MRCOG part 1 RECALLS SEPTEMBER 2008

Paper 1 & 2 EMQs In a country wide survey, 10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: Ta) the sample of patients is a true random sample Tb) all practices had an equal chance of selection Tc) all patients had an equal chance of selection Fd) two siblings could not have been selected Te) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample A lady is about to deliver and you are about to give her a pudendal block.. a) ant division of ant. remi of S2-4 b) ant division of post.rami of S2-4 b)genitofemoral nerve c) post division of ant. remi of S2-4 d) post division of post. remi of S2-4 e) sensory supply of perineal nerve f) inferior rectal nerve g) ischial tuberosity h)ischial spine Q1 -wht is the root value of pudendal nerve? Q2- wht nerve supplies lower part of vagina (I think)? Q3 –why do u give local skin infiltration before episiotomy? If we take the day of fertilization as Day’0’ then… Day2 Day4 Day 8 Day 10 Day12 Day 14

Day 18 Day20 Day 22 Day 24 Day 26 Day 42 Day 56 Day 70 Q4-Which represents 4 cell stage ? Q5- conceptus implants completely? Q6-feable hrt pulse seen on ultrasound? Q7- vertebra form completely? Table: on different values given for deaths due to maternal mortality with direct and indirect causes as well as # of days from delivery to the cause of death Deaths due to placenta previa and hypovolemia x @ e.g 20 days,10 days,8days etc suicide(with previous hx of psychiatric illness) crash victim diabetic neuropathy two more causes given with values

Different numbers were given in options Q8-the number of late maternal deaths due to indirect causes? Q9-number of maternal deaths due to direct causes? Calculate Numbers needed to treat from a drug trial on osteoporosis: (Q frm EMQ book) Options

25 50 100 250 300 400 1000 others Q10-N1=10,n2=5,n3=9990,n4=9995 Q11-N1=50,N2=25,n3=9950,N4=9975 FSH Oxytocin GH Prolactin Rennin ACTH etc Q12-which is a protein with alpha and beta subunits ? Q13 – which stimulates mineralocorticoid activity/relsease? Q14- which hormone is produced by posterior pituatory? Folic acid Magnesium Calcium Vit b1-B12 given Q15- which vitamin is required in 400mcgs at preconception? Q16-which vitamins absorption is hampered by oxalic acid & phytates? Insulin & Glucagon excretion Decrease decrease Increase increase Increase decrease Deacrease increase

Nochange no change Nochange increase Nochange decrease Etc Q-17-on taking a large protein meal? Folowing are risk factors for cancer Q-18- HCC – ans Hep B Q19- Skin cancer-ans UV radiation Q20- Cervical/uterine cancer-ans HPV Q21- Breast cancer-ans BRCA1 mutation (Repeats from march 2008) Hormone receptors for following are located in a) protein kinase nuclease receptor b) nucleae transcription receptor c) G-linked cell membrane receptor d) G-linked golgi apparatus receptor e) Protein complex intra cytoplasmic receptor f) Multiligand receptor in cell membrane etc g) Protein Tyrosine kinase activity receptor on cell membrane Q22- Insulin Q23-PG E2 Q24-Estrogen Q25-Progesterone

Q26-A family with one kid presumed to have cystic fibrosis however cftr gene mutation was not detected. Family members willing to give samples

Invasive diagnostics can be applied to reach final results by? Q27-you have Guthrie spot of their son how will u diagnose him for cystic fibrosis? Q28.parents are cousins with 1st degree relatives having cystic fibrosis.mother wants definite diagnosis as she is 11wks and wants to know diagnosis for her baby.families in uk with cystic fibrosis how will u find f508? Options: Pcr Fish test Chromosomal linkage analysis Telomer analysis Sum hereditary crosslinkage chromosomal option (dnt remember) Screen for some known gene mutation Sweat test Saliva test screening test for following Q29-alpha thalessemia Q30-folic acid deficiency Q31-iron deficiency anemia Q32-(one more i think!) options hbelectrophorisis mcv mchc MCh serum iron paul-bennel test etc Q33-which is the commonest cause of non-dysjunction at meiosis? trisomy 21 .if needed.

..PUDENDAL NERVE ORIGIN.EMQ NERVE SUPPLYING PERIANAL SKIN.....INSULIN ..LA DURING EPISIOTOMY IS GIVEN FOR?????.....folic acid anemia and...EMQ EMQ receptors for insulin prostaglandins estogen progesteron primary syphilis in early untreated period options syphilis treponemal antibody test syphilis hemaglutination test syphilis immobilization test emq traetment of chlamedia .......PROSTAGLANDIN.......PROGESTERONE.................EMQ RECEPTORS FOR ESTROGEN..Q-34 which defect is associated with 60-70% cleft palate and cleft palate? trisomy 13 or 18 or KF syndrome all about cystic fibrosis screening tests for a-thallesemia trait iron deficiency amemia.. early untrated syphylis emq congenital adrenal h icreased ? SUBSTANCE ..bacterial vaginosis emq pre malignant conditions emq statistics calculate n to be traetad emq diagnosis of iron defecincy anaemia folic acid ..

.plasmodium )?????? EMQ .WHICH vit or mineral absorbtion is affected by phytate (no iron in the choices MCQ citric acid cycle fatty acid oxidation ???? genetic imprinting ?????stylomastoid foramen spinal cord in smooth muscle cells /regeneration possible /actin &myosin present/lengh of fibers repeated 2 mcqs u/s and radiation effect apoptosis 2 mcqs about hyperplasia pelvic splanchnic nerve Paper 1 & 2 EMQs A lady is about to deliver and you are about to give her a pudendal block..rami of S2-4 .. cyclosporine . remi of S2-4 b) ant division of post.cd8 cells .cause of post operative infection ??pseudomonas EMQ .listeria. EMQ 36 WS PRIMI GRAVIDA had flu like sympt .mitochondrial dna .skIn rash .. brady cardia .choose the cuase (all viruses . the uterer(2 mcq) .emq embryology 4 cells ? day vertebra formation mcq about DIGITALIS..3 repeated statistics mcqs.... the baby was born jaundiced .bacteria....why we do local infiltration + pudendal block EMQ .. hepatosplenomegaly . a) ant division of ant.

remi of S2-4 e) sensory supply of perineal nerve f) inferior rectal nerve g) ischial tuberosity h)ischial spine Q1 -wht is the root value of pudendal nerve? Q2.vertebra form completely? Table: on different values given for deaths due to maternal mortality with direct and indirect causes as well as # of days from delivery to the cause of death Deaths due to placenta previa and hypovolemia x @ e.g 20 days. remi of S2-4 d) post division of post.8days etc suicide(with previous hx of psychiatric illness) crash victim diabetic neuropathy .b)genitofemoral nerve c) post division of ant.wht nerve supplies lower part of vagina (I think)? Q3 –why do u give local skin infiltration before episiotomy? If we take the day of fertilization as Day’0’ then… Day2 Day4 Day 8 Day 10 Day12 Day 14 Day 18 Day20 Day 22 Day 24 Day 26 Day 42 Day 56 Day 70 Q4-Which represents 4 cell stage ? Q5.conceptus implants completely? Q6-feable hrt pulse seen on ultrasound? Q7.10 days.

two more causes given with values Different numbers were given in options Q8-the number of late maternal deaths due to indirect causes? Q9-number of maternal deaths due to direct causes? Calculate Numbers needed to treat from a drug trial on osteoporosis: (Q frm EMQ book) Options 25 50 100 250 300 400 1000 others Q10-N1=10.n2=5.N2=25.n3=9950.which hormone is produced by posterior pituatory? Folic acid Magnesium Calcium Vit b1-B12 given .n4=9995 Q11-N1=50.N4=9975 FSH Oxytocin GH Prolactin Rennin ACTH etc Q12-which is a protein with alpha and beta subunits ? Q13 – which stimulates mineralocorticoid activity/relsease? Q14.n3=9990.

which vitamin is required in 400mcgs at preconception? Q16-which vitamins absorption is hampered by oxalic acid & phytates? Insulin & Glucagon excretion Decrease decrease Increase increase Increase decrease Deacrease increase Nochange no change Nochange increase Nochange decrease Etc Q-17-on taking a large protein meal? Folowing are risk factors for cancer Q-18.Insulin Q23-PG E2 Q24-Estrogen Q25-Progesterone .Breast cancer-ans BRCA1 mutation (Repeats from march 2008) Hormone receptors for following are located in a) protein kinase nuclease receptor b) nucleae transcription receptor c) G-linked cell membrane receptor d) G-linked golgi apparatus receptor e) Protein complex intra cytoplasmic receptor f) Multiligand receptor in cell membrane etc g) Protein Tyrosine kinase activity receptor on cell membrane Q22.Q15.Skin cancer-ans UV radiation Q20.Cervical/uterine cancer-ans HPV Q21.HCC – ans Hep B Q19.

Q26-A family with one kid presumed to have cystic fibrosis however cftr gene mutation was not detected.parents are cousins with 1st degree relatives having cystic fibrosis.invasive testing will be done ( she is preg 11 ws) which test b.which test you will do c.mother wants definite diagnosis as she is 11wks and wants to know diagnosis for her baby. Invasive diagnostics can be applied to reach final results by? Q27-you have Guthrie spot of their son how will u diagnose him for cystic fibrosis? Q28.their child blood is ready for guathri test . Family members willing to give samples if needed. which test will reveal the 405 mutation for families in great braiten any one have suggetions more options were given for these qs karyotyping comparative genomic hybridization flourecent ???? MCQ .families in uk with cystic fibrosis how will u find f508? Options: Pcr Fish test Chromosomal linkage analysis Telomer analysis Sum hereditary crosslinkage chromosomal option (dnt remember) Screen for some known gene mutation Sweat test Saliva test EMQ 1 ST PAPER WHICH NERVE SUPPLIES PERIANAL SKIN EMQ 2 CYSTIC FIBROSIS a .the relatives are willing to be tested .

... mcq : the embryological origin of peritoneum... the following are bacteria cryptococcus ...increase with preg mcq : drug interaction methotrexate ..propranolol smooth endoplasmic reticulum anal canal smooth muscles (2 mcq . mcq mitosis miosis mcq : the follwing are structral abnormalities of chromosomes mcq : ?......histoplasmosis.candida.2 ) primitive streak fetal circulation ??microtubules digitalis mcq . sulphonamides mcq :arterial and mean blood pressure mcq : causes of alkalosis mcq : the folloing are types of cells with their secretion ? endothelial cells heparin ?mast cells igE ? plasma celle (i am not sure of the exact coupling) mcq at 20 ws gestation rbcs are made in liver lymph nodes spleen bone marrow mcq about pudendal nerve mcq ischiorectal fossa mcq ureter in abdomen mcq ureter in pelvis mcq foramen of winslow (in detailes) .....paper1 .....

thoracic vessels..macrocytic anaemia.?drug used 3. 5.specific immunity within 15 days.mcq kallman syndrome in men mcq hcg mcq trophoplasts mcq ? all types of cells in islets of langerhans and their products mcq the following are premalignant conditions: paget disease ..10% due 2 inflam.marfan recessive . 9..morning sickness.(repeat mcq endotoxins or exotoxins ( i am not sure) MCQ CORPUS LUTEUM mianly endothelial clls secerets inhibin function decrease after 12 ws MCQ INHIBIN MARCH 2008 cystic fibrosis guthic spot test receptors in apoptosis caspa arias stella reaction blood picture in PET and in preg is inflam like 1.acne ..EMQ on vitamins-xerophthalmia..EMQ complex partial seiizure gum hypertrophy.syphilitic aneu.?? 7..EMQ lining epithelium of ureter.MCQ ovulatory DUB 10. EMQ montoux rection.EMQ HEPATOCELLULAR carcinoma.MCQ concerning aneurysm.MCQ rubella incubation period.EMQ paclitaxel carboplatin side effects 2.?? 8.facial coarsening.....vit K TO BE given.. 6..EMQ oestrogen progesterone receptor site 4.

whichtest you will carry on the blood -graph with hormones of the endometrial cycle -citric acid cycle (graph) microsatellites alleles .she is preg and will do amniocentesis a.cd4 -nk cells -down syndrome -pulmonary embolism anal canal -vagina -ovary phenylketonuria inhibin passive transport erythropoietin renin hcg levels syphylis rubella chlamydia hormone dependent malignancies(testicular carc.) pigd missed abortion MCQ congenital heart emq crown \heel lenghth at birth crown/rump length 6 cm =? weeks .if a mother has a child with cystic fibrosis ._sertoli leydig-clear cellcarc. which test to be done (every possibility mentioned) b. all relatives will volunteer to do gutic spot test .ofkidney-thyroid carc.

concenteration gradiant molecular size 2following tissue are capable of regeneration spinal cord liver epedermis myocardium bone marrow 3 double blind trial delliosion of HCG in the urine pregnancy test about the q APOPTOSIS and capsase . toxoplasma . immune responses EMQ type of hpv causing benign wart type of hpv causing cancer cx MCQ down syndrome associated with duodenal atresia true associated with ambig genetalia false only maternal chromosome F . hpv .q methods of disinfection and BOWIE DICK test where is source to study these subjects? q progesterone receptors q about progesterone receptors syphilis .about 10 questions statistics plrese does anyone remember the q about ring Y chromosome q about sattellite alleles ?? passive diffussion not depend on .

testosteron q about:by transvaginal u/s yolk sac apear in which week many questions in genetic about pcr.estrogen.wart answers 16 or 18 or 6.tumour like mass q about voiding presure q about ca requirement in pregnancy q about test used to diagnose folic acid deficency q about thalasthmia q about cervical ectropion cells i choose columner cell .fish test q about laser q in pathology about totipotent cell.only paternal chromosome F MCQ oogonia miosis starts at puberty miosis before mitosis during S phase chromosomes are doubled the most diagnostic test to be done on amniocentesis gautic spot test what test you do with the blood sample emq about vitamins (hyperemesis) i wrote vit B6 and (xerophthalmia) q about endometrial hyperplasia q about side effect of drug (carboplatin)-(taxal) q about arias stella if its specific in pregnancy q about chlamydia q about varicella q about hpv .transverse abdominus ms attached to lumbar transverse process -cut s1 lead to autonomic bladder .lh.11 q about hcg conc in pregnancy citric acid cycle diagram hormones diagram fsh.mri contraindicated in early pregnancy q about stallete instability in dna .

enzymes were options complement causes 26 b thalasemia detection 27 folate def detection . one option had intranuclear kinase or somethin 16anticonvulsant with description of phenytoin 17vitamin deficiency causin hyperemesis 18 .macrocytic anemia 19 -xerophtalmia 20 cystic fibrosis 3 emqs 24 citric acid cyle diagrm .erythropoeitin and renin q from john duthie 3complications of cisplatin 4 paclitaxel 5statistics -std error calculation 7 mean in a normal distribution 8occipito frontal diametr 9hcg titre at detection by tvs 10 at 3 days aftr fertilization 11crl in scan is 60mm what is gestational age 12crl at term ? 13 parietal sutur is between 14kuffer cells are -phagocytic 15 estradiol receptors 16 progestrone receptors -we know that thes are intra nuclear but there were 2 confusin options with intranuclear plz refer this in depth .q about cancer which are hormone dependent -breast -prostate -thyroid q about guthre test q about cystic fibrosis and diagnosis -swet test -karyotyping-fish test q about disinfection and sterelization q about complication of contraceptive pills emqs 1lining of ureter 2.

local malignant i think 30tumor like –hamaroma March 2007 Copper IUD mode of action: sperm motility microthrombi MRI: ionising radiation? no adverse effect on fetus? detect fetal cardiac abn? USG: probe: array of magnets? doppler to detect fetal heart movement? facial hair increased by: oestrogen? testerone? spirolactone? characterics: pass thro' origin? slope = 0? pass thro the mean? unaffected by changing scale? unaffected by changing dependent variable? Copper containing IUDs: F should be changed every year F have a high incidence of actinomycoces colonization than plastic devices T Cause a relative increased in ectopic pregnancy T have been implicated as a cause of fatal infection in pregnancies F do not cause menorrhagia Comments: Inert devices can be left in place until the menopause.29 basal cell ca . depending on the make. but copper devices need renewal every 3-5 years. because of the gradual absorption of copper. Copper IUCDs produce local .

the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order . The progestogen intrauterine system (IUS) reduces menstrual flow and often dysmenorrhoea. positive predictive value. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. accuracy. By advanced computer processing. including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. that of ectopics is not. Pelvic infection with actinomyces organisms is most likely with a plastic device that has been in situ for some years. preterm labour and antepartum haemorrhage. the energy content of the nuclei changes. it is possible to build up a three-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue. While the rate of intrauterine pregnancy is reduced.stand "to attention". Which of the following is/are true concerning MRI? A It involves ionizing radiation (False) B Has no recognised side effects on the foetus (True) C The pregnant mother should be turned to her left side during scanning (True) D Tissue with high hydrogen concentrations are difficult to distinguish False) E Blood vessels appear white on scanning (False) Comments: Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. a resonance wave is emitted when the nuclei return to their previous state. but most pregnancies are uncomplicated and the device is delivered with the placenta. even the linear regression Acute UTI in pregnancy . When submitted to pulses of radio waves. Hence. Increased menstrual loss may be caused by increased fibrinolytic activity which occurs round the IUCD.[/color:febed2ebf4][/b:febed2ebf4]--------------------------------------------------------------------Many stats about sensitivity. When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field. pathological changes can be documented. After the pulse. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected. If an IUCD is left in place there is a slight risk of intrauterine infection. there is a relative increase in ectopic pregnancy after IUCD insertion. The nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are able to act as microscopic compass needles.concentrations of copper salts which apparently give some protection against bacterial contamination. In this manner.

rarely symptomatic ?F Copper IUD mode of action: ?T sperm motility ?T microthrombi ?T intervent ovary movement MRI: ionising radiation F no adverse effect on fetus T detect fetal cardiac abn ?F ( I think it will be very small) USG: probe: array of magnets? ?F doppler to detect fetal heart movement T facial hair increased by: oestrogen?F testerone?T spirolactone F ( I think it is used for treating hirsutism) Mycobacteria ?T strict ?? *(nor sure which word they use ) aerobic ------------------------------------------------------------------48---if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left(sep2000) a-the mean is same as 50th centile— f b-the same no of values lie on either side of the median.f e-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal-t -concerning the ablity of a test to predict disease a-sensitivity is the ablity to predict those with disease correctly T b--sensitivity is the same as positive predictive value F c-the confidence interval must cross 1 to prove significance t (NOT A MUST as CI at 1 is perfect ) d-an odds ratio of 1.3 implies the risk of 33% f e--an odds ratio of 2 indicates a halving of risk F .t c-the mode is equal to the median.f d-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with another.

in the presence of pheochromocytoma—T F-DURING ACUTE HAEMORRHAGE— 3.promotes hepatic gluconeogenesisb.suppress uptake of glucose by musclec—promotes protein breakdownd—promotes fat breakdowne-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue6-Actinomycete israelii .is inhibited by high cellular conc of ATPe-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited5-GLUCOCORTICOIDS a.In the pathogenesis of thrombosis a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation— b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2-c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction-d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation-e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation— --4.immediately following a myocardial infarction— e.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-SUCCESSFUL LACTATION IS a-maintained by estrogen -b-maintained by progesterone -c-initiated by prolactin surge-d-maintained by human placental lactogen e-inhibited by dopamine – 2-THE RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA INCREASES a-during sleep— b-when the nerves to adrenal glands are stimulated— c-when the blood sugar rises— d.CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO LACTIC ACID a-occurs in single enzymatic reaction— b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells— C-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle d.

sickle cell anaemiaE. hairy ear rims. glucose-&pbosphate dehydrogenase defiency. d-the first polar bodye-spermatozoa10-osteoprosis is associated with a-an increase in uncalcified bone matrix(osteoid tissue b-prolonged oestrogen therapy— . 9-in human a haploid no of chromosomes is found in) a-red blood cellsb-blastocystsc-primary oocytes-. Hurler syndrome.is usually resistant to penicillin— 7-Following substances increase the serum uric acid concentration( a-colchicine-b-chlorothiazide-c-allopurinol-d-probenecid-e-phenylbutazone— 7--THE FOLLOWING ARE INHERITED AS AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE CONDITIONS A. B.— 8-. Genes on sex chromosomes are responsible for the inheritance of ( A. ahondroplasia. – D. homocystinuria. tuberous sclerosis.1-Is a fungus— 2.— C.-D. defective colour vision. E. b-phenylketonuria-C.is a commensal in vagina-5.forms yellow granules in pus – 3-is a commensal in mouth-4. Von Giek l disease.

when a man has hemophilia a. His new born child is likely to require an urgent blood transfusion e.is an antiandrogen— b-does not stimulate ovulation directly— c-can produce visual disturbances-d-is generally prescribed throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle— e-in the treatment of anovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy— 13--if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left a-the mean is same as 50th centile b-the same no of values lie on either siDe of the median c-the mode is equal to the mediand-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with anothere-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal15. 25% of his sons expected to be carriers c.c-a normal histological bone structured-bone fracture— e-irregularity of epiphyseal plates— 11-THE FOLLOWING HAVE an anti-emetic effect a-hyoscine bromide— b-morphine sulphate— c-chlorpropamide-d-promethazine hydrochloride— e-perphenazine— 12CLOMIFENE CITRATE a. Good medical control of blood definition reduce the risk of this condition in his children d. His sister has 50% probability of being a carrier 16.THE INTERSTITIAL CELL (LEYDIG) OF THE TESTIS a--secrete seminal fluid— b-are stimulated by LH – c-secrete androgen binding protein— . 50% of his daughters would not expected to be carriers – b.

3 DIPHOSPHOGLYCERATE a-is present in higher conc in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes-b-binds more avidly to haemoglobin A than to haemoglobin E— c-increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen— d-is a phospholipid e.is synthesised by the pentose phosphate pathway 18-HYPERKALEMIA IS A CHARACTERSTIC FINDING IN TINDALL a-primary aldosteronism b-treatment with Spironolactonec-hyperparathyroidismd-ACTH secreting tumours of bronchuse-renal failure19.d-secrete fructose – e-produce testosterone T in response to LH -17--CONCERNING VIRUSES a-the core of every virus contain RNA— b-they usually produce intracellelur toxin causing cell death c-antibodies are directed against capsular protein— d.they can be grown in intact cells-e-interferone are synthetic antiviral substances— 18-THE FOLLOWING ARE CYTOTOXIC ALKYLATING AGENTS( a-cyclophosphamide— b-mercaptopurine-c-chlorambucil-d-fluorouracil-e-methotrexate19-2.s chorea is transmitted by a dominant gene— b-phenylketonuria is transmitted by a recessive gene— c-haemophillia ia an autosomal dominant condition-d.Von Willebrand disease is a sex linked condition— e-cystic fibrosis is transmitted by an x linked recessive gene-- .CONCERNING INHERITABLE DISEASES A-huntigdon .

in tissue pigmentation the following are associated a-kernicterus and conjugated billirubin b-addison disease and increased cutaneous melanin c-melanosis coli and bile pigmentsd—wilson disease and copper deposition in the corneae-corpus leuteum and carotenoids22-acquired diverticular disease of the colon a-is present in at least 15% of Caucasian over the age of 50 yearsb-is due to congenital abnormality of the bowel wall c-is associated with increased intraluminal pressure— d-is associated with muscular thickening— e-may result in intestinal obstruction— 23 stored blood which is to be used for transfusion— a-kept at -4 degree b-must be used in 1 week – c-is tested for compliment content before transfusion -d-may be used for platelet replacement – e-contains an acid anticoagulant – 24.in uncomplicated homozygous beta thalasemia there is a-hypochromasia-b-a reduction in haemoglobin A— c-an increase in haemoglobin F— d.20-Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: a) carcinoma of the endometrium – b) osteosarcoma – c) basal cell carcinoma – d) carcinoma of the cervixe) choriocarcinoma21.RED CELL SICKLING e-presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow32-The following are capable of cellular regeneration a)spinal cord b)liver parenchyma – c)gut epithelium – d)kidney ??? .

give rise to chronic granulomatous lesions-e.are necessary for cytochrome synthesise-are absorbed predominantly by the ileum40-.infestation may affect the uterine cervix d.KETONE BODIES .--the conjugation of billirubin .is prevalent in china— c.plasma cortisol conc is raised – c-there may be excessive secretion of 17 hydroxy progesterone-d.infestation predisposes to carcinoma— 38.sodium retension is characterstic – e-blood catecholamine conc are increased – 37-.is a snail – b. B-Include acetone c-are water soluble -d.SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM a. a-can be utilised by theadult brain—.IN CONGENITAL ADRENAL CORTICAL HYPERPLASIA a-commonest deficiency is C21 b.e)bone marrow— 33-during the development of female reproductive system a-primordial germ cells arise in yolk sac-b-ovarian development is dependent upon oestrogen activity-c-the paramesonephric duct give rise to the cervix-d-the greater vestibular glands arise from the urogenital sinus-e-differentiation of external genitalia is dependent upon ovarian activity-36.are synthesised in skeletal muscles— e-can be utilised during starvation— 39-IRON IONS a-diffuse passively into erythropoitic cellsb-bind to transferinc-are taken up by hepatocytesd.

b.synthesis is stimulated by oestradiolc-is a steroid molecule-F . inversions— .is mitogenic-.in radiotherapy( a-1Gray is eq to 1joule per kg b.the skin usually recieve a greater dose of radiation than underlying tissuec-the major effect of radiation energy is to damage the cytoplasm of the celld-cells in tissue which are hypoxic are more vulnerable to radiatione-radiation induced changes in tissues may take 6 weeks to develop-42--osteomalacia is characterised by a-mineralization of the periostium – b-deposition of uncalcifiedbone matrix -c-normal osteobastic activity -d-increase capillary fragility e-normal calcification of bone— 43-progesterone a-is a C21 compound b-synthesised by the ovary before ovulationc-increases ventilationd. deletions -b..a-takes place in hepatocytesb-is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferasec-is inhibited by phenobarbitoned-renders it water solublee-is impaired in acute billiary obstruction41.raises BMRe-binds to corticotrophin –binding globulin44-EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR A. d.is found in endometrium-e.binds to receptor on the nuclear membrane45-the following are structural aberrations of chromosomes: a..

