we might sliate, as, for in~blf(liC{:j' ' he l'Ul18 • I "I' 'is white,' \"I'"o~~,ld fmeign from the pm:pose in be 1111ll~1 l, So species n,nJ(1 genera (l,n~y are rig]l~:ly ,:I I' ligno:oocl i~~ su betanee, ~l";li.t substances only i' ,m'ptecL • i"'l~'ubHtal~OC," ~ain; stl'kUy speaking, fipp]ies to III ,L substances (mlYi because they not only Urlc.le ..rlie 1,'1ill 1 i)l'{..,rkle aU things d~·cwith theh' subjects, II ~II'Cltly j'l£ p~1m.il.I'y substance is tclatec] to aU else II, II~tll,i~v'er,. o a][so a\~e gel:ms and speeres, rr~wMeh is s h Idndcd tha:t substance ~relatedto all atuubutcs not II II ,I!lfled :in gen:u.s find speeies. l~t;H!' thc.<;e are the I~II r t..~ of such. ~j'l· Yon may ca,U a man ' learned in I IjHrHIlI}.l;I['.' AI1(i, therof~H'e, his species and gemLs. I Iiii I i~to say, man and ant~al~, you m£lY also c!l.H I, mlol-!,din g~a.mrn1l..t,' 'And this will be 3'0 in all eases. IhlLtit neverIs p~~en:t"in a subject hold3 good.of Iii II h'jl.ilnce whatever. FQll'wbatwe call p'rimmy
l'

Any-

:2io

:25

II

CATEGORIES,

For' a.nin1.al' is also asserted of this or that but eannoe be found present li:~ miL}' l'loti'ee this pOI~nt.,,' \il,thcn a in a a,t1bject, tlhetlll.otiling prevents name of the ~,uhject in question ; 11111 1'10 the d,efil'llotion,ll!ow€.'VeJt'. And. yet ol;:tseCOl'ld:;U'l" "" tmnee both ';iil'o1e ~ind d.cli,nItion ho,~dgoon in t]le ,-" j' CJf the subJ eet as well. The dcfiniti()j'1 of the p~' i{"~ (orman,) arid t.Il,at of t.~~ genus (01' animal') {t\l!'e 11~"d of an j,ndwidu«l man, 1 bcre1ore, substanea i6 urr! in l~ su'b~(lc'l:, "I'JW:l: tll.cycannot bepresem tn gnbje~ )& true 11,001 f substances only bu,t holds of dllffel"entiae, too. 'J'llI'Iio! e Ci!11L of the species called < man ' aH!':elrt w , "to'~ng0']"1, foot' and' two-footed,' Bu,tthese are not IWlilld pm:seJ:lt in it. Foil' neither of these liS i~l man, \ Iii l'e, ago,in; you ilfl1rm the dHfb'euthl., yoa also 111'1111 ;it'> definition. Suppose, of the species called , 111ll~ ~ 110U shQllld,pl'edie!l,~e" gQ,'ug on foot.' 'J'he di r.irmhOI'l. a1s.{~ ,that ~Unbltt.e then wi]] apply to of 1111" "I}JCCleS, For man CIn,es" indeed, go en fooL "'hilt the parts ,0,£ the substances f.l\1',e ,rclOellli or p 1'111111(1n tlw ~,rholes as in sub,je!:!ts l~ n fadlf.hat i need II lilly disturb us 01' reader 'tt!; fearflll ofll~~~oingto Ilrllml nll such Pil1'ts,ail 110 anbstanoea, Did we not IIII flfy , p'l'esent ill a subject' by • not as t.he pa.t'l:s !I. I " , hole • ~
'II,U.

h,'luulce ciJ)n neltherbe p~f}senl; in a slIlbjle(dr. nOO'yet III'I,!l'i,fllltc:d of one" And!l!S fOl" the secondary sub. II1~lce) the fonovdl~g points; among othef:1l, w.in prove it I~ not :in, a subjlect. We pl'e(lj-cate • man ' of II ~UII.II,; 'mlul,' lIl.ow~"eT" is :not it~u. subjeut. For manIIIf'i lil 18 f10t ,"~ a man; As the species" so also, t.he

limn :itl, pal''tJ,cuiar him. Again, we Ihin,J!feun be found. 1<1" t!'lt.'it wing it!>

(I

2-7

ARISTOTLE,

CATEGORIES,

I 'I tlrl ell. nte th.' m 1l:l1n'()cruly. FOlr' such proposltlons ill \ I' nhl:nJ'~ illt]iviUlt~nl~ 0]' species fo1" subjlect.lI. The ~'I,hllholil'Y .Hub tm.1Ct', no dO'il.bt; being never predicated 'ill l'llytlll'l g. II{' er itt!i 'If can be pl'edicat.e of anv proi'I' II iUB ~',h:!ltf\\l'4'l" Not so 'witb the s,~ud{l.rV sub_1,llr'", I he ~If c!lCJI '5 predicated. of !I,ll inc1fviduaJ , 1IIIpll'~. ~Ilt' g .1111[11. of these and the species. And I. \1, II~'II]d!lh~1.'en.till.e also, Of speetes and tndivlduals pr. fllc'f tt, thefj" il~ Ukc manner. lloth definitions, I'u~r, ~I'I·. D:Jll' ehu (~ of the g'ellus and spooiei;j,_!!pplv to II~,. P u,u1mwr 8~1hstf~]Jec and th,f,L~~ the gen1.!lsto' the Qif 1"11 . 1'0[11' ull 'we ,l,ffil'm. of the predio • te ""HI :~]$O a hi ,nliill'll1llld of ,the s,ubject, The dcfmfti:on of each 11111'1 'lilL l~ppl'UUH hlL I~ !illnlillll,' manner to both indt,'N', II III II 1l1~,1 ",I, ' .• But, as ,we haVClill'N,d)' noticed, P I~lllh fll'n~ .I ~ 1'I~~'d l:1'f Bueh things as not only possess III nm,ll" ;"hlllll(l hilt iiL~'e also defined the s~n'le Willy., II, II. " iII tU'~,lows tbat.llt nIl P'Ir"O})QsH:ions having su b-I ml'll' nrr dliTerCilcc fl)f' predicate that predicate ts '111111' UWI(llIh'o"l1Lt . '1.11 [!Ub~tIlIlC !lPI)eal'i> mdlvidual. And Ulis ls 1,,101 1111,1 IIbl~ ~,lrne In the.ease ,of the l.)l'ima.t'Y subI 'II , \"Ii hal; each dC110b%J is III unit. In that of II.. '.11' ~rHIl1'y slIbstances r ]a:ngu~e may melee it. II I I I I !II' Ill, ns when we £lily , ,ani:lnal,' • man,' This, I II, \ , • r.i ~not r~:B,nyso, £01" a q llIality rather is 'IlI,eant,' , , ullil I~b tanee :Isnort one and single, ss, 1m doubt II" IllorIll1Hli'y is; no'~ of one but of many, indeed. d~' l'I'I'I~'t'ntc • animal,' ',man.' Spoc:ies, and ge~ms" I. Ii\ N \ I I: do not Itl(lrc1y ~ndk-l'lte quaHty, ~g • 'wbite " I I I, I~ l ImnCil.t S q~ali~y,. Accidents, t]~at is,lilre 1.111• Ilwnll n q,U~Ilty s1m.plyand m.erely. Bu tsp eeies
I 0

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29

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8,5

AI1IST'OTLE
I

11 'h !l"rlili~l~ irhlVel'eiatl,ve.posititms]nrefer:, I,ll I ,I h,,' ot!iw·rJl,. wl!uk others, onehe conba:ry, I I I I ,I' Iqt'll par ts :l,Q hn ve 1'10 such p ositions. 0{ 111111 i 1111, ure rlt.. rete we may here instance . •,ulll r uld Ipl'~'dl". CI;f~IUf;J.nt.ities tbmi a,l'e continuous I I" Ih'I,i'" and H(Jlid, tc which time and pllliC>e , III oId.'II. Con~i.dc.T the parts of a number. ,Ii I~III! 111~'rll iH no t',omm.on lilJ.flit at which '~h!ey m,ay II "~ 11'1,1", 1,'111' example two nvefl \\':illmake !Em. I j, '. I I' \ n, lIre whoU}' ,distinct; there is no 111'11"" i 111111"1:11 wlur~~~'el' ~"t which these two fives .'\1111 the am ~ wilh the l)a.rts three and

,I. I I"l

lOr ,.'.lhiH rmOIlS"

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q[lIl.anHti,e.s., mO'l'eover

I'

iI,"

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t

II

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h.1' IIII' II rl ~ 'III ain ever distinct, Thus fs ilil ~rlll!'" '11out ca'm"t;itUHl1IS., Th,c l>ame 'miL y be I,ll IWMh, if ,.Y speech the spokeu word is 1'l1li1 d It 'illli( ]I"} 'flsm1ed in long and short s1'1pI'" "II 'I ~ lin e... lclel1·~q mmtH.y, whose par~il : I
, I
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\1

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or

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Iiii

'I

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.~ These dh·i&ons are not eo-extenslve, roltd {l,nA, space are (l!ll c.,"'IUed conbn,lious

Lma, p'~;l'Ie and q I!_E"I.1"~Lbe!i ~ (III."

