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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).

2010

GII PHP TCH TN HIU B CHNG LN TRONG H THNG CNH BO CHNG VA CHM HNG KHNG
SOLUTIONS TO SPLIT OVERLAPPING SIGNALS IN THE TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM Tng Tn Chin
i hc Nng

Nguyn Khc V
Cng ty Bo m Hot ng bay min Trung
TM TT

Trong bi bo ny, chng ti gii thiu nguyn l hot ng ca thit b cnh bo chng va chm hng khng t trn my bay v m phng mt phng php x l dng k thut PLL (Phase-Locked Loop: Vng kha pha) tch cc tn hiu thu c ti my pht p. Trc tin, bi bo ny cp n hin tng nhiu a ng xut hin do nhiu my bay tr li my hi trong TCAS (The Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System: H thng cnh bo v chng va chm my bay) trong cng mt thi im dn n my thu TCAS khng x l c cc thng tin t cc my bay tr li. V vy, bi bo xut cc phng php x l tn hiu ca my thu TCAS khi gp hai tn hiu p ng b chng ln nhau, gii php tch tn hiu b chng ln. Phn cui, vi kt qu nghin cu, c th cho php gim thi gian gia ct cnh v h cnh, tng an ton cho cc chuyn bay, cho php p dng cc k thut mi trong kim sot khng lu bn t ng mt s sn bay nh Vit Nam. ABSTRACT In this paper, we would like to introduce the operating principle of the Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) located in the aircraft and simulating a treating measure using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) technique to split signals collected at the responding operator. Firstly, this paper refers to the phenomenon of multiline jam occurring when several aircrafts respond to TCAS at the same time resulting in TCAS unable to treat information from these responding aircrafts. Therefore, the paper proposes methods of treating signals of TCAS when receiving overlapping signals, solutions to split overlapping signals. In the last part, with the research result, the decrease of time between taking off and landing is allowed, safety for flights is increased, allowing to apply new technology for semi-automatic air-control in some small airports in Vietnam.

1. t vn H thng cnh bo chng va chm hng khng lp t trn cc my bay nhm gip cho phi cng bit c mi nguy him va chm c th xy ra. N c tnh c im gp nhau, thi gian gp nhau, khuyn co phi cng hng x l trnh va chm. Trong vng bn knh ph sng 40km, n pht hin c tt c cc my bay ln cn thng qua c ch hi p trn tn s 1030MHz v 1090MHz (cp tn s dng chung cho cc RADAR th cp). C mi giy mt ln, n pht i mt tn hiu hi v ch i nhn tn hiu tr li t cc my pht p trn cc my bay ln cn, t n bit c m hiu my bay ln cn, cao, tc v tnh c thi gian c th va chm, im va
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

chm. Ty tng trng hp m c cnh bo bng m thanh, khuyn co tng tc , khuyn co r tri (phi) hay nng mc bay / h mc bay trnh va chm c th xy ra [6],[7]. Tuy nhin trong mt vng khng gian m c nhiu my bay nh vng tip cn ct v h cnh th kh nng nhn cng lc nhiu my bay tr li my bay hi s dn n hin tng tc nghn tn s 1030MHz v 1090MHz, cc tn hiu tr li b chng ln ln nhau nn khng bit c tn hiu tr li no l ca my bay no, hin tng ny cn gi l hin tng nhiu a ng. Bi bo ny a ra mt s gii php s dng vng kha pha (PLL) x l v khc phc hin tng nhiu a ng . 1.1. Gii thiu cu trc tn hiu hi
P1 P2 0.45s 2s 20.3s
Hnh 1. Cu trc dng xung hi ca TCAS, Mode C = 20.75s