2.the following are characters of hypoxic cell death: .2.the value of mode is 1.5.3.Messenger RNA a-Synthesis is dependent on RNA polymerase – b-is an exact copy of sense DNA— c-Contains exons – d-Is measured by Western blotting – e-translation occurs in the nucleus 47-.8.2.BETA SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS MAY— A. .c. polyploidye translocations— 46-.the mean lies to the left of medianc-in the series. the mode is 2 d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution – e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed50-Contraindicated in breast feeding— A-POPs B-BromocriptineC-chloroqunined-?? e-warfarine—F 51-Contraindicated with kidney impairment A-Dopamine B-Gentamycine – C-Cephahexin D-Cis platin 52.increase blood glucose conc 48. aneuploidy – d.caue bronchospasm— b-reduce frequency of uterine contraction— c-cause heart block— d-reduce diastolic blood pressure— e.73 times the median – b-in a distribution skew to the right.7.The following statistical statements are correcta-in the normal distribution.5.

the following are characters of hypoxic cell death: A-Apoptosis… -B-endocytosis C-Pyknosis… -D-Poikilocytosis… E-koliosytosis prostagladinsa-lipooxygenase pathway b-thromboxane causes vasoconstriction c-increased in the myometruim d-? e-? linear regression: a-starts from the origin b-passes thru the meanc-values vary d-ranking is done??? following test r used to compare 2 drugs a and b a-student t test b-meta analysis c-wiloxone paired test withney u paired test e? toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of tampoons b-due to toxigenic starinsof strep c-infrequently reported outside n america d-a consequence of previous antibioitic therapy e-confined to seualy active women the following can regenerate .A-Apoptosis… -B-Phagocytosis—… C-Pyknosis… -D-Poikilocytosis… E-Release of phospholipids— 52.

t remmber a-decidua compactab-Arias -stella changes in endometrail gladc-spiral arterioles d-plasma cell infiltration e chorionic villi .are alchochol acid fast b-does not form spores c-d-a facultative anaerobes d-responsible for leprosy e-pathogenic inhumans all strains the germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by a-tissue trauma b-oxygen c-inject of toxoid d-injection of antitoxin e-removal of devitalised tissue Aldosterone a-reduces Na resorption in PCT b-reduces Na absorption in descen loop of henle c-Increase Na absortion in DCT Increase K loss from the tubule e increases Na absortion in collecting tubules the following r conclusive evidence of pregnancy in uterine cureetings???? can.a-kidneyepitheluim? b-pheriheral axonsc-liver parenchyme d-bone marrow e-bone radiation sensitive a-bone b-bone marrow c-epith of gut d-skin e-? Mycobacteruim a.

march 1997/2 21 a-call migration between the endothelial cells b-a pssive loss of fluid bld elements c-cell migration independeant of endothelial cell motion d-initail emigration of polymorhs neutrophils e-more polymorphs than monocytes after 2 day= the vulva is supplied by a-ant cutaneu erve of the thigh b-femoral br/o genito femoral nerve c-? d? e? glucocorticoids a-promote hepatic gluconeogenesis b-suppress uptake of glucose by muscles c-promote protein break down d-promote fat reakdown e-increase glycolysis halothane(refer sept 1997)42 a-cardic arrythmias b-explosive mixtures with air c-liver damage 53..5 mm E-Best echoes are produded by beam at right angle to the structures. C-High frequency penetrates deeper TISSUE.U/S: A-Pulstile B-Increase body temp 1 degree after 15 min scanning.White cell migration from the bld vessels in areas of inflammation involves--. 54-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: 1-Enterobacter species – 2-Streptococcus species 3-Escherichia coli 4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5-Staphyloccus pyogenes- .D-Can distinguish between 2 points closer than 0.

55-Nitric oxide a) is synthesised in the endothelium – b) has a short half life -c) causes smooth muscle contraction d) increases during pregnancy e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine— but few question got modifications eg. predominantly produced by UG system .is phospholipid which reactant protein will increase in injury -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) FIBRINOGEN 2) HEPATOGLOGIN 3) FERRITIN 4) albumin 5) ? Cell cycle -prophase I and II .. nitrous oxide synthesised by macrophages naloxone antiemitic effect drugs contraindicated in breast feeding drugs causing renal impairment ultasound mri statistics quit difficult all definitions rna pre implantation diagnosis FIBRINOGEN (1 2) HEPATOGLOGIN 3) FERRITIN 4) .is a kind of lukotriene ..

-mitosis I and II Vulva nerve supply Urinary bladder .embrology Fetal testis IL I MCH I Function of Neutrophil polymorphs Fetal HbF PG Umblical cord – embrology prostaglandins half lifa 30 min f il1 produced by macrophages whartons jelly originate from extra embryonic endodem detrusor muscle is of mesodermal origin acute phase proteins are transferrin alfa feto protein preimplantation diagnosis .lining/embrology vagina .

..ie 3 qs we about the breast levator ani its attachnment and its coverings endometrial carcinoma adenomyosis about measuring the arterial blood pressure and its methods interleukin 2 prenatal implantation genetic diagnosis menstural cycle in paper 1 and 2 MARCH 2006 The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by a)tissue trauma b)oxygen c)injection of anti-toxin d)injection of toxoid e)removal of devitalised tissue The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder a)residual volume of 100ml b)voiding capacity of 250ml c)bladder capacity of 900ml d)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling e)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second . breast anatomy and breast from endocrine function (in paper 1.in paper 2 ...).possible 2 detect the sex of the embryo uses pcr 4 chromosomal deletions can be used 4 detection of single gene disoderes facial hair causes testosterone mestranol spironolactone real time bias length time bias negative predictive value fibrocystic disease of thr breast..

the following substances are absorbed by active processes a)water b)sodium c)vitamin K d)amino acids e)chloride White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days Antibodies (!!) a)are soluble proteins b)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life c)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons d)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted e)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells In DNA a)a codon is a sequence of three bases b)all codons have an identified function c)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons d)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome e)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis The inferior vena cava a)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra b)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery c)receives the left ovarian vein d)receives the right ovarian vein e)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm In the normal human pelvis a)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra b)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina .In the small intestine.

c)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones e)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter Arginine vasopressin a)reduces the glomerular filtration rate b)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule c)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland d)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality e)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume Concerning ovarian function a)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle b)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol c)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors d)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary e)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii a)is a rickettsia b)forms yellow granules in pus c)is a commensal in the mouth d)is a commensal in the vagina e)is usually resistant to penicillin Halothane produces a)cardiac arrhythmias b)explosive mixtures with air c)liver damage if given repeatedly d)myometrial relaxation e)bronchial irritation The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug a)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol b)bromocryptine: metoclopramide c)penicillin: probenicid d)ritodrine: dexamethasone e)warfarin: phenobarbitone Potassium .

a)is mainly intracellular b)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels c)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease d)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis e)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting Concerning carbohydrates a)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose b)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch c)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide d)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily e)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water Steroid hormones a)all contain 20 carbon atoms b)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin c)are mostly activated in the liver d)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine e)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by a)nikethamide b)hypoxia c)doxapram d)phenobarbitone e)salbutamol Tetrahydrofolic acid a)is involved in purine synthesis b)is a precursor of folic acid c)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis d)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate e)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate Mitochondrial DNA a)is located in the nucleus b)inheritance is patrilineal c)is present in two copies per cell d)mutation causes cystic fibrosis e)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis

a)mercury poisoning b)cervical carcinoma c)renal calculi d)renal vein thrombosis e)posterior urethral valves In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is a)hypochromasia b)a reduction in haemoglobin A2 c)an increase in haemoglobin F d)no depletion of iron stores e)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy a)vital capacity is increased by about 50% b)tidal volume is increased c)the subcostal angle increases d)the residual volume is reduced e)the respiratory rate is increased In normal pregnancy, uterine blood flow a)is about 50ml/minute at term b)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space c)is reduced by prostacyclin d)is increased during uterine contractions e)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester During normal pregnancy a)arterial pCO2 decreases b)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases c)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease d)urine pH falls e)lactic acid production is increased The anal canal a)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus b)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery c)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part d)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve e)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx. Human placental lactogen

a)is a single chain polypeptide b)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term c)may be secreted by the decidua d)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy e)is an insulin antagonist Human chorionic gonadotrophin !! a)is a glycoprotein b)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs c)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation d)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy e)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) a)promotes the absorption b)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver c)is synthesised in the SKIN d)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney e)is most active in the 1,25-dihydroxyl form Unconjugated bilirubin !! a)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin b)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin c)is not excreted in the urine d)does not cross the blood-brain barrier e)crosses the placenta The following are capable of cellular regeneration: a)spinal cord b)liver c)epidermis d)myocardium e)bone marrow The Leydig cells of the testis !! a)secrete seminal fluid b)are stimulated by luteinising hormone c)are active in intrauterine life d)secrete fructose e)produce androstenedione Angiotensin II !!

a)is the most potent vasoconstrictor b)reduces aldosterone production c)is mainly found in the lungs d)is a decapeptide e)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced Cyproterone acetate a)is an oestrogen b)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea c)binds to androgen receptors d)increases libido e)inhibits spermatogenesis Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic !! a)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection b)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine c)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block d)causes vasoconstriction e)is a weak base Plasma osmolarity in the human a)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state b)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy c)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration d)is regulated by arginine vasopressin e)regulates the sensation of thirst In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations a)the mean is always less than the mode b)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range c)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean d)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations e)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value The pelvic splanchnic nerves a)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves b)supply afferent fibres c)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus d)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres e)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres

Exotoxins a)are derived from gram-negative bacteria b)have specific action c)are more toxic than endotoxins d)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin e)can be converted to toxoid Candida albicans a)is gram positive b)is an anaerobic organism c)is associated with diabetes mellitus d)is motile e)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy Transferrin a)is one third saturated with iron b)is increased in pregnancy c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram d)levels in the neonate are low e)is actively transported In Crohn’s disease there is a) non casesous granuloma formation b) formation of deep fissures c) formation of crypt abscesses d) the presence of mucosal polyps e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva The rectum a) usually commences at the level of S3 b) has a mesentery in its proximal third c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment e) is about 25cm in length The female urethra (!!) a) traverses the perineal membrane b) is lined throughout by urothelium c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve .

e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male During menstruation. endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells In HIV. seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury a)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure b)infectivity decreases after seroconversion c)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis d)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis The following tumours arise in the ovary: a) nephroblastoma b) cystadenoma c) granulosa cell tumour d) neuroblastoma e) teratoma Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: a) carcinoma of the endometrium b) osteosarcoma c) basal cell carcinoma d) carcinoma of the cervix e) choriocarcinoma Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!) a) has more protein b) has more sodium c) contains more carbohydrate d) has more casein e) contains more calories The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism: a) pulmonary infarction b) fibrinous pleurisy c) right ventricular hypertrophy d) sudden death e) haemoptysis .

Embryology and Fertilisation Authority The following are gram positive organisms a)Brucella b)Listeria c)Staphylococcus d)Vibrio cholera .In a country wide survey. 10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: a) the sample of patients is a true random sample b) all practices had an equal chance of selection c) all patients had an equal chance of selection d) two siblings could not have been selected e) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample Nitric oxide a) is synthesised in the endothelium b) has a short half life c) causes smooth muscle contraction d) increases during pregnancy e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine Carbohydrates a) yield 17kj/g of energy b) are a major source of energy for the brain c) are a a major component of the diet d) give a higher energy yield compared to fats Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones a)Parietal b)Mandible c)Maxillary d)Frontal e)Ethmoid Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis a) can be used to identify single gene defects b) is used in ICSI only c) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor d) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos e) is governed by the regulations of the Human.

which is more radiosensitive. *is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight) difference b/w human milk and cows milk casien lactose sodium ascorbic acid water phenyl ketoneuria . mesonephros derivatives) Ionising radiation (radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium . primitive streak.Endometriotic deposits a) only occur in the pelvis b) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands c) do not occur in postmenopausal women d) are hormone sensitive Amyloidosis a)Can be inherited b)Is associated with bronchiectasis c)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy Phenylketonuria a)can only be diagnosed in the adult b)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine c)treatment is with diet restriction DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding) a) is common at the extremes of life b) may be caused by coagulation disorders Chylomicrons a) are not normally present in the fasting state b) after hydrolysis of lipoproteins. mainly consist of phospholipid Other questions that I cannot remember in such detail were about: Insulin (*half life of 30min) Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis) Many Pathology questions (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?. *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?) Embryology (notochord.

inherited disorder cause by defficiency of phenyl alanine dietry restriction of tyrosine helpful diagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine essential amino acids are not synthesized by body sufficiently all ketogenic can produce energy dont remember exact wording radiation mostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation xrays r ionizing radiation contraindicated in pregnancy transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray MRI repeat q from sept paper chylomicrins responsible for turbulence of plsma?dont remem metabolized in adipose tissue -true 80% 20% in liver after hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----? ovarian tumors dysgerminoma and endodermal sinus tumor hv same origin choriocharcinoma can arise cocp increase risk of ovarian cancers -this qs repeated again in other qs with different wording b cells arise from plasma cells in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany tumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition pulmonary embolism cause s sudden death fibrinous plurisy rt ventricular hypertrohy haemoptysis repeated from sept 05 transferrin endo metrium hiv seroconversion carbohydrate preimplantation diagnosis repeat from march 2005 progesteron following rise in leuteal phase .

basal body temp progesterone LH--PLZ SOME ONE ADD I DONT REMEMBER NOTOCHORD R SOLID CELLS GIVE RISE TO brain --? SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE TEMPORAL BONE FRONTAL PARIETAL Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: 1-Enterobacter species 2-Streptococcus species 3-Escherichia coli 4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5-Staphyloccus pyogenes Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of: 1-Potassium ions into the neurons 2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell 3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell 4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine 5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells. ENDOMETRIOSIS has endometrial tissue with no glands not occurs after menopause The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder Fa)residual volume of 100ml Tb)voiding capacity of 250ml Fc)bladder capacity of 900ml Td)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling Fe)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second .

The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by Fa)tissue trauma Tb)oxygen Fc)injection of anti-toxin Td)injection of toxoid Te)removal of devitalised tissue In DNA Ta)a codon is a sequence of three bases Tb)all codons have an identified function Fc)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons Td)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome Fe)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis Concerning ovarian function Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii Fa)is a rickettsia Tb)forms yellow granules in pus Tc)is a commensal in the mouth Fd)is a commensal in the vagina Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin In the small intestine. the following substances are absorbed by active processes F a)water T b)sodium F c)vitamin K T d)amino acids T e)chloride White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves T a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells F b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements .

Ab are glycoprotein. parietal F. Sphenoid.T c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion T d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils F e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days Which are formed from intramembranous ossification? T Temporal . Are they soluble? not sure [color=red:c2901df9c1][b:c2901df9c1]F[/b:c2901df9c1][/color:c2901df9 c1]b)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life Fc)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons Fd)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted Te)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells Correction The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by Fa)tissue trauma Tb)oxygen [color=red:1e03073b8c][b:1e03073b8c]T[/b:1e03073b8c][/color:1e0307 3b8c]c)injection of anti-toxin Td)injection of toxoid Te)removal of devitalised tissue Insulin (*half life of 30min) F Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis)F Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: T1-Enterobacter species F2-Streptococcus species F3-Escherichia coli T4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa F5-Staphyloccus pyogenes The inferior vena cava Ta)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra Fb)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery Fc)receives the left ovarian vein . occipital. Ethmoid Antibodies (!!) Ta)are soluble proteins -.

Td)receives the right ovarian vein Te)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm In the normal human pelvis Ta)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra Fb)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina Fc)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint [b:715c81bcd5]d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones [/b:715c81bcd5] Te)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter Arginine vasopressin Fa)reduces the glomerular filtration rate Fb)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule Fc)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland Td)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality Te)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume Concerning ovarian function Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii Fa)is a rickettsia Tb)forms yellow granules in pus Tc)is a commensal in the mouth Fd)is a commensal in the vagina Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin Halothane produces Ta)cardiac arrhythmias .

Fb)explosive mixtures with air Tc)liver damage if given repeatedly Td)myometrial relaxation Fe)bronchial irritation The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug Fa)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol Fb)bromocryptine: metoclopramide Tc)penicillin: probenicid Td)ritodrine: dexamethasone Fe)warfarin: phenobarbitone Potassium Ta)is mainly intracellular Fb)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels Fc)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease Td)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis Te)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting Concerning carbohydrates Ta)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]b)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]c)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide Fd)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily Te)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water Steroid hormones Fa)all contain 20 carbon atoms Tb)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin Fc)are mostly activated in the liver Fd)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine Fe)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by .

Ta)nikethamide Tb)hypoxia Tc)doxapram Fd)phenobarbitone Fe)salbutamol Tetrahydrofolic acid Ta)is involved in purine synthesis Fb)is a precursor of folic acid Fc)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis Fd)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate Te)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate Mitochondrial DNA Ta)is located in the nucleus Fb)inheritance is patrilineal Fc)is present in two copies per cell Fd)mutation causes cystic fibrosis Te)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis ?Fa)mercury poisoning Tb)cervical carcinoma Tc)renal calculi ?Fd)renal vein thrombosis Te)posterior urethral valves In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is Ta)hypochromasia Fb)a reduction in haemoglobin A2 Tc)an increase in haemoglobin F Td)no depletion of iron stores Fe)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy Fa)vital capacity is increased by about 50% (ans from busyspr) Tb)tidal volume is increased .

uterine blood flow Fa)is about 50ml/minute at term Tb)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space Fc)is reduced by prostacyclin Fd)is increased during uterine contractions Te)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester [/color:715c81bcd5] P.Tc)the subcostal angle increases Td)the residual volume is reduced Fe)the respiratory rate is increased [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]In normal pregnancy.200 sep 2001 paper 2 Q 46 During normal pregnancy Ta)arterial pCO2 decreases Fb)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases Tc)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease Fd)urine pH falls ?Te)lactic acid production is increased The anal canal Ta)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus Fb)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery Fc)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part Fd)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve Te)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx. Human placental lactogen ?T[b:715c81bcd5]a)is a single chain polypeptide [/b:715c81bcd5] Fb)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term Tc)may be secreted by the decidua ?F[b:715c81bcd5]d)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy[/b:715c81bcd5] ?T[b:715c81bcd5]Te)is an insulin antagonist [/b:715c81bcd5] .

25-dihydroxyl form Unconjugated bilirubin !! ?Fa)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin ?Tb)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin Fc)is not excreted in the urine Fd)does not cross the blood-brain barrier ?Te)crosses the placenta The following are capable of cellular regeneration: Fa)spinal cord Tb)liver Tc)epidermis Fd)myocardium Te)bone marrow The Leydig cells of the testis !! Fa)secrete seminal fluid Tb)are stimulated by luteinising hormone Tc)are active in intrauterine life Fd)secrete fructose ?Fe)produce androstenedione .Human chorionic gonadotrophin !! Ta)is a glycoprotein ?T[b:715c81bcd5]b)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs [/b:715c81bcd5] Fc)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation Fd)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy Te)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) Ta)promotes the absorption Tb)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver Tc)is synthesised in the SKIN Td)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney Te)is most active in the 1.

Angiotensin II !! Ta)is the most potent vasoconstrictor Fb)reduces aldosterone production Tc)is mainly found in the lungs Fd)is a decapeptide -.angiotensin I is a decapeptide Te)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced Cyproterone acetate Fa)is an oestrogen [color=blue:715c81bcd5]--is an antiandrogenic progesterone[/color:715c81bcd5] Fb)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea [color=blue:715c81bcd5]-treat hirsutism [/color:715c81bcd5] Tc)binds to androgen receptors Fd)increases libido Te)inhibits spermatogenesis Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic Ta)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection Fb)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine Fc)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block Fd)causes vasoconstriction Te)is a weak base Plasma osmolarity in the human Ta)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state Fb)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy ?Fc)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration Td)is regulated by arginine vasopressin Te)regulates the sensation of thirst In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations Fa)the mean is always less than the mode Tb)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range Tc)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean Fd)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations .

Te)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value The pelvic splanchnic nerves Fa)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves Fb)supply afferent fibres Tc)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus Fd)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres Te)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres Exotoxins Ta)are derived from gram-negative bacteria [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81 bcd5]b)have specific action Tc)are more toxic than endotoxins Td)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin Te)can be converted to toxoid Candida albicans Ta)is gram positive Fb)is an anaerobic organism Tc)is associated with diabetes mellitus Fd)is motile Fe)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy T treat with miconazole T commonsal in intestine Transferrin Ta)is one third saturated with iron c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram d)levels in the neonate are low e)is actively transported Increased in pregnancy t .

endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction Tc) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells [/b:715c81bcd5] During menstruation endometrial hemostasis depends upon Platelet and fibrin plug formation after first 20 hrs of bleeding Production of PAF by glandular epithelial cells .In Crohn’s disease there is ?Ta) non casesous granuloma formation Tb) formation of deep fissures Tc) formation of crypt abscesses Td) the presence of mucosal polyps e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva The rectum Ta) usually commences at the level of S3 Fb) has a mesentery in its proximal third [b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5][/b:715c81 bcd5]c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81 bcd5]d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]e) is about 25cm in length [b:715c81bcd5]The female urethra (!!) a) traverses the perineal membrane b) is lined throughout by urothelium c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male [/b:715c81bcd5] [b:715c81bcd5]During menstruation.

.....[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/col or:715c81bcd5]..... Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% ..........BECAUSE SEROLOGY IS UNRELIABLE IN ITS RESULTS DUE TO MATERNAL ANTIBODIES. seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury Ta)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]?T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:7 15c81bcd5]b)infectivity decreases after seroconversion Tc)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis Td)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks.[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color :715c81bcd5]......Estrogen mediated hemostasis PG mediated hemostasis In HIV.....CAN BRING THE TRANSMISS DOWN TO 2% Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby....FOLLOWED BY SIGNS OF ILLNESS After illness infectivity decreases .......ITS 15-45%.......WHICH MIGHT TAKE UPTO 18MONTHS TO DIE DOWN...........T...[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:71 5c81bcd5].[b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5][/ b:715c81bcd5] ....[b:715c81bcd5][color=darkblue:715c81bcd5].........[/color:715c81 bcd5][/b:715c81bcd5]I THINK SO BECAUSE THOUGH ITS A LATENT PHASE AND NO OVERT SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE THE VIRUS MULTIPLIES......... The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay................ Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby......LATTER IN UNTREATED CASES..... I THINK INFECTIVITY REMAINS JUST THE SAME.....VIRAL LOAD IS THE ONLY USEFUL WAY OF PREDICTING DISEASE...SEROCONVERSION OCCURS IN FIRST FEW WEEKS...F..FROM AN OBSTETRIC POINT OF VIEW.........

... The following tumours arise in the ovary: Fa) nephroblastoma Tb) cystadenoma Tc) granulosa cell tumour Fd) neuroblastoma Te) teratoma Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: Fa) carcinoma of the endometrium [color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5]b) osteosarcoma Fc) basal cell carcinoma Fd) carcinoma of the cervix Te) choriocarcinoma Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!) a) has more protein Tb) has more sodium c) contains more carbohydrate d) has more casein e) contains more calories difference b/w human milk and cows milk Tlactose Tsodium ascorbic acid Twater PS:human milk contains more water The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism: Ta) pulmonary infarction Tb) fibrinous pleurisy .BF is safe .......[b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]F[/color:715c81bcd5][/b:71 5c81bcd5]........MOST IMP METHOD OF TRASMISS IF OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES HAVE BEEN UNDERTAKEN.

10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: Ta) the sample of patients is a true random sample Tb) all practices had an equal chance of selection Tc) all patients had an equal chance of selection Fd) two siblings could not have been selected Te) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample [/color:715c81bcd5] ans from onexamination Nitric oxide Ta) is synthesised in the endothelium Tb) has a short half life Fc) causes smooth muscle contraction Td)production is increases during pregnancy [b:715c81bcd5]e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine [/b:715c81bcd5] T generated by arginine (from onexamination) Carbohydrates a) yield 17kj/g of energy b) are a major source of energy for the brain ?Tc) are a a major component of the diet Fd) give a higher energy yield compared to fats Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones a)Parietal b)Mandible c)Maxillary d)Frontal e)Ethmoid Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis .?Fc) right ventricular hypertrophy Td) sudden death Te) haemoptysis [color=blue:715c81bcd5]In a country wide survey.

emedicine.ncbi. The amyloid deposits in familial amyloidosis are composed of the protein transthyretin. which is made in the liver.com/med/topic3365. Familial amyloidosis is inherited an [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]autosomal dominant [/color:715c81bcd5]in genetics terminology) http://www. is a rare form of inherited amyloidosis.gov/entrez/query. or TTR. .Ta) can be used to identify single gene defects Fb) is used in ICSI only Fc) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor Fd) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos ?T[b:715c81bcd5]e) is governed by the regulations of the Human. the disease is called familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC). Embryology and Fertilisation Authority[/b:715c81bcd5] The following are gram positive organisms ?Fa)Brucella Tb)Listeria Tc)Staphylococcus ?Fd)Vibrio cholera Endometriotic deposits Fa) only occur in the pelvis ?Tb) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands ?Fc) do not occur in postmenopausal women ?Td) are hormone sensitive Amyloidosis Ta)Can be inherited Tb)Is associated with bronchiectasis Tc)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy (ref: Familial Amyloidosis Familial amyloidosis.nih.nlm.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubM ed&list_uids=12472203&dopt=Abstract http://www. or ATTR.htm When the heart is involved heavily but the nerves are not.

Phenylketonuria Fa)can only be diagnosed in the adult Tb)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine ?Tc)treatment is with diet restriction ?Tinherited disorder Fcause by defficiency of phenyl alanine ( defficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase) Fdietry restriction of tyrosine helpful (restriction of phenylalanine) ?Fdiagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding) Ta) is common at the extremes of life Tb) may be caused by coagulation disorders Insulin (*half life of 30min) T Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis) F Many Pathology questions (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?. *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?) Embryology (notochord. mesonephros derivatives) NOTOCHORD R SOLID structure as it forms --T GIVE RISE TO brain -F F is formed from primitive streak (ans from mrcogexam) [color=blue:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F fuses temporally with the endoblast of yolk sac[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81bcd5] Ionising radiation (?T radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium . primitive streak. *is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight) .which is more radiosensitive.

. cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts .[/b:715c81bcd5] radiation ?Tmostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation Txrays r ionizing radiation Tcontraindicated in pregnancy [b:715c81bcd5]transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray [/b:715c81bcd5] Biophysics: Radiation effect more in hypoxic tissue.. peripheral nerve and muscle are senstive to radiation.false Intestine and bone marrow are sestive to radiation..false Bone. Canot be catabolised for energy.true chylomicrins Ta) are not normally present in the fasting state ?T[b:715c81bcd5]responsible for turbulence of plsma?[/b:715c81bcd5]dont remem [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]metabolized in adipose tissue [b:715c81bcd5]true [/b:715c81bcd5]80% 20% in liver [/color:715c81bcd5] Fafter hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids ?F r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----? (ref: Monoglycerides and free fatty acids associate with bile salts and lecithin to form micelles * The core of the micelle is composed of cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins * Monoglycerides.essential amino acids Fare not synthesized by body sufficiently ?Tall ketogenic ?Tcan produce energy dont remember exact wording [b:715c81bcd5]Are ONLY used for the synthesis or important body proteins.

.F chloramphenicol.T phenophthalien....remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum Chylomicrons have a core of triglycerides and cholesterol and a coat of protein and phospholipids ovarian tumors Tchoriocharcinoma can arise cocp F increase risk of ovarian cancers Pill failure: tetracycline…T Rifmpicin…true digoxin...T b cells Farise from plasma cells in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany Ftumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition pulmonary embolism cause s : Tsudden death Tfibrinous plurisy ....T sulphonamides..F norethisterone.T Contraindicated in breast feeding: cascara......F phenobarbitone.........

Monoglycerides. Na absorption is active in renal tubules. cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum ) ENDOMETRIOSIS has endometrial tissue with no glands ?Tnot occurs after menopause[b:715c81bcd5][/b:715c81bcd5] Regarding data .all other places is facilitated using GLUT. also Na/K pump is active.Frt ventricular hypertrohy Thaemoptysis following rise in leuteal phase Tbasal body temp Tprogesterone SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE TEMPORAL BONE FRONTAL PARIETAL Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of: ?T1-Potassium ions into the neurons F2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell --F ?T3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine 5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells. (ref: glucose absorption in small intestine n renal tubules is active.

not O2.a The coefficient of variation expresses the Standard deviation as a proportion of the mean b Standard error of mean indicates how close a sample is to the population mean c A probability of one means that an event has one in ten chance of happening d Logarithmictransfoormation is a method of normalizing data that are not normally distributed e ANOVA is used for normally distributed data Indomethacin can block ovulaion Pulsatile release of LH occurs in first weel of life RBCs possess the antigens of ABO system in fetus MRI involves the administration of radio labelled compound Doppler effect is used to detect movement Proton is injected to improve contrast during MRI ventilation and stimulation of central chemoreceptors. the central chemoreceptors respond to pH and CO2.someone said true for hypoxia.. sept. rather the PERIPHERAL aortic and carotid bodies respond to O2 and thus hypoxia..2005 . From my knowledge.