I lu I "~' r,"n-r8 the oTile to f~le other, See ~~b.e f~l!(jW'iJl.g III. 111111111 by ,,~aL~1., !'Y 9110d qURLflhl1l1 ~t id vel ~ 11,1 , " {nnlllcL'U~. omt~oJ vel cr:mUm.n111l1 (linea,
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spatium)

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corJil~ls ~t sp~'hnJn

e:-!emplis demon-

COilS~l,ttl!t

87

AllIST01'LE

(' TE .ORIES,

\'I

111" I' ~III HI" n ,,,U(] ·tll rn.'~,lves I) xmpy SO "hll 1111 "I,.-rl 1111.\,(' ~~limit tn. coramon, I~ 1111 j' "I ~ ", 11 ••~ nb(l, wltieh tho ·e par'!;.s
II' '"
1

III mill, 1:llf'll lil'e eontinuoua. Tirtne- is a ,"ul ; IIil IHlbliM ~ I,he prosent, past, fnhne are • II '''I' 1 niMH Ihi~ l~ind of ill quantity. I~or

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meet

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the pm"L$
'~i p

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Imvl' PIJ<;~L;kn:tin reference one to I~;''IiIt,V hUL\lt' no suel; po itio]L The


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, ,III lei 'II

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t~mlcl sJww tlla~ its parts are fl'1ntiv'c P~QI()c'!;0-11' even so mueh III' , ,II M you d1~rern1line w hieh parts ,""" 01' jldj'H sem to whieh, A:ml the 8am:e IIIJ ~,f' lhne ulso, For. no p8.~t of time is I I", III j'\ I'lfl Iw'W' can 'what does not endu.l·e well hi I II 'hI!\ I' IIny po~;ithxn.~ OH1me it .. ,'ere l)etter \ III I I tlln", pnl:t.!i Il.QVe a l'd~t"in: rder, since rille o ,I I l'II,IIr In urlotl:i.el', And!i>r, in like manner, of 11,11'11I. I' ,i Immbcrs lire ,PFilYl' In the counting, as II ilf' I" I .... two W three., Thus of number also '0. I, ' I1bat the ,p.ar~s have a l'elaH~e (lIeder bu~ IIfi'Yll no pesitiens, This, also, will hoM
YtlU !'I"\H'I"

I'" I II I nll''1I. H, I'he p~wts of U~.eplane I n IM "I': '1<1' Ii B YUH can StlY Wh()h, each lies 11111 '" i "'f 10'111'1 i'~]B ne}!,t. This is true; too, ~ UlI'i MPIU·!'. HlQt the case of a number is

.. II' 1I"dl'

39

CATEGOllIES,
;fi,a

VI

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" I'i'IlIIIlll!'Ilec them" emil thcu tiler I I III U I. ' lnce 'I:hey ll!l.ss out of existence, arc gone,

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I,

Ii 111',11 ~h(·~ 1I1'fnce it CC)\'Cl'S, A.s :!a1:ge as tlle s urface II ,,,~, 11'1. I large, YOll will S!ly; thil!:t white object, IIhi Illhl~ 'I, t h n, referred to alone in themselves 'C:i1l11

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o.~eto/>ipeT-a~. nws: £~ o/>Cd11'HS TOWq; .,.~ ;~"'TWI.'; 37" SJ- d f1!iJ'1''@;t 'To. p.iya; M'al 1"6f.k~KP(W ~liul!'7fu. Q' I 'L ,., ~ ~ ,. .I ~5 (l'li'V1-'~l(l'~.,.a,~. 70 av"M ap.a 1'(L e].!(l.V':tw... ·•E'1li'~()"'X'€'Q IJ.~ dltYrti. iat'1"l;li$' .€r"J..!>;l.~ J~a)iTta. oV',r,,#(ibi"~ ydp 7TQ'TE lip.o. 7d ~WQ pil'fJ. 'T!;" Kd p..u<pdv ~t';'a~·3a'7'~
<::" () l('a~

~, 1M ~, I I ull I 1M'11, 'f~n~1'; H !iiI! is caned $mn,U, Q. ~y I I,. 11111,"," hili WI" rI'lllly rnenn gHlll:tel" er smaller ; III ", hI ill I 4 r t II~ I,'II~I [1,1' t Iw 1~ ~Hd,~ol" we '~ook~o some I I I "I II 1 Iii iii' 1111'1 II' ~llllllh ~~ ~I, lrll'~:<;' were used tabIIII.I}, u, III'\"~' ~h'l,uhll'jln u hill ,~,[UIlU, ss we nClVCJL' I~ ~I~'II , III n ~rl,111i IILI'~~" :-;n, !~~~in;. we may very ,II I \ I h II ~i ,mLI-I'L~ hw.:: ITHI.l1}' inl~ldri,tat!t".lj a city I I, ~ II U illl I~u1 Ihy", I hl]lI~'J~ t.lk ~attel·re IlHlny 'times a I'll' , "I II" Ill' 1,1 ml j\ house en ObJ.i us many, whlle I I, ~ ! II 11'1" nil j~j.rl' Ilr'~.:f~)~,~hOHgh tl~e'yJ weatly , IIIIII~'''II .. I Illf !l1'h~'r~. Wln~et~\iQ cubItS., three litH 1','11'1&' ruul I'lw l~klJ, t;hcrefore, signIfy q~antity, I' ,I • ~IIl' II • nml ~ IIk() ~j.gi.tli:fy not !I. qll!l.n'lity i h~ III ~ II 1111,I r, "I,ll[ h U I, il'1P~Yin~ ~OIU c e)(,t~)·[l.~ st~'l.Ilda.l'Cl r 1 I "'~'I' 1111111'-1 Ii'hHVI' lIll,1 h~'Y'nml them, The ]al,tel", I ~I Iii 1"1141111> r..!jlll b,(', II I'!" I hWII! 1111, I, 1111 U'I'''V'''',', 'Cll"!1JOt, there l:!)jw~hillgtltat I '"llhl!I'~ I,!I 111'I'IIiI. I'tl:!f W]l::Lt 'is not grasped hy II IINIII I'd', I'I'i' Ii LI[I some extemal s,t.and.ard-l:iow II Jil' , I' IIhn.1 I'.I~ I h~ L \'~~HlIy cont:l"al'Y? Seeendlv, sup· I' ~~, II~II'w • Po rt'l1.t ' and • SItUI]] , $nd the H.k~ to he hi! ,,~t • I ~wn '~Ih ~rune s tibj ect, it :fo,uo,ws~, tcue e a 11111 I... ~III UIt' Iin H~ adrnit.$ of~he contrary qualiific!l.I j " 1~lill~1111'Ijlf~nt"hernsdves win be 'conti'ary. Does [

"I

hlllld,ln

uC~ [!(]C1]1'

thllt the

same

tlling is bo<~h

a&r6 'TOV'l"O JJ..iya., 6JU'I'€ 1"6 aV7Q I!::a:l p.Jya !('a~ pu~pGv M'wTd TOV ail-.o].! xp.ol.'O].! (i!,jf;,p~tl""~· ~ ~ ctO'T~&l4O'. TO. bAall"Ttq h~8'[x.;:oil(u, cLU> ,auS€J.' 8Q~.a /lp.rJ. 'Til ~),a;",,{q.. ,g1r~Mx~<:Je'o;~,oro].' rn~ 1'i!" Qvutcr.s' 8eK'H,ro} fN~jl Tooll iii(;lVTiw].! SoJ('~i' ~li!cu~ JAil" ot:ln Y" Jr,.ta rou.;t W1J uyw.tv<!t, &.A.\' oM~

ydp

wpds

fN~jl

'T"Q'OT<J ,1.t~f(pOji '"P'os


I

~"pOI'"

SJ

1"0

e'w~~

I ~I" '1m LrlU'Y f.lufil~i!katioll's. Eut in defiling with ,II, I 11h~!' W~ ~~ated that notlliBg c~n tbus simulI III 1111I) fl(l"irlli I: of sneh q naliflca.tions, Snbstanee, , rll'I.II'I.I~ receptive of co:n~rm"J qltl'l.liil.ca'tiolls. but. I I III m~h Wj~}' that a manat the sante time is both
j
j ~

I I I Illll! ~ ~IIIIUtU? & compared with one th:ing, Itls "I ,II, II I ~r-t'lI,t, a~8eoml~trredW"jth ano!h.el', And I 11'1 I III~' t.h iIlf,l' simultaneously COmes to be both I' ,I "HI I ~II I ~ Ofr at one ~md the smne '~ilrfe,admits

'LIn

43

ARISTOTLE
6.0 AE:!JKOii [(Q:,C
Ij 'I;

CATEGORIES,
)_.~

VI

lMfAo.V

1!:00TLlI

~ QVSe:!~~0"7~-PJ 8

~ft

a'lh-d. S" ·Jav7oh" r;JlJ'p-fj.alvt;;,t banta E'iv{u. d "trip iO'1"& TO f.'b~"Ia 1"0 f'u<pip ~,V~VTlol'. ~ 8' C.V"FO ~(Tn.v ap.o. I'd}," fL~J(p6v, aJ...b lU1J'TqJ ,(.tr,r iW lrtarrt{JlI. ti,W 7:WV &3VVd'1'Wl" iaT~I~ (uh¢ ~GJ;tI'T'il Etlf(1,t TI. Jli(w-1"tOV" ov.~ ~Cn-~' J.pa '1"6 Jl~'Ya TCP. j1.tKP>@ baw(ov, Oov8€ 1"6 ~.oA'i.'l'Tfi OAt'}'~. WO!J"T~ 1(iU~ ~l iJil p.,~ 'tWI' 1'tp6s 1"t oraD''!"&' 'ns Jp.a d"\)kt ':rQii T{oaov,
l{,'(1.~

"ia

ap.rt.

ttl'

