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N126, 1st edition, 2009 Published by: ECCS European Convention for Constructional Steelwork publications@steelconstruct.com www.eccspublications.eu All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner ECCS assumes no liability regarding the use for any application of the material and information contained in this publication. Copyright 2009 ECCS European Convention for Constructional Steelwork ISBN: XX-XXXX-XXX-XX Printed in

TC10 Connections

PREFACE

This document intends to provide European recommendations for the design of simple joints in steel structures. Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 Design of Connections gives precise guidelines for the design of structural joints aimed at transferring bending moments. But for simple joints, information is only provided in Eurocode 3 for some specific failure modes. The way on how internal forces distribute amongst the various components within the joints is also not explicitly described. The present publication fills this gap by proposing practical guidelines for the design of simple joints commonly used in Europe. The design rules presented in this document are in full agreement with the principles of Eurocode 3, and in particular of Eurocode 3 Part 1-8. This document has been prepared at Lige University, editorially checked by Prof. D. Anderson from Warwick University and approved by the Technical Committee TC10. The members of TC10 who contributed to the document are: Bijlaard F.S.K. (chairman) Brettle, M. (secretary) Aasen B. Anderson D. Arda T.S. Bayo E Beg D. Braham M. Bucak Calado L. Dubina D. Grecea D. Gresnigt A.M. Girao A.M. Iglesias G Jaspart J.P. Karamanos S.A. Kouhi J. Malik A Moore D.B. Nethercot D.A. Puthli R.S. Ryan I. Sedlacek G. Steenbergen H The Netherlands United Kingdom Norway United Kingdom Turkey Spain Slovenia Luxembourg Germany Portugal Romania Romania The Netherlands Portugal / The Netherlands Spain Belgium Greece Finland United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Germany France Germany The Netherlands 5

Steurer A Silva L.A.P.S. Taylor J.C. Ungermann D Veljkovic M. Verhoeven J Wald F. Weynand K. Zandonini R.

Switzerland Portugal United Kingdom Germany Sweden The Netherlands Czech Republic Germany Italy

CONTENTS

1. 2. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 9 SCOPE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION .............................................................. 10 2.1 Types of structure..................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Types of connected elements ................................................................................... 10 2.3 Types of loading....................................................................................................... 10 2.4 Steel grades .............................................................................................................. 10 2.5 Possible joint configurations .................................................................................... 11 2.6 Types of fasteners..................................................................................................... 13 2.6.1 Bolts ................................................................................................................. 13 2.6.2 Welds................................................................................................................ 14 2.7 Types of connections................................................................................................ 14 2.8 Reference code ......................................................................................................... 16 3. JOINT MODELLING FOR FRAME ANALYSIS AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................. 17 3.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 17 3.2 EC 3 classification system........................................................................................ 17 3.2.1 Classification by stiffness ................................................................................ 17 3.2.2 Classification by strength ................................................................................. 19 3.3 EC 3 joint modelling ................................................................................................ 20 3.4 Simple joint modelling ............................................................................................. 21 3.5 Summary of design requirements............................................................................. 23 4. PRACTICAL WAYS TO SATISFY THE DUCTILITY AND ROTATION REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................. 24 4.1 General principles .................................................................................................... 24 4.1.1 Header plate connection ................................................................................... 27 4.1.1.1 Design requirements for sufficient rotation capacity ................................ 27 4.1.1.2 Design requirements for sufficient joint ductility ..................................... 29 4.1.1.3 Conclusions ............................................................................................... 32 4.1.2 Fin plate connection ......................................................................................... 34 4.1.2.1 Design requirements for sufficient rotation capacity ................................ 34 4.1.2.2 Design requirements for sufficient joint ductility ..................................... 36 4.1.3 Web cleat connection ....................................................................................... 38 4.1.3.1 General ...................................................................................................... 38 4.1.3.2 Design requirements.................................................................................. 38 5. GEOMETRY OF THE THREE CONNECTION TYPES..................................... 39 5.1 Symbols.................................................................................................................... 39 5.1.1 General notation ............................................................................................... 39 5.1.2 Particular notation for header plate connections.............................................. 40 7

5.1.3 Particular notation for fin plate connections .................................................... 41 5.1.4 Particular notation for cleat web connections .................................................. 42 5.2 Geometrical requirements ........................................................................................ 43 6. DESIGN SHEETS ...................................................................................................... 45 6.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 45 6.2 Design sheet for connections with a header plate .................................................... 45 6.2.1 Requirements to ensure the safety of the approach.......................................... 45 6.2.2 Resistance to shear forces ................................................................................ 46 6.2.3 Resistance to tying forces................................................................................. 50 6.3 Design sheet for connections with a fin plate .......................................................... 51 6.3.1 Requirements to ensure sufficient rotation capacity ........................................ 51 6.3.2 Requirements to avoid premature weld failure ................................................ 51 6.3.3 Resistance to shear forces ................................................................................ 52 6.3.4 Requirements to permit a plastic redistribution of internal forces................... 57 6.3.5 Resistance to tying forces................................................................................. 58 6.4 Design sheet for connections with web cleats.......................................................... 60 7. WORKED EXAMPLES ............................................................................................ 61 7.1 Header plate connection ........................................................................................... 61 7.1.1 Geometrical and mechanical data .................................................................... 61 7.1.2 Ductility and rotation requirements ................................................................. 63 7.1.3 Joint shear resistance........................................................................................ 64 7.1.4 Design check .................................................................................................... 66 7.1.5 Joint tying resistance ........................................................................................ 66 7.2 Fin plate connection ................................................................................................. 68 7.2.1 Geometrical and mechanical data .................................................................... 68 7.2.2 Requirements to ensure sufficient rotation capacity ........................................ 70 7.2.3 Requirements to avoid premature weld failure ................................................ 70 7.2.4 Joint shear resistance........................................................................................ 71 7.2.5 Requirements to ensure the safety of the shear design rules............................ 75 7.2.6 Design check .................................................................................................... 75 7.2.7 Joint tying resistance ........................................................................................ 75 8. 9. 10. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 78 ANNEX 1: PRACTICAL VALUES FOR REQUIRED............................................... 80 ANNEX 2: VALUES FOR fPLT ................................................................................. 81

1.

INTRODUCTION

In some countries of the European Union, design rules for simple structural joints already exist. Unfortunately, these recommendations do not cover all the types of failure and give sometimes significantly different design rules for a typical failure mode. In a first step, a comparative study [1] of available design rules for simple connections has been performed. In this work, reference is made to different normative documents or design recommendations: - Eurocode 3 [2] and its Part 1-8 [3]; - BS5950 [4] and BCSA-SCI recommendations [5, 6, 17]; - NEN 6770 [7, 8]; - German "Ringbuch" [9]; - Each of these documents possesses its own application field, in which a limited number of possible failure modes will occur. So, the comparison between them is difficult. With the aim of establishing a full design approach according to the general design principles stated in Eurocode 3, some design sheets for header plate and fin plate connections were prepared at the University of Lige and discussed at several meetings of Technical Committee 10 Connections of the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS). The present report contains all these design rules. Explanations about these rules as well as indications on their range of validity are available in [10]. In a few years, it is expected that the practical design recommendations presented in this publication or in its eventual revised version will replace, in every country, the national normative documents or recommendations. In this way, it will simplify the free trade between the different European countries.

2.

2.1

Types of structure

Simple structural joints are commonly met in steel framed buildings but they can be used also in other types of structures to connect steel elements (for example in bridges).

2.2

The shape of the structural connected elements which are considered in this report are: - I or H beams; - I or H columns (with a possible extension to RHS and CHS).

2.3

Types of loading

The design methods are intended for joints subject to predominantly static or quasistatic loading. Fatigue aspects are not considered. The resistance of the joints is checked under shear and tying forces. The shear forces correspond to usual loading conditions of the structure during its life; tying forces may develop when the frame is subjected to an explosion or when a supporting column is lost under exceptional events (Fig. 2.1).

2.4

Steel grades

This draft applies to steel grades S 235, S 275, S 355, S 420 and S 460.

10

2.5

The configurations of simple joints addressed in the present publication are the following: Beam-to-column (Fig. 2.2): a) Single-sided joint configurations

Major axis

Minor axis

Major axis

Minor axis

11

_

joint position

_ + _

_ _ + +

12

Column-concrete "connection"

Concrete-ground "connection"

Amongst these joint configurations, only the two first ones will be explicitly covered: beam-to-column and beam-to-beam configurations. The others are expected to be covered in a revised edition of the present publication.

2.6 2.6.1

There are two classes of bolts: normal bolts and high strength bolts. The second class can be used for preloaded bolts which are characterized by a slip-type resistance mode in shear. In this document, only non-preloaded bolts are explicitly covered. Their design geometrical and mechanical characteristics are given in the tables 2.1 and 2.2 respectively.

