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Copyright (c) 1998 Yasumasa Someya

1998

2007 4


. . . xii
. . . xiii
CD-ROM . . . xiv
. . . xv

1
1.1

1.2
1.3
1.4

. . . 1
1.1.1

. . . 2

1.1.2

? . . . 5

1.1.3

. . . 9

1.1.4

? . . . 9

1.1.5

. . . 9

. . . 11
. . . 12
. . . 14
1.4.1

. . . 15

1.4.2

. . . 18

1.4.3

. . . 21

1.4.4

. . . 24

2
2.1

2.2

2.3
2.4

2.5

. . . 27
2.1.1

. . . 28

2.1.2

A . . . 29

2.1.3

. . . 29

. . . 31
2.2.1

. . . 31

2.2.2

. . . 34

. . . 35
. . . 38
2.4.1

CI . . . 38

2.4.2

CI . . . 39

2.4.3

. . . 41

2.4.5

. . . 48

. . . 50
2.5.1

. . . 50

2.5.2

2.6
2.7

2.8
2.9

. . . 53

. . . 53
. . . 56
2.7.1

. . . 56

2.7.2

. . . 57

2.7.3

...79

. . . 61
. . . 71
2.9.1

(letterhead) . . . 71

a)

. . . 73

b)

. . . 73

2.9.2

(reference line) . . . 75

a)

reference line . . . 76

b)

. . . 77

c)

. . . 78

2.9.3

(date line) . . . 79

a)

. . . 79

b)

. . . 80

c)

...106

2.9.4

(mailing/on-arrival notations) . . . 82

2.9.5

(inside address) . . . 83

a)

. . . 85

b)

. . . 86

c)

. . . 87

d)

Messrs. . . . 88

e)

(Mr., Mrs., Ms., etc.) . . . 89

f)

Esq. (Esquire) . . . 89

g)

Dr. . . . 90

h)

Professor . . . 92

i)

c/o . . . 93

j)

To whom it may concern . . . 94

k)

. . . 96

l)

. . . 97

m) . . . 99

2.9.6

(attention line) . . . 100

a)

. . . 102

b)

. . .

2.9.7
a)

103

(opening salutation) . . . 103


. . . 106

b)

. . . 107

c)

. . . 108

d)

. . . 110

e)

. . . 110

2.9.8

(subject line)

. . . 111

a)

. . . 111

b)

. . . 113

c)

Re: . . . 114

d)

. . . 114

2.9.9

(letter body) . . . 116

2.9.10 (complimentary close) . . . 117


a)

. . . 119

b)

. . . 123

2.9.11 (signature block) . . . 124


a)

. . . 126

b)

. . . 126

c)

. . . 127

d)

. . . 129

e)

. . . 129

f)

. . . 129

g)

for and on behalf of . . . 131

h)

. . . 132

i)

. . . 133

j)

. . . 135

k)

. . . 138

l)

. . . 141

m) . . . 142

2.9.12 (identification initials) . . . 142


a)

Blind ID initials . . . 143

b)

ID initials Reference line . . . 144

c)

. . . 145

2.9.13 (enclosure notation) . . . 146


2.9.14 (carbon copy notation) . . . 148
a)

Blind carbon copy (bcc) . . . 149

2.9.15 (postscript) . . . 151


a)

2.9.16
a)

Postscript . . . 151

2 . . . 154
. . . 155

b) . . . 156

2.9.17

2 . . . 157

3
3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4

3 . . . 159
3.1.1

Opening paragraph. . . 161

3.1.2

Middle paragraph(s). . . 161

3.1.3

Closing paragraph. . . 162

3 . . . 164
. . . 166
. . . 170
3.4.1 . . . 171
a) 1. . . 171
b) 2. . . 176
c)

. . . 179

d)

. . . 182

e) . . . 183

3.4.2 . . . 185

4
4.1

. . . 211
4.1.1 . . . 212

4.2

4.1.2

. . . 213

4.1.3

. . . 214

. . . 217
4.2.1
a)

(From:) . . . 217

b)

(To:) . . . 218

c)

(Cc:) . . . 219

d)

(Blind Cc:) . . . 220

e)

(Subject:) . . . 221

f)

4.2.2

4.3

. . . 217

. . . 224

a)

. . . 224

b)

. . . 225

c)

. . . 225

d)

. . . 227

. . . 229

4.3.1

. . . 229

4.3.2

. . . 230

4.3.3

> . . . 230

4.3.4

[ . . . ] . . . 232

4.3.5

3 . . . 233

4.3.6

. . . 234

4.3.7

. . . 234

4.3.8

. . . 236

4.3.9

. . . 238

4.3.10 . . . 239
4.3.11 . . . 240
4.3.12 48 . . . 241

4.4

. . . 242
4.4.1

. . . 242

4.4.2

. . . 244

4.4.3

. . . 246

a)

4.5

1 6070 . . . 247

b)

. . . 247

c)

. . . 247

d)

. . . 250

e)

. . . 251

4.4.4

. . . 252

4.4.5

. . . 252

. . . 254
4.5.1 3 . . . 254
a) 3 . . . 255
b)

. . . 257

c) . . . 258

4.6

4.5.2

Top-down . . . 260

4.5.3

RE-PLS-AS . . . 263

. . . 267
4.6.1 . . . 267
4.6.2
a)

Plain English . . . 273

b)

Plain English 10 . . . 274

c)

Write as You Talk . . . 276

4.6.3

. . . 281

5
5.1
5.2

Plain English Write as You Talk . . . 273

. . . 287
. . . 291
pp. 291-293

. . .

