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Scientific name A. Cardiac glycosides Digitalis USP 23 (1995) Strophanthus NFIX (1950) B.

Anthraquinone glycosides Cascara sagrada USP 23 (1995) Frangula NFIX (1950) Aloe USP23 (1995) Rhamnus purshianis Rhamnus frangula Aloe barbadensi Rheum officinale R. palmatum Cassia senna (C. acutifolia) Alexandria/Khartoum senna Cassia augustifolia tinnevelly senna Digitalis purpurea Strophantus komber Strophanthus graius

Family name

Synonym/s

Constituent/s

Special note/s and uses

Origin

Scrphulariaceae Apocynaceae

Foxglove Onaya Veneno de las flechas

Digitoxin K-strophantoside

y Treatment of congestive heart failure y

Dried leaves Seeds

Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Liliaceae

Sacred bark Chittem bark Bitter or yellow bark Buckthorn bark, Adler bark Sabila lily of the desert Rheum Chinese rhubarb Himalayan rhubarb Sennae folium Hojas de Sen

Cascaroside A&B

y Cathartic or stimulant laxative y Laxative y Purgative, pharmaceutical aid ( benzoin tincture)

Dried bark Dried bark Dried latex

Frangulin A&B Barbaloin Anthraqunone: chrysopanol,

Rhubarb NFIX (1960)

Polygonaceae

y As purgative and astringent

Dried rhizome adn roots

Senna USP 23(1995)

Fabaceae

Sennoside A&B

y As cathartic

Dried leaflets

C. Saponin glycosides Smilax eristochiafolia mexican (Vera Cruz or grey) S. regeli- Honduras S. febrifuga- Ecuadorian Quillaja saponaria Entada scadens Glycyrrhiza gabra (spanish liquorice) G. glabra var. glandulifera (russian liquorice) Polygala senega Marsdenia condurango Mexican sarsaparilla Ecuadorian Sarsaparilla Honduras sarsaparilla Soap bark China bark Panama wood gandoc, balogo (tree) Liquorice root Glycyrrhiza sweet wood Senega anakeroot Rattlesnake root Condor vine eagle vine Sarsaponin y Tx of siphylis, rheumatism, psoriasis and other urinary problems, flavor y Medicine: detergent cleaning wounds, emulsifying agent y y As demulcent, expectorant, flavoring agent, surfactant y Stimulating expectorant for chronic bronchitis y Bitter stomachic, astringent (GIT afflictions)

Sarsaparilla NFIX (1960)

Liliaceae

Dried roots

Quillaja Gogo

Rosaceae Fabaceae

quillaja saponins sapogenin quillaic acid (hydroxygypsogenin)

Dried inner bark Bark

Liquorice

Fabaceae

Glycyrrhizin Senegin Condurangin

Dried rhizome and roots

Senega Condurango D. Pentacyclic Triterpenoid Saponins

Polygalaceae Asclepiadaceae

Dried root Dried bark

Wild cherry USP XVIII (1970)

Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana (wild black cherry tree)

Rosaceae

Wild black cherry Virginian prune bark

Prunasin

y As flavoring vehicle for cough remedies; sedative expectorant; antitussive; astringent; for colds; bronchitis; whooping cough

Dried stem bark

E. Isothiacyanate glycosides Black mustard Brassicaria nigra Brassicaceae Brown/chinese mustard Sinapis nigra Yellow/english mustard Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange Sinigrin y Rubefacient, vesicant, rheumatic arthritis y condiment y Rubefacient, vesicant, rheumatic arthritis y condiment y retention of vit.c y common colds Dried ripe seed

White mustard

Brassicaria alba

Brassicaceae

Sinalbin

Dried seeds

Bitter orange

Citrus aurantium

Rutaceae

Hisperidin

Rind of unripe citrus fruit

Sweet orange F. Phenolic glycosides Poplar buds

Citrus sinensis

Rutaceae

Portugal Orange. China Orange. Citrus dulcis.

Hisperidin

y retention of vit.c y common colds

Rind of unripe citrus fruit

Populus candicas P.tamacahaca Viburnum prunifolium Vanilla planifolia Vanilla fragrans Vanilla tahitensis Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. Coactylis or adenotricha Aesculus hippocastanum Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Xanthoxyllum americana

Salicaceae

Balm of gilead beads Willow buds Black haw Sherry berry Vanilla pod Vanilla bean Bearberry rockberry Horse-chestnut Conker tree. quebracho Prickly ash

Viburnum prunifolium

Caprifoliaceae

Humulene Salicin populin Salicin Viburmin scopoletin Glucovanuillin avenein Arbutin ericolin Aesculin Yohimbine Xanthoxyllum

y stimulating expectorant, antirheumatic y diuretic, uterine sedative

Air-dried closed winter leaf buds

Dried bark of the roots

Vanilla Uva ursi Mezereum Aspidosperma Xanthoxyllum G. Lactone glycosides Santonica Catharides H. Bitter glycosides Gentian Quassia I. coloring glycosides Cochineal Red saunders Haematoxylon kasubha J. Neutral glycoside Cocculus (glycosides containing volatile oils) Arnica Calamus

Ochidaceae Ericaceae Sapindaceae Apocynaceae Rutaceae

y flavoring agent, perfumery y urinary antiseptic, diuretic y used in a microbiology laboratory to aid in the identification of bacterial species y aphrodisiac y tonic, antispasmodic

Cured, full-grown unripe fruit Dried leaves -(nuts?) Bark Stem bark

Artemisia cinae Cantharis vesicatoria

Asteraceae Meloidae

Levant Aleppo Semen cinae Spanish flies Blistering flies

-santonin artemisin cantharidin

y anthelminthic y iriitant, vesicant, aphrodisiac

Dried unexpanded flower leaves Dried insects

Gentiana lutoa Picrasma excelsa Jamaican

gentianaceae Simaruceae

Yellow gentian root Bitter root Bitter wood Bitter ash

gentiopicrin Quassin

y bitter tonic, stimulate appetite y bitter tonic, insecticide, enema

Dried fermented root and rhizomes Stem wood (heartwood)

Dactylopius coccus Pterocarpus santalinus Haematoxylon campechianum Crocus sativus

Dactylopiidae Fabaceae fabaceae iridaceae

Cochinella coccus Red sandal wood Logwood redwood Crocus saffron

Carminic acid Santalin or santalinic acid Hematoxylin hematein crocin

y colorant y coloring matter - cabinets y astringent, indicator y coloring agent and flavor

Dried female insect heartwood heartwood Dried stigma and tops

Anaminta cocculus

Menispermaceae

Ligtang Balising Fish berry

picrotoxin

y for barbiturate poisoning

Dried fruits

Arnica montana- European Acorus calamus

Asteraceae Araceae

Mountain tobacco talpica Sweet flag lubigan

helenalin Candinen acorane

y antirheumatic, respiratory analeptic y picrotoxin

Dried flower heads Dried fruits