,W 11'~3e "W'J" dAAwv ivawrla br.8lX£'Tltt~" Ma~

1"OV 1TOU(lU Tr'~pl 1'0])' SOl(1e'i ii1'1¥~w. ,,·d "lap 6:vw "'rf! 1C:J.1"'W ~ t. 1.11; v _} \, J ,ejiOcJ.'T,WV 'iT'~Q.~ao~, '1"'11" '"PO''!; 'TO f.I>E(fOIl xwpav !(Q;'TW MYOI'71fS: S.~d TO 1I',M~-ryv 'To/ pA<F'fJ S~dO"1'o.m.v' r.pos rs 1"U 1dprna 'l"oii K6a]J.(JCtJ t:tL"at, f!OlKltU4.8 e Kal '1"bli 'T6)v ruwv iMV'Ttwv J{l'I.rJl"~'V d1l0 TOUTW'V ,&r~ ~ +i'Pfa~lr 1"~ y«p 1'1)(e:.l0'101i d'\;\~,A.wV S~E"(1Tl)k:&'T(l,. 'nov Iiii' 'i'"qJ aV1"0 Y{lfEI:. ~vall1"t(l; opt'OV'T(l.(.,
i'J?rOv
t

o~;g~ v

E:1ItI.V-7lt1V

MdAw'r('l..

a~.~ JIJuv:n67ljs

'~';"'~'

a thIng block !IH'l.d wh.iw simulI,~," XeiHl.el" C:Ln anything else be ali any Hme I hll I '111.ll.ifi d. ']1wn, if "great,,' r sraall ' and :5'0 fhl!'t.h 1 I. l' ',1'1 tr~Lr.:lr thes e to 'tneUl$ elves won J(l.l:Jeo , contrary. , " II~I I'~l ll.l:'gum,enk's sake both tl'ult' great' is tIle I'm" , ,I,III,r y of 'Rma.ll ' (IUd that one a:nd the same thil~g I 'II ,,,, n,[ the same moment bOooth ~eat and snuaU, g , I' •~ , 0[' '. 'smnJI' to its,elf will be conh':al'j', 'nl.is , ,llu" 'Y>I r, impo: sible: nothing 'to it.<;eU'ciJ.u be conh II • 'J'lu"refore, we cannot desorfbe '"great' and III rill,' , mut:lll ' and • little' filS eon traries, N eitiler 111111 1I,r.'lt, tel'ms have eO[Ih'ari'l'i:S. even thQugh some"II' ,h"uld (!ILl! th sm {,emu •. not of relation but of I III'
IInl

I,,~ 11111) hc.,lthJ'

'I'I lill~ . III di'ILI'I'IIg with space, the contention that qUElnti:!;y I 1"11.1' til' 41 r:lUfltJ."llty seems to ],~we mostpI.ausibnitr. \1••,,\I' ' und ' below' ate called ,C'{mtrar.ie8;, when by I.. I \\ ' w1uL'~·j mearrt is the regi.oll ,1)1'gpi(lCe ~\t the
, III, ", 'ntis UB" is; however, III ,I 1\' I 11 r>of' bhe "1.\'00 , since 1'1d

so

Ov
K'(U

a()!(E;~

">' .. (Uil!ftJX~' Ol!.,.' rap l.!iU7l~V er l!pO'~! I:TlpQIJ p,IlAAo1l' ,8Im1Xv" OVo3' €1:Fl 'l'"Q·O dpdlJLCov, oto'!)' "I'a. 'T{J tc.. TWVTtml!: o,u'3€1Ii' jta),),~OIli' ni -rpla. o~3~ 'fa 1r€w"~ TWV 1'p~Wv. ()ii3~ xp,6 ...es ~€POS b.fjJov p;aAAov xp6voS' E'rJ)\c!'~ '\€y·~TiU. oM" b~ '11"1"01'"
<P o~ov 'ifO
l

, :t

/)i 'TO

'Il'O

oov

'~'1nal X~(J{},rJ,,'

1"6

ptiAA.()V

~a.k~il ~ a whole. a

.. , Tlte extrerlliUes ' apP;l.L'enUy r~l'ers to '~IleerirCLlmferelllec

de-lived from the 'view it j s at the extremities I I hll \\'urhl dlnt the (ltst!lln(!~ from the centre is the " I. 'I.~ lmked, in d.dinirrg all consraries, ... ,,'eseem ! I II 'H J1'~m'.in IUn 111.il'lds. For we cell those tMngs 11th III' , widell, be:i'iig a.l~Q'W·lt,lIin th.e same class, are ' " Ilh~llirl,~ I.ile one from tile other, j "'1I1ml"':l do not ~PI)ea.r to ru:lmit of a more and I '11'\11' I' ..mnpl.e;/ta·k€ ' two cubits long,,' Now, 111'\1'1" ild'm~ts of gn~:lat10)ls. A tbing is notb:VQ ,,1.u ll1up,(111 H greatel: degree ,than another,. And! " II, II il, 1Il1!lmne'l', o·r numbers. Oue three JS not, I I' I p." 1~,tlm~e in a great.er degree than anol:ll!er ; I I "1 k 11I1t" NO to speak" nve in III greater d.egl'ee
j'

I II ill

II

~ The men'1\'ing I give to, tbi:o :sentence the CO!tt:ext appears to require, But the lext 1n1!,~~, 1 Uli.ll.k, be c.ol'rupt. <}4

lIullw r.b One pC'l"lml Orf tim.e is" moreover, I' I i.lme than anotber. Nor of any

,at.nel'
4-5

uot

-~-

---

CA'I'liGORIES.
11111111\ I11I hi [11111

vt-vn
!'

d can a "more '01' Pl.' Jess.' be 'l'I'i' t'l,t WIry, therefore, of quantity In nO' I u 1'11111111; d!eg rees. I!:f \ I, II I 1'1'1Ily jJi'clIlia.f to quailtities Is tl'tat we
111111 11

"1'11.' 01' 'L'onIT~ t 'U',em in terms or Ol~ gl'ol!I!l,ds of' III III \ ' Wt' pt'cd:icl.l.~() • eq ual,' • Imeq 1111.1/ of ,aU I I hi 'I" Illlith'l:I m ntioned, One schd is equal to ,III. I, jIUI'II_In~I'. pf!1' C'tmtra, unequal, W·,e use ·t;bese
14
I

jIll 1·.IIIII'b C two terms, For we never sal In 11111'111 is', qUII,l' to that 01: unequal.' We II I '1'1k.'.• .nl" ' uuHke,' One q miUty-\vhReness I III I III 1- i.... nevel' compared W]th. another in nil IIi 4111 grounds of equality. Such things are I I,ll' ,I ' 111", nud ' uulike.' Thw: om' C,fJ1li[lg somedlill • 'I"IIL' ., 1l1l1~qual,Li8 the mark. above aU marks, II!
I

II tirn.€~ ill cO!l'l.jpa,ring the periods of it. III Jill u~l~ 'I: qll~'fItities tha,t we have pl"eviously 1111,,111'11, (H notlll'ng, moreover, save qlJautl.l;i{)S I
I

ur

I 1'1IIIIII;~ ,

\ II
I

11""

• w be towards

of

,somethiJng else' (ad ..uiq~i.d) , ill ~om,eather manner.' . He m~n~ br the. fo!,,!n~r!I.~ terms w.ilh ,[I, g·en1.'i:ivc oJependellt 1I])'C1:1them, Th1S dlsl::mction cannot be brought out In the. same ooliCise manner in Ei[lg]i~h., 'fhE!r.e 'is no ~illgle form that ~i.ll cover all the uses of the gCliI.itive in Greek, The Greek !l'.en'tti¥G. fur in:!il.m;m:!e, xpresses not e
onll)' M
€JUL· '

" Ar:i.stol]e here d~flo.s as ~:Wye.s two cJis.tl:net class s '1lc1'1TI;!;, thme said ' teO' be oj Qthel"th1i1,~rs ' ~lId tllet.5e~id

I .111111111, !jo,meth'hlg, oj i'l:ndl so with aU tell':trlS III" ~lIru~, Otlu'l' l"Ola:th'es also there are, s:udl as I I ,III JIll 1,1m. pereeptlon, h posillion or attit.utle~ I," I', ]1thl'se are explalned by a l'efe,rence to •• Illhlh( l~, which till'ly hdong, iJ.cIlld no other way in

'"

!I~ now turn 1;1-) Relation, 'Ye cal] 11; thh'~g hell it ]s ~lit:id to be sll(~h as ~tis hom it.<; III' 'III~W other thing' 01", if not, from its I, llil.,d t.o Ilometb.ing in Some other WIllV.a , I ~II' ",rl' I't'l\[' ' is suM to. be gl'f~ater by l'ef~r111 ; 11'lJIldlhing outside it, For, indeed, when dl I IIIillK • g['e~ll:el',' we mean by 1ih.!ilt greater "'114 ~111Rp:', 'The double " is called W'H~t it is II h.' i "K l:h~Htou ble qf 8.(lrl!lething. For' double • \\

I •• r

of ' but

OUI"

t.llOjj.,·

ARI8TOTLE
~ A1-Y'f7a~
Ka~ OUR:

~ MYEf7'(u K(1,~ ~ ';'I'I"fFT~f,1.-'.rl Tw6S kWi"l"~~7] IW.~ ij fJJG~'; 'TUJOS' (Jia,s, #:(i~ 'fa d'..t\Ao.. o~ wQ'a"(h-wS'~ wPQr '1" 001-' JO'Tl" OQ'a a'UTa iJ.;"rr"p ~u.,.~j.I e'Tipwv dl'm Mr£1"a~, ~ ~waolJI' C::Mw~ ,"pds M€pov,ofov 8pos 'lk; ,~ , .~ f-€,,;,a II~ ,,"'TW 'TtPO~""'Ep(l'rr nooe 'n yap J.w'lt1.
I

~Uo

'W

yap

~et;

TU'O;S'

~~I.£"

I. ,
II II
J

III I

'1111

10

~'P(J.i]" ,1'('1],1T'O Jf-W'Ol' 1"U~~QP'0~Oi.J AiY':;''T(l·j;,). ' dk\a 8J ~ To~a.Wa wO'(uh·ws ~piJs "TL .\.iyE7at• ;n IW.-l 17 ~,;&k'),W"1S t(a~~ (J-Tmo'w S(a~ .~ S(ufJi8pa.. (ji(J'I:~S: Twl~> ~, 3~ ()la,~s 'fW'V ropos: T~.