P3

Ch hi trong thit b ny l Mode A/C, tn s sng mang ca tn hiu hi l 1030MHz. Cu trc ca dng tn hiu hi gm c 3 xung n: P1, P2, P3 (xem hnh 1). Khong cch gia xung P1 v P3 cho bit l loi Mode no ang s dng, t xc nh cu trc dng xung tr li. Bin xung P2 cho bit chnh xc hng hot ng ca chm tia sng pht ra t ng-ten, ng-ten ca TCAS c mt chm tia sng rng khong 60. C cc phng php nhm tng chnh xc v tnh nh hng ca h thng, trong c phng php song xung gm hai xung P1 v P3 lm nh hng c khuch i cao v xung P2 th hin tnh a hng ca ng-ten v c khuch i thp. V th, nu bin xung P2 nh hn hai xung kia [1], [3] th my pht my bay ln cn s bit c l n ang nm trong vng chm tia qut chnh ca ng-ten my bay hi v pht tn hiu tr li. Ngc li, my bay s nm ngoi chm tia qut ca ng-ten v cc tn hiu hi t TCAS hi s b t chi tr li. 1.1. Gii thiu cu trc tn hiu tr li Ch tr li trong thit b ny l Mode C, tn s sng mang ca tn hiu tr li l 1090MHz. Khi xc nh ng tn hiu hi, khong cch gia hai xung P1 v P3 l C = 20.75s, khong cch gia xung P1 v P2 l 2s v bin xung P2 nh hn xung P1 th my pht p s tr li. Cu trc dng tn hiu tr li t my bay c khc nhau mi ch hi. V d: mode 2 v mode 3 th s dng 12 bit thng tin v mode C th dng 11 bit thng tin. Cc bit thng tin c thm vo gi l bit X, thng thng l bit c mc
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

logic 1 v c chn vo gia tn hiu tr li. Ngoi ra cn c xung SPI c dng cho trung tm kim sot khng lu (ATC) khi cn. s dng bit SPI, phi cng ch cn nhn mt cng tc IDENT trn my pht. Bit ID gip cho ATC c th ch c c m hiu dng k t alphabel sng nhp nhy trn mn hnh TCAS kim sot vin c th xc nh c v tr ca my bay pht ID ngay lp tc [3], [5]. Tng t nh vy, thng tin v cao ca my bay trong mode C cng c i thnh dng d liu m octal ABCD. V d cao 28.500ft, tng ng mc bay 285, mi mc bay cch nhau 100ft, th biu din di dng m s thp phn l 285, sau c i ra dng m octal thnh s: 0435; tng ng A=0, B=4, C=3 v D=5; nh bng 1. Bng 1: Bng m octal v thng tin mc bay 285 Gi tr ca cc bit A B C D M octal 0 4 3 5 Bit 4 0 1 0 1 Bit 2 0 0 1 0 Bit 1 0 0 1 1 Bit nh phn 000 100 011 101 285 S thp phn

Dng chui xung tr li s l:


F1
C1

A1

C2

A2

C4

A4

B1

D1

B2

D2

B4

D4

F2

SP

1.45 0.45 20.3 F1


C1 C2

4.35
D1

B4

D4

F2

Hnh 2. Cu trc chui xung tr li t my bay vi thng tin v cao l 28500ft A= 0 ; B= 4; C=3, D=5

[ F1 = 1, 1,0,1,0,0,0, X = 1, 0,1,0,0,1,1, F2 = 1] (xem hnh 2). Trong mode C, xung D1 khng dng. V vy ch c 2048 trng hp c hin th. S lng ny th qu tha hin th cao t -1000ft n 121000ft, vi mi mc tng theo chiu cao l 100ft.
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

2. Gii php tch tn hiu b chng ln 2.1. To tn hiu m phng dng iu ch ASK

Hnh 3. Hai tn hiu cng bin b chng ln nhau 6bit = 3s S/N=10dB

Tn hiu thu c ti u vo my thu trn tn s 1090MHz, c i xung tn s trung tn 30MHz. Dng tn hiu iu ch l ASK, y ch xt Mode C c 13 bit thng tin v 02 bit F1 v F2 nhn dng tn hiu tr li. Dng tn hiu b chng ln m phng trong chng trnh nh hnh 3. 2.2. Thit k vng kha pha 2.2.1. S khi vng kha pha V1(t) PFD (Kd) V2(t) Vo LPF F(s) = 1/(1+s/wc) VCO (Kv/s)
Hnh 4. S khi vng kha pha

Ve

Tn hiu vo l tn hiu ca my pht p thu c ti ng-ten thu ca TCAS, c tn s v pha ngu nhin trong di cho php trn, sau c i xung trung tn. Mch vng kha pha [9] s kha tn hiu thu t my pht p c v tn s v pha vi tn s v pha ca tn hiu t khu VCO thng qua mt khu hi tip. S khi ca vng kha pha nh hnh 4. 2.2.2. Phng trnh ton ca vng kha pha Hm truyn t ca b lc bc 1 vit di min ton t Laplace nh sau: F(s) = 1/(1+sRC)
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(2.1)