13

8 50 36

10 78 58

12 113 84

14 154 115

16 201 157

18 254 192

20 314 245

22 380 303

24 452 353

27 573 459

30 707 561

= nominal diameter of a bolt shank = nominal area of a bolt = tensile stress area of a bolt

Table 2.1: Bolt areas

Table 2.2: Nominal values of yield strength fyb and ultimate tensile strength fub for bolts

2.6.2

Welds

In Eurocode 3, various types of weld are considered: fillet welds, fillet welds all round, butt welds, plug welds and flare groove welds. Only fillet welds are explicitly considered here.

2.7

Types of connections

Three connections types, used in the present design recommendations to connect a beam to a column or a beam to a beam, are specified below. Header plate connections The main components of a header plate connection are shown in Fig. 2.8: a steel plate, a fillet weld on both sides of the supported beam web, and two single or two double vertical bolt lines. The plate is welded to the supported member and bolted to a supporting element such as a steel beam or column. Its height does not exceed the clear depth of the supported beam .The end of the supported steel beam may be un-notched, single notched or double notched.

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Supporting element

Plate

Supported beam

Fillet weld

Fin plate connections The main components of a fin plate connection are shown in Fig. 2.9.: a fin plate, a fillet weld on both sides of the plate, and a single or double vertical bolt line. The plate is welded to a supporting member such as a steel beam or column and bolted to web of the supported beam. The end of the supported steel beam may be un-notched, single notched or double notched.

Single-vertical row bolt group Double-vertical row bolt group

Supporting element

Fin plate

Web cleat connections A web cleat connection is characterised (see Fig. 2.10) by two web cleats and three single or double vertical bolt lines (two on the supporting element and one on the supported member). The cleats are bolted to the supporting and supported members. Unnotched, single notched or double notched supported beams may be considered.

15

Single-vertical Single vertical row bolt group bolt line

Supporting element

OR

WITH

OR

Note: Traditionally, other types of beam-to-column connections are considered as hinges. But nowadays Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 classifies them as semi-rigid. Two examples are given in Fig. 2.11.

2.8

Reference code

The design rules presented in this publication are based on the resistance formulae provided by Eurocode 3 Part 1-8, at least as far as information is available. When this is not the case, the basic design principles prescribed by Eurocode 3 are followed.

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3.

3.1

The effects of the actual response of the joints on the distribution of internal forces and moments within a structure, and on the overall deformations, should generally be taken into account; but when these effects are sufficiently small, they may be neglected. To identify whether the effects of joint behaviour on the analysis need be taken into account, a distinction should be made between the three following types of joint modelling: simple, in which the joint may be assumed not to transfer bending moments; continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint may be assumed to have no effect on the analysis; semi-continuous, in which the behaviour of the joint needs to be explicitly taken into account in the analysis.

The appropriate type of joint modelling depends on the classification of the joint and on the selected procedure for structural analysis and design. 3.2 EC 3 classification system

The joints can be classified according to the values of their main structural properties, i.e. rotational stiffness, strength in bending and rotational capacity (or ductility). The structural properties of all the joints need to correspond to the assumptions made in the structural frame analysis and in the design of the members. In particular, as far as simple joints are concerned, the available rotation capacity of the joints should be sufficient to accept the rotations evaluated in the analysis process. In Eurocode 3 Part 1-8, joints are classified by stiffness and by strength. Ductility aspects are also to be considered; they will be more especially addressed in Section 4 below. Classification by stiffness

3.2.1

This classification is only applicable to beam-to-column joint configurations. Through the comparison of its actual rotational stiffness Sj,ini with classification boundaries (Fig. 3.1), a joint may be considered as:

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Mj

Rigid Semi-rigid

Sj,ini

Pinned Stiffness boundaries Initial rotational stiffness

Figure 3.1: Boundaries for stiffness classification of joints

Nominally pinned The joint shall be capable of transmitting the internal forces, without developing significant moments which might adversely affect the structural members. It shall be also capable of accepting the resulting rotations under the design loads. Boundary: Sj,ini 0,5 EIb / Lb

Rigid The joint behaviour is assumed not to have significant influence on the distribution of internal forces and moments in the structure, nor on its overall deformation. Boundaries: Sj,ini kb EIb / Lb where kb = 8 for frames where the bracing system reduces the horizontal displacement by at least 80%; kb = 25 for other frames.

Semi-rigid The joint provides a predictable degree of interaction between members, based on the design moment-rotation characteristics of the joint. It should be able to transmit internal forces and moments.

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Boundaries:

A joint which doesn't meet the criteria for a rigid or a nominally pinned joint shall be classified as a semi-rigid joint.

Key values:

E Ib Lb

is the elastic modulus of the beam material; is the second moment area of the beam; is the beam span (distance between the axes of the supporting columns).

3.2.2

Classification by strength

Through the comparison of its actual design moment resistance Mj,Rd with the design moment resistances of the members that it connects ( Fig. 3.2), a joint may be classified as:

Mj

Full-strength Partial-strength

Mj,Rd

Nominally pinned The joint shall be capable of transmitting the internal forces, without developing significant moments which might adversely affect the members of the structure. It shall also be capable of accepting the resulting rotations under the design loads. Boundary: Mj,Rd 0,25 M full-strength (see Fig. 3.3)

Full-strength The design resistance of a full strength joint shall be not less than that of the connected members. Boundary: Mj,Rd M full-strength (see Fig. 3.3) 19

Mj,Ed

Mj,Ed

Top column:

Key values:

axial or shear forces in the beam); Mc,pl,Rd is the plastic moment resistance of the column (possibly reduced by axial or shear forces in the column). Figure 3.3: Full-strength resistance

Partial-strength A joint which doesn't meet the criteria for full-strength or nominally pinned joints should be considered to have a partial-strength resistance.

3.3

EC 3 joint modelling

The joint modelling depends on the joint classification (see above) and on the selected process for structural analysis and design. As said before, Eurocode 3 considers three types of joint modelling (simple, continuous and semi-continuous) dependent on whether or not the effects of joint behaviour on the analysis can be neglected. The appropriate type of joint modelling should be determined from the Table 3.1.

METHOD OF GLOBAL

ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT

Elastic Rigid-Plastic

Semi-rigid Partial-strength

Elastic-Plastic

Rigid- and partial-strength Nominally pinned Rigid and full-strength Semi-rigid and partial-strength Semi-rigid and full-strength Simple Continuous Semi-continuous

20

So, in the global analysis, the joint behaviour can be replaced by (Fig. 3.4): - a hinge, for the simple modelling; - a rotational spring, for the semi-continuous modelling [10]; - an infinitely rigid and resistant rotational spring, for the continuous modelling.

TYPE OF JOINT MODEL SINGLE-SIDED CONFIGURATION DOUBLE-SIDED CONFIGURATION

BEAM SPLICE

Simple

Continuous

Semicontinuous

In the global structural analysis, the hinge or spring which models the joint is assumed to be located at the intersection of the axes of the connected elements.

3.4

The design rules in this guide are given for joints which are assumed not to transmit bending moments. Thus, the joints should be modelled by hinges. Unfortunately, many joints which are traditionally considered as a hinge do not fulfil the stiffness and/or strength limitations required by Eurocode 3 for nominally pinned joints. Two different attitudes may be adopted in such a case: According to the Eurocode 3 requirements, the joint is modelled by a rotational spring and is therefore considered as semi-rigid (what it is in reality). Its rotational stiffness, design bending resistance and shear resistance have to be evaluated and the actual properties of the joint have to be explicitly taken into consideration in the structural analysis and in the design phase. This approach is the more scientifi21

cally correct one but it needs more complex calculations as far as the global analysis and joint design are concerned. Despite its actual properties, the joint is considered as a hinge and the design rules presented in this present publication for simple joints can be applied, but under some strict conditions which ensure the safe character of the approach. The global analysis and the joint design are more simple in this case as they are based on a more traditional hinged (simple) approach.

If the second option is chosen, the joint is assumed not to transfer bending moments even if it is not the truth. So bending moments develop in the joints although they are designed to resist only shear forces. This is potentially unsafe and at first sight is not basically acceptable. But a careful examination of this problem leads to the conclusion that the "hinge assumption" is safe if the two following requirements are fulfilled: the joint possesses a sufficient rotation capacity; the joint possesses a sufficient ductility.