Sigmoid colon Attached to pelvic wall Lies lateral to psoas major Ends at S3 Rectum Starts at S3 No appendices epiploae Middle rectal artery is the major artery suuplying it 12 cm long T pallidum Spiral shape Causes yaws in children Stained with silver impregnation HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks After illness infectivity decreases The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby BF is safe Percutaneous mode of infection H simplex Rabies Hepatitis B Epstein barr virus Hep A mode of infection is through Blood transfusion Shared needles Faeco oral route Insect bites Air borne .

Match the disease with their respective causative org Bone marrow suppression – myco bacterium avium Red cell aplasia – parvovirus The foll are pre malignant CIN 3 Vulval lichen sclerosis Endometrioses Fibro epithelial polyp Atypical endometrial hyperplasia Bacterial vaginosis Microscopic finding “clue cells” pH less than 4.5 best Rx with ampicillin sensitive to clindamycin may be due to gardnerella vaginalis vaginal infecton incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to penicillin is 1% incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to 3 rd gen ceph 5% azithromycin DOC for trichomoniasis crytococcus neoformans causes meningitis C trachomatis Strains L123 cause LGV Reticulate body is the infectious form Transferrin Increased in pregnancy One third saturated with Fe Binds to 10 mg of iron per gm Levels in neonate are low Antibodies .

Are soluble proteins Formed before 12 wks in fetus ABO antigens are present in fetus Foll Hb chains are present in intrauterine life Alpha 2 beta2 Alpha 2 gamma 2 Gamma 4 Alpha 2 epsilon 2 Zeta 2 epsilon2 Pulm embolism Spiral CT scan is indicated in suspected cases DVT always causes pulm embolism X ray angiography is diagnostic Spiral CT involves dignoses based on the perfusion copared to air in lungs ECG is reliable for diagnosis MRI Involves administerind of radio contrast agents Protons give better imaging Damage to fetus is due to tissue heating Xray Contraindicated in pregnancy Low rays are used for breast imaging Conventional USG Increased freq gives higher resolution Increased freq gives better attenuation TVS uses higher freq compared to conventional USG Doppler USG measures movement Gives accurate measurement of bld flow in fetal vessels Doppler effect based on blood flow within vessels .

Calcification occurs in Renal calculi Hyaline degeneration of fibroid Parathyroid adenomas Secondary bone deposits in prostratic CA Foll originate from endothelial cells Nitric oxide Protein C Fibronectin Plasminogen activator Thyroid 100-200 micro gms are trapped daily increases in size in pregnancy trapsinorganic iodine colloid is stored outside epithelial cells TBG is increased n pregnancy 5% is bound to CBG ketone bodies formed from acetone formed from acetyl CoA not formed during starvation not utilised by brain Mgso4 Potentiates action of non depolarising agents Check respiratory status Causes brisk patellar reflexes In toxicity Rx IV calcium sulphate CIN CIN 3 does not involve breach in basement epithelial layer Arias stella reaction mimicks clear cell CA Tissue biopsy is required for diagnosis .

Incidence is decreased in renal transplant patients GH Stmulated by glucose infusion Increased in sleep Opposes insulin action Causes positive nitrogen balance Decreased in pregnancy Foll form boundaries of ovarian fossa Ureter Ext iliac vn Int iliac art Int pudendal art Obliterated umb art Penem antibiotics Active in beta lactam ring Drug of choice for ps aeroginoa Vagina Derived from mullerian ducts Seperated from anal canal by anal body Bladder Pelvic splanchnic stimulation contracts the trigone Ext urethral sphincter innervated by pudendal nv Mucosa of urethra is innervated by pudendal nv Transaction of spinal cord above S2 causes autonomous bladder Afferent innervation of glans of clitoris is by ilioinguinal nv Hypo k+ is found in Prolonged vomiting In diabetis ketoacidosis Addison’s disease Foll are below inguinal ligament .

Ilio inguinal nv Lateral branch of genito femoral nv Subcostal nv Femoral art Inf hypogastric (pelvic) plexus Supplies pain fibres to body of ut Continues as vesical plexus Lies at base of braod lig Sciatic nv S3&4 contribute towards it Lies behind quadratus femoris Tibial branch supplies short head of biceps femoris Injection on the outer & upper quadrant of the buttock may cause damage to the nv Undescended testis More common in premature than term infants Commonly assoc with gonadal neoplasia Asoc with 1% of absent testis More common on left side Embryo Parameso duct lies medial to mesonephros Mesonephros forms urine TVS detects fetal heart beat 21 days after implantation Erthropoiesis is entirely medullary UG sinus Divides the cloaca coronally Urachus connects bladder to umbilicus Corpus luteum Is major source of relaxin Contains endothelial cells .

Hysterectomy prolonges the life period 17 hydroxy prog is the main prog secreted steroids prevent recruitment of new follicles fertilisation acrosome fuses with zona pellucida polar body has same karyotype as ovum fetilised egg moves slower than unfertilised egg in fallopian tube inner ell mass lysis deciduas during implantation histo pathologic examination of tissue of conception can diagnose CIN 3 Cx incompetence Ectopic preg Gest Trophblastic Di Ring inversion of Y chromosome found the foll will be done Maternal chromosome is tested Paternal chromosome is tested Scan to look for male genitalia Anomaly scan and amniocentesis done for fetus Do karyotype of all previous children of couple Right ureter Below sigmoid coon Supplied by vaginal art Lined throughout by urothelium Contain glands Oral absorption of drug depends More availablibility in ionised form than non ionised Increased lipid solubility increases penetration in CNS Enters intestinal cells by simle diffusion Protein binding increases excretion Lipid form increases uptake Fetal circulation .

Portal vn drains in IVC Ductus arteriosus takes blood to pulm art R atria and L atria communicate thro’ Foramen Ovale Voiding in females Occurs above rate of 20 ml/sec When vesical press is more than 45 mm H2O Initial contraction of trigone Enzyme activity is modified by Dephosphorylation Allosteric esters Binding to plasma prot Proteolytic cleaving of inactive precursors Gene transcription Functional cyst occurs in Stein levinthal synd PID Multiple sclerosis Gest tropho di Rx with clomiphene Amniotic fluid Hypotonic compared to fetal plasma Absored in lungs Unrelated to swallowing Increased until term in fetus Contains more HCO3 compared to fetal blood Action of complement Increase in permeability Migration of polymorphs Genetics South blot detects DNA DNA is exact copy of RNA .

5 hrs LMW heparin is administered 4 hrly Given in pregnancy causes intracranial haemorrhage in fetus Longer duration of action in S/C compared to IV administration Foll have imp natural reservoir other than human Listeria Saolmonella typhimurium Brucella Crohn’s disease Non caseous granulomatous infection Forms deep fissures Forms crypt abscesses Assoc with mucosal polyps Recognised to occur in vulva Assoc with intestinal wall thickening Absorption in kdny Glucose occurs in loop of henle Water is actively absorbed in proximal conv tubules .DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase Ribosomes contain RNA Transcription occurs at any direction along the chain DNA replication is called transformation DNA has transcription restriction enzyme Histones do not contain DNA Insulin Binding to tyrosine receptor kinase increases activity Causes glucose transporter movement to plasma membrane Increases glycogen synthetase activity Increases fat deposition Increase glucose utilisation by CNS Heparin T ½ is 1.

Estrogen 17 beta estradiol is formed by aromatisation of testos increases LH receptors secreted by theca cells granulosa cells secrete inhibin humoral immunity is depressed in pregnancy T & B cells are derived from bone marrow teratoma usually benign can occur is assoc with germ cell tumors secretes hormones during menstruation platelet and fibrin plug is formed after 1st 20 hrs of bleeding hemostasis is thro’ estr mediated vaso constriction hemostasis is thro PG mediated spiral vessel constriction During ovulation Basal vacuoles occur in mid secretory phase Gland stromal mitosis maximum in mid secretory phase PG in follicle fluid during ovulation Increase of estr and prog receptors in proliferaive phase LDL receptors are increased in proliferative phase Indomethacin inhibits ovulation Matrixmetalloproteinases(MMC) is inhibited by progestrones Cloiphene can cause deficient secretory phase Glycogen Synthesis occurs in muscle Is stored along with water Carbohydrates Yield energy ?17 J/Kg Major source of energy for brain Major component of diet .

000 births Perinatal mortality – deaths after 22wks ( more than 154 days) until 1 wk after birth Maternal mortality rate Tests used ANOVA Std error of mean means diffce betw sample mean from population mean Probablity of 1 means 1 in 10 chance for event to occur Examples of ?continuous variables are Bld glucose .500 gms PMR – deaths in first 1 week per 1.Higher energy compared with fats Foll decrease the efficacy of OCP’s Isoniazid Carbamaepine Phenytoin Rifampicin Female pelvis compared to male Sacrum more curved Greater sc notch is larger Sub pubic angle is more Distance betw pubic sym to acetabulum is less than the diam of acetabulum Vascular derived epithelial growth factor Causes vasodilatation of placental vessels Causes angiogenesis in placenta Is an angigogenic factor Increases permeability of endothelial cells And always save the best for last ……STATISTICS Definition LBW – less than 1.

... THE ONLY TESTS FOR MICROSCOPY ARE DARK GROUND ..F Ends at S3 ..LIES ON THE PERITONEAL SURFACE OF BLADDER AND UTERUS.........F..T SIGMOID COLON..T Lies lateral to psoas major ...................F.............T Stained with silver impregnation...........T No appendices epiploae.....ENDS AT S3..............T Causes yaws in children........STARTS AT PELVIC BRIM...... Rectum Starts at S3 ....Haemoglobin Gender Height Blood pressure Sigmoid colon Attached to pelvic wall..SO THE PSOAS IS A DEEPER STRUCTURE.T T pallidum Spiral shape....ITS THE SUPERIOR RECTAL ARTERY 12 cm long ..IS 45 CMS LONG..................T Middle rectal artery is the major artery suuplying it...

.SEROCONVERSION OCCURS IN FIRST FEW WEEKS.......OTHERWISE SEROLOGY IS THE OTHER DIAGNOSTIC AID.........................F..........F........I THINK SO BECAUSE THOUGH ITS A LATENT PHASE AND NO OVERT SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE THE VIRUS MULTIPLIES.....T..ECAUSE IT SAYS YOU CAN .....FROM AN OBSTETRIC POINT OF VIEW..........MOST IMP METHOD OF TRASMISS IF OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES HAVE BEEN UNDERTAKEN.................... I THINK INFECTIVITY REMAINS JUST THE SAME..T.T BF is safe . The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay..BITE WITH SALIVA Hepatitis B .....ITS 15-45%..... Percutaneous mode of infection H simplex........F.......F....BECAUSE SEROLOGY IS UNRELIABLE IN ITS RESULTS DUE TO MATERNAL ANTIBODIES..... Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% ......IMMUNOFLOURSCENCE................. HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks........VIRAL LOAD IS THE ONLY USEFUL WAY OF PREDICTING DISEASE..T Rabies ..CAN BRING THE TRANSMISS DOWN TO 2% Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby.. Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby.....T I THINK.......FOLLOWED BY SIGNS OF ILLNESS After illness infectivity decreases ...T............WHICH MIGHT TAKE UPTO 18MONTHS TO DIE DOWN..........LATTER IN UNTREATED CASES.... Epstein barr virus .......F.....

.......GET IT FROM PATIENTS THROUGH "CASUAL CONTACT"..F Air borne ....F BUT NOT SURE..F Match the disease with their respective causative org Bone marrow suppression – myco bacterium avium Red cell aplasia – parvovirus The foll are pre malignant CIN 3 ....................T I THINK.........SO I WILL GO FOR F .F Fibro epithelial polyp .............HAS TO BE MORE THAN 5 FOR BV TO OCCUR best Rx with ampicillin .F sensitive to clindamycin .F Faeco oral route ..F.............F Shared needles ..........F..... Atypical endometrial hyperplasia ??T Bacterial vaginosis Microscopic finding “clue cells”.. Endometrioses . Hep A mode of infection is through Blood transfusion...I DIDNT FIND IT ANYWHERE.T pH less than 4..................5 .....T Insect bites ...........T Vulval lichen sclerosis....

TRUE. Formed before 12 wks in fetus .....T..............T Binds to 10 mg of iron per gm ???..............RETICULATE I THE VEGETATIVE NON INF INTRACELL...................ESP IN AIDS PTS C trachomatis Strains L123 cause LGV.......IGM FORMS AT 11 WEEKS... crytococcus neoformans causes meningitis . vaginal infecton incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to penicillin is 1% ..FALSE.DIDNT FIND THIS KIND OF DATA ANYWHERE...T. ABO antigens are present in fetus.... Transferrin Increased in pregnancy ............may be due to gardnerella vaginalis...I THINK ITS TRUE...T BUT NOT SURE 100% incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to 3 rd gen ceph 5% . Antibodies Are soluble proteins............T Reticulate body is the infectious form ...........THEY HAVE TO BE..........BUT NO BOOK CONFIRMATION YET... Levels in neonate are low. FORM..T One third saturated with Fe ...TRUE ....F.? FALSE azithromycin DOC for trichomoniasis .F...............DUNNO.METRO.............

......... Gamma 4 ..ALL THROUGH PREG AND LATER TOO......BECAUSE MRI IS NOT AN IONISING RADIATION.......... Protons give better imaging ?????T I THINK.....F I THINK.................. Pulm embolism Spiral CT scan is indicated in suspected cases................ Damage to fetus is due to tissue heating...PRESENT I THE FIRST FEW WEEKS..F Zeta 2 epsilon2 ........F DVT always causes pulm embolism ..............PRESENT 8TH MONTH ONWARS Alpha 2 gamma 2 .............. MRI Involves administerind of radio contrast agents.SO I DONT THINK THERE IS ANY HEATING.......BECAUSE IT DEENDS ON THE OSCILLATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES...........................T Spiral CT involves dignoses based on the perfusion copared to air in lungs .HB F.T...........TRUE.T....HB A....F X ray angiography is diagnostic .....ALPHA2 AND DELTA 2 UNITS..Foll Hb chains are present in intrauterine life Alpha 2 beta2 ....T I THINK...... .....EPS THE HYDROGEN ATOM...F Alpha 2 epsilon 2.HBGOWER 1....F IS SPIRAL CT AND VQ SCAN THE SAME THING????SORRY FOR ASKING SUCH A BASICALLY DUMB QUESTION.F ECG is reliable for diagnosis............. ALSO THERE IS HBA2.

.T Secondary bone deposits in prostratic CA .I WOULD SAY FALSE...........CALCIFICATION OCURS IN FIBROID..WHICH IS MORE THAN EG THE 2-3 MRADS FOR CHEST X RAY.........F Low rays are used for breast imaging .......T Doppler effect based on blood flow within vessels .......I COULDNT FIND THE ANSWER.............????.....BUT IT WAS SOMEWHERE IN THIS FORUM.....I WILL POST IT AS SOON AS I COME ACROSS IT AGAIN..............LOW COMPARED TO WHAT??7 TO 10 MRADS ARE USED. Conventional USG Increased freq gives higher resolution Increased freq gives better attenuation TVS uses higher freq compared to conventional USG Doppler USG measures movement ...T Gives accurate measurement of bld flow in fetal vessels......... Calcification occurs in Renal calculi .......TO BE EXACT..I DONT WHAT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HYALINE DEGENERATION IS IN TH QUESTION Parathyroid adenomas ........... FOR THE FIRST THREE STEMS.........T..................T........Xray Contraindicated in pregnancy......................T Hyaline degeneration of fibroid............I DONT THINK THATS LOW.THE SOUND OF BLOOD FLOW WITHIN VESSELS.......T ......

...........PARALYSIS OF RESP MUSCLE IS THE .....TO TBG I THINK WAS MEANT...ACTOVITY INCREASES..T increases in size in pregnancy ......T TBG is increased n pregnancy ........SO DOES THE SIZE.................F.......................T ormed during starvation ...................T formed from acetyl CoA ..........T Thyroid 100-200 micro gms are trapped daily............F Fibronectin ..........Foll originate from endothelial cells Nitric oxide....T Plasminogen activator........ 5% is bound to CBG ......BUT IM NOT SURE......T..T Protein C ............T not utilised by <a href="http://www...T I THINK.[obscene]a........ trapsinorganic iodine ..T colloid is stored outside epithelial cells..T3 AND T4 ARE BOUND 75 AND 85 % ketone bodies formed from acetone..com/tutorial/?q=brain &s=0">brain </a> T Mgso4 Potentiates action of non depolarising agents T I THINK Check respiratory status T..

.......FIRST SIGN OF OVERDOSE Causes brisk patellar reflexes T..THATS EXACTLY TH DISTINCTION Arias stella reaction mimicks clear cell CA.......... In toxicity Rx IV calcium sulphate .FALSE... Increased in sleep . Incidence is decreased in renal transplant patients?????..T Opposes insulin action F Causes positive nitrogen balance F Decreased in pregnancy F GH STIM BY LOW ENERGY CONDN HYPOGLYCaenia EXCERCISE FASTING ........... CIN CIN 3 does not involve breach in basement epithelial layer F.F...... Tissue biopsy is required for diagnosis .... GH Stmulated by glucose infusion.............CA GLUCONATE......SMEAR CAN ALSO SHOW CIN III CHNGES.........BUT MY GUESS IS THAT IMMUNOSUPRESSION DURING RENAL TRANSPLANT WOULD EXACERBATE MALIGNANCY RATHER THAN SUPPRESS IT.COULDNT FIND INFO ANYWHERE............FALSE.F I THINK..THIS ONE IS JUT SOMEWHERE IN MY brain CELLS....ANOTHER SIGN OF MG EXCESS...DONT KNOW NOW...........

......WAY OFF BELOW THE LEVATOR ANI.............. ..T LAT TO OVARY.. AND SHOULD BE HIGH IN PREG I THINK... Obliterated umb art...HIGH AMINO ACIDS HIGH PROT MEAL ARGININE INFUSION STRESS STIM GLUCAGO SLEEP GH INHIB BY GLUCOSE CORTISOL FFA MEDROXYPROGEST GH ANABOLIC HORMONE......SO I THINK N2 BALANCE WOULD BE NEGATIVE. Foll form boundaries of ovarian fossa Ureter T LATERAL TO OF Ext iliac vn T ABOVE OF Int iliac art T ABOVE THEN POST TO OF Int pudendal art F.NOWHERE CLOSE.WANTS TO BULD AND CONSTRUCT.

..............CORTISOL IS HYPOKALEMIC. ...PINEAL BODY-T Bladder Pelvic splanchnic stimulation contracts the trigone F.... Afferent innervation of glans of clitoris is by ilioinguinal nv .....Penem antibiotics Active in beta lactam ring T Drug of choice for ps aeroginoa T Vagina Derived from mullerian ducts T Seperated from anal canal by anal body........SUPP BY SOMATIC FIBS FROM S2-4 Mucosa of urethra is innervated by pudendal nv F Transaction of spinal cord above S2 causes autonomous bladder T I THINK.....AND BLOOD SUPPLY IS THROUGH INT PUD ARE PUD N ALSO SUPPS INF RECTAL NERVE AND A PERINEAL NERVE....EFF IS THRU PUDENDAL N...F.F AFFERRENT OF GLANS CLIT IS THROUGH PELVIC SPLANCH..BECAUSE IT WOULD STILL WORK AUTONOMOUSLY THROUGH REFLEX.........BUT NO SOMATIC ACTION BECAUSE CEREBRAL CONTROL IS LOST..BUT NOTHING CONTRACTS THE TRIGONE! Ext urethral sphincter innervated by pudendal nv..............AND NO CORTISOL IN ADDISONS.......NO PUDENDAL INVLVMT IN URETHERA.ALL TRUE... Hypo k+ is found in Prolonged vomiting T In diabetis ketoacidosis T Addison’s disease F HYPERKALEMIA HERE.....

SHORT HEAD IS BY COMMON PERONEAL.....IT LIES ON IRIFORMIS..WIT NO MORE USCLES ON TOP...THIS IS THE SAFEST AREA .... Injection on the outer & upper quadrant of the buttock may cause damage to the nv ......LONG HEAD ISBY TIBIAL..FLASE..QF IS A VERY DEEP MUSCLE Tibial branch supplies short head of biceps femoris ..Foll are below inguinal ligament Ilio inguinal nv T Lateral branch of genito femoral nv T Subcostal nv F Femoral art T Inf hypogastric (pelvic) plexus Supplies pain fibres to body of ut T Continues as vesical plexus T Lies at base of braod lig T Sciatic nv S3&4 contribute towards it F L4 TO S3 Lies behind quadratus femoris F...................FASE.....

...BUT WHY SHOULD IT? inner ell mass lysis deciduas during implantation F INNER CELL MASS DOES NOTHING OUTSIDE...... histo pathologic examination of tissue of conception can diagnose CIN 3 T .OR IT WOULD DECREASE THE LIFE.PROGESTERONE IS THE MAIN steroids prevent recruitment of new follicles T STEROIDS LOWER THE LEVEL OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS..HYSTERECTOMY WOULD HAVE NO EFFECT. INHIBIN AND ACTIVIN Contains endothelial cells T I THINK.Undescended testis More common in premature than term infants T Commonly assoc with gonadal neoplasia T Asoc with 1% of absent testis More common on left side Corpus luteum Is major source of relaxin T RELAXIN...SO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS TOO I SUPPOSE............IT BECOMES THE FETUS...NO BOOK CONFIRMATION..... IT HAS RICH BLOOD SUPPLY..... Hysterectomy prolonges the life period F I THINK. fertilisation acrosome fuses with zona pellucida T polar body has same karyotype as ovum T fetilised egg moves slower than unfertilised egg in fallopian tube F UNSURE..... 17 hydroxy prog is the main prog secreted F I THINK..........

I THINK URETERS' IS ALSO THE SAME.PLEASE DISCUSS Right ureter Below sigmoid coon F LEFT URETER Supplied by vaginal art T Lined throughout by urothelium T IF UROTHELIUM IS ANOTHER NAME FOR TRANSITIONAL EPITH Contain glands F. .BECAUSE I DIDNT FIND IT ANYWHERE THAT IONISED FORM INFLUENCED ORAL ABS..BLADDER EPITH IS DEVOID OF GLANDS................BECAUSE Y IS RELATED WITH PATERNAL....... Oral absorption of drug depends More availablibility in ionised form than non ionised F.Cx incompetence F Ectopic preg T Gest Trophblastic Di T Ring inversion of Y chromosome found the foll will be done Maternal chromosome is tested F Paternal chromosome is tested T Scan to look for male genitalia T Anomaly scan and amniocentesis done for fetus ?T Do karyotype of all previous children of couple F ALL ARE DEDUCTIONS............AND ASSOCIATED WITH EXPRESSION OF MALE PHENOTYPE.....

...Increased lipid solubility increases penetration in CNS T Enters intestinal cells by simle diffusion T Protein binding increases excretion F Lipid form increases uptake T Fetal circulation Portal vn drains in IVC T Ductus arteriosus takes blood to pulm art F AWAY FROM IT R atria and L atria communicate thro’ Foramen Ovale T Voiding in females Occurs above rate of 20 ml/sec T MAX URINE FLOW RATE =20-40 ML/SEC When vesical press is more than 45 mm H2O T VOID PRESS=45-70 MM Initial contraction of trigone F....TRIGONE DOES NOTHING!!! Enzyme activity is modified by Dephosphorylation T Allosteric esters T Binding to plasma prot T Proteolytic cleaving of inactive precursors T Gene transcription ?F ALL GUESSES....ANYONE KNOWS THE ANSWERS?? ....

Functional cyst occurs in Stein levinthal synd T PID F Multiple sclerosis F Gest tropho di F Rx with clomiphene T Amniotic fluid Hypotonic compared to fetal plasma ?T Absored in lungs ?T Unrelated to swallowing F Increased until term in fetus F DECS TO TERM Contains more HCO3 compared to fetal blood ?T Action of complement Increase in permeability T Migration of polymorphs T Genetics .

South blot detects DNA F ITS ONLE SEROLOGICAL TEST DNA is exact copy of RNA F DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase T Ribosomes contain RNA T Transcription occurs at any direction along the chain F ONLY 5' TO 3' DNA replication is called transformation F DNA has transcription restriction enzyme ?F DIDNT FIND ANYTHING LIKE THAT ANYWHERE Histones do not contain DNA T Insulin Binding to tyrosine receptor kinase increases activity T Causes glucose transporter movement to plasma membrane T Increases glycogen synthetase activity T Increases fat deposition T Increase glucose utilisation by CNS ?T Heparin T ½ is 1.5 hrs T LMW heparin is administered 4 hrly F 8 TO 12 Given in pregnancy causes intracranial haemorrhage in fetus F DOESNT CROSS PLAC COS ITS TOO BIG Longer duration of action in S/C compared to IV administration T Foll have imp natural reservoir other than human .

A FISTULA MIGHT OPEN I THE VULVA...THICKENING IS A VERY LAYMAN TERM I THINK..........PSEUDOPOLYPS Recognised to occur in vulva F........ Assoc with intestinal wall thickening ? T......AT THE MOST...... Absorption in kdny Glucose occurs in loop of henle F ACTIVE ABSPN IN PCT WITH AA Water is actively absorbed in proximal conv tubules F OPASSIVE DIFFSN IN PCT WITH NA AND CL Estrogen 17 beta estradiol is formed by aromatisation of testos T increases LH receptors T secreted by theca cells F GRANULOSA CELLS ....BUT THATS NOT CROHNS OCCURING IN THE VULVA I THINK........THERE IS INFLAMMATION.Listeria F Saolmonella typhimurium F Brucella T FROM DAIRY AIMALS Crohn’s disease Non caseous granulomatous infection T Forms deep fissures T Forms crypt abscesses T Assoc with mucosal polyps F.NOT A PROPER STATEMENT.

............NOT USUALLY I THINK during menstruation platelet and fibrin plug is formed after 1st 20 hrs of bleeding F I THINK..BECAUSE THE APIRAL ARTS ARE ACTUALLY SHED.PLATELET PLUG FORMN TAKES PLACE VERY QUICK AND IN VERY SMALL TRAUMAS.......ISNT IT..IF IT WERE TRUE.BUT I DONT KNOW IF ITS AT THE SPIRAL ARTS OR BELOW THEM.......granulosa cells secrete inhibin F CORP LUT DOES humoral immunity is depressed in pregnancy F I THINK.... RHESUS CONFLICT WOULDNT BE AN ISSUE T & B cells are derived from bone marrow T teratoma usually benign T can occur is assoc with germ cell tumors T secretes hormones F. hemostasis is thro’ estr mediated vaso constriction F hemostasis is thro PG mediated spiral vessel constriction F PG ARE CONSIDERED TO BE THE CAUSE. During ovulation Basal vacuoles occur in mid secretory phase T Gland stromal mitosis maximum in mid secretory phase T PG in follicle fluid during ovulation F DIDNT FIND THAT ANYWHERE ..

....Increase of estr and prog receptors in proliferaive phase T I THINK LDL receptors are increased in proliferative phase ?F Indomethacin inhibits ovulation F Matrixmetalloproteinases(MMC) is inhibited by progestrones ???!!! WOW NO CLUE Cloiphene can cause deficient secretory phase F ITS ANTI ESTROGEN..SO IT MAY SHORTEN PROLIF PHASE. Major component of diet T Higher energy compared with fats F FATS HAVE MAX ENERGY Foll decrease the efficacy of OCP’s Isoniazid F Carbamaepine T Phenytoin T .....AND TURNS TO CRYSTALS ON STORING..THIS IS THE REASON THERE IS NO OSMOTIC HAVOC IN CELLS WITH IT Carbohydrates Yield energy ?17 J/Kg T Major source of energy q=brain &s=0">brain </a> F I THINK ITS GLUCOSE ACTULLY. Glycogen Synthesis occurs in muscle T Is stored along with water F ITS POLYMERISED............