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

Gi wc l tn s ct ca b lc v wc = 1/RC. T phng trnh (2.1) ta c: F(s) = 1/(1+s/wc) Hm truyn ca b dao ng iu khin bng in p VCO l: G(s) = Kv/s Hm truyn t pha ca tn hiu vo so vi pha ca tn hiu hi tip VCO l: 2(s)/1(s) = T(s) = Kd F(s)G(s) / (1+ Kd F(s)G(s)) 0(s)/1(s) = S(s) = 1/(1+ Kd F(s) G(s)) T(s) = Kd F(s)G(s) / (1+ Kd F(s)G(s)) Thay cc gi tr hm vo phng trnh (2.4) ta c: T(s) = 1/( 1+ s/F(s)KvKd) = 1/( 1+ Ks(1+s/wc)) (2.7) Vi K=1/KvKd ; 0, 1, 2: ln lt l pha ca tn hiu ra b nhn, tn hiu vo b nhn, tn hiu ra ca khi VCO. T(s) = 1/(1+Ks + Ks2/wc) = 1/(1+ 2s/wp + (s/wp)2) = wp2/ (s2 + 2swp + wp2) Vi : 2 = Kwp = wp /KvKd wp = (wc KvKd)0.5 : vi wp l tn s ct ca vng kha pha wc : Tn s ct ca b lc thng thp mch n nh [9] ta chn wp sao cho tha mn: wp /2 < 1/20 Ftn hiu vo Nh vy hm truyn t ca PLL tng ng vi hm truyn ca b lc bc 2. Cc im cc nm na mt phng tri ca trc ta phc, thng qua cc im cc d dng thy c n nm trong min n nh. Cho tn s ct ti im bin gim -3dB, th vo phng trnh (2.8), gii phng trnh ny ta tm c bng thng ca PLL l: Wpll = wp (1-22 + (2-42 +44)0.5)0.5 Vi A l bin tn hiu vo PLL, no l h s cng sut nhiu a vo PLL, tnh tch phn bt nh ny ta tm c lch chun l: = n0wp/(4A2) T s SNR = A /(2noBn) Bn = wp/2( Bn: bng thng khi c nhiu thm vo PLL) La chn cc thng s ca PLL nh sau: H s Damper = 0.707, tn hiu vo c tn s l 30MHz, Kd = 5V/rad, Kv = 0.1MHz.rad/V.
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2

(2.2)

Khi ny c nhim v loi b cc thnh phn tn s cao a t b nhn n. (2.3) (2.4) (2.5) (2.6)

(2.8)

(2.9)

Ta xc nh lch chun ca tn hiu ra VCO v pha ca n theo cng thc 2.10. (2.10) (2.11) (2.12) (2.13)

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

S dng mt b lc thng thp LPF bc 1 (Butterworth) c tn s ct fc = 1MHz, suy hao di chn l 20dB/decade. Tn s ct ca b lc LPF c chn sao cho m bo lc nhiu sinh ra trong qa trnh tch pha v tn s ng thi cng phi m bo thi gian p ng ca b lc PLL ngn nht (p ng nhanh nht), n nh v di iu khin rng [12]. 2.2.3. p ng pha ca vng kha pha p ng ca PLL l rt nhanh (n nh 0.4s) v tng ng vi p ng ca b lc bc 2, gn nh l 5.5%. Nhng kt qu ny tng ng vi hm truyn t tuyn tnh ca PLL bc 2 (xem hnh 5). 2.3. Dng phng php so snh kt hp PLL tch tn hiu chng ln
Hnh 5. p ng pha ti u ra VCO theo thi gian

Sau khi thu, tn hiu c ly mu v lu vo b nh. B nh gip PLL kim tra tn s v pha ca tn hiu. Qu trnh gii iu ch l bao gm vic tch pha v tn s ca hai tn hiu thu bng mt PLL, nhn tn hiu thu vi tn hiu sin cng tn s v pha ca b VCO. Sau mi lc tch tn hiu. S khi h thng dng gii iu ch chui tn hiu ASK (xem hnh 6).
RX DetectionRX Ly mu & lu b nh PLL

Khi phc li Chui tn hiu

Gii iu ch

LPF
First Sig

PLL

+
LPF

Khi phc li Chui tn hiu

Gii iu ch

Second Sig

Hnh 6. S khi b gii iu ch cho hai chui tn hiu b chng ln nhau

2.4. Dng phng php so snh kt hp PLL tch tn hiu b chng ln 2.4.1. Chy chng trnh Chng trnh c vit bng ngn ng Matlab, thc hin qu trnh m phng bng mt s chng trnh sau: Function PllVCO.m, Promain.m, Dpll.m. Trong chng
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

trnh, cc tn hiu thu ASK c m phng vi thi gian chng ln t 1/3bit n 80/3 bit, thi gian mt bit l 0.5us. C tt c l 30bit tn hiu, trong 15bit tn hiu c ch v 15 bit 0. 2.4.2. Kt qu m phng, lc tch hai tn hiu chng ln