The first requirement relates to the rotational capacity that the joint should have, in order to "rotate" as a hinge, without developing too high internal bending moments. The second requirement is there to ensure that the development of combined shear and bending forces into the joint is not leading to brittle failure modes (for instance, because of a rupture of a bolt or a weld). In other words, the design of the joint should allow internal plastic deformations instead of brittle phenomena. If these two requirements (sufficient rotation capacity and ductility) are fulfilled, it can be demonstrated that to consider an actually semi-rigid joint as a nominally pinned one is safe for design purposes and, in particular, for the evaluation of: the frame displacements: the stiffness of the actual structure is always greater than that of the hinged one, and all the actual displacements are therefore lower than the calculated ones; the plastic failure loading: as the actual bending strength of the joint is higher than the considered one (equal to zero), the first order plastic resistance of the frame is higher than the one evaluated on the basis of a hinge behaviour;

22

the critical loading of linear elastic instability: the transversal stiffness of the actual structure is larger than the one of the structure with nominally pinned joints, and the rotational restraints at the end of the columns in the actual structure are higher than these calculated with a hinge assumption; this ensures the safe character of the hinge assumption as far as global and local instability are concerned; the elastic-plastic phenomena of instability: the actual stiffness of the structure is greater than the considered one but the actual loading conditions are more important than those acting on the structure with nominally pinned joints; nevertheless, various studies ([14], [15] and [16]) show that the hinged approach is safe.

For further explanations, see [10]. In this guide, the design recommendations relate to the "hinge model". Specific design requirements ensuring safety are presented for each of the connection types considered.

3.5

As said before, the internal forces in the joint are here determined by a structural analysis based on simple joint modelling. The hinge is assumed to be located at the intersection of the axes of the connected elements. As a result of this structural analysis, the maximum applied shear force and rotation in the joint, respectively VEd and required, are obtained. From the geometrical properties of the joint and the mechanical properties of its constitutive materials, the available rotation capacity of the joint, available, can be estimated, as well as its design shear resistance, VRd. To ensure the validity of this approach, some ductility requirements have to be satisfied and the available rotation of the joint has to be higher than the required one. Finally, the joint will be considered as acceptable if the applied shear force does not exceed the design shear resistance. Sometimes, the evaluation of the resistance to tying forces is requested for robustness purposes.

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4.

4.1

General principles

A simple joint is nothing else than an idealisation of the reality. Joints like those studied in the present document undergo a significant internal rotation but transfer some bending moments. As explained above, to ensure the safety of the simple joint model, some requirements for sufficient ductility and rotation capacity are necessary. These requirements can be written for each considered connection type, in the form of simple criteria based on the mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the different components forming the connection. The rotation capacity requirements provide to the hinge a sufficient rotation without developing too significant bending moments which might adversely affect the members of the structure. These criteria are often expressed as geometrical limitations. The ductility requirements avoid the occurrence of brittle failures, especially in bolts and welds, and buckling. Their derivation is more complex. In the "hinged" structural analysis, the joint is assumed to be only subjected to a shear force. In reality, a bending moment and a shear force are acting simultaneously in the joint. In an "applied shear force applied bending moment" graph (Fig. 4.1), the evolution of the actual and idealised loading types can be represented by two paths. The first is a horizontal one (MEd = 0) and the second an oblique one. The inclination of the actual loading path depends on the relative stiffness between the joint and the connected elements.

MEd MSd

Actual loading path

VEd Sd

24

Note: For fin plate connections, two different cross-sections inside the joint have to be considered separately. The first is located at the external face of the supporting member; while the second is through the centre of the bolt group (Fig. 5.2). The actual loading situation is different in these two sections, so leading to two distinct MEd VEd paths in the diagram shown on Figure 4.2. If a "hinge" model is considered, the first section is assumed to transfer only shear forces (MEd = 0) while the second one, in accordance with equilibrium, transfers the same shear force VEd and a bending moment MEd equal to VEd . z. z is defined as the distance between the external face of the supporting element and the centre of the bolt group.

MEd MSd

Design loading path for the external face of the supporting member Design loading path for the section of the bolt group centre Actual loading path for the external face of the supporting member

z 1

VEd VSd

Actual loading path for the section of the bolt group centre

The design resistance of each component of the joint can be represented in a "shear force bending moment" graph. Dependent on whether this resistance is influenced by the applied bending moment, its representation will be a curve or a vertical line. Figure 4.3 illustrates it for three possible failure modes in a fin plate connection. The relative positions of the different resistance curves or lines depend on the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the joint components.

MEd MSd

Fin plate in bearing Bolts in shear

VRa

VRd

VEd Sd

.

Figure 4.3: Design resistances for some components of a fin plate connection and principle for the derivation of the shear resistance of the joint

25

In reality, the actual shear resistance, VRa, of the joint could be defined at the intersection between the actual loading path, in the appropriate cross-section, and the design resistance curves or lines of the weakest component (Fig. 4.3). If a similar principle is applied to the design loading path, a design shear resistance, VRd, is then obtained. If the failure mode corresponding to the VRa value is a brittle one, the design shear resistance VRd is seen as to be an unsafe estimation of the joint resistance (Fig. 4.4 a). The only way to reach the design shear resistance VRd is to rely on a plastic redistribution of internal forces inside the joint, as shown on Figure 4.4 b.

MEd Sd M

Fin plate in shear (gross section) Fin plate in bearing Bolts in shear No possible redistribution of internal forces Brittle failure

VVEd Sd

VRa

a)

VRd

Premature brittle failure

MEd MSd

Fin plate in shear (gross section) Bolts in shear Fin plate in bearing Ductile failure

VEd VSd

VRa VRd

b) Possible plastic redistribution of internal forces Figure 4.4: Determination of the shear resistance of the joint

As a conclusion, the ductility requirements will aim to ensure that the move from the actual to the design shear resistances may occur, as a result of a plastic redistribution of internal forces inside the joint. 26

In the next paragraphs, the design requirements to be fulfilled to allow sufficient rotation capacity and ductility are specified for all the connection types covered in the present publication. 4.1.1 Header plate connection

4.1.1.1 Design requirements for sufficient rotation capacity To enable rotation without increasing too much the bending moment which develops into the joint, contact between the lower beam flange and the supporting member has to be strictly avoided. So, it is imperative that the height hp of the plate is less than that of the supported beam web (Fig. 4.5): hp db where db is the clear depth of the supported beam web. If such a contact takes place, a compression force develops at the place of contact; it is equilibrated by tension forces in the bolts and a significant bending moment develops (Fig. 4.5).

Bending moment

Tension forces in the bolts Bending moment Contact between the supported beam and the supporting element

Compression force

Rotation

available

Figure 4.5: Contact and evolution of the bending moment

The level of rotation at which the contact occurs is obviously dependent on the geometrical characteristics of the beam and of the header plate, but also on the actual deformations of the joint components. In order to derive a simple criterion that the user could apply, before any calculation, to check whether the risk of contact may be disregarded, the following rough assumptions are made (see Fig. 4.6): 27

the supporting element remains un-deformed; the centre of rotation of the beam is located at the lower extremity of the header plate.

On the basis of such assumptions, a safe estimation (i.e. a lower bound) of the socalled "available rotation of the joint" available may be easily derived:

available = tp he

available

hp he

db

hb

tp

Figure 4.6: Geometrical characteristics of the joint and illustration of contact between the beam and the supporting element

This available rotation has to be greater than the "required rotation capacity" which varies according to the structural system and loading. A simple criterion ensuring the sufficient joint rotation capacity may be written as: available > required For instance, the required rotation capacity, for a beam (length L and inertia I) simply supported at its extremities and subjected to an uniformly distributed load (factored load p at ULS), is given by: p L3 required = 24 EI By expressing that available > required , a simple criterion ensuring a sufficient joint rotation capacity may be derived:

p L3 t > he 24 EI

28

Similar criteria may be derived for other load cases (Annex 1).