A€"'~1"ar.
lCa,~
,

'Ta

Tc)

o~

10

oih(~lo~e~r}e~., 1rIl.PWj.iV(J..w,> 3.1- &'·itD WI' dp"'Hl<llltf.!,p 6Il(]l'oE(ol' MYE1·m. <1' 'ittip"X:.~ 8~1<~~ fl.a~~61'1IS' ~It -ro~s: 'lTpoos T~, otov dpffq K(vdlf J.... , ."rt'V-OWl.'.. '!r&'TltpCW ,8" 'TW'te' rrp6S, 'I'~., .~ ~ ~ P<:(U E'IT~cr'rl1tt~ tr.yI!'OM[. (J'U ~'Ila~· 1"O~S' 'lTpOS Tt vm:lpxe~ 7~ £ravf'w,,' 'Ttp 'Yap ,8~.'1t'\aori~ ovoE'rl irrrw
\', .", \ <;IE:

'TO oe- al~'wce'~(1~Q~

~.,

~. 1I

71

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'HM'O;:VQ;L

~ M f.l '1"f [('av 'iO'~a.l,

J,' avTa

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20
'I, ;

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llOf(~t

,,41,

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S~ Im~ f1aA.\QII >\(d TO VI"TQ~' lm,ejr!xm:(!f).l, 'TO


'i"~'

'1'T1"OV .Mr1!:ro~·. 1(ui. to'QI' K'O'.~ {fJ~~a;ov f1iiAAOV K;;r.~ WTOiJ .A'yeT(J,l,~ €KQ.7"(POV (t:v.rw)!J' 'trptJ~;;· Sv· -r6 "f€
'j",j,.

TO- 7J(W~

0jLOW'V 'lop

til

't

1('a6 {tlfQjWUW

~:~~',

ftl~ll I-"""'",(,Ii-'

,~ k'a~

\1''1, som' times have contraries. Virtue is 'hi i "e, cH:hel·~el'm itself being iJ, relattve ; . I ". 11'111('1' to ignorallce also, B.y no means aU I III ~ II'I'm~ ean, however, be said to ha vc CQI:l•h • Di;luhle' and 'triple' have none, no!', ~ 'I l, 11I1:r te·r.IlJ.1S of tha t SOfJtt III ~,tliVL'H nl~'IJ, Reams> UlilJ admit of degrees in it

11" II II kl,lill~"Hhfllng R·UCh. s itIs isexplained by a a 1IIIII ~' II"Ilbwi unA' else hy some phl!'Me (1'1: expresor 1'111,1, Ij.I'llI'Il ~ohri'ug 'lJ\l'l the relation. For imltan~e, I I III .. hili' ll.lrge; meaning large as Gowpa,recl II" 111))1 Ita By sHch a comparison only it ]8 tlut I 1,11iII11 "111"'d' htrg .' So 1j/;ie ,can a tJl]Jig "similar,' II I' 'Ilk.,' Oir 'imilar • to oome'l:hlng else. It is III I \\ II h ulll,l'I'H1S ofth.l1ll; nature. This also we notice I. JlI hlp,': wh~le lying anei sttlndhlg and sitting are II1I '1111 ille pOSiti(l'~li>, pooittml itself is ~ r<e:lit.ive. I .. III ruul hl' ~'i;lIInd Il,nrl to sit, these ate 1101~ themI r "'~'II"y posi.t:io-m; ~ theil' names al!'e" ho'\Yc'VC]', I I •• ,I I'rllin ['he ra.'W'I:ur,l.e just 110"W ['ecfOl.'red '~O.
I ""

I, A hI Ilit is III habit.qf sometldng, know .. 1\'J1O\'I'd~c of sOlucdling, position po&:i.tion 11111111.'. We speHk, t.ben, (If l',eliltive terms,

Ilf.

I Ii
II

II

'" I

~~ ch'o.fW~o].\l'.
/A~.\)(Oll

yu.p

"1:1"

OJ!WHH!1

.~~ 1"W~ O,llt'JW]!f

OV 11(1v1'0-

I(a~ -qnoi-"
1<(1'( jfrr{)V

p..d)J(oV'

otlt8oi....

U Ttl 1fp6S Tt bT'~8€X"'Tm 1'0 l"D yfJ.p d~1l'AaawlY en) M,t'~--ro;~ 8wrA«awv, 0~3~ 'l"WI.' -ro~o'vn,l!)V

r"'I'E'T·f.C~

\.!.. ..

~Ili

'!.~Jt

70

.O;"'(,lf!0W~

T'W~

'!.

1.1, I,
I I

[ ~. 11" like," , u [IH]«:~' " eqlliLl,.' , ulleq uIIV II may have " more' 01' Iess • added, wh.ile II I .Ii ",I,lnl11re term" for by , lilke 'we mean like 11111111{ else lind by . ulllike unlike something I
I I

t~ ofo.v
Of

d S'o{l.\os Se-OWO'1"Otil So'DAos: My£"'!'o;~ lCaJ d ;SE'0'1l'6T1jS' 8ovi\ot' 3€0'\':I"Q.rrys. d(l B'~1'I'Ad(ll"W)i
!,"LI' O~'7J.ro;r.O'WJl f"CCU·

' "' TG nmqo; (IE"\,; 7fP~';''Tt

,., rrpo'S ,tl:!/7W"'i"P"'t'0V71l.


'J_
I<:(!'~

\, t\ry€'il'O;'~j'

I II I h

It" 11 uf
i

I~I nottheease,
'I:-il'g'II'ees.

11JA~0"E(lS: 48

,.u'fi:l

71JuO"ll

[J~1TIi(l,IJI'W!)

~~.'"

1~,f.J..UJU,

Imd ~o''with all terms of tlim.t kind. 11 r.·I",Uv"L.:S have their c(u7rela.tives, ' Slave' III IIll' J \'C of II. master, and' master,' In turn, I II. ·11J~'j·.' Double rnenns double Its half, just II IIj • mans the half of ,Its double. I1y' gl'eptel'.'
!

neve..rtheIe-ss, "that aU relatives We do n~)rtsav , ITILore ' 01; , less

,ul

Ii::

ARISTOTLE
lit , II

CA'I'F.GORIES, II

"II

j' lIICrtlllP'e!lter ttl'nan this 01' that thing whieh "by' I, ss ' less thl'ut. thai;. which ]s gr ater. II I ~ I~h r~U lative terms, r On occasions, howI h" ('I' C fir gmm:matical inflexion will differ. 11101 \ II II l' i thus rif tbeknowable; the ]{ll!(l'~able I II"'" I IIh' '1J lrnowledlge. Perception ls of the pel'I,I 1.1",,, 'hichis pereelved b1l perception. w \ I 111111I1·q I;htl OOl'l'e·Ia:I;i{llll, however> win not maoiI, II\ li,PP"II." -Ihumely, when a m:~stake has been III IIIN mul I,h" CQt'l'Okl,'~citself w.rongly stated, H you I1I1 \~~II~ liL'rlig ot' a\ bird, then wlU no eorrelatron l'i" i : \\ II ng f-Llld bilit,c] are, X mean, not eorrelative. I III "1111 ~ t,,['rn was used at the iJ,utset iII c.aIlill,g· it III Ii hird. 1"01" the wing is the \'\,il1g of a bird, I" III I' '11 id.t·l'"!."'!d liS., in.ged, not 9iS b~rd" Many olhhCi!:' IIII , • I til' birds, lll.'e winged. \Vhen, h.owever, the Ii I '" flU HI'" used, the ecerelation wfll f()r'thwitl'l. 'II" It, wII m, f 'r: exnmple, we say that a wing .is , hll 1111 l'lw wil'lged and ~,ht! winged thing i~.w:inged I d 1\ 1111-\'. Wing belongs to the winged Il.€ceIi.!lity. \ I I hilii ~ _t.~u~l'e no wrwd In Greek that will rightly is I I1II IIU! Ilw (!r1,'lfrelatiolt., 'I'hen , I think, we tnllst III II I II \\ ,,~,;rd. Le'il us take. for ex aIm p ]e.; a ruddee, \ III '\ lIy I;hi~, elongs to ill boat. b 'To a bOlat ' ]S,. I I I. In 11~pr-opl'llltc and fails to bring out the "illii'll.. 1\<nt , inde ed, to the boot vrewed ~~s boat il" ImbJ! I' belQng' of nere!;.s:ity. Are there not I III. ,"t rudders r Thus rudder and boat are ..IJI 'Will. 'Boat' is not' boat of ill. rudder,' as I I ~"I Itll' r N' It boat, Since ne proper term now ,III 11111 coin one to suit the occasion and epeak I, 1111I1rl' IB(!'flUrI!iCY thl!ls-tlle l?udder is rudder 'of II. .1" luli.'fl tlI,' And., if we express oucselves thus, I I, II III II "~L will ~he tel.'ms be reciprocal. Tha t js to'
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ARISTOTLE
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II Iwll j~ ruddered is ruddered by mentis of Its hI'l r. SD also ~I:l aU other cases, A head will be II. II, r ,I,,·fir! d as 0orl"t!1n:UveofdUl;b .... . hich is,' headed,' '11,1, I,on ,'ly. ,W> head of an ~n:il:ll!ll. Animals, simply uluml • do nat have heads Q,f necessity. ,JltJ!any, 11101, I', hll~" [10 hends, liVe may tlllJ.$~ I think, best 11111 11I,lllml to what tlris or -th:tt thillig is rel, •ted, where '" II,; 'i'Wlt' Il~ present exists, if we take the tbing having 1'1lilli' I '1][1then, cOilling another [lame fl'Oim it, 1PI' II II I n, the ful'n:H~l''s ,cDl'rt,lath'e j list as we coined I mr.' .1 • 1I[J}~l "ruddered • above from tlU:l names III '!IInl" rudder.' I hll II r' b\~ives are lfoeferred to their correlates, I III ill" II I,ll£')' <ill'\) dghtly de{lned. I mw"t; add 'th:is I "II II ihl'['fiti 1,;, tf the ecrrelate ll[{ppells to be ~ta.ted II, • I 1111. IllIIcmuate frn;hlon" the; '~errlll;i eanrl,ot '1ivel] I I dl"I'Q tit Let me explain 'wbat r mean. Even I. I, llil" I'igh~ nemes do exist and, tl1,e thingi< are

