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Integumentary System y y Skin (cutaneous membrane) Skin derivatives y y y y Sweat glands Oil glands Hairs Nails

Skin Functions: y Protects deeper tissues from: y y y y y y Mechanical damage Chemical damage Bacterial damage Thermal damage Ultraviolet radiation Desiccation

y y y

Aids in heat regulation Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid Synthesizes vitamin D

Skin Structure y Epidermis outer layer y y Stratified squamous epithelium Often keratinized (hardened by keratin)

Dermis y Dense connective tissue

Deep to dermis is the hypodermis y y y Not part of the skin Anchors skin to underlying organs Composed mostly of adipose tissue

Layer of Epidermis Strata layers

Melanin y y y y Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes Color is yellow to brown to black Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetic and exposure to sunlight

Dermis: y Two layers y Papillary layer y y y y Projections called dermal papillae Pain receptors Capillary loops

Reticular layer y y y Blood vessels Glands Nerve receptors

Skin Structure Normal Skin Color Determinants y Melanin y y Yellow, brown or black pigments

Carotene y Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables

Hemoglobin y y Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring

Appendages of the Skin y Sebaceous glands (all over except palms and soles of feet) y Produce oil y y y y y y Lubricant for skin Kills bacteria

Most with ducts that empty into hair follicles Glands are activated at puberty Acne active infection of sebaceous glands

Sweat glands y y Widely distributed in skin Two types y Eccrine y y Open via duct to pore on skin surface

Apocrine

Ducts empty into hair follicles

Sweat and Its Function y Composition y y y y Mostly water Some metabolic waste Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only)

Function y y y Helps dissipate excess heat Excretes waste products Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth

Odor is from associated bacteria

Hair y y y Produced by hair bulb Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

Associated Hair Structures y Hair follicle y y Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root

Arrector pilli y Smooth muscle

y y

Sebaceous gland Sweat gland

(Appendages of skin) y Nails y Scale-like modifications of the epidermis y y Heavily keratinized

Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed y Responsible for growth

Lack of pigment makes them colorless

y y y y y

Nail Structures Free edge Body Root of nail Heavily keratinized