295

(Sales Letters: SL) . . . 298


(Inquiries: IQ) . . . 302
(Replies to Inquiries and/or Requests: RP) . . . 308
(Follow-up Letters: FW) . . . 318
(Price Negotiations: NG) . . . 326
(Orders and Order Acknowledgments: OR) . . . 332
(Requests for Payment and Settlement of Accounts: PT) . . . 346
(Claims and/or Complaints: CL) . . . 358
(Letters of Confirmation: CF) . . . 370
(Transmittal Letters: TM) . . . 376
(Letters to Declining Requests/Proposals: DL) . . . 382
(Letters of Recommendation: RC) . . . 390
(Letters of Congratulations: CG) . . . 402
(Appointment and Travel Arrangements: AP) . . . 410
(Thank-you Letters: TK) . . . 422
(Letters of Introduction: IN) . . . 430
(Letter of Request: RQ) . . . 434
(Letter of Attorney: PA) . . . 436
(Invitation Letters: IV) . . . 438
(Letter of Condolences: CD) . . . 442
(Greetings: GR) . . . 444
(Personnel Affairs: PN) . . . 450
(Employment: EM) . . . 454
(Minutes of Meeting: MM) . . . 470

5.3

. . . 476
Opening Paragraphs [OP] . . . 477
Middle Paragraphs [MP] . . . 503
Closing Paragraphs [CP] . . . 537

1.

. . . 554

2.

. . . 557

3.

will shall . . . 558

4.

. . . 560

5.

should 7 . . . 562

6.

. . . 564

7.

. . . 566

8.

. . . 569

9.

. . . 573

10. . . . 574
11. . . . 586
12. (capitalization) . . . 596
13. . . . 597

. . .
. . . 603
. . . 641

601

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1:

. . . 3

Figure 2:

Figure 1 . . . 4

Figure 3:

. . . 5

Figure 4:

A . . . 6

Figure 5:

5 . . . 8

Figure 6:

. . . 19

Figure 7:

. . . 20

Figure 8:

. . . 22

Figure 9:

. . . 26

Figure 10:

JIS A B . . . 28

Figure 11:

JIS B (JIS P-0138) . . . 29

Figure 12: . . . 30
Figure 13: . . . 31
Figure 14:

IBM . . . 32

Figure 15: . . . 32
Figure 16: . . . 33
Figure 17: . . . 34
Figure 18: . . . 36
Figure 19: . . . 37
Figure 20: . . . 39
Figure 21:

CI . . . 40

Figure 22: CI . . . 41
Figure 23: . . . 44
Figure 24:

CI . . . 46

Figure 25: . . . 49
Figure 26: A4. . . 50

Figure 27: . . . 52
Figure 28: . . . 53
Figure 29: 1 . . . 54
Figure 30: . . . 56
Figure 31: (Indented forms) . . . 58
Figure 32: . . . 59
Figure 33: . . . 61
Figure 34: . . . 62
Figure 35: . . . 63
Figure 36: . . . 64
Figure 37: . . . 65
Figure 38: . . . 66
Figure 39: . . . 67
Figure 40: . . . 68
Figure 41: . . . 69
Figure 42: . . . 70
Figure 43: . . . 72
Figure 44: . . . 74
Figure 45: . . . 75
Figure 46: . . . 75
Figure 47: . . . 76
Figure 48: . . . 76
Figure 49: blind reference number . . . 78
Figure 50: 1. . . 81
Figure 51: 2. . . 81
Figure 52: (on-arrival notation) . . . 82
Figure 53: (mailing notation) (on-arrival notation) . . . 83
Figure 54: . . . 84
Figure 55: . . . 86
Figure 56: . . . 87
Figure 57: . . . 88
Figure 58:

To whom it may concern . . . 94

Figure 59:

To whom it may concern . . . 95

Figure 60:

To whom it may concern . . . 95

Figure 61: . . . 97
Figure 62: . . . 98
Figure 63: . . . 99
Figure 64: . . . 101
Figure 65: . . . 102
Figure 66: . . . 103