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eorrelates, '(\0 eorrdationappea:n;, when of these two it name tha~tin no '!m~yhr][I~ II I II, 1'4'hlliolJl. UI]CI bM some irreLevant m anitl_g, JI 111\,' • he defined :tn relatlon to • man; or 1:00 loll ,I'" wJLw:l: not. instead! of Its bei11g d.el][Iecl (as ,. I IhI hI') by rcferenee to ' !'I1,ilste~,' then no 00[I 11"1,1II'Ppl'[JI'i;, for tlle reference is really maceurate, ,I", Ii'l II~ grant that two th'ings m'e co['rela1:he , I' II Ii, I tiullil r and that the correct term is used III' IIiIUJI ~ of' stating the second, Althotlgh 'We 1111' Iill i~~ot}Hl~'-I mean, its. irrelevaLnt-a.ttl',i~ ,j I, In hl,K 'Ilhilt only :in virtue of wllich it was II 41 1111' ""1.'F(ilath'e, then vdU the said cQr.relatiQu Iii II" 11.'1 1cil~" fOlUld to exi\~t. The correlative of II \, .' II In' '~!'illmr]e, j~ prrop()dy sv>icJi o be r master,' t 11'1 .' W," 1''C~1rio"e his othe:r-I mean, 'his Irrehili II.
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I1II nHl'ibnt.es, 1meh as his bein~ f two.footed,,' I , '" JIll VI' of kno'wledge ' 01' "humen, VInci leave till 10 I~I IIhi' iII R: • H master,' i;hen • slave • win be still tl1e
',11,1,11\.,,'

sl.r~vc· mea/ling slave oja master.. oi:hcr hand, le ~ us suppcs cone correlative II lilq. II In"fI['I'w~ly. Then, if we strip 01£ its, a.tt~tI. II Ii .' I\'ll1g If;h~t only in virtue of which it was called • rl,'II~i ...e, ",u correlatdon wi,]l vanish. 1.et' a,. I \ I • Ill' r]'j1111'(i as ' a )'fI!m's J') let' a wlng • be, jl ~lwI'l rL~ , III bh,d"~,: Take the attl:ilmte 'master' I '11" I I 111 ': then. mdeed, Ute een-ela t;I,on subsi!>ti:ng I, [I • ,'I 'lillali' and ' slave • will have varushed, i>{:o I' I' I, r, !n I:t(l>lt't~ then no sh~ "e. '.li'a'lr.e the !I,ttrihll:te I" I • II • from • the bi'Fd/ Then the ",ving 'will no I' III" It', lL1tive: .nought wl11ft.h,e['e now be a w:ing III' h ~I'd being no ]cilJJgct· winged. \ IIII 11, I;u slim up, we m~'I~t H'tate all CQrrelative • 11.1 1\,11 II exactness. If a name is already to hand, III II 1111" Ht.J.ltemeut will provo to be easy. If £10 I "'i'l IIllrt·ady e;;:j,!;~., then I think it our d,~ty to I" "'III', II: is eleur, when tile names are correct, II , 1III 1'!.lu'Hv,etelt'n"ls are correlative, II • 'I I ~'i IIV:!H (Ire commonly beM to ceme iu,w exist• , I~I o+h !'. ana this for the most pal't is true, as, • 1111 i IIC", of double and half, T11at a Jwlf exists ." 111 ti;.he doub]e; of whieh it is lu..lf m.l!lst e'ldst" "I 1.1 t nee t'li;' II. m..'lst();r involves the existence also , • MI. \ ", If' a slave exlsts, th.en lUlllit {I Dllll.SWf.
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n ~ til eaneel one eaneels the other, For' •• I VM"',. Ill:! double, no. ha.lf, aud, l.JeT O(}'ntra, no half, I. 'd "'1 dr1llblo: aud so with aU simih,l: terms.
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I'hat the object of knowledge is prio~ 'to, exista We gain knowledge, commonly I" t,1 h~K, of ·~h.][Ig'1> that already exist, for in very I,i ",~ none 'Ci:U'!L OUit knowledge (Jot. have come il:lt.o I 1111( long with its own pll'oper object, I Iii ,1111 ,,,,lie objec't (If knowledge. be. removed, h'l I' 11." knO'wledge ii~elf wUl be caneelled, The " \, I, t of t.his ls not true. If the object [100 I ,I' I' ,. ·~~tNj thC(l"e ean no 'jJ(lngel' be a~~y knowle.dge-, III. I" hdl1;1:\' now Ll.{)Ithlng to know. If, however i (JIf rid ur lh.i1'~ objcr.rt no knowledge has yet been , 111,JI,'d, yilt that object itself lI.lt!lj' exist. Take I II Iill""l'luJot .~f the c~r:cle, for ingj;ance,.,f th?t can I .)I'lll u h nell obJ€t:~t.. .Altl~(ltJgh It eXIsts as , .,1It I I, the knowledge dces not yet exist. If all ,'" Jill l'll ed ttl exist, there would then. he no knowI I, L j II, t:hQiu.gh th ere migh'~ in tbat case, not1111 I Iwlloll~, be ~'Ullmanv objects of 'n~""w:ledge. III' un w mIL y be said of perce,p,Uon, The 0 b:]eet, I unr, 1\ .mld Q;ppear be) be prim' to the a.ct of peI'cept:ion, "I ,I ' " I hnt yoll, eancel 1;1110pelR(Hl.ptthl .. ; YOII. cancel e I. I' I' "rUO!1 ns well. Take away 01'remove the per" I 11'111. I-ill.' f:l'E!'w pl1.iMe still may exist, For the act j I 1'1 ,I'llnll'1 implie5 Q,ll" Involves, first, a body perI .l, 111,l'li II. Dodyin which i.~ taJ!.esphce, TherefQ~et r ., III I' I "IU'~' the perceptible, bod.y itself is re:rJ:loveaj II" I'ftlily ltself is perceptible. And, body !:IQt 1'1 " I lor nt, pCl'ception must cease to exist. Take I II!, 'I"jI' ptiblc" then, and you t!lke awa.y also 'IIIII'ru, nut U~etaklilg awa}" Oof perceptlon does I ~, III h object's away. If'ulie anima] itself jg I " 'i!" II., m perceptlon isalso deat.t'oyed. But pe,li:"I r 11,1. .1,'1.' t will remain, such as body, neat) sweetness, 1 I'll I "~I~ Nil und (werything else that is sensible,
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ARISTOTLE
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I' (Jurtio,nj fUl~~ler, eomes !nto ,being .d?ng ~'?th '.llb~ect pel'ceHli~g-thfit 1S, witl_l tlhe~JwetJulJJg II - II. If'he peeceptlble, however, IS pl'm~ to the 111111",,1 I1nd to pel"C~pti.ol1L I'o'r sueh tMngs aI5 wntel' 1111Ii'!'''' (m·t ,of which are composed thing beluga, I I "i1.Ir;~l'e nny suet beil'lg's and pr:ior to aU aets , PI rt·'·ptinll. The perceptible, so we c(lIlclude, ".'.1 j'ij!!lCiU' to be prl.ol' to' perception, I Ie,,, ~Im~ that no J>uhs,t;ance iEi relative-a view tba't I ''''IHlluIllly hc]d~"Hmld! appear 'W be open to Iii liIun. J~:Kception, perhaps, should be made ]]1 1111 I II Il.f' some ,~e~alldal'y substances, Doubtless, t Ii. ~h W we l'de\' to 11.o1cls g-ood of the ptimary subI III,. t"r t~,'·i.tbe,1.·ehe wholes nOl' the part-9 of ·first II I II>l'j'~ ever are ltdnct.:iye. 'fbi:s mall 01" t'I,lat ox, I" I 1111 Ille, is never defined with a refevenee to II,. i hllll~ beyond Olr (Illtsid~, And the same. also I. 1,1 "I' I,ll{ It, ));;u1:.s. 'f)mli a cC1.1.ain hand 01' l1.eoo Js , rid III be [I) certain hsnd of someone 01:'other .• a ,I ,III 1l','ad n( someone Oll' other. \Ve caU them I, ',11,1, !Im'l Ute hCflcl -of I:Mli 5P'l~cHIed.p-erson or thai;, ""1, with the; secollldaJr"J'"substances; !L't Iel'\~t witb. I h,. I Iro'm rn\Ut;y_ Spceies, ~]ke ' man,' , ox ' and so , ,I II, """ I'Il'\"~" jldille{l with 1lI1:'efel"ence to !.l:omet1illg I ,1'1101 ,I!' d:1'iltgid~ them, Nci.th.el"is' w!)od" so , 1111,' _I. !md, jf wood '1sl'egi\uled as re1~.U"e, tll.en i:s OJ i II pl"flp-(;rLp. elonging to someone b or othel~, arid III II I II. I'U tel' 0;1 wood, It Js evidetrt, then, in I " "1' thllt substence c~m ba,rdlv he relatlve, 'I lu 'INI'. h!l''''~vel'', may dLiffe·}:' the'CiaBe of so-me ill ".111 \ "ul'l<;l.unccs. Thus we. define" head' and ',111,1' n the Hgilt of the who1e$ Hley belong to, I "I h,,' .' ml.,I{ht seem to be relative. Indeed; it ,rI,1 Inl"VI' \'ery hQ.l'di., not to lilly all i.mpo-ssi.ble task,
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I I III lIhlH !o1t:ll:f~evjdent, Pl'(lvided, t~~~tt I tl1at, is II I ~ ""'W It plI,r'llilC~I~Il-1.·t,ll]ng to be rela rive, l'el~:U'VC$ II 'I I lINI~I' nbj e ets \liIhosc\'ery e;d5teace conSJ1sts. in ,II II llu 11I1~ In ~[)I~U~ w~~y otherrelated to somo other or