..ACETABULUM IS VERY SMALL....Rifampicin T ALSO PHENOBARB Female pelvis compared to male Sacrum more curved F LESS CURVED AND MORE MORE BACK TILT Greater sc notch is larger T Sub pubic angle is more T Distance betw pubic sym to acetabulum is less than the diam of acetabulum F...AND THE DISTANCE IS GREATER .

inhibinA 4.fever.teratoganic 5. TRACHEA MESTROLONE:TERATOGENIC:T FIMBRIAL CYST:ORIGIN ATLANTIC FLIGHT=1/10 OF DENTAL XRAY EXPOSURE:F DNA MICROARRAY USES RFLP OCCIPITAL SKULL DEFECTS IN SYNDROME DEVELOPMENT OF TESTIS AFTER DAYS OF FERTILIZATION..ENDOCX.maculopap rash .myalgia..herpez2 .PELVIS:M/F DIFFERENCE. • • • PITUITARY:REPEAT Q emqz.1.MRCOG part 1 RECALLS Some past MCQs and EMQs and parts of questions or items of questions as remembered by my students (these are actual questions appeared in march 2009 exams) • • • • • • • • • • LINING OF: ECTOCX.peptide synth by placenta starting 5th week till b4 term 4.DEF YOLK SAC RECEPTORS FOR ESTROGEN.herpez1 4.estrogen 7progestron options for next 3 1.cmv 2.peptide raised in down synd synth by placenta 3...ANAL CANAL.hcg 3.hpl 2.rubella 3.PROGESTERONE.VULVA.PROSTAGLANDIN.INSULIN OBTURATOR N URETER. BREAST CERVICAL SMEAR NORMAL.maculopap rash .CONTAINS.cerebral calcifications 6..acth 6. 2.vescicular painful rash not teretoganic options for 1st 3 emqz 1..inhibin B 5.a glycoprotien synth by placenta pek 9 weeks..

frequency cobalt molecular wt vq scan. xray chest in pregnancy physiologcal changes after surgry respiratory phy in preg acute phase reactanta dentritic cells and hiv formalin fixed rpocs sample may be used to diagnose?karyotyping half life of renin teratoganic drugs blood preserved for transfusion? diaphragm . hsv 1.xerodermapigmentosum messanger rna .5.hiv • • • • • • vitamin causing hyperemasis vit that synthesized in human body vitamin destroyd by heating.structures passing from heriditory cancers?where those all true?burkits lymphoma.2 7.herpez 3 6.boling calcitonin gh hiv virus • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • recurrent abortion human and pork insulin tv ultrasound .

...extrems of life 2..nurons in anterior horn 3....attachment dystrodhic calcification in fibroid following can regenrate 1..motile mycoplasma.specificit..due to excess prostaglandin secretion two more options • following r correct pairs 1.glomerulli • ovulatory dub.causes arthritis tricomnas vaginalis is intracellular..anerob meningo and ghonococci which r true ? truncus arterisus asss with abs of septum in aorto pulm channel .• • • rectus abdominus.. 1. it hpv 1..2 or vzv mycoplasma.stimulate coagulation cascade bacteroids r aerobics..liver paranchyma 2.t meckel divert-persistent vitelloint duct .causes arthritis ??? f pulse pressure indpndnt of stroke volume bp of neonateis less thn adult oxy hbcurve shft to left breast lymphatic drainage 75% in axill ln 75% blood volume in veins • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • sensitivity.. release of tnf....progestron and molar pregnancy 2.normal distribution ...5%cases of menorhagia 3.DES and vaginal adenosis 3.t.. FISH anterior horn is sensory pineal gland derivatives of nural crest extent of cauda equina endotoxins.ppv..

? Vacuoles etc???? Day of Yolk sac and commencement of testicular differentiation? Drugs in pregnancy .. Vitamins associated with hyperemesis/production yb body and heat resistant .? Thiamine/Vitamin D and Vitamin C? Chromosome anomolies associated with Occipital skull defects/overlapping fingers and telosomerism? Not sure about the answers for these? • Vitamins associated with hyperemesis/production yb body and heat resistant .? CMV/Varicella/?Rubella Risk factors for ovarian/cervical and endometrial ca.trisomy 18 not find ans of scalp defect • hpv vaccin moa is production of antibodies nutralizing the virus .? Tetracycline (bones) and Enoxaparin (anticoagulation in pregnany) Receptors for Oestrogen/Progesterone/Prostaglandins and Insulin Cell type/ Responce to kuppfer cells and HPV vaccine ..Inhibin/?HPL? and HCG Infections ....• • beta oxidation of lipids rlfp fish • • kufer cells of liver.macrofages or apcz? HIV Has reverse transcriptase that synthesise host Rna Attach to dendritic cells 1st if transferd by vaginal rout Envelope protein no 120p is needed for viral attachement HIV 2 is prevalent in Europe • EMQs: Ectocervix/Endocervix/Bladder/Trachea/Labia Majora/Bowel/Fallopian tube histology..? Thiamine/Vitamin D and Vitamin C? • deficiency of vit b6 causes hyper emesis.may b flexed fingere...vit synth by human body vit k. Also cervical histology when near menstruation .? cytotoxic/type 1 or type 2 responce? Hormones in Pregnancy .trisomy 18 hypertelorism...

. Also receptors for oestrogen/progesterone/insulin and prostaglandins.surfactant is pre in fetal lung in 24w gest no…Not sure 15.metabolic acidosis occur after admin of ammuni chloride yes 10.polyploidy r structral abberations of chromosome false 5.plasma albumin binds wt triglesrides 9.translation of dna occur inside nuclus true I am not sure 6.• • • • • • • MW of cobolt (?60) and frequency for transvaginal uss.within 48hrs of maj surgical operation there is inc in potassium excretion yes 11. histology of thorax / bladder / ectocervix with bleeding / bowel and skin (anal biopsy). prostatic utricle is drived from mesonephric duct .sub cut inj of atropin produces hyonotic effect false 17.serum conc of all releasing horm of hypoth inc in preg false 20.cholestrol is a major constit of hdl yes 12.so conc in serum should be less 18.angiotensinogen is a globulin yes alpha 2 globulin 19.anuploidy.histamin inhbit pepsin sec false 14. • PG stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors Pg stimulates the isolated myometrial muscle fibres in vitro • Cervix !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Microglandular hyperplasia is premalignant.estrogn inc serum conc of albumin false binds maximally to estrogens.pseudomonas is motile yes 16.what is actual value of both cong and uncon billi its lipid soluble ???????///cant find 8. Microglandular hyperplasia is caused by COC Microglandular hyperplaisia can co exist with CIN Cervical polyp is premalignant.cong billi is constituant of amnitic fluid from 2nd tri after 20-22 weeks yess so should the answer be yes???//clarify 7.paranchymal cells of liver cn convert fruc into glu false 2.it is synth from acetate yes 13. .nephroblastoma may b benign false 4.an ovarian teratoma is usually melignan false 3..halothn prod expulsive mix with air yes • Metabolic acidosis: With repeated vomiting… With ingestion of ammonium chloride… With hypokalemia.normal level is 500md/l in blood.f its a deriv of parameso preovulatory follicle is lined by theca intrna cells true in CBD obstruction serm cholestrol will be dec ?? 1.duplication.

elimination of the factor decreases the risk of the disease c. it is dependent on the incidence of the disease b. exposure to the factor must precede the development of the disease b.HCG IS DETECTABLE WITHIN 48 HRS OF FERTILISATION 3.in CBD obstruction serm cholestrol will be dec 3. the factor is found more frequently among the diseased than non-diseased . it is used to test the difference between frequencies t b.An aetiological factor must satisfy the following before one can say that it is causally related to a disease: a. the number of degrees of freedom is the number of independent comparisons..is endometrial ca associated with it? 2.preovulatory follicle is lined by theca intrna cells 5.obturator nerve innervates obt intrnus muscle 4.All types of dysplasia may be present in microscopi examination. it is used as an alternative to the t-test to determine the difference between two means f c.pelvic splanshnic nerves inervates cervix nd ut. it measures all the current cases in the community d. • The following are characters of hypoxic cell death: Apoptosis…true Phagocytosis…false Pyknosis…false Poikilocytosis…false Release of phospholipids…true • 1.The prevalence rate of a disease has the following features: a. it can be used to determine the health needs of a community 10. the greater the value of the chi-squared test. ? d.prostatic utri is drived from mesonephric duct With regard to the chi-squared test: a. the less likely it is to be significant f e.HNPCC syndrome. 6. it is dependent on the duration of illness c.hpl reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term • 1. the null hypothesis is not required t • • .BILE NORMALLY CONATAI HI CONC OF FREE BILLI 2. it can be estimated from a cross-sectional study e.THF IS PRECURSOR OF FOLIC ACID 4.fetal testis r intrabdominal 12w afr conception 7..

b. which of the following statements about retinoblastoma is (are) true? a. cross-sectional study. implies that the results of a test can be reproduced. the median is 3 c. its incidence will decrease. both the incidence and prevalence will increase • 12. 2 a. b. describes how well a study measures what it purports to measure. its incidence will increase.'Validity' as applied in statistics refers to: a. • 13. its prevalence will increase. but does not prevent the disease or lead to its cure. c.d. e. randomized controlled clinical trial. • 14. the factor is found in all cases with the disease • 11. e. measures the strength of relationship between cause and effect. 4. 1. case-control study. d. its prevalence will decrease. b. expresses the degree to which two things are related.For the data series: 2. the mode is 4 b. They are followed prospectively for a period of five years to see if there is an association between the incidence of cataract and the use of drug X. c. d. 6. c. Given this scenario. the mean is always identical to the median . indicates the probability of obtaining a given result by chance alone. This type of study is a: a. cross-over study. cohort study. e. the mean is 3 e.A recently discovered treatment for retinoblastoma significantly extends the lifespan of the patient. the standard deviation is 4 d.A random selection of 1200 adults agree to participate in a study of the possible effects of drug X. the factor is not found among persons without the disease e. d.

F b.of the observation.SEM is independant of the total no. c.the median value always lies to the midpoint of range. endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells • Copper IUD mode of action: ?T sperm motility ?T microthrombi ?T intervent ovary movement • stored blood which is to be used for transfusion— a-kept at -4 degree f b-must be used in 1 week – f c-is tested for compliment content before transfusion -.SD always >SEM -?? d.• statistical analysis of any group of numerical observationa.T .F e.f • Transferrin a)is one third saturated with iron b)is increased in pregnancy c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram d)levels in the neonate are low e)is actively transported lignocain is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block • • The rectum a) usually commences at the level of S3 b) has a mesentery in its proximal third c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment e) is about 25cm in length • During menstruation.its false bz the range of no may contain even as well as odd numbers.f d-may be used for platelet replacement – f e-contains an acid anticoagulant – t • linear regression: a-starts from the origin b-passes thru the meanc-values vary d-ranking is done??? .the mean is always less than the mode.there r same no of observation greater and less than the median value.

.f d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment f e) is about 25cm in length f • During menstruation.t c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes ..f c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction .t b) has a mesentery in its proximal third .f T microthrombi .......• following test r used to compare 2 drugs a and b a-student t test b-meta analysis c-wiloxone paired test withney u paired test • d)levels in the neonate are low ??? yes t • following test r used to compare 2 drugs a and b a-student t test f b-meta analysis f c-wiloxone paired test t withney u paired test t • The rectum a) usually commences at the level of S3 ......t T intervent ovary movement ...f Copper IUD mode of action: T sperm motility ..t spirolactone...f? d-may be used for platelet replacement – f e-contains an acid anticoagulant – • prostaglandin . endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding .f facial hair increased by: oestrogen...t d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells ..t b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction ..f • • • stored blood which is to be used for transfusion— a-kept at -4 degree f b-must be used in 1 week – f c-is tested for compliment content before transfusion -....f testerone..

.. DNA is wound around histone..? • incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to 3 rd gen ceph 5% • genetics South blot detects DNA .mete nephric duct arises frommeso neph duc? 6germination of tet spors cn b inhbit by antitoxin nd toxoid both? .7-8 weeks • Enzyme activity is modified by Allosteric esters ?F Binding to plasma prot T Proteolytic cleaving of inactive precursors F Gene transcription t • incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to penicillin is 1% ....estrog prog and fsh lh having diurnal variation? 4.• predominantly produced by UG system ...t DNA is exact copy of RNA .....is a kind of lukotriene ....coeliac ganglia contain chromafin cells? 2..5-6 weeks and trans abdominal...f opposite z true DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase t Ribosomes contain RNA t Transcription occurs at any direction along the chain t DNA replication is called transformation f DNA has transcription restriction enzyme f? Histones do not contain DNa.pelvic sd by plan n supp ascen cilon wd motor fibers? 3.f .blood from inf vena cava is largely directd 2 foramen ovale? 5.....f • by transvaginal u/s yolk sac apear in which week..f :T Histones dont containDNA.. 1.is phospholipid ..f .f • • Histones do not contain DNa..f? • following incr in injury ) FIBRINOGEN t 2) HEPATOGLOGIN t 3) FERRITIN..

Is a decapeptide False . Increases renal calcium excretion True Question 2: The following cross the placenta a.normal human seminal fluid ciagula 6. TRH False b.t pallidm immobilization test is pos in yaws and lime disease 2. Thyroxine binding globulin False d. Decreased total body sodium content True d. TSH True c. Exercise True Question 4: The following factors cause a rise in plasma aldosterone concentration a. Raised ACTH levels False • • • • Monozygotic TWINS Are always identical True Are always of the same sex True Have an increased risk of congenital abnormalities compared to singlet . Thyroglobulin f m not sure plz correct Question 3: The following would cause a rise in plasma cortisol concentrations a.ethanol in excess stimulats fatty acid oxidation? 7hbf is <5%at 8w aftr birth • Calcitonin a. Anti-diuretic hormone administration False d. Secretion is increased at serum calcium levels below 1.• 1. Is synthesised in the parathyroid glands False b. antigenimea indicates infectivity? 4.hep b coretes ftes in vivo? 3. Hypovolaemia True b. Dexamethasone administration True c. Hyperkalaemia False c.5 mmol/l (6. Intense cold True b.32aa c.peniclin potentiat action of lmwheprin? 5.1mg/100ml) False d.

. 2.True Have an increased risk of Down syndrome false • Question 2: Dizygotic twins May be identical False May be monochorionic False May be monoamniotic True Occur more frequently in older women False • Monozygotic TWINS Are always identical True Are always of the same sex True Have an increased risk of congenital abnormalities compared to singlet True Have an increased risk of Down syndrome false ///are u sure.rubella incub per 7 to 10 dz? …….14-21 days .glycosylation takes place in SER? 3..obturator nr inner obtur intrns muscle? Nerve to obturator internus from sacral plexus…. I cant find any reference • Question 2: Dizygotic twins May be identical False May be monochorionic False always dichorionic and diamniotic May be monoamniotic True ////false Occur more frequently in older women False ……true • 1.

4.rubell specific ab appear in 14 dz? ????????????????/ 5.actinomycets is comonsl in vag nd mouth? yes 6.core antignemia of hep b virus sugg infktivity? yes

1.listeriosis is best rx with benzyl penicill yes 2.prednisolone is broncodilator? false 3.theraputic eff of ritodrin enhancd by dxamethason false 4.median value alwaz lie in midpoint of range false 5.blood ph is regulatd predom by hco3 ions? false 6.passive diff is diff for sterioisomers ??????????/ 7.lactose may b detectd in urine of preg women false

1.muscle glycoge is releasd in res to glucocorticoids ???????????????/ 2.igm fixes compl by altrnate pathway false… 3.osteoprosis is asso with abnorm histo,irregular epiphy. Cant understand the question….. 4.iron may b red by vit c nd again becoms feric aftr absorption. yes 5.renin may b producd by decidua yes(expressed by chorion amnion and placenta…so T/F?///???) 6.estro stimulats angioten production ???/////////cant find any reference 7.adult spinal cord is packe within single layer of dura( two layer of meneinges dura and pia so the answer should be False)

.tetrahydrofolate is inhbtd by methotrexat 2.it is a co enzyme in aminoacid metabolsm 3.dna is cleaved by restriction enzyme,its irreversbly damage in vitro at 75deg 4.hla codes for 3 clases of antigen 5.endothelila cells release factor8 related antigen 6.medulloblastomA and melignant melanoma spreads via lymphatics. 7.renal vein thrombosis is asso with hydronephrosis n fetal circulation the out put of rt vent>lt vent? false 2.mast cells control melanin frmationin dermis false…its controlled by melanin 3.myometrial cont is mediate by somatic nr false 4.it depnds on myomet gapjunctions yes 5.reducd arterial pco2 dec ph false 6.arissa stella reaction in endometrial curetting provide definit diag of preg false 7.woundhealing is delayd by ultra violt lite false

1.chromosomz can b analysed more quickly by blood sample aas compare to amnotic fluid true 2.lactose is non reducing sugar and cn b found in preg urine yes 3.glucose is trans via placenta by simple diffusion no facilated transfer 4.E2is most abundant estrogen in late pregnancy 5.vitk def causes hypothrombonemia essential for coagulation factors & prothrombin…so ans should be true 6.ethanol supp adh secretion yes 7.2,3DPG IS abundnt in meternal thn fetal blood false .b mimetics red dias bp,thy incr blood glucose


2.asprin causes bronchoconstr yes???? Not sure 3.clindamycin is cell wall synth inhbitor false

4.herpes simplex caus cx warts false..molluscum contagsioum 5.germination of tetnus spors inhb by anti toxin an TT,both yes 6.in premenopausal women,95%circula testost drivd from per conversion.b.ovaries and adren contrib equallyto circula androgen.c.DHEAS driv almost xclusiv from adrena.d.testo promo SHBG synth.

: 50% DHEA + androstenidione from adrenals….50% androstenidone from ovary 25% ?ovarian 25% peripheral conversion…Testerone 25% ovarian,25%adrenal 50% peripheral conversion manily from androstendione yes they decrease Shbg

.insulin like growth fac is not secr by ovary true 2.insulin sec is stimulatd bygastrin,noradrenali,somatostatin,glucagon,argnin??? .3.thyroxin is a steroid false 4.female uri bladder is in contact with supravaginal cx yes 5.obturatr internus form the roof of ischioractal fosa.false….it forms the lateral wall

1.The cells a.fetal epithelill cells yes b.amniotic cells yes c.dermal fibroblast. yes

2.Nitrogenous wastes a.urea ,creatnin,uric acid....increases in conc from 1st trimester till term. yes

3.amino acids.....same conc as maternal plasma yes

4.plasma proteins mailny albumin and globulin with ratio 6:4....inc till 30w yes

5.oncofetal protein......alpha feto proteins.....only in early pregnancy yes

6.lipids 400mg/lit at term 50%FFA,phospholipid cholestrol,lecithin. yes

7.carbohydrats mainly glucose......half of maternal serum yes

8.lactate,pyrvate,alpha ketoglutrate......same as mat plasma no Idea yes

9.anti bacterial factors....lysosomes,peroxidase,alpha interferons yes

10.Inorganic salts.....same as mat ECF yes

11.hormones....mainly E2 conjugated form,progestron and pregnanidiol,cortisone. ???estrogens mainly estradiol ,progesterone and pregnendiol,17 hydroxycortisone found in trace amounts..chamberlain pg 46

12.insulin......raises towards term

13.Billirubin.....dec towards term yes

14.pco2......55-60mmhg yes/no its 50-60 mm hg

15.po2...2-15mmhg lower then that of mat arterial po2 ….yes

16.PH.....7.0

1.glomerulonephritis is ty3 hypersenstivity post streptococcal Glomerulonephritis 2.lymphocytse can change into plasma cells yes 3.serotonin causes platlet aggregation true 4.osteomalacia is charact by normal mirelization of bone false 5.minimun daily req of ess amino acid is 0.3 to 1.o g 6.protein poor but energy suff diet results dec creatnin excretion yes 7.injestion of complex prot is essential for maintanance of nitrogen balance yes

8.nor conc of plasma protin is 7g/dl 9.nerve impulses req energy ????Cant find any reference 10.in preg plasma folate level dec 11.phenytoin dec rbc folate conc yes 12.vessopresin stimulate myometrium similar structure to oxytocin so the answer should be YES………………….What do u think 13.extra dural space lies bet pia and dura yes 14.neonate dlverd at term has head circum of 40 to 50 cm yes 15.pineal gland activity is relatd to day length it maintains the biological clock…so the anser is NO..what do u think 16.crh is released from median eminance of hypothalams yes 17.inhibin is released in pulses yes 18.t3 redily crosses placenta does not cross placenta in significant amount..so whats the answer 19.tsh in in preg ???falls in first trimester and increases in 3rd trimester so whats the answer 20.hcg primerly metabolised in kidney yes 21.insulin is metabolised in kidney..liver and kidney so yes/no whats the answer 22.bacteroids r motile some motile others non motile…so whats the answer???? 23.primary oocyte has ben completed 1st mitoticdiv by birth yes 24.urethra is surrounded by smooth muscle in middle third………………. its covered by fibrous muscular and mucosa throughout…answer should be false 25.pelvic surfece of secrum is in contact with anal canal false 6.glucagon promot breakdwn of protein 27.estradiol 17 can b adminis orally false 28.pressor effect of ang2 is suppresd in normal preg yes 29.cephalothin should b avoided in normal preg 30.leptospirosis produces positive wesserman reaction false 31.can b transmitted via skin yes 32.warfirin is >80%protein bound yes 33.odds ratio 1.3 applies risk of 33% yes 34.odds ratio 2 indicate halving the risk false

Options for Questions 1-2 A Epidermolysis [bleep] B Hereditary spherocytosis C Huntington?s disease D Achondroplasia E Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy F Marfan?s syndrome G Myotonic dystrophy H Von Willebrand disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Question 1 The fetus is found to be affected by an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a point mutation in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor III Your answer: A Correct answer: D • Question 2 The fetus is at risk of a condition which requires fetal skin biopsy and electron microscopy for diagnosis Your answer: A Correct answer: A • Options for Questions 3-3 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine • I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Each option may be used once. Question 4 Autosomal recessive Your answer: C Correct answer: A • Question 5 Autosomal dominant Your answer: G Correct answer: G • Options for Questions 6-7 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D . Each option may be used once. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list.• Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation. For each of the scenarios below. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. more than once or not at all. more than once or not at all. more than once or not at all. Question 3 Maternal intake of this vitamin around the time of conception has been shown to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects Your answer: J Correct answer: J • Options for Questions 4-5 A Haemochromatosis B Down?s syndrome C Haemophilia A D Patau syndrome E Coeliac disease F Red-green colour blindness G Myotonic dystrophy H Multiple sclerosis I Prader-Willi syndrome J Cerebral palsy Instructions: For each of the modes of inheritance below. Each option may be used once.

Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all.C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Deficiency occurs within a few days of cessation of bile secretion Your answer: D Correct answer: D • Question 7 This vitamin is a cofactor in the synthesis of prothrombin Your answer: D Correct answer: D • Options for Questions 8-9 A DNA polymerase alpha B DNA polymerase beta C DNA polymerase delta D DNA polymerase gamma E DNA helicase F DNA ligase G RNA polymerase H RNAase I Telomerase J Restriction endonucleases Instructions: Nucleic acid replication is vital for cell division. Each option may be used once. Question 6 Fat soluble vitamin. more than once or not at all. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Question 8 Which enzyme replicates DNA at the ends of chromosomes? Your answer: A Correct answer: I • Question 9 Which enzyme cuts DNA at palindromic sequences? Your answer: A Correct answer: J Options for Questions 10-11 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Each option may be used once. For each of the questions below. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Question 10 Deficiency of this vitamin typically occurs in women with hyperemesis gravidarum Your answer: H Correct answer: H • Question 11 Water-soluble vitamin with anti-oxidant effects Your answer: G Correct answer: F .

choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. more than once or not at all. Your answer: G Correct answer: G • Options for Questions 16-17 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Each option may be used once. Each option may be used once. For each of the questions below. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Each option may be used once. Question 16 Fat soluble vitamin produced in the skin by photo-activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol Your answer: B . • Question 14 The fetus?s father died suddenly from an inherited autosomal dominant condition Your answer: G Correct answer: E • Question 15 The fetus is at risk of an autosomal dominant condition. For each of the scenarios below. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. more than once or not at all. Question 12 Which enzyme synthesizes transfer RNA? Your answer: H Correct answer: C • Question 13 Which enzyme degrades RNA? Your answer: A Correct answer: H • Options for Questions 14-15 A Epidermolysis [bleep] B Hereditary spherocytosis C Huntington?s disease D Achondroplasia E Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy F Galactosaemia G Myotonic dystrophy H Von Willebrand disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation.Options for Questions 12-13 A RNA polymerase I B RNA polymerase II C RNA polymerase III D DNA polymerase gamma E DNA helicase F DNA ligase G Translation H RNAase I Telomerase J Restriction endonucleases Instructions: RNA and protein synthesis are vital for cell growth and differentiation. Neonatal disease does not occur if the condition is inherited from the father but there is a 20% risk of neonatal disease if the condition is inherited from the mother.

choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. more than once or not at all. Each option may be used once. Each option may be used once. For each of the scenarios below. more than once or not at all. Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. Question 21 X-linked recessive Your answer: A .Correct answer: B • Question 17 Fat soluble vitamin with anti-oxidant effects Your answer: C Correct answer: C • Options for Questions 18-19 A Marfan?s syndrome B Hereditary spherocytosis C Haemophilia B D Haemophilia A E Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy F Galactosaemia G Myotonic dystrophy H Von Willebrand disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. • Question 20 Non-dysjunction during meiosis Your answer: A Correct answer: D Options for Questions 21-22 A Edward syndrome B Down?s syndrome C Haemophilia A D Patau syndrome E Coeliac disease F Achondroplasia G Myotonic dystrophy H Sickle cell disease I Prader-Willi syndrome J Cerebral palsy Instructions: For each of the modes of inheritance below. Question 18 The woman and her partner are known to be carriers of an autosomal disorder associated with juvenile cirrhosis and emphysema Your answer: A Correct answer: I • Question 19 There is a risk of ambiguous genitalia and neonatal vomiting if the child inherits this condition Your answer: A Correct answer: J Options for Questions 20-20 A Phenylketonuria B Duchenne muscular dystrophy C Acute intermittent porphyria D Patau syndrome E Angelman syndrome F Achondroplasia G Androgen insensitivity syndrome H Congenital adrenal hyperplasia I Prader-Willi syndrome J Cerebral palsy Instructions: For each of the mechanisms of disease listed below.

choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. For each of the scenarios below. Each option may be used once. Each option may be used once. more than once or not at . Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. more than once or not at all.Correct answer: C Question 22 Autosomal recessive Your answer: A Correct answer: H • Options for Questions 23-24 A Epidermolysis [bleep] B Hereditary spherocytosis C Huntington?s disease D Achondroplasia E Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy F Marfan?s syndrome G Myotonic dystrophy H Von Willebrand disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Question 23 The fetus is at risk from a haemolytic disorder caused by a mutation in the gene for spectrin Your answer: A Correct answer: B • Question 24 The woman?s father is affected by an autosomal dominant neuro-psychiatric disorder that typically presents in the 3rd -4th decades of life Your answer: A Correct answer: C Options for Questions 25-26 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Question 25 Fat soluble vitamin synthesized in the intestinal wall from beta carotene Your answer: A Correct answer: A • Question 26 Fat soluble vitamin synthesized by large intestinal bacteria Your answer: A Correct answer: D Options for Questions 27-28 A Edward syndrome B Down?s syndrome C Acute intermittent porphyria D Patau syndrome E Angelman syndrome F Achondroplasia G Androgen insensitivity syndrome H Congenital adrenal hyperplasia I Prader-Willi syndrome J Cerebral palsy Instructions: For each of the mechanisms of disease listed below.

all. Question 31 Which enzyme synthesizes the lagging strand of DNA? Your answer: A Correct answer: A • Question 32 Which enzyme joins Okazaki fragments forming a continuous strand of DNA? Your answer: A Correct answer: F . Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. For each of the questions below. For each of the scenarios below. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. Question 29 The woman is affected by an autosomal dominant condition associated with aortic aneurysms and lens subluxation Your answer: A Correct answer: A • Question 30 The woman has an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder Your answer: A Correct answer: H • Options for Questions 31-32 A DNA polymerase alpha B DNA polymerase beta C DNA polymerase delta D DNA polymerase gamma E DNA helicase F DNA ligase G RNA polymerase H RNAase I Telomerase J Okazaki fragments Instructions: Nucleic acid replication is vital for cell division. more than once or not at all. • Question 27 Deletion in a paternally derived chromosome Your answer: A Correct answer: I • Question 28 Deletion in a maternally derived chromosome Your answer: A Correct answer: E • Options for Questions 29-30 A Marfan?s syndrome B Hereditary spherocytosis C Haemophilia B D Haemophilia A E Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy F Galactosaemia G Myotonic dystrophy H Von Willebrand disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation. Each option may be used once. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list.

more than once or not at all. Synthesis by the kidneys is regulated by parathyroid hormone Your answer: A Correct answer: B • Options for Questions 35-36 A Marfan?s syndrome B Hereditary spherocytosis C cystinuria D phenylketonuria E Coeliac disease F Galactosaemia G Myotonic dystrophy H Gaucher disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation. Question 37 Which enzyme synthesizes ribosomal RNA? Your answer: A . Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. For each of the scenarios below.• Options for Questions 33-34 A Vitamin A B Vitamin D C Vitamin E D Vitamin K E Vitamin B12 F Vitamin C G Vitamin B6 H Thiamine I Riboflavine J Folic acid Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. For each of the questions below. more than once or not at all. Each option may be used once. Question 35 Pre-natal diagnosis can be undertaken by measuring the concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in amniotic fluid Your answer: A Correct answer: J • Question 36 The fetus is at risk from an autosomal recessive disorder which can be treated by exclusion of milk products from the diet Your answer: A Correct answer: F • Options for Questions 37-38 A RNA polymerase I B RNA polymerase II C RNA polymerase III D DNA polymerase gamma E DNA helicase F DNA ligase G Translation H RNAase I Telomerase J Restriction endonucleases Instructions: RNA and protein synthesis are vital for cell growth and differentiation. Question 33 Deficiency of this vitamin in childhood causes rickets Your answer: A Correct answer: B • Question 34 Fat soluble vitamin. Each option may be used once.