4.1.1.2 Design requirements for sufficient joint ductility As bending moments develop in the joint, the bolts and the welds are subjected to tension forces in addition to shear forces. Premature failure of those elements which exhibit a brittle failure and which are more heavily loaded in reality than in the calculation model has therefore to be strictly avoided. Simple related criteria should therefore be proposed. Criterion to avoid premature bolt failure because of tension forces In Eurocode 3, a criterion based on the T-stub approach ensures that a yield lines mechanism develops in the plate before the strength of the bolts is exhausted (see [3]); its background is given in [12]. This criterion, initially developed for end plates and column flanges, is here safely extended to column (weak axis beam-to-column joints) or beam (beam-to-beam joint configurations) webs. According to this criterion, at least one of the two following inequalities (1) and (2) has to satisfied: (1)

d 2,8 tp

d 2,8 t cf

f yp f ub

f ycf f ub

(2)

for a supporting column flange for a supporting column or beam web (or faces of hollow sections)

Note: This criterion is expected to be satisfied by most of the supporting webs because of their slenderness.

d 2,8 tw

f yw f ub

where: d tp tcf tw fyp fycf fyw fub is the nominal diameter of the bolt shank; is the thickness of the header plate; is the thickness of the supporting column flange; is the thickness of the supporting column or beam web; is the yield strength of the steel constituting the header plate; is the yield strength of the steel constituting the supporting column flange; is the yield strength of the steel constituting the supporting column or beam web; is the ultimate strength of the bolt. 29

Such a criterion does not ensure that the whole shear capacity of the bolt may be considered when evaluating the shear resistance of the joint. In fact, when this requirement is satisfied, it may be demonstrated: - that the tension force in the bolts may amount 0,5 Bt.Rd, i.e. 50% of the design tension resistance Bt,Rd of the bolts; - that, for such a tension force, the actual shear resistance only amounts 64% of the full shear resistance of the bolts (according to the EC 3 resistance formula for bolts in shear and tension). This looks at first sight to be disappointing as the user tries to maximise the shear resistance of the joint. It may be argued though that only the bolts located in the upper half of the header plane are affected by such a reduction, as the others are located in a compression zone, and are therefore not subjected to tension forces. So finally a reduction is taken into consideration by multiplying the total resistance of the bolts in shear by a factor 0,8 (i.e. a reduction factor of 0,64 for half of the bolts located in the upper half of the header plate 0,5.[1 + 0,64] 0,8). Criterion to avoid premature weld failure because of tension or shear forces The welds must be designed according to EC3 Part 1-8. In the case of relatively small loads in relation to the capacity of the web, application of the rules in 4.5.3.2 of Part 1-8 may lead to rather thin welds. If the rupture strength of those thin welds is lower than the yield strength of the weakest of the connected parts, the connection has so little deformation capacity that it usually is not sufficient to accommodate effects due to imposed deformations etc. In such a case the connection will behave in a brittle way. To avoid this, the welds can be designed "full strength". The rupture strength of full strength welds is greater than the rupture strength of the adjacent plate; so, in the case of overloading, the plate will fail before the welds. This is a safe design but not always necessary, taking into account the requirement that the welds should at least be able to ensure yielding of the plate before rupture in the welds. In the IIW recommendations of 1976, it is stated that, if the welds are designed at 70 % of the full strength, yielding of the plate is ensured before rupture of the welds. After the re-evaluation of weld design formulae included in the ENV version of EC3, which gave some smaller weld sizes than in IIW rules, it was decided in the Dutch standard NEN 6770 [7] to modify the 70 % to 80 %. Unfortunately this rule does not exist in Part 1-8 of EC3, what means that designers have to decide for themselves how to ensure adequate deformation capacity. Obviously, to adopt full strength welds is safe, but not really necessary. For the case of the header plate it should be noted that, especially at the extremities of the welds, local stresses and strains may be very high and some strain hardening may occur. Therefore it is recommended to design these welds "full strength". 30

According to clause 4.5.3.2 of Eurocode 3 Part 1-8, using the directional method it follows: fu f 2 2 2 and u c = + 3 + 3 //

w Mw

Mw

where: fu

Mw w

= the nominal ultimate tensile strength of the weaker part joined = partial safety factor for welded connections (Mw = 1,25) = correlation factor (w = 1,0 for steel grades S420 and S460, see Table 4.1)

weld las

zx

t l Fkop Fend

Fside Fzij

a

Figure 4.7: End fillet and side fillet welds

2

From the first formula reported above, it follows:

fu c = weld + 3 weld w Mw 2 2

2 2

weld

For double end fillet welds: a

w Mw 2

fu

= f w.u.end

The greatest weld size is found for x = fy if in the connected plate. In Table 4.1 the required weld sizes are given for this case. For side fillet welds is = = 0 and // = weld . From the first here-above reported formula, it follows:

weld

fu

w Mw 3

= f w.u.side

31

w

fw.u.end fw.u.side (N/mm2) (N/mm2)

Full strength double end fillet welds (design stress:x = fy) Full strength double side fillet welds (design stress: plate = fy/3) Double end fillet welds to ensure yield in the plate before rupture in the welds (design stress: x = 0,8fy)

a 0,37 t

a 0,38 t

a 0,44 t

a 0,57 t

a 0,56 t

Table 4.1 - Values of w and fw.u.end and fw.u.side for steels according to EN 10025 and EN 10113 and weld thickness in case of double fillet welds. Plate thickness smaller than 40 mm.

4.1.1.3 Conclusions If the rotation capacity and ductility requirements specified in 4.1.1.1 and 4.1.1.2 are satisfied, the shear resistances of all the constitutive components are evaluated and the design shear resistance of the connection corresponds to the weakest one, as illustrated in Figure 4.8. This is allowed as all the possible detrimental effects linked to bending-shear interaction phenomena are integrated into the ductility requirements. In reality, the first component to yield is not necessarily the weakest one, in terms of shear resistance, and two different situations may occur (Fig. 4.8). In the first case (Fig. 4.8 a), the same failure mode is obtained by following the actual and design loading paths. For the second case (Fig. 4.8 b), the failure mode obtained with the actual loading path is not the weakest one, but is ductile enough to allow a plastic redistribution of internal forces to take place until the design shear resistance is reached. Finally and this is of importance for practice - it has to be noted that the rotation capacity and ductility requirements may be checked before any resistance calculation.

32

MSd

Beam web in shear Bolts in shear Header plate in shear (gross section) Header plate in shear (shear block)

MSd

a)

Bolts in shear Header plate in shear (gross section) Header plate in shear (shear block) Header plate in shear (net section) Header plate in bearing Supporting element in bearing

Header plate in shear (net section) Header plate in bearing Supporting element in bearing

Plastic mechanism in the header plate

VSd

VSd

33

4.1.2

4.1.2.1 Design requirements for sufficient rotation capacity So as to permit a rotation without increasing too much the bending moment which develops into the joint, contact between the lower beam flange and the supporting member has to be strictly avoided. To achieve it, the height hp of the fin plate should be lower than that of the supported beam web (Fig. 4.9): hp db where db is the clear depth of the supported beam web If such a contact takes place, a compression force develops at the place of contact; it is equilibrated by tension forces in the welds and in the plate, and additional shear forces in the bolts.

Bending moment

Shear forces in the bolts Bending moment Contact between the supported beam and the supporting element

Compression force

Rotation

available

Figure 4.9: Contact and evolution of the bending moment

The level of rotation at which the contact occurs is obviously dependent on the geometrical characteristics of the beam and of the fin plate, but also on the actual deformations of the joint components. In order to derive a simple criterion that the user could apply, before any calculation, to check whether the risk of contact may be disregarded, the following rough assumptions are made (see Fig. 4.10): - the supporting element and the fin plate remain un-deformed; - the centre of rotation of the beam is located at the centre of gravity of the bolt group.

34

On the basis of such assumptions, a safe estimation (i.e. a lower bound) of the socalled "available rotation of the joint" available may be easily derived:

if

z>

(z g h )

hp + 2 + he :

arcsin arctg z g h hp + he 2

available =

(z g h )

hp + + he 2

available

available

Centre of rotation

hp he

Centre of rotation

db

hb

gh z

Figure 4.10: Geometrical characteristics of the joint and illustration of the contact between the beam and the supporting element

This available rotation has to be greater than the "required rotation capacity" which varies according to the structural system and loading. A simple criterion ensuring the sufficient joint rotation capacity may be written as: available > required Expressions for required are given 4.1.1.1 and Annex 1.

35

4.1.2.2 Design requirements for sufficient joint ductility As previously explained, the design shear resistance of the joint may be reached, as a result of a plastic redistribution of internal forces amongst the different constitutive components. This requires that no local brittle failure modes or instabilities develop during this redistribution. The failure modes which could prevent redistribution of internal forces to take place are, for fin plate connections: the bolts and the welds in shear on account of their brittle nature, and the buckling of the fin plate which is assumed to be non-ductile in terms of plastic redistribution. Criterion to avoid premature weld failure because of tension forces A similar criterion as the one established for the header plate connection, may be written. For fin plates also high local stresses are to be expected, but of less severity than in the case of the header plate. It is considered acceptable that in the check for ductility, weld sizes referring to the 80 % rule are applied, see Table 4.1. The procedure is the following one: first, the weld size should be determined on the basis of the design loads; and secondly the deformation capacity should be checked. So, if the design loads require a 90 % full strength weld, that weld size should be applied. Criterion to permit a plastic redistribution of internal forces between the "actual" and "design" resistance points (1) First of all, the design shear resistance of the connection should be associated with a ductile mode. Failure by bolts in shear or by buckling of the fin plate is therefore excluded. A first criterion can be written: min( VRd 1; VRd 7 ) > VRd where: VRd 1 is the shear resistance of the bolts; VRd 7 is the buckling resistance of the fin plate; VRd is the design shear resistance of the connection.