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141 ~III~I lhh~g it~d:f]5 related, For if youdlid. [lot I, I I , Ii jll ~ ~ l,w,t ·llr; whidl it is somehow l'eloA;ed., you " I,I II II ~n much as know wheti'l.el" it was 01" it 1I"t Ii f!·].ILM\I't. 'flil,kJe some P""~tj.{.'!~t1at:iltcsta:twes ;. III II l' Id~ ~h,I point be qu.ite deal', For suppase tEJ,at " II. IIII,~I'"Iy kHnw So p[l[.l''ticubl' thing to be' d{l~lb]e ' ~ " " ~I ," III~' ~\in you d'efmi tdy know aka t.hat thing I III~Ii. II j ~ dO~L]e" b You caH~~O'tknQw toot it is
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Illy 1 I !If! turn next. By' quality' I I," ~1,1'1II~' of wbidl ' men are called sueb '1'1111' \for] ,. t]uaHi:y' has many senses, 1m, ~ a11'1 rUJ«fi ·~i.c)l1S hetreoonsti tu le one kiind. III 11111 ',1'1". thrm~r 1m. u.nlike tile JaUel' in IIIU.' III IIIII~ !lIld ~tl! ble, Comprised. mnong I I • I til 'hll,bit ' nr yil"tnes and ull kinds of
I'ur k Howl, i1ge is considered. .M 'lasting from tho !:'nh~d, tJl.ongh a m~rn. III I •I, 1111~". ,1l("IUit'ICd. i'~ ]n only a 'l'loQ~le:ract.e I •• url,11 "til· gl'cat dlnnge should come over II•• III I, III t![]'fIII' th~ Itke. And the. sante II rlol til I lilt! vh,tu.es-for instance, {It' 'tern" II~ii, 1~'l:lrtheBe ~i"e :nlkmred on all hands I •I r
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&.a·ViJ\O!~t(W ~"KIHJ.! '1'0[1 a~'i"OtJ T06rOV. Tp{'TOV 3~ ylrm~!> 1ro~6cnJ'ToS' 'mlOll'T4.F('(t~ fj'mo~~:rr€s: I(a~ -,rrM1']. ~G--n8~ 'Ta. 1"(}td.S€ OWl.' yAlJM'O:Ttj'S 1"~ [(a~
t

a defeat of some kind, do we ~]\.Iality liNe eall men good • "I' runners 110t 1[1 virtue of SOme d!lspo\9]tion II "" hi R' ~'Q a natura] ca.p!l!city to do this or that I II II lui h 1"~r;,I}. ''''hen \'1'(: speak oftbe b.Mlthv. we It, 1111 tlPlI~~u(Jh p~orle hal'e powers of 1'1es!stance, I I\, 'Inna't '. c()InstltuUonal,aga:inst all the C(Im~ 'H"III I, III ; wh, n wo speak of the f.;licklv,. we mean 11,1 • I\elnn' C, III to possess no such p(l~\'!el'~. it]s IIII ~ • II II!, \\ i'uh hll:rd Il~SS and so,ftne5l'l. \Ve J.n"e>di,ca.te I•• ,1111 j I1f ~h,[lt which resists ready d:isinteg~atioll '. I III1~I~"~~ v.ftbat which does not,
"'"

1IIII ~ .,vU II t' [L.>;() or .u'lfad I, 1111 '!J!:I~lIe!lS sl~ch.n, n 11

30 '1!'U¥:P0't'YJ~

[('m
,

~,

O"T"pu'f"POTtfS'
\'

,..t.

'

. ~, \.~. [(m '.'l'a;".'Tn ?'C!;

?,()'l,l'7oDj$

..

(TlIy'Y~v'iJ,
[(01"l]S'
> (!W'~ ••
l' .

~T~ "'~9'OiN~~r;
JL~...a.JJUL.,
Til
, ,

'yap l(a7' mh'd~; c)lC!1!'T() p.Jih 'Fiji, r>tVI~m.'lj1'a. 8€S'X,9~:u yAT}I(V li.€-r(1"T(;[..r, l~a~ rb aiiJp.a '\~;I1K6J' T4i .'\eti'Konyrn ~5 8,~3~~61{w wwS' 3~ K'a~ (1i'~TW:V &',,~w'v

A, I 'f'ave.po,,·

Kal

K(l~ l/JVXP(Yffj9 Ka~ ,; I.. 'l" ~, .s on fl·e}! OIiV O:.VTa~ 'lTOW'I'11"€S: <:- ~ , ,., , ". O€O€Yltev~ ctma nQ~a 1\;;'Y~"'il~

Aw-

wO!~

gx~~.

alf"ecUon.s,. Examples aJi'e sweetuol L,I' temess sourness and. IiU thingil aki.n to "I I NUII'h, ,~Oj)j aloe coldness and warmth; such 11,1" • i'OII und blackness and &(1 on. It is evident 111'" n- ~Iua]i.ties,seeing that the things that I h'l Ilt IIJ'C! ill cOli:<;equence called saeh and II! I tl' honey itself contnins sweetness and, IIII I '. I rdd"to he sweet, so the oody itseU eon\, hilI I~"~~ and, tlierefO're, ]~ said to be whlltie.
jilid
i1.]~AJ

II~ I

nnnl.im.Je, the

tM,'r]

class

contains

passive

9b

'fa.

na~U>ta~

3J

3t;8€"Yf·d~

yap 'Td i,.,~A~ 'f~ 1tE1rovO~J.'U~ 7~


TW~

Ta~

'Il''O'M:l~7'<!S.\'~YOwr~,~
\17'OM~'T~rrO;':5'

OQ

'rrf' {tV1"d

I I.,
I

'IJ'€,,?ilo~lMva~ 'IT o,i;'r~' )liyeT~~ y((vM'~, oihe

TotS' I(a~ .q OEPP.Ol"'flS: ,,0;/, .q ~JtJXP,y,'fJS' 1Ta6l"P'tlml ~ 'lTov5.,.-rj'1'0iS Mi'm''Tai(j~ . -rtp mbl 'rd. 8€8€'Yft'1}'{t

&)L,\cov 1"WV 1"ow6rwv

o,(;S,Jv.

6p..o {ws: 8€

'T'CIV-

t,hereby in s(lIIn.e wav affected or I '''' hlllll!{-t' ill themselves. Thua ~e call honey \ ,I' dd!; b1!Jt we do not imply that th.e II ,I j I In some ,,'ay !tffec.ted. Andl so willi. ",II • "I, t·" Again, if we take heatal1cI cold!,
I

I I ~Ii I 1111 mo Ilnllll nr

'I~qi,liII.!h·~dw'l;

ho fll J I'Itllnn lar 'C.EJ..$C8.

we eEl]] p~gsi.\'~ are nOit~ indeed;,


tho

to dJl)n. ot.e. 'that

C C thil:lg:B..

wI.Iie.h

Ill(J\e~orBS' JK&O'T'lj:1' f ~ 'TWII Hp1JP.f;,VWV 'iT'O~O'T7I''T'Wjl Wa-~ovS' 0i~!"Q~ 1F{l~'WU("lIV llcte'1T~l(ai 'lTO~0'l"'ltT>E:~ .Myov"i"m· 'Ti!:ydp yAIJM't'P-n}S'
'lI',emJIIOllI\(u
"

'T~.

Ttf;

S~

H:U'Td.. 'Ta'S'
IlJ

II "

.,

111.1
I
I,

1111' ,Haings ",·'I.ieh admit 01' po£~ejj,'ilthem ,1\1 (. rucan that th,e qIl!kHties mentioned

II

1111 HueI'!

qualities

passive,

we do not

IIJ lilljl

'11,1"

lInus!

!I.

sensation,

Th'e sense, fur

66

1\

ARISTOTLE
i

CATEOORIE-S, vm
1'1 I

11,1ilI. !'If' 'I' p


I'

II I
II

",1.111' ..... n,l' Wilt-roth

I.ltc is !l,rfeeteCl. by

III II .. Uke th.erlil,

swee'tuess or sourness} th,at. of tow~h. So it );s with

b]!lcble5s. are qua.!'!tiee 1I1"llw"rilrf'; IlILt riO!; 11\the, ame aense, howevor, III" I' \\ \' ,llItvc hitl1 rto m enticned. ,~re give them •h" I II I ' f ~II i the til!Jlt tlley sp~il1g fr·om alfec~ I '" pll '101lli, ~be3'-eare t'lUItlC:'JIQ\IS ch.'mges 11)[ , Ii" III Ilu r l I'J~11]!"ly artse fhIlYI affectiQl1S, ',\then rnen I 11411111"'], then the:' blush; wIlel] n]al~med.,they

~111'nlhur , ~\~whf1: ness 01:

.filet

I II I ,I I' t j"

urn

I !-IO011.