Giai dieu che = pp so sanh- lan 1(tin hieu 1) Giai dieu che=pp so sanh-lan1(tin hieu 1) 1 1 Tong so loi Tong so loi 0 Tong so loi 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

0.5

0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 So bit chong lan So bit chong lan Giai dieu che=PP so sanh-lan 2 (tin hieu 1) Giai dieu che=PP so sanh-lan2(tin hieu 2) 1 1 Tong so loi 0.5 0

0.5

Kt qu nh hnh 7. -0.5 Phng php so snh tch c -1 0 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 So bit chong lan So bit chong lan tn hiu u tin trn vn khng Hnh 7. Kt qu m phng tch hai tn hiu b chng ln sinh li, cn tn hiu th hai pht khi c s sai khc bin 3dB, sai khc tn s 10KHz sinh li bt th 17. Nh vy c (F1==30MHz, F2=30.01MHz) n 16bit b chng ln trong tn hiu th hai c x l chnh xc khng c li no, tng ng thi gian b chng ln l 8us. 2.5. M phng cc my bay ct v h cnh ti sn bay Nng: 2.5.1. Chng trnh m phng: Cc chng trnh con gm: Function Cal_colliss.m, convertfligthID.m, DisplayID.m. 2.5.2. Kt qu chng trnh m phng Chng trnh m phng cc tn hiu thu c ti my thu TCAS t ti sn bay Nng, cc a danh vng tnh khng sn bay ch c tnh cht m phng. Cc tham s nh gi ln lt trn cc kt qu m phng cho 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 ,12, 15, 18 v 20 ln/chuyn cng ct h cnh. Chng trnh c vit bng ngn ng Matlab 7.8, kt qu m phng cc my bay bay ngu nhin v trn khng gian 3 chiu th hin trn hnh 8. S ln/chuyn ct h cnh c chng Hnh 8. Bn tnh khng vng ct trnh thc hin chy ngu nhin trong 10 v h cnh ti sn bay Nng ln, t cc s liu kt qu (n=10 kt qu cho mt ln chuyn) tnh c cc gi tr trung bnh, gi tr lch chun mu iu chnh. Ta chn mc ngha l = 0.1, tra bng phn b chun Student tng ng tm c gi tr t{1-/2 ; n-1}= t{0.95 ; 9} = 1.383, ta tnh c gi tr cc i v cc tiu ca cc tham s cn nh gi [2], [8]. Da vo chng trnh bng tnh Excel tm cc gi tr
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

thng k ton. Cc s liu v trn th hnh 9 l gi tr trung bnh s phn trm tn hiu tr li b chng ln nhau.

Hnh 9. Biu so snh hai kt qu theo s % tn hiu b va chm sau khi x l bng vng kha pha PLL vi trng hp khng dng PLL

3. Kt qu v tho lun Nh trnh by trn v phng php tch tn hiu b chng ln khng ng b nhau v mt thi gian. Trong tt c cc trng hp m phng trn th kt qu ca phng php so snh ln th hai kt hp gii iu ch v vng kha pha PLL cho kt qu tt nht. Nu p dng theo mt s tiu chun ca ICAO, vi lch tn <10ppm, sai s thi gian sn ln, xung <20% th phng php so snh khng thy xut hin li no. Tuy nhin cng ch dng li vic tch c 16 bit b chng ln trn tt c cc trng hp v s nhn dng bin tn hiu, tm kim mc ngng tch sng threshold trong chng trnh cha x l t ng (thay i theo tng mc c kt qu tt nht) nn s nhn dng sai khc bin cn hn ch. Vn nhn dng s khc bit v bin l rt kh khn nn phng php so snh cng ch dng li hoc cng ch tch c mt tn hiu c bin ln hn m thi. Vi kt qu nghin cu trn, h thng gim st TCAS khc phc c mt phn hin tng nhiu a ng hay cc tn hiu thu b chng ln nhau, gip cho ATC c th gim thi gian tr gia ct cnh v h cnh. Gim khong phn cch gia cc my bay v c bit l c th cnh bo, gim st tt c cc chuyn bay trong vng tip cn h cnh ti sn bay Nng. 4. Kt lun Qua nghin cu phng php tch tn hiu dng PLL kt hp so snh cho kt qu kh quan trong tt c cc trng hp, tuy nhin cn mt s vn cn quan tm gii quyt sau ny: - Trong chng trnh cha s dng mc ngng lt threshold t ng (t ng
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