.Correct answer: A Question 38 Which enzyme synthesizes messenger RNA? Your answer: A Correct answer: B • Options for Questions 39-40 A Haemochromatosis B Hereditary spherocytosis C cystinuria D phenylketonuria E Coeliac disease F Galactosaemia G Myotonic dystrophy H Gaucher disease I Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency J Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Instructions: A 20 year old woman has been referred for pre-natal diagnosis at 11 weeks gestation.6 COP . For each of the scenarios below.) it is related to the size of the fetus . breast 300).(until 32wks. *EDHF (endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor ) * Throboxane ( 3-5 times) until term *EDrwF *Endothelin . *stroke volume increased by 64 __ 71 ml . cardiomyopathy..5. *renal excretion of HCO3 *plasma volume 2600_____ 3800ml. *the sensitivity of the respiratoratory to Co2( like does hypoxia ) *Diaphragm 4cm ( transverse diameter of the chest 2cm . choose the single most appropriate disorder from the above list..uterus 400 at term 700.. . this inc in cardiac out put 1500 ml ( skin 500--. kidney 300 others (git .103 degree ) * Pulmonary blood flow 40% * pulmonary arterial pressure (12--19%) *Tidal volume 200ml *Alveular ventilation 30% *Vital capacity (MAY). * The inc in O2 is 50ml ( 20 fetus . more than once or not at all.. *Red cell mass(1400ml _____1650-1800) until term . *clotting factors 1. 8 . arthropathy and cirrhosis Your answer: A • increased during prgnancy :.1 l/min) = 40% early and reach plateau at 24 __ 30wks *HR (80 ___ 90/min) = 10 % * O2 consumption (250 __ 300ml ) increased by 30 __ 50 ml at term ..5l___6. Each option may be used once... *Renin inc in pregnancy and estrogen containing pills but the action of angiotensinogen 2 is blocked so decreased PR *Fluid transfer across the endothelium so Oedema. 6 inc inrenal work.. *ADH.. Question 39 The fetus is at risk from an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the beta-galactosidase gene Your answer: A Correct answer: H • Question 40 The fetus is at risk from an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by diabetes mellitus. *COP (4. * Increased PAI (plasminogen activating inhibitor===> decreased fibrinolysis) *Increased PTA (tissue plasmin activator)==> inc fibrinolysis *Generalised inflamatory response *erythropoiten (3times ) *Ventliation due to progesterone(40% more in the first trimester). subcostal angle 38 . 18 metabolic activity .

lipoproteins . *Pro vit A . infuensa .phospho lipids . Iron absorbtion *Size of the thyroid gland . *Water reabsorption in large itestine ..E . *Gastric emptying time (50 to 100 min ) *Inc osteolytic activity=====> inc alkaline phosphatase *Serum bile acids ===>cholyglycin *Fatty acids *Enhanced insulin response to glucose early in the 2nd trimest so inc in 2hr plasma glucose *Binding proteins . Testerone.10.2L/min___1. *Erythropoiesis due to ( erythroid hyperplasia and inc transferin ) *TWBC (neutrophils) *MCV *ESR *Red cell fragility (RC) *red cell size .D .8. Parathrmone *copper (2--3 times ) due to inc ceruplasmin.proteins(albumin) and transferin . water and soluble vitamins . *Protein bound iodine .9. cholesterol . FFAs . IgD. * IgM . *Renal excretion of sugars. caries. *Ureter dilated due to ( proges cause smooth muscle reaxation+obstruction by the uterus and collectig system) *Renal blood flow 1. amino acids. FAP *Factor 7. cortisol ( total and free ) max in 3rd trimest.5L/min early and decreased in the 3rd trimest ) *GFR(120 ml/min.swell and bled easily . *Aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone . transferin binding capacity *B globin * SHBG. malaria ). your doctor will talk to you about how to take these before the test. Normal values vary from lab to lab. *Motilia and somatostatin *Gums.12 from the third trimest *Fetal arrterial presure through out prgnanacy. You do not need to do anything before having a folic acid red blood cell test Results A folic acid test measures the amount of folic acid in the blood. *The proportion of B to T cells AND WE HAVE DECREASED DURING PREGNANCY SOON ( URS nagm) Also there is increase in ACTH CRH • How To Prepare For the folic acid plasma test. *filtered load of glucose ====> glucosuria. Folate in liquid portion (plasma) of blood . do not eat or drink (other than water) for 8 to 10 hours before the test. *susceptability to infection (polio . *total T3 *Androstenadione . *Fibrinogen.*Minute volume (3L) *Kidney length (1cm ) due to inc cell size. If you take any medicines regularly. *Inc filtered load of sodium (balanced by reabsorption) *Apettite and thirst . *lipids (TG .

woman after cervical surgery with drains left in place for some weeks has slow recov bacilli dont understand.locally mg ca . • High folic acid levels can also mean a vitamin B12 deficiency.cholestrol is maj cons of hdl 5.basal cell ca 3. a folic acid test is not a reliable way to test for a vitamin B12 deficiency.protien kinase nuclear receptor? 6.G linked cell membrane receptor. folic acid cannot be used by the cells. if vitamin B12 levels are very low.Adult 2–20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) 4–45 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L) (SI units) Children 5–21 ng/mL 11–47 nmol/L • Folate in red blood cells Adult 140–628 ng/mL 317–1422 nmol/L (SI units) Children More than 160 ng/mL More than 362 nmol/L High values • High levels of folic acid in the blood may mean that you eat a diet rich in folic acid. and who are likely to develop immunity to pregnancy-associated parasites. some past EMQ1.due to which vit defxeropthalmia . However.it is released in circulation in resp to glucocorticoid 11. Consuming more folic acid than the body needs does not cause problems.vit B12 4.theraputic dose of megnisium trisillicate causes alkalosis 4. Both humoral and cellular mechanisms may account for the lower susceptibility of multigravidae to malaria.it only gener atp undre arobic condition 9.it is entirely intracellular 10.vit A hyperemesis graviderum . Low values • Low folic acid levels can mean you have a problem with your diet.b lymphocyte? 10.screening test for following alpha thalassaemia .low level of serum iron?? untreated syphilis .adenocarcinoma of ovary involv mtaplastic process 12.18 8.hamartoma 2.a gray(100rads)is a unit of energy absorption 2.cytotxic t cell? This suggests the occurrence of an immune response more specific for the RP5 line in women having had multiple pregnancies.immune response in malaria with pg .hb electrophpresis beta thalassaemia -same folate def .coal dust causes ca bronchus .flurosent Treponemal antibody test 5.is it actinomycete ? 9.protien tyrosine kinase activity receptor on cell membrane PGE2 .in a woman who recvd vaccine for Hpv .hormone receptors for following r located in Insulin .hpv 16. and high levels of it may build up in the blood. take vitamins.conjugatd billi is constituants of amniotic flud 3.on taking a large protien meal insulin glucagon both secretion increased. alcohol dependence.it is independant of phosphorylase 8. Therefore.muscle glycoge metebol cannot yield free glu 7. or take folic acid pills.cervical ca .mcv iron def .tumour like growth .it can b synthesisd from acetate 6. 7. Estrogen . or an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa. 1.thimine macrocytic anemia .nuclear transcription receptor? progesteron . Body cells need vitamin B12 to use folic acid.

randomisation is best achieve by alternate allocation of subjects in each group 2.peritoneum has meso drmal orign 1.13.cholestrol is maj cons of hdl 5.death is characterize by lucocytosis .asprin causes bronchoconstriction 12.it only gener atp undre arobic condition 9.it can b synthesisd from acetate 6.conjugatd billi is constituants of amniotic flud 3.amniotic fluid normally contain fetal or maternal cells 1iron diffus passively in erythropoietic cells false 2.bile normally contain hi conc of free cholestrol 8. 6.it is entirely intracellular 10.the peak pressure in pulmonry arterial sys is <onetenth of that in systemic circulation 17.conjugatd billi is constituants of amniotic flud yes .amnion has meso dermal origion 19.aldosteron is a steroide 10. 11.asprin dec the action of ritodrin 4.it may not be equal to it ????125ml/hr both i dont think so inspiration is brought abt by relaxation of intercostal muscle true randomisation is best achieve by alternate allocation of subjects in each group ????what is the best way of randomization then? 1iron diffus passively in erythropoietic cells 2.n gonnorhae culture is inhbitid by low temp yes 3.glycolysis is a mobilization of stored glucose units 4.anti biotic rx in septic shock aggriv hypotension 4.relative ris reduction of 60%is significant irrespective of value of p 5.iron diffusespassively in erythropoietic cells 2.n gonnorhae culture is inhbitid by low temp 3.so it should be yes..creatnin has plasma clearance rate equal to plas flow to kidney 3.muscle glycoge metebol cannot yield free glu 7.vincent angina and billhazaria is caused by?organisms.folic acid is destroyed by boliing water 7.creatnin has plasma clearance rate equal to plas flow to kidney T.alcohol is transported actively across placenta 6.glucose to pyruate pathway is present in all tissues 5.comments invited 2.it is released in circulation in resp to glucocorticoid 1.transitional epith of bladder has mesodermal orign 18.inspiration is brought abt by relaxation of intercostal muscle 2.putez jager synd causes intestinal ca.testicular ca is hormone depndent 7.a gray(100rads)is a unit of energy absorption Its unit of Xrays absorbed/radioactive energt absorbed.t nd b lymphocytes can do phagocytosis 15.anti biotic rx in septic shock aggriv hypotension 4..natural killer cells have MHC 1 receptors 8.ovary develop in medulla of primitive gonade 9.in randomised double blind trail pt will b taking either of 2 drugs 13.stored blood b4 transfusion checkd for complment contant 14.thiopenton na is predominately excreted via kidney 14..macrophages provides protecton against intracellular pathogen 16.theraputic dose of megnisium trisillicate causes alkalosis 4.timoxifin incr the action of warferin 3.death is characterize by lucocytosis 1.it is independant of phosphorylase 8.a gray(100rads)is a unit of energy absorption 2.

natural killer cells have MHC 1 receptors yes 8.caused by S hematobium.alcohol is transported actively across placenta yes 6.it is entirely intracellular yes 10.mansoni species 11.ovary develop in medulla of primitive gonad false….vincent angina and billhazaria is caused by?organisms.timoxifin incr the action of warferin false 3.. the peak concentration of anti-D antibodies is attained within 3-6 weeks false rbc *Have an average diameter of 80 microns false 7 microns *Have a mean cell volume of 60 fl yes 76-96 *passive diff is diff for sterioisomers ??????????/cant understand *billirubin facilitates absorption of fat from the gut yes *lactose-may be detected in the urine of pregnant woman yes *un conjugated billii bound to specific proteins in the liver cells *Glycosylation takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum yes *nuclear heterochromatin is genetically inactive ???false * Tetany may occur as a complication of September 1998/P2/Q27.it only gener atp undre arobic condition yes.thiopenton na is predominately excreted via kidney false metabolised by the liver 14.amniotic fluid normally contain fetal or maternal cells yes *After injection of the D antigen into Rhesus negative individuals.aldosteron is a steroid yes 10.it develops in cortex 9.theraputic dose of megnisium trisillicate causes alkalosis false 4.it can b synthesisd from acetate yes 6.3.cholestrol is maj cons of hdl yes 5.it is independant of phosphorylase false 8.asprin dec the action of ritodrin should be false…no reference 4. March 2001/P2/Q30 A-osteoporosis B-hypercapnia (hypocapnia)????? C-respiratory acidosis??? D-peripheral neuropathy false E-untreated hyperparathyroidism false *liver parenchyma is more radiosensitive than intestinal epithelium false .relative ris reduction of 60%is significant irrespective of value of p 5.it is released in circulation in resp to glucocorticoid yes?????????? 2.not sure 9. vincents angina BORRELIA VINCENTI billhazaria is SCHISTOSOMIASIS….in randomised double blind trail pt will b taking either of 2 drugs yes 13.asprin causes bronchoconstriction yes that’s how it is involved in aspirin mediated bronchial asthama 12.folic acid is destroyed by boliing water yes 7.muscle glycoge metebol cannot yield free glu yes 7.japonicum.

??? 4Introns are the portions of a gene which code for protein. false 5Most of the human genome encodes polypeptide.*Chromosomes1-are usually studied after 12-24 hrs. Bowie Dick Test The Bowie-Dick (BD) test was developed to detect air leaks and to evaluate the ability of the air removal system to reduce air residuals within the sterilization chamber to an accept able level. Increased risk to which of the following are found in those children exposed in utero to such X irradiation *Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia yes *Intra-uterine growth retardation yes *Mental retardation ?? *Diabetes false *Cerebral gliomas yes .produced in response to Glucagon. culture of peripheral blood yes *30-year-old female undergoes a Chest and abdominal X-ray arranged by her GP and does not realise that she is 7 weeks pregnant.Requires cells in the metaphase stage of cell division false 4.degraded by phosphodiestrase yes 3.Can be applied to chorionic villi but not to amniocytes false but not sure Question 5: With respect to the structure of chromosomes *Nucleosomes are secondary coiling of DNA around spherical histone beads yes *Chromatin fibres are formed from tertiary coiling of nucleosomes yes *Chromatin fibres form loops around a scaffold of acidic protein called histone false…non histone acidic protein *Chromosomes are formed from thght copiling of chromatin yes "In general.produced from ATP yes 2. 6The following are true regarding cyclic AMP: 1. 2Mitochondrial genes are inherited from the mother. Some of the risks associated with x-rays during pregnancy involve certain cancers and leukemia.activates STAT 3 whats that cant understand 5.Can be used in the pre-natal diagnosis of Down syndrome yes 2. The first trimester is especially important when much of the fetal development is happening. Increased risk to which of the following are found in those children exposed in utero to such X irradiation *Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia *Intra-uterine growth retardation *Mental retardation *Diabetes *Cerebral gliomas 1The rate of DNA replication is directly under the control of enhancer sequences. false 3Transcription factors are mainly made of RNA.Typically takes 2-3 weeks for the results to be available flase 3. The Bowie-Dick test sheet is a visual indicator test that may be used as a predictor of future air removal problems in that any unsatisfactory outcome may be anticipated to get worse with continued use of the sterilizer. The risks of these problems occurring after an x-ray are very small and should be discussed with your doctor if you have had an x-ray or are planning to have one. (1) It is not an absolute air or vacuum measurement system. (2) Fluorescent in-situ hybridization 1. and low birth weight. pregnant women should avoid x-rays if possible.activates protein kinase C yes 4. birth defects. " 30-year-old female undergoes a Chest and abdominal X-ray arranged by her GP and does not realise that she is 7 weeks pregnant.

All types of dysplasia may be present in microscopi examination. including synthesis of lipids and steroids. PG stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors Pg stimulates the isolated myometrial muscle fibres in vitro Cervix !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Microglandular hyperplasia is premalignant. endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells human milk containscontains more calories then breast mil is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight tumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition can u rely on chromosome length to idintify them. During menstruation. metabolism of carbohydrates.hpl reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term mooth endoplasmic reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) has functions in several metabolic processes.Metabolic acidosis: With repeated vomiting… With ingestion of ammonium chloride… With hypokalemia. regulation of calcium concentration. human milk contains more water ring inversion of Y MRI involves the administration of radio labelled compound Proton is injected to improve contrast during MRI Regarding data a The coefficient of variation expresses the Standard deviation as a proportion of the mean b Standard error of mean indicates how close a sample is to the population mean c A probability of one means that an event has one in ten chance of happening d Logarithmictransfoormation is a method of normalizing data that are not normally distributed e ANOVA is used for normally distributed data .. The following are characters of hypoxic cell death: Apoptosis… Phagocytosis… Pyknosis… Poikilocytosis… Release of phospholipids… 1.is endometrial ca associated with it? 2.THF IS PRECURSOR OF FOLIC ACID 4.HCG IS DETECTABLE WITHIN 48 HRS OF FERTILISATION 3. drug detoxification. attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. Microglandular hyperplasia is caused by COC Microglandular hyperplaisia can co exist with CIN Cervical polyp is premalignant. and steroid metabolism.HNPCC syndrome...

it is dependent on the duration of illness no c. . This type of study is a: a.and prevalence is no of cases affected at a given time…………………. Incidence is no of new cases over a period of time….An aetiological factor must satisfy the following before one can say that it is causally related to a disease: a. randomized controlled clinical trial. the factor is found more frequently among the diseased than non-diseased yes d. indicates the probability of obtaining a given result by chance alone. cross-sectional study. its prevalence will increase. false e.The prevalence rate of a disease has the following features: a. b. c. no d. No??? 13. c. but does not prevent the disease or lead to its cure. exposure to the factor must precede the development of the disease yes b. its incidence will increase. They are followed prospectively for a period of five years to see if there is an association between the incidence of cataract and the use of drug X. true d. its incidence will decrease. describes how well a study measures what it purports to measure. false b. yes c. the factor is found in all cases with the disease yes 11. it can be used to determine the health needs of a community yes 10. it is dependent on the incidence of the disease yes b. expresses the degree to which two things are related. case-control study. measures the strength of relationship between cause and effect.'Validity' as applied in statistics refers to: a. the factor is not found among persons without the disease yes e.A random selection of 1200 adults agree to participate in a study of the possible effects of drug X. implies that the results of a test can be reproduced. its prevalence will decrease. cohort study. Yes. cross-over study. no e. Given this scenario. e. elimination of the factor decreases the risk of the disease yes c.A recently discovered treatment for retinoblastoma significantly extends the lifespan of the patient. it measures all the current cases in the community yes d. d. it can be estimated from a cross-sectional study yes e. no b. which of the following statements about retinoblastoma is (are) true? a. both the incidence and prevalence will increase false 12.

.t d....sensivity is same as +ve prdctv value. false All types of dysplasia may be present in microscopi examination. the mean is 3 false e. T? d.the conventional level of statistical significance isis set at p <. 2 a..ok c....f b.the pt wl b taking either of two actv drug..T .may contain -ve value.has amedian which is greater than the mean.T?bcoz the pt him self cannot take..iN Randomzd dbl blind trial comparing a new drug with a placebo..05 ok d... F ok 50..sensivity is the ablty to prdct thos with dse corctly. T b. d..For the data series: 2.F d.is best achvd by alternate allocation of subject.. 4.in a randomised trial there must be thr must b equal no.f c. 1...t Options for Questions 10-11 A Benzyl penicillin B Clotrimazole C Metronidazole D Teicoplanin .. Mann-Whitney U test.F ok e... the mode is 4 false b...... T 2.of recruit in each arm of the study.If given to the pt then tts true..is symtrical abt the mode.eleminate the investigator bias.....F 5...A large trial is more likely to give a statistically sgnificant result than a small trial.In aclinical trial randomised allocation of pt to rx group a. false 1...The confidence interval must cross 1 to prove significance.. the standard deviation is 4 false d.A relative risk reduction of 60% is significant irrespective of the value of p..usually . the mean is always identical to the median false Microglandular hyperplasia is premalignant..confused.. Student's t-test ..14. F c.reduce the placebo effect..t e.the P value illustrate how often the result shd b expected by chance.T ... Wilcoxon signed rank test . Non-parametric tests include a. the median is 3 yes c.concerning the ability of a test to predict dse a.......has 75% of its value below the upper quartile... 6..usually controls for known confounding variables..T b. T? e.A normal dstribution of value a.unknown.. false Microglandular hyperplasia is caused by COC true Microglandular hyperplaisia can co exist with CIN false Cervical polyp is premalignant.F c..An odd ratio of 2 indicate halvng of risk.... F c. F 3... Chi-squared test .f b... T? d...005. T 49...concerning the analysis of clinical trial a...An odd ratio of 1 :3 implies a risk of 33% T e. a......T b.. ANOVA .the 95%confidence interval indicates the range within which19 out of 20 values will lie..F It shd b <...

Each option may be used once. Question 10 A 20 year old woman complaining of vaginal discharge has a high vaginal swab which is positive for Candida albicans Question 11 A 37 year old woman has a positive VDRL test at 14 weeks gestation Options for Questions 12-13 A Interferons B Endotoxins C Exotoxins D Immunoglobulins E Cytokines F Histamine G Prostaglandins H Interleukins I Tumour necrosis factor J Lipopolysaccharide Instructions: For each of the statements below. Question 14 Gram negative intra-cellular diplococcus Question 15 Gram negative diplococcus. Options for Questions 17-18 A Interferons B IgA C IgG D Immunoglobulins E Cytokines F IgE G Prostaglandins H Interleukins I IgM J IgD Instructions: For each of the statements below.E Flucloxacillin F Ampicillin G Procaine Penicillin H Rifampicin I Doxycycline J Azithromycin Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Each option may be used once. Question 12 Are typically produced by gram positive bacteria and destroyed by heat Question 13 Toxic lipopolysaccharide molecules Options for Questions 14-15 A Staphylococcus aereus B Actinomycete israelii C Neisseria Gonorrhoea D Chlamydia trachomatis E Schistosoma haematobium F Pseudomonas aeruginosa G E. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate antibiotic from the above list. coli H Pseudomonas aeruginosa I Bacteriodes J Mycobacterium tuberculosis Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. choose the single most appropriate antibiotic from the above list. Question 17 Immunoglobulin present in secretions Question 18 Pentameric immunoglobulin . causes arthritis. more than once or not at all. Each option may be used once. more than once or not at all. choose the single most appropriate micro-organism from the above list. Each option may be used once. choose the single most appropriate option from the above list. urethritis and pharyngitis Options for Questions 16-16 A Benzyl penicillin B Nystatin C Metronidazole D Teicoplanin E Flucloxacillin F Ampicillin G Procaine Penicillin H Rifampicin I Doxycycline J Erythromycin Instructions: For each of the scenarios below. Question 16 A 70 year old woman develops oral candidiasis following abdominal hysterectomy for endometrial cancer.

. Each option may be used once. coli H Pseudomonas aeruginosa I Bacteriodes J Mycobacterium tuberculosis Instructions: For each of the scenarios below..B Question 23 If maternal infection occurs in the first trimester.A Question 22 Gram positive branching filamentous bacteria..GQuestion 21 Coagulase positive gram positive bacteria which produce an exotoxin . Question 19 A 45 year old woman has an abnormal pre-operative chest X-ray and is found to have active tuberculosis Question 20 A 30 year old farmer develops toxoplasmosis at 12 weeks gestation Options for Questions 21-22 A Staphylococcus aereus B Actinomycete israelii C Neisseria Gonorrhoea D Chlamydia trachomatis E Schistosoma haematobium F Pseudomonas aeruginosa G E.. choose the single most appropriate micro-organism from the above list.. choose the single most appropriate micro-organism from the above list.Options for Questions 19-20 A Benzyl penicillin B Carbenicillin C Metronidazole D Teicoplanin E Flucloxacillin F Ampicillin G Pyramethamine H Rifampicin I Doxycycline J Azythromycin Instructions: For each of the scenarios below... Options for Questions 23-24 A Rubella B Influenza A C Cytomegalovirus D Parvovirus B19 E Coxsackie B virus F Hepatitis A G Hepatitis B H HIV I Toxoplasmosis J Varicella zoster Instructions: Infections in pregnancy may be associated with fetal adverse effects.. more than once or not at all.. Infection characterised by sulphur granules. more than once or not at all.D Vascular derived epithelial growth factor Causes vasodilatation of placental vessels Causes angiogenesis in placenta Is an angigogenic factor Increases permeability of endothelial cells Conventional USG .. which organism is associated with the highest risk of fetal infection? . For each of the questions below... choose the single most appropriate antibiotic from the above list.....H Question 20 A 30 year old farmer develops toxoplasmosis at 12 weeks gestation .... more than once or not at all.. Question 23 If maternal infection occurs in the first trimester. Each option may be used once.. Question 21 Coagulase positive gram positive bacteria which produce an exotoxin Question 22 Gram positive branching filamentous bacteria. Each option may be used once. ..A Question 24 Which organism is typically associated with fetal hydrops . Infection characterised by sulphur granules.. which organism is associated with the highest risk of fetal infection? Question 24 Which organism is typically associated with fetal hydrops Question 19 A 45 year old woman has an abnormal pre-operative chest X-ray and is found to have active tuberculosis .

......t Increased freq gives better attenuation f TVS uses higher freq compared to conventional USG t comments awaited Ring inversion of Y chromosome found the foll will be done Maternal chromosome is tested f Paternal chromosome is tested t Scan to look for male genitalia f Anomaly scan and amniocentesis done for fetus t Do karyotype of all previous children of couple f .....Increased freq gives higher resolution ......