So,

much j~. tl]is reallythe

case

• h II

I II, hi k, l hen !J.\ mall ~s by nature disposed 11,1 I!III~P Ol'llclll:rl'l1 as at'is~ng f~om acelri;ain cont,lI II'"'' lit b(lcHly elements in bb~f.li we mlly not ~'I t ,I. ,I', UlI'Ii~,d ' tl'l.ra t he takes on the corrrespend-

state ,of th.e bodily elements aecompanjed the' fe-eling 'I .,.. nlmom m ig'ht very well i~]S()result from I 111 b'lIl Q'~gani:l:a~iOll, amI thus a l!ike colour III III". dl,rj",,~in th~ ))rOCCSSof nature" AU I ui I JIb Jdtld may be, therefore, indll!de-d I II I [\" (1Ilo·lit.ie!;, se'i:l'1g their ,90Ul.'Nl call be I I III ""11' eOflsta.llt and IMt~llg alrcct.ion. Fat II", lIu'il' Noun:e ean he fOllnd in tile oodUy 111"'1 ."r !ill l!llIlg disease or sunburn, w!leil "111'11 h('lig'hl;]y removed and mav eV<e!1J I h ,1111'11 mt lit: , y rt a pale-and f,I, dllsky comk' .ilwnp. {'ailed quaclities by us because 'We
tJ'IllI.il:

, •Il.U i r.

II IlIr IIw mmll.en'-

i' 01"

or

II, ,I
II I I
I

~III! II

and such

fl'@lnlom'

h·,'.willg t.hat
from causes

pallol!,
soon

IIII

",hi I, III~.

IurJ1we'l"'f', lH'il5ing

II

:if not <mti'l"ely removed, will I III 'I j II. I'" tlr1t1 , not q u alitic>9, see~r"g that no • iii, ; I 'iII'f!h rmd snd. CI'I'l account (;If those conIII hi"'!" ~IlH,\' ,

ARJSTOTLE

eb

otn"'4!
\ I

'J' "tap'
.

Q
"

oJ ~ €.puup·&wv <'. Q

~, ()~a:, -

tI€:Y';1'(U.

OVT>f

wxr~wJ)

a~",xv~Q'1JJ)Q;~ ~Fv(JPt4S' '.L.Jl CJ., O~a 1'0 'f~J"'t!"''lI!'(u. QJXp~tJ$,


T('I

.1'

tl.~

1:1

~"

.11,1 h II', I [e wJ~oblushes fiXlm ihMllJe is not, therefore. " "'I'I~I,,'I n~ n tll:rncUy mddj , nor' he who beCQm.e-~
\' ,I, h"a~t}ear. as one ha.vi:ng a paBidJ complexion.
I I "'

d,\,\a, ,IL.i'\'\OIl" 'Tf·~mwe'b-a~


'io~!Ji07a.. Mye:rn~,

T~.
, I<a~

W(M"€ rrdO'q p-EI!' Td


' 1'"1v ./'" 'I'~x.7J'"
. ,~ .

"0 ,fJ'o.WJS' J .. .
\

'l'TIO{&-r7l?,€!)

3~ oei,
J(UT'1l,'.
\ ,

iI. , I JUI, i~.

So-nud-1:io 'W8S affected.' not 'il ll.!Ili ties.

Stich states are


.
(ltHdit-i~
lit.

~ '.( i,J." rQV'I'Ootf.;'


1

70'0;-

;(l

1M 'V"1jl'Ttl(a~

I 'lTQ~Q'T1JT'E;~

Nom·

7."m>1']

_.o'f1

l\"y·€1'a~.

00'0;

i"ev~u .. t !!iOeV~ &'Tf.o' 'l"WW~ 1l'v:J9ah.... 8VO'KW~T'WV Y~r~'Ta.~ > 'Nou:.r~J'T~S MYW1"(u otov ~ T€ f.W'J.tl.:~ ilh ~K(t<ffJ.~(uS' I(O:;~ ~ dprrl j(a~ TO. 'fOHttXa' "IJ'CHO~ ;.:(t'Td. 'T~tha~ A~yoj.;"fm> T<> l({l.~ p.a"~I<O t. iip.otw:S' 8,~ K:a.~ 5(1'a.~ '~I~(I"f&,a€,S' f-G rpufm((d, d.)J/ ~
j

iv "T'fr

yap

I ,I h lI,ul it~ , ource .IS ]n certain afi:e·ctiO:[Is Dot , , " 111111'(" I:J)' I'ClUOVC', then we give it the name

'" ~'II 11I Ih.:~tl,nns.. ~'~en Ell ~11 lias m

I I ,'wi ,.! t}~,re ar~ in the

BOU}

passive

tempel'

onL\O'~

yap

J.1r6 'n11l'WJ' aAA·(J)1.I alJl)/7f'T'WJ~o..7WJ' y~y~v'1V'7'«~ 8'!)O<l.'7i!~ tiltA.a. K'TO~ ~ K<l.~ .5AwS' dF,d~j':lp"{I~" 1'To~6'n'~'T€S Jlta~ 'il'd. TO{.aiJN" '\'f(lwt yelp ",o.,ra '1'aO''1'OS My,oV'i"(!JI... &ga, SJ rind, "mXtl rt.1rOI(u,ew'To.p..lvwl' yiv<IT~n., 7!'dfi-rt
rr.~y€'T(l;~, oM~ 'YAp
~1 O~Olj.l·

t'

, " €~ ""U'l'T'I);l:.PjlMi-'O'>

M"t€"i"Cl,~ JpYC\Og

J ;;Iv '1'0/ 'TOWV1'qJ

'T~S

,of¥"t'~{!nep(jl'

'.\

,.

IOU'TW.

'iT,d(h;,~

Jpyr).drrltpo;" all.', JX\(i; p;a~Aov 7oi'~'\1iTo1-"lilb.ra~ ·n. ]~ & O"TE: 1ra6t~ I-tEV' .\t1-£-T~ T,a 1"(I~o;vf'a. ''!j'o!.O'T''WE!!:S S' 00. T &ap'il'OV 3~ y/J'lo~ \li'O~&'T'?.1TO~ (rX~p.~ -re m:d: ~
77€pj, E!J(aal'OII
'TO~S'
q
'\ ,...'

l)'ll'a.pxovl'm p..oP'p'rl

.~

.I

.J.. ,I.!'
i'

1O'n oe' npo~

Q- ~

~Mu,"~S'
I'

~at

;i(¢t,flofl",M'i'"i1$',
iV u €K(l,f}"l'OV .a

JW;~

€r
~

"ro'lJl-' )

I" I III~. M,ndness I.m.dira.sdhili ty and $0. , I'''' II j hJ'" it is 0,11 M?O,"nt of SI;iC]l Urings, tbn,t we III I ,~,,"U m."d or ]l"Mmlb]e. Likewise, d]stra.etioJ1S I "," ,I, !~'l:JIcl" .l1.1tbotlgb not iunate in themselves. I hi " !r'l'~U,ru, c(lr~in ~olJ::l,r.(lndtaur.:e of some o:~h.el'. I ,," II I 11.1 Inm and seem to be either enduring' 01' 'I I, I~I \ m"y h.f1t"d to nm'!;ove, are (lenO'l!:l'uilla.ted I I 'III r ILl t,: l~or people are called such and such '" ,,~.ul 1I11J~l1ditiQn6like the.Mil. On the eontral'Y. ~\!ul" II ,IUD<Sefrom some source that is. readily ,I v I I, ~U can ~y the nilltrl e j_],f il.Wcctiollll, such II 11111\ '<!mewhll.t angry, when vexed. )."001" a •" lIut J llllown .~!j bad-tempered fhrm behilg I r I' \" nt" RflnU'lWail.'t £lUSTY. \¥,e say 'Such a I m'1ted.' Such states are aft'ectiom.; not
I '. '1"11' III,. 1iI,~e fourth kind consists of the forms t 1'1, II II' • (d~Mi'igs; add to th~6 also erookedj , ,,1 N'h'llllt! s.s and aJI other qul:ities like them .. I hh, • Ilr~'d fin d b:y,these ~~5j) M. being of such I~'Ii ~" Ul'l. And t;h]ugs. have a den:n:i.te nature I. '"I . : IrJm1gul.::rr' 'q!ludrlll~ula[': by l.}.Clin.g.· I hi, rtll:lkcd and se au, In virtue, inde,ea. II, 1111' ",r bape is cadi. thing' q uaJified. Ra.l'~ ,I, " , • I QI~Krl und !rmoC)'~h; w hile f.lppe~u·]ng at 7.1

from easy of a on are cases

,III',

'T,~

'Toth'o~S'

'O,uO'~OIl

.i;(l'TlLJ).

l'Ca.u

1~MY'If'ff).~' 7~/ K'{J.1"Q.

.. \( ?fOWl>" ,,!,'t "'Eyffo:.~

70
70

at

'~f:J.\ ~a . . '\. .• U' 1fa.p;1T!J~,OV. .101:0;6 Tl')1I' p.or;P~a; a~ £J{(:t0"70V TlOtOl.' 'tt AryE'TIte. {;taw!!' Jm~ 1'-6 '11VI.:VQv k:o;~ Td 'l'p(;f,X~ l((;t~ 1'(1
>

ydp

Tpl'"ywj.lOTJ'

'Yf.lp 'I'!.H1TWP lJ'OWI' n ~ 'TeTp,fyto.,Wo'V ~7:1'a.~

' ... ·1 f<\CU T,tf' €IJ

ri n,

A,RISTOTLE
Ui ~ ~ _
fU!Wl'

CATHGORmS,
0'11P;Utl'€~ 11,
'",' €o~I(~ ;:,,~
(J ~

VIIl

-.row,Inr(l., Iftj,ltl.~ 'I"~~ 'li'E"pt 70 'li'od,) , 9(1 8;uupicr;;'fiJs' eJO'UI yelp Jt6../I.Mi) '1~va ¢(L{v;;'r(u 'TWV popiw" EI(a!T,;poJl ~71A(}W. '7i'V~"'6~ /A~'" 'Yap 1'0 'fa p..dP'~a, GTtll\'£"rl!;!~d"ilL aA.A ~'\OH·. {tQVOJ} S~ Tqi S~.
&,;Uo'i"p~a
;;O"T",&:"O!,i.