Figure 67: . . . 104


Figure 68: . . . 104
Figure 69: . . . 105
Figure 70: (Department) . . . 106
Figure 71: . . . 108
Figure 72: 1. . . 110
Figure 73: 2. . . 111
Figure 74: 1. . . 112
Figure 75: 2. . . 112
Figure 76: 3. . . 113
Figure 77: 1. . . 113
Figure 78: . . . 113
Figure 79: . . . 116
Figure 80: 1 (. . . 117
Figure 81: 2. . . 118
Figure 82: 3. . . 118
Figure 83: 4. . . 119
Figure 84: . . . 119
Figure 85: . . . 122
Figure 86: . . . 124
Figure 87: 1. . . 125
Figure 88: 2. . . 125
Figure 89: . . . 127
Figure 90: . . . 127
Figure 91: . . . 128
Figure 92: . . . 128
Figure 93: . . . 129
Figure 94: . . . 130
Figure 95: . . . 130
Figure 96: 2. . . 131
Figure 97: 3. . . 131
Figure 98: for and on behalf of . . . 132
Figure 99: 1 . . . 133
Figure 100: 2 . . . 133
Figure 101: . . . 134
Figure 102: . . . 134
Figure 103: . . . 136
Figure 104: . . . 137
Figure 105: . . . 138
Figure 106: . . . 141

Figure 107: 1 . . . 142


Figure 108: 2. . . 143
Figure 109: ID . . . 144
Figure 110:

ID . . . 145

Figure 111: . . . 146


Figure 112: (enclosure notation) . . . 147
Figure 113: (copy notation) . . . 148
Figure 114:

Blind carbon copy (bcc) . . . 150

Figure 115: (postscript) . . . 151


Figure 116:

Postscript . . . 152

Figure 117:

2 12nd page headings . . . 154

Figure 118:

2 2. . . 154

Figure 119: . . . 155


Figure 120: (contd . . .) . . . 156
Figure 121: (catchword) . . . 157
Figure 122: . . . 157
Figure 123: . . . 158
Figure 124: . . . 160
Figure 125: 3 . . . 160
Figure 126:

3 . . . 165

Figure 127: (Figure 124) . . . 169


Figure 128: 1. . . 172
Figure 129: 2. . . 176
Figure 130: . . . 178
Figure 131: . . . 180
Figure 132: 4 . . . 181
Figure 133: . . . 183
Figure 134: . . . 184
Figure 135: 45 . . . 186
Figure 136: . . . 212
Figure 137: . . . 217
Figure 138: . . . 220
Figure 139: . . . 221
Figure 140: . . . 222
Figure 141: . . . 224
Figure 142: . . . 226
Figure 143: . . . 228
Figure 144: . . . 231
Figure 145: . . . 231
Figure 146: . . . 233

Figure 147: . . . 243


Figure 148: . . . 244
Figure 149: . . . 251
Figure 150: 3 . . . 256
Figure 151: . . . 258
Figure 152: . . . 259
Figure 153: Top-down . . . 260
Figure 154: Top-down . . . 262
Figure 155: 5 . . . 263
Figure 156: 65 . . . 264
Figure 157:

RE-PLS-AS 27 28 . . . 265

Figure 158: 30 [27] . . . 266


Figure 159: . . . 268
Figure 160: 1. . . 270
Figure 161: 2. . . 270
Figure 162: 3. . . 271
Figure 163: . . . 272
Figure 164: 10 Rules of Plain English . . . 274
Figure 165: . . . 279
Figure 166: (82 words) . . . 282
Figure 167: (36 [40] words) . . . 283
Figure 168: (Figure 124) . . . 288
Figure 169: . . . 289
Figure 170: . . . 556
Figure 171:

will shall . . . 558

1980

1980 2
1 1987 6 19

10

10 20

1 5

1989
8

CD-ROM

1
(rules and conventions)

2 4

3
5 85 472
3

1 1
3 1)
1 20 2)

1 3 5
3)
3

85

1)
2)

3 3
1 Rudolf Flesch How to Write,
Speak and Think More Effectively. New American Library, 1960. pp. 298-318)

3)

32

CD-ROM

5
CD-ROM
Microsoft Word
97 for Windows 97

CD-ROM p.
599

NTTSynectics,
Inc.; Landor Associates; UOP; World Future Society; City Of Waterloo County Board of Education; Oxford University Press (Tokyo Office); The City Waterloo Engineering Department;
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce; The Planning Department of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; F.G.F Continental Ltd.; California Raisin Advisory Board

1997 6

On Good Writing
Good writing should proceed regularly from things known to things unknown, distinctly and clearly without confusion. The words used should be
the most expressive that the language affords, provided that they are the
most generally understood. Nothing should be expressed in two words that
can be well expressed in one; that is, no synonyms should be used, or very
rarely, but the whole should be as short as possible, consistent with clearness; the words should be so pleased as to be agreeable to the ear in reading;
summarily, it should be smooth, clear, and short, for the contrary qualities
are displeasing.
Benjamin Franklin

I know it very well, Sir . . . , but please tell me how distinctly and
clearly without confusion, said Alice. And here the story begins . . .