MRCOG part 1 RECALLS SEPTEMBER 2008 Paper 1 & 2 EMQs In a country wide survey. 10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: Ta) the sample of patients is a true random sample Tb) all practices had an equal chance of selection Tc) all patients had an equal chance of selection Fd) two siblings could not have been selected Te) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample A lady is about to deliver and you are about to give her a pudendal block. remi of S2-4 b) ant division of post. remi of S2-4 d) post division of post. remi of S2-4 e) sensory supply of perineal nerve f) inferior rectal nerve g) ischial tuberosity h)ischial spine Q1 -wht is the root value of pudendal nerve? Q2.wht nerve supplies lower part of vagina (I think)? Q3 –why do u give local skin infiltration before episiotomy? If we take the day of fertilization as Day’0’ then… Day2 Day4 Day 8 Day 10 Day12 Day 14 .rami of S2-4 b)genitofemoral nerve c) post division of ant. a) ant division of ant..

conceptus implants completely? Q6-feable hrt pulse seen on ultrasound? Q7.vertebra form completely? Table: on different values given for deaths due to maternal mortality with direct and indirect causes as well as # of days from delivery to the cause of death Deaths due to placenta previa and hypovolemia x @ e.Day 18 Day20 Day 22 Day 24 Day 26 Day 42 Day 56 Day 70 Q4-Which represents 4 cell stage ? Q5.8days etc suicide(with previous hx of psychiatric illness) crash victim diabetic neuropathy two more causes given with values Different numbers were given in options Q8-the number of late maternal deaths due to indirect causes? Q9-number of maternal deaths due to direct causes? Calculate Numbers needed to treat from a drug trial on osteoporosis: (Q frm EMQ book) Options .g 20 days.10 days.

n4=9995 Q11-N1=50.which vitamin is required in 400mcgs at preconception? Q16-which vitamins absorption is hampered by oxalic acid & phytates? Insulin & Glucagon excretion Decrease decrease Increase increase Increase decrease Deacrease increase .25 50 100 250 300 400 1000 others Q10-N1=10.N2=25.N4=9975 FSH Oxytocin GH Prolactin Rennin ACTH etc Q12-which is a protein with alpha and beta subunits ? Q13 – which stimulates mineralocorticoid activity/relsease? Q14.n3=9990.n3=9950.n2=5.which hormone is produced by posterior pituatory? Folic acid Magnesium Calcium Vit b1-B12 given Q15.

Nochange no change Nochange increase Nochange decrease Etc Q-17-on taking a large protein meal? Folowing are risk factors for cancer Q-18- HCC – ans Hep B Q19- Skin cancer-ans UV radiation Q20- Cervical/uterine cancer-ans HPV Q21- Breast cancer-ans BRCA1 mutation (Repeats from march 2008) Hormone receptors for following are located in a) protein kinase nuclease receptor b) nucleae transcription receptor c) G-linked cell membrane receptor d) G-linked golgi apparatus receptor e) Protein complex intra cytoplasmic receptor f) Multiligand receptor in cell membrane etc g) Protein Tyrosine kinase activity receptor on cell membrane Q22- Insulin Q23-PG E2 Q24-Estrogen Q25-Progesterone

Q26-A family with one kid presumed to have cystic fibrosis however cftr gene mutation was not detected. Family members willing to give samples

if needed.mother wants definite diagnosis as she is 11wks and wants to know diagnosis for her baby.parents are cousins with 1st degree relatives having cystic fibrosis. Invasive diagnostics can be applied to reach final results by? Q27-you have Guthrie spot of their son how will u diagnose him for cystic fibrosis? Q28- families in uk with cystic fibrosis how will u find f508? Options: Pcr Fish test Chromosomal linkage analysis Telomer analysis Sum hereditary crosslinkage chromosomal option (dnt remember) Screen for some known gene mutation Sweat test Saliva test screening test for following Q29-alpha thalessemia Q30-folic acid deficiency Q31-iron deficiency anemia Q32-(one more i think!) options hbelectrophorisis mcv mchc MCh serum iron paul-bennel test etc Q33-which is the commonest cause of non-dysjunction at meiosis? trisomy 21

Q-34 which defect is associated with 60-70% cleft palate and cleft palate? trisomy 13 or 18 or KF syndrome all about cystic fibrosis screening tests for a-thallesemia trait iron deficiency amemia,folic acid anemia and....EMQ RECEPTORS FOR ESTROGEN,PROGESTERONE,PROSTAGLANDIN,INSULIN ....EMQ

NERVE SUPPLYING PERIANAL SKIN,PUDENDAL NERVE ORIGIN,LA DURING EPISIOTOMY IS GIVEN FOR?????......EMQ EMQ receptors for insulin prostaglandins estogen progesteron primary syphilis in early untreated period options syphilis treponemal antibody test syphilis hemaglutination test syphilis immobilization test emq traetment of chlamedia ..................bacterial vaginosis emq pre malignant conditions emq statistics calculate n to be traetad emq diagnosis of iron defecincy anaemia folic acid .................. early untrated syphylis emq congenital adrenal h icreased ? SUBSTANCE

emq embryology 4 cells ? day vertebra formation mcq about DIGITALIS, cyclosporine .mitochondrial dna ,cd8 cells , the uterer(2 mcq) ,3 repeated statistics mcqs, EMQ 36 WS PRIMI GRAVIDA had flu like sympt , the baby was born jaundiced , hepatosplenomegaly ,skIn rash , brady cardia ,,,,choose the cuase (all viruses ,bacteria,listeria,plasmodium )??????

EMQ ...why we do local infiltration + pudendal block EMQ ...cause of post operative infection ??pseudomonas

EMQ .....WHICH vit or mineral absorbtion is affected by phytate (no iron in the choices

MCQ citric acid cycle fatty acid oxidation ???? genetic imprinting ?????stylomastoid foramen spinal cord in smooth muscle cells /regeneration possible /actin &myosin present/lengh of fibers repeated 2 mcqs u/s and radiation effect apoptosis 2 mcqs about hyperplasia pelvic splanchnic nerve Paper 1 & 2 EMQs A lady is about to deliver and you are about to give her a pudendal block.. a) ant division of ant. remi of S2-4 b) ant division of post.rami of S2-4

remi of S2-4 d) post division of post.conceptus implants completely? Q6-feable hrt pulse seen on ultrasound? Q7.b)genitofemoral nerve c) post division of ant.wht nerve supplies lower part of vagina (I think)? Q3 –why do u give local skin infiltration before episiotomy? If we take the day of fertilization as Day’0’ then… Day2 Day4 Day 8 Day 10 Day12 Day 14 Day 18 Day20 Day 22 Day 24 Day 26 Day 42 Day 56 Day 70 Q4-Which represents 4 cell stage ? Q5. remi of S2-4 e) sensory supply of perineal nerve f) inferior rectal nerve g) ischial tuberosity h)ischial spine Q1 -wht is the root value of pudendal nerve? Q2.8days etc suicide(with previous hx of psychiatric illness) crash victim diabetic neuropathy .vertebra form completely? Table: on different values given for deaths due to maternal mortality with direct and indirect causes as well as # of days from delivery to the cause of death Deaths due to placenta previa and hypovolemia x @ e.g 20 days.10 days.

n3=9990.n2=5.N4=9975 FSH Oxytocin GH Prolactin Rennin ACTH etc Q12-which is a protein with alpha and beta subunits ? Q13 – which stimulates mineralocorticoid activity/relsease? Q14.n3=9950.which hormone is produced by posterior pituatory? Folic acid Magnesium Calcium Vit b1-B12 given .n4=9995 Q11-N1=50.N2=25.two more causes given with values Different numbers were given in options Q8-the number of late maternal deaths due to indirect causes? Q9-number of maternal deaths due to direct causes? Calculate Numbers needed to treat from a drug trial on osteoporosis: (Q frm EMQ book) Options 25 50 100 250 300 400 1000 others Q10-N1=10.

Skin cancer-ans UV radiation Q20.Insulin Q23-PG E2 Q24-Estrogen Q25-Progesterone .Q15.Breast cancer-ans BRCA1 mutation (Repeats from march 2008) Hormone receptors for following are located in a) protein kinase nuclease receptor b) nucleae transcription receptor c) G-linked cell membrane receptor d) G-linked golgi apparatus receptor e) Protein complex intra cytoplasmic receptor f) Multiligand receptor in cell membrane etc g) Protein Tyrosine kinase activity receptor on cell membrane Q22.HCC – ans Hep B Q19.which vitamin is required in 400mcgs at preconception? Q16-which vitamins absorption is hampered by oxalic acid & phytates? Insulin & Glucagon excretion Decrease decrease Increase increase Increase decrease Deacrease increase Nochange no change Nochange increase Nochange decrease Etc Q-17-on taking a large protein meal? Folowing are risk factors for cancer Q-18.Cervical/uterine cancer-ans HPV Q21.

Q26-A family with one kid presumed to have cystic fibrosis however cftr gene mutation was not detected. Family members willing to give samples if needed. which test will reveal the 405 mutation for families in great braiten any one have suggetions more options were given for these qs karyotyping comparative genomic hybridization flourecent ???? MCQ .which test you will do c. Invasive diagnostics can be applied to reach final results by? Q27-you have Guthrie spot of their son how will u diagnose him for cystic fibrosis? Q28.parents are cousins with 1st degree relatives having cystic fibrosis.the relatives are willing to be tested .families in uk with cystic fibrosis how will u find f508? Options: Pcr Fish test Chromosomal linkage analysis Telomer analysis Sum hereditary crosslinkage chromosomal option (dnt remember) Screen for some known gene mutation Sweat test Saliva test EMQ 1 ST PAPER WHICH NERVE SUPPLIES PERIANAL SKIN EMQ 2 CYSTIC FIBROSIS a .their child blood is ready for guathri test .mother wants definite diagnosis as she is 11wks and wants to know diagnosis for her baby.invasive testing will be done ( she is preg 11 ws) which test b.

paper1 . the following are bacteria cryptococcus .. mcq : the embryological origin of peritoneum...... sulphonamides mcq :arterial and mean blood pressure mcq : causes of alkalosis mcq : the folloing are types of cells with their secretion ? endothelial cells heparin ?mast cells igE ? plasma celle (i am not sure of the exact coupling) mcq at 20 ws gestation rbcs are made in liver lymph nodes spleen bone marrow mcq about pudendal nerve mcq ischiorectal fossa mcq ureter in abdomen mcq ureter in pelvis mcq foramen of winslow (in detailes) .2 ) primitive streak fetal circulation ??microtubules digitalis mcq .histoplasmosis.............increase with preg mcq : drug interaction methotrexate . mcq mitosis miosis mcq : the follwing are structral abnormalities of chromosomes mcq : ?.propranolol smooth endoplasmic reticulum anal canal smooth muscles (2 mcq ...candida..

9. 6.EMQ complex partial seiizure gum hypertrophy.vit K TO BE given.(repeat mcq endotoxins or exotoxins ( i am not sure) MCQ CORPUS LUTEUM mianly endothelial clls secerets inhibin function decrease after 12 ws MCQ INHIBIN MARCH 2008 cystic fibrosis guthic spot test receptors in apoptosis caspa arias stella reaction blood picture in PET and in preg is inflam like 1.10% due 2 inflam.MCQ concerning aneurysm.?drug used 3.?? 7.syphilitic aneu..mcq kallman syndrome in men mcq hcg mcq trophoplasts mcq ? all types of cells in islets of langerhans and their products mcq the following are premalignant conditions: paget disease .thoracic vessels..EMQ on vitamins-xerophthalmia.marfan recessive .....specific immunity within 15 days.?? 8.. EMQ montoux rection.acne ..EMQ oestrogen progesterone receptor site 4.facial coarsening. 5.EMQ paclitaxel carboplatin side effects 2.morning sickness..EMQ lining epithelium of ureter.MCQ ovulatory DUB 10...EMQ HEPATOCELLULAR carcinoma..MCQ rubella incubation period.macrocytic anaemia.

ofkidney-thyroid carc. all relatives will volunteer to do gutic spot test . which test to be done (every possibility mentioned) b.if a mother has a child with cystic fibrosis .she is preg and will do amniocentesis a.) pigd missed abortion MCQ congenital heart emq crown \heel lenghth at birth crown/rump length 6 cm =? weeks ._sertoli leydig-clear cellcarc.whichtest you will carry on the blood -graph with hormones of the endometrial cycle -citric acid cycle (graph) microsatellites alleles .cd4 -nk cells -down syndrome -pulmonary embolism anal canal -vagina -ovary phenylketonuria inhibin passive transport erythropoietin renin hcg levels syphylis rubella chlamydia hormone dependent malignancies(testicular carc.

toxoplasma .q methods of disinfection and BOWIE DICK test where is source to study these subjects? q progesterone receptors q about progesterone receptors syphilis . concenteration gradiant molecular size 2following tissue are capable of regeneration spinal cord liver epedermis myocardium bone marrow 3 double blind trial delliosion of HCG in the urine pregnancy test about the q APOPTOSIS and capsase . immune responses EMQ type of hpv causing benign wart type of hpv causing cancer cx MCQ down syndrome associated with duodenal atresia true associated with ambig genetalia false only maternal chromosome F . hpv .about 10 questions statistics plrese does anyone remember the q about ring Y chromosome q about sattellite alleles ?? passive diffussion not depend on .

only paternal chromosome F MCQ oogonia miosis starts at puberty miosis before mitosis during S phase chromosomes are doubled the most diagnostic test to be done on amniocentesis gautic spot test what test you do with the blood sample emq about vitamins (hyperemesis) i wrote vit B6 and (xerophthalmia) q about endometrial hyperplasia q about side effect of drug (carboplatin)-(taxal) q about arias stella if its specific in pregnancy q about chlamydia q about varicella q about hpv .11 q about hcg conc in pregnancy citric acid cycle diagram hormones diagram fsh.transverse abdominus ms attached to lumbar transverse process -cut s1 lead to autonomic bladder .mri contraindicated in early pregnancy q about stallete instability in dna .estrogen.wart answers 16 or 18 or 6.lh.testosteron q about:by transvaginal u/s yolk sac apear in which week many questions in genetic about pcr.fish test q about laser q in pathology about totipotent cell.tumour like mass q about voiding presure q about ca requirement in pregnancy q about test used to diagnose folic acid deficency q about thalasthmia q about cervical ectropion cells i choose columner cell .

enzymes were options complement causes 26 b thalasemia detection 27 folate def detection .q about cancer which are hormone dependent -breast -prostate -thyroid q about guthre test q about cystic fibrosis and diagnosis -swet test -karyotyping-fish test q about disinfection and sterelization q about complication of contraceptive pills emqs 1lining of ureter 2.erythropoeitin and renin q from john duthie 3complications of cisplatin 4 paclitaxel 5statistics -std error calculation 7 mean in a normal distribution 8occipito frontal diametr 9hcg titre at detection by tvs 10 at 3 days aftr fertilization 11crl in scan is 60mm what is gestational age 12crl at term ? 13 parietal sutur is between 14kuffer cells are -phagocytic 15 estradiol receptors 16 progestrone receptors -we know that thes are intra nuclear but there were 2 confusin options with intranuclear plz refer this in depth . one option had intranuclear kinase or somethin 16anticonvulsant with description of phenytoin 17vitamin deficiency causin hyperemesis 18 .macrocytic anemia 19 -xerophtalmia 20 cystic fibrosis 3 emqs 24 citric acid cyle diagrm .

local malignant i think 30tumor like –hamaroma March 2007 Copper IUD mode of action: sperm motility microthrombi MRI: ionising radiation? no adverse effect on fetus? detect fetal cardiac abn? USG: probe: array of magnets? doppler to detect fetal heart movement? facial hair increased by: oestrogen? testerone? spirolactone? characterics: pass thro' origin? slope = 0? pass thro the mean? unaffected by changing scale? unaffected by changing dependent variable? Copper containing IUDs: F should be changed every year F have a high incidence of actinomycoces colonization than plastic devices T Cause a relative increased in ectopic pregnancy T have been implicated as a cause of fatal infection in pregnancies F do not cause menorrhagia Comments: Inert devices can be left in place until the menopause. because of the gradual absorption of copper. but copper devices need renewal every 3-5 years.29 basal cell ca . depending on the make. Copper IUCDs produce local .

Increased menstrual loss may be caused by increased fibrinolytic activity which occurs round the IUCD. The nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are able to act as microscopic compass needles. Hence. including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. but most pregnancies are uncomplicated and the device is delivered with the placenta. The progestogen intrauterine system (IUS) reduces menstrual flow and often dysmenorrhoea. that of ectopics is not. preterm labour and antepartum haemorrhage. While the rate of intrauterine pregnancy is reduced. When submitted to pulses of radio waves. After the pulse. the energy content of the nuclei changes. even the linear regression Acute UTI in pregnancy . When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field. Pelvic infection with actinomyces organisms is most likely with a plastic device that has been in situ for some years. there is a relative increase in ectopic pregnancy after IUCD insertion. pathological changes can be documented. If an IUCD is left in place there is a slight risk of intrauterine infection. positive predictive value. a resonance wave is emitted when the nuclei return to their previous state. accuracy.stand "to attention".[/color:febed2ebf4][/b:febed2ebf4]--------------------------------------------------------------------Many stats about sensitivity. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body.concentrations of copper salts which apparently give some protection against bacterial contamination. Which of the following is/are true concerning MRI? A It involves ionizing radiation (False) B Has no recognised side effects on the foetus (True) C The pregnant mother should be turned to her left side during scanning (True) D Tissue with high hydrogen concentrations are difficult to distinguish False) E Blood vessels appear white on scanning (False) Comments: Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected. the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order . By advanced computer processing. In this manner. it is possible to build up a three-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue.

f e-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal-t -concerning the ablity of a test to predict disease a-sensitivity is the ablity to predict those with disease correctly T b--sensitivity is the same as positive predictive value F c-the confidence interval must cross 1 to prove significance t (NOT A MUST as CI at 1 is perfect ) d-an odds ratio of 1.t c-the mode is equal to the median.3 implies the risk of 33% f e--an odds ratio of 2 indicates a halving of risk F .rarely symptomatic ?F Copper IUD mode of action: ?T sperm motility ?T microthrombi ?T intervent ovary movement MRI: ionising radiation F no adverse effect on fetus T detect fetal cardiac abn ?F ( I think it will be very small) USG: probe: array of magnets? ?F doppler to detect fetal heart movement T facial hair increased by: oestrogen?F testerone?T spirolactone F ( I think it is used for treating hirsutism) Mycobacteria ?T strict ?? *(nor sure which word they use ) aerobic ------------------------------------------------------------------48---if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left(sep2000) a-the mean is same as 50th centile— f b-the same no of values lie on either side of the median.f d-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with another.

suppress uptake of glucose by musclec—promotes protein breakdownd—promotes fat breakdowne-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue6-Actinomycete israelii .in the presence of pheochromocytoma—T F-DURING ACUTE HAEMORRHAGE— 3.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-SUCCESSFUL LACTATION IS a-maintained by estrogen -b-maintained by progesterone -c-initiated by prolactin surge-d-maintained by human placental lactogen e-inhibited by dopamine – 2-THE RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA INCREASES a-during sleep— b-when the nerves to adrenal glands are stimulated— c-when the blood sugar rises— d.immediately following a myocardial infarction— e.is inhibited by high cellular conc of ATPe-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited5-GLUCOCORTICOIDS a.promotes hepatic gluconeogenesisb.In the pathogenesis of thrombosis a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation— b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2-c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction-d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation-e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation— --4.CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO LACTIC ACID a-occurs in single enzymatic reaction— b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells— C-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle d.

hairy ear rims. Genes on sex chromosomes are responsible for the inheritance of ( A.— 8-. Von Giek l disease. glucose-&pbosphate dehydrogenase defiency. b-phenylketonuria-C. homocystinuria.1-Is a fungus— 2. B. d-the first polar bodye-spermatozoa10-osteoprosis is associated with a-an increase in uncalcified bone matrix(osteoid tissue b-prolonged oestrogen therapy— . tuberous sclerosis.is a commensal in vagina-5. ahondroplasia. 9-in human a haploid no of chromosomes is found in) a-red blood cellsb-blastocystsc-primary oocytes-.forms yellow granules in pus – 3-is a commensal in mouth-4. Hurler syndrome. E. defective colour vision.is usually resistant to penicillin— 7-Following substances increase the serum uric acid concentration( a-colchicine-b-chlorothiazide-c-allopurinol-d-probenecid-e-phenylbutazone— 7--THE FOLLOWING ARE INHERITED AS AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE CONDITIONS A. – D.-D. sickle cell anaemiaE.— C.

25% of his sons expected to be carriers c. His new born child is likely to require an urgent blood transfusion e. His sister has 50% probability of being a carrier 16.c-a normal histological bone structured-bone fracture— e-irregularity of epiphyseal plates— 11-THE FOLLOWING HAVE an anti-emetic effect a-hyoscine bromide— b-morphine sulphate— c-chlorpropamide-d-promethazine hydrochloride— e-perphenazine— 12CLOMIFENE CITRATE a.is an antiandrogen— b-does not stimulate ovulation directly— c-can produce visual disturbances-d-is generally prescribed throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle— e-in the treatment of anovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy— 13--if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left a-the mean is same as 50th centile b-the same no of values lie on either siDe of the median c-the mode is equal to the mediand-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with anothere-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal15. when a man has hemophilia a. 50% of his daughters would not expected to be carriers – b. Good medical control of blood definition reduce the risk of this condition in his children d.THE INTERSTITIAL CELL (LEYDIG) OF THE TESTIS a--secrete seminal fluid— b-are stimulated by LH – c-secrete androgen binding protein— .

they can be grown in intact cells-e-interferone are synthetic antiviral substances— 18-THE FOLLOWING ARE CYTOTOXIC ALKYLATING AGENTS( a-cyclophosphamide— b-mercaptopurine-c-chlorambucil-d-fluorouracil-e-methotrexate19-2.3 DIPHOSPHOGLYCERATE a-is present in higher conc in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes-b-binds more avidly to haemoglobin A than to haemoglobin E— c-increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen— d-is a phospholipid e.CONCERNING INHERITABLE DISEASES A-huntigdon .is synthesised by the pentose phosphate pathway 18-HYPERKALEMIA IS A CHARACTERSTIC FINDING IN TINDALL a-primary aldosteronism b-treatment with Spironolactonec-hyperparathyroidismd-ACTH secreting tumours of bronchuse-renal failure19.Von Willebrand disease is a sex linked condition— e-cystic fibrosis is transmitted by an x linked recessive gene-- .d-secrete fructose – e-produce testosterone T in response to LH -17--CONCERNING VIRUSES a-the core of every virus contain RNA— b-they usually produce intracellelur toxin causing cell death c-antibodies are directed against capsular protein— d.s chorea is transmitted by a dominant gene— b-phenylketonuria is transmitted by a recessive gene— c-haemophillia ia an autosomal dominant condition-d.

in uncomplicated homozygous beta thalasemia there is a-hypochromasia-b-a reduction in haemoglobin A— c-an increase in haemoglobin F— d.in tissue pigmentation the following are associated a-kernicterus and conjugated billirubin b-addison disease and increased cutaneous melanin c-melanosis coli and bile pigmentsd—wilson disease and copper deposition in the corneae-corpus leuteum and carotenoids22-acquired diverticular disease of the colon a-is present in at least 15% of Caucasian over the age of 50 yearsb-is due to congenital abnormality of the bowel wall c-is associated with increased intraluminal pressure— d-is associated with muscular thickening— e-may result in intestinal obstruction— 23 stored blood which is to be used for transfusion— a-kept at -4 degree b-must be used in 1 week – c-is tested for compliment content before transfusion -d-may be used for platelet replacement – e-contains an acid anticoagulant – 24.20-Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: a) carcinoma of the endometrium – b) osteosarcoma – c) basal cell carcinoma – d) carcinoma of the cervixe) choriocarcinoma21.RED CELL SICKLING e-presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow32-The following are capable of cellular regeneration a)spinal cord b)liver parenchyma – c)gut epithelium – d)kidney ??? .

is prevalent in china— c.--the conjugation of billirubin .are synthesised in skeletal muscles— e-can be utilised during starvation— 39-IRON IONS a-diffuse passively into erythropoitic cellsb-bind to transferinc-are taken up by hepatocytesd.KETONE BODIES .give rise to chronic granulomatous lesions-e.IN CONGENITAL ADRENAL CORTICAL HYPERPLASIA a-commonest deficiency is C21 b.is a snail – b.are necessary for cytochrome synthesise-are absorbed predominantly by the ileum40-.sodium retension is characterstic – e-blood catecholamine conc are increased – 37-.plasma cortisol conc is raised – c-there may be excessive secretion of 17 hydroxy progesterone-d.e)bone marrow— 33-during the development of female reproductive system a-primordial germ cells arise in yolk sac-b-ovarian development is dependent upon oestrogen activity-c-the paramesonephric duct give rise to the cervix-d-the greater vestibular glands arise from the urogenital sinus-e-differentiation of external genitalia is dependent upon ovarian activity-36.SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM a.infestation predisposes to carcinoma— 38. B-Include acetone c-are water soluble -d. a-can be utilised by theadult brain—.infestation may affect the uterine cervix d.

..synthesis is stimulated by oestradiolc-is a steroid molecule-F .is mitogenic-. b.is found in endometrium-e. deletions -b.binds to receptor on the nuclear membrane45-the following are structural aberrations of chromosomes: a.a-takes place in hepatocytesb-is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferasec-is inhibited by phenobarbitoned-renders it water solublee-is impaired in acute billiary obstruction41. inversions— .the skin usually recieve a greater dose of radiation than underlying tissuec-the major effect of radiation energy is to damage the cytoplasm of the celld-cells in tissue which are hypoxic are more vulnerable to radiatione-radiation induced changes in tissues may take 6 weeks to develop-42--osteomalacia is characterised by a-mineralization of the periostium – b-deposition of uncalcifiedbone matrix -c-normal osteobastic activity -d-increase capillary fragility e-normal calcification of bone— 43-progesterone a-is a C21 compound b-synthesised by the ovary before ovulationc-increases ventilationd. d.raises BMRe-binds to corticotrophin –binding globulin44-EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR A.in radiotherapy( a-1Gray is eq to 1joule per kg b.

2.BETA SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS MAY— A.3. aneuploidy – d.Messenger RNA a-Synthesis is dependent on RNA polymerase – b-is an exact copy of sense DNA— c-Contains exons – d-Is measured by Western blotting – e-translation occurs in the nucleus 47-.2.The following statistical statements are correcta-in the normal distribution.7.2.caue bronchospasm— b-reduce frequency of uterine contraction— c-cause heart block— d-reduce diastolic blood pressure— e.5. the mode is 2 d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution – e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed50-Contraindicated in breast feeding— A-POPs B-BromocriptineC-chloroqunined-?? e-warfarine—F 51-Contraindicated with kidney impairment A-Dopamine B-Gentamycine – C-Cephahexin D-Cis platin 52.the value of mode is 1.the mean lies to the left of medianc-in the series.5.the following are characters of hypoxic cell death: .increase blood glucose conc 48. polyploidye translocations— 46-. .73 times the median – b-in a distribution skew to the right.c.8.

the following are characters of hypoxic cell death: A-Apoptosis… -B-endocytosis C-Pyknosis… -D-Poikilocytosis… E-koliosytosis prostagladinsa-lipooxygenase pathway b-thromboxane causes vasoconstriction c-increased in the myometruim d-? e-? linear regression: a-starts from the origin b-passes thru the meanc-values vary d-ranking is done??? following test r used to compare 2 drugs a and b a-student t test b-meta analysis c-wiloxone paired test withney u paired test e? toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of tampoons b-due to toxigenic starinsof strep c-infrequently reported outside n america d-a consequence of previous antibioitic therapy e-confined to seualy active women the following can regenerate .A-Apoptosis… -B-Phagocytosis—… C-Pyknosis… -D-Poikilocytosis… E-Release of phospholipids— 52.

a-kidneyepitheluim? b-pheriheral axonsc-liver parenchyme d-bone marrow e-bone radiation sensitive a-bone b-bone marrow c-epith of gut d-skin e-? Mycobacteruim a.are alchochol acid fast b-does not form spores c-d-a facultative anaerobes d-responsible for leprosy e-pathogenic inhumans all strains the germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by a-tissue trauma b-oxygen c-inject of toxoid d-injection of antitoxin e-removal of devitalised tissue Aldosterone a-reduces Na resorption in PCT b-reduces Na absorption in descen loop of henle c-Increase Na absortion in DCT Increase K loss from the tubule e increases Na absortion in collecting tubules the following r conclusive evidence of pregnancy in uterine cureetings???? can. t remmber a-decidua compactab-Arias -stella changes in endometrail gladc-spiral arterioles d-plasma cell infiltration e chorionic villi .