3d'\, ,,~E! s-teil

.'of;

,'"

"fa

-I70Kl';

1"~

~ws
25 ~Xi!W ~T

rl1f' (L\A~'AWV'
Sk6pw.
".~ p.~v QtJI' \ ~¢l.L

~a.~

"ct

IC.tI:U(j(U,

Adcw fl.~V 'f~'i) ~1T' eM,,{a.s -rpa.xu S,J -rij) 'TO' I'Jv V1T€.P(l,l.i'

I 'IJl'htto illd~~ate qI]Q,!ity, are foreign. in. fact ~JI,i elass. They win l'atileT be found iII't 'den,ot~ , I' ",11 nlal' posi.tionof the parts. Thus ,..e caU ~ 'IIIIIN' Iii IIH' when the parts that compose it a.r-e I" , 1\ ('11mpacted, but rare when those parts have' II, I, II I if'j'~' .,,,,,,!,, ... n, ..uJ . • I ''-''''bU' wnen some parts are pl"oJectill··. , I' IJIl1Hlllh, hen the sm1aee is smooth w lrpan whicf'
I
" "til

to.

'1"6 S~ ~AAd'li'E!w,

'.I'IJIII"lnk,,]ietllOse:p!u;ts,.

..

Jla'WS'

1!o~Qn·rrOf>.

&.AX'

ft(l)paWufkws AEy6~"J.'a ~ d1TWODfiv an O,'i:r' ~rl-T·WV. J>'T~ p~" OVII' 'TWV 'i1A~t.IJTWV dmt O'X€8ili!' '~'lT1 1H£V1"OO~i 1'i'a.pwvJflw~~ ;VYC:TI;U, ,()f.o~' d.nd, 7tJ:5" Ai!VKO'i"lJTOS: A~VI'tOS' .f(a~ 6:;"d 'T~s: "Ipal./; ~ j!U!.ni'\'-~s ypap.JL(Jir~KO'!!i Ka.~ a1Fo 'Tfjs 8LK(m,(I'J;v~5' 8li.:II.&O$', 6Ju,al5'7'wS' S€ A:a~~1T~ no].! /Dt,'\~.w. '&r" l"l,w1J lie S~a 'Tt) Jl-~ J<'t:we(t~ Tars: 'tID~W'1crw d!i'&~1,.(l.1'a O'~,I( ,~",olx,r.;:1"a' ,/,[Q.p.wJ.'l~JLWS' ci.'7f' aii-Twi!' S5, Myea6lm olov 8ro~..w~ris:~ ~VKi'U({jS 6 li:a.~ S6pa.,W iJ iii I! rplJofJW.~'V A~yO,I.J)EnIOS &.11'" oM€~~& 1'ro~o~nl'7"!}S 1Tap(i,wJp;W$ A~/~ra~' OV' 'Y~pl'l:r.;:hs:~ J'l'-ei1"o...,a, Ta~~ QU ,. vdp.€.m l(aO' tis OtlTO~ 170W~ A,J-yoVT'a~, (~(t-::r€P'tiltS' 'Tn

OO'1'ol elm»: rro~Q.-r11'T"~ p,~v 03"

ot

.... \' atvLOS'

".

'I"~

A " o/oIlVE'[.1J

7"pO'iIOS

')Ii! ,jUdAh(il''Ttl,. AEy6,w;;,:vo~


<!:~(I'~'"

GJ'{"SOJ'

III dp11j.drm,

!T<)~a Si

o.~s:

KIl.'I"ct 1'0;6'1'(1)5"

I ~It' " Ol'l~ ~he fOllir kinds of quality, Others there I ' Ih~~,rl~J.IYbe,but these ~I"et. ho~e .s.t.i'1~tly!EO called .. I II I ",l.~, th~!l,are thoseluentlOned" 'TIle things I, I "I ~I~LltJlteu' names from t:lIem 0[' dCPClid in some I III II 'I'" m~ th{)rrl iU'e SR\td tQ he things ,qualified I ,'" I dil'lil'te manner (J[' othel', In m,ost-il1de'ed II ,II cases dw names of thc qU9JWed thi.ng~ ,I,t ,,·tl/I'()m I,he names of the qtwJities. Fr-otn ""II~.', ' fl'om' grammale;'fi'oJIl" jl;l!;tim:,' weha.ve I,ll. I '''f[\l1l1n'L·'c~J' ." JUSt" . . .. ... --, atrca I ."·,0 S WIt J 1 all otJle.1'
II r
I' I

i'

111Ir ,m
II, lilt,

_" I h

I~,

I~, 110

II
II

"'' ~I'II.
,,,'

•,
I "I ~,

II ,~, !'111Ione
I

€'1I'~cr'7'1~.(!.tS' f(.(LfJ

1I9

4:~ 'l7'!1/£'7~KQe
'il"~'Kn~

,8uf,9E:O'W
~ p('·a~

at

'i'ftllA(I,W'TP~k'~, .. ww~ 8' J'Il"O 1'O&1-W!~ 'I1o,Ptl.wvp.tlJ$ ; Su:tk:oflJlllE ~O~ MYOV'l"(l~" (fillQT~ 8J KIl~ 6]'!0p.4TOS'
t

M)'QJ"1'a~'

rap

'It.,. 11'

1i'a.l\a~(j'1"p~r<ot

J~

Ka'Ta

1.

M';"eTCH

~7iT~Q'l"~;fA'1

Kup.evoV

ou

"\

, .(,. '.1 I\E~fETtU 'ftap(Jj"'!)fHt~$: ';1'0 1W,1" ,a.1J't'l'1J

.or,ro~OJi A~yo'IkE'VDV,

a,toll'

d~o 't'fji> dpe7+i~ J

O1TOV-

72

man a boxee, iUl~ther ill l\rres~Jer n y a ~?i.cco,r.,c e raean a disposition: w each • I~.,m, !laoS ,r~s O'i'll~ name, S'II1d."las bo~:ing, fo.~ , • .'11' wre~·!l..1mg, Alilll those 'who are th(lt W'1!!Y 'III ~'II.hen> n~nlle. from the name. of tha setenee, I jlllU ,ntl o'I'~(r\"erj the quality possesses J1L 'well .1 II ~Im'. hH~ '~he tiling that partakes of H~ ,1'111~ HOIi. nlso take it('l name :froilu it FO'l!" Ilnm'] I!IlRI'!1 is good from pessessing the

y, s~]ch c!l.p~,cit.ieli have no pm't.]cllbt.I' ,h,e !>rl1onces have, with a. l'eference {eo

the runner Or boxer, so ealled from an Uy, cannot be derived from a ~]lill.lity.

ho'we'~'ST,'1 U,iC qU!tJi.tie..'l.IHnring 1]0 nemes uenvatnre names C~11 e;;ist.. Thus

13

ARIS-TOTLE.
:l~ b ~

,tJaws·

~,.

'!"~

yap

ap~T1J1-' i!X~W

,~

o~ 1TO,PW;VUfWJS' 10 ~~.

-rJ TO~O i},o'" ~{f'fW. I1o~tt 'totVIJV My£'!"m 1"'d. 1T(1.p.w]r6",{J)5; d:l'l"o
1JO'W~WV ~,\ Q;;: I'

cl1l'J,

TllS

ap.£-ri]~.

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I I lilll'al modes of di.'IIis:iOlt. That is to Sal' the 1111, II ' speeles i.$cailled ' $.imultnn.em_IS ' in n~tllt'e II II Imth. the ' aquatic' and ' terrestrial.' AI] are JI" !..,',I u~ a~d opposed lin, r~e)",°,11°geml!! ,e!l!,cht,o the
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, '1'0 have! hB.8 a gOQd! mmly meani:ngs, Vlc II ! ,,( hR bits., dispositions amd also of 3In other I' dllli I, T.he~!; we 1\.1'<: said to' )HL~:e! yilctll.e. to I I , • Ihr~ oe that picce,o'f knowledge;, And tilen I I II' I ~ nI' 11\ q'1.lanUty, sueh as the h.eigJlt a man has. I! I I hnt we S!1.V that a. man " "bas' '.l stature of .' , ",1 11m:' cu bi • Ib;.. A.g~:jn., it is used ofapparel ; , II Iii,... 11> eloak ora. tunic, },ilo.r~o~·er, ,Ve use I Ihlll~ 1:lm:twe' have' em some .!;lart of the body. ., _~II t Ire fi.I'lger, for Instance, We employ it of • "I lilt' hod}'; a man ' has' a band 0[' n fjJ,ot, I II' i~ in the ea\8.eof a vessel e a jl\~ 'will be said Ii I\~' wine IUld a corn-measure said to • have tI ' I~ i\mi;'~ (JaS~f! like thes·e we rure Ulinking J I II i (.'m~tame'fl m the vessel. Once IDOl'" we j I 1\ !If a propelty, men • having' houses 01[
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ARISTO']['LE

CATEGORIES,

xv

I I 1.1(1lwd. "'hen we say [;ha,t .9. man Itas 111 wife, 1111 Wr' 11l{:IUl ·that he Iives with her merely, II I II I't' may he mm'e senses of ' have.' 'Ill'lt the

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109