iu chnh mc), nn pht trin thm phng php nhn dng s sai khc bin t ng v t ng iu chnh h s ngng lt c nguyn l ging kiu mch AGC trong thc t phn bit s sai khc bin , cho php nng cao hiu qu, c tnh chnh xc hn . - Khi hai tn hiu b chng ln nhau th vic tch bin l kh nht, nn chng trnh cho kt qu li bit cng ph thuc vo s chnh lch bin . y ch xt n s chnh lch 3dB trong khong phn cch <3.1km, trong thc t th bin nh hng bi nhiu tham s khc nh nhiu nn, nhiu do phn x, suy hao trn ng truyn v cng sut pht trn cc my bay c khc nhau, hay khc nhau v ch hi nh hi gn v hi xa bng k thut pht cng sut ln b xen k. Tt c cc nh hng ny lm thay i bin tn hiu nhiu hn 3dB nh nghin cu. Bn cnh cc phng php t khng ch hin tng nhiu a ng ca TCAS nh gii hn gc qut (ch quan tm n cc my bay trong rng tia qut), pht cng sut ln/b xen k [13], dng k thut xung n hay k thut pht hin mc tiu khi cng sut bp sng chnh (tia Sum) ln hn cng sut bp sng bin sn (tia Diff), th cc phng php lc tch cc chui tn hiu b chng ln bng k thut vng kha pha PLL thu c cc kt qu khng nh. l c th gim thi gian tr, thi gian ch ct h cnh, nng cao an ton v hiu qu cng tc iu hnh bay. Vi kt qu m phng chng trnh (xem phn 3.1), cho php gim khong phn cch xung cn 712.5m, theo tiu chun ICAO khong phn cch gia hai ng bng l 1000m [10], [11] nn c th cho php ct cnh, h cnh trn hai ng bng song song m khng c s xung t (va chm) tn hiu. Khi trang b TCAS trn my bay th vi khong cch m bo cho cc phi cng c c cc thng tin cnh bo chnh xc hn khi cc my bay bay gn nhau hn. ng thi thng qua nghin cu ny, ta c c s trin khai mt h thng mi TCAS thay th cho cc RADAR th cp (SSR) trong vic gim st cc mc tiu vng tip cn (bn knh <40km), v h thng TCAS rt gn nh, d dng lp t v di chuyn, c bit l gi thnh rt thp so vi mt h thng SSR cng tnh nng, kh nng hin th v cnh bo rt linh hot so vi SSR, n c th khuyn co phi cng (nu trang b trn my bay) hoc kim sot vin khng lu (nu t ti ATC) cc tnh hung va chm tim tng c th xy ra m bo qu trnh khng lu c thng sut, hiu qu v an ton nht. y cng l c s tin ti xy dng cc trung tm ATC bn t ng, gim st dn ng hon ton bng cc thit b k thut hin i. TI LIU THAM KHO [1] Nguyn c Luyn (2003), C s thng k ca RADAR, NXB Qun i Nhn dn. [2] Hong Th Tu (2005), L thuyt tn hiu RADAR v cc phng php x l, Ti liu dng cho hc vin cao hc, HVKTQS, H Ni.
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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(37).2010

[3] Merrill I. Skolnik (2006), RADAR handbook, Naval Research Laboratory. [4] Jonh Thales (6/2008), ADS-B and Mode-S Enhancements HCM AACC, Thales Corp. [5] Jonh Thales (5/2009), RMS970S Enrout and Approach , Thales Corp. [6] Harri Truline (2000),Introduction to TCAS II Version 7, US Department of Transportation FAA. [7] James K. Kuchar (2007), TCAS , Lincoln Laboratory Journal. [8] Steven T. Karris (2004), Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, Orchard Publications. [9] Brian Daniels B. Eng (2008), Analysis and Design of high order digital Phase Locked Loops, Hamish Hamilton,London. [10] Annex10 (2001),Comparision for SSR mode S, ICAO. [11] Annex10 (1996),Procedure for Air Navigation Service, ICAO. [12] http://www.delroy.com/pll [13] http://www.icao.int/

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