C-High frequency penetrates deeper TISSUE.U/S: A-Pulstile B-Increase body temp 1 degree after 15 min scanning. 54-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: 1-Enterobacter species – 2-Streptococcus species 3-Escherichia coli 4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5-Staphyloccus pyogenes- .White cell migration from the bld vessels in areas of inflammation involves--.D-Can distinguish between 2 points closer than 0.march 1997/2 21 a-call migration between the endothelial cells b-a pssive loss of fluid bld elements c-cell migration independeant of endothelial cell motion d-initail emigration of polymorhs neutrophils e-more polymorphs than monocytes after 2 day= the vulva is supplied by a-ant cutaneu erve of the thigh b-femoral br/o genito femoral nerve c-? d? e? glucocorticoids a-promote hepatic gluconeogenesis b-suppress uptake of glucose by muscles c-promote protein break down d-promote fat reakdown e-increase glycolysis halothane(refer sept 1997)42 a-cardic arrythmias b-explosive mixtures with air c-liver damage 53.5 mm E-Best echoes are produded by beam at right angle to the structures..

.55-Nitric oxide a) is synthesised in the endothelium – b) has a short half life -c) causes smooth muscle contraction d) increases during pregnancy e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine— but few question got modifications eg. nitrous oxide synthesised by macrophages naloxone antiemitic effect drugs contraindicated in breast feeding drugs causing renal impairment ultasound mri statistics quit difficult all definitions rna pre implantation diagnosis FIBRINOGEN (1 2) HEPATOGLOGIN 3) FERRITIN 4) .. predominantly produced by UG system .is a kind of lukotriene .is phospholipid which reactant protein will increase in injury -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) FIBRINOGEN 2) HEPATOGLOGIN 3) FERRITIN 4) albumin 5) ? Cell cycle -prophase I and II .

lining/embrology vagina .embrology Fetal testis IL I MCH I Function of Neutrophil polymorphs Fetal HbF PG Umblical cord – embrology prostaglandins half lifa 30 min f il1 produced by macrophages whartons jelly originate from extra embryonic endodem detrusor muscle is of mesodermal origin acute phase proteins are transferrin alfa feto protein preimplantation diagnosis .-mitosis I and II Vulva nerve supply Urinary bladder .

..possible 2 detect the sex of the embryo uses pcr 4 chromosomal deletions can be used 4 detection of single gene disoderes facial hair causes testosterone mestranol spironolactone real time bias length time bias negative predictive value fibrocystic disease of thr breast.ie 3 qs we about the breast levator ani its attachnment and its coverings endometrial carcinoma adenomyosis about measuring the arterial blood pressure and its methods interleukin 2 prenatal implantation genetic diagnosis menstural cycle in paper 1 and 2 MARCH 2006 The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by a)tissue trauma b)oxygen c)injection of anti-toxin d)injection of toxoid e)removal of devitalised tissue The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder a)residual volume of 100ml b)voiding capacity of 250ml c)bladder capacity of 900ml d)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling e)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second ..).. breast anatomy and breast from endocrine function (in paper 1.in paper 2 ..

In the small intestine. the following substances are absorbed by active processes a)water b)sodium c)vitamin K d)amino acids e)chloride White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days Antibodies (!!) a)are soluble proteins b)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life c)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons d)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted e)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells In DNA a)a codon is a sequence of three bases b)all codons have an identified function c)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons d)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome e)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis The inferior vena cava a)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra b)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery c)receives the left ovarian vein d)receives the right ovarian vein e)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm In the normal human pelvis a)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra b)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina .

c)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones e)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter Arginine vasopressin a)reduces the glomerular filtration rate b)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule c)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland d)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality e)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume Concerning ovarian function a)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle b)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol c)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors d)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary e)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii a)is a rickettsia b)forms yellow granules in pus c)is a commensal in the mouth d)is a commensal in the vagina e)is usually resistant to penicillin Halothane produces a)cardiac arrhythmias b)explosive mixtures with air c)liver damage if given repeatedly d)myometrial relaxation e)bronchial irritation The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug a)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol b)bromocryptine: metoclopramide c)penicillin: probenicid d)ritodrine: dexamethasone e)warfarin: phenobarbitone Potassium .

a)is mainly intracellular b)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels c)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease d)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis e)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting Concerning carbohydrates a)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose b)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch c)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide d)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily e)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water Steroid hormones a)all contain 20 carbon atoms b)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin c)are mostly activated in the liver d)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine e)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by a)nikethamide b)hypoxia c)doxapram d)phenobarbitone e)salbutamol Tetrahydrofolic acid a)is involved in purine synthesis b)is a precursor of folic acid c)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis d)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate e)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate Mitochondrial DNA a)is located in the nucleus b)inheritance is patrilineal c)is present in two copies per cell d)mutation causes cystic fibrosis e)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis .

a)mercury poisoning b)cervical carcinoma c)renal calculi d)renal vein thrombosis e)posterior urethral valves In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is a)hypochromasia b)a reduction in haemoglobin A2 c)an increase in haemoglobin F d)no depletion of iron stores e)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy a)vital capacity is increased by about 50% b)tidal volume is increased c)the subcostal angle increases d)the residual volume is reduced e)the respiratory rate is increased In normal pregnancy. Human placental lactogen . uterine blood flow a)is about 50ml/minute at term b)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space c)is reduced by prostacyclin d)is increased during uterine contractions e)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester During normal pregnancy a)arterial pCO2 decreases b)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases c)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease d)urine pH falls e)lactic acid production is increased The anal canal a)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus b)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery c)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part d)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve e)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx.

25-dihydroxyl form Unconjugated bilirubin !! a)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin b)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin c)is not excreted in the urine d)does not cross the blood-brain barrier e)crosses the placenta The following are capable of cellular regeneration: a)spinal cord b)liver c)epidermis d)myocardium e)bone marrow The Leydig cells of the testis !! a)secrete seminal fluid b)are stimulated by luteinising hormone c)are active in intrauterine life d)secrete fructose e)produce androstenedione Angiotensin II !! .a)is a single chain polypeptide b)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term c)may be secreted by the decidua d)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy e)is an insulin antagonist Human chorionic gonadotrophin !! a)is a glycoprotein b)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs c)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation d)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy e)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) a)promotes the absorption b)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver c)is synthesised in the SKIN d)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney e)is most active in the 1.

a)is the most potent vasoconstrictor b)reduces aldosterone production c)is mainly found in the lungs d)is a decapeptide e)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced Cyproterone acetate a)is an oestrogen b)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea c)binds to androgen receptors d)increases libido e)inhibits spermatogenesis Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic !! a)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection b)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine c)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block d)causes vasoconstriction e)is a weak base Plasma osmolarity in the human a)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state b)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy c)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration d)is regulated by arginine vasopressin e)regulates the sensation of thirst In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations a)the mean is always less than the mode b)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range c)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean d)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations e)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value The pelvic splanchnic nerves a)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves b)supply afferent fibres c)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus d)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres e)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres .

Exotoxins a)are derived from gram-negative bacteria b)have specific action c)are more toxic than endotoxins d)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin e)can be converted to toxoid Candida albicans a)is gram positive b)is an anaerobic organism c)is associated with diabetes mellitus d)is motile e)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy Transferrin a)is one third saturated with iron b)is increased in pregnancy c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram d)levels in the neonate are low e)is actively transported In Crohn’s disease there is a) non casesous granuloma formation b) formation of deep fissures c) formation of crypt abscesses d) the presence of mucosal polyps e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva The rectum a) usually commences at the level of S3 b) has a mesentery in its proximal third c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment e) is about 25cm in length The female urethra (!!) a) traverses the perineal membrane b) is lined throughout by urothelium c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve .

seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury a)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure b)infectivity decreases after seroconversion c)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis d)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis The following tumours arise in the ovary: a) nephroblastoma b) cystadenoma c) granulosa cell tumour d) neuroblastoma e) teratoma Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: a) carcinoma of the endometrium b) osteosarcoma c) basal cell carcinoma d) carcinoma of the cervix e) choriocarcinoma Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!) a) has more protein b) has more sodium c) contains more carbohydrate d) has more casein e) contains more calories The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism: a) pulmonary infarction b) fibrinous pleurisy c) right ventricular hypertrophy d) sudden death e) haemoptysis . endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells In HIV.e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male During menstruation.

10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: a) the sample of patients is a true random sample b) all practices had an equal chance of selection c) all patients had an equal chance of selection d) two siblings could not have been selected e) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample Nitric oxide a) is synthesised in the endothelium b) has a short half life c) causes smooth muscle contraction d) increases during pregnancy e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine Carbohydrates a) yield 17kj/g of energy b) are a major source of energy for the brain c) are a a major component of the diet d) give a higher energy yield compared to fats Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones a)Parietal b)Mandible c)Maxillary d)Frontal e)Ethmoid Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis a) can be used to identify single gene defects b) is used in ICSI only c) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor d) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos e) is governed by the regulations of the Human. Embryology and Fertilisation Authority The following are gram positive organisms a)Brucella b)Listeria c)Staphylococcus d)Vibrio cholera .In a country wide survey.

*is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight) difference b/w human milk and cows milk casien lactose sodium ascorbic acid water phenyl ketoneuria . primitive streak. mesonephros derivatives) Ionising radiation (radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium . *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?) Embryology (notochord.which is more radiosensitive. mainly consist of phospholipid Other questions that I cannot remember in such detail were about: Insulin (*half life of 30min) Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis) Many Pathology questions (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?.Endometriotic deposits a) only occur in the pelvis b) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands c) do not occur in postmenopausal women d) are hormone sensitive Amyloidosis a)Can be inherited b)Is associated with bronchiectasis c)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy Phenylketonuria a)can only be diagnosed in the adult b)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine c)treatment is with diet restriction DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding) a) is common at the extremes of life b) may be caused by coagulation disorders Chylomicrons a) are not normally present in the fasting state b) after hydrolysis of lipoproteins.

inherited disorder cause by defficiency of phenyl alanine dietry restriction of tyrosine helpful diagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine essential amino acids are not synthesized by body sufficiently all ketogenic can produce energy dont remember exact wording radiation mostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation xrays r ionizing radiation contraindicated in pregnancy transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray MRI repeat q from sept paper chylomicrins responsible for turbulence of plsma?dont remem metabolized in adipose tissue -true 80% 20% in liver after hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----? ovarian tumors dysgerminoma and endodermal sinus tumor hv same origin choriocharcinoma can arise cocp increase risk of ovarian cancers -this qs repeated again in other qs with different wording b cells arise from plasma cells in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany tumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition pulmonary embolism cause s sudden death fibrinous plurisy rt ventricular hypertrohy haemoptysis repeated from sept 05 transferrin endo metrium hiv seroconversion carbohydrate preimplantation diagnosis repeat from march 2005 progesteron following rise in leuteal phase .

ENDOMETRIOSIS has endometrial tissue with no glands not occurs after menopause The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder Fa)residual volume of 100ml Tb)voiding capacity of 250ml Fc)bladder capacity of 900ml Td)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling Fe)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second .basal body temp progesterone LH--PLZ SOME ONE ADD I DONT REMEMBER NOTOCHORD R SOLID CELLS GIVE RISE TO brain --? SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE TEMPORAL BONE FRONTAL PARIETAL Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: 1-Enterobacter species 2-Streptococcus species 3-Escherichia coli 4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5-Staphyloccus pyogenes Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of: 1-Potassium ions into the neurons 2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell 3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell 4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine 5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells.

the following substances are absorbed by active processes F a)water T b)sodium F c)vitamin K T d)amino acids T e)chloride White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves T a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells F b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements .The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by Fa)tissue trauma Tb)oxygen Fc)injection of anti-toxin Td)injection of toxoid Te)removal of devitalised tissue In DNA Ta)a codon is a sequence of three bases Tb)all codons have an identified function Fc)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons Td)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome Fe)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis Concerning ovarian function Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii Fa)is a rickettsia Tb)forms yellow granules in pus Tc)is a commensal in the mouth Fd)is a commensal in the vagina Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin In the small intestine.

T c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion T d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils F e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days Which are formed from intramembranous ossification? T Temporal .Ab are glycoprotein. Sphenoid. Ethmoid Antibodies (!!) Ta)are soluble proteins -. Are they soluble? not sure [color=red:c2901df9c1][b:c2901df9c1]F[/b:c2901df9c1][/color:c2901df9 c1]b)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life Fc)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons Fd)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted Te)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells Correction The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by Fa)tissue trauma Tb)oxygen [color=red:1e03073b8c][b:1e03073b8c]T[/b:1e03073b8c][/color:1e0307 3b8c]c)injection of anti-toxin Td)injection of toxoid Te)removal of devitalised tissue Insulin (*half life of 30min) F Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis)F Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with: T1-Enterobacter species F2-Streptococcus species F3-Escherichia coli T4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa F5-Staphyloccus pyogenes The inferior vena cava Ta)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra Fb)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery Fc)receives the left ovarian vein . parietal F. occipital.

Td)receives the right ovarian vein Te)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm In the normal human pelvis Ta)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra Fb)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina Fc)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint [b:715c81bcd5]d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones [/b:715c81bcd5] Te)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter Arginine vasopressin Fa)reduces the glomerular filtration rate Fb)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule Fc)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland Td)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality Te)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume Concerning ovarian function Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function Actinomyces israelii Fa)is a rickettsia Tb)forms yellow granules in pus Tc)is a commensal in the mouth Fd)is a commensal in the vagina Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin Halothane produces Ta)cardiac arrhythmias .

Fb)explosive mixtures with air Tc)liver damage if given repeatedly Td)myometrial relaxation Fe)bronchial irritation The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug Fa)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol Fb)bromocryptine: metoclopramide Tc)penicillin: probenicid Td)ritodrine: dexamethasone Fe)warfarin: phenobarbitone Potassium Ta)is mainly intracellular Fb)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels Fc)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease Td)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis Te)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting Concerning carbohydrates Ta)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]b)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]c)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide Fd)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily Te)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water Steroid hormones Fa)all contain 20 carbon atoms Tb)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin Fc)are mostly activated in the liver Fd)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine Fe)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by .

Ta)nikethamide Tb)hypoxia Tc)doxapram Fd)phenobarbitone Fe)salbutamol Tetrahydrofolic acid Ta)is involved in purine synthesis Fb)is a precursor of folic acid Fc)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis Fd)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate Te)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate Mitochondrial DNA Ta)is located in the nucleus Fb)inheritance is patrilineal Fc)is present in two copies per cell Fd)mutation causes cystic fibrosis Te)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis ?Fa)mercury poisoning Tb)cervical carcinoma Tc)renal calculi ?Fd)renal vein thrombosis Te)posterior urethral valves In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is Ta)hypochromasia Fb)a reduction in haemoglobin A2 Tc)an increase in haemoglobin F Td)no depletion of iron stores Fe)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy Fa)vital capacity is increased by about 50% (ans from busyspr) Tb)tidal volume is increased .

Tc)the subcostal angle increases Td)the residual volume is reduced Fe)the respiratory rate is increased [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]In normal pregnancy.200 sep 2001 paper 2 Q 46 During normal pregnancy Ta)arterial pCO2 decreases Fb)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases Tc)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease Fd)urine pH falls ?Te)lactic acid production is increased The anal canal Ta)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus Fb)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery Fc)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part Fd)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve Te)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx. Human placental lactogen ?T[b:715c81bcd5]a)is a single chain polypeptide [/b:715c81bcd5] Fb)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term Tc)may be secreted by the decidua ?F[b:715c81bcd5]d)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy[/b:715c81bcd5] ?T[b:715c81bcd5]Te)is an insulin antagonist [/b:715c81bcd5] . uterine blood flow Fa)is about 50ml/minute at term Tb)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space Fc)is reduced by prostacyclin Fd)is increased during uterine contractions Te)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester [/color:715c81bcd5] P.

Human chorionic gonadotrophin !! Ta)is a glycoprotein ?T[b:715c81bcd5]b)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs [/b:715c81bcd5] Fc)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation Fd)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy Te)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) Ta)promotes the absorption Tb)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver Tc)is synthesised in the SKIN Td)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney Te)is most active in the 1.25-dihydroxyl form Unconjugated bilirubin !! ?Fa)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin ?Tb)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin Fc)is not excreted in the urine Fd)does not cross the blood-brain barrier ?Te)crosses the placenta The following are capable of cellular regeneration: Fa)spinal cord Tb)liver Tc)epidermis Fd)myocardium Te)bone marrow The Leydig cells of the testis !! Fa)secrete seminal fluid Tb)are stimulated by luteinising hormone Tc)are active in intrauterine life Fd)secrete fructose ?Fe)produce androstenedione .

Angiotensin II !! Ta)is the most potent vasoconstrictor Fb)reduces aldosterone production Tc)is mainly found in the lungs Fd)is a decapeptide -.angiotensin I is a decapeptide Te)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced Cyproterone acetate Fa)is an oestrogen [color=blue:715c81bcd5]--is an antiandrogenic progesterone[/color:715c81bcd5] Fb)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea [color=blue:715c81bcd5]-treat hirsutism [/color:715c81bcd5] Tc)binds to androgen receptors Fd)increases libido Te)inhibits spermatogenesis Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic Ta)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection Fb)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine Fc)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block Fd)causes vasoconstriction Te)is a weak base Plasma osmolarity in the human Ta)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state Fb)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy ?Fc)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration Td)is regulated by arginine vasopressin Te)regulates the sensation of thirst In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations Fa)the mean is always less than the mode Tb)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range Tc)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean Fd)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations .

Te)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value The pelvic splanchnic nerves Fa)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves Fb)supply afferent fibres Tc)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus Fd)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres Te)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres Exotoxins Ta)are derived from gram-negative bacteria [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81 bcd5]b)have specific action Tc)are more toxic than endotoxins Td)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin Te)can be converted to toxoid Candida albicans Ta)is gram positive Fb)is an anaerobic organism Tc)is associated with diabetes mellitus Fd)is motile Fe)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy T treat with miconazole T commonsal in intestine Transferrin Ta)is one third saturated with iron c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram d)levels in the neonate are low e)is actively transported Increased in pregnancy t .

In Crohn’s disease there is ?Ta) non casesous granuloma formation Tb) formation of deep fissures Tc) formation of crypt abscesses Td) the presence of mucosal polyps e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva The rectum Ta) usually commences at the level of S3 Fb) has a mesentery in its proximal third [b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5][/b:715c81 bcd5]c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81 bcd5]d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]e) is about 25cm in length [b:715c81bcd5]The female urethra (!!) a) traverses the perineal membrane b) is lined throughout by urothelium c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male [/b:715c81bcd5] [b:715c81bcd5]During menstruation. endometrial haemostasis depends upon a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction Tc) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells [/b:715c81bcd5] During menstruation endometrial hemostasis depends upon Platelet and fibrin plug formation after first 20 hrs of bleeding Production of PAF by glandular epithelial cells .

............. The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay....................WHICH MIGHT TAKE UPTO 18MONTHS TO DIE DOWN........ I THINK INFECTIVITY REMAINS JUST THE SAME.....VIRAL LOAD IS THE ONLY USEFUL WAY OF PREDICTING DISEASE..[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color :715c81bcd5].... Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby.F......LATTER IN UNTREATED CASES....[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:71 5c81bcd5].... seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury Ta)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]?T[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:7 15c81bcd5]b)infectivity decreases after seroconversion Tc)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis Td)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks.FOLLOWED BY SIGNS OF ILLNESS After illness infectivity decreases ..BECAUSE SEROLOGY IS UNRELIABLE IN ITS RESULTS DUE TO MATERNAL ANTIBODIES...[b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5][/ b:715c81bcd5] ........[b:715c81bcd5][color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]...FROM AN OBSTETRIC POINT OF VIEW.......SEROCONVERSION OCCURS IN FIRST FEW WEEKS..CAN BRING THE TRANSMISS DOWN TO 2% Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby....T....... Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% ....Estrogen mediated hemostasis PG mediated hemostasis In HIV.[color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]T[/b:715c81bcd5][/col or:715c81bcd5]..[/color:715c81 bcd5][/b:715c81bcd5]I THINK SO BECAUSE THOUGH ITS A LATENT PHASE AND NO OVERT SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE THE VIRUS MULTIPLIES........................ITS 15-45%..

..[b:715c81bcd5][color=red:715c81bcd5]F[/color:715c81bcd5][/b:71 5c81bcd5]....MOST IMP METHOD OF TRASMISS IF OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES HAVE BEEN UNDERTAKEN......BF is safe .. The following tumours arise in the ovary: Fa) nephroblastoma Tb) cystadenoma Tc) granulosa cell tumour Fd) neuroblastoma Te) teratoma Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of: Fa) carcinoma of the endometrium [color=red:715c81bcd5]T[/color:715c81bcd5]b) osteosarcoma Fc) basal cell carcinoma Fd) carcinoma of the cervix Te) choriocarcinoma Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!) a) has more protein Tb) has more sodium c) contains more carbohydrate d) has more casein e) contains more calories difference b/w human milk and cows milk Tlactose Tsodium ascorbic acid Twater PS:human milk contains more water The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism: Ta) pulmonary infarction Tb) fibrinous pleurisy ......

10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice: Ta) the sample of patients is a true random sample Tb) all practices had an equal chance of selection Tc) all patients had an equal chance of selection Fd) two siblings could not have been selected Te) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample [/color:715c81bcd5] ans from onexamination Nitric oxide Ta) is synthesised in the endothelium Tb) has a short half life Fc) causes smooth muscle contraction Td)production is increases during pregnancy [b:715c81bcd5]e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine [/b:715c81bcd5] T generated by arginine (from onexamination) Carbohydrates a) yield 17kj/g of energy b) are a major source of energy for the brain ?Tc) are a a major component of the diet Fd) give a higher energy yield compared to fats Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones a)Parietal b)Mandible c)Maxillary d)Frontal e)Ethmoid Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis .?Fc) right ventricular hypertrophy Td) sudden death Te) haemoptysis [color=blue:715c81bcd5]In a country wide survey.

Embryology and Fertilisation Authority[/b:715c81bcd5] The following are gram positive organisms ?Fa)Brucella Tb)Listeria Tc)Staphylococcus ?Fd)Vibrio cholera Endometriotic deposits Fa) only occur in the pelvis ?Tb) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands ?Fc) do not occur in postmenopausal women ?Td) are hormone sensitive Amyloidosis Ta)Can be inherited Tb)Is associated with bronchiectasis Tc)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy (ref: Familial Amyloidosis Familial amyloidosis.gov/entrez/query. the disease is called familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC). . which is made in the liver. or ATTR.Ta) can be used to identify single gene defects Fb) is used in ICSI only Fc) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor Fd) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos ?T[b:715c81bcd5]e) is governed by the regulations of the Human. Familial amyloidosis is inherited an [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]autosomal dominant [/color:715c81bcd5]in genetics terminology) http://www. or TTR.htm When the heart is involved heavily but the nerves are not.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubM ed&list_uids=12472203&dopt=Abstract http://www.com/med/topic3365.nlm. The amyloid deposits in familial amyloidosis are composed of the protein transthyretin.ncbi. is a rare form of inherited amyloidosis.emedicine.nih.

primitive streak. *is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight) .Phenylketonuria Fa)can only be diagnosed in the adult Tb)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine ?Tc)treatment is with diet restriction ?Tinherited disorder Fcause by defficiency of phenyl alanine ( defficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase) Fdietry restriction of tyrosine helpful (restriction of phenylalanine) ?Fdiagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding) Ta) is common at the extremes of life Tb) may be caused by coagulation disorders Insulin (*half life of 30min) T Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis) F Many Pathology questions (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?. mesonephros derivatives) NOTOCHORD R SOLID structure as it forms --T GIVE RISE TO brain -F F is formed from primitive streak (ans from mrcogexam) [color=blue:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F fuses temporally with the endoblast of yolk sac[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81bcd5] Ionising radiation (?T radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium . *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?) Embryology (notochord.which is more radiosensitive.

essential amino acids Fare not synthesized by body sufficiently ?Tall ketogenic ?Tcan produce energy dont remember exact wording [b:715c81bcd5]Are ONLY used for the synthesis or important body proteins.true chylomicrins Ta) are not normally present in the fasting state ?T[b:715c81bcd5]responsible for turbulence of plsma?[/b:715c81bcd5]dont remem [color=darkblue:715c81bcd5]metabolized in adipose tissue [b:715c81bcd5]true [/b:715c81bcd5]80% 20% in liver [/color:715c81bcd5] Fafter hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids ?F r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----? (ref: Monoglycerides and free fatty acids associate with bile salts and lecithin to form micelles * The core of the micelle is composed of cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins * Monoglycerides. Canot be catabolised for energy.[/b:715c81bcd5] radiation ?Tmostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation Txrays r ionizing radiation Tcontraindicated in pregnancy [b:715c81bcd5]transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray [/b:715c81bcd5] Biophysics: Radiation effect more in hypoxic tissue. peripheral nerve and muscle are senstive to radiation..false Bone. cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts .false Intestine and bone marrow are sestive to radiation...