(2)

Secondly, the component which yields under the "actual" loading in the connection has also to ductile (so, no bolts in shear or buckling of the fin plate). To ensure this, different criteria have to be fulfilled dependent on the failure mode obtained through treating the connections as hinged: Failures by bolts in shear or buckling of the fin plate: Excluded by the first criterion (1). All the other failure modes:

36

For one vertical bolt row, at least one of the following two inequalities has to be satisfied: Fb,hor,Rd min ( Fv,Rd; VRd 7 ) Fb,hor,Rd min ( Fv,Rd; VRd 7 ) for the beam web for the fin plate

For two vertical bolt rows, at least one of the following three inequalities has to be satisfied:

max (

1 Fv , Rd

2

( + );

2 2

1 VRd 7

2

) F b , ver,Rd ) F b , ver,Rd

2

max (

1 Fv , Rd

2

+ ;

2

1 VRd 7

2

VRd 6 min(

2 3 2 + 2

Fv,Rd;

2 3

VRd 7 )

(3)

Lastly, during the redistribution process, the "bolts in shear" failure mode should not be met. To avoid that, simple criteria can be written that again depends on the failure mode resulting from treating the connection as a hinge: Failure by bolts in shear or buckling of the fin plate: Excluded by the first criterion (1).

Failure by fin plate or beam web in bearing: If the two first criteria (1) and (2) are fulfilled, no additional criterion is necessary.

All the other failure modes: VRd 1 > min ( VRd 2; VRd 8 ) where VRd 1 is the shear resistance of the bolts; VRd 2 is the bearing resistance of the fin plate; VRd 8 is the bearing resistance of the beam web. 37

Notation used in the above requirements is given in the part "Design sheets for fin plate connections" of the present publication. The criteria (1), (2) and (3) can be only checked after the evaluation of the design shear resistance of the joint. For further explanations about the derivation of these requirements, see [10]. Web cleat connection

4.1.3

4.1.3.1 General The behaviour of a web cleat connection may be considered as the combination of the behaviours of header and fin plates connections. The design rules and requirements for a safe approach may be simply deduced from those established for the two previous connection types.

4.1.3.2 Design requirements They are also easily deduced from the previous requirements expressed for header and fin plate connections.

38

5. 5.1

5.1.1

General notation

For the bolts: n A As d d0 fu,b fy,b Total number of bolts Nominal area of a bolt Tensile stress area of a bolt Nominal diameter of a bolt shank Diameter of a bolt hole Ultimate strength of a bolt Yield strength of a bolt

For the welds: a w Throat thickness of the welds Correlation factor for the evaluation of the weld resistance

For the supporting and supported elements: t tw Ab,v Ab,v,net fu fy Thickness of the supporting plate (tcf and tcw for respectively a column flange and web, tbw for a beam web) Thickness of the supported beam web Gross shear area of the supported beam Net shear area of the supported beam Ultimate strength of a steel element (index bw for beam web, cf and cw for respectively column flange and web) Yield strength of a steel element (index bw for beam web, cf and cw for respectively column flange and web)

Safety coefficients:

M0 M2

Partial safety factor for steel sections; it is equal to 1,0 Partial safety factor for net section at bolt holes, bolts, welds and plates in it is equal to 1,25

bearing;

Note: The value of the partial safety factors reported here are those recommended in Eurocode 3 but other values may be assigned in National Annexes

39

Resistance: VRd Fv.Rd Shear resistance of the joint Design resistance in shear

5.1.2

p 2' e1 p1 p1 e1

e2S e1 p1 p1 e1 mp e2

p2'

p2 e2S

mp

e2

hp tp Av Avnet fyp n1 n2 e1 e2 p1 p2

Height of the header plate Thickness of the header plate Gross shear area of the header plate Net shear area of the header plate Yield strength of the header plate Number of horizontal rows Number of vertical rows Longitudinal end distance Transverse end distance Longitudinal bolt pitch Transverse bolt pitch

40

mp

Distance between the inner vertical bolt row and the toe of the weld connecting the header plate to the beam web (definition according to EN 1993 Part 1-8)

5.1.3

Height of the fin plate Thickness of the fin plate Gross shear area of the fin plate Net shear area of the fin plate Yield strength of the fin plate Number of horizontal rows Number of vertical rows Longitudinal end distance (fin plate) Transverse end distance (fin plate) Longitudinal end distance (beam web) Transverse end distance (beam web) Longitudinal bolt pitch Transverse bolt pitch Horizontal distance from the supporting web or flange to the first vertical bolt-row zp = z for connections with one bolt-row zp = z p2/2 for connections with two bolt-rows Moment of inertia of the bolt group

41

5.1.4

hc tc Av Avnet

Height of the cleat Thickness of the cleat Gross shear area of the cleat Net shear area of the cleat

dsb d0sb nb n1b n2b e1b e2b p1b p2b e2bb e1bb

Nominal diameter of a bolt shank Diameter of a bolt hole Total number of bolts Number of horizontal rows Number of vertical rows Longitudinal end distance (cleat) Transverse end distance (cleat) Longitudinal bolt pitch Transverse bolt pitch Transverse end distance (beam web) Longitudinal end distance (beam flange)

42

z I

Nominal diameter of a bolt shank Diameter of a bolt hole Total number of bolts Number of horizontal rows Number of vertical rows Longitudinal end distance (cleat) Transverse end distance (cleat) Longitudinal bolt pitch Transverse bolt pitch Transverse end distance (supporting element) Longitudinal distance between the inner vertical bolt row and the beam web

5.2

Geometrical requirements

The design rules may only be applied if the positioning of holes for bolts respects the minimum spacing, end and edge distances given in the following table (Eurocode 3 requirements).

Maximum 1) Distances and spacings, see figure 5.4

2) 3)

Minimum

Structures made of steels according to EN 10025 except steels acc. to EN 10025-5 Steel exposed to Steel not exposed the weather or to the weather or other corrosive in- other corrosive influences fluences

4t + 40 mm 4t + 40 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm

The larger of 8t or 125 mm

43

1) Maximum values for spacing, edge and end distances are unlimited, except in the following cases: - for compression members in order to avoid local buckling and to prevent corrosion in exposed members and; - for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion. 2) The local buckling resistance of the plate in compression between the fasteners should be calculated according to EN 1993-1-1 as column-like buckling by using 0,6 pi as buckling length. Local buckling between the fasteners need to be checked if p1/t is smaller then 9 . The edge distance should not exceed the maximum to satisfy local buckling requirements for an outstand element in the compression members, see EN 1993-1-1. The end distance is not affected by this requirement. 3) t is the thickness of the thinner outer connected part. Table 5.1: Minimum spacing, end and edge distances

Figure 5.4: Symbols for end and edge distances and spacing of fasteners

44

6. 6.1

The forces applied to joints at the ultimate limit state result from a structural analysis and shall be determined according to the principles given in EN 1993-1-1. The resistance of the joint is determined on the basis of the resistances of the individual fasteners, welds and other components, as shown below.

6.2 6.2.1 Design sheet for connections with a header plate

To apply the design rules presented in section 6.2.2, all the following inequalities have to be satisfied. (1) (2) hp db tp he > required

(3)

d 2,8 tp

f yp f ub

OR

d 2,8 tw

f yw f ub

d 2,8 tp

f yp f ub

OR

d 2,8 t cf

f ycf f ub

(4)

f ybw M 2 f ubw M 0

45

6.2.2

FAILURE MODE

v f ub A M2

Bolts in shear

where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt: A = As (tensile stress area of the bolt) for 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8 bolt grades: v = 0,6 for 4.8, 5.8, 6.8 and 10.9 bolt grades: v = 0,5

where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt: A (gross cross area of the bolt) v = 0,6

k 1 b f up d t p M2

e1 p1 1 f ; ; ub 4 f up 3 d0 3 d0 ou 1,0 )

Fb ,Rd =

where b = min (

k1 = min ( 2,8

46

k1 b f u d t M2

where the supporting element is a column flange: t = tcf fu = fucf p 1 f b = min ( 1 ; ub ou 1,0 ) 4 fu 3 d0 k1 = min ( 1,4 e p2 1,7 ; 2,8 2s 1,7 ; 2,5 ) d0 d0

where the supporting element is a column web: t = tcw fu = fucw p 1 f b = min ( 1 ; ub ou 1,0 ) 4 fu 3 d0 k1 = min ( 1,4 p2 1,7 ; 2,5 ) d0

where the supporting element is a beam web: t = tbw fu = fubw p 1 f b = min ( 1 ; ub ou 1,0 ) 4 fu 3 d0 k1 = min ( 1,4 p2 1,7 ; 2,5 ) d0

Formula as written here apply to major axis beam-tocolumn joints (connection to a column flange), to single-sided minor axis joints and to single-sided beamto-beam joint configurations. In the other cases, the bearing forces result from both the left and right connected members, with the added problem that the number of connecting bolts may differ for the left and right connections. The calculation procedure may cover such cases without any particular difficulty. It could just bring some more complexity in the final presentation of the design sheet.