T Contraindicated in breast feeding: cascara..........T sulphonamides......T phenophthalien.F norethisterone..F phenobarbitone.T b cells Farise from plasma cells in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany Ftumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition pulmonary embolism cause s : Tsudden death Tfibrinous plurisy .F chloramphenicol.......remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum Chylomicrons have a core of triglycerides and cholesterol and a coat of protein and phospholipids ovarian tumors Tchoriocharcinoma can arise cocp F increase risk of ovarian cancers Pill failure: tetracycline…T Rifmpicin…true digoxin...

all other places is facilitated using GLUT. Na absorption is active in renal tubules. cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum ) ENDOMETRIOSIS has endometrial tissue with no glands ?Tnot occurs after menopause[b:715c81bcd5][/b:715c81bcd5] Regarding data .Frt ventricular hypertrohy Thaemoptysis following rise in leuteal phase Tbasal body temp Tprogesterone SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE TEMPORAL BONE FRONTAL PARIETAL Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of: ?T1-Potassium ions into the neurons F2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell --F ?T3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell [color=red:715c81bcd5][b:715c81bcd5]F[/b:715c81bcd5][/color:715c81b cd5]4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine 5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells. Monoglycerides. also Na/K pump is active. (ref: glucose absorption in small intestine n renal tubules is active.

a The coefficient of variation expresses the Standard deviation as a proportion of the mean b Standard error of mean indicates how close a sample is to the population mean c A probability of one means that an event has one in ten chance of happening d Logarithmictransfoormation is a method of normalizing data that are not normally distributed e ANOVA is used for normally distributed data

Indomethacin can block ovulaion Pulsatile release of LH occurs in first weel of life RBCs possess the antigens of ABO system in fetus MRI involves the administration of radio labelled compound Doppler effect is used to detect movement Proton is injected to improve contrast during MRI

ventilation and stimulation of central chemoreceptors...someone said true for hypoxia. From my knowledge, the central chemoreceptors respond to pH and CO2, not O2, rather the PERIPHERAL aortic and carotid bodies respond to O2 and thus hypoxia.

sept.2005

Sigmoid colon

Attached to pelvic wall Lies lateral to psoas major Ends at S3 Rectum Starts at S3 No appendices epiploae Middle rectal artery is the major artery suuplying it 12 cm long T pallidum Spiral shape Causes yaws in children Stained with silver impregnation HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks After illness infectivity decreases The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby BF is safe Percutaneous mode of infection H simplex Rabies Hepatitis B Epstein barr virus Hep A mode of infection is through Blood transfusion Shared needles Faeco oral route Insect bites Air borne

Match the disease with their respective causative org Bone marrow suppression – myco bacterium avium Red cell aplasia – parvovirus

The foll are pre malignant CIN 3 Vulval lichen sclerosis Endometrioses Fibro epithelial polyp Atypical endometrial hyperplasia Bacterial vaginosis Microscopic finding “clue cells” pH less than 4.5 best Rx with ampicillin sensitive to clindamycin may be due to gardnerella vaginalis vaginal infecton incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to penicillin is 1% incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to 3 rd gen ceph 5% azithromycin DOC for trichomoniasis crytococcus neoformans causes meningitis C trachomatis Strains L123 cause LGV Reticulate body is the infectious form Transferrin Increased in pregnancy One third saturated with Fe Binds to 10 mg of iron per gm Levels in neonate are low Antibodies

Are soluble proteins Formed before 12 wks in fetus ABO antigens are present in fetus Foll Hb chains are present in intrauterine life Alpha 2 beta2 Alpha 2 gamma 2 Gamma 4 Alpha 2 epsilon 2 Zeta 2 epsilon2 Pulm embolism Spiral CT scan is indicated in suspected cases DVT always causes pulm embolism X ray angiography is diagnostic Spiral CT involves dignoses based on the perfusion copared to air in lungs ECG is reliable for diagnosis MRI Involves administerind of radio contrast agents Protons give better imaging Damage to fetus is due to tissue heating Xray Contraindicated in pregnancy Low rays are used for breast imaging Conventional USG Increased freq gives higher resolution Increased freq gives better attenuation TVS uses higher freq compared to conventional USG Doppler USG measures movement Gives accurate measurement of bld flow in fetal vessels Doppler effect based on blood flow within vessels

Calcification occurs in Renal calculi Hyaline degeneration of fibroid Parathyroid adenomas Secondary bone deposits in prostratic CA Foll originate from endothelial cells Nitric oxide Protein C Fibronectin Plasminogen activator Thyroid 100-200 micro gms are trapped daily increases in size in pregnancy trapsinorganic iodine colloid is stored outside epithelial cells TBG is increased n pregnancy 5% is bound to CBG ketone bodies formed from acetone formed from acetyl CoA not formed during starvation not utilised by brain Mgso4 Potentiates action of non depolarising agents Check respiratory status Causes brisk patellar reflexes In toxicity Rx IV calcium sulphate CIN CIN 3 does not involve breach in basement epithelial layer Arias stella reaction mimicks clear cell CA Tissue biopsy is required for diagnosis .

Incidence is decreased in renal transplant patients GH Stmulated by glucose infusion Increased in sleep Opposes insulin action Causes positive nitrogen balance Decreased in pregnancy Foll form boundaries of ovarian fossa Ureter Ext iliac vn Int iliac art Int pudendal art Obliterated umb art Penem antibiotics Active in beta lactam ring Drug of choice for ps aeroginoa Vagina Derived from mullerian ducts Seperated from anal canal by anal body Bladder Pelvic splanchnic stimulation contracts the trigone Ext urethral sphincter innervated by pudendal nv Mucosa of urethra is innervated by pudendal nv Transaction of spinal cord above S2 causes autonomous bladder Afferent innervation of glans of clitoris is by ilioinguinal nv Hypo k+ is found in Prolonged vomiting In diabetis ketoacidosis Addison’s disease Foll are below inguinal ligament .

Ilio inguinal nv Lateral branch of genito femoral nv Subcostal nv Femoral art Inf hypogastric (pelvic) plexus Supplies pain fibres to body of ut Continues as vesical plexus Lies at base of braod lig Sciatic nv S3&4 contribute towards it Lies behind quadratus femoris Tibial branch supplies short head of biceps femoris Injection on the outer & upper quadrant of the buttock may cause damage to the nv Undescended testis More common in premature than term infants Commonly assoc with gonadal neoplasia Asoc with 1% of absent testis More common on left side Embryo Parameso duct lies medial to mesonephros Mesonephros forms urine TVS detects fetal heart beat 21 days after implantation Erthropoiesis is entirely medullary UG sinus Divides the cloaca coronally Urachus connects bladder to umbilicus Corpus luteum Is major source of relaxin Contains endothelial cells .

Hysterectomy prolonges the life period 17 hydroxy prog is the main prog secreted steroids prevent recruitment of new follicles fertilisation acrosome fuses with zona pellucida polar body has same karyotype as ovum fetilised egg moves slower than unfertilised egg in fallopian tube inner ell mass lysis deciduas during implantation histo pathologic examination of tissue of conception can diagnose CIN 3 Cx incompetence Ectopic preg Gest Trophblastic Di Ring inversion of Y chromosome found the foll will be done Maternal chromosome is tested Paternal chromosome is tested Scan to look for male genitalia Anomaly scan and amniocentesis done for fetus Do karyotype of all previous children of couple Right ureter Below sigmoid coon Supplied by vaginal art Lined throughout by urothelium Contain glands Oral absorption of drug depends More availablibility in ionised form than non ionised Increased lipid solubility increases penetration in CNS Enters intestinal cells by simle diffusion Protein binding increases excretion Lipid form increases uptake Fetal circulation .

Portal vn drains in IVC Ductus arteriosus takes blood to pulm art R atria and L atria communicate thro’ Foramen Ovale Voiding in females Occurs above rate of 20 ml/sec When vesical press is more than 45 mm H2O Initial contraction of trigone Enzyme activity is modified by Dephosphorylation Allosteric esters Binding to plasma prot Proteolytic cleaving of inactive precursors Gene transcription Functional cyst occurs in Stein levinthal synd PID Multiple sclerosis Gest tropho di Rx with clomiphene Amniotic fluid Hypotonic compared to fetal plasma Absored in lungs Unrelated to swallowing Increased until term in fetus Contains more HCO3 compared to fetal blood Action of complement Increase in permeability Migration of polymorphs Genetics South blot detects DNA DNA is exact copy of RNA .

5 hrs LMW heparin is administered 4 hrly Given in pregnancy causes intracranial haemorrhage in fetus Longer duration of action in S/C compared to IV administration Foll have imp natural reservoir other than human Listeria Saolmonella typhimurium Brucella Crohn’s disease Non caseous granulomatous infection Forms deep fissures Forms crypt abscesses Assoc with mucosal polyps Recognised to occur in vulva Assoc with intestinal wall thickening Absorption in kdny Glucose occurs in loop of henle Water is actively absorbed in proximal conv tubules .DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase Ribosomes contain RNA Transcription occurs at any direction along the chain DNA replication is called transformation DNA has transcription restriction enzyme Histones do not contain DNA Insulin Binding to tyrosine receptor kinase increases activity Causes glucose transporter movement to plasma membrane Increases glycogen synthetase activity Increases fat deposition Increase glucose utilisation by CNS Heparin T ½ is 1.

Estrogen 17 beta estradiol is formed by aromatisation of testos increases LH receptors secreted by theca cells granulosa cells secrete inhibin humoral immunity is depressed in pregnancy T & B cells are derived from bone marrow teratoma usually benign can occur is assoc with germ cell tumors secretes hormones during menstruation platelet and fibrin plug is formed after 1st 20 hrs of bleeding hemostasis is thro’ estr mediated vaso constriction hemostasis is thro PG mediated spiral vessel constriction During ovulation Basal vacuoles occur in mid secretory phase Gland stromal mitosis maximum in mid secretory phase PG in follicle fluid during ovulation Increase of estr and prog receptors in proliferaive phase LDL receptors are increased in proliferative phase Indomethacin inhibits ovulation Matrixmetalloproteinases(MMC) is inhibited by progestrones Cloiphene can cause deficient secretory phase Glycogen Synthesis occurs in muscle Is stored along with water Carbohydrates Yield energy ?17 J/Kg Major source of energy for brain Major component of diet .

Higher energy compared with fats Foll decrease the efficacy of OCP’s Isoniazid Carbamaepine Phenytoin Rifampicin Female pelvis compared to male Sacrum more curved Greater sc notch is larger Sub pubic angle is more Distance betw pubic sym to acetabulum is less than the diam of acetabulum Vascular derived epithelial growth factor Causes vasodilatation of placental vessels Causes angiogenesis in placenta Is an angigogenic factor Increases permeability of endothelial cells And always save the best for last ……STATISTICS Definition LBW – less than 1.000 births Perinatal mortality – deaths after 22wks ( more than 154 days) until 1 wk after birth Maternal mortality rate Tests used ANOVA Std error of mean means diffce betw sample mean from population mean Probablity of 1 means 1 in 10 chance for event to occur Examples of ?continuous variables are Bld glucose .500 gms PMR – deaths in first 1 week per 1.

..Haemoglobin Gender Height Blood pressure Sigmoid colon Attached to pelvic wall......T Lies lateral to psoas major ...................F......ITS THE SUPERIOR RECTAL ARTERY 12 cm long ....F Ends at S3 ..T SIGMOID COLON.ENDS AT S3.T Middle rectal artery is the major artery suuplying it.......STARTS AT PELVIC BRIM.....F....T Causes yaws in children.......... Rectum Starts at S3 ...............LIES ON THE PERITONEAL SURFACE OF BLADDER AND UTERUS.....T Stained with silver impregnation.SO THE PSOAS IS A DEEPER STRUCTURE.............T No appendices epiploae......IS 45 CMS LONG....... THE ONLY TESTS FOR MICROSCOPY ARE DARK GROUND .........T T pallidum Spiral shape.......

..OTHERWISE SEROLOGY IS THE OTHER DIAGNOSTIC AID..........T Rabies .....T.. Percutaneous mode of infection H simplex.....FOLLOWED BY SIGNS OF ILLNESS After illness infectivity decreases ........F......T..ITS 15-45%............WHICH MIGHT TAKE UPTO 18MONTHS TO DIE DOWN.IMMUNOFLOURSCENCE......SEROCONVERSION OCCURS IN FIRST FEW WEEKS......... The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay............F. Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% ...... I THINK INFECTIVITY REMAINS JUST THE SAME..F...T BF is safe .BITE WITH SALIVA Hepatitis B ... HIV seroconversion Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks.ECAUSE IT SAYS YOU CAN ............FROM AN OBSTETRIC POINT OF VIEW....I THINK SO BECAUSE THOUGH ITS A LATENT PHASE AND NO OVERT SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE THE VIRUS MULTIPLIES.................LATTER IN UNTREATED CASES......... Epstein barr virus ......BECAUSE SEROLOGY IS UNRELIABLE IN ITS RESULTS DUE TO MATERNAL ANTIBODIES..VIRAL LOAD IS THE ONLY USEFUL WAY OF PREDICTING DISEASE....F.F......................T......MOST IMP METHOD OF TRASMISS IF OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES HAVE BEEN UNDERTAKEN......................CAN BRING THE TRANSMISS DOWN TO 2% Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby............... Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby....T I THINK..

....T Insect bites .F sensitive to clindamycin ..F BUT NOT SURE.T Vulval lichen sclerosis......F............. Endometrioses ...T I THINK.............. Atypical endometrial hyperplasia ??T Bacterial vaginosis Microscopic finding “clue cells”.HAS TO BE MORE THAN 5 FOR BV TO OCCUR best Rx with ampicillin ...........F Air borne .......I DIDNT FIND IT ANYWHERE.F Faeco oral route .GET IT FROM PATIENTS THROUGH "CASUAL CONTACT"........F Shared needles .......F Match the disease with their respective causative org Bone marrow suppression – myco bacterium avium Red cell aplasia – parvovirus The foll are pre malignant CIN 3 .5 .. Hep A mode of infection is through Blood transfusion..........................F Fibro epithelial polyp ........SO I WILL GO FOR F .........F......T pH less than 4...

..DIDNT FIND THIS KIND OF DATA ANYWHERE.. Levels in neonate are low........ Transferrin Increased in pregnancy ...................IGM FORMS AT 11 WEEKS.. Antibodies Are soluble proteins.. ABO antigens are present in fetus................T One third saturated with Fe ..DUNNO......FALSE...TRUE.. FORM.........METRO..F......T................. vaginal infecton incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to penicillin is 1% .T Binds to 10 mg of iron per gm ???.....TRUE ..RETICULATE I THE VEGETATIVE NON INF INTRACELL...THEY HAVE TO BE.BUT NO BOOK CONFIRMATION YET.........F..........T Reticulate body is the infectious form ....................T BUT NOT SURE 100% incidence of n gonorrhoea resistance to 3 rd gen ceph 5% .may be due to gardnerella vaginalis...T......? FALSE azithromycin DOC for trichomoniasis . Formed before 12 wks in fetus ....ESP IN AIDS PTS C trachomatis Strains L123 cause LGV... crytococcus neoformans causes meningitis .I THINK ITS TRUE...

..BECAUSE IT DEENDS ON THE OSCILLATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES..BECAUSE MRI IS NOT AN IONISING RADIATION.........PRESENT 8TH MONTH ONWARS Alpha 2 gamma 2 ..T..PRESENT I THE FIRST FEW WEEKS..........HB A.. ALSO THERE IS HBA2............HBGOWER 1... Protons give better imaging ?????T I THINK..ALL THROUGH PREG AND LATER TOO......T Spiral CT involves dignoses based on the perfusion copared to air in lungs .............F X ray angiography is diagnostic ... Damage to fetus is due to tissue heating........F IS SPIRAL CT AND VQ SCAN THE SAME THING????SORRY FOR ASKING SUCH A BASICALLY DUMB QUESTION..........................ALPHA2 AND DELTA 2 UNITS......T I THINK. Gamma 4 ..F Alpha 2 epsilon 2............F I THINK......HB F....TRUE.......... MRI Involves administerind of radio contrast agents........Foll Hb chains are present in intrauterine life Alpha 2 beta2 ........SO I DONT THINK THERE IS ANY HEATING.................F DVT always causes pulm embolism ........EPS THE HYDROGEN ATOM..F Zeta 2 epsilon2 ..T......... ... Pulm embolism Spiral CT scan is indicated in suspected cases...F ECG is reliable for diagnosis......

......... Calcification occurs in Renal calculi .......THE SOUND OF BLOOD FLOW WITHIN VESSELS....I DONT WHAT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HYALINE DEGENERATION IS IN TH QUESTION Parathyroid adenomas ... Conventional USG Increased freq gives higher resolution Increased freq gives better attenuation TVS uses higher freq compared to conventional USG Doppler USG measures movement .........T Doppler effect based on blood flow within vessels ...TO BE EXACT..........WHICH IS MORE THAN EG THE 2-3 MRADS FOR CHEST X RAY.T Hyaline degeneration of fibroid........????............CALCIFICATION OCURS IN FIBROID.........F Low rays are used for breast imaging ......BUT IT WAS SOMEWHERE IN THIS FORUM........Xray Contraindicated in pregnancy......I WILL POST IT AS SOON AS I COME ACROSS IT AGAIN...T Gives accurate measurement of bld flow in fetal vessels...........T ...I DONT THINK THATS LOW.T Secondary bone deposits in prostratic CA .LOW COMPARED TO WHAT??7 TO 10 MRADS ARE USED....T..........T........................I COULDNT FIND THE ANSWER................I WOULD SAY FALSE....... FOR THE FIRST THREE STEMS................

.. 5% is bound to CBG ..TO TBG I THINK WAS MEANT......BUT IM NOT SURE.PARALYSIS OF RESP MUSCLE IS THE ...................Foll originate from endothelial cells Nitric oxide...T colloid is stored outside epithelial cells..T increases in size in pregnancy ..F.T TBG is increased n pregnancy . trapsinorganic iodine ..........[obscene]a...T Plasminogen activator......T3 AND T4 ARE BOUND 75 AND 85 % ketone bodies formed from acetone..T Thyroid 100-200 micro gms are trapped daily....................F Fibronectin .........T ormed during starvation ................T not utilised by <a href="http://www....T formed from acetyl CoA ................T Protein C .SO DOES THE SIZE..com/tutorial/?q=brain &s=0">brain </a> T Mgso4 Potentiates action of non depolarising agents T I THINK Check respiratory status T......T................T I THINK...........ACTOVITY INCREASES.......................

.CA GLUCONATE...... CIN CIN 3 does not involve breach in basement epithelial layer F..FALSE.......F....BUT MY GUESS IS THAT IMMUNOSUPRESSION DURING RENAL TRANSPLANT WOULD EXACERBATE MALIGNANCY RATHER THAN SUPPRESS IT.......................DONT KNOW NOW...T Opposes insulin action F Causes positive nitrogen balance F Decreased in pregnancy F GH STIM BY LOW ENERGY CONDN HYPOGLYCaenia EXCERCISE FASTING ...THATS EXACTLY TH DISTINCTION Arias stella reaction mimicks clear cell CA..........SMEAR CAN ALSO SHOW CIN III CHNGES..THIS ONE IS JUT SOMEWHERE IN MY brain CELLS..COULDNT FIND INFO ANYWHERE.........FIRST SIGN OF OVERDOSE Causes brisk patellar reflexes T.........ANOTHER SIGN OF MG EXCESS.. In toxicity Rx IV calcium sulphate .... Incidence is decreased in renal transplant patients?????....... GH Stmulated by glucose infusion..........F I THINK. Tissue biopsy is required for diagnosis ...FALSE. Increased in sleep .

WAY OFF BELOW THE LEVATOR ANI.SO I THINK N2 BALANCE WOULD BE NEGATIVE.....NOWHERE CLOSE. Foll form boundaries of ovarian fossa Ureter T LATERAL TO OF Ext iliac vn T ABOVE OF Int iliac art T ABOVE THEN POST TO OF Int pudendal art F. AND SHOULD BE HIGH IN PREG I THINK...WANTS TO BULD AND CONSTRUCT.HIGH AMINO ACIDS HIGH PROT MEAL ARGININE INFUSION STRESS STIM GLUCAGO SLEEP GH INHIB BY GLUCOSE CORTISOL FFA MEDROXYPROGEST GH ANABOLIC HORMONE........T LAT TO OVARY...... ...... Obliterated umb art........

PINEAL BODY-T Bladder Pelvic splanchnic stimulation contracts the trigone F........CORTISOL IS HYPOKALEMIC...NO PUDENDAL INVLVMT IN URETHERA..Penem antibiotics Active in beta lactam ring T Drug of choice for ps aeroginoa T Vagina Derived from mullerian ducts T Seperated from anal canal by anal body.EFF IS THRU PUDENDAL N. Afferent innervation of glans of clitoris is by ilioinguinal nv ..F......AND NO CORTISOL IN ADDISONS.........ALL TRUE....... Hypo k+ is found in Prolonged vomiting T In diabetis ketoacidosis T Addison’s disease F HYPERKALEMIA HERE.........BUT NO SOMATIC ACTION BECAUSE CEREBRAL CONTROL IS LOST......BECAUSE IT WOULD STILL WORK AUTONOMOUSLY THROUGH REFLEX.SUPP BY SOMATIC FIBS FROM S2-4 Mucosa of urethra is innervated by pudendal nv F Transaction of spinal cord above S2 causes autonomous bladder T I THINK......F AFFERRENT OF GLANS CLIT IS THROUGH PELVIC SPLANCH...........AND BLOOD SUPPLY IS THROUGH INT PUD ARE PUD N ALSO SUPPS INF RECTAL NERVE AND A PERINEAL NERVE......... .......BUT NOTHING CONTRACTS THE TRIGONE! Ext urethral sphincter innervated by pudendal nv...

..Foll are below inguinal ligament Ilio inguinal nv T Lateral branch of genito femoral nv T Subcostal nv F Femoral art T Inf hypogastric (pelvic) plexus Supplies pain fibres to body of ut T Continues as vesical plexus T Lies at base of braod lig T Sciatic nv S3&4 contribute towards it F L4 TO S3 Lies behind quadratus femoris F...THIS IS THE SAFEST AREA .QF IS A VERY DEEP MUSCLE Tibial branch supplies short head of biceps femoris .WIT NO MORE USCLES ON TOP......FLASE.....SHORT HEAD IS BY COMMON PERONEAL.......FASE...IT LIES ON IRIFORMIS...... Injection on the outer & upper quadrant of the buttock may cause damage to the nv ..........LONG HEAD ISBY TIBIAL......

...IT BECOMES THE FETUS....OR IT WOULD DECREASE THE LIFE..... histo pathologic examination of tissue of conception can diagnose CIN 3 T ....... Hysterectomy prolonges the life period F I THINK.......HYSTERECTOMY WOULD HAVE NO EFFECT.. IT HAS RICH BLOOD SUPPLY... fertilisation acrosome fuses with zona pellucida T polar body has same karyotype as ovum T fetilised egg moves slower than unfertilised egg in fallopian tube F UNSURE..PROGESTERONE IS THE MAIN steroids prevent recruitment of new follicles T STEROIDS LOWER THE LEVEL OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS. 17 hydroxy prog is the main prog secreted F I THINK...............SO ENDOTHELIAL CELLS TOO I SUPPOSE.. INHIBIN AND ACTIVIN Contains endothelial cells T I THINK..NO BOOK CONFIRMATION..Undescended testis More common in premature than term infants T Commonly assoc with gonadal neoplasia T Asoc with 1% of absent testis More common on left side Corpus luteum Is major source of relaxin T RELAXIN..BUT WHY SHOULD IT? inner ell mass lysis deciduas during implantation F INNER CELL MASS DOES NOTHING OUTSIDE..

.........PLEASE DISCUSS Right ureter Below sigmoid coon F LEFT URETER Supplied by vaginal art T Lined throughout by urothelium T IF UROTHELIUM IS ANOTHER NAME FOR TRANSITIONAL EPITH Contain glands F...........BECAUSE Y IS RELATED WITH PATERNAL..........Cx incompetence F Ectopic preg T Gest Trophblastic Di T Ring inversion of Y chromosome found the foll will be done Maternal chromosome is tested F Paternal chromosome is tested T Scan to look for male genitalia T Anomaly scan and amniocentesis done for fetus ?T Do karyotype of all previous children of couple F ALL ARE DEDUCTIONS.BLADDER EPITH IS DEVOID OF GLANDS..AND ASSOCIATED WITH EXPRESSION OF MALE PHENOTYPE...I THINK URETERS' IS ALSO THE SAME.. Oral absorption of drug depends More availablibility in ionised form than non ionised F... ..BECAUSE I DIDNT FIND IT ANYWHERE THAT IONISED FORM INFLUENCED ORAL ABS...

.......Increased lipid solubility increases penetration in CNS T Enters intestinal cells by simle diffusion T Protein binding increases excretion F Lipid form increases uptake T Fetal circulation Portal vn drains in IVC T Ductus arteriosus takes blood to pulm art F AWAY FROM IT R atria and L atria communicate thro’ Foramen Ovale T Voiding in females Occurs above rate of 20 ml/sec T MAX URINE FLOW RATE =20-40 ML/SEC When vesical press is more than 45 mm H2O T VOID PRESS=45-70 MM Initial contraction of trigone F..TRIGONE DOES NOTHING!!! Enzyme activity is modified by Dephosphorylation T Allosteric esters T Binding to plasma prot T Proteolytic cleaving of inactive precursors T Gene transcription ?F ALL GUESSES.ANYONE KNOWS THE ANSWERS?? .....

Functional cyst occurs in Stein levinthal synd T PID F Multiple sclerosis F Gest tropho di F Rx with clomiphene T Amniotic fluid Hypotonic compared to fetal plasma ?T Absored in lungs ?T Unrelated to swallowing F Increased until term in fetus F DECS TO TERM Contains more HCO3 compared to fetal blood ?T Action of complement Increase in permeability T Migration of polymorphs T Genetics .

South blot detects DNA F ITS ONLE SEROLOGICAL TEST DNA is exact copy of RNA F DNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase T Ribosomes contain RNA T Transcription occurs at any direction along the chain F ONLY 5' TO 3' DNA replication is called transformation F DNA has transcription restriction enzyme ?F DIDNT FIND ANYTHING LIKE THAT ANYWHERE Histones do not contain DNA T Insulin Binding to tyrosine receptor kinase increases activity T Causes glucose transporter movement to plasma membrane T Increases glycogen synthetase activity T Increases fat deposition T Increase glucose utilisation by CNS ?T Heparin T ½ is 1.5 hrs T LMW heparin is administered 4 hrly F 8 TO 12 Given in pregnancy causes intracranial haemorrhage in fetus F DOESNT CROSS PLAC COS ITS TOO BIG Longer duration of action in S/C compared to IV administration T Foll have imp natural reservoir other than human .

PSEUDOPOLYPS Recognised to occur in vulva F..........AT THE MOST....A FISTULA MIGHT OPEN I THE VULVA..Listeria F Saolmonella typhimurium F Brucella T FROM DAIRY AIMALS Crohn’s disease Non caseous granulomatous infection T Forms deep fissures T Forms crypt abscesses T Assoc with mucosal polyps F..THERE IS INFLAMMATION.....THICKENING IS A VERY LAYMAN TERM I THINK....BUT THATS NOT CROHNS OCCURING IN THE VULVA I THINK...NOT A PROPER STATEMENT... Assoc with intestinal wall thickening ? T. Absorption in kdny Glucose occurs in loop of henle F ACTIVE ABSPN IN PCT WITH AA Water is actively absorbed in proximal conv tubules F OPASSIVE DIFFSN IN PCT WITH NA AND CL Estrogen 17 beta estradiol is formed by aromatisation of testos T increases LH receptors T secreted by theca cells F GRANULOSA CELLS ..............

.NOT USUALLY I THINK during menstruation platelet and fibrin plug is formed after 1st 20 hrs of bleeding F I THINK... RHESUS CONFLICT WOULDNT BE AN ISSUE T & B cells are derived from bone marrow T teratoma usually benign T can occur is assoc with germ cell tumors T secretes hormones F.PLATELET PLUG FORMN TAKES PLACE VERY QUICK AND IN VERY SMALL TRAUMAS..IF IT WERE TRUE......BUT I DONT KNOW IF ITS AT THE SPIRAL ARTS OR BELOW THEM.ISNT IT............ hemostasis is thro’ estr mediated vaso constriction F hemostasis is thro PG mediated spiral vessel constriction F PG ARE CONSIDERED TO BE THE CAUSE..granulosa cells secrete inhibin F CORP LUT DOES humoral immunity is depressed in pregnancy F I THINK.......... During ovulation Basal vacuoles occur in mid secretory phase T Gland stromal mitosis maximum in mid secretory phase T PG in follicle fluid during ovulation F DIDNT FIND THAT ANYWHERE .BECAUSE THE APIRAL ARTS ARE ACTUALLY SHED.

.... Major component of diet T Higher energy compared with fats F FATS HAVE MAX ENERGY Foll decrease the efficacy of OCP’s Isoniazid F Carbamaepine T Phenytoin T . Glycogen Synthesis occurs in muscle T Is stored along with water F ITS POLYMERISED.Increase of estr and prog receptors in proliferaive phase T I THINK LDL receptors are increased in proliferative phase ?F Indomethacin inhibits ovulation F Matrixmetalloproteinases(MMC) is inhibited by progestrones ???!!! WOW NO CLUE Cloiphene can cause deficient secretory phase F ITS ANTI ESTROGEN.........SO IT MAY SHORTEN PROLIF PHASE.......THIS IS THE REASON THERE IS NO OSMOTIC HAVOC IN CELLS WITH IT Carbohydrates Yield energy ?17 J/Kg T Major source of energy q=brain &s=0">brain </a> F I THINK ITS GLUCOSE ACTULLY..AND TURNS TO CRYSTALS ON STORING...

.Rifampicin T ALSO PHENOBARB Female pelvis compared to male Sacrum more curved F LESS CURVED AND MORE MORE BACK TILT Greater sc notch is larger T Sub pubic angle is more T Distance betw pubic sym to acetabulum is less than the diam of acetabulum F.....AND THE DISTANCE IS GREATER ...ACETABULUM IS VERY SMALL.

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