47

VRd 4 =

2 hp tp 1,27

f yp 3 M0

(2 sections)

VRd 5 = 2A v.net

with

f up 3 M2 Av,net = tp ( hp n1 d0)

(2 sections)

VRd 6 = 2 Feff,Rd

(2 sections)

if hp < 1,36 p22 and n1 > 1: f up A nt A 1 f yp nv Feff,Rd = Feff , 2,Rd = 0,5 + M2 M0 3 else:

with p22 = p2' = p2' + p2

f up A nt M2

1 3

f yp

A nv M0

for n2 = 2 for n2 = 4

Ant = net area subjected to tension for one vertical bolt row (n2 = 2): d Ant = tp ( e2 0 ) 2 for two vertical bolt rows (n2 = 4): d Ant = tp ( p2 + e2 3 0 ) 2

Anv = net area subjected to shear = tp ( hp e1 (n1 0,5) d0 ) (see clause 3.10.2 in EN 1993 Part 1-8)

48

if hp 1,36 p22:

VRd 7 =

else:

VRd 7 =

with

VRd 8 = t bw h p

f ybw M0 3

i =1

NOTE:

The design shear resistance of the joint can only be considered if all the requirements (section 6.2.1) are satisfied.

49

6.2.3

Resistance to tying forces FAILURE MODE VERIFICATION Nu 1 = n Bt,u with: Bt,u = f ub A s /Mu

Bolts in tension

where

(usually safe value; see EC3 table with effective lengths for end plates, case Bolt-row outside tension flange of beam for more precise values; the effective lengths given in the table have however to be multiplied by a factor 2 before being introduced in the two expressions given above) Supporting member in bending Nu 3 = See EN 1993 Part 1-8 for column flanges (with substitution of Bt.Rd by Bt,u, fy by fu and M0 by Mu). See published reference documents for other supporting members (for instance [12]) Nu 4 = tw hp f ubw /Mu The full-strength character of the welds is ensured through recommendations for weld design given in the design sheet for shear resistance.

Welds

Nu = minNu i

i=1

50

6.3 6.3.1

Requirements to ensure sufficient rotation capacity The two following inequalities has to be fulfilled. hp db

available > required

(1) (2)

where:

if z >

(z g h )

hp + 2 + he :

else:

arcsin arctg z g h hp + he 2

available =

(z g h )

hp + 2 + he

6.3.2

Requirements to avoid premature weld failure The following inequality has to be fulfilled. a > 0,4 tp w (w is given in Table 4.1) 3 f yp M 2 f up M 0

51

6.3.3

for n2 = 1:

VRd 1 =

n Fv,Rd 6z 1 + (n + 1) p 1

2

for n2 = 2:

VRd 1 =

Fv,Rd z p2 1 2I + n

2

z p1 ( n1 1 ) 2I

with: I =

v f ub A M2

n1 2 1 2 2 p 2 + n1 ( n 1 1) p1 6 2

Fv ,Rd =

where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt: A = As (tensile stress area of the bolt) for 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8 bolt grades: v = 0,6 for 4.8, 5.8, 6.8 and 10.9 bolt grades: v = 0,5

where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt: A (gross cross area of the bolt) v = 0,6

52

VRd 2 =

1

1 + n Fb , ver ,Rd + Fb ,hor ,Rd

2

for n2 = 1:

for n2 = 2:

= 0; =

6z . p1 n (n + 1)

z p2 ; I 2 z n1 1 = p1 . I 2

with

I =

n1 2 1 2 2 p 2 + n1 ( n 1 1) p1 2 6

k 1 b f up d t p

Fb , ver ,Rd =

k 1 b f up d t p

M2

Fb ,hor ,Rd =

M2

where b = min ( e1 ; p1

3 d0

where b = min (

1 f ub ; ou 1,0 ) 4 f up

e2 p2 1 f ) ; ; ub ou 1,0 4 f up 3d 0 3d 0

3d 0

k1 = min ( 2 ,8 e 1, 7 ; 1, 4 p

2

k1 = min (

2

d0

d0

1, 7 ; 2 , 5

2,8

e1 d0

1,7 ; 1, 4

p1 d0

1,7 ; 2,5

(see Table 3.4 in EN 1993 Part 1-8) Fin plate in shear: Gross section VRd 3 = hptp 1,27 f yp 3 M0 f up 3 M2 Av,net = tp ( hp n1 d0)

VRd 4

= A v ,net

with

53

VRd 5 = Feff,2,Rd

Feff , 2,Rd

0,5 f up A nt

M2

1 3

f yp

A nv M0

with

Ant = net area subjected to tension for one vertical bolt row (n2 = 1): d Ant = tp ( e2 0 ) 2 for two vertical bolt rows (n2 = 2): d Ant = tp ( p2 + e2 3 0 ) 2

(see clause 3.10.2 in EN 1993 Part 1-8)

if hp 2,73 z:

VRd 6 =

else:

VRd 6 = Wel z f yp M0

with

Wel =

tp h2 p 6

=

where

Wel =

tp h2 p 6

54

f pLT = lateral torsional buckling strength of the plate obtained from BS5950 1 Table17 and based on LT as follows : LT zph p = 2,8 1,5t 2 p

1/ 2

VRd 8 =

1

1 + n Fb , ver ,Rd + Fb ,hor ,Rd

2

for n2 = 1:

for n2 = 2:

= 0; =

6z . p1 n (n + 1)

z p2 ; I 2 z n1 1 = p1 . I 2

=

with

I =

n1 2 1 2 2 p 2 + n1 ( n 1 1) p1 2 6 k1 b f ubw d t bw M2

Fb , ver , Rd =

k1 b f ubw d t bw M2

3d 0 4 f ubw

k1 = min ( 2 ,8 e 2 b 1,7 ; 1, 4 p 2

d0 d0

1, 7 ; 2 ,5

k1 = min ( 1, 4

p1 1, 7 ; 2 , 5 d0

55

Beam web in shear: Gross section Beam web in shear: Net section

VRd 9

= A b,v

f ybw 3 M0 f ubw 3 M2

VRd 10

= A b , v ,net

0,5 f ubw A nt M2

1 3

f ybw

A nv M0

Ant = net area subjected to tension for one vertical bolt row (n2 = 1): d Ant = tbw ( e2b 0 ) 2 for two vertical bolt rows (n2 = 2): d Ant = tbw ( p2 + e2b 3 0 ) 2

Anv = net area subjected to shear = tbw ( e1b + (n1 1 ) p1 (n1 0,5) d0 )

(see clause 3.10.2 in EN 1993 Part 1-8) Shear resistance of the joint

i =1

11

NOTE:

The design shear resistance of the joint can only be considered if all the requirements (sections 6.3.1, 6.3.2 and 6.3.4) are satisfied.

56

6.3.4

Requirements to permit a plastic redistribution of internal forces All the following inequalities have to be satisfied.

(1)

(2)

For n2 = 1:

OR

For n2 = 2:

max (

OR

1 Fv , Rd

2

+ ;

2

1 VRd 7

2

) F b , ver , Rd

+ F b, hor ,Rd

max (

OR

1 Fv , Rd

2

+ 2 ;

1 VRd 7

2

) F b , ver , Rd

+ F b, hor ,Rd

VRd 6 min(

2 3 2 + 2

Fv,Rd;

2 3

VRd 7 )

(3)

Moreover, if VRd = VRd 3, VRd 4, VRd 5, VRd 6, VRd 9, VRd 10 or VRd 11, the following inequality has to be checked: VRd 1 > min ( VRd 2; VRd 8 )

57

6.3.5

FAILURE MODE

Fv ,u = v f ub A /Mu

Bolts in shear

where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt: A = As (tensile stress area of the bolt) for 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8 bolt grades: v = 0,6 for 4.8, 5.8, 6.8 and 10.9 bolt grades: v = 0,5

where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt: A (gross cross area of the bolt) v = 0,6

Fb ,u ,hor = k 1 b f up d t p /Mu

where

b = min ( e 2

3d 0

d0

p2 1 f ; ub ou 1,0 ) 4 f up 3d 0

d0

58

with:

Fb ,u ,hor = k 1 b f ubw d t bw /Mu

where

b = min ( e 2 b ; p 2 1 ; f ub ou 1,0 )

4 3d 0 3d 0 k1 = min ( 1, 4 p 1 1,7 ; 2,5 ) d0 f ubw

Nu 6 = See EN 1993 Part 1-8 for column flanges (with substitution of Bt.Rd by Bt,u, fy by fu and M0 by Mu). See published reference documents for other supporting members (for instance [12])

Welds

The full-strength character of the welds is ensured through recommendations for weld design given in the design sheet for shear resistance.

6

N u = minN u i

i =1

59

6.4

As already mentioned, the specific rules for connections with web cleats may be easily deduced from those explicitly given above for connections with header plates and fin plates.

60

7. 7.1

7.1.1

M20 HEA200 IPE300

p1 p1 e1 e2 p2 e2

Detailed characteristics

Column HEA 200, S235

Beam to column flange HEA 200 S 235 IPE 300 S 235 Header plate connection 230 x 200 x 10, S 235

Depth Thickness of the web Width Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia Yield strength Ultimate strength

Beam IPE 300, S235

h tcw bc tcf r A I

mm mm 61

Width Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia Yield strength Ultimate strength

Header plate 230 x 200 x 10, S 235

bb tbf r A I

Direction of load transfer (1)

gv hp bp tp

= = = =

mm mm mm mm

Number of bolts rows Edge distance to first bolt row Pitch between bolt rows 1 and 2 Pitch between bolt rows 2 and 3 Distance from last bolt row to edge

Direction perpendicular to Load transfer (2)

= = = = =

mm mm mm mm

Number of bolts rows Edge distance to first bolt row Pitch between bolt rows 1 and 2 Distance from last bolt row to edge Distance from last bolt row to edge Yield strength Ultimate strength

Bolts M20, 8.8

= = = = =

mm mm mm mm (column flange)

Tensile stress area Diameter of the shank Diameter of the holes Yield strength Ultimate strength

As d d0 fyb fub

= = = = =

mm mm mm N/mm N/mm

62

Welds

Safety factors

aw = 4.00 lw = 230.00

mm mm

M0 M2 Mu

= = =

VEd = 200 kN

7.1.2

Rotation requirements

(1)

hp db hp db = = = 230.00 mm h 2 tbf 2 r 300.00 2 10.70 2 15.00 = 248.60 mm ok we suppose that this requirement is fulfilled.

(2)

Ductility requirements

(1)

f yp d 2,8 tp f ub 2.00 d / tp = 0.29 fyp / fub = 2.00 1.52 a 0.4 tbw w tbw fybw fubw w a 3

ok

(2)

f ybw M 2 = 3.21 mm f ubw M 0 = 7.1 mm = 235.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm = 0.80 = 4.00 mm

ok 63

7.1.3

Bolts in shear

VRd 1 = 0,8 n Fv,Rd = 451.58 kN n =6 Fv,Rd= v A fub / M2 = 94.08 kN v = 0.6 A = As = 245.00 mm fub = 800.00 N/mm

Header plate in bearing

VRd 2 = n Fb,Rd = 589.09 kN n =6 Fb,Rd= k1 b d tp fup / M2 = 98.18 kN b = min(1 , 2 , 3 , 1) = 0.68 1 = e1 / 3d0 = 0.68 2 = p1 / 3d0 - 1/4 = 0.81 3 = fub / fup = 2.22 k1 = min(2.8 e2 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min(4.66; 2.5) = 2.5 = 20.00 mm = 10.00 mm = 800.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

d tp fub fup

Column flange in bearing

VRd 3 = n Fb,Rd = 700.36 kN n =6 Fb,Rd= k1 b d tcf fucf / M2 = 116.73 kN = min(1 , 2 , 1) = 0.81 1 = p1 / 3d0 - 1/4 = 0.81 2 = fub / fucf = 2.22 k1 = min(2.8 e2s / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min(4.66; 2.5) = 2.5

64

VRd 4 = 2 Fv,Rd = 491.44 kN Fv,Rd = Av fyp / (1,27 3 M0) = 245.72 kN Av = hp tp = 23.00 cm fyp = 235.00 N/mm

Net section of the header plate in shear

VRd 5 = 2 Fv,Rd = 545.39 kN Fv,Rd = Av,net fup / ( 3 M2 ) = 272.69 kN Av,net = ( hp - n1 d0 ) tp = 16.40 cm hp = 230.00 mm n1 = 6 d0 = 22.00 mm tp = 10.00 mm fup = 360.00 N/mm

Shear block of the header plate

VRd 6 = 2 Feff,Rd = 577.40 kN 1,36 p2' = 136.00 mm hp > 1,36 p2' n1 > 1 n1 = 3 Feff,Rd = Feff,1,Rd = fup Ant / M2 + fyp Anv / ( 3 M0 ) = 288.70 kN Ant = tp ( e2 - d0/2 ) = 390.00 mm tp = 10.00 mm e2 = 50.00 mm d0 = 22.00 mm Anv = tp ( hp e1 ( n1 0.5 ) d0 ) = 1300.00 mm n1 = 3 hp = 230.00 mm e1 = 45.00 mm fyp fup = 235.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

65

European Recommendations for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel Structures Header plate in bending

Beam web in shear

VRd 8 = Fv,Rd = 221.56 kN Fv.Rd = Av fybw / ( 3 M0) = 221.56 kN Av = hp tbw = 16.33 cm fybw = 235.00 N/mm

Joint shear resistance

Shear resistance of the joint VRd = 221.56 kN Failure Mode: Beam web in shear Design check Applied shear force: Shear resistance: Joint tying resistance VEd VRd = 200 kN = 221.56 kN

7.1.4

Design O.K.

7.1.5

Bolts in tension

Nu 1 = n Bt,u/Mu = 1069.09 kN n=6 Bt,u = f ub A s = 196.00 kN As = 245.00 mm Fub = 800.00 N/mm Mu = 1.10

Header plate in bending

66

Fhp,u,2 =

2 l eff .p.t , 2 m u .p + n B t .u n p mp + n p

= 622.45 kN

n=6 mp = (p2' tw 2 x 0,8 a 2-0,5) / 2 = 41.925 mm np = min ( e2; 1,25 mp ) = min ( 50; 52.4 ) = 50.00 mm 2 t p f up mu.p = = 9000.00 N mm/mm 4 Mu leff.p1 = leff.p2 = hp = 230.00 mm ew = 37.00 mm

Supporting member in bending (column flange)

Resistance assumed here to be sufficient To be checked by referring to EC3 Part 1-1 rules (in which fy is replaced by fu, M0 by Mu and Bt,Rd by Bt,u = Asfub) Comment: This component is usually more resistant than the header plate (higher leff values and smaller values of m and n, but thickness could be less).

Welds

Joint tying resistance

Tying resistance of the joint Nu = 534.44 kN Failure mode: Beam web in tension

67

7.2 7.2.1

Detailed characteristics

Column HEA 200, S235

Beam to column flange HEA 200 S 235 IPE 300 S 235 Fin plate connection 230 x 110 x 10, S 235

Depth Thickness of the web Width Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia Yield strength Ultimate strength

Beam IPE 300, S235

h tcw bf tcf r A I

mm mm mm

Thickness of the flange Root radius Area Inertia Yield strength Ultimate strength

Fin plate 230 x 110 x 10, S 235

tbf r A I

Vertical gap Horizontal gap (end beam to column flange) Depth Width Thickness

Direction of load transfer (1)

mm mm mm mm mm

Number of bolts rows n1 = 3 Edge distance to first bolt row e11 = 45.00 = Distance from beam edge to first bolt row e1b Pitch between bolt rows 1 and 2 p1[1] = 70.00 Pitch between bolt rows 2 and 3 p1[2] = 70.00 Edge distance to last bolt row e1n = 45.00

Direction perpendicular to Load transfer (2)

mm 80.00 mm mm mm mm

Number of bolts rows Edge distance to first bolt row Edge distance to last bolt row Lever arm Yield strength Ultimate strength

Bolts M20, 8.8

n2 e21 e2b z

mm mm mm N/mm N/mm

Tensile stress area Diameter of the shank Diameter of the holes Yield strength Ultimate strength

As d d0 fyb fub

= = = = =

mm mm mm N/mm N/mm

69

Welds

Safety factors

aw = 5.00 lw = 230.00

mm mm

M0 = M2 = Mu =

VEd = 100 kN

7.2.2

Requirements to ensure sufficient rotation capacity hp db hp db = = = 230.00 mm h 2 tbf 2 r 300.00 2 10.70 2 15.00 = 248.60 mm ok we suppose that this requirement is fulfilled.

(1)

(2)

7.2.3

Requirements to avoid premature weld failure f yp M 2 = 4.52 mm f up M 0 = 10.00 mm = 235.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm = 0.80

ok

a = 5.00 mm

70

7.2.4

Bolts in shear

VRd 1 =

n Fv,Rd 6z 1 + (n + 1) p 1

2

= 173.28 kN

Fin plate in bearing

VRd 2 =

1

1 + n Fb , ver ,Rd + Fb ,hor ,Rd

2

= 192.59 kN

2

n =3 =0 1/n =1/3

6z = 0.43 p1 n (n + 1)

Fb,Rd,ver = k1 b d tp fup / M2 = 98.18 kN b = min (1 , 2 , 3 , 1) = 0.68 1 = e1 / 3d0 = 0.68 2 = p1 / 3d0 1/4 = 0.81 3 = fub / fup = 2.22 k1 = min (2.8 e2 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (4.66; 2.5) = 2.5

= fub / fup = 2.22 = min (2.8 e1 / d0 1.7; 1.4 p1 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (4.03; 2.75; 2.5) = 2.5 = 20.00 mm = 10.00 mm = 800.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

k1

d tp fub fup

3 M0) = 245.72 kN

Net section of the fin plate in shear

VRd 4 = Av,net fup / ( 3 M2 ) = 272.69 kN Av,net = ( hp n1 d0 ) tp = 16.40 cm hp = 230.00 mm n1 = 3 d0 = 22.00 mm tp = 10.00 mm fup = 360.00 N/mm

Shear block of the fin plate

VRd 5 = Feff,2,Rd = 232.54 kN Feff,2,Rd = 0.5 fup Ant / M2 + fyp Anv / ( 3 M0 ) = 232.54 kN Ant = tp ( e2 - d0/2 ) = 390.00 mm tp = 10.00 mm e2 = 50.00 mm d0 = 22.00 mm = tp ( hp e1 ( n1 0.5 ) d0 ) = 1300.00 mm n1 = 3 hp = 230.00 mm e1 = 45.00 mm = 235.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

Anv

fyp fup

72

Buckling of the fin plate

VRd 7 = VRd6 =

VRd 8 =

1

1 + n Fb , ver ,Rd + Fb ,hor ,Rd

2

= 146.19 kN

2

n =3 =0 1/n =1/3

6z = 0.43 p1 n (n + 1)

Fb,Rd,ver = k1 b d tbw fubw / M2 = 82.88 kN b = min (1 , 2 , 1) = 0.81 1 = p1 / 3d0 1/4 = 0.81 3 = fub / fubw = 2.22 = min (2.8 e2b / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (4.66; 2.5) = 2.5 Fb,Rd,hor = k1 b d tbw fubw / M2 = 77.45 kN b = min (1 , 2 , 1) = 0.75 1 = e2b / 3d0 = 0.75 2 = fub / fubw = 2.22 k1 k1 = min (1.4 p1 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (2.75; 2.5) = 2.5

73

VRd 9 = Ab,v fybw / ( 3 M0) = 348.42 kN Ab,v = 25.68 cm fybw = 235.00 N/mm

Net section of the beam web in shear

VRd10 = Av,net fubw / ( 3 M2 ) = 349.11 kN Ab,v,net = Ab,v n1 d0 tbw = 21.00 cm Ab,v = 25.68 cm n1 = 3 d0 = 22.00 mm tbw = 7.10 mm fubw = 360.00 N/mm

Shear block of the beam web

VRd11 = Feff,2,Rd = 198.82 kN Feff,2,Rd = 0.5 fubw Ant / M2 + fybw Anv / ( 3 M0 ) = 198.82 kN Ant = tbw ( e2b - d0/2 ) = 276.9 mm tbw = 7.10 mm e2b = 50.00 mm d0 = 22.00 mm Anv = tbw ( e1b + (n1 1 ) p1 (n1 0,5) d0 )= 1171.50 mm n1 = 3 p1 = 70.00 mm e1b = 45.00 + 35.00 = 80.00 mm fybw = 235.00 N/mm fubw = 360.00 N/mm

74

European Recommendations for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel Structures Joint shear resistance

Shear resistance of the joint VRd = 146.18 kN Failure Mode: Beam web in bearing Requirements to ensure the safety of the shear design rules VRd < min( VRd 1; VRd 7 ) VRd = 146.18 kN min( VRd 1; VRd 7 ) = 178.28 kN VRd 1 = 178.28 kN VRd 7 = 776.97 kN ok. (2)

n2 = 1:

7.2.5

(1)

for the beam web: Fb,hor,Rd = 77.45 kN = 0.43 min ( Fv,Rd; VRd 7 ) = min ( 94.08; 334.09 ) = 94.08 kN ok.

ok.

7.2.6

Design check Applied shear force: Shear resistance: Joint tying resistance VEd VRd = 100 kN = 146.18 kN

Design O.K.

7.2.7

Bolts in shear

Fv ,u = v f ub A = 117.60 kN

Fin plate in bearing

b

= min (1 , 2 , 1) = 0.75 1 = e2 / 3d0 = 0.75 2 = fub / fup = 2.22 k1 = min (2.8 e1 / d0 1.7; 1.4 p1 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (4.03; 2.75; 2.5) = 2.5 = 20.00 mm = 10.00 mm = 800.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

d tp fub fup

Fin plate in tension: net section

Anet,p = tp hp d0 n1 tp = 1640.00 mm n1 = 3 hp = 230.00 mm tp = 10.00 mm d0 = 22.00 mm

Beam web in bearing

76

k1

= min (1.4 p1 / d0 1.7; 2.5) = min (2.75; 2.5) = 2.5 = 20.00 mm = 7.10 mm = 800.00 N/mm = 360.00 N/mm

Nu 5 = 0,9 Anet,bw f ubw / Mu = 342.97 kN Anet,bw = tbw hbw d0 n1 tbw = 1164.40 mm tbw = 7.10 mm hbw = 230.00 mm n1 = 3 d0 = 22.00 mm

Supporting member in bending

Resistance assumed here to be sufficient To be checked by referring to EC3 Part 1-1 rules (in which fy is replaced by fu, M0 by Mu and Bt,Rd by Bt,u = Asfub)

Welds

Joint tying resistance

Tying resistance of the joint Nu = 264.05 kN Failure mode: Beam web in bearing

77

8.

REFERENCES

[1]

GUILLAUME Marie-Laure Development of an European procedure for the design of simple joints (in French), Diploma work, University of Lige / CUST Clermont-Ferrand, July 2000. EUROCODE 3 EN1993 Part 1-1 Design of Steel structures - General Rules and Rules for Buildings CEN Brussels, EN 1993-1-1, May 2005 EUROCODE 3 EN1993 Part 1-8 Design of Steel structures Design of Connections CEN Brussels, EN 1993-1-8, May 2005 BS 5950: British Standard: Structural use of steelwork in building, Part 1. Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled section. BCSA - SCI: Joints in Simple Construction, volume 1: Design Methods, Second Edition, 1993. BCSA - SCI: Joints in Simple Construction, volume 2: Practical Applications, Dec 1992. NEN 6770: Nederlands Nonnalisatie Instituut, NEN 6770 Staalconstructies TGB 1990, basiseisen. Report SG/TC-1OA: Verbindingen: Aanbevelingen voor normaal krachtverbindingen en dwarskrachtverbindingen, Avril 1998. G. SEDLACEK, K. WEYNAND, S.OERDER: Typisierte Anschlsse im Stahlhochbau, DSTV, Stahlhbau-Verglagsges, Dsseldorf, 2000. RENKIN Sandra Development of an European process for the design of simple structural joint in steel frames" (in French), Diploma work, University of Lige , June 2003.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

78

[11]

ECSC Research Contracts 7210-SA/212 and 320: Frame Design including Joint Behaviour, 1993-1996, Final draft (forthcoming ECCS publication from TC10). JASPART, J.P.: Recent advances in the field of steel joints. Column bases and further configurations for beam-to-column joints and beam splices, Professorship Thesis, Department MSM, University of Lige, 1997. GRESNIGT, A.M.: Calculation of fillet welds in Eurocode 3, Rivista Italiana della Saldatura, Anno XLII, n 6, November-december 1990. GIBBONS, C., NETHERCOT, D., KIRBY, P. and WANG, Y. An appraisal of partially restrained column behaviour in non-sway steel frames. Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs Structs & Bldgs, 1993, 99, pp 15-28. GABORIAU, M. Recherche d'une mthode simple de prdimensionnement des ossatures contreventes assemblages semi-rigides dans l'optique de l'approche lastique de dimensionnement, Diploma work, University of Lige , July 1995. BRAHAM, M. and J.P. JASPART Is it safe to design a building structure with simple connections when they are know to exhibit a semi-rigid behaviour? Journal of Constructional Research, Volume 60, Issues 3-5, 2004, pp. 713-723. BCSA - SCI: Joints in Steel Construction - Simple Construction. Publication P212, 2002.

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

79

9.

System of loading

Mmax

B =

PL 4

P L2 16 E I p L3 24 E I

7 P L2 180 E I

p L2 8

2PL 9 3

A =

8 P L2 B = 180 E I

where

E I L

is the elastic modulus of the material from which the beam is formed; is the second moment area of a beam; is the span of a beam (centre-to-centre of columns); is the loading factor at ULS.

80

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